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General Motors Corporation, hereafter referred to as GM, has an impressive history spanning over 100 years. According to GMs website, GM is the “global industry sales leader since 1931,” and their sales are representative of such a business. GM has a responsibility to its stakeholders to remain competitive and profitable. With the decline in the economy dating back to approximately year 2000 and the impact of rising fuel prices, GM found itself in a struggle to remain profitable. Losses in profit coupled with high inventory levels, GM recognized the need for an unprecedented sales promotion to empty its dealerships of the rapidly aging current year models. In June 2005, GM announced its “Employee Discount for Everyone” sales promotion. The results were phenomenal, as sales skyrocketed to record levels. The sales promotion was, indeed, without a doubt, a success. However, the sales promotion worked on the premises of discounting – a method which deteriorates brand image. The purpose of this paper is to redesign this sales promotion in an effort to not only sell vehicles, but also promote long term branding. Elements contained within this paper include: New Targeting, New Positioning, New Goals, New Messaging, New Creative, New Media Choice, and lastly Evaluation of Plan. All of which will be discussed in greater detail in their respective sections.
In order for GM to over come their tarnished image, they need to adopt a new promotional strategy and opt-out of their old discounting ways. GM needs to adopt a strategy that will enhance their brand image. They can do this with the following targeting and new promotion. The new target audience is full-nest families and the new promotion is aimed at building long term brand loyalty is through a built-in maintenance program.
To begin, GMs new promotion will not be discount orientated but instead one that will add value to their image. The idea behind the new sales promotion revolves around a maintenance program. The maintenance program is designed to provide the customer with an excellent protection/warranty plan. The maintenance program is not an additional expenditure for the customer because the cost of the program will be built into the overall sales price of the vehicle. The specifications of this plan include either 100,000 miles or 7 years of protection (which ever one comes first). The protection plan covers a huge array of parts and also services. These services include but are not limited to routine oil changes, schedule check ups, fluid flushes, and tire rotations. The services will be explained to the customer upon purchasing the vehicle along with guidance for when they need to come back for all the services.
With this new sales promotion, GM needs to segment properly in order to attract full nest families, the group for which their vehicles are intended to be sold to. A full nest family refers to any household which includes at least one or more children. GM would have the most success segmenting to this group because they have similar needs and lifestyles. Generally speaking, this segments lifestyle consists of sports, traveling, or just a means of transportation for several people. With this lifestyle, families need vehicles that can support such activities. GM can provide these families with solutions to their needs and lifestyles with all the vehicles they manufacture. This new segmentation will help GM target the proper market because most of their vehicles are sold to families with similar needs and lifestyles.
This sales promotion will provide many benefits to GM and the consumer. The benefits will include convenience, quality, and a better brand image. To begin, the maintenance program will be available to the customer anywhere. Meaning that if they are away from the dealership in which they purchased the vehicle, they can still get the free maintenance performed on their vehicles at another participating GM dealership. This provides convenience for the customer which results in the customer associating a better brand image about GM. Quality is also created with this program because the customer knows that skilled factory-trained service technicians, using the latest diagnostic tools and genuine GM parts, will be maintaining their vehicles. This promotion also acts as a catalyst to enhance GMs brand image, thereby achieving the goal of building brand loyalty. As stated above, GM has unfortunately labeled its brand image with connotations of being “cheap.” They did not intend to create this image but have with the discount sales promotions that they continually provide to consumers throughout recent years. By targeting to the new segment that was outlined above, GM will enhance its brand image for the following reasons. First, the people within this segment are always looking for deals and convenience because they have children. The lifestyles of full-nest families are such that they are very busy and for that reason they look for convenience as a top priority. With this promotion, GM is providing customers with many opportunities for convenience. For example, GM will inform customers when they need their next oil change so that they are not burdened to remember themselves. Thus this equals convenience! Another way GM will enhance their brand image in the minds of consumers is with money. Since the price of the maintenance program is already built into the sales price of the vehicle, consumers will not think that they are paying more for such a deal. When the consumers go have their oil change or routine tune-up performed by GM, there is no cost associated with the work. Thus, the consumers will think they are getting a great deal. This will result in positive associations with GMs brand image. All in all, these benefits to the consumer will create a good image of GM which is precisely the purpose of the new promotion and segmentation.
An impressive positioning strategy is imperative to survive in corporate America. Not only does positioning help retain existing customers and help gain new customers, it paves the way for strong growth by creating and adding value to the organization. “Positioning is the process of creating a perception in the consumers mind regarding the nature of a company and its products relative to the competition. Position is created by variables such as the quality of products, prices charged, methods of distribution, image and other factors.” Creating an effective positioning strategy is certainly not the easiest task, but it can be achieved in several different ways. In specific, GMs unique selling
Gms Vision And Innovation Of Gm People rice supplement essay help
General Moters Strategic Analyisis
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General Motors is committed to be a leader in providing transportation products and services of such quality that our customers will receive superior value, our employees and business partners will share our success and our shareholders will receive a sustained superior return on their investment.
Vision Statement –
Gms vision is to be the world leader in transportation products and related services. We will earn our customers enthusiasm through continuous improvement driven by the integrity, teamwork and innovation of GM people. Becoming the best is an unending journey, a constantly changing destination. But thats where were determined to drive – one car, one truck, one customer at a time.
Founded in 1908 General Motors immediately began manufacturing and selling their vehicles in several countries throughout the world. They quickly grew and shortly thereafter became the worldwide leader within the automotive industry. Due to the success of their business in 1919 GM decided to establish General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) in order to finance vehicles bought by their customers. Once again GM experienced success. The establishment of the GMAC has been extremely profitable over the years and currently makes up almost all of GMs profits. Throughout most of the 20th century GM has been at the forefront of innovation and technology inventing products such as the electric self-starter as well as developing popular vehicles such as the Suburban and Corvette. GM however, did not stop there. They also stressed the importance of service and customer care, and in 1926 created the first nationwide service policy to accommodate their Cadillac product. By 1938 GM was annually selling 350,000 cars outside the US and Canada. By 1976 they had produced over 100 million vehicles in the US and owned 47 percent of the US automobile market. As far GM was concerned they were the automotive leader and nothing was going to change that.
Today however, GM is in trouble. They are no longer the company that dominated the majority of the last century. Their share of the US market has decreased to roughly 26 percent, a number not to be ashamed of but a serious drop from 47 percent in the late 70s. In 2004 GMs current ratio was at 1.06, there ROE has dropped from 15% in 2003 to 10% in 2004, and their profit margin was about 1.5 %. As we can see these numbers do not indicate a stable company. It has not particularly been any one event that has caused GMs downfall, rather a combination of several factors. These factors include the increase in costs, such as supplies, fuel, healthcare, and pension payouts; the over dependence on the US market, their organizational structure, and most costly their inability to keep up with the alternative energy movement. During the late 90s early 2000s the automotive industry began to shift from the big gas guzzling vehicles to the smaller more compact fuel efficient vehicles, and or vehicles powered by alternative energy, i.e. hybrids. This was the result of both the continuing rise in gas prices, as well as the environmental issues that we now know of. GM however, did otherwise and did not develop a hybrid vehicle until 2004, five years after the release of Hondas Insight Hatchback. Now four years later they are fighting their way back, however competitors like Toyota, now the leader in hybrid vehicles is challenging GM for the largest automotive manufacturer in the world. The following sections will outline GMs current situation, both internally and externally, and will look to provided information helpful to General Motors strategic plans.
Alternative Energy Movement
It is obvious that GM was behind its competition with regards to the research and development of hybrid vehicles. However hybrid technology is still very much new giving GM the opportunity to once again become the automotive industrys leader in innovation and technology.
Continuing to Expand Globally.
Recently GM saw an increase in the Chinese automotive market, which proves there needs to be more emphasis put on foreign markets. If GM can infiltrate these markets and successfully grow along with their continuing focus on the US market they will be headed in a positive direction.
Low Interest Rates
With the right marketing strategy the low interest rates have the potential to generate an immediate increase in sales.
Develop New Vehicle Styles and Models
This is an opportunity that will never be satisfied, meaning that GM should always be attempting to develop the automotive worlds most popular vehicles, and as we know, what is in today will be out tomorrow.
Rising Fuel Prices
With GM being a large producer in both trucks and SUVs, sales have drastically decreased due to the lack of fuel efficiency. The rise in fuel prices has played a significant role in creating the opportunity for development of both hybrid and more fuel efficient vehicles. As you will find with most threats, an equal opportunity will usually emerge as is the case here with GMs opportunity mentioned above.
Growth of Competitors
GM no longer has the luxury of being the known leader in the automotive industry and faces the reality that they are in serious trouble. As I mentioned earlier Toyota took the first step in the direction of hybrid technology and has since drastically grown and become the questionable automotive frontrunner to start the 21st century.
Part of this threat is their own doing and the other is simply unavoidable. GM is responsible for providing generous pension benefits to its employees, which at the time seemed like a great idea, however they are now experiencing problems as more and more people begin to collect.
Increased Health Care Costs
GM, like many large companies with quality employee health care benefits, is experiencing a large financial hit that only gets worse as time continues.
Rising Supply Costs, i.e. Steel
Once again this threat affects the entire automotive industry and forces each company
Empiricism Work And Philosophy Of Social Science narrative essay help: narrative essay help
There is an on-going debate within the philosophy of social science, regarding the relationship between the natural and social sciences. This discussion stems from opposing viewpoints as to how studies of the world around us should be conducted. The job of science is to explain and make predictions regarding our realties, and researchers in the natural and social sciences have distinct views regarding that method. The natural sciences are focused on the causal nature of phenomena and they believe that the best way to discover these causes is through quantitative, analytical and impartial studies. The belief is that this brings them as close to the “reality of truth” as possible within an experimental environment. Social science theory on the other hand, deems the natural sciences as clinical and dismissive of meaningful explanations. Societal studies should involve reflective interpretations. It is apparent that all social researchers agree that the social sciences should be studied; Disagreement occurs regarding the methods chosen to study it. The United Nations is an entity that was created because all of its members agreed on the attainment of world peace and harmony. Problems have arisen regarding the pathways to achieve those goals, since every country has defined its own beliefs regarding policies and procedures. Likewise the social sciences face similar challenges from the differences in the use of language in studies, and how the resulting conclusions are communicated to others. Many scholars in the natural sciences believe that the social sciences are methodically similar. But can social science fit into a naturalist attitude? Can natural methods really benefit social sciences? Can there be a unity of science? How can hard” empiricism work for the study of a human condition which is “dynamic” in nature? How is the study of politics affected by these questions? This essay looks at these topics through the lenses of positivism, a study that embraced the views of the natural sciences.
Sir Francis Bacon once said, ” To study nature you must consult nature, not Aristotle”. The realist perspective of positivism fulfills Bacons request. Positivism places particular emphasis on the sense experience of observable facts. The Vienna Circle, a group of positivists from the early 20th century, dismissed metaphysics as not having an important role in research. They believed that all statements could be reduced to a definitive mimetic, or that is to say, an actual reflection of human experience. But how can we measure experience? The answer according to a tenet of positivist theory is through empirical analysis, changing the observable into the verifiable. Emile Durkheim, a positivist from the late 18th Century, believed that the only way to measure science was by separating the individual from the State. His work, “Suicide”, established empiricism within sociology, which would describe phenomena strictly in sociological terms.
Income Statements And Common Income Statements cbest essay help
General Motors Case
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By comparing General Motors and Toyotas 2004 and 2005 income statements and balance sheets, one can begin to learn how two companies in the same sector have vastly different financial situations. We will begin by converting the current income statements and balance sheets into common income statements and balance sheets, which will allow us to compare on a percentage basis instead of whole dollars. We will look at both firms profits and any differences. We will analyze any differences that may account for the problems of General Motors relative to Toyota. We will calculate the free cash flows for both firms and compare the findings. We will also provide additional internet research about the differences between the two firms in 2005 and continuing into 2006, as well as an update on how the two companies are performing today.
Figure 3.1 represents a side by side comparison of the 2004 and 2005 income statements for Toyota and General Motors. Both companies reported a positive net income in 2004, however General Motors later reported a negative net income in 2005.
For the years ending 2004 and 2005
Cost of goods sold
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
Depreciation and amortization
Figure 3.2 represents a side by side comparison of Toyota and General Motors balance sheets for 2004 and 2005. Interestingly, Toyotas total assets and liabilities are less than 50% of General Motors.
Annual Balance Sheet ($ millions)
At 12/31/2004 and 12/31/2005
Cash & equivalents
Other current assets
Total current assets
Gross plant, property & equipment
Net plant, property & equipment
Other current liabilities
Total current liabilities
Long term notes
Other long-term liabilities
Total liabilities and equity
To convert the income statement to a common income statement, one must convert the dollars reported into percentages of Total Sales. Figure 3.3 shows the common income statement for both firms and Figure 3.4 shows the common balance sheet for both firms.
Common-Sized Income Statement
Cost of goods sold
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
Depreciation and amortization
Common-Sized Income Statement
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board And Audit Behavior college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper
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Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper
Auditing is indispensable for todays economic activities. According to Boynton and Johnson (2006), auditing is defined as “a systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between those assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested users.” (p. 6). In 2003, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) has developed 10 generally accepted standards to regulate the audit behavior, which are known as Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS).
The 10 GAAS can be summarized into three categories:
Auditors performing the audit are required high professional education and enough training in expertise area.
Auditors must maintain an independent position and exclude outside influences to objectively perform the audit and report the auditing results.
Auditors are required to be rigorous and prudent no matter they are in the process of carrying out audit, or presenting conclusion report.
Standards of Field Work
Sufficient planning and appropriate supervision could make audit more efficient.
Auditors are required to understand the factors that could be impact on the risk of substantial misstatement in the entity.
Auditors opinion should be supported by adequate proficient audit evidence
Standards of Reporting
Auditors are required to ascertain whether the financial statements meet the principles of GAAP.
Auditors report must maintain consistency in applying GAAP.
Auditors are required to reveal the informative disclosure to the financial statements in their reports.
Auditors are required to address their opinion regarding the financial statements.
Financial audit is an audit of financial statements. In most states, only certified public accountants (CPAs) can conduct audit on the financial statements by law. To implement independence in mental attitude, a company usually hires an external firm to give an outside opinion of its financial statements.
Operational audit is testing the efficiency and effectiveness of a companys operating activities. (Kinyo, 2012, para.8) This type audit relies on standards of field work to evaluate the companys internal system and procedures, and employ the standard of reporting to express the auditors opinion on those reports.
According to Rouse (2010), “a compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organizations adherence to regulatory guidelines.”(para.1) therefore, the GAAS element of standard of reporting will be implemented to determine if the company in accordance with the GAAS criteria in its economic activities.
In response to a series of sensational financial scandals, known as Enron/Andersen
Us Automobile Industry And Biggest Single Day Loss descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
General Motors Problems
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US automobile industry began at the end of the 1800s and by the 1890s one out of seven jobs and one out of six businesses owed their existence to the automobile. Also this industry was the largest single customer for many raw materials but now With analysts debating whether or not the American economy is already in a recession, the big three automakers in the US especially General Motors are sharply scaling back production. The facts described by Danny Hakim in an article (G.M. Sees a Loss Near $1 Billion; Stock Falls 14%) published in NYtimes on March 17, 2005 say that announcement by GM about losses of almost a billion dollars for last six month dropped its share to the lowest level in more than a decade. Also it is considered to be ever biggest single day loss since 1987, as GMs share lost 35 points on Dow Jones. GM once considered as strongest among big three is now way behind in the race with the plans to cut off 10% production of cars in North America. Investors have lost their confidence in GM. Market researchers and analysts are also waving red flags. Main reasons for GM crisis are crucial home industry and increasing health care cost, as company is providing health coverage to almost 1.1 million people in America. Despite all these facts, companys chief executive Mr. Wagoner has neither yet announced any serious plans to overcome this situation nor has he shown any intention to change their corporate strategy.
Globalization is the first concept which could be related to this article. Due to globalization, markets have expanded but these expended markets are now contributing towards the economic problems of the United States. US companies especially the auto industry are no longer enjoying monopolistic powers in business world. Local auto industry is facing a big threat from foreign companies like Toyota, Nissan and Honda.
General Motors, which controlled nearly half the American market as recently as late 1970s, is now finding it difficult to manage in new competitive environment and its market share has fallen to one quarter in February. Company is broadly struggling and Toyota is more likely to displace GM in next few years to be number one in auto industry. No doubt GM is innovative in models and designs but brands like Pontiac, Buick and Saturn are not appealing customers any more, described by J. D. Power & Associates, the quality and customer satisfaction analyst. Ronald Tadross, an analyst at
Manufacturers Of Ford And Supplier Relations college essay help
General Motors – Just in Time
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The global automobile industry has become increasingly competitive and the previously dominant “Big Three” manufacturers of Ford, General Motors (GM) and Daimler Chrysler have lost much of their market share to their Japanese competitors. Manufacturers continually have to look toward lowering their costs and GM and Ford largely go about doing this through their purchasing practices, more specifically, their supply chain management.
In this paper, we shall discuss our findings on the different practices of Ford and GM (the carmakers) on how they get the most out of suppliers in terms of price, quality, timeliness and other expectations. We will further discuss the implications of their current strategies, short term future plans and supplier relations before deciding on whether Ford or GM would potentially make a better working partner for suppliers.
CARMAKERS AND SUPPLIERS
The automobile industry has seen a great shift in the way business is conducted over the past few decades. Gone are the days where the manufacture and assembly of parts and the sales functions were all done in-house. Today, Ford and GM are highly dependant on external parties to supply them individual parts and sub-assemblies (suppliers) and take care of their sales functions (dealers). The carmakers challenge these days is to coordinate and manage the complex supply chain network where the quality of the partners they work with would determine the carmakers ultimate performance.
To manage these vast networks, Ford and GM have turned to the internet as a solution. In 2000, Ford and GM were part of an initiative that set up Covisint , an online portal where OEMs and their suppliers could interact under a common infrastructure and carry out their business transactions. The use of such portals meant that OEMs and registered suppliers could easily have access to each others information in the form of online catalogs, real-time inventory levels, contract bidding auctions and other cooperative applications.
Presently, Ford and GM continue to use such portals in the form of the Ford Supplier Portal and GM SupplyPower . These portals have enhanced information flow and feedback between carmakers and suppliers and allowed the carmakers to announce supplier requirements and tender contracts. Interactions with each individual supplier have also been reduced, saving much time and paperwork. Such portals also represent doorway to new and lower cost supply markets (China) which the OEMs might not have been able to reach previously due to geographical distance.
OBTAINING BETTER PRICES:
For Ford and GM, one of the biggest cost drivers would be the price at which supplies are obtained. The sheer volume of automobile parts demanded by them each year put them in extremely powerful positions to negotiate supplier contracts aggressively. Some of the smaller suppliers supply almost exclusively to the two companies and their business survival depends on totally on contracts with them. Ford and GM have in the past leveraged on such positions to demand two digit price cuts knowing that suppliers would likely accede and not want than to risk financial ruin like the bankruptcy of Tower Automotive . For example, GM inserts clauses into contracts that allow them to switch supplier by giving a 30-days of notice if another supplier offers a better rate.
Ford and GM are also known to place parts requirements on their portals for suppliers to bid for the contracts. This is done on a reverse auctions basis where the lowest unique bid wins the contract . This ensures that the suppliers are obtained at the lowest possible cost without overpaying.
GM expects their suppliers to provide competitive pricing – assist in providing substantial cost reduction when demanded. GM launched a three-year cost-cutting strategy possibly starting in 2007; transferring the stress to their suppliers to fulfil their cost-cutting plans. The suppliers would have to set up factories in low-cost countries such as Brazil, China, Honduras and India in order to attempt to reduce costs. It should be noted that suppliers are still in the midst of a previous three-year cost reduction programme implemented by GM, which was targeted at reducing the global purchasing bill of $85 billion by 20 percent . This continuous pressure to cut cost resulted in a widening rift between suppliers and GM as they struggle to remain competitive with the rising raw material costs and drop in sales with the automakers.
Similarly, Ford had announced plans in 2000 to require their suppliers to relocate to a supplier complex next to their assembly plant. The aim was to reduce cost when shipping parts from suppliers to Fords assembly plant. Other benefits include better coordination of the flow of vehicle parts where the supplier will only transfer the parts when Ford needs them, thereby cutting down the holding cost for Ford.
Ford launched their Aligned Business Framework in 2005 to align themselves with their suppliers, designers and assembly personnel in the pursuit of sustainable profitability. A big part of the Framework is to cut down the number of suppliers and lower cost by giving business to suppliers that can supply parts to them at the lowest prices, naming them Preferred Suppliers.
Ford also pushed for Team Value Management (TVM) between them and their suppliers. The goal is to further reduce costs for both of them, in particular material costs. This involves joint effort to monitor and find cost efficiencies. This is an ongoing process that requires openness on the suppliers part, allowing Ford to scrutinize their operations closely. Ford will leverage on its global reach to find the lowest metal prices and technological innovations for its suppliers .
The carmakers have not only sought to get the best prices for themselves through aggressive contract terms, they have tried to help (and in certain instances) force their suppliers into cost cutting measures after which they would demand for even lower prices from their suppliers.
SEEKING FOR BETTER QUALITY:
GM had a “zero-defects mentality” and viewed any disruptions caused by quality defects as more than lost time. The spillover effects like affected staff morale were equally important to them. To establish the fundamental quality expectations for suppliers, Ford, GM and Chrysler developed the QS-9000 certification which has now been superseded by the ISO/TS 16949:2002 . All suppliers would have to obtain the certification before any supplier contracts were to be awarded. In the case of GM, suppliers who found to be non-compliant to strict quality of products
Global Communications And Toyota Motors academic essay help: academic essay help
Essay Preview: Generic Benchmarking
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The companies, IBM and Toyota Motors, have had to address similar issues that Global Communications is experiencing in becoming more profitable while competing globally in their respective industry. IBMs challenge is to retain key talent while downsizing staff and outsourcing jobs to India so they can increase market share to the approval of the shareholders. However, an IBM employee has shared that his creative approach to remain with the company by offering to pay his own relocation costs to India to remain with the company has fallen on deaf ears. He attempted in various electronic forms and phone call attempts to all levels of management to present his idea and was pretty much given the so-called runaround. This is an excellent example in identifying problems with hierarchical communication within a company and their avoidance management techniques. The Global Communications Senior Leadership team did offer in their solution to pay relocation costs to retain key talent as long as the employees were willing to take a 10% cut in salary. However, this was offered without any employee and/or union leadership in the planning stages.
Toyota Motors addressed their global competitive issues in more of an open environment approach by following their vision and principle statements of trusting and respecting all levels of labor and management in the planning and decision making process. By following these basic principle tools of communication, Toyota Motors has become number one in the world in sales with the approach of all stakeholders being able to provide input in problem solving. Global Communications can utilize this valuable lesson and place it into practice so that they can increase their market share and profits. This will provide all stakeholders a win-win and not a win-lose situation
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General Motors Case Study
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General Motors, an American-based automotive manufacturer with a large global presence, has long held a large share of the worldwide automotive market. Despite its market position and reputation for quality, the company has recently begun to struggle with new competitors in the Asian Pacific region, which has pushed their needs to develop new manufacturing technologies, as well as to better control costs and quality in its American manufacturing facilities.
Beginning in the 1970s, several nations of the Asian Pacific region, most notably Japan and South Korea, emerged as economic powerhouses. As their manufacturing bases matured, they entered the automotive industry and began to present new challenges as well as new opportunities for General Motors. GM would need to find a successful formula for doing business in this region, as well as develop and adopt innovations that would help it improve its manufacturing operations elsewhere.
In this Case Study, we will examine the facts, the problems, identify the core problems in how General Motors has managed its business alliances in with Asian partner companies, and offer our recommendations how General Motors can best master the challenges of doing business in the East and fully benefit from its joint ventures.
I. THE FACTS
Toyota and NUMMI: In Japan, Toyota was the heavyweight of the automotive industry, controlling over fifty percent of the entire Japanese auto market, and eight percent of the total world market, making it the worlds third largest automotive manufacturer, behind only Ford and General Motors. Toyota presided over a tight confederation of companies, known as a keiretsu where a major manufacturer, such as Toyota, presides over a “pyramid” with the primary manufacturer on top, and several tiers of suppliers below. Unlike General Motors, who held seventy percent vertical integration with its global network of partnerships, alliances, and joint ventures, Toyota only had thirty percent vertical integration in its affiliations, but still managed to have many long-lasting and stable partnerships with its suppliers.
Keiretsus were vast and closely-allied corporate partnerships which evolved from the pre-World War II zaibatsus, giant industrial conglomerates that dominated the nations pre-war economy and politics, but were broken up during by the post-war United States-run Occupation authority. These networks were bound by complex and long-lasting arrangements, often minority equity ownership by the company at the top of the keiretsu. The member firms often plan strategies jointly, share information and technology, pooled resources, and in times of trouble, take on employees from each others firms. Normally, memberships in these keiretsus are long-lasting and change very little, creating high levels of trust and stability within these confederations, as well as a strong sense of common purpose.
Toyotas keiretsu is dominated by the companys well-refined production and supply system, operated almost entirely within Toyota City, a large and well-integrated complex of assembly and supplier plants in Japan. The “kanban” or “just-in-time system” is a tightly controlled distribution system which routes parts directly from suppliers to the assembly plants, as needed, reducing inventory and delivery times, as well as the storage space needed to hold excess inventory. This fast-moving supply system was famous for keeping costs and needed inventory levels low, while helping identify and eliminate distribution bottlenecks and increasing accountability among suppliers.
Toyota, in spite of its domestic dominance, had taken a conservative approach to new ideas, including overseas expansion. Typically, the manufacturer was content to allow other Japanese competitors to make the first moves with new products, as well as expanding overseas. However, in 1983, Toyota entered the U.S. market with a manufacturing partnership with General Motors. Funded with $100 million each from General Motors and Toyota, they set the joint venture up in a GM plant in Fremont, California that had been shuttered in the 1970s, New American Manufacturing Incorporated (NUMMI) would produce cars for both companies for sale in the United States.
The NUMMI operation, which barely received FTC approval in a 3-2 vote, would be governed by its own board of directors, appointed in equal numbers by GM and Toyota. Toyota would name the ventures president, CEO, and other top officers, while GM was allowed to appoint no more than sixteen executives to the plant at any given time. UAW members would staff the plants production facilities. In exchange for FTC approval, the joint venture would only be allowed to run until 1996.
General Motors had two primary reasons for entering the NUMMI venture: to gain access to a small car to help expand its marketing mix, and to learn about the famous Toyota Production System, with the goal of being able to incorporate both into their operations. Toyota had its own motive: to get around the voluntary export restraints agreed to by the Japanese government by manufacturing inside the United States. Some also speculated this venture was to enable the company, which was the last Japanese automaker to set up operation in the United States, to familiarize itself with manufacturing and doing business in the United States towards the goal of establishing a much-larger long-term presence there.
Plans called for the plant to manufacture approximately 200,000 vehicles a year, for which Toyota would supply the major components, NUMMI would provide stamping and assembly operations, and other parts and components would be supplied by United States-based suppliers. Production would start with a compact car that has been manufactured and sold by Toyota in Japan as the Sprinter, but branded in the United States as the Chevrolet Nova.
While the NUMMI plant would be operated with American labor, it would be operated with Japanese management and by Japanese management principles. Many of the first employees at the plant had visited Toyota City for extensive training in the Toyota system, incentives would be provided to encourage workers to train to handle multiple jobs, and much of the day-to-day decision-making was to be delegated to small employee-led teams. The Just-in-Time supply chain system used in Toyota City would be implemented at this facility along with Toyotas stringent quality-control standards for its suppliers.
The results of the implementation of these management practices at the NUMMI facility were mixed. GMs quality audits gave the plant very high ratings, and while some suppliers complained about the high quality
Global Communications And Mutual Support admission essay help
Generic Benchmarking: Global Communications
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Generic Benchmarking: Global Communications
Global Communications has several problems facing it due to their need to cut cost and partnership with the introduction of new services. I choose to focus on two issues facing Global Communications and used generic benchmarking to find possible solutions. The issues faced were not unique to Global Communications and in fact are common in the business world. The issues were cutting cost and introduction of new services.
Microsoft and Compaq partner together to make personal computer easier to use in order to become competitive in the personal computer market. The two companies say the comprehensive agreement, called the Frontline Partnership, details a commitment from both companies to work together to develop products that are the easiest to use and the simplest to install, with the best performance and value in the industry.
Many computer users hesitate to add components to their computers because making the two operate together was almost impossible. With Intel microprocessor chips and Microsoft software adding components could be simple as “plug and play”. Plug and Play, a concept that allows the user to remove a computer system from the box, connect the necessary cables, and have everything work correctly through automatic recognition and configuration of the hardware and software. Linking any devices together in a simple manner will be come the new standard.
In order to make the Partnership and the new products a success there has to be effective communication between the two organizations. As discussed in our course material chapter 15: Organizational Communication in the Internet Age the Microsoft and Compaq displayed perceptual model of communication . Sending and Encoding messages was critical to the communication process ( “Communication begins when a sender encodes an idea or thought. Encoding translates mental thoughts into a code or language that can be understood by others”).
The two companies will participate in mutual support and marketing programs, including the sharing of technical support information, cross-training of the respective sales organizations, and the assignment of full-time marketing managers. The two companies will maintain a joint database to track support calls received from Microsoft and Compaq customers, which could lead to suggestions for new features in either companys products.
Process Metaphysics And Essay Process Metaphysics college essay help free: college essay help free
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What exactly is the fundamental structural of the world? The question conveys a tremendous amount of enormity. The question is so weighty that perhaps it is unanswerable. Nonetheless, many brave philosophers and branches of philosophy have made many brave attempts. One particular field is process metaphysics. Process metaphysics views the structure of reality as one of change and process. All entities in the world possess processes and are contributing to a larger process, reality. Another metaphysician, E.J. Lowe provides some interesting thoughts about the structure of reality as well. When comparing the two types of metaphysical studies, one can see process metaphysics, although not totally complete and error free, a more viable form of metaphysical study.
Process metaphysics is concerned with what exists in the world and with what terms this reality is to be understood. The guiding force behind this concept is that reality and nature is to be explained in terms of processes and not actual objects. For process metaphysicians, change of all sorts is the predominant quality of reality. Process metaphysics, or philosophy, is opposed to placing processes in some type of order or hierarchy, or by subjugating processes to objects. Process metaphysics is intent upon seeing process as a definitive and an essential aspect of everything that exists. For the process metaphysician, all that exists in nature is not just originated or sustained by processes, but is characterized by them. The process metaphysician believes that the end result of the process gives us insight into the nature of reality. Process metaphysics emphasizes that processes are basic and can be derived from external elements because it takes a mental process in order to separate objects from the worlds physical processes. For a process metaphysician, a thing consists in what it does. (Kraus pp. 1-9)
A process entails three different qualities. A process is complex in that it is a union or combination of different components and phases. A process is always a matter of “now this, now that.” The second quality illustrates that this process, or complex, has a “certain temporal coherence or unity.” Therefore, process has a temporal dimension that cannot be eliminated. Lastly, all processes have structure or a shape or format that they adhere to. (Kraus pp. 1-9)
A process philosophy involves certain basic notions and propositions in its study of reality. Time and change are among the basic metaphysical categories. Process is a “principal category of ontological description.” Process is more or equally fundamental to actual objects and entities. Many elements, such as people, material items, nature, and God, are best understood in process related terms. Finally, “contingency, novelty, emergence, and creativity,” are fundamental factors in understanding metaphysics, and as a result our understanding of the real. (Kraus pp. 1-9)
The process metaphysician will point to many different areas of study, in particular science, in providing justification for their ideals. Twentieth century physics has shed new light on the study of atomism. Instead of small elements, or atoms, combining to produce processes, the study has shifted to emphasizing that very small processes occur that produce elements. Process metaphysicians also point to evolution as another defense for their arguments about reality. If it were not for the process of evolution, philosophy would not exist. Evolution is a reflection of the process metaphysical emphasis on the importance of process in determining the structure of the world. Evolution is a symbol of how significant process is in comprehending the nature of the world and reality. Evolution implies change, and since it implies change it is inferring a level of instability. Certainly, the idea of change, according to the process metaphysician, is a key element in all process, since a process entails phases. Different phases depict a type of change has occurred, otherwise how would one distinguish between phases? (Kraus pp. 60-69)
The process metaphysician is clearly a proponent of evolution and views it as a process occurring in nature. However, process metaphysicians have differing views of nature. One sect is of the opinion that a type of inner push or drive exists in nature that can allow further developments and change. The other view is a teleological view. This is a theological perspective that sees natures processes directed toward a positive destination. Both share the view that there is a type of centrality or source of what occurs within nature. The naturalist perspective views this focus in terms of a type of randomness or element of chance that strays away from theories and formulations that were derived in the past. The teleological perspective views the drive in nature has something predetermined or pre-established by a type of force
Data Doctor Password And Recovery Software get essay help
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Did someone hacked or cracked your Gmail, Yahoo, Hotmail account or indiatimes, msn, rediffmail email ID password. Data Doctor password unmask, recovery software recovers accidentally lost or forgotten encrypted characters hidden behind the asterisk****. Tool support different versions of Windows operating systems like XP, 98, 2003, 2000, ME, NT for the retrieval of coded character temporarily stored inside the cookies which are set to these OS supported system. Restore saved coded characters of Excel, VBA project, Office XP, Office 2003, Power Point, Outlook and Access. Software fetch the encrypt character saved inside the text fields of various softwares such as FTP, FlashFXP, SmartFTP and CuteFTP. Utility is read only, non destructive and gives user compatible GUI (graphical user interface) so that users can work easily only by dragging the pointer over the asterisks typed inside the password text field. Unmask tool secure the machine from different ways of hacking like HTTP, FTP, NetBIOS, ICMP Ping, rpc.statd. Unhide the user and owner password which provides the standard security to prevent PDF files from copying, printing, and editing. Features: * Decode the coded user and owner password which provides the standard security to prevent PDF files from copying, printing, and editing. * Support different versions of windows operating systems like Windows ME, NT, XP, 2000, 98, 2003. * Restore saved encrypted characters of Excel, VBA project, Office XP, Office 2003, Power Point, Outlook and Access. * Tool unhides the yahoo, hotmail, gmail, indiatimes, rediffmail, msn account password. * Software fetch the encrypt character saved inside the text fields of various Softwares such as FTP, FlashFXP, SmartFTP and CuteFTP.
Global Communications And General Motors grad school essay help: grad school essay help
Generic Benchmarking for Global Communications
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Running Head: GENERIC BENCHMARKING FOR GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS
Generic Benchmarking for Global Communications
Lisa Harman, Erica James, Mike Jefferies
University of Phoenix
Dr. Tom Riggins, Ph.D.
Generic Benchmarking for Global Communications
Global Communications is facing many challenges with their new vision. By looking at how other companies have addressed these issues and the corresponding outcomes, Global Communications will be able to make educated decisions on the steps they will need to take.
Three major challenges face Global Communications. Organizational communication is the first. This entails issues such as language or personal barriers and choosing the right channels to communicate information effectively internally and externally. The second challenge is the emotions that play into these decisions. Many different types of emotions and attitudes will be present among the managers, employees and in the community. How Global Communications deals with these emotions will be very important to the success of their transition. The last issue is that of the organizations commitment. Global Communications needs a method for maintaining job satisfaction and customer satisfaction while implementing their solutions.
Six different companies have been used to benchmark Global Communications challenges. They include Pfizer, General Motors, Delta Airlines, Toyota, Caterpillar Inc. and Ford Motor Company. While each company has faced similar issues, there are varying approaches. Global Communications will benefit from evaluating each and selecting which methods will work best given the situation and circumstances.
A great deal of documentation exists proving communication is key to the success of any organization, especially those undergoing change. This has become even more evident after researching six companies that all faced dilemmas comparable to what Global Communications is currently experiencing. Although all had variations in their strategy as well as results, one common thread remained: communication was key to achieving the desired results. The better the communication was with each other and with employees, the better the outcome.
The synopsis on General Motors shows they faced a similar situation when it appeared they might be better off closing a plant and opening a new one in another country. For General Motors, their commitment to communicating with the workforce ultimately resulted in a win-win for everybody. Through negotiations they were able create an environment where the employees were working toward a common goal in order to maximize the potential payoff for themselves while easing the company into the change they wanted.
By contrast, the other companies used communication to help avoid possible loss of jobs. Pfizer, Delta Airlines and Toyota all decided to create environments in which their employees were able to take some kind of ownership of what change would look like within the company. All showed a strong commitment toward making their employees feel as if they were important to the success of the organization. Pfizer allowed workers to come up with ways to save the company money, Deltas management took pay cuts right alongside their workers, and Toyota took time to teach each employee “The Toyota Way”, which fostered a sense of pride in their work. Each of the companies drew a connection between managers and subordinates for a common purpose and used communication to ensure that everyone understood each others commitment to the final product. Ford and CAT maintained open negotiations with the workforce which resulted in the restructuring of the job duties and plants. This process of give and take allowed for both parties to achieve a sense of success and accomplishment.
Global Communication is now faced with an important choice. Should they communicate that a decision has been made to close U.S. call centers and get feedback from employees on how the move could best be handled? Or, should they return to the drawing board and see if workers may be able to offer alternatives to the closures? With any option, communication about the ultimate choice will be important in gaining commitment from the organization. Job satisfaction of the employees will be directly related to the effectiveness of the communication strategy, which includes media, timing and the actual message.
“Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself- and others.” (McShane & VonGlinow, 2005, p.15). Whenever a company is about to undergo change, it is important to be aware of how individuals directly involved may feel about the change and what steps can be taken to recognize and possibly mitigate issues that arise due to the emotion of the situation. “Thats because the emotions people experience and their judgments about various aspects of work make a difference in the organizations performance, customer loyalty, and employee well-being.” (McShane & VonGlinow, 2005, p.2). Over time, when a company does a good job of managing emotions and change, inspiring others and supporting teamwork and collaboration, they will be rewarded with employees who have a positive attitude toward the organization and the different characteristics of it. This is referred to as Relationship Management under the wider umbrella of Emotional Intelligence and it takes practice to develop.
The six companies researched have different levels of maturity when it comes to emotional intelligence. For the purposes of this exercise, three categories are used: reactive, proactive, and defuse. General Motors (GM) and Delta airlines recognized they had to find a way to keep their employees happy despite layoffs, pay cuts, and changes in benefits. In order to plan their strategy on how to do that they first had to understand how employees would react to the announcement of the changes. After taking an in-depth look at possible reasons employees would be upset, they each devised a strategy to counter those emotions. General Motors knew they could not avoid layoffs and that unless they found a way to give the disgruntled employees an inventive to work hard, production
Apple Became And Steve Wozniak popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
How Apple Became Successful?
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Apple was founded by three friends with a few dreams. Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, shared a love for technology and had a knack for being innovative. Together they built a brand that would dominate the world of computers and technology. Steve Jobs is primarily the face of Apple. He served as the founder and CEO of the company. As with any organization, Apple as a company had its share of low points before reaching to the top totem pole. At its all-time lowest, and facing bankruptcy, Apple was not afraid to take risks and reinvent the brand. The company started out focusing on computers, and in the midst of adversity, it shifted its focus on being creative and innovative in ways that their competitors could not imagine. The company thought of ways to expand and how to create smaller, sleek and esthetically attractive products. Apple now serves as a marketplace for music, cell phones, tablets, iPads, iPods, pc’s, multimedia, retail and so much more. The company utilized a strategic business plan and invested in its talented employees and re invested in Steve Jobs who was one of the original founders to achieve success. As stated on sucessstory.com, “Steve Jobs Apple’s cofounder and CEO stated that the goal of Apple wasn’t simply to create great products, but to create a lasting company that would influence the world for generations.” I believe that Apple utilized its resources well, recognized when to take risks and created a talented team of people that worked together to achieve organizational success. Through the use information, information technology and people, Apple has accomplished remarkable achievements that are standing strong today as the largest technology company in the world.
Apple Inc Success Story. (2017). Retrieved from:
Writing Qualities And Research Papers essay help fairfax
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My Writing Qualities
When done well, writing can take you to anyplace, anytime, without ever having to leave your couch. Writers can inspire, teach, and provide an escape for their readers. I hope that this class will help me improve my writing abilities, so that I can more easily prepare essays, and complete my assignments in a better timeframe. I am also eager to see if this class will help me improve my work on papers that I dont usually do well on, like research papers and essays about history.
One strength I feel I possess in my writing is my ability to express feeling and emotion. I have been keeping a journal since I was in elementary school, and feel that it has helped me in that area of my writing. Being able to write how I feel, or how I see others feeling, has helped me cope with a lot of dilemmas. I am hoping this course will improve my writing, and show me new ways to express feelings on paper.
Researching information for papers has always been en enjoyable experience for me, so I feel that this would be another strength of mine. I am very interested in learning new things, and sometimes wouldnt normally have a reason to learn about some of the different topics unless I had to for a class. Searching the Internet, going to the library, and reading magazines looking for information, and then putting all of my gathered I hope I can better my skills in gathering information in this class when we work on our research paper. Information together to make an informative paper is very rewarding for me. I always hope that someone else will read it, and gain an interest in something that they normally wouldnt. I am hoping to be able to use these skills on a research paper later in this class.
As far as weaknesses in my writing, I definitely feel that procrastination is a problem. I have gotten better in the past two years, but I always seem to put off the actual completion phase of the assignment until the last minute. Hopefully this class will help motivate me to start putting my paper together
Response Row And Task A narrative essay help: narrative essay help
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Learning Team B
Submitted July 10, 2006
Task A: Problem/Opportunity Statement
Instructions for Task A: In the Response row, write out the problem/opportunity statements for the scenario for each of the team members.
Response to Task A: Global Communications can use global outsourcing to cut costs and become an industry leader.
Generic Benchmarking–The purpose of generic benchmarking is to identify potential solutions to the problem statements defined in Task A. You will do this by looking at how companies in other industries have dealt with similar issues.
Task B1: Generic Benchmarking: Topics
Instructions for Task B1: In the Response row, identify the topics for which you need information in order to identify potential solutions to the problems identified in Task A.
In the Response row, list three to five topics that you will research in peer-reviewed journals, on Web sites, and in popular publications such as magazines and newspapers.
In the Response row, provide a justification for each topic.
Response to Task B1: Global Outsourcing
Task B2: Generic Benchmarking: Companies
Instructions for Task B2: In the Response row, identify companies that have faced and addressed similar situations (successfully and unsuccessfully).
In the Response row, list two to three companies for each topic identified in Task B1.
In the Response row, identify those companies that have been successful and those that have been unsuccessful.
In the Response row, summarize your key findings for each company as they relate to the scenario.
Response to Task B2:
Task B3: Generic Benchmarking: References
Instructions for Task B3: In the Response column, list each reference using APA format.
Response to Task B3:
Genetic Screening And Valuable Information english essay help
Genetic Screening in the Work Place
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Genetic Screening in the Workplace
Workplace gene screening can be used to ferret out the weakest candidates for employment and minimize the related costs of decreased productivity, health insurance, retraining, relocation, and improvement of working conditions. The issue of genetic discrimination involves a severe conflict of interests. On one hand, the defenders of human rights proclaim that excluding workers from jobs on the basis of their genetic make up is immoral and threatens the life chances of large groups of people. On the other side, employers have a legitimate interest in hiring healthy workers to ensure high productivity and soaring profits. From their perspective, genetic prejudice is economically efficient.
In my paper, I will argue that testing for genetic abnormalities is ethically unwarranted. It concerns not only the invasion of privacy but also the unjust ostracism of individuals arising from a genetic contingency which is beyond their control. In addition, technology still cannot precisely predict the outcome of a disease and its degree of severity, hence perfect discrimination is not feasible. I will use this to prove that the testing procedure allows the waste of highly capable workforce.
For the purpose, I will first trace the advancements in genetic research and screening practices to point out the technical and causal limitations on the scientific prediction of critical outcomes. Second, I will highlight how depending on the reason for conducting genetic screening and the underlying conditions, it can be viewed as beneficial, practical, promoting public safety, or unethical. Further, I will focus on the concrete ethical implications of genetic screening and discuss how technology blurs the notions of genetic susceptibility to a disorder and the inevitability of a disease. In this context, I will refer to Gilles Deleuzes understanding of the modern control societies where individuals become dividuals, and masses – samples. As a result, risk assessment is based on belonging to a certain group, and probability statistics are used to justify decisions. An illustration of my point is the film Gattaca, which exemplifies the outcomes of employing genetic prejudice to able individuals.
Genetic screening is a result of the biological revolution triggered in the last century. The discovery of the structure of DNA molecules in 1953 suggested a copying mechanism for the genetic material. Nowadays, the clinical benefits of genetic screening are indisputable. Thanks to the continuing and rapid development in the fields of genetics and biotechnology, the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases ushered in a new phase.
A recent breakthrough in the sphere of genetics is the Human Genome Project, an internationally coordinated effort to determine the complete DNA sequence in the human genome. In April 2003, the mission ended as more than 99% of the sequence was identified. The findings are important but do not assure perfect pre-symptomatic prediction of illnesses and adverse drugs response. In this respect, science is still inaccurate.
The technical and causal limitations of genetic screening in its present stage of development pose ethical and moral implications. Often, scientists are not able to detect the particular gene in question. Instead, they recognize sequences of healthy genes that are usually, but not always, close to the “defective” one. This technical limitation calls for the use of statistical correlations. In addition, linkage analysis – a reference to the DNA patterns of affected and unaffected family members – might be needed to ascertain the expression of a mutated gene as a disorder. The causal limitations arise when a disease is indicated by several genes. Locating the gene in question means nothing without indicated auxiliary genes. While the genetic research promises an improvement of human health and well-being, robust paths towards the enhancement of genome-analysis technologies should be established (Kupfer, 191).
Purposes of Genetic Screening
As discussed above, genetic screening applied as a diagnostic-therapeutic model offers indisputable benefits to the individuals tested and treated. It provides valuable information for the availability of genes indicating an inheritable disorder. On the basis of similar knowledge, individuals can make well-versed decisions about their lifestyle or begin a timely preventive treatment. For example, information about heart disease disposition calls developing healthy habits, while identification of the Huntingtons disease gene should be considered in family planning.
Initially, businesses also conducted genetic screening as a precautionary procedure. Information about susceptibility to workplace toxins was used for safe employee placement. In the early 1980s, Dow Chemical and DuPont tested their workers for vulnerability to chemicals in the workplace in order to reduce exposure to the hazard through relocation. In this way, employees benefited from risk-free working conditions and businesses found a practical way to reduce the potential costs of absenteeism and health insurance. In other words, “at its inception, genetic screening of workers seemed to be a mutually agreed upon practice aimed at mutual benefits – workers and owners cooperating for the good of all” (Kupfer, 190).
Genetic screening promoting public safety is another just application. When the deprivation of individuals from certain privileges is contingent on the onset of a disorder and seeks solely to protect society, there is no deviation from ethically acceptable practices. For instance, railroad dispatchers should be able to quickly implement appropriate procedures in emergency situations. Hence, applicants with slow responses would not effectively prevent a number of people from harm or death, which justifiably renders them unqualified for the particular task.
However, corporations did not adhere for long to the traditional purpose of genetic screening. The availability of information about job applicants or current employees genetic make up can minimize their costs. Why worry about vulnerable workers compensations, high employee turnover, or expensive retraining programs in case of inception of a suspected disabling condition? Employers can simply deny work to potentially disordered individuals and fire the “defective” ones. Insurance companies can refuse health coverage or raise insurance premiums for people whose tests reveal a high probability of developing a disease.
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