A. Segmentation Criteria Demographic: The age range of Nike is from infant to elderly. Their primary range would be the primary active/buying years from 18-45. However they design products for babies as well as youth, and many senior citizens still wear nike sweat suits, so its really wide open. Nike certainly does not target one gender intentionally harder then another. They do a good job of reaching out to both sexes very effectively. The average income attracted to nike would be middle class or higher. It is not an extremely expensive product, but in its industry is considered upper end.
Since the brand is associated with athletics level of education is irrelevant. The two races most heavily targeted by Nike are Caucasian and african american. Nike is predominately associated with certain sports. Those sports tend to have a racial stereotype of athlete that excels at it. For example basketball. Nike uses many african american spokes people most famously Michael Jordan, and certainly targets african american athletes. However, Tiger woods, another nike endorser isn’t Caucasian yet still is targeting them primarily in his campaign.
Family’s as opposed to childless or single living households are definitely the target. The more potential athletes in house the better. Chances are also that if one family members choices nike so will another. Therefore, family’s especially in communities are an important segment. Size of target market??????? *******Target market??? Geographic: Nike is definitely geographically segmented. Sports, their primary vendor, are certainly regionalized. Basketball tends to be bigger in urban communities. Therefore, Nike’s basketball products would definitely be segmented towards urban, city based, living communities.
Nike’s golf line however would do horribly in that market and would certainly be targeted in upper class suburban regions of the country. Golfing products would also not likely be targeted in some of the colder northern parts of the country. Nike’s surf/beach/aquatic based products would definitely be targeting the coasts more than the mid inland of the country. Psychographic: Nike certainly has a psychographic segmentation to its marketing. Nike has managed to create the attitude of cool and cutting edge. Their product is associated with being either the “newest”, “coolest”, or “best”.
They are endorsed by some of the best professionals at each of their sports giving them credibility causing an instant social acceptance. It has its own culture associated with its symbol. They make their customers feel like the best or strive for the best. They make their customers cool, or accepted. Behavioral: Benefit segmentation; Nike offers the benefit of competitive advantage. Its used by the best. Tested by the best. It is the best. If there was any way of a product to give you an edge nike would do it. Anyone seeking even the chance of an edge in competition or experience would choose nike.
Usage rate segmentation; Nike would not need this form of segmentation. Non users have a high chance of choosing nike because of its instant association with credibility and quality. Light users wouldn’t apply as much. Heavy users would certainly choose nike because they would want to invest in a high end product for something thats that important to them. Occasion segmentation; They do segment casual wear vs practice wear vs game-time wear. The user looking for an attractive look, or comfort would chose more the casual wear. An amateur or someone who trains would target practice wear.
The more professional or high intensity user would need the game-time more official merchandise. Target Market Profile Typical Member is a 18 year old Senior at All Star High School. He is an african american basketball player. Its the off season and an average day for Typical. Typical starts most days with an early morning jog. On that jog Typical always wears his Nike running shoes. Although Typical isn’t a morning person, when he laces up his nikes his body knows its time to wake up. Typical then usually showers and dresses for work. Typical loads up his nike gym bag with his gym cloths.
He grabs his nike gym bag and brief case and heads to work. Typical finishes his work day and heads for the gym. Once at the gym Typical puts on his Nike shorts and shirt, and again his Nike shoes. Typical then finishes his workout and heads back home for dinner. Rotating with the gym is an adult soccer league, and coaching for youth football. In both cases the same Nike bag is brought and filled with appropriate Nike attire. This product fits my lifestyle because I want to be the best. I want to always look my best and show confidence.
I want to look like I’m the real deal but I also want to perform like it. Nike works for me because it gives me a slight edge in quality, it looks good to the eye, and shows people that I don’t mess around. This product is high involvement. I see the swoosh every time I use the product. I use so many different Nike products, and so scattered throughout the day, I definitely use alot of Nike. Nike is certainly an item I specifically go out and purchase. The positioning strategy of Nike is Product class. Nike is a high quality higher priced product. It is considered top of the line in it’s industry.
Their position is the class of their brand. Nike’s “Just Do It” is a shade of the company’s confidence and assurance in telling their customers that it shouldn’t even be a choice between them and competitors. Their use of celebrity endorsements and innovative attractive ads are all aimed at highlighting Nike’s strength, strength of brand. They are a powerful name and command respect for both their quality and commitment to their products. D. The major problems with Nike is the economy. They are in an industry in which most goods being offered are luxury and not necessity.
When the economy is tanking people can’t afford to spend as much on material, not as important goods. Therefore, a company such as Nike that positions itself as being an upper end product is in danger of being wounded. Nike because of it’s reputation and quality also means expensive. When people have more to spend they can worry more about quality. When the choice between a cheaper competitor of Nike or Nike themselves is given in good times people wouldn’t dare go with the knock off or inferior product. When times are tough however, people quickly stop worrying as much about image and quality versus price.
As good as their advertising is, it won’t be enough to make people spend money they simply do not have. The major opportunities for Nike are branching into other industries. Nike could make a push into the sports food or drink industry. Nike could also attempt to create a casual clothing line. Because “cool” is so closely linked to Nike they could venture into any new apparel arena and have instant credibility. With expanding television channels, and internet webcasts, Nike could completely bridge their brand into 24 hour media outlets. Nike could begin producing programing itself.
Psy240 Appendix C essay help writer: essay help writer
Axia College Material Appendix C Petra Koenig PSY240 March 26, 2011 The Sleep Matrix Why do we sleep? What governs when or how long we sleep? This activity will assist you in understanding two common sleep theories, recuperation and circadian, which provide different answers to these questions. Depending on which one you support, it may change your outlook on sleep and your current sleeping habits. Categorize each characteristic under the correct theory—recuperation or circadian—by placing an “X” in the appropriate column. Then, answer the questions that follow. |Recuperation |Circadian | |Sleep restores the body to a state of | | | |homeostasis. |X | | |Sleep plays no role in physiological | |X | |functioning. | | | |We become tired when it is dark out. |X | |Function of sleep is to restore energy |X | | |levels | | | |Function of sleep is to conserve energy | |X | |We become tired from wakefulness. X | | |We sleep until the body is physiologically |X | | |sound. | | | |We sleep based on an internal timing | |X | |mechanism. | | |Sleep depends on vulnerability from | |X | |predators. | | | |Sleep deprivation may cause behavioral |X | | |disturbances. | | |We have a sleep-wake cycle. | |X | |When we sleep is based on some evolutionary| |X | |aspects. | | | . What are the main differences between the recuperation and circadian theories? Recuperation- in common usage, refers to a period of recovery. A circadian- rhythm is a roughly-24-hour cycle in the biochemical, physiological or behavioural processes of living beings. 2. Which theory do you most agree with? Explain. I agree with Recuperation theories because it seem more reliable and make sense to me.
The Symbolic Scarlet Letter aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
The Symbolic Scarlet Letter Hyatt Waggoner, a noted Hawthorne scholar, says, The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne’s most widely read and admired novel and is also the one that has inspired the most inconclusive debate . . . ” (Waggoner 118). Much of the trouble in interpreting The Scarlet Letter stems from the fact that the story is highly symbolic. The Scarlet Letter opens with the stark image of the throng of people surrounding the prison door. Hawthorne creates a mood by using the, “sad colored,” garment and, “gray, steeple crowned hats,” to give the reader a feeling a gloom and sadness.
Among these dark, sad images Hawthorne interjects the wild red rose. As Hawthorne puts it, “to symbolize some sweet moral blossom, that may be found along the track, or relieve the darkening close of a tale of human frailty and sorrow” (McMichael 1033). The prison is symbolic of moral evil which would be sin and the cemetery is a symbol of natural evil which would be death. It is commonly agreed that the colors are used extensively in The Scarlet Letter as symbols. This is illustrated by the scene by the prison door, but the use and importance of the symbol grows as the book moves along.
Pearl, is often identified with the color red, which Waggoner identifies as evil. Pearl is not an evil child in the true sense of the word, but she is a reflection of her parent’s immorality and their love. The color “red with images of bright glow “shows Pearl to be the product of a moment of passion between Hester and Dimmesdale. Just like the red rose at the start of the story, Pearl is meant to relieve the sorrow and misery. The most famous symbol is of course the scarlet letter itself. Called, “The Elaborate Sign,” by Waggoner, the letter A exhibits itself a number of times and in a number of ways throughout the story.
The A may appear on Dimmesdale’s chest, it appears as Pearl, in the sky as a huge letter formed by a comet; in the mirror at the Governor’s mansion; and on Hester’s tombstone (McMichael 1150). The letter itself is red, which at first glance would seem to confirm Mr. Waggoner’s theory that red in the story is a representation of evil. A case can be made, however, that even in the letter A that red is symbolic of hope and spirit. The scarlet letter is at once both the source of Hester’s shame and disgrace and the source of her strength.
Not only does it suggest the seed out of which Pearl grew, but it is a symbol of Hester doing the right thing in being humbled for her indiscretions. In conclusion, whether or not Hawthorne would intentionally picture a woman and a sinner as a Christ figure is not a question that can be answered within the scope of this paper. The similarities are too strong to ignore. The red of the A is representative of Christ’s blood. Hester, like Christ, went to her cross in satisfaction of another’s sins. The problem of Christ being sinless and Hester not is solved by Hawthorne, as he portrays Hester as the highest moral character in the novel.
Strength and Weakness college essay help free: college essay help free
Strength and Weaknesses Michael Bartlett Gen/200 8/8/2011 James Bailey Strength and Weaknesses Every individual has personal strengths and weaknesses that show his or her life in a positive or negative way. Everyone has to understand and be able to use his strengths and weakness in a good way to succeed in life. Our everyday life, whether at work or at home is affected by how we use our strengths and weakness. We can improve our strengths and work on our weakness to achieve positive goals in life.
The most successful people know that by working on their weaknesses can bring significant results. I learn more and more about my strengths and weaknesses everyday. I was raised in a big, held together family with family values and knowing what‘s right and what’s wrong. That shaped my life in a significant way to how I approach everything from work to personal relationships. I learned to respect everybody regardless of his or her beliefs and different views. That helps me at work to listen to my teammates different ideas and work with them in a positive way to achieve results.
I am also ambitious and have strong loyalty to my family and friends. My ambition to be a better person and succeed in life made me start school as well as trying to look for work full time work and helping my parents out with their needs. I am strong willed and want to achieve the most in life. I was working at my current job for 5 years and have been promoted twice fast, then I got medically discharge from the navy, and it made me very upset. My strong will help me climb up the ladder and be a better person.
My respect for my teammates earned me their respect and has created a pleasant and effective work environment. My loyalty has given me close friends who have been my friends for a long time and have helped in tough times and remained close in good times. I have a big heart and never hesitate to help any of my friends in their time of need. I love children and love taking out my son, nieces and nephews to movies and park. My family gives me strength and good heart to help others. Patience is another of my strengths.
I have learned to be patient with people and not get easily frustrated. This has helped me a lot at my work and working in a team environment. Patience gets work done. I try to stay calm in whatever I am doing and focus all my energy in completing my tasks. This has helped me a lot get through tough times. I have weaknesses too like any other person. I have come to realize that I can trust someone too quick and only see the good side of other people. I had friends who betrayed my trust when I did everything to help them and be true to them.
This has made me cautious to opening up to people but I am still the same person with a generous heart, who still has affection for other people. I have not let these weaknesses change me as a person. I also take some things too serious when I should not. In personal relationships and work, I have realized that I get too much involved in things that do not require all my focus and energy. I have let simple, unimportant things affect me in a negative way. I am trying to take things easy and not let simple things bother me.
I also have a bad memory. This has caused me embarrassment sometimes, but I am trying to work on it. Sometimes making it a point to take notes so I do not forget. One who identifies and learns from his or her mistakes has the best chance to succeed in life. Nobody is perfect and everybody has areas that need improvement. In writing this essay, I had time to do some critical thinking about me as a person. I think I need to be a better judge of character and not put too much trust into friendships, which end up not being worth it.
I also need to focus my energy on things that are truly important to me, my family and not waste my time on issues. I have drawn out a plan of action for improvement in areas mentioned above. I am going to approach new friendships with extra caution and not put too much trust too fast. I am going to take a step back and take things easy as they come. That would certainly reduce a lot of unnecessary stress. References This is a hanging indent. To keep the hanging indent format, simply delete this line of text using the backspace key, and replace the information with your reference entry.
Reaction Paper on ‘Leadership’ essay help free: essay help free
Righteous leaders are rare and seemingly belong to a class of their own. But when is a leader a righteous leader? What makes one virtuous? A lot of people have already listed traits that make up a good leader and the article provided was just one of them. Even the Bible had summed up the qualified traits that make up a righteous leader.
Titus 1:7-9 talks about the leader that God required to lead – that the man chosen to have the responsibility to lead his people must be blameless, not self-willed, not soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not given to filthy lucre but a lover of hospitality, a lover of good men, sober, just holy, temperate; holding fast the faithful word as he has been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine to exhort and convince the gainsayers. Such were the words to describe an honorable leader – a person that offers service and does not abuse power.
He does not maim, oppress and destroy compared to power- drunk leaders. He is never arrogant but humble. Being humble is one of the “must be attitude” of a true leader and it’s quite a challenge for a person to be humble when he is already a boss. As the wise saying goes… “You can know the true nature of a man when you give him money and power…” Wicked leaders are defined in most banal of senses as compared to righteous leaders. Listed below are only a few of my understanding from the literary piece which had provided the good points befitting an upright leader. Who cannot be bought and whose world is their promise…” – they have the trait called genuineness. I believe this is the very foundation of a leader. Leadership begins and ends with this trait. It’s because they are genuine people that they manage to lead their people into what they believe is right and because of this that they also gain true and loyal subordinates. “Who put character above wealth…” – righteous leaders are guided by their heart as well as their mind and are committed to empowering not only themselves but also their subordinates in making a difference.
They are more interested in that rather than in power, money or prestige. “Who will be honest in small things as well as in great things and who will make no compromise with wrong…” – these leaders never compromise the truth. They do not bargain towards their favor. They are honest and do not twist the truth. They refuse to compromise when principles are tested. “Whose ambitions are not confined to their own selfish desires…” – Leaders are selfless people who never think of what they can give or what they can gain. They lead because they wanted to lead their eople and not because of some hidden motives behind the veil of sugar-coated words. “Who will not lose their individuality in a crowd…Who will not say they do it because everybody else does it…who can say No with emphasis although the rest of the world says Yes…” – true leaders are never swayed by the majority. Rather, they are very clear in where they stand and it is also because of this trait that people follow them. As was stated, they are in a league of their own and that’s why they were never swallowed by the majority and can stand out among them.
Instead, they belong to the minority group – people who stand on their own, who have the power to refuse the temptation of majority and it’s what made them unique and able to lead with a clear sight. True leaders lead by example. They lead with a purpose, their goal is clear in sight and they were never partial. They are fair in judging people and never play bias based on religion, color or any mundane stuffs. They are willing to listen from others and never think they know it all. They are fairly considerate and empathic.
Perhaps the best example to illustrate the difference of being led by a wicked and righteous leader is once again found in the Bible. It was set right after the reign of Solomon. Solomon was considered the wise king and through him, he righteously led Israel until his death but following that, Israel was thrown into chaos when his son took over the kingdom. Israel was divided due to Rehoboam’s harsh leadership. It was only three generations later, when his great grandson reigned Judah that the kingdom experienced peace that Israel once felt under the leadership of Solomon.
Aside from what was already mentioned in the literary piece, one characteristic that sets righteous ones apart from common leaders is their ability to recognize their own flaws and works hard to overcome them. They use their natural abilities in leading their people and acknowledge their own shortcomings. There are still many ways to define a righteous leader and it could always go on and on but it always talks about the same thing but only put in different words.
The abovementioned qualities as well as others implied are considered sine qua non for a righteous leader and if we really look closely into it, it mainly revolves around a person’s attitude and state of mind. In conclusion to this, having a righteous leader’s presence makes one feel his sense of worth, sense of care and protection. It is rather easy just being a leader in words only than being a true leader. But still, one can become righteous and honorable by learning these qualities as well as sticking up to it. It’s one of the challenges of an honorable leader.
The Most Dangerous Game persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
“The Most Dangerous Game” Essay Sanger Rainsford and General Zaroff are very alike in some ways. Both want to have the upper hand in an argument or situation. In the beginning of “The Most Dangerous Game”, Zaroff has the upper hand as he knows the terrain and has a threatening bodyguard. He allowed Rainsford to eat and stay at his chateau after he fell overboard. At the end of the story, Rainsford has the upper hand as he won “the game”, surprises Zaroff, and forces Zaroff to play the game he forced himself (Rainsford) to play.
Both men enjoy hunting—although Zaroff savors it in more ways than Rainsford. Rainsford hunts for sport and has less experience. He writes about the animals he hunts, like snow leopards in Tibet. Zaroff has hunted everywhere and hunted everything and yet he says that it no longer thrills him. Altogether, both are expert hunters and both have military experience—Zaroff from being a Cossack and Rainsford from fighting in France in World War 1. In the beginning, Rainsford is the hunted and Zaroff is the hunter.
It twists at the end, with Zaroff being the hunted and Rainsford the hunter. Both would rather be the predator than the prey. Both are very respectful of each other (until Rainsford learns Zaroff is a murderer). They have educated and civilized backgrounds. In the end, it says “In his library he read, to soothe himself, from the works of Marcus Aurelius. ” Aurelius was a Roman emperor and philosopher from the early centuries. Over the entire story, he hums bits from a variety of musicals and operas.
Both Zaroff and Rainsford think that they are right morally, and in today’s age, Zaroff would be the one under ethical discussion. Zaroff thinks that he is an “angel of mercy” by taking what he thinks to be the “scum of the earth” off the earth: lascars, blacks, Chinese, whites, and mongrels, according to him. Rainsford has what Zaroff calls a mid-Victorian point of view; thinking that every life is important and no man should have the power to take another man’s life away from him. There are some obvious differences, though. Zaroff is an older Cossack from
Crimea, Russia. He has hunted since he was five years old. As an adult, he was an officer for the Czar and left Russia after the debacle in 1917. Rainsford is a famous author that writes about game from New York. He is familiar with game, survival techniques, and guns. He is very cultured and finds the fact that Zaroff hunts humans disgusting. Rainsford is extremely strategic and resourceful: he outsmarts Zaroff by hiding right underneath his nose. He ends up killing the bodyguard, Ivan, one of Zaroff’s best dogs; and Zaroff’s chances of taking another life.
10 Hot Issues in It Management free essay help online: free essay help online
Assignment 1: 10 Hot IT Issues Review David C. Johnson Capella University MBA 6180- Managing Information Assets and Technology Professor Danielle Babb February 27, 2011 The author provides a very in depth look at the landscape of the IT environment. He identifies 10 key ideas that members of the IT community will need to focus on in the coming years. Looking at this article from the perspective of a manager and a leader in an IT organization I am inclined to agree with Kanter’s assertions. 1.
Electronic Commerce revisited: the Internet and beyond Despite the fact that the internet bubble burst and there was a time where even thinking about starting a business based on the internet would get you laughed out of a business meeting E-commerce has continued to expand and produce new and better ways of doing business across the world via the internet. The perfect example of this is the increase in online ordering over the holidays. This year I did not set foot in a single store over the holiday season choosing instead to place orders for all of my Christmas gifts through online vendors like amazon. om or my favorite stores online portal. 2. Web services to support internal and external collaboration I whole-heartedly agree with this assertion as well. When I look into the cloud based services like Salesforce. com and the upcoming office 365. The focus of many of our largest software manufacturers has been to deliver full on solutions for business problems over the Internet. Now a day’s customer can check live inventory at vendor locations, we can track delivery times and make changes to our orders on the fly via the internet. Thanks to delivery. om I can now order my lunch via a web app on my Iphone. Things like Google Apps allows for the editing of a single document by multiple participants in real time. How can you be more collaborative then this? The online aspect of this destroys the need for employees to be centrally located. IN many organizations in fact they have begun to do away with the classic office set up. Choosing instead to allow employees to telecommute and having a few flex offices that can be used by multiple individuals who need them when they have to physically be in the office. 3.
Customer Centricity- I think that Customer Centricity is becoming a more prevalent issue in the IT community. Overall I feel like there has been a greater emphasis on human interaction. Where as in the past few years it was 7 number presses to get to a human being I have found that this has changed in the recent times to allow for easier access to customer service reps. 4. Outsourcing and Insourcing the role of Project Management In this economy in particular the mix between having in house expertise and bringing in a consultant for a given task is often close to 50/50.
I know in my organization a great deal of our spend is based on bringing in consultants or outside organization to manage functions that we do not have the capability to manage. This puts added stress and strain on the project management organization that are now tasked with managing an outside organization that they have no real control over. It’s also the PMO’s responsibility to ensure the consultant complies and lives within the confines of the given statement of work or contract. Having this responsibility placed on someone who is not necessarily trained for it has its own consequences and repercussions. . The Value Chain Reaches out If a business is the sum total of a collection of business processes then the supporting processes have to gain fuller advantage and ease of access through better use of Information technology. The Value chain has been the clear winner in the software boon of the past few years. Information management, knowledge management, CRM, Supply chain and thousands of other functions have been improved and to a point automated by the growth of the software market. 6.
IT Infrastructure: Don’t forget telecom and security The infrastructure of an organization has to be flexible enough to allow for growth both in company size and in functionality. Many organizations find themselves in situations where the systems that had worked for them as little as two years ago are no longer sufficient to handle the operations of today. In recent years, I have been with organizations that have had to go through whole scale rebuilding of their storage facilities because they did not account for the number of emails and documents that they would be forced to store to comply with SEC or Sarbanes Oxley regulations.
Knowledge management- In this time when competitive advantage is so hard to come by because everyone can buy the same tools, the combination of knowledge , processes and the people to perform the processes is the only thing that separates one company from another. 7. The Full understanding and positioning of IT in the organization The value of IT in an organization is the difference between an IT department that keeps the computers on and a serious business partner that can be used to enable an organization to thrive. IN many organizations the CIO reports directly to the CEO and has a direct line to a decision maker.
These organizations understand the importance of the CIO position and value it as well. The IT organization is thought of as an integral part of defining and building a business process. 8. Aligning IT strategy with business strategy To restate the obvious in many organizations the job of IT is to support the business function. IT strategy revolves around successfully supplementing business processes with technology. I agree that this is a hot issue in IT but less so in recent years. When the importance of It to the success of an organization has become more viable in the eyes of upper management and the business people in general. . IT still needs people skilled and motivated We are in the information age, as such the importance of the IT organization is only going to grow. We need people who are able to grow and change with the times and the technology. IT will need individuals with a variety of skills to help align IT strategy with Business strategy. I believe this article is directly related to the concept of this course in that it provides some insight into the minds of IT executives and prepares us for what could very well be our future.
The Article focuses on the issues that we as managers will likely be faced with when we begin or continue our careers. In my experience this article hits the nail right on the head. Over the years IT organizations have grown in importance as the complexity of the environments within which we work change and grow. I think the article could have been improved with an update, I think the changes to many organizations since this article has been written could change the authors mind about many.
Job Descriptions easy essay help: easy essay help
Running Head: Staffing Organizations – Job Descriptions Maintaining Job Descriptions Sharon Chambers Strayer University Dr. Annette West July 24 , 2011 Current Issue The InAndOut, Inc. , company provides warehousing and fulfillment services to small publishers of books with small print runs. After the books are printed and bound at a printing facility, they are shipped to InAndOut for handling. The owner and president of InAndOut, Inc. , Alta Fossom is independently wealthy and delegates all day-to-day management matters to the general manager, Marvin Olson.
Alta requires that Marvin clear any new ideas or initiatives with her prior to taking action. The company is growing and Marvin expects to hire new employees within the next year to meet this growth. Job descriptions for the company were originally written by a consultant about eight years ago. They have never been revised and are hopelessly outdated. As a general, Marvin is responsible for all HR management matters. Since Marvin has to clear new projects with Alta, he needs to prepare a brief proposal that can be used to seek approval of new job descriptions. Importance of Job Descriptions
Whether you’re a small business or a large, multi-site organization, well-written employee job descriptions will help you align employee direction. Alignment of the people you employ with your goals, vision, and mission spells success for your organization. As a leader, you assure the interfunctioning of all the different positions and roles needed to get the job done for the customer. According to Susan M. Heathfield, About. com Human Resources Guide, effectively developed, employee job descriptions are communication tools that are significant to your organization’s success.
Poorly written employee job descriptions, on the other hand, add to workplace confusion, hurt communication, and make people feel as if they don’t know what is expected from them. Foster Thomas Blog, Complete HR Solutions states, “it is essential to maintain accurate job descriptions. ” Job descriptions are important both from a legal and practical standpoint. From a practical point of view, job descriptions help the jobholder understand the responsibilities of the position and provide a sense of where the job fits into the company as a whole. From a legal perspective, job descriptions aid in the compliance of several laws.
Job descriptions provide a basis for job evaluation, wage and salary comparison and equitable wage and salary structure (Equal Pay Act). Job descriptions are often used as supporting documentation when it comes to establishing a job’s exempt or non-exempt status (Fair Labor Standards Act). Job descriptions provide a basis from which to determine whether an applicant with a disability is qualified for the job and to determine if any accommodation is required to perform the essential functions of the position (ADA analysis). Outdated job descriptions lead to risky business decisions.
For example, if an employee is terminated because he/she could not perform a job function but that function is not on his/her job description, the company risks a wrongful termination charge. Similarly, if a disabled employee is terminated due to inability to perform an essential job function, but the essential job function is not listed on the description, the employee may claim that he/she was terminated due to his/her disability, not a legitimate business reason. Job Descriptions Format From a format perspective, job descriptions should contain the following sections and statements: Essential duties and responsibilities; * FLSA classification; * Job specifications (i. e. , education requirements, other skills required); * Physical demands, work environment * Job Summary or purpose * Signature and date section for the employee and supervisor. * Physical demands statement: “Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. ” Updating Job Descriptions Organizations could undergo restructuring, expansion, downsizing or relocation. Companies, departments and teams change and also business priorities as well as technologies.
This could result in the job functions of employees changing to accommodate the changes in their organizations. Employees might assume new responsibilities or leave out tasks that were not working very well. Such changes should not be ignored and strict adherence to the old job descriptions would be counterproductive to organizational well being. In the event that the job functions of the employees change, it is imperative that their job description change as well. In essence, after writing initial job descriptions, there are a number of good reasons to update them n accordance with the changes taking place in the job functions of the employees (Mader-Clark, 2008). The bottom line is that just as it is important to write new job descriptions when an employer is planning to hire new employees, it is equally important to continually update job descriptions to keep them relevant with the real job functions of employees in the organization ( Mader-Clark, 2008) and (Gan and Kleiner, 2005). Another compelling reason for updating job description is the hiring process would suffer if one were to hire new employees based on obsolete job descriptions.
One of the important factors determining effective recruiting is successful prescreening of applicants. This involves listing of job’s requirement in the advertisement or providing realistic preview of the job during initial call. Job postings using obsolete job descriptions will not attract the right candidate for the job. Job interviews are used to select the candidates for the job. Questions that are asked during selection interviews are structural, behavioral and job related. In order to have predictive validity the questions have to be based on authentic job descriptions. Job analysis has to be arried out and job description written on the actual job duties. Management could encounter legal problems if job offers and employment contracts are prepared on job descriptions that have not been updated (Roberts, 1997; Mader-Clark, 2008). Freeman (1996) and Mader-Clark (2008) have specified a number of reasons to update a job description and these are listed below: * Where a function is added or deleted from the job. * Where someone that is hired possesses new skills that does not track the old description. * Where a higher level of contribution from a position is required, such as a new skill or a body of knowledge. Where there has been a change in the requirements of the job, like a special certificate to carry out the job Process of Developing a Set of Thorough and Current Job Descriptions According to Heneman and Judge (2009), as far as the process of writing new job description or updating existing ones is concerned, it should encompass the following elements: * Defining the need to revise job description format. * Job analysis. * Updating or creating new job descriptions for every classification and making sure that they are premised on current and proper information. Making an assurance that the description meets all legal standards for every position. * Job evaluation. * Updating. The first step here normally concerns making a comprehensive definition of the need to revise the job description format and this is done while using pre-existing information and format as much as possible in order to minimize costs and time as well. Beth Bulger, Director of HR Services (Foster Thomas), advises, a practical way of updating job descriptions is to ask managers to confirm that the job description is up-to-date as part of the performance review rocess. You may also give employees a copy of their job description and ask them to give feedback to their managers. Review all job descriptions on a set schedule, such as during the annual performance review. Conclusion Whether you’re hiring someone new, evaluating a current employee or determining compensation, a job description provides consistency and clarity for everyone involved. Taking the time to write an accurate job description now will save you money, time and energy in the future. References Heathfield, Susan, Employee Job Descriptions: Why Job Descriptions Make Good
Business Sense. Retrieved July 24, 2011 from About. com: http://humanresources. about. com/od/glossaryj/a/jobdescriptions. htm Bulger, Beth, The importance of Accurate Job Descriptions. Retrieved July 24, 2011 from Foster Thomas Blog. com: http://www. fosterthomas. com/blog/bid/33742/The-importance-of-Accurate-Job-Descriptions Farnham, D. (2000). Developing and implementing competence-based recruitment and selection in a social services department – A case study of West Sussex County Council. International Journal of Public Sector Management,13(4), 369-382
Gan, M. and Kleiner, B. (2005). How to Write Job Descriptions Effectively. Journal of Management Research News, 28(8), 48-54 Dessler, G. (2008). Human Resource Management. New Jersey: New Jersey. Heneman H. and Judge T. (2009). Staffing Organizations 6th Edition, Middleton, WI: McGraw Hill International Edition Mader-Clark, M. (2008). The Job Description Handbook- Everything You Need To Write Effective Job Descriptions- And Avoid Legal Pitfalls 2nd Edition. San Francisco: Nolo. Roberts, G. (1997). Recruitment and Selection: A Competency Approach. London:
Why Prison’s Don’t Work college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Critical Response Ashley Dalton Hawaii Pacific University Critical Response to “Why Prisons Don’t Work” By Wilbert Rideau The prison system is a topic that is widely debated. Many are either for or against how they are ran. Though I am only an observer; I have no ties to the prison system. I do agree with many points that Wilbert Rideau made in his original article. What caught my eye was that Mr. Rideau was in the Louisiana State Penitentiary in 1962. He describes the kind of prisoners that were typically brought there. He goes on about his opinions and observations “that permanently exiling people to prison will make society safe” (10).
Mr. Rideau goes on to say that prison is not a cure-all. He describes what prisons do as “isolating young criminals long enough to them a chance to grow up” (31). I agree when he says that prison should only be a temporary arrangement, not a way of life. As well as many criminals are kept there for too long making the prison a way of life and not allowing them to readjust to normal society. The prisoners are potentially being held hostage longer than rehabilitation should allow. Mr. Rideau makes a point that because of mandatory sentences prisoners are much older.
He states “rather than pay for new prisons, society would be well served by releasing some of its older prisoners who pose no threat and using the money to catch young street thugs” (41). Think about it. A fifty, sixty, or even seventy year old prisoner doesn’t necessarily pose a major threat to society; but, the younger criminals on the streets do. It shouldn’t take thirty, forty, or more years to rehabilitate someone. However, there are prisoners who are serial killers, rapists, and worse that do deserve to rot in prison. Prison times and sentences are decided by politicians and not necessarily the penal professionals.
I don’t necessarily agree with Mr. Rideau when he states “even murderers, those more feared by society, pose little risk. What if those murderers have children and instill their views on society to them? Many are brainwashed my parental figures such as the KKK who force them to grow up in that environment. So they grow up wanting to please mom and dad rather than make their own opinions. Henceforth, they end up following in their footsteps wherever that may lead. Mr. Rideau then makes a valuable point that rehabilitation can work. I agree with this.
He brings to attention that the Louisiana State Penitentiary houses around 4,600 prisoners and offers academic training to approximately 240. With tax cuts, maybe that’s all they can do but education whether it is academic or just about life’s choices is a necessary part in rehabilitating anyone. Wilbert Rideau has many valuable points about prison life that may help educate society. His opinions suggest that not all sentences are helpful in a prisoner’s rehabilitation. All prisoners, depending on the severity of their crimes, should be allowed a chance to prove themselves again under proper supervision.
Csr in the Alcohol Industry cheap essay help: cheap essay help
Why do CSR and the alcohol industry seem to be incompatible? Corporate social responsibility is a form of corporate self-regulation by which companies take into account the impact of their activities on the environment, consumers and all the members of the public sphere. But how is it possible to include public interest into corporate decision-making in the alcohol industry? * What does Corporate Social responsibility mean? Corporate Social Responsibility is about how companies manage the business processes to build an overall positive impact on society.
According to “Making Good Business Sense” by Lord Holme and Richard Watts and published by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, “Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large”. If the other aspects of corporate social responsibility are about doing what you do right, then the marketplace issues are about doing the right thing.
Doing the right thing can be the single most important aspect of the business of a company in terms of securing its longer-term viability. In this perspective, companies have to evaluate the costs they impose on society and to approach the selling process with integrity and honesty, trying to operate in an ethical way. The main aim of this type of policy is to satisfy the growing demand of the consumers not only on quality and price but also on brand values that match with their own. The reputation of a brand is tightly related to this. There is also a benefit for investment.
An increasing number of investment companies look for safe investments and define these in terms of good management of intangibles. This is related to the growing importance of socially responsible investment that excludes shares in companies operating unethically. A company, which is willing to implement corporate social responsibility policies, must be aware of the issues it may be confronted in the marketplace. The impact on the society of its core products should be positive, the firm should advert and trade in an ethical way, but it also hould fairly treat it suppliers fairly. One of the main principles of CSR in the marketplace is respecting customers and supporting vulnerable ones. * The alcohol industry has an obvious overall negative impact on society Liquor companies mainly produce and sell drinks that have for long been considered as harmfull and addictive. Mostly major health problems related to alcohol consumption are caused due to chronic drinking. Alcohol affects the brain and central nervous system as it slows down the reaction of the drinker.
High dosage of alcohol can lead to aggressive behaviours especially when chronic. As a consequence, in the USA, alcohol is partly responsible for more than 66% of murders. Besides risk of cancer increases with habitual drinking of alcohol. One of the primary targets of cancer is liver. Heavy drinking of alcohol can also lead to anaemia or gout. As we can see in the map above alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death worldwide. But this is not the only reason why liquor companies are perceived as socially unacceptable industries.
They are also criticised due to their marketing policies. Indeed, in the US, they are for instance accused of targeting minority group in their marketing campaigns and by such, contributing to the perpetuation of racism. But, the main issue concerns the campaigns targeting young people. This is a very profitable and buoyant market for them. Thus, despite the alcohol industry’s claims that it does not advertise to underage youth, young people are consistently exposed to and affected by alcohol marketing.
This exposure increases underage drinking, promotes brand awareness and influences youth attitudes about drinking. Alcohol is by far the most used and abused drug among America’s teenagers. According to a national survey, nearly one third (31. 5%) of all high school students reported hazardous drinking (5+ drinks in one setting) during the 30 days preceding the Survey (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance – United States, 1999) . Children who are drinking alcohol before 15 are more likely to report academic problems, substance use, and delinquent behaviour in both middle school and high school.
By young adulthood, early alcohol use was associated with employment problems, other substance abuse, and criminal and other violent behaviour. As forms of “new media” emerge and become more sophisticated, alcohol companies are among the first to take advantage of these new marketing opportunities. Coupled with lax age verification, many alcohol companies have designed their Web sites in a way that appeals to youth. Budlight. com, for example, is full of interactive features that have a broad appeal to teens. Visitors can play games, listen to music, watch and rate Bud Light ads, and send Bud Light emails to friends.
There are also a number of items that can be downloaded, including alcohol branded desktop wallpaper, instant messaging icons, and screensavers. Therefore, this industry is strongly regulated by States as it is seen as a social plague. In this perspective, alcohol producers can hardly promote their social responsibility. They are often criticized for their targeting marketing on young people. Their main goal is thus to maximise profits by selling “sin” and, promoting the well being of their consumers is fundamentally contrary to this goal.
Twelfth Night Summary extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology
“If this be so, as yet the glass seems true. I shall have shone in this most happy wrack. Bay thou hast said to me a thousand times thouse never shouldst love women like me” Orsino is a powerful nobal man in the country of illeryia. Orsino is love sick for the beautiful lady olivia. But becomes more and more fond of his handsome new page boy, Cesario. Orsino mopes around complaining how heart sick he is over olivia, when it is clear that he loves to be in love. Olivia is a wealthy noble illyria lady. Who is courted by orsino and sir Andrew. But insist she is morning for her brother, who has recently died.
And will not marry for seven years. Orsino, the Duke of lllyria, is in love with his neighbour, the Countess Olivia. She has sworn to avoid men’s company for seven years while she mourns the death of her brother, so rejects him. Nearby a group of sailors arrive on shore with a young woman, Viola, who has survived a shipwreck in a storm at sea. Viola mourns the loss of her twin brother but decides to dress as a boy to get work as a page to Duke Orsino. Despite his rejection Orsino sends his new page Cesario (Viola in disguise) to woo Olivia on his behalf. Viola goes unwillingly as she has already fallen in love at first sight with the duke.
Olivia is attracted by the ‘boy’ and she sends her pompous steward, Malvolio, after him with a ring. Olivia’s uncle, Sir Toby Belch, her servant Maria, and Sir Toby’s friend, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, who is also hoping to woo Olivia, and is being led on by Sir Toby, who is trying to fleece him of his money, all plot to expose the self-love of Malvolio. By means of a false letter they trick him into thinking his mistress Olivia loves him. Malvolio appears in yellow stockings and cross-garters, smiling as they have told him to in the letter. Unaware of the trick the Countess is horrified and has Malvolio shut up in the dark as a madman.
Meanwhile Viola’s twin brother, Sebastian, who has also survived the shipwreck, comes to Illyria. His sea-captain friend, Antonio, is a wanted man for piracy against Orsino. The resemblance between Cesario and Sebastian leads the jealous Sir Andrew to challenge Cesario to a duel. Antonio intervenes to defend Cesario whom he thinks is his friend Sebastian, and is arrested. Olivia has in the meantime met and become betrothed to Sebastian. Cesario is accused of deserting both Antonio and Olivia when the real Sebastianarrives to apologise for fighting Sir Toby.
Seeing both twins together, all is revealed to Olivia. Orsino’s fool, Feste, brings a letter from Malvolio and on his release the conspirators confess to having written the false letter. Malvolio departs promising revenge. Maria and Sir Toby have married in celebration of the success of their device against the steward. The play ends as Orsino welcomes Olivia and Sebastian and, realising his own attraction to Cesario, he promises that once she is dressed as a woman again they, too, will be married. “If music be the food of love, play on. “
Economic Forecast Paper college essay help service: college essay help service
The US economy is expected to grow at a really slow pace given the fiscal outlook and government cuts in spending. It is unlikely that there will be a government stimulus package in 2012 and the reason being a divisive politics in congress and also the piling up of the public debt. Fiscal policy in the past years helped to stimulate the economy especially after the inauguration of Barack Obama. Obama signed into law 787 billion dollar stimulus package in 2009 and helped the economy to gain a boost.
The following year the economy stayed kind neutral and in 2011 it was slowing down and losing points gained in the previous years. In 2012 economists are looking forward to the decisions made by government. If the Obama stimulus package that’s about creating jobs, cutting taxes on the middle class people and taxing the rich more will help to neutralize the economy. But that’s unlikely and it will have dragged the current economy to its lowest in three years. The European Debt Crisis The Economic health of Europe is important to the prosperity of US. Europe’s ills already have damaged some U.
S. interests, from multinational companies to major exporters. Individual investors have many reasons for concern, as the enthusiasm from earlier debt agreements has given way to pessimism and stock market dives. If the U. S. economy takes such a turn into 2012, Europe’s financial troubles could wind up affecting the U. S. presidential election. Big American banks have outstanding loans of about $ 700 billion in Europe and in the case of a default that means a disaster for both Europe and The US. More than 20% of all U. S. exports go to Europe, making it the nation’s largest trading partner.
About 14% go to the 17 Eurozone countries. The real worry for U. S. business is that financial panic might cause a broad recession throughout the Eurozone, quelling the appetites of French and German consumers and businesses for U. S. products. Inflation Forecast According to Forecast chart “ForecastChart. com is forecasting that US Inflation Rates will be roughly 3. 04% over the next year. ” The table from Forecast. com shows a HDTFA of 1. 16% which suggests that US inflation for the 12 months ending November, 2012 could easily fall between 4. 21% and 1. 88%. Annual Inflation Rates
There are three components of core inflation that have disproportionally caused the rate to be higher than the Federal Reserve Bank’s long-term target: 1. Renting homes instead of buying In spite of ample existing home supply, many potential buyers are having trouble obtaining mortgages, and with some homeowners in foreclosure, both populations are being pushed into the rental market. I believe this is a genuine cause for concern going forward. 2. Motor Vehicles Prices have moved higher due to supply chain disruptions from the earthquake in Japan earlier this year.
The tragic events that followed reduced supply and increased pricing power for manufacturers, but I believe that dynamic will gradually be unwound over coming months as production increases and stabilize prices. 3. Apparel prices A temporary surge in commodity prices and higher wages in Asia where the majority of clothing is manufactured has led to higher prices, which we expect to ease somewhat in the coming months. Source: Department of Labor. GS Global ECS Research. Forecast 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 -0. 5% 0. 0% 0. 5% 1. 0% 1. 5% 2. 0% 2. 5% 3. 0% Commodity-related
Vehicles Rent Other Core Unemployment I believe the unemployment rate will remain high that is above 9% if current economic situation remains the same. According to US Bureau of Labor Statistics data released in November, the unemployment rate declined by 0. 4 percentage point to 8. 6 percent. From April through October, the rate held in a narrow range from 9. 0 to 9. 2 percent. The number of unemployed persons, at 13. 3 million, was down by 594,000 in November. The labor force, which is the sum of the unemployed and employed, was down by a little more than half that amount.
But this data is not really accurate because the Bureau only counts people who are actively looking for a job and do not count the ones who have given up looking for a job. So in reality the unemployment rate is hovering at around 14-16%. Interest Rates Interest is expected to remain low to encourage private borrowing. After promising to keep a key short-term interest rate near zero at least through the middle of 2013, the Federal Reserve is trying to lower long-term rates, already at record lows. That will keep a lead on borrowing costs for a while, but it won’t do much to help the economy.
Commercial banks will keep their prime lending rate at 3. 25% into 2013. The 10-year Treasury note, a benchmark for mortgage rates and corporate bonds, should remain near its current rate of 2% until growth picks up, which won’t be sooner than mid-2012. According to the Federal Reserve Bank, the Fed’s method of lowering long-term rates is a plan to sell $400 billion worth of short-term debt and buy Treasury notes and bonds with maturities of six to 30 years. Direct Foreign Investment Foreign investment flows will remain disappointing through 2012, according to the 2011 A.
T. Kearney Foreign Direct Investment Confidence Index, a regular assessment of senior executive sentiment at the world’s largest companies. The Index also found executives are wary of making investments in the current economic climate and revealed that they expect the economic turnaround to happen no earlier than 2012. Half of the companies surveyed also report that they are postponing investments as a result of market uncertainty and difficulties in obtaining credit. Summary Things are looking worse for the U. S. economy than even three months ago.
Since August, forecasters have revised their outlook to predict more gloom than they had expected, according to a new survey of 45 forecasters by the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. On average, economic forecasters predict real GDP growth of 2. 4 percent in 2012, down from 2. 6 percent in August, and the 2012 unemployment rate to be 8. 8 percent, compared with 8. 4 percent in November. Their predictions for 2012 and 2013 are also lower: just 2. 7 percent and 3. 5 percent, respectively. And that’s still higher than what the Fed itself is projecting, with a growth forecast of 2. 4 to 2. 7 percent for 2013.
Factors Related to the Academic Performance rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help
Academic performance finds its way in all aspects of life. It plays a vital role in the achievement and progress of one’s life. It is a means to have a great access for better careers. Over the past decade, there has been a decline in the quality of academic achievement of student entering college (McDonald, 1993) Most instructors are complaining that these students are not that well prepared with regard to specific knowledge and study strategies (Briggs, et.
Al. 1993) the desire to raise academic performance for students to acquire other competencies creates substantial challenges for educators (Stasz & Brewer, 1998) An understanding of hindrances to the performances of one’s individual is a key to success. It may pursue a significant result or may add into its development. The study of Ceniza (1986) proved the impact of socio-economic and cultural development in the scholastic performance of students.
I n her study, she pointed out that socio-economic status of parents of the students has a direct bearing on the educational achievement of the students. Those who are in the upper socio-economic bracket have achieved better scholastic achievement. Academic performance is not only dependent upon the student’s intelligence but is also enhanced by some factors related to performance in the school. Moreover, the performance Of students is associated with varied factors.
The Dee Hwa Liong College Foundation as an educational institution firmly believes that education is a very important instrument in the improvement of quality of lives of people. everyone who seeks entrance to a certain college expects that this institution will provide the training from where an economically stable society takes off and develops. Since every school of learning aims to assist students, improve academic performance.
The Dee Hwa Liong College Foundation envisioned to become a center for educational services to the youth and to develop them to the fullest by equipping them with knowledge, skills, value and attitudes necessary for their active and participation in a just and humane society. Its responsibility to help the students improve their academic performance to insure success in life is its major commitment . It is along this line that a research is conducted to help school find ways to improve academic performance. This will also help promote a good image for the school.
Behavioural Finance cheap essay help: cheap essay help
The occurrence of stock market bubbles and crashes is often cited as evidence against the efficient market hypothesis. It is argued that new information is rarely, if ever, capable of explaining the sudden and dramatic share price movements observed during bubbles and crashes. Samuelson (1998) distinguished between micro efficiency and macro efficiency. Samuelson took the view that major stock markets are micro efficient in the sense that stocks are (nearly) correctly priced relative to each other, whereas the stock markets are macro inefficient.
Macro inefficiency means that prices, at the aggregate level, can deviate from fair values over time. Jung and Shiller (2002) concurred with Samuelson’s view and suggested that waves of over- and undervaluation occur for the aggregate market over time. Stock markets are seen as having some predictability in the aggregate and over the long runBubbles and crashes have a history that goes back at least to the seventeenth century (MacKay 1852). Some writers have suggested that bubbles show common characteristics.
Band (1989) said that market tops exhibited the following features: 1. Prices have risen dramatically. 2. Widespread rejection of the conventional methods of share valuation, and the emergence of new ‘theories’ to explain why share prices should be much higher than the conventional methods would indicate. 3. Proliferation of investment schemes offering very high returns very quickly. 4. Intense, and temporarily successful, speculation by uninformed investors. 5. Popular enthusiasm for leveraged (geared) investments. 6. Selling by corporate insiders, and other long-term investors.
Extremely high trading volume in shares. Kindleberger (1989) and Kindleberger and Aliber (2005) argued that most bubbles and crashes have common characteristics. Bubbles feature large and rapid price increases, which result in share prices rising to unrealistically high levels. Bubbles typically begin with a justifiable rise in stock prices. The justification may be a technological advance, or a general rise in prosperity. Examples of technological advance stimulating share price rises might include the development of the automobile and radio in the 1920s and the emergence of the Internet in the late 1990s.
Examples of increasing prosperity leading to price rises could be the United States,Western Europe, and Japan in the 1980s. Cassidy (2002) suggested that this initial stage is characterised by a new idea or product causing changes in expectations about the future. Early investors in companies involved with the innovation make very high returns, which attract the attention of others. The rise in share prices, if substantial and prolonged, leads to members of the public believing that prices will continue to rise.
People who do not normally invest begin to buy shares in the belief that prices will continue to rise. More and more people, typically people who have no knowledge of financial markets, buy shares. This pushes up prices even further. There is euphoria and manic buying. This causes further price rises. There is a self-fulfilling prophecy wherein the belief that prices will rise brings about the rise, since it leads to buying. People with no knowledge of investment often believe that if share prices have risen recently, those prices will continue to rise in the future.
Cassidy (2002) divides this process into a boom stage and a euphoria stage. In the boom stage share price rises generate media interest, which spreads the excitement across a wider audience. Even the professionals working for institutional investors become involved. In the euphoria stage investment principles, and even common sense, are discarded. Conventional wisdom is rejected in favour of the view that it is ‘all different this time’. Prices lose touch with reality. One assumption of the efficient market hypothesis is that investors are rational.
This does not require all investors to be rational, but it does require that the rational investors outweigh the irrational ones. However there are times when irrational investors are dominant. A possible cause of market overreaction is the tendency of some investors (often small investors) to follow the market. Such investors believe that recent stock price movements are indicators of future price movements. In other words they extrapolate price movements. They buy when prices have been rising and thereby tend to push prices to unrealistically high levels.
They sell when prices have been falling and thereby drive prices to excessively low levels. There are times when such naive investors outweigh those that invest on the basis of fundamental analysis of the intrinsic value of the shares. Such irrational investors help to generate bubbles and crashes in stock markets. Some professional investors may also participate on the basis of the greater fool theory. The greater fool theory states that it does not matter if the price paid is higher than the fundamental value, so long as someone (the greater fool) will be prepared to pay an even higher price.
The theory of rational bubbles suggests that investors weigh the probability of further rises against the probability of falls. So it may be rational for an investor to buy shares, knowing that they are overvalued, if the probability-weighted expectation of gain exceeds the probability-weighted expectation of loss. Montier (2002) offers Keynes’s (1936) beauty contest as an explanation of stock market bubbles. The first level of the contest is to choose the stocks that you believe to offer the best prospects. The second level is to choose stocks that you believe others will see as offering the best prospects.
A third level is to choose the stocks that you believe that others will expect the average investor to select. A fourth stage might involve choosing stocks that you believe that others will expect the average investor to see as most popular amongst investors. In other words, the beauty contest view sees investors as indulging in levels of second-guessing other investors. Even if every investor believes that a stock market crash is coming they may not sell stocks. They may even continue to buy. They may plan to sell just before others sell.
In this way they expect to maximise their profits from the rising market. The result is that markets continue to rise beyond what the vast majority of investors would consider to be the values consistent with economic fundamentals. It is interesting to note that Shiller’s survey following the 1987 crash (Shiller 1987) found that 84% of institutional investors and 72% of private investors said that they had believed that the market was overpriced just before the crash. Shiller suggested that people did not realise how many others shared their views that the market was overpriced.
As Hirshleifer (2001) points out, people have a tendency to conform to the judgements and behaviours of others. People may follow others without any apparent reason. Such behaviour results in a form of herding, which helps to explain the development of bubbles and crashes. If there is a uniformity of view concerning the direction of a market, the result is likely to be a movement of the market in that direction. Furthermore, the herd may stampede. Shiller (2000) said that the meaning of herd behaviour is that investors tend to do as other investors do.
They imitate the behaviour of others and disregard their own information. Brown (1999) examined the effect of noise traders (non-professionals with no special information) on the volatility of the prices of closed-end funds (investment trusts). A shift in sentiment entailed these investors moving together and an increase in price volatility resulted. Walter and Weber (2006) found herding to be present among managers of mutual funds. Walter and Weber (2006) distinguished between intentional and unintentional herding. Intentional herding was seen as arising from attempts to copy others.
Unintentional herding emerges as a result of investors analysing the same information in the same way. Intentional herding could develop as a consequence of poor availability of information. Investors might copy the behaviour of others in the belief that those others have traded on the basis of information. When copying others in the belief that they are acting on information becomes widespread, there is an informational cascade. Another possible cause of intentional herding arises as a consequence of career risk. If a fund manager loses money whilst others make money, that fund manager’s job may be in jeopardy.
If a fund manager loses money whilst others lose money, there is more job security. So it can be in the fund manager’s interests to do as others do (this is sometimes referred to as the reputational reason for herding). Since fund managers are often evaluated in relation to benchmarks based on the average performance of fund managers, or based on stock indices, there could be an incentive to copy others since that would prevent substantial underperformance relative to the benchmark. Walter and Weber (2006) found positive feedback trading by mutual fund managers.
In other words the managers bought stocks following price rises and sold following falls. If such momentum trading is common, it could be a cause of unintentional herding. Investors do the same thing because they are following the same strategy. It can be difficult to know whether observed herding is intentional or unintentional. Hwang and Salmon (2006) investigated herding in the sense that investors, following the performance of the market as a whole, buy or sell simultaneously. Investigating in the United States, the UK, and South Korea they found that herding increases with market sentiment.
They found that herding occurs to a greater extent when investor expectations are relatively homogeneous. Herding is strongest when there is confidence about the direction in which the market is heading. Herding appeared to be persistent and slow moving. This is consistent with the observation that some bubbles have taken years to develop. Kirman (1991) suggests that investors may not necessarily base decisions on their own views about investments but upon what they see as the majority view. The majority being followed are not necessarily well-informed rational investors.
The investors that are followed may be uninformed and subject to psychological biases that render their behaviour irrational (from the perspective of economists). Rational investors may even focus on predicting the behaviour of irrational investors rather than trying to ascertain fundamental value (this may explain the popularity of technical analysis among market professionals). There are theories of the diffusion of information based on models of epidemics. In such models there are ‘carriers’ who meet ‘susceptibles’ (Shiller 1989).
Stock market (and property market) bubbles and crashes are likened to the spread of epidemics. There is evidence that ideas can remain dormant for long periods and then be triggered by an apparently trivial event. Face-to-face communication appears to be dominant, but the media also plays a role. Cassidy (2002) suggested that people want to become players in an ongoing drama in which ownership of stocks gives them a sense of being part of a social movement. People invest because they do not want to be left out of the exciting developments.
The media are an integral part of market events because they want to attract viewers and readers. Generally, significant market events occur only if there is similar thinking among large groups of people, and the news media are vehicles for the spreading of ideas. The news media are attracted to financial markets because there is a persistent flow of news in the form of daily price changes and company reports. The media seek interesting news. The media can be fundamental propagators of speculative price movements through their efforts to make news interesting (Shiller 2000).
They may try to enhance interest by attaching news stories to stock price movements, thereby focusing greater attention on the movements. The media are also prone to focus attention on particular stories for long periods. Shiller refers to this as an ‘attention cascade’. Attention cascades can contribute to stock market bubbles and crashes. Davis (2006) confirmed the role of the media in the development of extreme market movements. The media were found to exaggerate market responses to news, and to magnify irrational market expectations.
At times of market crisis the media can push trading activity to extremes. The media can trigger and reinforce opinions. It has been suggested that memes may play a part in the process by which ideas spread (Lynch 2001). Memes are contagious ideas. It has been suggested that the success of a meme depends upon three critical factors: transmissivity, receptivity, and longevity. Transmissivity is the amount of dissemination from those with the idea. Receptivity concerns how believable, or acceptable, the idea is. Longevity relates to how long investors keep the idea in mind.
Smith (1991) put forward the view that bubbles and crashes seem to have their origin in social influences. Social influence may mean following a leader, reacting simultaneously and identically with other investors in response to new information, or imitation of others who are either directly observed or observed indirectly through the media. Social influence appears to be strongest when an individual feels uncertain and finds no directly applicable earlier personal experience. Deutsch and Gerard (1955) distinguish between ‘normative social influence’ and ‘informational social influence’.
Normative social influence does not involve a change in perceptions or beliefs, merely conformity for the benefits of conformity. An example of normative social influence would be that of professional investment managers who copy each other on the grounds that being wrong when everyone else is wrong does not jeopardise one’s career, but being wrong when the majority get it right can result in job loss. This is a form of regret avoidance. If a bad decision were made, a result would be the pain of regret. By following the decisions of others, the risk of regret is reduced. This is safety in numbers.
There is less fear of regret when others are making the same decisions. Informational social influence entails acceptance of a group’s beliefs as providing information. For example share purchases by others delivers information that they believe that prices will rise in future. This is accepted as useful information about the stock market and leads others to buy also. This is an informational cascade; people see the actions of others as providing information and act on that information. Investors buy because they know that others are buying, and in buying provide information to other investors who buy in their turn.
Informational cascades can cause large, and economically unjustified, swings in stock market levels. Investors cease to make their own judgements based on factual information, and use the apparent information conveyed by the actions of others instead. Investment decisions based on relevant information cease, and hence the process whereby stock prices come to reflect relevant information comes to an end. Share price movements come to be disconnected from relevant information. Both of the types of social influence identified by Deutsch and Gerard (1955) can lead to positive feedback trading.
Positive feedback trading involves buying because prices have been rising and selling when prices have been falling, since price movements are seen as providing information about the views of other investors. Buying pushes prices yet higher (and thereby stimulates more buying) and selling pushes prices lower (and hence encourages more selling). Such trading behaviour contributes to stock market bubbles and crashes. People in a peer group tend to develop the same tastes, interests, and opinions (Ellison and Fudenberg 1993). Social norms emerge in relation to shared beliefs.
These social norms include beliefs about investing. The social environment of an investor influences investment decisions. This applies not only to individual investors, but also to market professionals. Fund managers are a peer group; fundamental analysts are a peer group; technical analysts are a peer group. Indeed market professionals in aggregate form a peer group. It is likely that there are times when these peer groups develop common beliefs about the direction of the stock market. Common beliefs tend to engender stock market bubbles and crashes. Welch (2000) investigated herding among investment analysts.
Herding was seen as occurring when analysts appeared to mimic the recommendations of other analysts. It was found that there was herding towards the prevailing consensus, and towards recent revisions of the forecasts of other analysts. A conclusion of the research was that in bull markets the rise in share prices would be reinforced by herding. Research on investor psychology has indicated certain features about the behaviour of uninformed investors, who are often referred to as noise traders in the academic literature. Tversky and Kahneman (1982) found that they have a tendency to overreact to news.
DeBondt (1993) found that they extrapolate trends, in other words they tend to believe that the recent direction of movement of share prices will continue. Shleifer and Summers (1990) found evidence that they become overconfident in their forecasts. This latter point is consistent with the view that bubbles and crashes are characterised by some investors forgetting that financial markets are uncertain, and coming to believe that the direction of movement of share prices can be forecast with certainty. Barberis et al. (1998) suggested that noise traders, as a result of misinterpretation of information, see patterns where there are none.
Lee (1998) mentioned that a sudden and drastic trend reversal may mean that earlier cues of a change in trend had been neglected. Clarke and Statman (1998) found that noise traders tend to follow newsletters, which in turn are prone to herding. It seems that many investors not only extrapolate price trends but also extrapolate streams of good or bad news, for example a succession of pieces of good news leads to the expectation that future news will also be good. Barberis et al. (1998) showed that shares that had experienced a succession of positive items of news tended to become overpriced.
This indicates that stock prices overreact to consistent patterns of good or bad news. Lakonishok et al. (1994) concluded that investors appeared to extrapolate the past too far into the future. There is evidence that the flow of money into institutional investment funds (such as unit trusts) has an impact on stock market movements. Evidence for a positive relationship between fund flows and subsequent stock market returns comes from Edelen and Warner (2001), Neal and Wheatley (1998), Randall et al. (2003), and Warther (1995). It has been suggested by Indro (2004) that market sentiment (an aspect of crowd psychology) plays an important role.
Indro found that poll-based measures of market sentiment were related to the size of net inflows into equity funds. It appears that improved sentiment (optimism) generates investment into institutional funds, which in turn brings about a rise in stock market prices (and vice versa for increased pessimism). If stock market rises render market sentiment more optimistic, a circular process occurs in which rising prices and improving sentiment reinforce each other. It has often been suggested that small investors have a tendency to buy when the market has risen and to sell when the market falls.
Karceski (2002) reported that between 1984 and 1996 average monthly inflows into US equity mutual funds were about eight times higher in bull markets than in bear markets. The largest inflows were found to occur after the market had moved higher and the smallest inflows followed falls. Mosebach and Najand (1999) found interrelationships between stock market rises and flows of funds into the market. Rises in the market were related to its own previous rises, indicating a momentum effect, and to previous cash inflows to the market. Cash inflows also showed momentum, and were related to previous market rises.
A high net inflow of funds increased stock market prices, and price rises increased the net inflow of funds. In other words, positive feedback trading was identified. This buy high/sell low investment strategy may be predicted by the ‘house money’ and ‘snake bite’ effects (Thaler and Johnson 1990). After making a gain people are willing to take risks with the winnings since they do not fully regard the money gained as their own (it is the ‘house money’). So people may be more willing to buy following a price rise. Conversely the ‘snake bite’ effect renders people more risk-averse following a loss.
The pain of a loss (the snake bite) can cause people to avoid the risk of more loss by selling investments seen as risky. When many investors are affected by these biases, the market as a whole may be affected. The house money effect can contribute to the emergence of a stock market bubble. The snake bite effect can contribute to a crash. The tendency to buy following a stock market rise, and to sell following a fall, can also be explained in terms of changes in attitude towards risk. Clarke and Statman (1998) reported that risk tolerance fell dramatically just after the stock market crash of 1987.
In consequence investors became less willing to invest in the stock market after the crash. MacKillop (2003) and Yao et al. (2004) found a relationship between market prices and risk tolerance. The findings were that investors became more tolerant of risk following market rises, and less risk tolerant following falls. The implication is that people are more inclined to buy shares when markets have been rising and more inclined to sell when they have been falling; behaviour which reinforces the direction of market movement. Shefrin (2000) found similar effects among financial advisers and institutional investors. Grable et al. 2004) found a positive relationship between stock market closing prices and risk tolerance. As the previous week’s closing price increased, risk tolerance increased. When the market dropped, the following week’s risk tolerance also dropped. Since risk tolerance affects the willingness of investors to buy risky assets such as shares, the relationship between market movements and risk tolerance tends to reinforce the direction of market movement. During market rises people become more inclined to buy shares, thus pushing share prices up further. After market falls investors are more likely to sell, thereby pushing the market down further.
Projection bias is high sensitivity to momentary information and feelings such that current attitudes and preferences are expected to continue into the future (Loewenstein et al. 2003). Mehra and Sah (2002) found that risk tolerance varied over time and that people behaved as if their current risk preference would persist into the future. In other words the current level of risk tolerance was subject to a projection bias such that it was expected to continue into the future. Grable et al. (2006) pointed out that this interacts with the effects of market movements on risk tolerance.
A rise in the market enhances risk tolerance, projection bias leads to a belief that current risk tolerance will persist, people buy more shares, share purchases cause price rises, price rises increase risk tolerance, and so forth. A virtuous circle of rising prices and rising risk tolerance could emerge. Conversely there could be a vicious circle entailing falling prices and rising risk-aversion. The Role of Social Mood People transmit moods to one another when interacting socially. People not only receive information and opinions in the process of social interaction, they also receive moods and emotions.
Moods and emotions interact with cognitive processes when people make decisions. There are times when such feelings can be particularly important, such as in periods of uncertainty and when the decision is very complex. The moods and emotions may be unrelated to a decision, but nonetheless affect the decision. The general level of optimism or pessimism in society will influence individuals and their decisions, including their financial decisions There is a distinction between emotions and moods. Emotions are often short term and tend to be related to a particular person, object, or situation.
Moods are free-floating and not attached to something specific. A mood is a general state of mind and can persist for long periods. Mood may have no particular causal stimulus and have no particular target. Positive mood is accompanied by emotions such as optimism, happiness, and hope. These feelings can become extreme and result in euphoria. Negative mood is associated with emotions such as fear, pessimism, and antagonism. Nofsinger (2005a) suggested that social mood is quickly reflected in the stock market, such that the stock market becomes an indicator of social mood.
Prechter (1999, 2001), in proposing a socionomics hypothesis, argued that moods cause financial market trends and contribute to a tendency for investors to act in a concerted manner and to exhibit herding behaviour. Many psychologists would argue that actions are driven by what people think, which is heavily influenced by how they feel. How people feel is partly determined by their interactions with others. Prechter’s socionomic hypothesis suggests that human interactions spread moods and emotions. When moods and emotions become widely shared, the resulting feelings of optimism or pessimism cause uniformity in financial decision-making.
This amounts to herding and has impacts on financial markets at the aggregate level. Slovic et al. (2002) proposed an affect heuristic. Affect refers to feelings, which are subtle and of which people may be unaware. Impressions and feelings based on affect are often easier bases for decision-making than an objective evaluation, particularly when the decision is complex. Since the use of affect in decision-making is a form of short cut, it could be regarded as a heuristic. Loewenstein et al. (2001) showed how emotions interact with cognitive thought processes and how at times the emotional process can dominate cognitive processes.
Forgas (1995) took the view that the role of emotions increased as the complexity and uncertainty facing the decision-maker increased. Information can spread through society in a number of ways: books, magazines, newspapers, television, radio, the Internet, and personal contact. Nofsinger suggests that personal contact is particularly important since it readily conveys mood and emotion as well as information. Interpersonal contact is important to the propagation of social mood. Such contact results in shared mood as well as shared information.
Prechter suggested that economic expansions and equity bull markets are associated with positive feelings such as optimism and enthusiasm whereas economic recessions and bear markets correspond to an increase in negative emotions like pessimism, fear, and anger. During a stock market uptrend society and investors are characterised by feelings of calmness and contentment, at the market top they are happy and enthusiastic, during the market downturn the feelings are ones of sadness and insecurity, whilst the market bottom is associated with feelings of anger, hostility, and tension.
Dreman (2001) suggested that at the peaks and troughs of social mood, characterised by manias and panics, psychological influences play the biggest role in the decisions of investment analysts and fund managers. Forecasts will be the most positive at the peak of social mood and most negative at the troughs. Psychological influences can contaminate rational decision-making, and may be dominant at the extreme highs and lows of social mood. At the extremes of social mood the traditional techniques of investment analysis might be rejected by many as being no longer applicable in the new era.
Shiller (1984) took the view that stock prices are likely to be particularly vulnerable to social mood because there is no generally accepted approach to stock pricing; different analysts use different models in different ways. The potential influence of social mood is even greater among non-professionals who have little, or no, understanding of pricing models and financial analysis. Nofsinger (2005a) saw the link to be so strong that stock market prices could be used as a measure of social mood. Peaks and troughs of social mood are characterised by emotional decision-making rather than rational evaluation.
Cognitive evaluations indicating that stocks are overpriced are dominated by a mood of optimism. Support for one’s downplaying of rational evaluation receives support from the fact that others downplay rational evaluation. The optimism of others validates one’s own optimism. It is often argued that the normal methods of evaluation are no longer applicable in the new era. Fisher and Statman (2002) surveyed investors during the high-tech bubble of the late 1990s and found that although many investors believed stocks to be overpriced, they expected prices to continue rising.
Eventually social mood passes its peak and cognitive rationality comes to dominate social mood. Investors sell and prices fall. If social mood continues to fall, the result could be a crash in which stock prices fall too far. The situation is then characterised by an unjustified level of pessimism, and investors sell shares even when they are already underpriced. Investors’ sales drive prices down further and increase the degree of underpricing. Fisher and Statman (2000) provided evidence that stock market movements affect sentiment.
A vicious circle could develop in which falling sentiment causes prices to fall and declining prices lower sentiment. Taffler and Tuckett (2002) provided a psychoanalytic perspective on the technology stock bubble and crash of the late 1990s and early 2000s, and in so doing gave a description of investor behaviour totally at odds with the efficient markets view of rational decision-making based on all relevant information. They made it clear that people do not share a common perception of reality; instead everyone has their own psychic reality.
Total Quality Management Schools buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
Unlike the previous Fayolian process texts, Drucker developed three broader managerial functions: (1) managing a business; (2) managing managers; and (3) managing workers and work. He proposed that in every decision the manager must put economic considerations first. Drucker recognized that there may be other non-economic consequences of managerial decision, but that the emphasis should still be placed on economic performance.
Deming, an American, is considered to be the father of quality control in Japan. In fact, Deming suggested that most quality problems are not the fault of employees, but the system. He emphasized the importance of improving quality by suggesting a five-step chain reaction. This theory proposes that when quality is improved, (1) costs decrease because of less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials; (2) productivity improves; (3) market share increases with better quality and prices; (4) the company increases profitability and stays in business; and (5) the number of jobs increases.
Deming developed a 14-point plan to summarize his teachings on quality improvement. These fourteen points are listed> 1. Create consistency of purpose toward the improvement of product and service, and communicate this goal to all employees. 2. Adopt the new philosophy of quality throughout all levels with the organization. 3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality; understand that quality comes from improving processes. 4. No longer select suppliers based solely on price. Move towards developing a long-term relationship with a single supplier. 5.
Processes, products, and services should be improved constantly; reducing waste. 6. Institute extensive on-the-job training. 7. Improve supervision. 8. Drive out fear of expressing ideas and concerns. 9. Break down barriers between departments. People should be encouraged to work together as a team. 10. Eliminate slogans and targets for the workforce. 11. Eliminate work quotas on the factory floor. 12. Remove barriers that rob workers of their right to pride of workmanship. The contemporary management school brings a more interdisciplinary approach to the field of management.
The very important writings of W. Edwards Deming in the area of productivity improvement and those of Peter Drucker on MBO and management innovation have a major impact on the way today’s organizations are managed. The integrative methodologies of the systems approach and contingency theory give managers the latitude they need to integrate the research of the many management schools. 13. Institute a program of education and self-improvement. 14. Make sure to put everyone in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
Joseph Juran’s experience led him to conclude that more than 80 percent of all quality defects are caused by factors within management’s control. He referred to this as the “Pareto principle. ” From this theory, he developed a management trilogy that included quality planning, control, and improvement. Juran suggested that an area be selected which has experience chronic quality problems. It should be analyzed, and then a solution is generated and finally implemented. The quality work of Joseph Juran and W. Edwards Deming changed the way people looked at business.
Anthroprogenic Climate Change and Its Effects get essay help: get essay help
Human-induced climate change will have various effects on our landscapes and on our way of life. Discuss the causes of anthropogenic climate change, and using examples from Ireland and internationally, outline some of the potential impacts that climate change, and society’s responses to it, will have on our future geography. Anthropogenic climate change is the greatest threat to the planet.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment report states that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-twentieth century is very likely to be due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations. In order to get a better understanding this essay will discuss briefly the differences between climate change and anthropogenic climate change and the affects that this will have on a global scale.
Using examples from Ireland and the Mediterranean we can see specifically how climate change will affect the environment we live in on several different levels, physically, ecologically, socially and economically. To conclude what we can do to mitigate the affects of climate change is discussed. Climate change is something which occurs naturally and is affected by the following: the hydrospheric, atmospheric, cryospheric, and biospheric systems. It is also affected by solar radiation from the sun and the Milankovich cycles (the earth’s axial tilt and orbit around the sun). These systems interact with one another to give the earth its climate.
However with the population explosion which has occurred since the industrial revolution, from less than one billion in the 1800’s to almost seven billion today(http://esa. un. org/unpp), the pressure human activity has put on these systems is causing the earths climate to change and warm at a much more rapid pace than would occur naturally. We know that this increase in temperature is occurring due to records kept since the beginning of the 1900’s, ice core samples and through proxy records. Greenhouse gases (GHG) have the most significant impact on the climate. What are greenhouse gases and how does human activity affect them?
Greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These gases trap solar radiation from the sun in the atmosphere causing a warming affect. Human activity and the production of GHGs affect the environment in the following ways: changes in land use through agriculture, urbanisation and deforestation; the use of aerosols which release harmful CFCs and other halocarbons into the atmosphere. However the most important anthropogenic cause of climate change is the use of fossil fuels which release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
The world is almost entirely reliant on fossils fuels for its supply of energy. Agriculture and urbanisation change the earths Albedo affect (reflective properties) thus affecting the amount a radiation from the sun reflected back out to space. The increase in agriculture to meet the world’s demands for food is “thought to contribute more than twice as much methane as natural resources” (Middleton, 2003, p183). As we know trees absorb carbon dioxide, with deforestation however we reduce the earth’s ability to absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
CFC’s and halocarbons are not naturally occurring compounds, they increase the atmospheric albedo and alter cloud properties, they also last for a very long time in the atmosphere, from 60 to 100 years and have contributed to the depletion of the ozone layer. Carbon dioxide is the biggest contributor to climate change. “Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, coal, oil, gas, for use in power stations, industry and transport, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by 35 per cent since the beginning of industrialisation”. http://www. noaanews. noaa. gov). The potential impacts of climate change can be ecological, physical, social and economic. The physical aspects of anthropogenic climate change can be seen in the increase in the world’s average temperature, increased precipitation, a rise in sea levels, reduced snow cover and melting of polar icecaps and an increase in extreme weather events such as heat waves, cyclones and flooding. These events in turn have an impact on ecological systems where they occur and could cause the extinction of some species.
If we take flooding, an increase in sea levels and an increase in the ph of the sea due to absorption of CO2 as an example, we will see the following; impacts on marine diversity and possible of some species unable to adapt to the warmer temperatures or higher ph levels, bleaching of coral reefs and coastal erosion. Economically and socially the increase in sea level may cause coastal towns problems as beaches and harbours are affected by higher tides, fishing industries affected by the loss of marine diversity and local underground drinking water supplies contaminated by sea water.
In extreme situations a coastal town may be forced to move. In Ireland the climate is expected to increase by 3-4 degrees by the end of the century, with the south and east experiencing the most significant warming. The Community Climate Change Consortium for Ireland report Ireland in a warmer climate (2008) states that the autumn and winter months will be wetter and milder and that we should also expect intense cyclones from the Atlantic more frequently, due to the rise in surface temperature of the ocean.
If we look elsewhere for examples of climate change we should look no further than the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean is a region of vulnerability because climate change there will increase temperature and decrease precipitation leading to a lack of water, which will in turn have an impact on agriculture and the regions main source of income tourism. This increase in temperature in an area already known for its warm dry summers and mild winters will lead to an increase in wild fires, soil erosion and a higher demand on water for irrigation systems.
The Mediterranean sea level is expected to rise, this will have a significant impact on coastal areas and low lying islands who rely on their on their coasts and beaches for tourism. This increase in sea level will also have a very serious impact for the city of Venice. The Mediterranean is well know for its fresh fish and scuba diving, an increase in the ph of the sea there will have a detrimental affect on biodiversity and will also cause coral bleaching. “As a result the Mediterranean has become a climate change Hot Spot” (www. planbleu. org).
What can we do to reduce and or prevent further climate change? Most countries have now accepted the need to make an effort to reduce emissions of GHG’s. The first major step on a global scale came in 1987 with the Montreal Protocol which was an agreement to reduce CFC’s and other halocarbons which destroy the Ozone. There have been other international agreements to reduce CO2 emissions such as the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1992, where 150 countries signed up in joint effort. The Kyoto Protocol expanded on the UNFCCC by focusing not just CO2 but on other harmful GHG’s as well.
Other government initiatives include tree planting to increase the Earths carbon sink capacity, carbon sequestration which involves capturing CO2 and storing it, reduce dependency on motor vehicle use in cities and to reduce the worlds global dependency of fossil fuel based power sources. In order to do this, governments need to encourage the development of sustainable, renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, tidal, solar and geothermal power. Ignorance, the tragedy of the commons, poor valuation, dependency and exploitation are all key issues which contribute towards anthropogenic climate change.
To change this education will play a key roll. Currently all the environmental issues that we face arise from people deliberately or inadvertently misusing or abusing the natural environment. Climate change is the greatest challenge facing humanity and its impacts will not be distributed equally or evenly around the world. Developing countries in Africa are likely to feel the affects much more severely than mainland Europe. So it is essential that developed countries commit themselves to fulfilling there agreements under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto and Montreal Protocols. To summarise climate change is a naturally occurring system of the earth.
However human activity has increased the amount of GHG’s in the atmosphere putting the carbon cycle and climate system under severe pressure. Anthropogenic climate change currently has the upper hand. The affects that are being felt around the globe may not in some cases be reversible and the loss not realised or calculated for many years to come. In order to reduce or negate the impact of anthropogenic climate change there are steps which we as a global nation can and must take to ensure that future generations may enjoy the Earth as we have.
Hr Accounting Policies in Infosys cheap essay help: cheap essay help
By early 2000, many companies in India had started valuing their human capital and reported the same in their balance sheets and other financial statements. Briefly explain the concept of valuation of human resources and compare the various models available for human resources accounting. Ans: HRA involved identifying, measuring, capturing, tracking and analyzing the potential of the human resources of a company and communicating the resultant information to the stakeholders of the company.
It was a method by which a cost was assigned to every employee when recruited and the value that employee generated during the tenure he/she worked . for the company. HRA reflected the potential of the human resources of an organization in monetary terms, in ifmancial statements. The two main components of HRA were investment related to employees and the value generated by them. Investment in human capital included all costs incurred in increasing and upgrading the employees’ skill sets and knowledge of human resources. The output that an organization generated nom human resources was regarded as the value of its human resources.
The costs, which were incurred on the development of human resources, were with intention to obtain future benefits. Therefore, these costs were not to be treated as expenditure,but investments, future revenues or assets. The expenditure incurred by an organization on recruiting, selecting, trainig and developing employees had to be capitalized and shown in the balance sheet as assets, as the humans possess some skills, knowledge and experience which could be turned into value for tbe organization.
However’, it was argued by some critics that costs did not reflect the true value and truevalue could be known only by the difference between real performance and the cost incurred, associated with the human resources of the organization. 2. Replacement Cost Method: The cost incurred by an organization on replacing the earlier employees and strengthening. the organization further, had to reflect the human resource value of both the employees and organization.
Critics argued that it is difficult to assess the replacement cost of the employees as the value, which they generated over period of time and their contribution to the organization was difficult to measure in relation to cost incurred to employ them. 3. Opportunity Cost Method: According to this model, the potential monetary value to be generated by an employeewas be estimated by allocating the employee to an actiyity in which he/she best fitted. In otherwords, opportunity cost of key employees in the organization was assessed in relation to their performanance and in accordance with the organizational goals.
The investment managers used to bid for t] employees and the highest bid for an employee was considerd his price, which was to be reflect in the balance sheet. The bid price was a measure of the employee’s competence and experience,a1 the value that he would generate for the organization. Citics argued that competitive biddin. involved assessing the future coniribution of an employee to the organization’s goals make more individuals to disassociate themselves from the bidding process, thereby making it difficult for the organization to measure their value.
They further argued that the bid price placed on employee may be based on the perception of the bidder, which may not give a correct estimation the employee’s true value. The value to be generated by an employee was relative and hence this measurement cold not be effective. 4. Standard Cost Method: According to this model, the cost of recruiting, selecting, training and developing a particular grade of employees were standardized. These costs were determined and evaluated over the years to get the total value of the human resources in an organization 5. Goodwill Method:
This model was developed by I-Iarmonsonand was also called the Hormonson model. According to this model, the additional profit earned by an organization during a particular period of time was compared to the industry’s ayeragerat. Q2. Explain in detail the HRA model adopted by Infosys. What benefits did the company reap after valuing its human resources? Ans: HRA AT INFOSYS The company used the Lev & Schwartz Model (Refer Exhibit I) and valued its human resources assets at Rs 1. 86 billion. Infosys’ HRA model was based on the present value of the employees’ future earnings with the following assumptions: An employee’s salary package included all benefits, whether direct or otherwise, earned both in India and in a foreign nation. . The additional earnings on the basis of age and group were also taken into account. To calculate the value of its human assets in 1995-96, all the 1,172 employees of lrifosys were divided into five groups, based on their average age. Each group’s average compensation was calculated. Infosys also calculated the compensation of each employee at retirement by using an average rate of increment.
The increments were based on the industrY standards, and the employee’s performance and productivity. Finally, the total compensation of each group was calculated. This value was discounted at the rate of 27. 36 percent per annum which was the cost of capital of Infosys, and the sum of the values of all the groups was calculated to arrive at the figure ofRs 1. 86 billion. The formula used by Infosys as per the Lev and Schwartz model was: H = IE (IR Ie(y)/(l +dy,Pe where, H = discounted present human capital value for all individuals in the company le(Y)= annual earnings of employee e for the year ‘y’ = discount rate specific to the cost of capital of the company .The company could determine whether its human asset was appreciating over the years or not. This information was important for the company as its success depended solely on the knowledge of the employees. In addition, the company could also use this information internally to compare the performance and productivity of employees in various departments. HRA also helped Infosys to decide the compensation of employees.
The company ensured that it compensated each employee according to his/her worth. Q3. What are the possible disadvantages of the evaluation of human capital by organizations? Do you think it is ethical on the part of an organization to place a monetary value on its employees? Explain. Ans: The disadvantages of evaluation of human capital by organizations is such that many organizations do not project a true and fair view of financial position by valuing human capital, it might also result in might result in underestimation of some efficient employees and over-estimation of some others.
Also, various companies used various models of HRA and comparing two companies using two different models would be difficult. Companies could misuse HRA to enhance their image Putting monetary value on its employees is has both its pros and cons, on societal and human perspective , it might be that adopting this approach would amount to treating humans as commodities, doubting an individual’s abilities, knowledge, skills and experience. Furthermore assigning a definite value to each individual may not be proper because knowledge of each individual differed from that of another. But,
In a dynamic environment, changing trends , surviving in the global village is like dangling from double edged sword, employees having realized that ar forever on competitive tetherhooks and hence it is justified to value human assets as it changed the perspective from which the companies viewed their employees’ utility to the organization. The financial strength of a company is determined by all the resources in the company, including human resources. Companies felt that HRA would gain popularity in India only when organizations would move away from the traditional management style, which gave less importance to people.
There were also countless functional benefits such as – 1. take managerial decisions based on the availability and the necessity of humanresouw it gave the investors and other clients insights into the organization and its future potential. Proper valuation of human resources helped organizations to eliminate the negative effects of redundancy helped them to channelize the available skills, talents, knowledge and experience of their employees more efficiently
Leadership in the Public Safety Environment college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles
Today’s leaders are faced with many obstacles that either makes or breaks them in their roles as leaders. The questions and concerns about how leaders should act, how they should lead and even how much experience they may have as a leaders all seem to be the questions and concerns. The public safety environment as a whole is one of those organisms that is face with continued scrutiny concerning the performance of leaders.
Often times, people look for their local government and law enforcement agencies to be the leaders in deterring and stopping crime, when the tables have turned and majority of the crimes are committed by government and law enforcement officials. For example, in September, 2005, 7 New Orleans police officers, known as the “Danzinger 7” who were tasked with protecting and serving the people of New Orleans during this time major time of crisis, found themselves indicted for killing and wounding innocent citizens trying to seek safety (Hampton, 2007).
This outrage, created such a disruption in the city, until the people did not trust the leaders who were suppose to protect them. This type of behavior is certainly the face of pseudo-transformational leadership. Pseudo-transformational leadership (i. e. , the unethical facet of transformational leadership) is manifested by a particular combination of transformational leadership behaviors (i. e. , low idealized influence and high inspirational motivation), and is differentiated from both transformational leadership (i. e. high idealized influence and high inspirational motivation) and laissez-faire (non)-leadership (i. e. , low idealized influence and low inspirational motivation), (Barling, J, Christie, A. & Turner, N. , 2007). There could no better way to describe this type of behavior, especially when it is put before the eyes of the people. The issue of situation concerning the “Danzinger 7” was a tragedy, but to add insult to the injury was that 7 sworn officers, tried to cover up their wrongdoing and there were actual supervisors on scene that supported their wrongdoing.
This is a clear recipe for disaster within a department that has seen its uproar of scandals and investigations. When an officer takes into his or her own hands the law and put aside what they are sworn to uphold to save themselves, he or she represents the clear meaning of what pseudo-transformational leadership is. However amid of the scandal that have this disgrace the New Orleans Police Department, the efforts to restructure, train and retrain, enforce and reinforce policies is the way of creating a safe, working and trusting department.
On the hand, to every negative for of leadership, there is a positive side. Transforming leadership is to seen to more demanding, but its results are solid. Vinzant & Crothers (1998) points out that transformational leaders focuses effort and makes choices based on goals, values, and ideals that the leader determines the group or organization wants or ought to advance (Meese & Ortmeier, 2004, p 54). This leadership styles presents a clear picture of how any organization or group should be operating. The end results of any leader should be quality, quantity.
When quality work is presented, the public as whole develops a level of respect for those who are serving them. The demand for transforming leadership is constantly changing and evolving as times change. People look for transparency within their their public safety organizations and expect those in leadership to understand what is going and to be able to offer a greater solution to their problems. At the end of the day all anyone wants is fairness and justice. The people expect the leaders to be leaders and take care of them as they are entrusted to do and not become a suspect in the system.
Outline and Evaluate Bowlbys Theory of Attachment college essay help near me: college essay help near me
Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s theory of attachment (12 marks) Bowlby was an evolutionary Psychologist who believed that attachment is a part of evolutionary behaviour and focus on an animal’s instinctive and innate capabilities, and the functions of their behaviour. They believe this is useful for learning about human instinctive and biological behaviour. Attachment behaviour keeps a young animal or human safe. It is behaviour seen in all species of animal.
Many species of animal form rapid attachments to either mother almost immediately after birth and young babies follow their mothers around as soon as they can physically walk and use their mother as a secure base for exploration. The critical period hypothesis states that if you fail to attach, or suffer from a disruption bond between 1-3years, then you will suffer from long term irreversible cognitive, social and emotional problems. Evidence to support this includes privation studies such as orphanages.
This supports the critical period as the children had no attachment during the critical period and did suffer from long lasting and irreversible consequences. However, some privation studies have shown that even children who suffered privation during the critical period have recovered. This has led some psychologists to recall it the ‘sensitive period’. Social releasers are instincts that babies are born with to attract parent’s attention. These included crying, sucking, clinging, gripping and imitating. These help in attachment because they release/ trigger the parent’s instinct to respond to the biological needs of a baby.
This had been supported by Klaus and Kennel who stated that mothers who had prolonged skin to skin contact with their mothers had a stronger attachment bond. The time had enabled the parents to ‘switch on’ their maternal instincts. However, this has been criticized because maternal instinct can always be there not just when you’ve had a baby so most women’s hormones make them react to social releasers even when it is not their baby. Monotropy Hypothesis states that you attach to one person initially to ensure your survival, and then go on to develop a hierarchy of attachments with other family members.
This has been supported by Tronick et al who found that even in tribes where it was common to be breastfed by other women, the child still had a preference for its mother. However, it has been criticized by Parke et al who said that babies need multiple attachments from birth for different roles. For example the dad is very important for rough play and excitement. The internal working schema is a pocket of information where we store information in our brain. We have a schema for everything. The internal working model is our schema for relationships.
Our schema for relationships is full of information about what we know about relationships. It is heavily influenced by our first relationship with our parents and this is what we have come to expect from a relationship. Evidence for the schema comes from Hazan and Shaver’s ‘Love Quiz’ where they found that you attachment type with your mother reflected your expectations in later ‘love’ partnerships. This has been criticized because our schema for relationships is also influenced by future relationships with other people other than your mother.
Bowlby’s theory explains how and why we attach and has lots of evidence and further research to support him but it’s very difficult to test the claim that we have developed instincts from evolution. He has explored and explained the consequences of what happens if we don’t attack as well as what happens when we do, but this is him only focusing on a mother and child relationship. It also seems to put too much emphasis on instinct and doesn’t explore experiences and how we learn about attachment. However, many Developmental Psychologists have used at least some of his ideas.
Relationship Between Rising Us Unemployment grad school essay help: grad school essay help
Is there a relationship between rising US unemployment and the rise of the Canadian dollar? Canada’s financial stability depends on the health of America’s economy, as international trade accounts for 45% of Canada’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 79% of exports are to the United States. Canadian and American unemployment rates are positively correlated for that reason, as exemplified in early 2009. Canada’s unemployment rate quickly steepened as the United States’ rate gradually increased to about 10% (refer to graph 1 and 2). During this time, Canada’s growing trade surplus became a deficit in only a few months (refer to graph 3).
From this data, one can determine that Canada’s exports decreased rapidly due to rising economic turmoil in the United States. The effects on the dollar seemed to positively correlate. Canada’s dollar decreased in value compared to the US dollar; however, concluding that the reason for this change was due to the U. S. unemployment rate is inaccurate. The ever-changing exchange rate of the dollar is determined by many factors. As of 2011, Canadian and American unemployment rates remain high at approximately 7. 3% and 9%, respectively. In addition, a trade deficit continues to exist in Canada.
Nevertheless, the Canadian dollar is gaining strength over the American dollar, which contrasts with the weakened exchange rate in 2009 when the same conditions existed (refer to graph 4). Therefore, rising U. S. unemployment can have a positive or negative affect on the Canadian dollar. I will examine how the increasing U. S. unemployment rate can potentially strengthen or weaken the loonie. A rise in U. S. unemployment can indicate a relationship with the rise of the Canadian dollar. The increase in U. S. unemployment is a result of America’s 2008 recession. When unemployment increases in America, the U.
S. Federal Reserve needs to decrease interest rates in order to stimulate the economy (as exemplified in graphs 2 and 5). If interest rates are high, consumers will save their money and try to cut back on spending. If interest rates are low, consumers are encouraged to borrow money from the banks and spend it. Although lower interest rates can improve domestic spending, it will discourage foreign investors because the return on their investments decreases. As of September 2011, the US interest rate is close to 0% and Canada’s rate is at 1% as determined by the Bank of Canada.
Low interest rates indicate that the US is in poor financial health. More countries will want to invest in Canada if the US is in a risky financial situation and additionally, provides low returns. The value of the Canadian dollar rises when demand increases. Due to America’s increasing government debt and declining interest rates, Canada’s economy is comparatively more stable. Canada’s credit rating is currently higher than America’s. A credit rating indicates the financial health of a country and how large the risk is for lenders to invest.
Standard and Poor’s, a credit rating agency, currently downgraded America’s rating to AA+ from the highest score of AAA. The downgrade was a result of the U. S. ’s increasing debt from the recession. Canada’s credit rating is still the highest at triple-A because of the country’s stability. Canada is more attractive to invest in, as there are solid returns on the interest rates and low risk for lenders. Increased demand in Canadian assets can result in a higher exchange rate. Investors want to put money into a country where they believe it is a safe haven.
Although Canada can become more appealing to foreign investors, a rise in U. S. unemployment can be a factor in weakening the Canadian dollar. The U. S. dollar decreases in value when unemployment is high because the government receives less tax revenue. If the U. S. dollar falls, Americans have less purchasing power and Canadian commodities become more expensive. As a result, U. S. consumers will be discouraged to spend and/or import from Canada. Additionally, a weaker U. S. dollar will decrease domestic expenditures in Canada because Canadians can purchase more for their dollar in the United States.
If consumer spending and exports decrease, Canada’s economy can decline simultaneously with the American economy. As mentioned above, international trade accounts for 45% of Canada’s GDP. On April 1, 2011, the loonie hit a three-year high after U. S. employment increased and the jobless rate decreased. The dollar increase from a decrease in U. S. unemployment exemplifies America and Canada’s trading partnership and coinciding economies. The strength of the U. S. economy is important for Canada’s trade, economy and exchange rate. Increasing U. S. unemployment can positively or negatively influence the value of the loonie.
Canada’s dollar can increase due to demand from buyers looking to invest in a stable economy with low risk. On the other hand, Canada’s GDP is dependent on U. S. trade. If less Americans are purchasing goods in Canada due to increased unemployment, the Canadian dollar will fall. Therefore, it is inconclusive that unemployment rates solely influence the rise of the Canadian dollar. There are many other factors that influence the exchange rate, such as commodity prices, investor confidence, overvalued currency and inflation rates.
Cultural and Ethnic Identities of These Individuals college essay help service: college essay help service
Rumspringa, defined as “running around” is a time when the Amish youth at the age of 16 decide whether to remain in or leave their community and faith. During this time teens area allowed to enter and lead a life in the “English” world and participate in partying, drinking, illegal drugs and pre-marital sex. During rumpsringa teens are exposed to a myriad of things that they normally would not have been able to in their regular Amish life. This stage of their life highly affects the cultural identity of these young adults.
It causes these kids to either want to go back to home and join the Amish church or run from it as far away as possible. They are exposed to all the things they would usually in their day to day life are told is a sin or the devils way of living. One of the main things you see some if not all is smoking cigarettes, even the girls while they are still dressed in their Amish cloth. “Cultural group membership is acquired though the guidance of primary caretaker and peer association during out formative years” Toomey and Chung p. 3. This time is part of a bigger problem for the Amish sect as it brings about a mind set of total independence on the part of their youth; something many, especially boys, have difficulty handling appropriately at this young age. In addition, it is viewed by some as “a casual look the other way time” on the part of the Amish parents and other adults. It can be acknowledged that some Amish parents do relax their standards some when their offspring turn 16 and some permit exploration to an extent.
However, it is hard to believe any Amish parent would ever tell their 16 year old to go out and experience the “world” as one is led to believe by this documentary. With out the guidance of “primary caretakers”, the Amish parents to guide these youngsters into the right line of cultural identity it starts to cause the lose of cultural identity with the future of the Amish culture as more and more teens start to choose not to go back and get baptized and join the Amish church.
After going to rumspringa many of the teens seem to lose the emotional attachment with the Amish life and affiliation. They seem to enjoy a life of vehicular transportation, electricity, alcohol, and cable TV all of which are not part of the Amish culture. It can be argued that these teens lose cultural identity during this time by looking at the “value content” and “cultural identity Salience”; the reasoning behind many of the teens going though rumpsringa to decide to stay as part of the “English” world for the time being or not to join the Amish church at all.
They also go form being part of a collectivism culture to an individualistic one which they seem to enjoy better. Ethnic identity of these individuals tends to stick with them which ever path they choose to take. Gerald speaks about how even if he does not go back to be part of the Amish church how he will always think about whether he will go to heaven or hell an idea drilled deep in his mind growing up Amish. Faron also still has his Amish Ethnic Identity when he speaks to his parents his accent changes in the way he talks to them.
Though they might have Amish as their Ethnic Identity these individuals acts conflict with that of this particular ethnic norms and behaviours during the time of rumspringa. Looking at the different ways the teens going through rumspringa act it can be concluded that they fall under marginal identity due to their weak ethnic and cultural identity where they are no longer connected with their ethic group of Amish society leaving them in a state of ambiguity and alienation.
Racism in the Media in the United States get essay help: get essay help
In this research paper you will identify a social problem/issue related to contemporary racial and ethnic inequality in the United States and research all that you can about that problem. You will explore in your paper: What is the problem/issue? How is the problem defined from a sociological perspective (meaning, what are the social and cultural causes of the problem)? How do you know it’s a problem? What is the evidence? What racialized/ethnic/underrepresented group(s) is/are impacted?
How are they impacted? How does the problem relate to Beverly Daniel Tatum’s definition of racism, particularly in relation to institutional policies and practices? What institutions are involved? Use the “Four themes of institutional racism” to help you evaluate how institutions perpetuate the problem. Be sure to discuss the historical processes within the relevant institutions that have led up to the contemporary conditions. How are cultural messages relevant to the problem?
How is privilege relevant to the problem? Be sure to integrate sociological concepts from the course and define and cite terms you use. Write in essay form – e. g. , don’t just answer the above questions – arrange your essay such that the above questions are answered, but don’t just list the answers out 1, 2, etc. Minimum references required: Two books and two scholarly journals. Be sure to ask me if you have questions about what “scholarly” means.
You may use additional sources, but it would be best to ask me also about the quality and reliability of the sources. Cite references and include a “References” section at end of paper (not included in page number requirement (see ASA format) Format: 4-6 full pages, double-spaced, 1 inch margins, 10-12 point Times New Roman or Arial font (or something comparable) Your grade (out of 200 points) will be based on how well you: -define and explain the problem from a sociological perspective (and show how group(s) are impacted).
The Mans Yard You Should Not Hit Your Ball my essay help uk: my essay help uk
From the minute I read the title of today’s poem, I knew I was going to enjoy it. I chose this poem because the title reminded me of a very familiar childhood movie, The Sandlot; because of this I thought I could interpret it the best out of all of them. This poem is unique in that the title is actually the first two lines of the poem. Right from the start the title says a lot. The title is very direct in the way it leads into the poem. Readers don’t have to guess what this poem is going to be about.
Also, almost everyone that has lived in some kind of neighborhood can relate to it. Anyone that has had a mean neighbor can in some way share this type of experience. Or maybe it’s just a memory of that one house everyone knew you cannot go around or into; parents are always telling their children to stay away. The image that almost immediately popped into my head was The Sandlot. The next image that came to mind from the poem was when Lux says “and mowed his lawn, his dry quarter-acre, the machine slicing a wisp from each blades tip. The lines use a lot of imagery to create a scene for the reader. The line depicts him mowing the lawn every day. It suggests that he lives a very meticulous or tedious and planned lifestyle. He mows everyday at six o’clock no matter if it’s spring, summer, or fall. This leads me to believe that this man is a man of habit. Lux also says if he could, he would mow the snow. The poem shifts somewhat and depicts him as being somewhat uptight and miserable, living this same kind of boring or depressed lifestyle day after day. The poem then goes on to describe his wife.
Lux claims she is like “shoebox paper”. She is brittle and very easy to break. He states that she is fragile, that she is like a “broken apron. ” The line suggests that in some way he “broke” her or seriously hurt her leading into the next line, “As if into her head he drove a wedge of shale. ” It soon after mentions his daughter, “Years later, his daughter goes to jail. ” This line adds to the overall mood of the poem. The reader can feel some kind of empathy for the character in this poem because of his life and relationships.
Lux then talks about how the pasture between his house and the old man’s house was a “Field of fly balls, the best part of childhood and baseball” where the main character would go to hit, and if one crossed the line into his yard it became what Lux calls ‘coleslaw’. “His mower ate it up, Happy to cut something no matter what the manual said about foreign objects, stones, or sticks. ” The main character gladly ran over and destroyed the baseball with his mower, whenever they would trespass onto his lawn.
Consumer Spending in Asia narrative essay help: narrative essay help
Asia is the world’s largest and most populous continent. Interestingly the countries which fall under Asia vary in size, environment, historical ties and governance systems. Thus the wealth of these countries differs quite drastically. For example in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP (“the market value of all the goods and services produced by labour and property located in a country” (About. com 2009)), Japan has the largest economy on the continent.
In fact measured in terms of GDP Japan has the second largest economy in the world (Wikipedia 2009). Yet this is a far cry from other Asian countries such as Pakistan and Bangladesh, where the annual turnover of some large Multinationals exceeds the national GDP. Unfortunately despite the fact that Asia accounts for roughly 60% of the worlds population (wikipedia 2009), it has been overshadowed (in economic terms) by the shear might and power of the western economies, namely America.
However in a bizarre twist of fate, sparked by the now infamous credit crunch, which has had a devastating effect on the once robust economies of the West, many are now asking the question, can Asians replace Americans as a driver of global growth? (Economist June 2009). These Asian countries or economies are often referred to as the ‘Emerging Markets’. This definition is often widely used and loosely defined. The term ‘Emerging Markets’ was first coined by by Antoine W. Van Agtmael of the IFC (International Finance Corporation) of the World Bank in 1981 (Heakal 2009).
It is used to describe fast growing economies, which have embarked on economic development and reform programs (Heakal 2009). Thus they are considered to be transitional economies, as they are moving from a closed economy to an open economy, whilst importantly building accountability within the system (Heakal 2009). China and India are examples of two prominent ‘Emerging Market’ Countries. Gone are the days these economies were ignored. The growing economic strength of these countries, one could go as far as to say may be seen as a threat to current international business.
China and India use their generating wealth to actively compete with the West (Ashburton, 2006). For example, the take-over of Corus Steel by the Indian company, Tata made it the largest Indian take-over of a foreign company and the world’s fifth largest steel firm (BBC News, 2006). Another example is of the Indian company Taj Hotels positioning itself as a global player as succeeding Four Seasons Hotels in operating as a New York City landmark. As many multinationals face domestic market saturation (Fenwick, 2001) they could undoubtedly benefit from accessing these huge markets.
The purchasing power of China is greater than that of any other country in Asia, and the second largest in the world (Wikipedia 2009). However the economies of these ‘Emerging Market’ countries vary considerably from the west in terms of culture and it has been argued that unlike countries in the West, individuals have a tendency to save rather than spend, thus have large current account surpluses. However the statistics tell a rather different story. ‘In China, India and Indonesia spending has increased by annual rates of more than 5% during the global downturn.
China’s retail sales have soared by 15% over the past year’ (Economist 2009) . These are phenomenal numbers. This includes government spending thus does overstate the numbers, however according to official household surveys, the percentage increase is in fact more in the region of 9%. This is highly impressive in comparison to the downturn in the west. Sales of cars have increased by a staggering 47%, clothes 22% and sales of electronics have increased by 12%. Ironically while car sales were up in Asia, the American taxpayers had to bail out the once massive Ford.
However its not good news across all of Asia, spending has suffered as a result of increased levels of unemployment and lower wages in countries such as Hong Kong, South Korea, and Singapore. In these countries real consumer spending was 4-5%. Yet there are positive signs in countries such as Taiwan, where retail spending rose in May for the third consecutive month, that spending is beginning to increase. The fact remains, relative to American consumer spending, Asian consumer spending has soared (Economist 2009).
However despite the strong growth and purchasing power of China, the fact remains that in dollar terms China’s population spend 1/6th of that in America. This explains in part why the Chinese Government have taken such bold steps to boost consumption. For example they have made it easier to borrow, as well as issuing a number of subsidies for villagers, enabling them to buy vehicles and electronic goods such as TV’s, computers and mobile phones. This is a Government who wants its people to dig deep into their wallets and spend. Furthermore there are sufficient grounds for a positive outlook for the future.
As incomes rise, this will no doubt have a positive effect on future sales. At the moment, only 30% of rural households own a refrigerator (compared with urban households). If the hopes of the governments in Asia are to be met, and consumer spending is to continue to soar, the answer lies in financing. The developed countries have a household debt to GDP ratio of around 100%, this is significantly higher than that of most Asian economies whose household debt is less than 50% of GDP. In particular in China and India, this is even lower at 15%.
Interestingly the one exception to this is South Korea, where households have as much debt relative to their income as Americans. It seems the Chinese Government have plans in progress to tackle this. As in May this year the Chinese Bank, began planning legislation which will allow foreign institutions to set up consumer-finance firms, which will allow loans for consumer-goods purchases. However perhaps the biggest question is whether these governments will allow their exchange rates to rise, to allow the shift of balance between growth from exports to domestic spending.
The rise in exchange rate would increase consumer’s real purchasing power and arguably more importantly give companies a reason to start producing goods for the domestic market. Unfortunately these governments have been reluctant to allow currencies rise too fast. Asian spending is without a doubt an important part of global growth. Surprisingly prior to the financial crisis which has hit the west, Emerging Asia’s consumer spending contributed slightly more (in absolute dollar terms) to the growth in global demand than did America’s (Economist 2009).
For a long time Globalisation and free markets, have been blamed for widening the gap between the rich and the poor. It has been argued markets create the ‘Progressive exclusion of the poor’ (Patnaik 2003 p. 62). Indeed there has been much research which has reached the conclusion capitalisation has been ‘dominated by uneven development, in which divergence is the rule and convergence the exception’ (Weeks 2001 p. 28). Perhaps, and it is a big stretch at the moment, the latest developments indicate a shift to the once overlooked.
However this pessimist cant help but feel, that these Emerging Market economies are far away from truly enjoying the fruits of their labour, and perhaps even much worse, they have only been given a taster, to something which will avail them until their governments wake up to the fact that rather than subsidising western consumers through undervalued currencies, they need to revalue the currencies.
Business Decision Models Assignment college essay help near me: college essay help near me
With this new requirement of shoe stores equally jewelry stores, a number of results will change in our solution. The additional constraint you need to add is that shoe stores equals jewelry stores. The new optimal solution is the following; two shoe stores, two jewelry stores, three department stores, two bookstores and two clothing stores. This total space will equal 9900 square feet and the total profit is $1,390,000. This would decrease the total profit by $20,000 if this additional constraint were added to the problem. c Let J = the number of jewelry stores in the mall, where J is required to be a whole number between 1 and 3. Let S = the number of shoe stores in the mall, where S is required to be a whole number between 1 and 3. Let D = the number of department stores in the mall, where D is required to be a whole number between 1 and 3. Let B = the number of bookstores in the mall, where B is required to be a whole number between 0 and 3. Let C = the number of clothing stores in the mall, where C is required to be a whole number between 1 and 3.
It would be difficult to formulate the profit maximization from this model because the profit for the stores depends on the amount of stores there are. In this model it is difficult to formulate a way to have different profit amounts for different decision variables. If J=1 it would have a different profit than J=2, as it is simply not multiplied by 2, but it is a different amount. J=1 would be 90, but J=2 would be 160. This makes it difficult to formulate the solution using this model. 2a
Let J1 = 1 if one jewelry store is in the mall = 0 otherwise Let J2= 1 if two jewelry stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let j3= 1 if three jewelry stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let S1= 1 if one shoe store is in the mall = 0 otherwise Let S2= 1 if two shoe stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let S3= 1 if three shoe stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let D1= 1 if one department store is in the mall = 0 otherwise Let D2= 1 if two department stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise
Let D3= 1 if three department stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let B0= 1 if zero bookstores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let B1= 1 if one bookstore is in the mall = 0 otherwise Let B2= 1 if two bookstores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let B3= 1 if three bookstores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let C1= 1 if one clothing store is in the mall = 0 otherwise Let C2= 1 if two clothing stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise Let C3= 1 if three clothing stores are in the mall = 0 otherwise
Essay Writing at Profs Only
Review This Service