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Negative Impact of Daycare high school essay help

Negative Impact of Daycare BY karen8169 Much research has been done on the positive and negative effects that extensive hours of childcare may have on children. When mothers began entering the labor force in large numbers in the 1960s, experts in child development expressed concern about the effect of mothers’ absences on the emotional relationship between children and parents. Attachment, the emotional bond that begins early in life, is considered to have a critical influence on a child’s social, emotional, and cognitive development.

Most experts agree that children need a stable and continuous elationship with a sensitive and responsive caregiver in order to develop a secure emotional attachment. Concern that this bond would be weakened when the child attended day care grew from previous studies of short- and long-term parent-child separations during war time and hospitalizations. Some researchers are concerned that children with extensive nonparental care in their first year of life may be negatively affected by the quality of the care (Shonkoff and Phillips 2000).

Other research has examined the effect of day care on children’s social development. Children enrolled in childcare ypically have more experience interacting with peers than children raised at home, creating both positive and negative results. These children typically show greater independence, self-confidence, and social adeptness, but they may also show evidence of greater aggression and noncompliance to adult requests (Booth 1992). The cultural context of childcare may have a significant influence on children.

For example, research has shown significant differences in the effects of childcare on children living in the United States as compared to children living in Sweden (Lamb etal. 1992). Ads by Google Pell Grants For MomsYou May Qualify for Grants to EarnYour Degree Online. Start Today! www. ClassesandCareers. com/Grants Child Care TrainingBecome A Day Care Professional. Earn Your Certificate Online! www. AshworthOnlinePrograms. com Childcare Career ClassesEarn a Career Diploma Online. Get25% Off Tuition – Offer Ends 9/20! www.

AshworthCollege. edu/DayCare Day Care CertificatesEarn Day Care Management Certsonline. Request Free Information! www. EarnMyDegree. com/ DaycareMgmt Initial research with childcare in high-quality university day-care centers found little evidence that day care produced damage to children. In fact, this childcare often provided important benefits for children with restricted home environments. Current research suggests that the quality of childcare is a critical factor determining how children are influenced by childcare.

The long-term impact of extended early intervention programs on children’s success in school and life is now being documented in the United States through longitudinal studies (Schweinhart and Weikart 1997). Data collected for thirty-three years from the Chicago Child-parent Centers (Reynolds 2000) suggests several principles to guide iven to children with the greatest learning needs, as the effects of participation are greatest for children living in the highest poverty neighborhoods. Both early intervention and extensive participation in a program appear to be important in influencing children’s development.

Comprehensive programs that focus on the “whole child” and assist families in meeting health and nutritional needs are important components, as is active parent involvement in the program. Small class sizes, low teacher-child ratios, and a language-based curriculum are critical components of an effective program as is continual training for program staff. Continuing research and evaluation are vital components for program improvement. The relationship between maternal employment and children’s development is complex with many indirect linkages.

Research studies have been limited in the scope of questions asked, and care must be taken in generalizing between cultures. However, mothers’ employment status by itself does not appear to create a negative experience for children. To predict the effect of childcare accurately, the characteristics of the child, the child’s family, the childcare program, parental employment, and the context of the society must all be considered (Prochner and Howe 2000). Child Daycare FurnitureGreat Offers On Quality Furniture. Check Out Our Huge Selection Today! www.

HertzFurniture. com Adult Day Care ProductsSupplies For Adults Caregivingat Discount Prices! Order Now. www. AllegroMedical. com All Your Playground NeedsFrom Surfacing to Installation. order Here & Have us Install It! www. korkat. com Daycare RatesSearch multiple engines at once fordaycare rateswww. webcrawler. com Childcare – Availability, Cost, And Quality Of Childcare [next] [back] Childcare – Available Childcare Citing this material Please include a link to this page if you have found this material useful for research r writing a related article.

Spoken English essay help: essay help

1. What is your name? My name is Priya. 2. What is your father’s name? My father’s name is Mr. Kannan 3. What is your mother’s name? My mother’s name is Mrs. Lakshmi 4. What is your father? My father is a Businessman 5. What is your mother? My mother is a House-wife 6. How many sisters do you have? I have no sister 7. How many brothers do you have? I have one elder brother 8. Where do you live? I live in V. K. Puram 9. How old are you? I am fifteen years old 10. Who is your spoken English teacher? My spoken English teacher is Mrs. Angel RaJamani 11. How many girls are there in your class? There are 62 girls in my class 2.

What day is today? Today is Wednesday 13. Do you like your school? Yes, I do 14. Do you play in the evening? Yes, I play in the evening 15. What games do you play? I play throw ball, basketball 16. Who is your favourite teacher? Our English teacher is our favourite teacher 17. Do you read newspapers? No I don’t read newspapers 18. Do you watch T. V? Yes I watch T. V 19. When do you get up in the morning? Usually I get up at 6. 00 a. m 20. How do you go to school? I go to school by bus/by cycle/on foot 21 . When does your class start? My class starts at 9. 30. a. m My favourite subject is mathematics 3.

Who is your friend? My friend is Sheela 24. When do you go to bed? I go to bed at 9. 00. p. m 25. Have you got a bicycle? Yes I have got a bicycle 26. Who is our president? Our president is Mrs. Prathiba Patel 27. Who is our prime minister? Our prime minister is Mr. Manmohan Singh 28. Who is our chief minister? Our chief minister is Mr. M. Karunanidhi 29. Who is our education minister? Our education minister is Mr. Thangam Thennarasu 30. Who is your school head mistress? My school head mistress is Rev. Sr. S. Patricia 31 . Who is your school correspondent? My school correspondent is Rev. Sr. S.

Arul Mary 32. How many classrooms are there in your school? 44 classrooms are there in my school 33. Do you like stories? Yes, I like stories 34. Can you dance? No, I can’t 35. Can you sing? Yes, I can sing 36. Why are late to the school? I missed the bus 37. Why are you crying? I have lost my purse 38. Has the bell gone? Yes the bell has gone 39. Is tomorrow a holiday? Yes, tomorrow is a holiday 40. Who broke the bottle? I don’t know 41 . What is the time now? It is 8. 00. a. m 42. May I come in Madam? Yes, come in 43. May I drink water? Yes you may 44. May I go to toilet? 45. May I read the lesson? 46.

Which class are you studying in? I am studying in IX standard 47. Which section are you in? I am studying in section B 48. What day is tomorrow? Tomorrow is Friday. 49. What day was yesterday? Yesterday was Tuesday 50. Do you bring your lunch to school? Yes I do 51 . Is your school big? Yes my school is big 52. Do you pray to God daily? Yes I pray to my God daily 53. Do you help your mother? Yes I help my mother 54. Do you study well? I am trying to study well 55. Who sits near you? Nandhini sits near me in my class 56. Who is the tallest girl in your class? Gopika is the tallest girl in my class 57.

Who is the best girl in your class? Gayathri is the best girl in your class 58. How many days are there in a week? There are seven days in a week 59. What are they? Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday 60. How many months are there in a year? There are 12 months in a year 61 . What are they? January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December 62. How many days are there in February? 28 days in ordinary year and 29 days in leap year 63. What can I do for you? Please lend me your pen 64. What do you want to buy? I want to buy notebooks 5.

What is the name of your school? My school name is Amali girls higher secondary school Tamil Nadu 67. What is the name of your country? India 68. Which district do you belong to? I belong to Tirunelveli district 69. What are the two important expressions in English? PLEASE and THANK YOU 70. Have you traveled by train? Yes I have travelled by train 71 . Do you have a garden in your school? Yes we have a beautiful garden in our school 72. Do you like to watch cricket? Yes I like to watch cricket 73. Have you ever visited a museum? No I haven’t 74. Does your teacher beat you? Never she is good to us 75.

Are you proud of your school? Yes I am proud of my school 76. Will you pass in all the subjects? I will try to pass in all the subjects 77. Do you revise your lessons everyday? Yes I revise my lessons everyday 78. What fruit do you like? I like mangoes, apples, oranges 79. What is your favourite colour? Rose is my favourite colour 80. When do we celebrate Independence day? Every year on 1 5th August 81 . Where does our president live in? Our president lives in Rashtrapathi Bhavan 82. Why didn’t you come to school yesterday? I was not well 83. Where are you going? I am going to the market 84. What are going to buy?

I am going to buy Vegetables 85. When will you be back? I will be back in half an hour 86. What is your date of birth? My date of birth is 16th September 1996 87. Did you show your report card to your parent? Yes I have shown it 88. Have you brought the money for the excursion? 89. Have you been to Chennai? No, I haven’t been to Chennai 90. Why are you standing here? I am waiting for my friend 91 . Are the taps left open? No they are closed 92. Why were you punished? I didn’t do my homework 93. What is your ambition in your life? My aim is to become an I. A. S. officer 94. Why do you want to become an I. A.

S Officer? I like to serve the people 95. Have you gone to library? Yes I have gone to library 96. What kind of books do you like to read in the library? Auto-biographies of great personalities 97. How many marks would you like to score in sslc? I would like to score above 450 98. Why are you coming late from school today? We had special class today 99. In which subject? Anything special? English. We Practiced spoken English 100. Why do you want to learn spoken English? I would like speak fluently in English. 101 . Who teaches you spoken English? Our English teacher Mrs. Angels RaJamani teaches us spoken English.

Critique of Sap System essay help free: essay help free

We only focus on the revenue cycle and expenditure cycle of the SAP system which is direct related to the accounting information system. Expenditure cycle: About master records: The expenditure cycle is composed of purchase system and accounts payable system. The creation of material master records and vendor master records makes the purchase system more efficient. While traditional information system has three databases include customer sales A/R (customer database), production scheduling shipping (Manufacturing database) and vendor AIP inventory (Procurement atabase).

SAP systems a common operational database (customer, production, vendor, and inventory). The problem with traditional system is the lack of effective communication between systems is often the result of a fragmented systems design process. On the other hand, SAP systems use a common operational database that supports communications and present the data in a way that meets all user needs. The material master is the main source of material specific data. It is used by all components in the logistics system.

By using the master record, we can avoid data edundancy, and use the data in many other functions other than purchasing data for ordering. Those include posting goods movements, managing physical inventory, inventory valuation, and material requirements planning. Also material master is divided into three levels: client level, plant level and storage level. The advantage of this is the company can set which information is valid within specific department. As to vendor master data, all the vendors’ information is recorded and updated.

Different department can always have access to synchronous and up-to-date nformation. But a faulty transported object such as a confguration change or code for an interface can have an effect on other SAP functionality in the production environment. For instance a change to the HR module within payroll can affect functionality in the FI-CO module. A server failure under this model could leave the entire organization unable to process transactions. However, two linked servers can be connected in redundant backup mode.

Just like material master records, vendor master records are divided into three levels: General data (Client level), Purchasing ata (purchasing organization level), and Accounting data (company code level). After create a vendor master record, it is linked to the appropriate reconciliation account in General Ledger. The control problem can be who has the authorization to access the authorization of individuals at customer and supplier sites that will be granted access to their data warehouse. Unauthorized access of Material Mater records and Vendor master records can lead to the entire expenditure cycle break down.

About purchase requisition: When inventory is below a certain level, the SAP system can generate a requisition automatically when predetermined recorder levels are reached. The problem is the goods may be requisitioned for unauthorized purposes. It will be better if purchase requisitions are prenumbered (instead of get a number after creating a Purchase requisition) within each originating department as a control over outstanding requisition to ensure that goods requisition are duly ordered and received.

For purchase other than inventory replenishment, requisition authority is granted to specific people. This authority should usually restricted to the value and types of goods and services applicable to the person’s function and level of authority. Special procedures usually apply for requisition plant and equipment or for entering into lease contracts. About purchase order: In SAP, purchase orders can be created with or without reference to a purchase requisition or a RFQ. That increase the risk of purchases made for unauthorized purposes.

We can reset the system that except for programmed inventory replenishment, the purchase department issue purchase orders only on the receipt f requisitions properly approved by an employee who has appropriate requisitioning authority. We can also improve the efficiency of the system by centralization of purchasing in a specialized department. The purchase department is better able to negotiate more favorable terms and prices and, by amalgamating orders, can obtain better volume discounts. About receiving: In receiving goods, SAP can suggest data from the purchase order when the goods receipt is entered in the system.

That’s the same effect as the blind copy of PO, it is ore efficient because the system can tell the receiving department the right amount immediately. But compare with manual process, the SAP system often eliminates the segregation of duties. However, SAP is the best ERP system to help resolve the segregation of duties problem, which is a basic, key internal control. SAP currently provides more than 150 predefined user roles, which act to limit a user’s access to only certain functions and associated data. When the user logs onto the system, a role-based menu appears on the functions of limiting the user to the specified task.

When an invoice is entered in the system with reference to a purchase order, the system suggests data from the purchase order and the goods receipt. If there are any discrepancies between order or goods receipt and the invoice, the system warns the users, and blocks the invoice for payment. But sometimes the discrepancies results from mistakes in goods receipt. That would delay the payment too the vendor. So it occurs, the special authorized staff investigates the PO, inventory report from warehouse, and the goods receipt report, and defines the mistake as soon as possible.

Insurance Industry and Public Relation melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

In an effort to repositioning the ndustry for effective and efficient performance the paper proposes from the public relative perspective a number of strategies such as prompt and accurate claims payment, automation of operation, aggressive and creative marketing of insurance products, good customer relationship management (CRM), simplified language of policies, the people issues, better business control and reporting, and the good code of ethics as strategies for repositioning the insurance industry in Nigeria. Introduction The Nigerian economy is made up of many sectors.

These include the petroleum ector, the financial sector, agricultural sector, education, power, communication, aviation sectors etc. Insurance industry is one of the sub-sectors in the financial sector of the economy that has played a critical role toward the growth and development of the Nigerian economy as a whole. The Nigerian insurance industry has suffered what experts called image problem. Until very recently, many did not perceive insurance business as a crucial financial service mainly because the purchase of insurance service does not involve the exchange of any physical product (Babington-Ashaye, 2009).

Although it is intangible, insurance is a crucial business service that creates and adds value. It lubricates the oil of business by being the risk bearer. Its importance is better appreciated when disaster of whatever magnitude occurs. Indeed, the economic importance of insurance is to reduce the financial implications of disasters thereby creating a sense of security, which encourages people to engage in commercial activities, without fear, irrespective of the degree of uncertainty.

In other words, insurance service, from time immemorial, has always propelled business as it provides a safety net for entrepreneurs desirous of taking nsurance industry appears frosty one would certainly seek answers to such questions as: (i) Being a strategy for managing risk and uncertainties how does insurance industry operate to guarantee good public relation? (it) How is public relation in the Nigerian Insurance industry? (iii) How would it be able to create a positive image and win good public relation?

With perturbing speculations on the response, this study is therefore carried out to find the much needed answers to the above research questions. Consequently, the study seeks to achieve the following specific objectives: (i) To find how the insurance industry operate to guarantee ood public relation. (ii)To examine public relation in the Nigerian Insurance industry. (iii) To highlight the various strategies needed to create good public image, perception and relationship.

Justification of the study OkoJe (2008) admitted that the insurance industry has the capacity to perform more than it is currently doing. If the industry is repositioned, it would achieve the desired optimum level of performance. The profession and players in the industry must come to this realization and collectively evolve strategies for advancing the course of insurance. Carrying out this study is of great significance. First it will reveal the operational guide for use in insurance industry. Second, the study would provide solutions to the bothering issues raised in the above problem statement.

Third, this study will offer useful strategies for effective and efficient operation of insurance firms in the industry. The study to a lesser extent would add to the available literature on the subject matter while also serving as a source material and reference for future writers in same or similar area of study. 2. 0 Literature Review The relationship between insurance industry and the public has been a subject of concern by many writers. In trying to establish this nexus, many authors have adopted different approaches, methods and techniques.

Some attempt an analysis of the role that insurance plays in ensuring the safety of the public, some focused on the importance of the industry to the economy and the society and yet others emphasized the regards that the people have for insurance industry. In this section, we shall focus our discussion on the main thrust of the study being how the public perceive insurance industry and the need for a review of the strategies that have been in use in relation to the current market situations. First we review the insurance industry in Nigeria.

Second, examine public relation in the insurance industry and third we offer strategies for its effective operation. 2. 1 The insurance Industry in Nigeria The insurance sector in Nigeria, per Soladoye (2010), germinated in 1921, although its regulation started only in 1961. After an indigenization process that the industry underwent in the 1970s, it was opened to foreign competition in the 1980s. Soladoye (2010) noted that the reform of Nigeria’s insurance industry started in 2005 with the announcement of new capitalization requirements for insurance companies.

Ufo Truths and Lies medical school essay help: medical school essay help

When is the truth a . When it is only half told. The truth like an arrow in flight, if it deviates by a plus or minus . 0 degrees, in any direction, will not hit its mark. True it may come pretty close, may fall with in acceptable boundaries, but more times than not it will miss the mark altogether. Seems to me people always say they want that arrow (the truth) to hit dead center bulls eye all the time, but because of hidden agendas though the aim, was true when the arrow was loosed, the arrow ends up being deflected by things beyond the archer’s control and never is a solid it.

It is time for people to realize the government is not the only one that, under the guise of looking out for the public good or doing the right thing, because of their actions, turn whole truths into full lies, for a half truth is still a whole lie is it not, for there are no such things as half lies, lies are lies, and that is that… Today the UFO and Alien Abduction Phenomena has finally stepped from the shadows and has taken its place in the full light of public awareness.

Now we see flying saucers and aliens used to sell us any and everything from A to Z. This is good to some extent for now people from all walks of life are finally taking an active interest in this ancient phenomena. Still I feel we have a long way to go before we will ever, if we ever, make heads or tails out of the riddles of UFOs and ETs. Today they are being called everything from Angelic to Demonic, to Ascended Masters, and this can well be understood because the phenomena crosses all of the boundaries of the paranormal.

If we are ever to get a handle on this slippery ” perplexation ” we must be willing to toss aside old ways of seeing and believing and be willing to look at hings that we have been over looking either because of our fear of being ridiculed as fools by our government, gullible by the scientist, or heretics by our church. All the while these very same institutions claims it is for the good of the public that we forget this stuff and go on with our lives for it will drive you crazy, send you into a cult, or to hell.

So far depending on which of these three institutions the investigators hale from this phenomena is viewed differently. If it is a government investigation it will not tell all it finds out because of National Security. If is a scientific investigation anything of a non tangible nature will be ignored. If it is a religious group anything that smacks of paganism, E. S. P, witchcraft, or magic will be excluded.

Thus in the end, none of the investigators ever allow themselves access to the full scope of the phenomena they are trying, or at least claiming to try to investigate. It all depends on the mind set of the investigator that the True Experiencer tells their encounter to as to the spin that will be put on it when the a fore said Investigator retells and retails the Experiencers story. Very often those points of the Experiencers experience that clash with their ( the Investigators ) belief systems will be left out of the report or twisted to mean something else.

Sometimes this is deliberate but at times it is accidental for the Investigators more times than not is not an Experiencer, and so over looks the subtleties of the encounter for the more sensual or sensational points of it. There in is the problem, for as I have learned because of my many encounters, the ETS tend to speak more to that part of the mind we call the sub conscience for hat is the realm of the Quantum Mind. It is because the Investigators focus mainly meanings and obvious messages and information that are sometime passed during the encounter.

The Linear Mind speaks person to person, The Quantum Mind speaks Species to Species. I will explain by using the Betty Hills encounter for that is well known. Betty Hill was given a book by one of the beings she encountered, which she wanted to keep as proof that what she had experienced was real, and was told she could keep it, but the book was taken away. She was shone a star map that she was told was useless for her if she did not know where she was located on the map.

A needle was put into her navel and she was told it was a test for pregnancy, but she knew that, that was no pregnancy test she had ever heard of. When these actions are viewed Linearly , that is to say in the context of the every day mind of her time these entities were deceitful tormentors. Today we know that the star map she was shone was accurate and did pinpoint the area that she was told the entities came from Zeta Reticula.

Jose Rizal and Martin Luther King Jr. essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Jose Rizal and Martin Luther King, Jr. Jose Rizal and Martin Luther King, Jr. are both great men known for their dignity and love of country. Through comparison, Jose Rizal was proponent of institutional reforms through his writings, while Martin Luther King, Jr. used his charismatic personality through orations and sermons to cry out the need for change. Both of them used peaceful means instead of violent revolutions to attain their heroic Through Rizal’s perspective, during the Spanish occupation, the Filipinos purpose. tarted to lose their own identity. They were forced to praise and admire the things hat were foreign and incomprehensible. The Filipinos endured this kind of life, but sad to say, they would only be repaid with insults and abuses. They were highly discriminated, they were treated as slaves and puppets, and they were robbed of their human rights. Rizal, who cared so much for his countrymen, did not bear this sight, so wrote his two famous novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, even if he knew that this was a sure danger to his life.

Like Rizal, King saw the United States as a divided country. Black men are separated from the whites even in the simplest daily activities like eating in a estaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a washroom, attending school, going to the movies, and rental or purchase of a home. He believed that this segregation would only generate hate and perpetuate a feeling of distrust among the races. King, like Rizal, also loved his country so much, that he bravely stood for his fellow blacks, even if it cost his life.

While Rizal tried to awaken the lethargic spirits of the abused Filipinos through his symbolisms in his novels, King voiced out the cries of injustice among the powerless black Americans through his charismatic personality to the population. Rizal sought to defeat injustice, not the people. That is why, he used only his moral means. Similarly, King tried to achieve his goal by touching the hearts of the people. He appealed to the consciences of the white Americans and thus brought political leverage to bear on the federal government.

He feared nothing and trusted only God and himself. And all his actions were peaceful and morally upright. Upon Rizal’s martyred death of age 35, it did not cow the spirits of his people, but furthermore propagated the burning desire for freedom. His death was the catalyst hat precipitated the Philippine Revolution, which later led to Philippine Independence. King also died at a young age of 39 when he was assassinated. And in the same way, his death did not end the advent for social Justice in the United States.

But it led to the abolition of legal apartheid in many parts of America. Rizal’s ideologies helped create a new climate of thought which led to the attrition of colonialism and the emergence of new Asiatic nations. This only proved that Rizal’s influence was not limited to the boundaries of his country, but extended to the whole f Asia and even the world. Likewise, Kings influence reached internationally and inspired more and more people to promote equal rights and brotherhood.

Both Rizal and King are well known, inspiring men, to all cultures of the world. They were their quests like imprisonment and assassination. Despite these obstacles, they became successful leaders and even after their deaths guided their fellowmen in a non-violent and positive direction for the fight to secure rights and equality. These reasons make them worthy enough of the title “heroes” – heroes who shaped the world of today.

The Study on Abolishment of Death Penalty assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Otherwise can obscure the nature of both Areas of Knowledge. to the millions of Buddhists around the world. They (the Taliban) were incapable of interpreting what the statues meant. The statues were destroyed, even though it was possible that the government could prosper from the tourists visiting the site. The Taliban found art involving statues (images of people) insulting, and proceeded to destroy them. However, there are anomalies to this rule as well. A famous example is Picasso’s Guernica, which depicts the killings caused by the fascists in Spain.

The painting represents violence and mindless killing. It’s meaning is interpreted in the same way throughout the world. Science is based on the “scientific method” which itself is made up of observation, reason and experiment. It has two branches, the natural sciences (physics, chemistry, etc. ) and the natural sciences (psychology, economics, etc). As it deals with facts obtained from reasoning, observation and reasoning, it has little space for emotions, which is where it differs greatly with the arts, where emotion counts for everything. The sciences are said to deal in the general and collective.

This means they apply to people from all over the world. This is shown by Darwin’s theory of evolution, in which he states that all human beings, regardless of race, have common ancestor- monkeys. Science can never be proven to be right. Theories in science can only be disproven through the scientific method. Darwin’s theory of evolution is only right as long as someone can disprove it. However, chances are the new theory will be generalized yet again. And yet, there are some things in science that cannot be generalized. The most common example in this case is gravity.

The Earth is shaped like an orange, which means some places are closer to the centre and some places re further away. The force of gravity is greater the closer a place is to the centre of the Earth. Thus, gravity is one of those things that cannot be generalized. The sciences are said to be universal. This means that scientific theories apply to places all over the universe. This is shown by Newton’s Second Law, where he mentions that every action has an equal and opposite reaction (there are some specifications in this law, which are too long be mentioned in this essay).

According to Newton, this law is not confined to Earth, but applies to all reaches of space. Thus, as ar as this theory is concerned, science is universal. However, there are some things in science that have not been proven to be universal. The most common example what we call life. Life itself is not universal in science, as scientists have still been unable to prove that there is life in space. There are rumours, no doubt, of aliens in outer space, but this needs to be proven by the scientific method. If this remains so, the very study of biology can be classified as something that is not universal.

So far, scientists have only been able to prove that there is life on a tiny planet in the Milky Way. The rest of the universe is lifeless, it seems. Therefore, because of this certain anomaly, science, like the arts, deal in the particular (in this case, a particular planet in a particular galaxy). Tory lane madalene marie Thus from the aforementioned claims, Justifications, counter claims and personal examples, I feel that both the arts and the sciences deal in the particular, the general, The Arts Deal in the Particular, the Individual and the Personal While the Sciences Deal in the General, the Universal and the Collective. to What Extent Does This Statement Obscure the Nature of Both Areas of Knowledge? By zameelshaki The arts deal in the particular, the individual and the personal while the sciences deal in the general, the universal and the collective. ” To what extent does this statement obscure the nature of both areas of knowledge? The arts became a necessity only after physiological, safety, social and self esteem needs had been fulfilled by an individual. It is said that “the arts are a way of expressing emotion”.

Thus, it is separated from science, in which everything is objective and emotion free. It is said that the arts deal in the individual and the personal. This is true to a certain extent. Artists (musicians, painters, photographers) express their own emotions through their work. The audience/spectators interpret the meaning of the art form in their own particular way. The idea that each person everyone should have their say, that “beauty is in the eye of the beholder”, does not cause anyone to question everyone else’s views, when it comes to art.

Therefore everyone believes in his/her version of the “truth”. This can be seen in Leonardo da Vinci’s painting, the “Mona Lisa”. No one can tell why the background of the painting slants from her right, or why Leonardo painted it(x ray scans confirm this) over the eatures of a man (it hasn’t been verified if the man is Leonardo himself). Many people have different theories, but at the end of the day, they will all be right because Leonardo never left anything which could explain his true intentions.

This theory would be limited, however, if he was alive and/or left something behind which would explain the curious nature of the painting. The arts are said to deal in the particular. This is almost always true. The world is divided in terms of culture, religion and language, in spite of technology and globalization trying to bridge gaps. The way something is viewed in one part of the orld is almost never viewed in the same way in another. Thus, it is obvious that art that is related to culture and religion in one part of the world can never be interpreted in the same way in another part of the world.

A very good example of art involving religion can be the Buddhas of Bamyan in Afghanistan. The Buddhas were obviously a religious symbol to the Buddhists living in Afghanistan. They were carved in the 6th century. However, the Buddhist populations decreased and the country was gradually taken over by the Taliban. To them, the statues did not convey any The Study on Abolishment of Death Penalty f Corruption Crimes By cocomathilda Bribery and corruption crime exists widely worldwide, and are very serious in some countries and areas.

Particularly, bribery and corruption crimes will occur frequently with high degree in the specific period of fast development of economy, rapid transform of society and imperfect of some mechanism in our country. “It badly harmed healthy development of our society and blocked the aim of building harmonious society of our government. In order to keep bribery and corruption crimes within limits; the government always persists in giving a great blow to the rimes, and even used the most severe criminal punishment-death penalty. (Changsha, 2006) “But, we can find from the case arising status in the lately decades, that is, one side, the case arising rates, related money amounts and the civil levels constantly broke the record. “(Zhao, 2004) On the other side, some new circumstances and aspects constantly happened such as high frequency of hiding and spoliation, low utilization rates of death penalty, escaping of corrupt officials, and even appeared giving corrupt officials lower criminal punishment who were repatriated because of extradition.

It made unfair of Justice as a matter of fact, showed disability of death penalty in punishing bribery and corruption crimes, and made some misunderstanding of doctrine of severe punishment. The appearance of dispute about existence and abolishment of death penalty of briery and corruption crimes is based on that with the rapid development of economy, “culture and society in lately two decades, material wealth get maximum abundance, and people’s concept of human rights and consciousness of rights get progressively boosting up. (Ma, 2004)At the same time, internationally movement of abolishment of death penalty increased. Every year cases of condemning and carrying out death penalty mostly in our country, which is out suit to great effect of our country, and also runs counter to the great aim of building harmonious society of our country. “It is necessary that to adapt the trend, to abolish death penalty of bribery and corruption crimes. (Chen, 2001) The necessity of abolishing of death penalty of corruption crimes Death penalty, to be the most stern penalty that take away people’s life, the debate of keeping it or abolishing it was first been put forward in the book “Crime and Penalty’, written by Beccaria. This issue has been argued for hundreds of years. Nowadays, civilization is highly developed, academic circles’ opinions for the death penalty, especially for death penalty of non-violent crime, which should abolish, are basic consensus.

Professor Zhao, Bingzhi pointed out that “The crimes that obviously are too harsh to set death penalty or will resulting for value imbalance, should be abolished their death penalty from legislation in time. ” “In particular for non-violent crimes which there are no specific victim and crimes which do not have the potential hazard to other people’ person basic right” (Zhao, 2004), should be abolished their death penalty from legislation right immediately. Speaking of bribery and corruption crimes, the issue that whether should abolish death penalty or not becomes academic circle and theory circle’s focus of debate increasingly.

One opinion consider country staffs and encroach on public property, but they do not harm for people’s life, so we should abolished death penalty of bribery and corruption crimes(Ma. 2006). Another opinion thinks that abolish bribery and corruption crimes’ death penalty is not fit for China’s national conditions, and there are two reasons. On one hand, at present, China excessively uses probation or exempted from criminal punishment to ajority bribery and corruption crimes, which contravene the principle of fairness penalty.

On the other hand, comparison to other countries which abolish death penalty for bribery and corruption crimes, our country does not have a reasonable alternative penalty, and life imprisonment is too costly and countrys financial resources is hard to support. So, bribery and corruption crimes should be abolished. The reasons are: First, from internal cause to consider the form of bribery and corruption crimes, engender and exist of bribery and corruption crimes have necessity.

When discuss the problem of the death penaltys keeping or abolition, eople always interested in investigating the social harmfulness of bribery and corruption crimes or death penaltys connatural defect, although these two issues have a great influence to the discuss of keeping or abolition death penalty. But, we ignore the most important internal cause– the basic reason of bribery and corruption crimes’ form, because “no matter focus on general prevention or focus on special prevention, penaltys effect will realize through people’s reaction. (Liu, 2005) So why these corrupt officials still appears one after one, even if they facing deter of death penalty? Because corrupt officials’ psychological defects gradually turned into bad need stimulated by the objective environment, the bad need’s malignant development has produced the crime motive finally. Like Beccaria advanced the “crime saturation principle”, that is, “each society should has crimes that it deserves, the production of these crimes result from its natural and social condition, its quantity and quality is fit for each social collectivitys development. (Ma, 2004) Even if engender and exist of bribery and corruption crimes has necessity, it will breeding corruption only if the national power exists. So the thought that Monotonous considers with the severe penalties can contain the crime of corruption is clearly untenable. “Killing is not a good way to contain corrupt, exposes ugly and display corrupt can not lead people do good turns. “(Zou, 2006). Second, seeing from the external cause of the corruption crimes’ forming, bribery and corruption crimes are always a social syndrome, shift the responsibility is obviously wise. ribery and corruption crimes’ happen, “is a result of economy, politic, law, culture and some other factors’ synthesis process, not only relate to bribery and corruption criminals hat greedy pursue the improper economic interest and extremely ignore to the national social public interest, but also has close relate to the confusion of the state economy management and the lack of the society supervise, as well as criminal laws negligence. (Wang&Tian, 2004)

However, what we think is not the ame as the fact, in China, the penalty which install for bribery and corruption crime is “severe”, but criminal law is “negligence”. “In the installed laws, the problems of legislate negligence, concept blurred and difficult to operating exist in a large amount, the problem in legislate quality restricts anti-corruption practice. ” All these above show reasons that from bribery and corruption crime”corrupt officials’ own psychology defect, besides, many factors from external circumstance.

It is a “social syndrome”, and this symptom can not be cured by only carrying out severe penalty to orrupt officials, and our country should shoulder the responsibility of system’s maturity, if our country ascribe the blame to corrupt officials themselves, I’m afraid the country has a suspicion that transfer responsibility and hoarkae people’s enmity. So, speaking of a corrupt official, our country is “happy to kill him”, really. However, it cannot cure the whole societys corrupt crime but produce more corrupt officials.

System construct has properties of fundamental, overall and long-term, and it’s the basic safeguard for economy, politic and social optimum movement. Same, to prevent ribery and corruption crime must always focus on system construct, not only strike when it happen, but also prevent before it happen. (Tan, 2006) therefore, we can say that, enhance system construct is the necessary road of preventing bribery and corruption crime radically.

Because the time that China prevent and cure bribery and corruption crime by system construct is short, comparison with western countries, in system install and operate, our country is not so perfect or match, it leads China’s rate of bribery and corruption crime increasing year by year. We should learn the chievements in using system to prevent bribery and corruption crime from western developed countries, to get ready for preventing bribery and corruption crime in system efficiently.

Third, speaking of bribery and corruption crime, the method that “Beat the dog before the lion” is not so efficient and penaltys general prevention function don’t show to public. The death penalty for the corrupt officials, surely achieve the aim of special prevention and they won’t crime again forever. However, are there any deterrent for other corrupt officials? Feuerbach, who is a famous Jurist f classical school of criminal law, also thinks that law express stipulation penalty of different kinds of crime, at the same time, the law announces that any kinds of crime must be penalized.

Depending on using penalty to prevent crime, is not focusing on strictness but on stringency. Deterrent of penalty should include three aspects, the first one is that penalty has necessity; it means that anyone who affront law must be punished. The second one is that penalty must has promptness, means people who affront laws must be punished in time, to let them aware of the inevitable causality between crime action and penalty. The third one is that penalty must has strictness. These threes aspects relate closely and cannot be divided.

They influence and restrain the deterrent of penalty together. Emphasize the strictness of penalty alone efficient. Forth, seeing the bribery and corruption crime’s stipulation in countries all over the world, make its penalty to be death penalty is not fit international fashion. Use death penalty to bribery and corruption crime is out of tune with the international in common principle that “death penalty doesn’t extradition”, instead even more does not favor to the serious bribery and corruption crime attack. Majority countries stipulate prison term between six months and ten years.

But in South Africa, people who first bribe will be put in Jail at least 1 5 years, second time 20 years, above 2 times the time will be 25 years. In China, the same crime, it may be life imprison or even death penalty. From this we can see that China may be the most crucial country that attack bribery and corruption crime for install death penalty for bribery and corruption crime, but its rate of bribery and corruption crime increase year by year. Other countries don’t install death penalty for bribery and corruption rime, and there aren’t so many bribery and corruption crimes.

Besides, the international current role “death penalty doesn’t extradition” makes many Chinese corrupt officials escape to foreign countries and cannot be extradited back to China to Judged, and it also makes nation public property loss. Many corrupt officials make use of this hole escape to foreign countries, America, Canada and some other countries become their harbor. The aim that China installs death penalty for bribery and corruption crime is to attack bribery and corruption crime better, but backfire, this becomes a “reasonable reason” to corrupt officials.

The feasibility for abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes The Opportunity for abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes Violent crimes directly point at human’s life right, and directly threat to people’s life and health, to abolish death penalty in this area, it is a great challenge for the view of “a death for a death” which passed down for thousands years in China, it would certainly causes un uproar and meets with great resistances; it is not necessary to achieve abolishment of death penalty in military crimes and state crimes, but to link to current situation in china, it has a ertain sense to remain the death penalty for maintaining China’s national security and unity, and maintaining social stability and economic order and stability. Only corruption crimes, it concerns on the money interests, and it encroach on the building system of an incorruptible government, by the standard for China determine nature of crimes with social harmfulness, to abolish death penalty in this field undoubtedly has the least resistance and is according to the international trends, it has more operability.

Moreover, compared to other crimes, corruption crimes are ntirely preventable, it is no need to threaten and punish with extreme penalty in all respects. In my opinion, although there are variety of reasons for corruption crimes on the surface, but in reality, it may have roots in a proper system”although not all of it, at least, it can be prevented form the system. However, the happen reason of violent crime is one’s inner violence desires, or the performance of a occasional crime of passion, or the performance of a calculated crime through the course of a crime in preparation, all of them are not the problems which can be solved from the system evel. Therefore, the abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes is completely feasible.

The theoretical basis and sociological basis for abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes have been founded The theoretical community of China government should gradually reduce and strictly limit death penalty, and provide the conditions for abolishing it in the future. To achieve this goal, many scholars have put forward different options to reduce and limit death penalty. Although these theories exist many differences, but one thing in common, they all think that the applicable cope of death penalty should be limited to crimes which serious harm to national security, public safety, and personal safety. In most countries which keep death penalty, they also have not set the death penalty for corruption crimes.

Jiang Bixin thought that based on the historical tradition and legal culture, the reality situation of China and the public values and other factors, it is unrealistic to completely abolish death penalty in present. The key of prevention and containment for economic crimes is to sound economic management system, to improve the social supervision mechanism; government should abolish death penalty for most orruption crimes. This view is as the same as the objective of building a socialist harmonious society and establish a new culture in China. In conclusion, the theoretical basis and sociological basis for abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes have been founded.

Use ratio of corruption crimes is low in recent years In recent years, from the use of corruption crimes of death penalty in Judicial practices, few cases have been sentenced to death, it account for a few percentages of the incidence of these crimes, so death penalty of corruption crimes is keeping itself for future possible use. Many corruption crimes cases which the amount of the province with tens or hundreds thousands did not apply death penalty. Abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes is conducive to have a unified jurisdiction in China Abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes is conducive to main criminal disposition be unified with related mechanisms of Hong Kong and Macao. In recent, China’s subject increasingly close exchanges with political and economic of these regions, personnel exchanges gradually achieve the accessibility, it is great practical significance. “(Roger, 2005) For now, China Mainland sentenced the eath penalty for some comers who came from Hong Kang and Macao; it also caused a number of international non-governmental organizations concerned. Amnesty International thought: “when many criminals who implement crimes in HKSAR and MCSAR have been sentenced death penalty by China Mainland, this makes effectiveness problems which are called “transfer rather than extradition to China Mainland” emerged from the water; in the foreseeable future, Amnesty International will continue to launch attack to the Chinese government on this issue.

Immediate abolishment of death penalty of corruption crimes is the need of ompletely fighting against the corruption crimes suspects fled Since 1992 to the end of June 2007, in the Chinese corruption criminals fled, there are 87 provincial and ministerial levels, 320 are to departmental level, 1920 is to vice departmental level, 8250 is to the division level, 11340 is to the deputy position at the division level, it is a total of about 16000 people; these people embezzled and took over one billion of caught in a dilemma: Because most countries have abolished the death penalty, according to a particular principle of extradition, these countries generally made in ts extradition legislation with the principle of non-extradition of the death penalty, Chinese government can not have commitments of “corrupt officials will not be sentenced to death for these countries”. If Chinese government has these commitments, it would be contrary to Chinese law, at the same time, it is difficult to achieve fairness for corrupt officials fled in the criminal law, and leading to different punishment with the same crime; this problem is particularly that reflected in the crime.

To solve these problems, the fundamental method is abolishing death penalty for bribery and corruption crime. Abolishing death penalty is a trend that is already reached common ground in academic cycle. Many people think that China does not have the conditions of abolishing death penalty. As abolishing death penalty is the thing that must do sooner or later, we must walk out the first step. And today is a good chance. Predict for bribery and corruption crime with no death penalty Abolishing death penalty for bribery and corruption crime, on one hand, makes the penalty measures of bribery and corruption crime more reasonable, on the other hand, can restrain corrupt officials’ escaping and reduce the space that they can scape and hide.

Abolishing death penalty for bribery and corruption crime has a strong Justice practice meaning: our government can sing extradition role with developed countries which hidden many corrupt officials and thorough attack escaping corrupt officials; at the same time, it is an efficient frighten to the potential criminals to hardly reduce the escape space. On one aspect, abolishing death penalty for bribery and corruption crime shows more Justify by sentence with the amount of money or circumstances. On another aspect, penaltys determinism will obtain a horough implementation with escaping corrupt officials becoming less, which decrease bribery and corruption crimes. In 1997, China published “New LaW’ which abolishes death penalty for steal crime. Through these years’ check, the rate of steal crime is not increasing apparently after abolishing death penalty and common people don’t show much more attention.

Quality Management Worldwide Total Quality Management write my essay help: write my essay help

For more than four decades after independence the companies in India enjoyed a protected market with virtually no competition, and some of them even monopolised the market, with customers having little or no choice. As a result complacency set in, and no pressure existed for improvement or change.

However, the policy of globalization and liberalization adopted by the Indian Government five years ago, has hrown open new avenues and challenges to companies in India. The new policy has resulted in open doors through which global corporate players have entered the Indian markets, and are threatening the domestic manufacturers and suppliers, using quality as a weapon. This has compelled the managers of local companies to look for those tools and techniques, proven and tested, which would help them to maintain and improve their strategies and positions in the market.

One such policy or philosophy that has captured the attention of industry and the business community is TQM. Particularly, in the recent years TQM is even regarded as bsolutely essential for growth, stability, and prosperity. This paper has the main intention of presenting an overview of TQM’s progress in the country, starting from its initiation to its current status. Besides, the paper also describes how the organizational attempts by various agencies enabled the establishment of a TQM culture.

Further, these attempts are presented in a chronological order, to appreciate the role played by various agencies, which resulted in growth and propagation of TQM in India. Towards the end, the gaps that still exist and hence the efforts that eed to be channeled are pointed out, so as to result in appropriate guidelines about the work to be done. The author R. Jagadeesh is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, S. J. College of Engineering, Mysore, India.

Keywords TQM, India, Quality Abstract Total quality management (TQM) has spread its wings in every sphere of the global corporate world and Indian companies are no exception. In this paper, first the growth and spread ofTQM in India is traced from its initiation to current status. Further, the paper has tried to identify the causes for poor quality of products and ervice, and the gaps that exist between the expectations and the outcome after adopting the TQM practices. Later a critical view of the quality scene in India is presented, and finally, based on these observations suitable guidelines and recommendations are made to bridge this gap.

It is concluded that there is still a long way to go for Indian companies to receive the stamp of acceptance for their products at international level. Electronic access The current issue and full text archive of this Journal is available at http://www. emerald-library. com are synonymous with high quality products and trust worthiness. However, the post- independent era did not witness any spectacular improvement regarding the quality of goods and services produced in the country. According to Agrawal (1993) due to protected business environment many positive attributes of the Indian industry have been lost and weaknesses have surfaced.

These weaknesses based on the study are: lack of trust and credibility in the working system, lack of clarity/seriousness for achieving target, lack of precise observance of rules and norms, low quality of supplies and components, lack of consciousness of time as money, viewing only short term benefits ahead of long term oals, politicalization of labor unions, lack of accountability for actions, lack of management commitment, lack of national quality policy, inadequate economic resources, lack of indigenous technology, inadequate infrastructure, preferring quantity to quality, lack of team spirit, cartel formation, and sellers’ market.

Besides, lack of consumerism, Government control on everything, bureaucratic delays, quick profit making attitudes by the companies, all resulted in quality getting a low priority and consequently Indian products were constrained to serve only the domestic market being not able to compete in the international markets. Further, the factors mentioned before, clearly proved to be obstacles in the path to progress, and India in spite of possessing good resources and rich scientific and technical manpower, could not produce world-class products acceptable in the international markets.

The TQM movement in India The TQM initiatives were first set by the Confederation of Indian Industries (Cll) in the early 1980s, in its pioneering effort in promoting awareness about quality among Indian industries. The work done by Cll in this direction is well documented in Deccan Herald Advertising Feature (1993) and also in The Standards Engineer (1996). In 1982, quality circles took birth in India, and some of the companies to launch quality circles first were Bharat Electronics Limited, Bangalore, and Bharat Heavvy Electricals Limited, Trichy.

In 1986 the Cll then known as CEI (Confederation of Engineering Industries), invited Professor Ishikawa to India, to address industry people about quality. Later in 1987, a TQM division was set up by the Cll. This division owes its foundation to 21 companies who agreed to support the cause by pooling resources and pledging to start the Journey to TQM. Chief executives of these companies formed the National Committee on Quality, 22 Total quality management in India В± perspective and analysis R. Jagadeesh The TQM Magazine Volume 1 1 . Number 5. 1999 . 321В±327 newsletter on quality.

In 1987 and 1988, the Cll invited the Juran Institute to India to conduct three training workshops, and then in 1989 a team from India attended the Deming Seminar in London. Study teams organized by the Cll were taken to Japan and the USA to study quality practices. During 1990, the Cll consolidated and focused on training, and in February 1991, an Indian company with the assistance of the Cll, obtained the first ISO 9000 certification in India. The Cll organized the launch of the National Quality Campaign led by the Prime Minister of India in May 1992.

It is around this time, the process of globalization and liberalization was started in the country, bringing a new dimension to the business and industrial sectors. From then on, a new line of thinking in terms of quality, productivity, and competitiveness has begun. Since 1993, the Cll has been organizing The Quality Summit every year. This provides an opportunity for all business leaders, and higher level managers of member and non-member organizations of the Cll to network, learn, and contribute hrough experience sharing, and listening to the experts who gather there.

The National Productivity Council (NPC) has set up a TQM and Benchmarking Division in New Delhi, and offers TQM implementation services, which include modular training programs and consultancy services. In 1996, the Government of India announced the setting up of the Quality Council of India, (QCI) with the Industry Ministry bringing in half the seed capital of Rs. 1. 5 crores. The rest of the seed capital will be contributed by the corporate sector.

The setting up of a national agency for quality certification is art of the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements, under which member countries will not trade in non-certified products two years down the line. The corporate sector too was demanding the setting up of an internationally recognized quality council as it found the certification process from foreign agencies too expensive. Besides, it would save vital foreign exchange for the country. The QCI will be entrusted with monitoring and administering of the National Quality Campaign and will also oversee the effective functioning of the National Information and Enquiry Services.

Post-liberalization scene В± improvement in quality The economic reforms that started in 1992 have ushered in a new era of progress and prosperity in the country. According to a report published in YoJana (1997), the real gross domestic product (GDP) recorded a growth rate of 6. 8 per cent in agriculture and allied sectors, 7. 0 per cent in industry, and 7. 4 per cent in services. The Eighth Five Year Plan (EFYP) (1992-97) which ended with an average growth rate of 6. 5 per cent per annum, compares well with the target rate of 5. 6 per cent for the EFYP, and actual achievement of 6. 0 per cent in the Seventh Five Year Plan. In fact his is the highest average growth rate achieved in the planning period since 1951. The sectoral average growth rates for the period 1992-97 are: Agriculture and allied sectors В± 4. 0 per cent, Industry В± 7. 8 per cent and, Services В± 9. 2 per cent. Further, exports during 1996-97 registered a growth rate of 4. 1 per cent. Foreign direct investment amounted to US $2,696 million during 1996-97. These facts clearly indicate that the economic reforms brought through globalization and liberalization have yielded rich dividends, and hold a lot of promise for the coming years.

While all ndividually to improve their product quality, besides overall performance through TQM practices. For example, Gupta and Sagar (1993) describe a case of total quality control in an engineering company through the extensive use of personal computers, and state that the Indian company was able to overcome many quality related problems which included: high rejection levels, slow inspection rates, frequent errors in measurement, inconsistency in interpreting inspection data, time consuming data storage and retrieval, rigid inspection schedules, not responding to changing environment, and quality plans not adjusted to varying batch sizes.

The company improved the problem solving capacity through quality circles, and quality database at each stage. Comprehensive information systems enabled the personnel to obtain better guidance leading to improved decision making. Thus the success is attributed to systematic application of TQM. 323 The TQM Magazine volume 11 . Number 5 . 1999 . 321В±327 Business Today (1995) in an exclusive coverage on status of quality of India, presents a detailed report on companies which are market leaders and corporate giants. The cases covered include reports on leading Indian companies like Mukand, BPL, Arvind,

IFB, ABB, HDFC, Amex, Hidustan Lever, Ranbaxy, Indal, Gujarat AmbuJa, Wsya Bank, Oberoi Hotels, and Thermax. It is emphasized that these companies carved a niche for themselves by focusing on quality in their planning, operations, and marketing strategies. Awareness of quality В± a positive change Pati and Reis (1996) state that India is emerging as a leading economy in the new world economic order. The phenomenal increase in India’s export earnings, which rose to IJS$ 26. 2 billion in the 1994-95 fiscal year showed an increase of 18. 27 per cent over its 1993-94 export earnings of IJS$22. 7 billion. This is said to be an indicator of how its products and services are perceived by its global customers. It is further stated that the thrust has been shifted from import substitution to development of an export-oriented economy. Other pertinent observations made are: . Indian businesses are pursuing paths of superior quality and high productivity; . quality conscious consumerism; . increasing competition; . industries expanding their domestic share and venturing into global markets; . significant rise in the ISO 9000 certified companies.

The survey conducted by Pati and Reis (1996) has further revealed many interesting aspects bout quality practices in India. The survey questionnaire has used a five-point Likert interval to capture the strength of perception, where points 1 (very high), 2 (high), 3 (medium), 4 (low), and 5 (very low) indicate the degree of current practice related to quality. The critical success factors contributing to quality and overall average scores (3. 43); . role of quality department/personnel (3. 14); . training (3. 69); . product/service design (2. 91); . supplier quality management (2. 6); process management and operating procedures (2. 74); quality data reporting (2. 72); employee relations (2. 2). It is concluded from the survey that the manufacturing sector in India is well aware of importance of quality, and efforts have been channeled to improve product quality. However, the service sector mostly Government owned and operated, lags behind the manufacturing sector in all aspects that imply quality. TQM В± success stories of Indian companies Many Indian companies are beginning to realize that ‘ ‘customer focus” is an absolute requirement of TQM.

Jain (1996), while writing on TQM in India, states that companies are paying closer attention to consumer feedback in order to tailor roducts to meet customer needs and are using a wide variety of methods that include benchmarking with rival products, regular customer meetings, and even engaging market research companies to collect consumer feedback on their product range and after sales service. Two specific cases are worth mentioning. Escorts Limited, an automobile manufacturing company, based on the feedback from customers and dealers, changed the delivery route to ensure safe and quick delivery.

Similarly, J. K. Synthetics, based on feed back from customer meetings, focused on standardization of quality parameters, and started after-sales service. This resulted in the sales rise from 220 tonnes in first quarter of 1995 to 632 tonnes in the last quarter of the same year, an impressive growth in the sales by three times the previous value. According to a report published in Business Today (1998), some Indian companies are being guided by Yoshikazu Tsuda, a counselor at JUSE (Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers) in their quest for total quality.

Some of these companies are Sona Steering, Jai Bharat Maruti, GKN Invel, Asahi Float Glass, Brakes India, Lucas TVS, India Pistons, and India Piston Rings. Further, as stated in The Economic Times (1998), sixsigma technique, which is considered to be a classic TQM technique, is being practiced by several Indian companies notable among 324 significant achievement by an Indian company due to its practicing TQM principles is reported by Sridharan (1998a).

The Indian company Sundaram Fasteners located near Chennai, India, has received the Best of Best Vendors Award consecutively for two years during 1996 and 1997, for its supply of metal radiator caps to General Motors, USA. The award was given to the company for its consistent zero defects rate, 100 percent reliability in delivery schedules, and lowest price. The company is the only supplier to General Motors, USA from India out of its 3,000 supplier companies scattered all over the globe.

In an exclusive interview covered by Premchander (1996), the managing director of Asea Brown Boveri Ltd (a partly owned subsidiary of Asea Brown Boveri Limited, Zurich) one of the very successfully operating multi-national companies in India, has stated that the managers have to spend time and resources on TQM. A historical achievement by an Indian company winning the coveted Deming Prize for Overseas Companies, for successful implementation of TQM, is reported by Sridharan (1998b).

The Indian company Sundaram Clayton, has successfully turned its people into quality practitioners by the actual deployment of TQM tools, techniques, and systems. 38 В± time to market; 22 В± corporate credibility. Indian quality scene В± a critical view The developments related to Indian companies, concerning quality of products and services, need to be examined on a comparative global scale. This would enable judgement of the progress made in improving quality.

A survey made in 1994 in which products and services from 41 countries were ranked by World Competitiveness Report indicates that the quality of Indian products and services is isappointing. According to the summary of results given in Skaria (1995), India’s rank based on different quality parameters is as follows (the rank out of 41 is given followed by the parameter): . 39В± price to quality; . 38 В± practice ofTQM; . 40В± customer orientation; . 28 В± product liability; . 39 В± time to innovate; The report clearly suggested that on a global scale, Indian products and services are far from satisfactory, and have a poor image.

This is a major cause of worry for the corporate managers particularly for those looking for new markets, and ventures with oreign collaborators. One commonly quoted reason for getting away with low quality in India, is lack of pressure from consumers. Many managers are of the opinion that unless the customers are aware of their right to demand high quality, and insist on companies to invest in quality, they continue to receive poor quality products. While the growth and spread of quality practices are slow in India, TQM has firmly seated itself in other Asiatic countries.

In a cover feature on ‘Quality in Asia’ reported in World Executive Digest (1996), it is stated that as Asia grapples with the challenge of lobalization, more and more companies seek ISO 9000 certification and adopt TQM. Companies in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and China are overtly involved in embracing practices of total quality to march ahead in global markets. According to The Economic Intelligence Unit (1996), which surveyed companies in Hong Kong on issues in the region. The growth of TQM across Asia however means that new approaches are being developed in the region.

These observations clearly suggest that India has to carefully watch the developments in the Asiatic region, as TQM principles have been successfully applied by several countries improving their utput quality, attracting more foreign investment, and hence capable of restricting India’s share in the global market. What the quality experts say In spite of the hype created by the ISO 9000 bandwagon, which today has more than 1,500 companies certified as such, quality is yet to emerge as a major strength of Indian products. Managers of Indian companies have still a lot to learn and implement in the image building process based on quality.

This is perhaps aptly summarized by a statement made by Philip Crosby as reported in The Times of India (1997). While addressing a 325 ews conference at the end of his weeklong visit to India, Crosby has said that complacency is a major problem with the Indian management system. The managers of Indian industries should take this seriously. In an interview published in Business India (1997-98) James Harrington, a leading authority in the field of quality, has stated that India still has four types of companies: those with poor performance, with good performance, with better performance, and with outstanding performance.

Harrington remarks that companies with poor performance went bankrupt in other parts of the world, while those with good performance would follow them. But those with better performance will survive and those with outstanding performance would explode into the twentyflrst century. This indicates that India still has scope for bad products, and bad performance, which need to be immediately curbed. It is pointed out by Sukumar (1998) that TQM continues to baffle corporate India, as evident by the different interpretations made by each person in the industry about what is TQM.

It was observed during the Sixth Quality Summit organized by the Cll in New Delhi, that TQM means anything and everything depending on the individual’s perspective, politics, and paradigms. During the summit as many as nine different definitions were presented by the speakers about what constitutes TQM. This means people in the corporate sector have no consensus about the concept of TQM and it could be a deterrent in its implementation. In another survey conducted by Arun et al. (1998) with regard to ISO certified companies interesting observations were made about implementing TQM in a company.

Out of 17 companies that were surveyed, managers in seven companies said that though they believe in TQM they do not know how to implement it. The survey further revealed that the long term supplier elationship, an essential ingredient for successful implementation of TQM, has not the implementation of TQM were found to be: continued dependence on traditional incentive schemes, numerical targets, performance rating, slogans for improving productivity, and not identifying and providing the right type of training for each and everyone as demanded for every Job.

The survey concludes that if all these factors are not mitigated a company may continue as ISO certified but not be recognized as a TQM company. Comments and conclusion The various surveys independently conducted by researchers and business ublications have revealed that awareness on quality of products and services has picked up in India. With quality based competition intensifying, Indian industries and business people are showing keen interest in improving the quality of products through TQM.

A number of organizations, private and Government are actively propagating TQM through a variety of training and educational programs. TQM has proved to be a vital ingredient for success, and now has its permanent roots in the mission and vision” of the Indian corporate sector. However, based on common observations the requirements for quality to succeed in India can be summarized as ollows: . a strong consumer movement; . a sincere and committed drive by the corporate sector to keep quality as the main focus; . trict enforcement of standards by the regulatory bodies and authorities; . avoidance of multiple grading of quality in products, like export quality, first grade, seconds, import rejects, etc. ; . setting an example in adhering to high quality performance and output, before pointing to others. While TQM no doubt has enabled the Indian companies to improve the quality of products and services, the international market demands still higher uality levels to give due recognition and acceptance.

How Does Demand Reversal Invalidates the Theory law essay help: law essay help

In this case, represented in fgure 1. 1 we have a situation of what is called demand reversal. Here not only the two biases-consumption and production re in the same direction but also the consumption bias more than offsets the production bias. Consumption point D lies to the left of production point A in country A and in country B the consumption point G lies to the right of production point B. When such a demand reversal takes place, the capital surplus country would export labour intensive goods.

The HECKSCHER OHLIN theory would then be invalidated by the demand reversal Critical evaluation of the HECKSCHER OHLIN theorem In the area of pure theory of international trade, the HECKSCHER OHLIN model occupies a very prestigious position. The very fact that many known Economists like Leontief, Walters, Minhas and others have tried to test the empirical validity of the HECKSCHER OHLIN theorem using econometric models, stands as a testimony of the prestige of the model.

The HECKSCHER OHLIN theorem has been criticised mainly along the following lines: the factor intensity reversal, Leontief and paradox and demand reversal argument Factor intensity argument The HECKSCHER OHLIN theorem was based on the assumption that the production functions are different for different goods but they are identical for each good in two ountries.

This, in other words means that one good is capital intensive and the other good is labour intensive, but the same good which is capital intensive in one country, must be capital intensive in the other country also and the labour intensive good remains labour intensive in both the countries. This assumption is guaranteed when both the two production isoquants for capital intensive and labour intensive cut each other only once but not more than once in diagram 1 this is shown to happen at point Q.

The demonstration in diagram 1 is consistant with the HECKSCHER OHLIN ssumption of non-reversability of factor intensities. If factor intensity reversal takes place, then two isoquants will cut each other more than once and the HECKSCHER following diagram. The two production isoquants for steel and cloth cut each other twice in the succeeding diagram: once at point A and the second time at point B. The factor price ratios in country A(capital surplus country) are represented by the parallel lines P O P O.

P 1 P 1 represent the factor price ratios in country B(Labour surplus country). In the above diagram note the following factors: in country A steel is labour intensive. In order to produce one unit of either steel or cloth, country A has to use the same amount of capital but more labour for steel than cloth. Cloth has a higher capital- labour ratio and steel has a lower capital-labour ratio. Therefore, a capital rich country like country A would specialize in the production and export of the capital intensive goods, which is cloth.

It would import steel which is a labour intensive good. In Country B, cloth is a labour intensive good and steel is a capital intensive good. Because, to produce one unit of cloth it takes a given amount of labour and smaller mount of capital as compared to steel. Steel takes the same amount of labour but more capital per unit of output. In country B, therefore, steel has a higher capital – labour ratio than in cloth. Naturally country B (labour surplus country), would choose to specialize in the production and exports of the labour intensive goods, cloth.

Country B therefore would export cloth and import steel which is capital intensive. In this case of factor intensity reversal, as we say above both the countries produce and export the same commodity i. e. cloth. In the capital rich country (country A) it is a apital intensive product and in the labour rich country (country B) it is a labour intensive product. That means the same product (cloth) is capital intensive in one country but less intensive in another country. The same thing applies to steel as well. Steel is labour intensive product in the capital rich country (country B).

This is a situation of a factor intensity reversal. When this takes place, both countries end up producing and exporting the same commodities (cloth) and importing the other commodity (steel). This would invalidate the Heckscher Ohlin prediction regarding the structure of commodity trade. In the above diagram the two isoquants cut each other more than once, suggesting factory intensity reversal to the left of point A and to the right of point B. For factor intensities to reverse themselves, it is not, however necessary that the two isoquants cut each other more than once.

Leontief and paradox The first comprehensive and detailed examination of the Heckscher Ohlin theorem was the one undertaken by Leontief. You will recall that the theory of factor proportions predicted that the capital abundant country exported capital intensive goods and imported labour intensive goods, and the labour surplus country did the pposite. It is commonly agreed that the USA is a capital rich and labour scarce country. Therefore one would expect exports to consist of capital intensive goods and imports to consist of labour intensive goods.

Leontief made an extensively study of the USA and the results were startling, in contrast to what the Heckscher Ohlin theory predicted, Leontief’s study showed that the USA exports consisted of labour intensive goods and imports consisted of capital intensive goods. In Leontief’s own words” Americas participation in division of labour in international trade is based on In other words the country resorts to foreign trade in order to economize its capital and dispose its surplus labour rather than vice versa.

Leontief’s findings are summarized in the following table Exports imports capital US $ 1947 prices 2. 550. 780 3. 091. 339 Labour (man years) 1. 80. 313 1. 70. 004 Capital-labour ratio( US $ per man hour) 13. 911 18. 185 From the above table, it is obvious that the US exports had a lower capital-labour ratio that these are import replacement produced in the US as opposed to the actually imported goods of the country. Leontief’s paradox results stimulated similar studies for other countries

Nature of Management compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

Universality: Management is an universal phenomenon in the sense that it is common and essential element in all enterprises. Managers perform more or less the same functions irrespective of their position or nature of the organization. The basic principles of management can be applied in all managerial situations regardless of the size, nature and location of the organization. Universality of managerial tasks and principles also implies that managerial skills are transferable and managers can be rained and developed. . Purposeful: Management is always aimed at achieving organizational goals and purposes. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the desired objectives are attained. In both economic and non-economic enterprises, the tasks of management are directed towards effectiveness (i. e. , attainment of organizational goals) and efficiency (i. e. , goal attainment with economy of resource use). 3. Social process: Management essentially involves managing people organized in work groups.

It includes retaining, Developing and motivating people at work, as well as taking care of their satisfaction as social beings. All these interpersonal relations and interactions makes the management as asocial process. 4. Coordinating force: Management coordinates the efforts of organization members through orderly arrangement of inter-related activities so as to avoid duplication and overlapping. Management reconciles the individual goals with the organizational goals and integrates human and physical resources. 5. Intangible: Management is intangible.

It is an unseen force. Its presence can be felt everywhere by the results of its effort which comes in the form of orderliness, adequate work output, satisfactory working climate, employees satisfaction etc. 6. Continuous process: Management is a dynamic and an on-going process. The cycle of management continues to operate so long as there is organised action for the achievement of group goals. 7. Composite process: Functions of management cannot be undertaken sequentially, independent of each other. Management is a composite process made up of ndividual ingredients.

All the functions are performed by involving several ingredients. Therefore, the whole process is integrative and performed in a network fashion. 8. Creative organ: Management creates energetics effect by producing results which sequence to operations, matches Jobs to goals, connects work to physical and financial resources. It provides creative ideas, new imaginations and visions to group efforts. It is not a passive force adopting to external environment but a dynamic life giving element in every organization.

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Major players launch growth-driving products USA Positive performances by all oral care categories led to market growth of 5% in 2007. Toothpastes and mouthwashes grew by 3% and 8% respectively, while whitening treatments posted growth of 10% – a turnaround from the decline of previous years. All categories have benefited from product launches. Education in the category continues to revolve around the link between oral care and overall health.

For example, Colgate-Palmolive partnered with health insurer Aetna and numerous drug chains to offer an education programme on preventive dental care and its link to eneral wellbeing. Also, in September 2007, 6SK, the American Dental Association (ADA) and the ADA Foundation debuted the Oral Longevity programme, designed to increase oral health awareness in older adults.

Market Review US New products lead to growth in all categories Influx of products from foreign marketers Technological innovation aids upturn of whitening strip sales Canada Toothpastes and mouthwashes grow, while sales of whitening treatments are flat Toothpastes Toothpaste sales grew by 3% in 2007. Products made with natural ingredients continue to be successful, according to industry sources. Private label sales are minor. In June 2007, the FDA advised consumers to avoid using toothpastes manufactured in China, as many that had been imported from the country were found to contain poisonous chemical diethylene glycol.

Some of the counterfeits were falsely labelled as Colgate, but other major brands were not impacted and so the situation is unlikely to have hindered overall growth. USA and Canada: Oral care categories 2005-2007 USA IJS$mn Toothpastes Mouthwashes Whitening treatments Total Canada Toothpastes Mouthwashes Whitening treatments Total 163. 5 75. 9 32. 6 272. 1 173. 9 82. 30. 7 286. 5 178. 8 86. 9 30. 4 296. 0 2005 1,619. 1 721. 9 298. 8 2,639. 8 2006 1,635. 3 772. 5 265. 9 2,673. 6 2007 1,690. 5 834. 9 291. 3 2,816. The competitive environment Crest continues to battle with Colgate for the categorys No. l spot. Crest grew by 8% and takes roughly a third of category sales. The growth was largely thanks to sales of its Pro-Health toothpaste, which more than trebled to reach $95mn. The presentation benefited from a category-leading adspend of $69mn. Crest Pro-Health tackles cavities, gingivitis, plaque, sensitivity, stains, tartar build-up and bad breath. Education about the brand informs consumers about the links between oral care and of the range, launched in September 2007, has proved popular with consumers.

It is positioned to tackle bacteria through the night. Source: Nicholas Hall’s Insight, sales via all retail outlets, full year 2007 (MSP), applies to following tables and references to sales data in the text unless otherwise stated. Canadian data based on exchange rate of IJS$mn: C$mn – 0. 9870, published in the UK Financial Times on 1 January 2008 Simplifyle 6 MARCH 2008 63 ORAL CARE Crest Whitening Plus Scope grew by 8% to $138mn. However, sales of Crest Whitening Expressions fell by 18% to $68mn.

Crest Extra White Plus Scope was launched in September 2007 with the “Smile Bright in the Spotlight” competition, which offered the chance to host the People’s Choice Awards show with presenter Ryan Seacrest. P&G spent around $35mn advertising Crest Nature’s Expressions – introduced in April 2007 – which includes natural ingredients. The brand is for consumers “who want to experience natural ingredients but whose preference indicates a strong loyalty to brands with established heritage” according to Diane Dietz, general manager of P&G’s North American oral care business.

Crest Healthy Radiance Toothpaste System is available to consumers from March 2008. It comprises toothpaste and weekly deep clean strips, to strengthen enamel and whiten teeth. The system is targeted at women who want to achieve a healthy and attractive smile with one product. Sales of Colgate – which take around a third of category dollars – remained flat despite the range being developed. Growth may have been hindered, in part, by concerns over counterfeit toothpaste falsely labelled as Colgate, which was found in some discount stores in June 2007. In 2007, Colgate-Palmolive launched premium-priced Total Advanced Clean.

It contains silica – to polish teeth – and an antibacterial formula that creates a protective germfghting coating. The launch was supported by professional sampling and advertising featuring actress Brooke Shields. Also, in April 2007, the Max Fresh range was extended with Burst presentations, infused with “50% more breath strips” than the regular version, according to the company. A+P review: Leading US oral care adspends 2007 Brand Marketer IJS$mn Crest Listerine Colgate Aquafresh Rembrandt Sensodyne Arm & Hammer ACT OraJel* SmartMouth P&G McNeil / Colgate-Palmolive 6SK Personal Products / J&J GSK Church & Dwight

Chattem Del Laboratories Triumph Pharmaceuticals *Toothpaste only. Does not include adspend for oral pain SKUs Source: TNS Media Intelligence, 12 months to 30 September 2007, taken from the top 50 adspends of dental care presentations. Applies to all references to adspends in the text It was supported with an adspend of close to $8mn and promoted by Hispanic musician Tito el Bambino. 6SK offers Aquafresh and Sensodyne. Aquafresh – which takes around 8% of category dollars – grew by 10% to $142m.

This was aided by three product launches – Aquafresh Advanced is positioned as a multi-benefit toothpaste, hile ‘so-active creates microscopic bubbles during brushing that penetrate hard-to- reach areas. Lastly, Aquafresh White & Shine was launched in 2007 and carries claims not only to whiten, but also to contain microbuffers that polish teeth. After an initial bout of consumer interest surrounding its launch in 2006, Aquafresh Extreme Clean declined by 13% to $42mn. Sensodyne sales were flat at $76mn. The brand’s two most recent additions, ProNamel and Full Protection, were supported with adspends of over $16mn and nearly $3mn respectively.

The rest of the line has been repackaged. Following Colgate-Palmolive’s purchase of Tom’s of Maine in 2006, its toothpaste range has grown by 6%, fuelled by ongoing demand for natural products. Packaging has been updated to make the specific benefits of each toothpaste clearer. In December 2007, Natural Clean & Gentle toothpastes were launched, including SKUs for whitening and dry mouth. Sensitive Care Antiplaque toothpaste is IRI market facts: US OTC oral care 2007 (RSP) Category Toothpastes Mouthwashes Whitening treatments Sales $mn 1,260. 684. 0 242. 3 % change +2. 9+8. 4+11. 0 Source: Information Resources Inc, sales in food, drug and mass merchandise outlets excludes Wal-Mart), 52 weeks to 30 December 2007 64 MARCH 2008 Paediatric presentations There were several developments in OTC oral care for children in 2007. Colgate- Palmolive, which markets a range of paediatric toothpastes, partnered with Reading is Fundamental to offer the “Healthy Bedtime Habits for a Lifetime” programme, in which families can use online tools to create a bedtime rituals log.

VI-Jon Laboratories has launched Inspector Hector. The brand comprises two products – Inspector Hector Plaque Detector, a pre-brush rinse that turns plaque blue so that children know here to brush, and Inspector Hector Tooth Protector, a fluoride rinse. Meanwhile, Dr Fresh recently launched Firefly Mouthswoosh, which has a light-up timer cap that session. In April 2007, all bottles of McNeil / J&J’s Listerine Agent Cool Blue rinse were recalled after it was found that the product’s “preservative system [was] not adequate against certain microorganisms”.

The company is re-entering the paediatric market in March 2008 with Listerine Smart Rinse, an anti-cavity fluoride rinse. In terms of toothpastes, Aim Kids for 6-10 year olds was launched in July 2007. Unlike any paediatric toothpastes, the brand does not use a licensed cartoon character, which enables Church & Dwight to maintain the low pricing of the value-based range. Meanwhile, Crest has extended the trend of unusual flavours to its children’s Wild Expressions toothpaste, with Burstin’ Bubblegum and Cinnsational Swirl. another new addition, to be rolled out in the first half of 2008.

Both new ranges contain patent-pending ingredient glycyrrhizin, from purified licorice, which provides a natural foaming experience, according to the company. Church & Dwight fields Arm & Hammer, Mentadent, Aim and Close-Up. The company is set to launch Arm & Hammer Age Defying toothpaste in 2008, which is positioned to strengthen teeth and repair damage caused by whitening products. Rembrandt sales were flat in the reporting period. The brand was relaunched and repackaging following its purchase by Personal Products / J&J from Gillette in October 2005.

Its A+P targets young people, using a traveling store that hosted makeover parties and concerts. Availability of Pierre Fabre’s pharmacy toothpaste, Elgydium, is being extended to the US by the French company’s US subsdiary, Sant© Active. Elgydium whitening and anti-cavity oothpastes, plus four toothbrush models, will be sold in pharmacies and online. Swedish cosmetic company Oriflame has also made a foray into the US oral care market with OptiFresh, a toothpaste formulated with sea algae rich in zinc, iron, calcium and phosphor that helps “remineralise” tooth enamel.

Other launches include BreathRx Sensitive Formula (Discus Dental) and Healthy Teeth & Gums toothpaste line (The Natural Dentist). Prospects Natural products and flavouring innovations are set to remain popular. Industry insiders cite toothpastes with multiple benefits and products positioned for the geing population as drivers of future growth. Mouthwashes Mouthwashes continue to perform well, posting growth of 8%. Private labels claim around 11% of sales and grew by 5%. Niche products are partly responsible for the overall growth, as more breath fresheners and dry mouth presentations have been launched.

Additionally, innovative positioning, such as extolling the benefits of using mouthwash at night, has proved successful. In company news, Chattem announced in May 2007 that it was to acquire the rights to ACT mouthwash in Western Europe and trademark rights worldwide. Prior to this, Chattem acquired US rights to ACT rom J&J, which divested the brand as a condition of its buyout of Pfizer CH. Listerine Tooth Defense fluoride MARCH 2008 65 – in March 2007 – added $21 mn sales to the brand. The rinse strengthens teeth and prevents cavities, a departure from Listerine’s usual positioning of reducing plaque and gingivitis.

This was a welcome boost, considering a 13% decline in sales of Listerine Whitening to $44mn. McNeil spent $97mn on press, radio and TV ads for the brand. The company also markets Listerine PocketPaks. P&G’s collection of Crest mouthwashes generated $104mn in 2007 and grew by 35%. Crest Pro-Health Rinse increased by 16% to $80mn. As with the ProHealth toothpaste, the rinse has been extended with a nighttime presentation. Meanwhile, sales of Crest Whitening Rinse trebled to $24mn in 2007. P&G also fields Scope, which posted a decline of 6%.

The launch of Scope White mouthwash, which has been promoted with TV ads, may revitalise the brand. Declining sales of ACT’s core presentation were offset by the strong performance of ACT Restoring mouthwash. Chattem launched a 330z version of ACT Restoring in March 2007. The larger bottle has a lower fluoride dose compared to the original 180z size (fluoride sodium 0. 02% vs fluoride sodium 0. 5%). This is owing to regulations limiting the amount of fluoride allowed in a single bottle. As a result, consumers are instructed to use the 330z version of the mouthwash twice a day as opposed to once.

The brand is supported by year-round TV, press and in-store ads. ACT was formerly part of Personal Products / J&J’s oral care portfolio, which includes the Reach dental accessories range. When J&J owned both of these brands, a version of the mouthwash called Reach ACT Restoring was available but following ACT’s divestment to Chattem, SKUs under this name are no longer in production. BreathRx – launched n 2006 – grew by 81% to around $8mn. Discus Dentals has added Sensitive Formula Mouth Rinse to the range, along with numerous new SKUs including toothpaste.

The new products are formulated with trademarked ingredient, Zytex, which contains thymol, eucalyptus oil and zinc. Meanwhile, the TheraBreath Starter Kit was rolled out by Dr Harold USA: Mouthwash / rinse shares 2007 Listerine 50% McNeil / Crest 13% Procter & Gamble Scope 7% Procter & Gamble ACT* 4% Chattem Colgate 2% Colgate-Palmolive Biotene 2% Laclede Others, inc PLS 22% *excludes $14mn sales of Reach ACT Restoring Katz in January 2008. Each box contains TheraBreath rinse, toothpaste, floss strips, chewing gum, dry mouth breath mints, a tongue cleaner and a Fresh Breath Guide.

The kit was promoted with “Try Me Free” rebate offer. Additionally, the Healthy Gums Oral Rinse formula (The Natural Dentist) has been updated to contain 100% natural April 2008. Alva-Amco’s Theradent has been extended with a teeth desensitising oral rinse – the first OTC rinse to treat oral sensitivity, according to the company. SmartMouth (Triumph Pharmaceuticals) is also available. The National Advertising Division recently substantiated Triumph’s claim that SmartMouth “prevents bad reath for 12 hours (12 x more than any competitor). ” In terms of dry mouth rinses, Biotene rinse grew by 16% to $16mn.

This was partially owing to the introduction of Oral Balance Liquid in 2006, which is packaged in a squirt bottle for convenience. 6SK competes in the segment with Oasis mouthwash and mouthspray. In April, DiabEase Dead Sea Mineral mouth rinse (Masada Health & Beauty Corp) was launched, to ease dry mouth and oral symptoms associated with diabetes, while Rain Dry Mouth Spray (Xlear) followed in July. Sales of antiseptic oral cleansers have suffered. 6SK’s Glyoxide declined by 57% to under $5mn and Colgate 6 MARCH 2008 Per-oxyl fell by 8% to $9mn.

Such products have strong competition from high-priced speciality items that incorporate new technology, such as canker sore discs (see Market Report, November 2007, pp301-302). USA: Whitening treatment shares 2007 Crest Whitestrips 55% Procter & Gamble Aquafresh White Trays 12% 6SK Rembrandt 12% Personal Products / Listerine Whitening 8% McNeil / Private labels 8% Niche products, such as those for dry mouth, will continue to drive growth, while innovative positioning will encourage consumers to use mouthwash more often within their daily regime. Whitening treatments

A flurry of new products has revived the whitening category, with sales increasing by 10%. In particular, products that make the whitening process quicker and easier have enhanced sales. Whitening treatments have also started to incorporate benefits traditionally associated with toothpastes and mouthwashes, such as tartar protection and halitosis prevention. Others 5% Sales of Rembrandt fell by 32% to $34mn, despite an adspend of over $5mn. The range comprises whitening kits, strips and a touch-up pen. In July 2007, launched The strips use multi-layer technology that releases hydrogen peroxide to whiten eeth.

It also carries claims to kill bad breath germs. New products from large marketers have hampered sales of smaller brands. White Light (Telebrands) has declined by 77%, while Wellquest Ionic fell by 68%. Plus White (CCA Industries) has managed 15% growth, thanks, in part, to updating. Plus White Kits contain a more comfortable mouthpiece, while the 5-minute Speed Whitening Gel is now available for sensitive teeth. Church & Dwight is to launch Arm & Hammer Whitening Booster in 2008, a tube-based high peroxide formula intended for daily use in addition to toothpaste.

Belgium-based company Remedent has announced plans to bring new technology to the US whitening treatment segment. It will begin shipping iWhite, a light activated teeth-whitening kit, to CVS stores in April 2008. Crest Whitestrips continue to lead, taking over half of category dollars. However, the brand has declined by 6% to $160mn, partially owing to increased competition. Crest Whitestrips had an adspend of around $70mn, over half of which went towards the Daily Multicare variant. The company has continued the “Brightest Five Minutes of your Day’ campaign, which encourages consumers to incorporate the strips into their aily regimes.

P&G is extending its whitening treatments with Crest Whitestrips Daily Whitening Plus Tartar Protection, expected in stores in March 2008. The strips are positioned to protect against the build-up of tartar, as well as whiten and protect against everyday stains. 6SK entered the whitening treatments category in QI 2007 with Aquafresh White Trays, which posted sales of $35mn. The trays are pre-dosed with hydrogen peroxide solution 10% and are flexible to provide a custom fit. 6SK has spent $23mn promoting the brand, which has already been extended with Aquafresh

White Trays Revive, a touch-up whitening product to be used between whitening treatments. Innovative technology that makes whitening quicker and easier will continue to be the key growth driver. Products with additional benefits and the introduction of SKUs that complement whitening treatments, such as Aquafresh White Trays Revive, are also avenues for growth. MARCH 2008 67 Canada The OTC oral care market – toothpastes, mouthwashes and whitening treatments – continued its steady single-digit growth in 2007, advancing by 3%. Hardware such as toothbrushes is not included in our topline figures.

Marketers have employed ducation initiatives to attract consumers to the OTC oral care market. P&G promotes awareness of the importance of oral health and raise funds to support Dentistry Canada. Meanwhile, the fourth Listerine Gingivitis week was hosted in June 2007 in conjunction with the Canadian Dental Hygienists Association. about toothpastes from China containing diethylene glycol and ordered retailers to remove all toothpastes from the country off their shelves. Also, Neem Active Toothpaste With Calcium (Calcutta Chemical Co) – manufactured in India – was recalled in July 2007 as it also contained DEG, along with harmful bacteria.

Although he brand was not approved for sale in Canada, it was found in some stores. Colgate-Palmolive is one of the key players and it launched Colgate Visible White toothpaste – formulated with peroxide – in summer 2007. The company claims that it not only removes surface stains but also deep stains which have penetrated below the surface. Consumers are expected to be able to notice results within two weeks of use. The launch was supported by the “Redefine White – Redefine You” competition, the grand prize for which is a professional makeover and a female-oriented gift pack, demonstrating that the brand is targeted at women.

TV ads have also been used to promote Colgate Visible White. Colgate Max Fresh is also now marketed in Canada in tubes or squeezable bottles. Both formats include mini breath freshening strips which are embedded in the paste. Advertising is targeted at young people. For example, the purple-coloured Kiss Me Mint variant, in peppermint and berry flavour, invites consumers to “be tempting” which it says is about “attitude” and “dancing until dawn”. Max Fresh Burst toothpaste, with “50% more breath strips”, is new to the range; advertising highlights the added freshness that the toothpaste creates. The

Colgate toothpaste range also includes Luminous, to reinforce enamel layers, Sparkling White, Tartar Control, Cavity Protection, Sensitive Whitening and children’s toothpastes. P&G markets a selection of toothpastes in the Crest range including Whitening Expressions, Vivid White, Toothpaste Sales of toothpastes grew by 3%, largely thanks to a double-digit advance by presentations for sensitive teeth. Toothpastes for this condition are now the most lucrative type and grew by 16% to reach sales of $42mn. In 2006, whitening toothpastes were the best-sellers but a decline of 14% brought sales down to $36mn in 2007.

Sales of toothpastes for children grew by 1% to close to $1 1 mn. Meanwhile, those specified for tartar control fell by 12% to $3mn. As with the FDA, Health Canada issued warnings Nielsen market facts: Canadian oral care 2007 Category Dentifrice excluding polishes & whiteners Baking soda Kids Sensitive Tartar control Whitening Oral antiseptics Whitening kits Sales C$mn 222. 1 2. 4 13. 1 52. 6 4. 4 44. 7 107. 6 37. 6 % change +2-6+1 +16-12-14+6-1 merchandisers and warehouse clubs, 52 weeks ending 19 January 2008 (RSP) 68 MARCH 2008 Complete, MultiCare, Sensitivity Protection, Cavity Protection, Tartar Protection and resentations for children.

Crest Pro-Health has recently been extended with a nighttime variant, claimed to improve oral health, even after dark. Crest Extra White With Scope has also been launched. Tom’s of Maine – acquired by Colgate – markets its toothpastes in Canada, too. 6SK markets original Sensodyne and Sensodyne-F, which contains sodium fluoride. ProNamel, for those at risk of acid erosion, has been part of the Sensodyne range since September 2006. 6SK also markets Aquafresh White & Shine. Church & Dwight fields several toothpaste brands – Arm & Hammer, Close Up, Aim and Pearl Drops. Crest Whitestrips are marketed by P&G.

The latest addition is Daily Multicare which is designed to be used for five minutes each day. The Whitestrips range also includes original presentations and Renewal, which aims to remove 20 years of stains. Rembrandt whitening kits are marketed by J&J’s Personal Products. Meanwhile, Arm & Hammer Dental Care Whitening Gum is marketed by Church & Dwight. It is positioned to be chewed after meals to clean and whiten teeth. Unlike many OTC categories, launches in Canada quickly follow those in the US so some recently added products from across the border could soon reach Canadian helves.

Big name launches in the whitening category could be particularly beneficial to sales. Mouthwash Mouthwashes continued to grow, with sales advancing by 6%. However, there was no change in volume sales, indicating that the dollar growth is a result of higher prices, or a move to premium SKUs. Listerine is a leading player. The range includes various presentations including a whitening pre-brush rinse. As in the US, the products are now offered with a less potent taste. A+P emphasises that these are the same formulation, but with a milder flavour.

Listerine PocketPak breath strips are also offered in Canada. P&G launched its first Crest mouthwash – Pro-Health Rinse – in late 2007. This follows the launch of Pro-Health toothpaste in 2006. The rinse is alcohol-free which makes it more comfortable for consumers to use twice a day, according to the company. The brand hoping for a repeat performance in Canada. P&G also markets Scope mouthwash. Scope White – for fresh breath and whitening – was launched in 2007 and, as in the US, was promoted by television star, Ryan Seacrest.

Example of a Mock-Heroic Poem law essay help: law essay help

As I opened the door to my room I came to find The Jungle of Mess that I thought I left behind I mustered all my courage and stepped in But nothing could have prepared me for what was in store; Oh, if I only knew that my future would soon become dim! Coming fast and unexpectedly the serpent slithered fast Concocted by the closet demon – of all the clothes forgotten on the floor that was left in the past Panicked, I proceeded to run out

Only to be bombarded by a tsunami of dity socks, crumpled papers and dust spread throughout I fought and pleaded for them to let me go But they Just laughed and prepared to give the final death blow “All hope is lost! I give up! I’m dying! They’ve won! ” I thought miserably And Just as soon as I was ready to step into the light I found courage and instead decided not to give up without a fight I picked up a guitar all used and worn

And smashed it on the serpent with anger and scorn Threw all the socks in the laundry bin and the papers in the trash And swept all the dust away in a flash The closet demon cried as it lost it’s power slowly and slowly until finally vanishing into debris. I sighed in relief claiming victory for myself My room was clean and no longer will I have feelings of dread. I went to bed and fell asleep Only to wake up to a familiar sight – and so I screamed “Oh no, it was Just a dream! “

Applications of Discrete Mathematics english essay help: english essay help

Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying “smoothly”, the objects studied in discrete mathematics – such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic – do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in “continuous mathematics” such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by integers.

More formally, discrete mathematics has been haracterized as the branch of mathematics dealing with countable sets (sets that have the same cardinality as subsets of the integers, including rational numbers but not real numbers). However, there is no exact, universally agreed, definition of the term “discrete mathematics. ” Indeed, discrete mathematics is described less by what is included than by what is excluded: continuously varying quantities and related notions. The set of objects studied in discrete mathematics can be finite or infinite.

The term finite mathematics is sometimes applied to parts of the field of discrete athematics that deals with finite sets, particularly those areas relevant to business. Research in discrete mathematics increased in the latter half of the twentieth century partly due to the development of digital computers which operate in discrete steps and store data in discrete bits. Concepts and notations from discrete mathematics are useful in studying and describing objects and problems in branches of computer science, such as computer algorithms, programming languages, cryptography, automated theorem proving, and software development.

Conversely, computer implementations are significant in applying ideas from discrete athematics to real-world problems, such as in operations research. Although the main objects of study in discrete mathematics are discrete objects, analytic methods from continuous mathematics are often employed as well. Discrete mathematics is the branch of mathematics dealing with objects that can assume only distinct, separated values. The term “discrete mathematics” is therefore used in contrast with “continuous mathematics,” which is the branch of mathematics dealing with objects that can vary smoothly (and which includes, for example, calculus).

Whereas discrete bjects can often be characterized by integers, continuous objects require real numbers. The study of how discrete objects combine with one another and the probabilities of various outcomes is known as combinatorics. Other fields of mathematics that are considered to be part of discrete mathematics include graph theory and the theory of computation. Topics in discrete mathematics Complexity studies the time taken by algorithms, such as this sorting routine. Theoretical computer science includes areas of discrete mathematics relevant to computing.

It draws heavily on graph theory and logic. Included within theoretical computer science is the study of algorithms for computing mathematical results. Computability studies what can be computed in principle, and has close ties to logic, while complexity studies the time taken by computations. Automata theory and formal language theory are closely related to computability. Petri nets and process mathematics are used in analyzing VLSI electronic circuits. Computational geometry applies algorithms to geometrical problems, while computer image analysis applies them to representations of images.

Theoretical computer science also includes the tudy of continuous computational topics such as analog computation, continuous computability such as computable analysis, continuous complexity such as information-based complexity, and continuous systems and models of computation such as analog VLSI, analog automata, differential petri nets, real time process algebra. Information theory The ASCII codes for the word “Wikipedia”, given here in binary, provide a way of representing the word in information theory, as well as for information-processing algorithms.

Information theory involves the quantification of information. Closely elated is coding theory which is used to design efficient and reliable data transmission and storage methods. Information theory also includes continuous topics such as: analog signals, analog coding, analog encryption. Logic Logic is the study of the principles of valid reasoning and inference, as well as of consistency, soundness, and completeness. For example, in most systems of logic (but not in intuitionistic logic) Peirce’s law is a theorem. For classical logic, it can be easily verified with a truth table.

The study of mathematical proof is particularly important in logic, and has applications to automated theorem proving nd formal verification of software. Logical formulas are discrete structures, as are proofs, which form finite trees[8] or, more generally, directed acyclic graph structures[9][10] (with each inference step combining one or more premise branches to give a single conclusion). The truth values of logical formulas usually form a finite set, generally restricted to two values: true and false, but logic can also be continuous-valued, e. . , fuzzy logic. Concepts such as infinite proof trees or infinite derivation trees have also been studied,[11] e. g. infinitary logic. Set theory Set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects, such as {blue, white, red} or the (infinite) set of all prime numbers. Partially ordered sets and sets with other relations have applications in several areas. In discrete mathematics, countable sets (including finite sets) are the main focus.

The beginning of set theory as a branch of mathematics is usually marked by Georg Cantor’s work distinguishing between different kinds of infinite set, motivated by the study of trigonometric series, and further development of the theory of infinite sets is outside the scope of discrete mathematics. Indeed, contemporary work in descriptive set theory makes extensive use of traditional continuous mathematics. Combinatorics Combinatorics studies the way in which discrete structures can be combined or arranged.

Enumerative combinatorics concentrates on counting the number of certain combinatorial objects – e. g. the twelvefold way provides a unified framework for counting permutations, combinations and partitions. Analytic combinatorics concerns the enumeration of combinatorial structures using tools from complex analysis and probability theory. In contrast with enumerative combinatorics which ses explicit combinatorial formulae and generating functions to describe the is a study of combinatorial designs, which are collections of subsets with certain intersection properties.

Partition theory studies various enumeration and asymptotic problems related to integer partitions, and is closely related to q-series, special functions and orthogonal polynomials. Originally a part of number theory and analysis, partition theory is now considered a part of combinatorics or an independent field. Order theory is the study of partially ordered sets, both finite and infinite. Graph theory Graph theory has close links to group theory. This truncated tetrahedron graph is related to the alternating group A4.

Graph theory, the study of graphs and networks, is often considered part of combinatorics, but has grown large enough and distinct enough, with its own kind of problems, to be regarded as a subject in its own right. [12] Algebraic graph theory has close links with group theory. Graph theory has widespread applications in all areas of mathematics and science. There are even continuous graphs. Probability Discrete probability theory deals with events that occur in countable sample spaces. For example, count observations such as the numbers of birds in flocks comprise only atural number values {O, 1, 2, … . On the other hand, continuous observations such as the weights of birds comprise real number values and would typically be modeled by a continuous probability distribution such as the normal. Discrete probability distributions can be used to approximate continuous ones and vice versa. For highly constrained situations such as throwing dice or experiments with decks of cards, calculating the probability of events is basically enumerative combinatorics. Number theory The Ulam spiral of numbers, with black pixels showing prime numbers.

This diagram ints at patterns in the distribution of prime numbers. Main article: Number theory Number theory is concerned with the properties of numbers in general, particularly integers. It has applications to cryptography, cryptanalysis, and cryptology, particularly with regard to prime numbers and primality testing. Other discrete aspects of number theory include geometry of numbers. In analytic number theory, techniques from continuous mathematics are also used. Topics that go beyond discrete objects include transcendental numbers, diophantine approximation, p-adic analysis and function fields.

Algebra Algebraic structures occur as both discrete examples and continuous examples. Discrete algebras include: boolean algebra used in logic gates and programming; relational algebra used in databases; discrete and finite versions of groups, rings and fields are important in algebraic coding theory; discrete semigroups and monoids appear in the theory of formal languages. Calculus of finite differences, discrete calculus or discrete analysis A function defined on an interval of the integers is usually called a sequence.

A sequence could be a finite sequence from some data source or an infinite sequence from a discrete dynamical system. Such a discrete function could be defined explicitly by a list (if its domain is finite), or by a formula for its general term, or it could be given implicitly by a recurrence relation or difference differentiation by taking the difference between adjacent terms; they can be used to approximate differential equations or (more often) studied in their own right. Many questions and methods concerning differential equations have counterparts for difference equations.

For instance where there are integral transforms in harmonic analysis for studying continuous functions or analog signals, there are discrete ransforms for discrete functions or digital signals. As well as the discrete metric there are more general discrete or finite metric spaces and finite topological spaces. Geometry Computational geometry applies computer algorithms to representations of geometrical objects. Main articles: discrete geometry and computational geometry Discrete geometry and combinatorial geometry are about combinatorial properties of discrete collections of geometrical objects.

A long-standing topic in discrete geometry is tiling of the plane. Computational geometry applies algorithms to geometrical problems. Topology Although topology is the field of mathematics that formalizes and generalizes the intuitive notion of “continuous deformation” of objects, it gives rise to many discrete topics; this can be attributed in part to the focus on topological invariants, which themselves usually take discrete values. See combinatorial topology, topological graph theory, topological combinatorics, computational topology, discrete topological space, finite topological space.

Operations research Operations research provides techniques for solving practical problems in business and other fields ” problems such as allocating resources to maximize profit, or cheduling project activities to minimize risk. Operations research techniques include linear programming and other areas of optimization, queuing theory, scheduling theory, network theory. Operations research also includes continuous topics such as continuous-time Markov process, continuous-time martingales, process optimization, and continuous and hybrid control theory.

Game theory, decision theory, utility theory, social choice theory I Cooperate I Defect I Cooperate | 1-10,0 1 Defect 10, -10 1-5, -5 | Payoff matrix for the Prisoner’s dilemma, a common example in game theory. One player chooses a row, the other a column; the resulting pair gives their payoffs I Decision theory is concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision, its rationality, and the resulting optimal decision.

Utility theory is about measures of the relative economic satisfaction from, or desirability of, consumption of various goods and services. Social choice theory is about voting. A more puzzle-based approach to voting is ballot theory. Game theory deals with situations where success depends on the choices of others, which makes hoosing the best course of action more complex. There are even continuous games, see differential game. Topics include auction theory and fair division.

Discretization into discrete counterparts, often for the purposes of making calculations easier by using approximations. Numerical analysis provides an important example. Discrete analogues of continuous mathematics There are many concepts in continuous mathematics which have discrete versions, such as discrete calculus, discrete probability distributions, discrete Fourier transforms, discrete geometry, discrete logarithms, discrete differential geometry, iscrete exterior calculus, discrete Morse theory, difference equations, and discrete dynamical systems.

In applied mathematics, discrete modelling is the discrete analogue of continuous modelling. In discrete modelling, discrete formulae are fit to data. A common method in this form of modelling is to use recurrence relations. Hybrid discrete and continuous mathematics The time scale calculus is a unification of the theory of difference equations with that of differential equations, which has applications to fields requiring simultaneous modelling of discrete and continuous data.

Determination of Factors Contributing to Success writing essay help: writing essay help

These factors will be uncovered by nalyzing the internal and external factors influencing strategic alliances and the phases through which these alliances evolve. In order to provide this research study with a practical element two case studies within the airline industry have been incorporated, namely the Swissair Qualiflyer Alliance and Star Alliance.

These case studies represent a successful and an unsuccessful alliance, which are analyzed on a basis of the provided literature study, in this case the phases through which these evaluation of the case studies numerous supportive results were identified, ontributing toward establishing determinant factors, which emphasize the importance of a successful implementation of the different phases, however limitations affect the reliability of this study, due to the lack of evidence found in various different phases.

Keywords: strategic alliances, internal and external factors, strategic alliance phases Introduction In past years a visible increase in the amount of strategic alliances, concerning firms with varying economic objectives, was observed (Das, Teng 2000). Strategic alliances are the “relatively enduring inter-firm cooperative arrangements, involving flows and inkages that utilize resources and/or governance structures from autonomous organizations, for the Joint accomplishment of individual goals linked to the corporate mission of each sponsoring firm” (Parkhe 1991, p. ). The amount of strategic alliances has recently doubled, predicting additional raise in the future (Booz, Allen, Hamilton 1997). Especially alliances in the form of non-equity based, which are defined as two or more firms developing a contractual-relationship in order to establish competitive advantage by combining resources and capabilities (Globerman 007), have increased in importance which is visible in non equity alliances accounting for 80 per cent (Hagedoorn 1996).

Strategic alliances provide firms with the opportunity to recognize synergies through combining operations, such as in research and development, manufacturing etc (Aaker 1995; Addler 1966). The growth of strategic alliances is related to growing competition and globalization (Das, Teng 2000). This is in alignment with Doz and Hamels (1998) view which states that globalization as well as changes in economic activities is a consequence for the growth in strategic alliances, which is visible in various different industries Hagedoorn 1993).

The primary reasons for the growth of the number of alliances is 1) the ability of cost savings in executing operations 2) the ability to access particular markets 3) the reducing of financial and political risk in addition to cheapest labor and production costs (Wheelen, Hungar 2000). A strategic alliance by definition is a hybrid organizational form which Jensen and Meckling (1991) refer to as a network organization.

Harbison and Pekar (1998) highlight numerous common characteristics visible within strategic alliances, namely a required commitment of at least ten years, he connection of the partners is based on equity or on shared capabilities, a complementary relationship based on a shared strategy, increasing companies’ value in the market place, the pressuring of competitors and the willingness of sharing and leveraging core capabilities. Nevertheless, strategic alliances have noticeable high instability rates (Das, Teng 2000); furthermore, according to Kalmbach and Roussel (1999) the failure rates are approximately as high as 70 per cent.

Studies conducted by Das and Teng (2000) reportedly state that encountered problems are witnessed in he first two years of two thirds of all alliances. This study is going to provide a more in-depth analysis on the factors that are necessary for determining success in all strategic alliances. Starting with an analysis of strategic alliances based on the as to which extent these factors play a crucial role in the determination of success rate of strategic alliances.

In order to incorporate a practical view on the strategic alliances, this study will additionally implement two case studies to the analysis. Conceptual Model [pic] This conceptual model starts the literature study on strategic alliances as a central concept. From this central concept, emphasis is drawn on internal and external factors influencing strategic alliances, as well as on the different phases through which alliance evolve. Additionally, strategic alliances lead to either successful or unsuccessful alliances.

Based on the research from Bronder and Pritzl (1992), Hoffmann and Schlosser (2001), Waddock (1989) and Wolhstetter, Smith and Malloy (2005), a framework of seven phases is established. Within these seven phases the most important activities and processes are analyzed, including reasoning behind strategic alliances, potential intensions for forming strategic alliances, partner election, external factors influencing the design of the strategic alliance, negotiation methods, followed by the structuring of the alliance. Furthermore, implementation and management of the strategic alliance is examined.

Finally, the last two phases concerning the evaluation of the formation of strategic alliances and the termination of the partnership are discussed. Resulting from this literature study are two outcomes, namely a successful implementation of the phases and an unsuccessful implementation. In order to apply a practical element to this thesis, two case studies ill be analyzed, those of Qualiflyer, which turned out to be an unsuccessful alliance and Star Alliance, which was able to incorporate a success strategic alliance in the airline industry.

After analyzing the cases the findings compared to the literature analysis, will hopefully correlate to each other and the determinants that influence more success in alliances can be established. Problem Statement Based on past literature research studys the outcomes of implementing strategic alliances as a change strategy in organizations is unfavorable, especially when looking at the failure rates. Nevertheless, the adoption of strategic alliances is a customary implemented firm strategy (Gulati 1998), as a means of securing their competitive position.

Much research is conducted in order to provide more guidance in determining factors that achieve sustainable strategic alliances, therefore in this thesis the main research question is; What factors determine the success of strategic alliances? This research question will be addressed by the help of analyzing and answering these various sub-questions; Why do firms choose strategic alliances as a change process? What are the potential ntentions of a strategic alliance? activities and processes occur in which phase?

Preview of the organization of the thesis This report begins by indicating the problem that strategic alliances are a favorable organizational change strategy in the business world today, however the failure rate is extremely high. Secondly, by applying literature analysis the main determinants influencing more success in strategic alliances will be uncovered, which will be coupled to the case study part of the thesis where the determinants will be compared to the specific cases.

Finally, the thesis will conclude on the part if the eterminants uncovered in the literature study correlate to the findings in the case study. Methodology and Research Design In this thesis the methodology contained two specific approaches, including a literature study as well as evaluating two case studies. Firstly, the literature analysis was conducted; with as primary focus an in-depth analysis of academic articles. The findings of the literature study are compared to two case studies, those of the Qualiflyer alliance and Star Alliance.

These two cases were chosen because they represent the different outcomes an alliance can hold, namely the successful mplementation the alliance strategy at Star Alliance and the unsuccessful outcome of an alliance strategy of the Qualiflyer alliance. In addition, even though these two examples vary substantially in size, which provides difficulty when comparing the two alliances, they both started off at reasonably the same size; therefore this thesis incorporated these two examples anyway. This evaluation will be conducted by means of desk research, exploring the different implementations of this strategy.

The time frame of the case studies is from the first phase up until the last phase, through hich they evolved, in order to identify dependent unsuccessful and successful aspects. The significance of implementing case studies in this thesis is relating the findings from the literature analysis to real life cases of both a successful alliances as well as a non-successful alliance. Furthermore, comparing if the determinants of success found in the literature analysis correlate with the factors observed in the cases.

Internal versus External factors Influencing Strategic Alliances Our internal tensions perspective framework (Figure 2, Appendices) of strategic alliances comprises three airs of competing forces-namely, cooperation versus competition, rigidity versus flexibility, and short-term versus long-term orientations (Das, Teng 2000). Competition is defined as pursuing one’s own interest at the expense of others, while cooperation is the pursuit of mutual interests and common benefits in alliances.

This tension of cooperation versus competition is most salient in selecting alliance partners, the first of three major stages in the alliance making process, along with structuring and managing an alliance (Das, Teng 1997). In conclusion, the stability and success of trategic alliances will be inversely related to the difference between the cooperation level and the competition level. Rigidity refers to the characteristics of mutual to adapt, unencumbered by rigid arrangements.

The dominance of either flexibility or rigidity may change the status quo and trigger the evolution of a new structure, which leads to unsuccessful alliances. Therefore, the stability of strategic alliances will be inversely related to the difference between the rigidity level and the flexibility level. Short-term orientation views strategic alliances as transitional in nature, with a emand for quick and tangible results, whereas long-term orientation regards alliances as at least semi permanent entities, so that more patience and commitment are exercised.

A strategy that reflects only one temporal orientation is not compatible with the foundation for a sustainable strategic alliance, in other words the stability of strategic alliances will be inversely related to the difference between the short-term orientation and the long-term orientation. Furthermore, the three internal pairs of contradictory forces are interrelated within an evolving system, resulting in the ollowing propositions, namely that the levels of rigidity and cooperation will be positively related when the partners have a short-term orientation in strategic alliances.

However, a negative relatedness at a high level of rigidity, cooperation and rigidity (Das, Teng 2000). will be negatively related when the partners have a long- term orientation in strategic alliances (Das, Teng 2000). According to Das and Teng (2000) the contradictions and tensions in these force-pairs may lead to an overthrow of the status quo namely, the strategic alliance. Strategic alliances can nevertheless e sustained and successful if a careful balance between these competing forces can be maintained.

According to Todeva and Knoke (2005) external factors influence alliance formation, due to differing economic condition and organizational frameworks in partnering countries; these can include legal requirements, price controls, distribution channels and contract enforcement. Furthermore, these regulative state activities comprehend the freedom when firms are forming alliances. Moreover, the formation of an alliance necessitates the authorization of national governments.

Additionally, of influence to the formation of alliances is the omplicated collection of relations visible with firms, such as business associations, local governments and elite universities. On an industrial note alliances are influenced on an interflrm basis by direct impacts, where the decision on which activities to internalize is based on severity of competition within the industry and the organization of ad hoc product markets, in the challenge for increased market share, the cooperation for specific advantages and the process of internationalization (Todeva, Knoke 2005) .

The partner under consideration for the formation of an alliance is in a certain sense an external factor. Firms are susceptible in the case of partnering with a dominant firm (Pennings 1994), due to technical and economic rationales. Thus, technology is a specific part of the process to establishing organizational boundaries as well as intrinsic structures. Of importance to alliances is obtaining research and development advantages, which to certain extent differs across industries on terms of expenses and the sources provided by the government (Todeva, Knoke 2005).

Every alliance design commences with negotiations, thereafter the phase of structuring the alliance in which various aspects are aligned, such as he objectives of both parties, organizational structures, functional operations and cultures (Ring, van de Ven 1994). The distinguishing of phases through which strategic alliances evolve plays an essential role in the development toward successful alliances, which according to Bronder and Pritzl (1992) evolves through the three stages, which are categorized as strategic decision, confguration of strategic alliance and partner selection.

Where Bronder and Pritzl terminate their research on the establishment of phases other researchers continue in identifying essential phases, for the reason that partner election as final phase represents an incomplete evolution of strategic alliances. With regard to the research conducted by Hoffmann and Schlosser (2001), the identification of strategic alliance phases resulted in a five phase path through which strategic alliances evolve, namely strategic analysis and decision to cooperate, search for a partner, designing the partnership, implementation and management of the partnership and finally termination.

When comparing both Bronder and Pritzls (1992) and Hoffman and Schlossers (2001) phases, a comparison is visible in the primary hases of strategic alliances, namely the strategic analysis and decision to cooperate (Hoffmann, Schlosser 2001) which corresponds with the strategic decision phase from Bronder and Pritzl (1992). Furthermore, the partner selection phase is visible in both frameworks on strategic alliance phase.

The main difference between the two studies is the more detailed approach from Hoffmann and Schlosser (2001) also distinguishing phases after the partner selection process. Finally, a study building on Waddocks (1989) work, which suggests that strategic alliances progress through hree phases, which are identified as initiation, establishment and maturity, Wohlstetter, Smith and Malloy (2005) consistently debated that the strategic alliances process is organized into three similar phases namely initiation, operations and evaluation.

When comparing these views with the earlier stated reasoning on strategic alliance phases merely a fguration is enabled as to which phases from Bronder and Pritzl (1992) and Hoffmann and Schlosser (2001) are in comparison with Wohlstetters et al (2005) view and could be placed within their views, for example the artner selection phase distinguished the above stated views is probably placed within the initiation phase identified by Wohlstetter et al. (2005).

In order to provide this thesis with an in-depth view on the phases through which strategic alliances evolve a combination of the three above stated views is implemented. Phase 1: Strategic Decision According to Bronder and Pritzl (1992) a clarification of the firms’ position is to be analyzed, refer ably because this is identified as the first direction toward alliance formation. Pumpin (1987), states that the evaluation of the actual situation of the firm s identified by exploring its mission, possible values and core competencies.

Additionally, the firm identifies the reasoning behind incorporating an alliance strategy. According to Eisenhardt and Schoonhoven (1996), Harrigan (1985), Link and Bauer (1989), Pisano (1991) and Teece (1992) technological change faced by firms is related to the favorability toward flexible organizational forms like alliances. Additionally, Ciborra (1991) and Oster (1992) state that high-tech industries, in which learning and flexibility are key characteristics, will preferably choose alliances, lexibility, firms favorably adopt a merger and acquisition strategy.

The flexibility of strategic alliances is suitable as organizational structure due to the fast expiring of new knowledge and the lengthy learning time from partners (Eisenhardt, Schoonhoven, 1996; Hagedoorn 1993). Furthermore, these flexible organizational structures appear more effectively in uncertain environmental situations when adjusting to changes (Lawrence, Lorsch 1967; Pffeffer, Salancik 1978). In continuation of Powells (1996) view, Hagedoorn and Duysters (2002) predict that strategic alliance xperience positively contribute to choosing alliances as instrument for obtaining external innovative capabilities.

This view is aligned with that of Kogut et al. (1992) and Gulati (1993) who accentuate the relationship between actual alliance formation and past alliances, however emphasize on a more social basis. Therefore, the formation of strategic alliances is dependent on both strategic as well as social factors. According to Eisenhardt and Schoonhoven (1996), an extension of the resource-based view provides a basis for examining the relationship through which alliances form by means of strategic and social resources.

This research study contributed numerous outcomes on strategic alliances to existing literature, namely that increasingly challenging market conditions and Jeopardous organizational strategies result into an increase of alliance formations as an organizational change process. Additionally, of importance to the rate of formation of alliances are managerial characteristics, visible when large, experienced teams were implemented through previous employers, the rates of alliances increased (Eisenhardt, Schoonhoven 1996).

In conclusion of their research Eisenhardt and Schoonhoven 1996) state that in cases of either a vulnerable strategic situations or a strong social situation the likelihood of the formation of strategic alliances increase. Phase 2: Initiation Phase The initiation phase is characterized by informal structures and communication channels as the critical issue is the development and understanding of the purpose for strategic alliances (Waddock 1989). According to Hitt et al. 1997), the potential intentions to be realized behind entering into strategic alliances are categorized into three market types 1) namely markets characterized by slow cycle, which adopt trategic alliances for original intentions such as the gaining of access to restricted markets, establishing franchises in a new market and maintaining market stability 2) in markets characterized by a standard cycle amongst the intentions able to be achieved are the gaining of market power and access to complementary resources, overcoming trade barriers, gaining knowledge and learning about new business techniques 3) in the final market, the fast cycle, the achievable goals are the speeding up of the entry of new products and services in addition to new markets, maintaining he market leadership position, sharing the risky Research and Development expenses and overcoming uncertainty. Furthermore, several internal conditions drive the initiation phase including, a champion taking responsibility, complementary needs and assets, compatible goals and trust. According to Waddock (1989), the main responsibility of the champion is the guidance of the organization through the initiation phase, especially visible in the process of partner selection.

Stated in the initiation phase is essential for identifying needs in addition to the process of partner selection. Complementary needs and assets appear in various different forms, however is one of the main reasons for partnering (Oliver 1990; Robertson 1998). Additionally, the main goal of partnering is achieving compatible goals among the partners, which might not have been achieved otherwise (Austin 2000; Das, Teng 1998; Kanter 1994; Oliver 1990; Robertson 1998; Spillett 1999). Finally, the initiation phase stands no chance without trust, which is mainly established through existing networks (Austin, 2000; Waddock 1989; Waide 1999), within these networks similar interests are the main characteristic. Phase 3: Partner Selection

The purpose behind strategic alliance partnering is to initiate and prolong a long- term partnership, which enables more effective competition with others firms which are positioned outside the partnership Carillo 1988; Walker, Poppo 1991). The crucial decision toward the correct partner selection is the primary focus after pursuing this alliance strategy (Hitt, Tyler, Hardee, Park 1995). According to Koot (1988) the selecting of a partner is a complex process however crucial to the success of an alliance. In the partner selection process perspectives of both resource-based and organizational earning provide an explanation as to why certain partners are selected (Barkema, Bell, Pennings 1996).

In explanation, firms own certain resource endowments (Barney 1991) however, in order to obtain a competitive position in a specific market supplementary resources are necessary (Hitt, Nixon, Clifford, Coyne 1999), which is the main objective for engaging in strategic alliances. Hitt et al. (2000) argues that of importance to the partner selection process is the firms’ embeddedness in both emerging markets and developed markets. Furthermore, the access to necessary esources for leveraging as well as the obtaining of capabilities for learning are primary reasons for the selection of partners. Table 1 in the Appendices, state the concluding outcomes on the selection of partners by Hitt et al. (2000), which explains the fundamental elements of the process toward partner selection.

Eisenhardt and Schoonhoven (1996) and Dacin and Olivers’ (1997) view state that legitimacy enhancements are an additional intention for establishing alliances, therefore the partner selection process is focused on those providing strong intangible assets, for example strong reputations. According to Bronder and Pritzl (1992) critical to the partner selection process is the establishment of fundamental, strategic and cultural fit. This fundamental fit is achieved if a win-win situation for both parties is established and potential value is increased. The strategic fit is realized when the alliance involves partners with harmony of the business plans.

Finally, the cultural fit is an essential success factor for partner selection, which is accomplished after acceptance of cultural differences among the partners. Phase 4: Designing the Partnership Niederkofler (1991) argues that the negotiation process must essentially interpret learly understandable resources and interests of the partners involved, in order for the creation of strategic and organizational fit to be achieved, which will direct the accomplished through open and detailed communication, circumventing hidden agendas of any sort. The consequence of this open communication translates into a coherent attitude of sincerity toward the different partners, which demands trust.

In addition to strategic fit, the negotiation process also initiates a solid basis for the enforcement of an operational fit within the partnership, which can be viewed in Figure 1 of the Appendices. An important aspect of the negotiation process is the creation of flexibility, which is increased through contract provisions in addition to developing and prolonging of trust. The process of conquering complexity in operations embarks with the communication of the discovered complexity, followed by a tracking and solving of this difficulty, which results in the avoidance of any operational unalignments. The flexibility within the partnering arrangement, in addition to trust, permits renegotiation processes within the partnership; however a coherent basis must be accomplished (Niederkofler 1991).

The success of alliances is highly dependent on a competent and effective alignment, therefore of importance is the designing of the partnership, thus the structure implemented. This structure is in need of a fine constructed collection of strategy, procedures and management views, which can be viewed as the internal alignment (Miles, Snow 1994). In the process of obtaining internal alignment interests as well as environmental aspects must be balanced between the partners, enabling a profitable situation (Douma, Bilderbeek, Idenburg, Looise 2000). Additionally, their framework, Figure 3, Appendices, stress the act that the five features must sufficiently be aligned to prevent failure.

One of the features, namely strategic fit, is established when expected advantages and possible risks are weighed against that of the individual interests in the alliance. Various driver of strategic fit can be identified, starting with a shared vision. Further conditions necessary for strategic fit are compatibility of strategies (Brouthers, Brouthers, Wilkinson 1993), strategic importance (Doz 1988), acceptance into the market and mutual dependency. In addition to strategic fit, organizational fit is a ecessity, however due to the differences in many aspects, such as market position, organizational structure and views, management style, this is a complex task. By clarifying these differences an understanding between partners is achieved.

Numerous drivers toward organizational fit are identified, namely as stated above the addressing of organizational differences (Doz 1988) furthermore, essential drivers are facilitating strategic and organizational flexibility, minimal complexity to enhance manageability (Killing 1988), efficient management control, enhancing long-term tability by investigating possible strategic conflicts and finally, the achievement of the strategic objective. Of influence, however to lesser extent are the three remaining features in the framework, which are human, operational and cultural fit. Human fit is particularly of importance in alliances processes (Boersma 1999) and according to Lewis (1990) the cultural fit is specifically an issue among employers and employees, which translates to their functioning in for example boardrooms. Finally, operational fit, also relates to the functioning of the alliance and is often susceptible to various ontingencies, therefore must be aligned.

Research and Development activities have gradually evolved since the 1980s (Peterson, 1991). Creamer (1976) and Pearce (1989) identified three primary types of Research and Development activities, namely basic purpose is an understanding of the inherent and fundamental scientific development, however disregarding commercial applications. Furthermore, applied research employs knowledge conceived from the basic research to certain dimensions such as technical problems or related commercial technology aspects. In conclusion, basic research generates new facts and theories which are thereafter roven through applied research. These proven facts are generated into products and processes in the development stadium.

The intention of development activities is the configuration of applied research contributions into commercially feasible products, processes and technologies Oansen 1995; Jones, Davis 2000). Phase 5: Implementation and Management of the Partnership The role of the management of strategic alliances is valuable for the progression of the alliance toward a successful outcome, however it is complex to manage (Koza, Lewin 2000). An important aspect in serving this complexity is the acquiring of nowledge from past engaging in alliances, which provides meaningful know-how to be leveraged (Kale, Dyer, Singh 2001). The framework of the four C’s of learning and leveraging alliance know how provides a tool for obtaining valuable knowledge.

The four components in the framework are, capture, codify, communicate and create, and coach (Kale, Dyer, Singh 2001), also visible in Figure 4, Appendices. Capture refers to managements’ role of accessing and obtaining of valuable alliance insights and past experiences. To codify past experiences and practices contributes to the accomplishing of alliance specific needs. In order to have a common thread through the organization on these past knowledge practices, communication is essential in sharing experiences. Additionally, the creation of networks within the alliance facilitates the distribution of these valuable experiences and knowledge.

Intrinsically executed coaching and education programs increase the ability to obtain alliance skills. An additional benefit from coaching is the establishment of informal social networks, which provides assistance in key situations. Furthermore, networks are critical to the development of opportunities, the assessing of concepts and obtaining esources in order to construct the new partnership (Aldrich, Zimmer 1986). The incorporation of social networks within a firm improves communication between partners, which in turn results in improved decision making processes (Gulati 1993). Various intentions for the implementation of networks can be identified, one specific is the preserving of advantages (Lorenzoni, Baden- Fuller 1995).

According to Madhaven, Koka and Prescott (1998) the initiation of inter-organizational networks is created by exogenous factors, which could include competition background and specific industrial activities. Building on this theory, Gulati et al. (1997) argues that the initiation of these inter-organizational networks is dependent on two aspects, namely exogenous resource dependencies, which achieve motivation of the cooperation and an “endogenous embeddedness” dynamic, which in turn familiarizes toward partner selection. According to Stinchcombe (1990), in flows of network information meaningful views are discovered,

Indian Watch Industry essay help online free: essay help online free

Electronic Watches were introduced in the world market in the early seventies. They came to India in 1979 but had to be withdrawn due to problems with the product. HMT Ltd (HMT) introduced its electronic watches in 1981 and was followed by Hyderabad Allwyn Limited (Allwyn). Organisations such as Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu (ELCOT), Semi Conductor Complex Ltd. (SCL), etc. introduced watches but were not successful.

By mid eighties many smaller companies, originally manufacturing mechanical watches, diversified into electronic watches. In 1987 Titan Watches Ltd. (Titan) aJoint venture ofTata Sons and Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation entered the market and shortly established itself as a major manufacturer. 1. 2 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE The electronic watch industry is dominated by HMT, Allwyn and Titan. They command about 80% share of the organised sector.

Therefore, the study concentrates on these manufacturers, though issues pertaining to smaller companies are addressed. The installed capacity of the industry is 10. 8 million pieces. A large unit, Indo French Times, with a capacity of nearly 2. 0 million pieces is lying idle due to some internal problems among the promoters. The production at present from the industry is around 6 million watches. While HMT and Titan operate at 70% – 80% capacity, others work at very low capacity.

In the case f Allwyn, the company is facing various problems. Titan – Timex has Just completed one year and is still in its gestation phase. The other small companies work at low capacities as their market reach is limited and are not able to compete with the big companies. In terms of importance in the market, Titan has a share of about 58%, HMT 29%, Allwyn 5. 5% and 7. 5% with others. However, including mechanical watches the market shares are : HMT 63%, Titan 18%, Allwyn 8% and others 11%.

The Importance of Lifestyle Entrepreneurship buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

The Importance of Lifestyle Entrepreneurship: a Conceptual Study of the Tourism Industry BY jegaPhD vol. 7 N02 p¤gs. 393-405. 2009 www. pasosonline. org The importance of lifestyle entrepreneurship: A conceptual study of the tourism industry Mike Peters ii University of Innsbruck (Austria) Joerg Frehse iii Dimitrios Buhalis iv Bournemouth University (I-JK) Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to explore and discuss the emergence of lifestyle entrepreneurship. The article addresses the question of the relationship between entrepreneur’s life quality and enterprise rowth.

The purpose is to conceptualize this relationship and to learn more about lifestyle entrepreneurship. Tourism serves as a case industry to illustrate both relevant research in the field of lifestyle entrepreneurship and a conceptual framework to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial activities and perceived life quality. The paper delivers a literature review on entrepreneurship and certain forms of entrepreneurship and conceptualizes lifestyle enterprise’s growth. Keywords: Lifestyle; Entrepreneurship; Tourism; Entrepreneurial Motives.

Resumen: El objetivo del trabaJo es explorar y analizar el surgimiento de la iniciativa empresarial como estilo de Vida. El articulo aborda la relaci¶n entre la calidad de Vida del empresario y el crecimiento empresarial. El prop¶sito es conceptualizar esta relaci¶n para aprender m¤s sobre el espiritu empresarial como estilo de Vida. El turismo aporta una serie de casos para ilustrar la investigaci¶n pertinente en el ¤mbito de la iniciativa empresarial como estilo de Vida y un marco conceptual para examinar la relaci¶n entre las actividades empresariales y la calidad de Vida percibida.

The importance of entrepreneurship Globalization in the nineties signalled a whole range of new challenges for many lifestyle entrepreneurs, owner-managers and all hose who were unable to reorient themselves strategically towards the rapidly emerging market conditions. This is the situation in which still many entrepreneurs find themselves. Once again the growth-oriented Schumpeterian innovative entrepreneur is called upon to restructure and realign the industry (Gray, 2002; Schmitz, 1989; Peters and Weiermair, 2001).

The tourism and hospitality industries are dominated by small business and the vast majority of the entrepreneurs are lifestylers rather than rational professionals (Middleton, 2001). The majority of small usiness owners hardly show typical entrepreneurial attitudes, as described by Schumpeter (1934). This paper attempts to explore the importance of these so-called lifestyle entrepreneurs in a conceptual way to shed more light on the understanding of their motives as well as discuss policy implications.

The paper is structured in four sections: it starts with a literature overview of lifestyle entrepreneurship concepts which highlight main contributions of economic and social science theories (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2001; Leibenstein, 1968; Swedberg, 2000). In a second step the paper nalyses the determinants and consequences of lifestyle orientation and derives implications and threats for regional competitiveness and/or economic growth. The third section presents and discusses the concepts of quality of life approach and the profile of the lifestyle entrepreneur.

Finally, research gaps are identified and new initiatives for entrepreneurship research are presented in the concluding part of the paper. Forms of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurs create an innovative organization or network of organizations for the purpose of gain or growth, under conditions of isk and/or uncertainty (Dollinger, 2003). This includes the core elements of entrepreneurship, which can be found in the numerous definitions in the social sciences literature.

Even though academics have addressed a range of questions concerning both with the nature of the entrepreneurial process and the attributes and personality traits of entrepreneurs, research is still short of a consensus on some of the most important questions. The great variety of methods and methodology employed by different disciplines engaged in analysing entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship (Kirby, 2002; Gartner, 1985; Timmons, 1994). In economics and management literature the entrepreneur and his/ her capabilities have remained a focal point of interest, but also of controversy.

Ever since Schumpeter (1934), economic development has become associated with entrepreneurship. The nature and function of this new factor of production however becomes interpreted in different ways: for Cantillion (1755), Liefmann (1897), Knight (1921) and Oberparleiter (1930) risk assumption presents the core of entrepreneurship; for Schumpeter (1934) innovation and/or innovative capabilities characterises the entrepreneur; while others emphasized capabilities associated ith capita (Burns 2001).

Cyert and March (1963) view entrepreneurs’ capabilities to coordinate different interest groups as the core function of entrepreneurship, while Kirzner (1973) and Mises (1940) emphasize information leads and advantages as the key to an understanding of entrepreneurship. Leibenstein (1966; 1968) believes entrepreneurs to simply behave differently (more efficiently) in the use and transformation of factor inputs and interprets entrepreneurship as a process within organisations (Morris and Lewis, 1995; Mugler, 1998).

The origins of theory evelopment in the field of entrepreneurship demonstrate that there have been only a handful of theorists who have contributed with novel paradigms to this field of economic and management research. Among them, the late Joseph A. Schumpeter who introduced the discussion of the origins and importance of entrepreneurship to its intellectual height with the publication of the Theory of Economic Development (first published 1912) linking PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 7(3). 009 ISSN 1695-7121 Mike Peters ; Joerg Frehse and Dimitrios Buhalis 395 entrepreneurship to innovation. He defined nate entrepreneurship research. However, the entrepreneur as an individual who caras entrepreneurial behaviour is not only ries out new combinations of firm organizadriven by rational decision structures, tion, new products or services, new sources other disciplines need to be engaged to enor raw material, new methods of produchance explanations on the entrepreneurial tion, new market segment, or new forms of process.

Nevertheless, it is possible to exorganization. Schumpeter (1934) saw in the tract typical entrepreneurial characteristics entrepreneur an exceptional individual, or ersonality traits such as creativity, capable of developing new product combirisk- taking, innovativeness and pronations, attributes or innovations.

Hence, activeness which could be observed in difthe entrepreneur has to come up with a ferent social, political or economic envirealistically calculated risk for future marronments light upon the concepences and the transformation of uncertualisation of various forms of entrepretainty into profitable neurship. She formulated three main cues outcome. of entrepreneurship, followed by the extracTo this point Schumpeter wrote: As tion of main entrepreneurial guises. ilitary action Dicipline Researchers must be taken in given strategic Economists Cantillion (1964 first published 1755); Casson positions, even if (2005); Schumpeter (1934), Baumol (1989), all the data poLazear (2005) tentially procurEcology Aldrich (1990), Singh and Lumsden (1990) able are not Sociology Weber (1935) available, so also in economic life, Anthropology Barth (2000); Greenfield and Strickton (1986) action must be Psychology McClelland (1961); Miner (1997) taken without History Gerschenkron (2000); Sawyer (1952) working out all the etails of Tabla 1 .

Disciplines and respective representatives in the field of enwhat is to be trepreneurship research done. Here the success of everyHaving a closer look upon the characterthing depends upon intuition, the capacity istics of entrepreneurial guises, such as the of seeing things in a way which afterwards case for lifestyle, social or family entrepreproves to be true, even though it cannot be neurs, it can be observed that there is often established at the moment, and of grasping a clear orientation towards non-economic the essential fact, disregarding the unesmotives (Morrison, 2006).

The attitude tosential, even though one can give no acwards entrepreneurship or the willingness count of the principles by which this is for independence can be the result of negadone’ (Schumpeter, 1934). tive or positive guises. In the latter case, Since Schumpeter, a long list of wellfounding an enterprise may be viewed as known researchers (for instance Papanan opportunity to improve one’s lifestyle dreou, 1952; Kirzner, 1973; Casson, 1982, and as taking better control of everyday Low and MacMillan, 1988; Miner, 1997; life.

Others may perceive stress, inconvenGartner, 2001 ; Schneider, 2001) contribience or negative pressure when hinking of uted to the analysis of entrepreneurship entrepreneurship in small businesses. and entrepreneurship theory. In the second There is no doubt that a positive attitude half of the last century personality traits towards entrepreneurship alone is not sufresearch became a major field in social scificient to motivate a person to develop a ences research.

Nevertheless, only a few tourism business. However, the intention to studies could provide general insight into create a business does only occur when the the behaviour of entrepreneurs in every attitude towards ntrepreneurship is posiculture, nation or industry. tive (Koh, 1996).

Economists and economic theory domi- 396 Positive Social Role of the family and intergenerational role models Economic Negative Political/religious displacepolitical unrest Discrimination Unhappy with position in society Corporate downsizing and redundancy Dissatisfaction with/ blocked employment opportunities Discriminatory legislation No other way to make money Move towards services Reversal highly vertically integrated company structures Psychological Phenomenon of ‘dot. om’ business Entrepreneurial aspirations of independence, wealth, need to achieve, social mobility Table 2: Entrepreneurial Behaviour Cues (Source: Morrison, 2006, 197) These classifications should not be interpreted as static ones. Entrepreneurship describes the process of establishing new ventures or managing innovations. These entrepreneurial events can be produced in a given time period and thus entrepreneurship is a question of ‘how much’ and ‘how often’ (Morris and Lewis, 1995).

Morris and Lewis illustrated the relationship of the amount of entrepreneurship (measured as number of entrepreneurial events) and the degree f entrepreneurship (extent to which the event is innovative, risky or proactive) and named the combination of the two dimensions ‘entrepreneurial intensity. The importance of lifestyle entrepreneurship: the case of the tourism industry Tourism, hospitality and leisure industries are primarily based on entrepreneurship and small businesses (Thomas, 1998, 2000, Morrison et al. , 1998, Getz, 2004, Buhalis and Main, 1998).

Morrison and Thomas (1999) suggest that the key elements of entrepreneurship in tourism include: Change initiation: the capability of identifying an opportunity for creation or inPASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 7(3). 2009 novation and the ability to turn it into a reality Creative resourcing: ingeniously marshalling resources of both financial and managerial nature, from a complex set of sources, in order to mobilise and realise the opportunity. Entrepreneurial learning: motivation to acquire the necessary knowledge and expertise through relevant exploration and reflection, in order to excel.

Innovation and creativity: renewal of products or services by adding value through application of expertise and imagination. Knowledge leadership: development of sources of management nformation to enable first mover capability, effective strategy formulation and implementation. Opportunity alertness: continuous focus on emerging trends and opportunities to be captured and realised. Relationship management: maintenance of effective teams, networks, and flexible management structures.

Timing of action: acting within a limited window in which an opportunity can be optimised. Vision and 397 lation of ambitions, and strategies to realise them. However, the majority of entrepreneurs in the tourism and leisure industries can be found in the lower area of low entrepreneurial intensity (Morrison, 2006). It seems that given that tourism and leisure industries are primarily located in attractive regions there is a much higher concentration of lifestyle entrepreneurs and this is often the main motivation for entrepreneurial activity.

Characteristics of lifestyle entrepreneurs Conceptualizing lifestyle entrepreneurship can be achieved through several alternative perspectives. This paper adopts an economic theory point of view. An increasing number of research studies analysed the phenomena of lifestyle entrepreneurs, as the opposite of the growth-oriented or typical Schumpeterian entrepreneurs. Lifestyle firms are businesses set up primarily either to undertake an activity the ownermanager enjoys or to achieve a level of activity that provides adequate income (Burns, 2001).

The opposite are growth firms that are set up by an entrepreneur in the traditional Schumpeterian sense to grow and to raise profit through sales or through selling the business on to someone else. From an economist’s perspective lifestyle entrepreneurs accept suboptimal levels of production. The leisure and tourism industries have always attracted a large number of small businesses and non-growth riented ownership-entrepreneurs. The perceived nice life, often close to the beach or the alpine regions or at attractive parts of city, has frequently motivated entrepreneurs to leave their Job and adventure in tourism and hospitality.

Quite often this implied primarily following a dream, often with no experience, training or expertise in these areas. Sometimes this is financed with savings from property or previous careers and is propelled by plenty of optimism that things will work out. The prospect of living at the attractive region, where entrepreneurs may have visited as ourists made all other business aspects that come with that look irrelevant or secondary.

The prime motivation was to enjoy the perceived qual- ity of life and do something on the side, to sustain a certain lifestyle and economic status. Since Williams et al. (1989) initially observed this phenomenon of non-growth oriented entrepreneurs in tourism, a number of studies support the existence of many non-economically motivated entrepreneurs, who seriously constrain the development of tourism destinations or regions (AtelJevic and Doorne, 2000; Shaw and Williams, 1990, 1998).

Much of the one and two star inns, guest houses, room and reakfast places and local restaurants which sprang up during the build up phase of mass tourism in the seventies fit the criteria of these lifestyle businesses. Research carried out by Williams et al. (1989), Shaw and Williams (1990; 2003; 2004), Thomas (2000) and AtelJevic and Doorne (2000; 2001) strongly support the fact that small size businesses are the playground for specific entrepreneurial cultures, such as lifestyle entrepreneurs (Shaw and Williams, 2003).

Characteristics of lifestyle entrepreneurs than customer service very limited growth orientation Underutilisation of resources nd capital investment Irrational management and non Returnon-investment based decision making limited marketing and product development expertise and activities under utilisation of information and communication technologies ( Buhalis and Main, 1998) fail to appreciate the ICT opportunities arising (Paraskevas and Buhalis, 2002) reluctance to accept professional advice or external involvement motivated by survival and sufficient income to maintain their and their families’ way of life (Komppula, 2004) low education and training on management are not fully aware of uality management techniques (Morrison and Thomas 1999) low involvement within industry growth and industry structures distance from lobby organisations and 398 tourism boards unwillingness to let go or to sell their ventures low innovation and unwillingness to cooperate (Weiermair, 2001). High dependency on distribution partners for their earnings- even when this is detrimental to profitability and competitiveness (Buhalis, 2000; Bastakis et al. , 2004) Questionable economic sustainability as a result of peripherally, distance from the economic core and sparseness of population (Nilsson et al. 005) Small tourism enterprise surveys show that the food and accommodation industry displays statistically significant lower survival rates than other branches of economic activity (Frank et al. , 1995). In particular, the first phases of enterprise growth are critical. The literature reports early stage management hurdles that lead to severe delegation and cash-flow problems (Flamholtz, 1990; Greiner, 1972). The rapid changes of the industry structures and the challenges emerging through globalization, competition, professionalism, industry concentration both vertical and horizontal, consumer rights nd strict regulation mean that many lifestyle entrepreneurs are quite unprepared for the threats emerging from the external environment.

Many of these enterprises notably in the food and accommodation industry, who survived their incubation period, are facing very serious strategic problems, and high levels of debt often leading to bankruptcy (Hartl, 1999; Tschurtschenthaler, 1996). In the fields of tourism research, entrepreneurship analysis is increasingly linked closely with research areas such as small tourism enterprises (Middleton, 2001; Morrison et al. , 2001; Fuchs et al. , 002; Thomas, 2004) or family businesses in tourism (Getz and Petersen, 2004; Hegarty and Ruddy, 2004; Peters, 2004). Shaw and Williams (1998) have identified two different models of small business entrepreneurship: ‘non-entrepreneurship’ and ‘constrained entrepreneurs’.

The first group show similarities with lifestyle entrepreneurship, as they have moved into tourism destinations for non-economic being their own boss. Many of these non-entrepreneurs constitute owners who have retired from former professions and perceive tourism and hosPASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 7(3). 009 pitality SMEs as a way to enjoy nice destination whilst generating some income to sustain their lifestyle. Research in the UK support Shaw and Williams’ (1998) findings: e. g. Szivas (2001) has investigated motives of self-employed people in tourism. Their motives were centred around their desire to work in pleasant surroundings’ and to ‘establish their own business’ [p. 168].

Shaw and Williams (1998) labelled this group of ageing owners ‘nonentrepreneurs’ because they showed a lack of business experience and strategic qualification (Carland et al. , 1984). The second group of constrained entrepreneurs’ constitute younger people with economic growth motives and former professional experience in tourism and other industries. Still they demonstrate many lifestyle motives to explain their activities and the capital required is family raised. Nevertheless, they demonstrate some entrepreneurial attitudes towards innovation and product development, as well as towards customer values and needs (Shaw and Williams, 1998). Another interesting study on motivational structures of tourism entrepreneurs was carried out by Getz and Carlson (2000) who clustered two types of entrepreneurs in Australia.

They labelled them family- first’ (representing 2/3 of total entrepreneurs) and the ‘business first’ entrepreneurs. Family-driven entrepre-neurs are motivated by emotional factors associated with their families, as well as by the optimization of their leisure time. All these non- economic and non-growth oriented motives can be termed life-quality factors. Every entrepreneur is characterized by an individual trade-off between life-quality and workload. The perception of this relationship is a main driver of activity. The relationship of entrepreneurial workload and life-quality certainly depends upon ersonal wants and individual characteristics or personality traits (Marcketti et al. , 2006).

As a result of the above discussed characteristics of lifestyle entrepreneurs, a number of propositions can be derived relating to the the relationship between life quality for entrepreneurs and enterprise profit (see fgure 1). 399 Profit/workload ratio & quality of life D positive entrepreneurial effects on quality of life profit/workload c basic quality of life quality of life A negative entrepreneurial effects on quality of life time optimal growth max. growth Figure 1 . The trade-off between entrepreneurs’ life quality and enterprise profile. Source: based on Peters and Frehse [2004] The basic individual quality of life may decrease in the phase of establishing a new business. Leisure time is sinking; family needs cannot be easily addressed.

Personal worries or financial risks lower the individual quality of life, which is determined by other than entrepreneurial factors (e. g. health, expectations, social status, values, etc. ). At later stages, harvesting the seeds of the new venture, life quality for entrepreneurs rise again and meet the rofit curve at the point B, where the profit cannot be heightened without lowering personal quality of life. But still BC marks the positive entrepreneurial effects on individual quality of life, which occur as a consequence of the new venture. A lifestyle entrepreneur normally hinders growth when he/she recognises that life quality is decreasing. A number of interesting observations can be made: 1 . A critical phase of entrepreneurship is the time of the start-up.

Research has shown that many individual barriers occur which can lower the quality of life (Shaver et al. , 2001 ; Weiermair and Peters, 1998b). FIA marks the most critical phase of individual failure because the entrepreneur experiences decreasing quality of life and increasing workloads; i. e. the profit/workload ratio is very low. Afterwards, the entrepreneur recognises PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 7(3). 2009 an increase of both profit and quality of life and is motivated to reach point D. 2. Lifestyle entrepreneurs usually stop entrepreneurial activities at the time they recognize they have reached the maximum level of personal quality of life (B).

If, due to time lags, lack of control mechanisms or market exit barriers, growth is continuing, ntrepreneurs still face positive, but decreasing life quality effects of growth (SC). 3. It still remains unclear which variables constitute individual quality of life. However, there is a set of quality of life variables (F2B) which is generated or enhanced by enterprise growth. It can be assumed that income, prestige, social reputation or similar variables fall into this category of life quality for entrepreneurs. 4. Lifestyle entrepreneurs do not trace the path BD. Only growth oriented or Schumpeterian entrepreneurs will follow profit maximisation. The basic individual quality of life may

In Making Cardboards and Using Coconuts global history essay help: global history essay help

In making Cardboards, Fast-growing trees provide raw materials used to make cardboard. The largest packaging companies own thousands of acres of land where trees are matured, harvested, and replaced with seedlings. After the trees are harvested, they remove their limbs; only the trunks will be brought by truck to a pulp mill. The largest packaging companies also own the mills where trees are converted to kraft paper. At the mill, the harvested tree trunks are subjected to the kraft process.

After the kraft process, the fibers are sent directly to the paper machine here they are formed, pressed, dried, and rolled into the wide, heavy rolls of kraft paper sent to corrugating plants to be made into cardboard. Since, Fibers are used to make kraft papers that will eventually be made into cardboards; there are fiber crops that we can use. An example of which is Coir or commonly known as coconut husks. They are rich in fiber, thus, can be used as an alternative for fast growing trees in cardboard making.

To process coir, coconuts are split so that the stiff fibers are accessible. The outer husk is soaked to separate the fibers, which are sorted out into ong fibers suitable for use as brush bristles, and shorter fibers which are used to make things like the padding inside inner coil mattresses. After soaking, the fibers are cleaned and sorted into hanks which may later be spun into twine, matted into padding, or used as individual bristles. After the process, you can now use it to make paper or cardboards.

Instead of cutting down trees that will cause the destruction of many houses and even the death of many, we can use coconut husks/shells as an alternative because the shells are Just thrown after we eat the cellular endosperm and drink its Juice or called the liquid endosperm. Also, for us, coconut shells have no use. So, instead of throwing it, we can recycle and use it for an important purpose. By doing so, it will help save mother earth and we can lessen the calamities that happen in our country.

Our country is now suffering from many calamities like floods and earthquakes because of many reasons. We have fewer trees that helps prevent floods from happening because of our extreme usage of paper and other materials. Trees are needed to be cut down in order for us, especially students to have papers in hand. We, at times, abuse the importance of paper. Many of us tend to waste them or use them for useless purposes like boredom doodles.

Not realizing that those actions caused the destruction of many houses or even the death of many. Therefore, I believe that this topic is really important so that we can prevent those calamities from happening again. I am sure we don’t want to experience typhoon “OndoY’ all over again. We also don’t want to hear bad news like many of our fellow citizens or yet, our less fortunate brothers and sisters get hurt, lose their houses and properties or even die. In Making Cardboards and Using Coconuts By littlemissJacey

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The basic answer to this question is ‘NO’, as the following literature supports and explains this fact effectively. A contract is an agreement between two or more parties that creates an obligation to do or not to do something. The parties to the contract are under an obligation to perform the terms and conditions as laid down in the contract.

Thus a contract can confer rights or impose obligations arising under the contract on the parties to the contract. Third parties cannot be under such an obligation to perform or demand erformance under a contract. This is referred to as Privity of contract. The Doctrine of Privity of Contract under English Law The doctrine of “Privity of Contract” which means that a contract is a contract between the parties only and no stranger to the contract can sue even if the contract is avowedly made for his benefit.

Thus a stranger to the consideration cannot sustain the action on the promise made between two persons unless he has in some way intervened in the agreement. As the plaintiff was to be married to the daughter of G and in consideration of this ntended marriage G and the plaintiffs father entered into a written agreement by which it was agreed that each would pay the plaintiff a sum of the money. G failed to do so and the plaintiff sued his executors.

Thus, although the sole object of the contract was to secure a benefit to the plaintiff, he was not allowed to sue as the contract was made with his father and not with him The two basic principles under the English Law as can be ascertained from the above cases are that firstly consideration should move from the promisee only and secondly hat a contract cannot be enforced by a person who is not a party to the contract even if it is made for his benefit.

The Doctrine in India There has been a divergence of opinion in India as to whether the Doctrine of Privity of Contract, which prevails in the English Courts, is applicable to the Indian Courts. The Indian Contract Act, 1872 (here in after referred to as “the Act”) codifies the methods of entering into a contract, executing a contract; rules to implement provisions of a contract and effects of breach of a contract. The provisions of the Act revail over any usage or custom or trade however the same will be valid as long as it is not inconsistent with provisions of the Act. ny other person has done or abstained from doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or to abstain from doing, something , such act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise” It is clear from this section that the consideration for a contract can proceed from any person and not necessarily the parties to the contract. A promise is enforceable if there is some consideration for it and it is quite immaterial whether it moves from he promisee or any other person.

However there is no specific provision in the Act which either for or against the Doctrine of Privity of Contact. It is through a series of case laws that the Doctrine has evolved. There are two aspects of this doctrine. Firstly, no one but the parties to the contract are entitled under it. Rights or benefits may be conferred upon a third party but such a third party can neither sue under the contract nor rely on defenses based on the contract. The second aspect is that the parties to a contract cannot impose liabilities on a third party.

Conclusion The Act does not specifically provide for the doctrine of Privity of Contract, however through a series of case laws the doctrine is now applicable in India along with various exceptions. With reference to consideration of a contract the position in India and England are however different. Under the English law only a party to the contract can pay the consideration. If he doesn’t pay the consideration he becomes a stranger to the contract. Under the Indian Law, it is not necessary that consideration should be paid by the promisee.

Though there are no express provisions as to assignment of rights and obligations nder a contract in the Act, the Principle of assignment has been recognized and developed by the courts through its various decisions. A person may not give any consideration, but is a party to the contract may enforce the contract A stranger to a contract cannot sue : Suppose A and B enter into a contract for the benefit of C. The agreement between and A and B cannot be enforced by C. e. g. Two father entered into an agreement to pay a new couple money on their marriage. The couple cannot sue for enforcement of the contract between the fathers.

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Drugs in sport What is it? Drugs in sport or doping is when an athlete takes performance enhancing drugs or any banned substance. The sports that have the most trouble with drugs are Weightlifting, cycling, badminton, boxing, track and field. These athletes take drugs so they can be the best in there sport. One of the most recent cases was American sprinter Marion Jones who won five gold medals in the 2000 Olympics at Sydney, since then she has been stripped of all her medals after admitting that she took performance enhancing drugs in 2007.

She had lied in front of two Judges saying that she never had taken steroids. Another case was Australian Cricket hero Shane Warne who was banned for a year after taking diuretics. Another one was former West Coast Eagle champion, brownlow medallist, and premiership player Ben cousins who was banned from playing football for taking cocaine and other banned substance. What is a drug? A drug is a substance (other than food) that when taken into the body, produces a change in it. If this change helps the body it is referred to as a medicine. If this hange harms the body, it is referred to as a poison.

I think drugs in sport is terrible because these are highly paid professionals who are role models to so many kids and they are taking drugs to make them better at there chosen sport. These athletes are respected by there country and in my opinion’ should never be allowed to compete in there sport again. Some reasons an athlete might use drugs are the effects of the drug, physical dependence, easily available or they might be dissatisfied with there performance or progress, the environment, pressure to win from coach, parent, edia, public, financial reward, unrealistic qualifying standards or performance expectation.

This is a list of some prohibited substances and doping methods: Stimulants Anabolic agent Non-steroidal Diuretic Many different sports have different policies on drugs. The AFL policy has been under a lot of scrutiny lately. The policy is as follows test: First positive Players enter treatment/education program coordinated by an AFL medical officer. The result is confidential to those involved in the treatment. Second positive test: Dealt with by and AFL medical officer with a view to further educating, counselling and treating the player.

Third positive test: Player is deemed to have breeched an AFL rule and will face the tribunal if found guilty player may be suspended between 0-12 matches Fourth Positive test: Player will face tribunal and be suspended for no less than 6 weeks. I think this policy is way to easy on the players because they have so many chances. I think the player should have one chance and then be kicked out of the AFL for at least a year. Doping in Sport and the AFL Policy on Drugs By amdeep

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A need for emergence of new trends of the Information Communication and Technology is discussed. The trends which exist in the industry are being discussed, and then the trends which are emerging in the Information and Communication Technologies, the role of ITC in Education is highlighted with the challenges which are being faced. Findings ‘CT: A global vibrant industry Revolutions: Revolution 1: The Computer Revolution 2: The pc Revolution 3: The Microprocessors Revolution 4: The Internet Revolution 5: Wireless Links Originality/ Value Emerging Trends in ICT ITC in Education Challenges References ITC: A Vibrant , Growing Industry

ICT is no longer a Luxury. There may be people or governments which may be a bit less familiar or less enthusiastic. But no doubts that everyone regards it today as a crucial factor and key enabler of the economy. And no economic activity in any country can prevail without use of ‘CT. mostly in Asia represents one of the fastest growing sectors. Three trends in ICT industry: 1) Commoditization of connectivity. 2) Standardization of services 3) Increasing value creation from innovation. We can think of services at several sub-levels, one is developing the software, other is integrating delivery the software and services.

Next is standardization of software when we talk Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Or CRM, the point is users and the biggest problem in the industry is that even the user does not know what they need. Moving towards standardization has both pluses and minuses. On the plus side, it means software will be more accessible, usable and may be cost- effective to use. And on the minus side for the system integrator’s needs, if the software really works as desired, if it is really as easy to work and plug and play as it claims.

So, the standardization of software is going to pose a significant business challenge for many of the companies. The trend on SAAS- “Software AS A Service”, represents the ultimate example of the standardization of software to the point where the end user may no longer be interested in the nuts and bolts of the software itself, or where the software runs, but it is purely interested in the utility, the services aspect of the software. It also can be argued that talking about “the ‘CT” revolution is a misnomer; for there has not been one revolution, but five”so far.

The first revolution started during World War II, with the first large, automatic, general electromechanical calculator, Harvard Mark 1 . It was 50 feet long, eight feet all, and weighed five tons. A couple of years later, ENIAC were presented in Philadelphia, based on radio tubes and practically without any internal memory, yet using 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighing 30 tons. “Computers” became a new catchword, and input-output technology graduated from punch cards to magnetic tape, faster printers, and more languages for programming.

Applications also were expanded, from use in academic research to weather forecasting, from airline ticketing to accounting. This development continues; the first ICT revolution is still The second ICT revolution has its roots in the 1970s, when the first “processors on a hip” and magnetic discs were constructed. But as late as 1977, Ken Olson, the legendary president of the computer company, Digital, stated: “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home. “. This second ICT revolution continues like the first: the capacities of the machines increase, their applications expand, and the number of people who use them multiplies.

Revolution 3: The Microprocessor The third ICT revolution is that microprocessors have become embedded in an ever- widening range of products: the steering systems of airplanes, the control panels of ydroelectric power stations, domestic air conditioning systems, the traffic lights in our streets. Even when we do not recognize it, they have become part of our everyday lives: in video players, credit cards, remote controllers, cameras, hotel room door locks, and smart buildings.

There is a microprocessor embedded in our digital scale in the bathroom. Microprocessors translate bar codes into prices at the cash register, monitor electronic injection of fuel in our cars, and determine where the elevator stops in our building. An ordinary household now contains some 100 icroprocessors, in everything from dishwashers to alarm systems. Microprocessors constantly expand their capacity, applications, and users. The fourth ICT revolution stretches back to the late 1960s, when the U. S.

Department of Defense drew up guidelines for a communication network among computers (ARPANET). After a while, universities in and outside the United States were hooked up to it, and some started to use it to send messages. A couple 22 of years later, surfing on the ‘net started, and more and more people hooked up. A PC needed a modem to use its potential fully. This fourth ICT revolution continues like the others s more and more computers are interlinked with an ever-growing number of “servers” and an expanding range of applications.

The fifth ICT revolution was linking without lines”the new possibilities opened by mobile phones. At first, they were big and bulky. Reduction in size and weight was accompanied by expansion of reach and functions, and miniaturization was accompanied by multifunctionality. Linking without lines now takes place not Just intercontinentally via satellites, but also via high-frequency short-range radio transmitters covering a specific area or cell (hence the name, “cellular phones”) and nside buildings by “Bluetooth” and infrared light.

Virtualization. Virtualization in storage and client devices is moving rapidly , but much of the current buzz is focused on server virtualization. Virtualization eliminates duplicate copies of data the real storage devices while maintaining the illusion to the systems who are accessing that the files are as originally stored and can significantly decrease the cost of storage devices and media to hold information. Instead of the motherboard function being located in the data center hardware, it is located there as a virtual machine bubble.

Virtual desktop capabilities will be adopted by fewer than 45 percent of target users by 2010. Cloud Computing. The key characteristics of cloud computing are 1) delivery of “as a service,” 2) delivery of services in a highly scalable and elastic fashion, 3) using Internet technologies and techniques to develop and deliver the services, and 4) designing for delivery to external customers. Cloud computing is a style of computing that providers deliver a variety of IT enabled capabilities to consumers. It enables very small companies to grow. Social Software and Social Networking.

Social software includes a broad range of technologies, such as social networking, social collaboration, social media and social validation. Soon a social platform should be adopted Organizations should be adopted so that your views and voice should not left mute in a dialogue where your voice must be heard. Redefinition of learning spaces. The ordered classroom of 40 desks in rows of 5 may quickly become a picture of the industrial age as colleges around the world are making them thinking the most appropriate learning environments to increase collaborative, cross-disciplinary, students centered learning.

Concepts such as greater use of light, colors, circular tables, individual spaces for students and teachers, and smaller open learning spaces for project-based learning are increasingly emphasized. Teacher-generated open content. School systems are increasingly empowering teachers to identify and create the learning resources that they find most effective in the classroom. Many online texts allow teachers to edit, add to, or otherwise customize material for their own purposes, so that their students receive a tailored copy that exactly suits the style intellectual property and copyright. Teacher managers/mentors.

The role of the teacher in the classroom is being transformed from that of the font of knowledge to an instructional manager helping to guide students through individualized learning pathways, identifying relevant learning resources, creating collaborative learning opportunities, and providing insight and support both during formal class time and outside of the designated time. Ubiquitous learning. With the emergence of increasingly robust connectivity infrastructure and cheaper computers, college systems around the world are developing the ability to provide learning opportunities to students “anytime, anywhere”.

This trend requires a rethinking of the traditional 40 minute lesson. In addition to hardware and Internet access, it requires the availability of virtual mentors or teachers, and/or opportunities for peer to peer and self-paced, deeper learning. ITC in education: Information communication technology is changing the trends and norms that were set for the contemporary world. It is not only connected the world at one single platform but also helping in reducing the gap of digital divide and digital oppourstunity. The main purpose of the strategy for information and communication technology.

Implementation in education is ti provide the trends of integration of ICT into general activities which serves to education. Whether school students usually do their formal studying in school, the case is not same for the students in higher education, a growing minority of whom may study only partly-or not at all-on the campus of the university that is running their course. In developed countries, this is often because students are working while studying. Most of pure distance universities, build on older techniques of distance learning. Many universities offer a mix of delivery methods.

Annually, the goal is to widen access into markets that can not easily be reached with more traditional approach. Some offer the same course online and in a classroom, otherwise a hybrid mix of electronic and traditional methods of delivery some setup satellite campuses with broadband links through which the students can learn partly at a distance. The problem for educational planners is how to reach, within a reasonable time, the needs of the majority who are poor, uneducated, and live in rural areas: how to fund, implement, and maintain the educational part of ICT networks.

This question is all he more to be highlight because most major international teleoperators do not include sub-Saharan Africa or the remote areas of Central Asia in their business strategy plans. The bitter fact is this: What happens in a country does not depend on the state of the art, but on the state of its economy. produce it. Both IT workforce and IT professionals are required who can produce an content material for internet. The cyber law in India also imposes certain restrictions and their violations may take the form of offences and contraventions.

Cyber crimes in India are taken care of by he Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act, 2000), but not completely helpful in preventing them. that. These aspects must be kept in mind by Companies, Individual and even by the Government. With the rapid change in technology, training cannot be a one-shot affair; we have to be updated continuously to stay abreast of developments. Planning and designing educational systems so that they familiarize students with a technology that is being modified and evolving continuously is not Just an intellectual challenge, it is also an economic one.

Gough Whitlam my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Gough Whitlam Gough Whitlam was a man who achieved many things during his time as prime minister, but was also the only prime minister to be sacked by the governor general in all of history. As well as outlining Whitlam’s significance and contribution to Australia, I will also recognise how he went wrong, and what he did that got him removed from parliament. Edward Gough Whitlam was born in 1916 in Melbourne. At 56, he became the 21st prime minister of Australia, which lasted for approximately three years, from 5th December 1972, to 1 lth November 1975. He entered parliament in 1952, when he was 36.

It took him 20 years to become prime minister, but not after narrowly losing the 1969 election. He was the first labour prime minister in 23 years. The ALP party were fairly certain that they were, once again, not going to win the 1972 election. They were aiming their appeal at the traditional working class people, but to win the election, had to appeal to the middle class as well. Whitlam wanted to shift the control of the ALP from the Union officials to the parliamentary party, and he also anted to give every party member a voice in the parliamentary conferences.

After the close election, Gough Whitlam had a considerable amount of control in his party and in parliament. He introduced new laws, such as establishing an Australian Schools Commission for recognising the need for help and funding in state schools and universities, recognising aboriginal land claims, eliminating conscription and improving universal health care. The Whitlam government also introduced other policies after they had been in parliament for a while. The ALP introduced Legal Aid,

University/College/TAFE fees, and the voting age was reduced to 18 years and funding to schools. One of the most recognised policies was demolishing the death penalty for federal crimes. This policy was a major breakthrough in society, and was introduced in 1973. The country was willingly behind it, and the bill passed through thanks to a recent case that had caused uproar amongst society. A man was hanged after being charged guilty for murder, but after the execution new evidence surfaced, making people believe that the man was, indeed, innocent.

Questions were raised bout the topic. Is the death penalty ethical? Is there a better way to do things? If evidence proves them innocent too late, what happens then? The ALP was expected to lose the election again that year, so they really needed something behind them to gain the votes they needed to win. And this controversial topic seemed like exactly what they needed. With the publicity of the innocent man hanged, they were bound to get the votes. An innocent man was hanged under Liberal control, vote for labour and help this be the last government-controlled death.

This is what they said, and the people lapped it up. The election results were tighter than they had initially expected, but Liberal had some good policies as well. But Whitlam had still won the election, and the death penalty was abolished. Two of Whitlam’s new policies were related to young people, the free university and the younger voting age. Both of these policies were implemented almost purely to get votes from the younger generations. University students, especially, would benefit from this policy and would be eager to vote for the ALP because of it.

This policy lasted for 15 years before Paul Keating re- involved giving out money to public schools across Australia so that they could improve the buildings for a more fulfilling education for Australian school students. This program was especially beneficial to small country schools which didn’t have very much money to hire teachers and the right facilities. This policy also helped the aboriginal communities in the rural towns, with little money for education. With a school to go to, the kids can then grow up with qualifications under their belt, and get a Job.

But amongst all those good things, pressure was building on the Australian Labour Party. The economy was going downhill, something Whitlam wasn’t prepared for. The opposition was continually making better offers to the public, and ALP was losing support quickly. Even people from his own party were beginning to have wavering support. After months of economical descent, the governor general, Sit John Kerr, fired Whitlam; something no one else had ever done in the history of politics. This is the situation that started what is called the ‘Constitutional Crisis’.

Kerr elected the leader of the opposition, Malcolm Fraser, the temporary prime minister until the next election. The whole thing happened because the opposition had control over the senate, and started strategically blocking all the bills that Whitlam tried to pass. Labour had also miscalculated their spending and funding. The Liberal party threatened that they would keep blocking the bills until Kerr sacked Whitlam. This case is pretty much one of blackmail because Whitlam and Kerr had a pretty good relationship and no one really saw his dismissal coming.

But John Kerr wasn’t really given another option. Nothing would be achieved in parliament until Whitlam was sacked. The election came quickly after that, and Liberal passed through with flying colours. Whitlam stepped down from prime minister and stayed in parliament for another year, but later left parliament in 1978. Whitlam still continues to publicly comment on the government at 92. Although his time as prime minister was short, he introduced some laws that are still in place today. During his time in parliament,

Gough Whitlam has greatly impacted Australias government, and history.

Writing a Reaction Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Writing a Reaction Paper v A reaction paper is an analysis and an evaluation of the material presented. v In a reaction paper, make sure to give a detailed overview of the experience and tell what exactly was taken out of the experience. v A reaction paper should be more than a simple summary of the material that you are reacting upon. v It should include your opinion or reaction to the material. v This may take on a variety of forms: S You may compare the work to other related material; S You may come up with ways to improve the work; S You may express what you learned;

S You may concur with the work or argue against the work v You can even use “l”, or the first person, in this type of paper. How to Write a Reaction Paper Consider these general steps as you plan your writing: Pull your thoughts together on what you Just experienced. Come up with a thesis statement. Come up with what reaction you want to put down on paper. Decide on your organization and format draft your reaction paper. As a starting point for your reaction paper, select two or three major points from the following list and write a paragraph for each point. S React to the ideas presented.

Are they clear and suitable? Explain the ideas, give examples of their application in the material presented, and compare/contrast the ideas with your own. 5 Compare it to another material. How was it similar to the other material? How was it different? Which did you enjoy more? What makes it more enjoyable? Which did you learn more from? S Discuss specific insights or facts you have learned or gained from reading the material presented. Discuss each insight or fact you have learned in a detailed paragraph, using direct examples from the material presented. Include a page reference to the material you are reacting to.

S Make a Judgment about the material presented and support it. Did you like it? Why or why not? Elaborate on your answer by commenting on the content, style, clarity, validity of ideas and method of presentation. S Analyzed the material presented. What is its purpose? How does it go about achieving its goal? What is the plan/ method of presentation? S Tell what others might gain from the material presented. Is it valuable? Is it informative, entertaining, or accurate? Do you think your instructor should use it again? Why or why not? In your conclusion, summarize your ideas and tie them together.

Writing a Reaction or Response Essay Reaction or response papers are usually requested by teachers so that you’ll consider carefully what you think or feel about something you’ve read. The following guidelines are intended to be used for reacting to a reading although they could easily be used for reactions to films too. Read whatever you’ve been asked to respond to, and while reading, think about the following questions. How do you feel about What do you agree or disagree with? Can you identify with the situation? What would be the best way to evaluate the story?

Keeping your responses to these questions in mind, follow the following prewriting steps. Prewriting for Your Reaction Paper The following statements could be used in a reaction/response paper. Complete as many statements as possible, from the list below, about what you Just read. My Reaction to What I Just Read Is That I think that; I see that; I feel that; It seems that; In my opinion; Because; A good quote is; In addition; For example; Moreover; However; Consequently; Finally; In conclusion. What you’ve done in completing these statements is written a very rough reaction/ response paper. Now it needs to be organized.

Organizing Your Reaction Paper A reaction/response paper has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The introduction should contain all the basic information in one or two paragraphs. I Sentence 1: publication you read. I This sentence should give the title, author, and I Isentence 2, 3, and sometimes 4: I These sentences give a brief summary of what you read (nutshell) I Isentence 5: I This sentence is your thesis statement. You agree, disagree, identify, or evaluate. Your introduction should include a concise, one sentence, focused thesis. This is the focused statement of your reaction/response. The body should contain paragraphs that provide support for your thesis. Each paragraph should contain one idea. Topic sentences should support the thesis, and the final sentence of each paragraph should lead into the next paragraph. I Topic Sentence I Idetail example –quotation –detail example quotation detail example quotation detail example –quotation ( You can structure your paragraphs in two ways: I Author I You OR I in contrast to I ISummary Sentence ( The conclusion can be a restatement of what you said in your paper. It also be a comment which focuses your overall reaction.

Finally, it can be a prediction of the effects of what you’re reacting to. Note: your conclusion should include no new information. Conclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say after having written the paper. A writer needs to keep in mind that the conclusion is often what a reader remembers best. Your conclusion should be the best part of your paper. A conclusion should stress the importance of the thesis statement, give the essay a sense of completeness, and leave a final impression on the reader.

Suggestions Answer the question “So What? ” Show your readers why this paper was important. Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful. Synthesize, don’t summarize o Don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together. Redirect your readers o Give your reader something to think about, perhaps a way to use your paper in the “real” world. If your introduction went from general to specific, make your conclusion go from specific to general.

Think globally. Ђ Create a new meaning o You don’t have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts. Strategies Echoing the introduction: Echoing your introduction can be a good strategy if it is meant to bring the reader full-circle. If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.

Example Introduction From the parking lot, I could see the towers of the castle of the Magic Kingdom tanding stately against the blue sky. To the right, the tall peak of The Matterhorn rose even higher. From the left, I could hear the Jungle sounds of Adventureland. As I entered the gate, Main Street stretched before me with its quaint shops evoking an old-fashioned small town so charming it could never have existed. I was entranced. Disneyland may have been built for children, but it brings out the child in adults. Conclusion I thought I would spend a few hours at Disneyland, but here I was at 1 A. M. closing time, leaving the front gates with the now dark towers of the Magic Kingdom behind me. I could see tired children, toddling along and struggling to keep their eyes open as best they could. Others slept in their parents’ arms as we waited for the parking lot tram that would take us to our cars. My forty-year-old feet ached, and I felt a bit sad to think that in a couple of days I would be leaving California, my vacation over, to go back to my desk. But then I smiled to think that for at least a day I felt ten years old again. Challenging the reader: By issuing a challenge to your apply it to their own lives.

Example Though serving on a Jury is not only a civic responsibility but also an interesting xperience, many people still view Jury duty as a chore that interrupts their Jobs and the routine of their daily lives. However, Juries are part of America’s attempt to be a free and Just society. Thus, Jury duty challenges us to be interested and responsible Looking to the future: Looking to the future can emphasize the citizens. importance of your paper or redirect the readers’ thought process. It may help them apply the new information to their lives or see things more globally.

Example Without well-qualified teachers, schools are little more than buildings and equipment. If higher-paying careers continue to attract the best and the brightest students, there will not only be a shortage of teachers, but the teachers available may not have the best qualifications. Our youth will suffer. And when youth suffers, the future suffers. Posing questions: Posing questions, either to your readers or in general, may help your readers gain a new perspective on the topic, which they may not have held before reading your conclusion. It may also bring your main ideas together to create a new meaning.

Example Campaign advertisements should help us understand the candidate’s ualifications and positions on the issues. Instead, most tell us what a boob or knave the opposing candidate is, or they present general images of the candidate as a family person or God-fearing American. Do such advertisements contribute to creating an informed electorate or a people who choose political leaders the same way they choose soft drinks and soap? Summary In summary, this handout has covered prewriting and organizing strategies for reaction/response papers. Prewriting o Read the article and Jot down ideas. o How do you feel about what was said? Do you agree or disagree with the author? Have you had any applicable experience? o Have you read or heard anything that applies to this what the writer said in the article or book? o Does the evidence in the article support the statements the writer made? Organizing o Write the thesis statement first. o Decide on the key points that will focus your ideas. These will be your topic o Develop your ideas by adding examples, quotations, and details to sentences. your paragraphs. o Make sure the last sentence of each paragraph leads into the next paragraph. o Check your thesis and make sure the topic sentence of each paragraph supports it.

Self-Esteem need essay help: need essay help

A person is defined according to his or her own manners, good moral values and right conduct. All of these say so much about a person’s personality. It is because of her personality she could be treated fairly and looked up to because of how she treats other people. Ones personality could bring her to the top and conquer all that gets in the way. One important value a person could possess is obedience.

Obedience is when you learn to follow rules and treat these rules as a treasure for uccess. There are so many rules that each and every one of us should follow. One of these rules comes from our own parents. Our parents nurtured us from day one. All their sweat and hard work are for us, their children. For this, we too should treat them right and by simply obeying to their rules as our parents; it makes them feel secured that nothing wrong would ever happen to us. Their rules are probably even the most important and simplest of them all.

Some of them may be letting them know where we are and who we are with or coming home on or before the time they told us to ome home and even helping our siblings with the household chores. Also, respecting them and putting ourselves in the right position is a simple sign of obedience. As for Filipinos like us, learning how to address the elders with “pd’ or “opd’ is already a sign of obedience. When we learn to follow these and not whine about what the elders are telling us, we could say that we are obedient daughters or sons.

As teenagers, it is our obligation and right to come to school. In our schools, we also have so much rules to follow, may it be in our classrooms or in the whole campus. When our professor tells us to search for some sources for our paper or bring certain materials for our project and we do it, it is a sign of obedience. When our classmate asks for our favor to do a certain part of our group project and we do it, it also is a sign of obedience. These are Just the simplest form of obedience in school.

Sometimes, we may even have to follow even bigger and more complex rules such as those that our student handbook states. Following the dress code, respecting our professor in and out of the classroom, not cutting classes, staying away from off- imit places and not bullying our schoolmates are some of those campus rules that we have to follow. When we do, we are obviously obedient students and we should be proud of this. We all belong to a certain community and it is important that we work as one to create a difference in our society.

If l, for one, follow all rules and regulations that our community dictates, then in my simplest way I am helping in creating or starting a change. This helps a lot because if other people see that the change I have started is this we all are working as individuals and together as one to create the biggest hange of all. This is a sign that people in our community are obedient. It is because of our obedience that the world is progressing and is gradually changing to its best.

We all should be obedient to anyone in our surroundings; obedient to our parents, to our professors, to the leaders in our society and basically, to anyone. It is also important that we know when we should be obedient. If you are asked to do something wrong or improper then obviously it is alright to forget about being obedient. Yet if we are asked to do something right, then put yourself in a much etter place and simply do what’s asked of you. This is not hard to do especially when it gives other people a good impression of you.

So basically, when I am trying to say is that being obedient is really important and we should never forget about it. We always should know why we should be obedient, to whom should we be obedient and when should we be obedient. Let’s Just say that possessing this value says a lot about who we are and it is important for other people to see it so that we would have a good impression on anyone and that people may want to be friends with us and influenced by us.

Consumer Behaviour get essay help: get essay help

What kind of decision process can you expect in the following cases and why ? (a) Purchase of a greeting card for a close friend. (b) Purchase of an after shave lotion/moisturizer. Ans. Before giving answer to both questions first of all we must know what product involvement and purchase involvement). because meaning of both term determine direction of decision . Purchase involvement – As the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase.

Thus, purchase nvolvement is temporary state of individual or household. It influenced by loat many factors Product involvement – involvement of consumer towards particular brand .In process of purchasing a greeting card for close friend involve “limited decision making purchase process”. Limited decision making process involve few alternative and simple decision rules and a little post purchase evalution Why- limited decision making process occurs in some emotional and situational needs. Purchasing a greeting card for friend also influenced by our emotion and ituation .

Situational factor affect in this manner like for what type of occasion we are presenting greeting card to our friend. it may be occasion of birthday, achievement and some other occasion Emotion – our friend ship is product of our emotional bonding with some one and emotional attachment always form limited decision making . purchasing of product you always anticipate what would be impression of my card. In limited decision making Use and post purchase of given vary less importance because product ( greeting card )would be use by some another erson who still have not form his expectation abut particular brand. b) Purchase of an after shave lotion/moisturizer- Nominal decision making Purchase shave lotion involve nominal decision making because nominal decision making referred also as a habitual decision making which occur at number of time such as purchasing of lotion also happen number of time in nominal decision process problem is recognized ,internal search provide one solution what type of LOTION you are using previously ,what is your preferred brand and evaluation occurs only when f previous LOTION brand fails to perform .

Nominal decision making occur when low purchase and involvement . in case of purchasing of LOTION there is very less purchase involvement because person are more conscious about brand of LOTION. 2. How would knowledge of perception & learning help you in designing your marketing program for the following products and services? Justify your answer with reasons. a. Disposable Diapers Designing market programme for Disposable diapers we need to develop and evaluate for Ps of marketing to position product in mind of

Internet Service Provider homework essay help: homework essay help

Although broadband technologies (DSL and Cable) are all the rage right now, in reality, a lot of people still only have access to analog hone lines. Dial-up modems will remain a good way to get on the Internet for several years, especially in retired area in United States. When looking for an internship I had three criterias : 1. Language and culture : I wanted to do my internship in a foreign country to improve my english and to discover a different way of life and business culture. 2. Technical diversity : a main point was to learn new things and especially not in software enginering, like I did in my formers internship. . Responsabilities : I looked for an experience that will proof I am able to manage things by myself. My Job was to make the whole infrastructure stable, up and running. As described in this report I was focused on three main projects : 2 The mail server migration from Windows to Linux. The web server migration because of an hardware failure

However, there are still a lot of users connected to local ISP, even if it is a little more expensive. The main reason is not difference to connect to a local ISP, however for other users, they know that if they ave problems connecting they can have free hotline support, or they can bring their computer and have it repaired, they can come and have their questions answered. This is what makes the difference with big ISPs, and probably why there still is a lot of small ISPs in the united states. The wireless market tend to show up more now with company like Clearwire.

RogueLink is starting to get partenarship with this company to counter the dial-up death. 1. 3 The internship RogueLink is used to hire trainee from both Epita and Epitech and others french school and university. I found this internship thanks to a student from Epita who ade an announce on school newsgroups. It was not easy to obtain on time the J-1 visa required for this kind of internship. Indeed, it was properly the time France was not able to provide biometric passports. So the United States immigration administration was flooded of visa request for simple tourists (instead of passport). I was hosted by and near the house of my managers, Kate and Jacques Lecompte, owners of the business. The company is split in two different places located at about 20 minutes by car from each other : The server room, where all the servers are is a few miles away from the downtown where the office is located. Ђ The office is where customers can come and pay their bill, bring their computer to have it repaired, ask questions about their dialup connection or web hosting, etc This is also where the hotline support is located.

I was working most of the time at the office. This allowed me to be in contact with customers and to be aware of issues as soon as possible in order to give advice to hotliners. The hotline support was really knowledgable and Linux enthousiasts so I had no difficulties to explain things. I was working on the servers remotely, using terminal servicesl and ssh from my linux laptop. Sometime, I ad to take my car and go to the server room. 1. 4 Timeline The first month was more to acknowledge the system and what would be my projects.

I had also to start organising thoses projects to see how long it will take for each one. The mail server migration took about two month (including the canceled outsourcing project). The web server migration took one month. The billing system set up took also one month. Services or Terminal Server Edition (TSE) is a component of Microsoft Windows NT operating systems (both client and server versions) that allows a user to access applications or data stored on a remote computer over a network connection.

Terminal Services is Microsoft’s take on server centric computing, which allows 1 Terminal 8 2 TECHNICAL ASPECTS 2 Technical aspects This section is split into three parts. It is related to main projects I worked on, but as a reccurent background task I had to monitor services and to fix some little issues, like buying new SSL2 certificats for online carts, adding new domain names in our DNS, setting up new web sites, fixing front page extensions3 . For instance, I also had to delete a shopping cart customer’s account directly into the SQL database.

The first week I was here, it was mainly to take notes on how the infrastructure is running. Thanks to a wiki4 filled by formers trainees I was able to learn more faster but some of thoses informations was also obsoletes. I also set up some scripts for graphing the network activity on the DMZ5 : are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as e-mail, internet faxing, and other data transfers. 3 Software technology that allows Frontpage clients editor to communicate with web servers, and provide additional functionality intended for websites.

Frequent security problems have marked the history of this Microsoft proprietary technology. 4 A wiki is type of website that allows users to easily add, remove, or otherwise edit and change some available content, sometimes without the need for registration. This ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for collaborative authoring. 5 DMZ stands for DeMilitarized Zone. In computer security terminology, a DMZ is a network area that sits between an organization’s internal network and an external network, usually the Internet. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), its successor, 9 We have a 5Mb bandwith on both way thru fiber optic provided by Charter. We have 0 IP addresses (127 block) with this connection. 10 2. 1 Mail server migration during this internship. I will explain here : Why this server migration was necessary and urgent. What was part of the migration (password recoveries, mailbox synchronisations, address books, webmail, mailing lists, aliases, administrators and administration interface) How I did the migration (DNS, firewall, choose of components, scripts). . 1. 1 The old system When I arrived, the mail server that was used was ‘Mail v8. 05 from Ipswitch on a Windows 2000 server, which is probably one of the worst email server program available. The main problems with this server were : 1. Ipswitch ‘mail is RFC ignorant (RFC 1893 or 3463). For instance, when a server answer with an Error code beginning with the number 4, it means that it is a Persistent Transient Failure, not a Permanent Failure, and sending again in the the future the same message may be successful. ‘mail doesn’t and bounce the message with a В« user unknow В».

Knowing the fact that most spammers won’t take the time to send again their message when they receive a temporary some people had the idea to use a method called Greylisting6 to block a significant amounts of spam by first ejecting an email from an unknown server with a temporary error (with an error message begining with a 4), then accepting and adding the sending server to a whitelist when it try to send again the same email after a certain amount of time. The spams are then rejected while the emails sent using a regular email server are received.

The problem is that the ‘Mail server doesn’t handle this correctly, and it was not possible for our customers to send emails to servers implementing GreyListing because of the В« unknown user В» problem. is a simple method of defending electronic mail users against e-mail spam. In short, a mail transfer agent which uses greylisting will “temporarily reject” any email from a sender it does not recognize. If the mail is legitimate, the originating server will try again to send it later, at which time the destination will accept it.

If the mail is from a spammer, it will probably not be retried 6 Greylisting 11 2. The server used to crash for no reasons and needed to be reboot very often to В« solve В» problems. 3. We had hackers, directly logged on windows (moving the mouse and everything… very impressive to see ! ) using our system to send spam. 4. The onfguration is saved in the Windows Registry which is horrible. 5. All the confguration and management of accounts is done using a Graphical User Interface (which is not convenient for scripting tasks).

The GUI is program that allow you to crash the whole mail server in a few clicks. It happened to me once but fortunately I had a backup of the Windows Registry. 6. The program lacks many options, and is not modular. For example it is not possible to add external spam flters, add special routing instructions, add greylisting. For all thoses reasons it was more than urgent to switch this server to a quality open-sourced one. . 1. 2 Accounts and password recovery from the old system As explained the ‘Mail windows server stored accounts into the windows registry.

I installed ActivePerl, Wich is a bring of the Unix Perl to the extract user attributs, including the encrypted password. The password algorithm used on the old system was not a common one (like crypt, md5 or shal) which made impossible to copy encrypted passwords directly because the new system would not be able to use them. However, thanks to a very weak and sadly amusing encryption algorithm on the old system it was possible to extract, decrypt and re-encrypt them ith a usable algorithm (crypt) for the new system. 12 The encrypted password in hexadecimal was in fact the addition of the email address and the clear password.

This was done with a few efficients lines of Perl : # my $mail ” “test”; # my $password = “BDD4EAE2EDD4E8”; my @hex_mail = unpack(“C*”, $mail); my ($1, @decrypted_password, @hex_password); while ($password) { push @hex_password, hex(substr($password, O, 2, } foreach (@hex_password) { push @decrypted_password, ($_ – % length($mail)]); } print pack(“C*”, @decrypted_password). “n”; 2. 1. 3 Mailboxes synchronisation Another difficulty was hat the migration had to be transparent for end-users. I had to plan synchronization of their mailboxes so it will take a minimum amount of time during the migration.

I used a recurrent approach for that. The first time it was really long to syncronize mailboxes using the IMAP protocol and during this long time new messages came. So I did it again and it take a little less time. So, during this inferior amout of time a little less messages came, etc… At the end it took only about 6 hours so it was enough for doing that the night of the migration. I also prevent a problem that would be catastrophic if not noticed. Indeed, POP3 uses special IDs, Wich are named IJID, to know which messages were already downloaded by the end-users.

If thoses I-JID are not synchronized between the old and the new system, then all users would have to download all their emails again. Those would be very unconvenient for end-users that use slow dial-up connections for instance and would result in a lot of phone calls. Besides that, everybody downloading all their mails would made a huge load on our server. Thanks to the fact that the old mail server kept those id directly in messages I was able to confgure the new system to use them. 13 2. 1. Address books In the old webmail their was address books.

I had to extract thoses, using Perl scripts, to put them in the new webmail database which use a different format. Old address books were stored in a different files and directory for each domain and we host about 200 domains… The new database of address books was really usefull for the new anti-spam system as I will explain there after. 2. 1. 5 Mailing lists7 They were also important mailing lists on the old mail server, used by to set them up on the new linux server. I did that manually and Just cut and past members’ email of each mailing lists.

The main part for this Job was to explain to each administrator of each list how the new system works. It was pretty successful. 2. 1. 6 Mail aliases (forwarding) I had to extract, using Perl scripts, each redirection rule in the 200 domains we host. That was not easy because the old system had different ways to store aliases. Most of them were stocked into the Windows registry and it was scriptable so. But for the other ones I had to extract them manualy using the GI-Jl. 2. 1. 7 Firewall and DNS8 preparation Because updating DNS for the new server can be pretty random, I prefered to use TCP redirections.

So if their was a problem, it would be for everybody and a lot more easy to fix. Also it would be possible to switch back to the old system really quick. The rollback possibility was really important and I take care of that in every step of the migration. mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. 8 The domain name system (DNS) stores and associates many types of information with domain names, but most importantly, it translates domain names (computer hostnames) to IP addresses.

It also lists mail xchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, DNS is an essential component of contemporary Internet use. 7A 14 I first updated DNS for all domains we host to point to a firewall that will do the redirection. I had to use bash and perl scripting to update all domains. Then, I did the switch on the router a few days after the DNS so I was sure that everybody was using the router. 2. 1. 8 The new system The new system improved a lot of things and I had a lot better control on what is going on with the system.

It allows access to more detailed log files. I was also able to set up some cron 9 tasks to email the hotline support about biggest mailboxes every week for instance or to email me the mailing lists activity or the backup results. Anti-spam Before, there was only greylisting thanks to a linux mail relay in front of the ‘Mail windows server. Because the new system is a linux system we were able to do the greylisting directly on the server. There was also blacklist like relays. ordb. org, an Open Relay DataBase or bl. spamcop. net, A fast and automatic list of servers reported to send spam.

But there was still spam so I setted up a statistical spam filter. Statistical filtering, once set up, requires no maintenance per se: instead, users mark messages as spam or nonspam and the filtering software learns from these Judgements. Thus, a statistical filter does not reflect the software author’s or administrator’s biases as to content, but it does reflect the user’s biases as to content; a biochemist who is researching Viagra won’t have messages containing the word “Viagra” flagged as spam, because “Viagra” will show up often in his or her legitimate messages.

A statistical filter can also respond quickly to changes in spam content, without administrative intervention. The task non-spam. It is really important to provide both spam and non-spam or the filtering would be catastrophic. The webmail provides a convenient way for end users to report messages as spam via an HTTP link. They do it well after we explained to them that doing so will reduce their amount of spam. cron server, found in Unix and Unix- like operating systems, is used to schedule commands to be executed periodically. A 15 The amount of spam reported decrease of 90% ! I assume that users receive 90% less spam than at the begining of the filter learning proccess. I had some congratulations from customers about that. For non-spam, I find out that all the address books that customers have in the webmail would be a good way to mark as non-spam messages coming from people in thoses address books. I did a script on the mail server that look into the address books database for every message comming in. If the expeditor is into an address book then the message will be marked as non-spam.

I used also what we call В«spam trapsВ». This is non-used mailboxes, with names choosen to be easily spammed like firstnames or В«infoВ», or В«contactВ», etc… All messages received from thoses mailboxes are then automatically reported as spam o the statistical filter. 16 Webmail The new webmail is Horde IMP which is a famous open source webmail. It is based on IMAP and allows customers to report problems easily, to manage their address book and folders and to report messages as spam.

They can also set up filtering using both withlist and blacklist but as far as the anti-spam is efficient enough they don’t use it so much. There is also online help but the system is pretty intuitive. I customized a little bit default options after getting some customers feedback. I had to write scripts to update the configuration database for each customers. 17 Administration interface The new administration interface is simple which is certainly the main quality of it. The old one was really slow. Now, this is more like a frontend on the backend database used by the mail system.

Here you can create, delete, and change password of those more than 2,000 accounts split on 200 domains different level of permissions. Indeed, I had to write scripts to extract kind of В«flagsВ» into the windows registry of the old system to distinguish normal user and administrators. On the new system, endusers can also change their password using a dedicated part of the administration interface. This is a security improvement (negligeable regarding the improvement from Windows to Linux) because it was not possible on the old system. 18 2. 1. Database and backups The new system use an SQL database to store encrypted passwords. The Postfix SMTP server and Dovecot POP3 server both use this database to check passwords. Thanks to this database, a backup of the accounts is made every day on another server. Because people don’t leave their messages in their mailboxes too long a bacup of them would be both difficult and not so usefull. 2. 1. 10 Conclusion The migration was a great success. Although I took all precautions there was still risks but I didn’t have to switch back to the old system.

The system is actually really stable and end-users are already used to it. Every day, domain’s administrators use the administration interface and end-users report spam via the webmail. There was a project to outsource the mail server to a dedicated hosting service but the project was canceled by my managers. Also, the greylisting was at first on a separate outsourced server but the company that was hosting this server disconnect it after a delay in their payment. I had to install the greylisting service on the new server and verything was fine but it was a huge change. 19 2. Web server migration (I’S, Frontpage, Webtrends and FTP) This task was less complex than the mail migration but the difficuly here was to find out a way to automatize the procedure to avoid errors and to get it done as soon as possible. For most of the tasks I found how to automatize the migration but for some others I had to do it manually. This project was also a good opportunity because I was not used to Windows servers. 2. 2. 1 Why When I arrived, the 11S web server (Microsoft Internet Information Services) had only one hard drive left out of the six slots available.

It was more than urgent to fix that because the single hard drive could die at any time, bringing in his death the hundreds of web sites we host. We host company’s website and shopping cart. Some of them process thousands of dollars a day. No need to say that any interruption of service would not be appreciated. Because it was too risky to put new hard drives and try a syncronisation with the one left, we set up a new server. I had to automatise as much as possible web domains creation. On top of domains thereselves there was a lot of related services like FTPIO,

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