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Organization Function of Management free essay help

Organizing Function of Management University of Phoenix MGT 330 – Peggy Terrasi Learning Team C Team Members: John Champagne, Malka Feast, Jason Fruge, David Rampolla, Tom Tumminelli, Derrell Beck, Vinton Morgan Organizing Function of Management The four functions of management: planning, organizing, controlling and performing are all crucial to managers and corporations across the world. After the planning function of management from the top executives down to all management staff, organizing the resources of the organization is a key element to provide the necessary action into place.

Specifically, organizing physical assets, human resources, knowledge management, and technology are key elements to organize. Physical assets are probably the most obvious to organize. Conocophillip’s physical assets are assets that are considered to be a quick liquidation for funds, such as real property, equipment, shares, holdings, and investments. This is found in the business set-up as it comprises the workforce, the sites, the buildings and any investments that involve money.

A very important part of physical assets is in the creation and preparation of the monetary investment reports. Within the report is the listing of tangible assets and non-tangible assets. Tangible assets are the same as real property, equipment or other items needed physically to run the company. Non-tangibles are items that can be reduced for cost savings and are not considered quick liquidation items. According to Myburg (), “1. Maintenance and its management is [sic] regarded as a sub-set of a larger system of “Physical Asset Management. ” 2.

Various sub-systems of Physical Asset Management have matured and Became well-entrenched, notably Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM), Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) and Total Quality Management (TQM). TQM has its origins in a 1951 publication by Armand Feigenbaum, and has since developed into a comprehensive business management methodology. This spans all organizational segments. ” A company needs to organize the physical assets of the company, whether buying, selling or leasing assets. Human resources are assets that are non-tangible, and must be managed differently.

Human Resources Management The management strategies in the human resources division must be changed over the years to keep up with the updates and constant change with technology. When hiring new employees, the human resources section must follow certain regulations. Before an interview, the interviewers must follow a checklist. Personal and professional references should be researched. This research could determine the prospective employee’s job performance. Key personnel should be present for the interview and information about the interview agenda must be shared among the panel.

Questions about disability, religion, sexual orientation, marital status, and age should be avoided at all costs. Once an employee has been hired, he should be provided with the company’s policy and procedures manual that include information about the dress code, vacation time, work hours, bonuses, raises, and acts for grounds of job termination. If a dilemma should arise with an employee’s performance, then a private meeting should be arranged with a witness, if necessary. A warning must be submitted in writing in order for it to be valid. By following a few simple procedures in both the hiring and disciplinary process, you will be in a better position to avoid personnel “surprises” than can befall all of us (Goodman, 2003). ” The strategies that have surfaced in the improvement of human resources management are revamping, usage of new technology and possible alternatives that may be available. “Managers, responsible for delivery of human resources (HR) services, are faced with the pressure to simultaneously increase productivity, improve service delivery time cycle time, and increase service quality (Dierdorff, 1996). When revamping the human resources division, benefits that may be acquired are the improvement of processes to create a highly qualified workforce, positive reinforcement to improve teamwork and customer service and the alignment of the human resources that coincide with objectives and business goals. From an information technology standpoint, advantages available are the ability to communicate with the customers in real time for self service, the ability to pull up information from different servers and databases and the introduction of a process to produce and support paperless electronic transmissions for various transactions.

Alternatives that may be provided for the human resources division include hiring a third party or consultant that will aid in lowering costs, staying current with practices and the justification of highly specialized field expert employees whom services are necessary to the survival of the organization. Knowledge Management Knowledge management is set of practices aimed at discovering and harnessing an organization’s intellectual resources-fully use the intellects of the organization’s people.

Knowledge management is about finding, unlocking, sharing, and altogether capitalizing on the most precious resources of an organization: people’s expertise, skills, wisdom, and relationships (Bateman, 2009). Knowledge management allows more employees to be involved in the decision making process of the company. In the roofing and sheet metal industry knowledge management is very important in the success of the organization. An employee’s experience in the field comes into play every day in the sales aspect of the supply industry.

A good upper management team will look for insight from the salespeople on trends in the industry as well as getting customer feedback on new products. In the roofing and sheet metal supply industry if management is left as the sole decision maker in the direction of the corporation vital information may be missing which would allow for clear and concise accurate decision to be made. Salespeople gathering information from customers with whom the salespeople have an established relationship is a proven way to learn which direction the organization needs to go.

Technology Technological advances have transformed the way that business in the 21st century operates. Managers today’s global business environment should understand how technology is changing the competitive landscape and how technology impacts the business operations. Technology simply defined is, “The application of knowledge to business based discoveries in science, inventions, and innovations. ” In business, technology can simplify production by developing new opportunities for the efficient operation of the organization (Kurtz 1999).

For example, an automobile manufacturer may depend on automated machinery to make cars, or they may use computers to simplify the process of managing the information required in the manufacturing of cars. General Motors future as a car manufacturer is presently in jeopardy if the company is unable to use less costly hybrid and high-efficient diesel technology in its few remaining car manufacturing plants. In a fast paced business environment, changing technology has the potential to create new industries and better ways of conducting business; the same is could be said of making some industries or way of doing business obsolete.

One of the most popular technological innovations in the past years is the Internet, a worldwide network of interconnected computers. The Internet enables one to access, send, and receive information or data through a personal computer (PC) from anywhere in the world. The Internet has also opened up new opportunities for businesses to communicate with their suppliers, customers, and employees. In the year 2000, a total of 200 million users will be connected to the Internet and 45% of them are expected to buy almost $100 billion in goods and services directly through Internet connections.

In the year 2008, internet users total 1 billion a growth of 342. 2% compared to the year 2000 data. Most organizations today have invested immensely in the Intranet. The Intranet by contrast to the Internet is a closed network system which uses Internet standards as a means of allowing a business’s to share information among employees in diverse geographical locations. Some organizations have created Extranets, a secured network accessible by only trusted outside agents of the organization such as a familiar supplier.

New technology has the potential to generate not only new products for customers, but has the potential to improve upon current products, and strengthen customer service. Technology can reduce the final price paid by consumers by extolling cost-efficiencies through the production and distribution process of getting the product to the market. Now more than ever technology is the driving force behind most modern day business success. However, the emphasis is on computers, semiconductors, software, telecommunication, pharmaceuticals, and other knowledge-based products.

Human resources, physical assets, knowledge management, and technology are strong areas any company needs to properly organize to reach the company’s goals as outlined through the planning function of management. As companies develop strategies, and plan these strategies organizing resources is not a haphazard response to the company’s strategies, but a well orchestrated event. Making mistakes in the organization of assets, human resources, technology, or knowledge management will cost the company money. Well organizing these same resources can enhance the profitability of the organization.

When dealing with large corporations such as Conocophillips, organizing the physical assets of the corporation, human resources, technology, and knowledge management can make the difference in economies of scope. While good organization is necessary the better the organization of these resources can enhance the bottom line by percentage points. When dealing with a company with revenues over $170 billion US, small percentage points can make for substantial differences. References Curt Dierdorff. (1996). Improving Effectiveness of Human Resources Services (Human Resources Management in Federal Agencies).

Web Technology Will Certainly Enhance Talent Attraction personal essay help: personal essay help

Web Technology will certainly enhance talent attraction, retention and development in organization. Discuss in relation to specific HR practices. Introduction Talent acquisition, retention and development is becoming into the range as one of the most critical elements of Human Resource Management. For years, companies have struggled to capture market share through economization and downsizing, while growth had seemed to take a backseat. New technology and tools are now available to address attracting, developing and retaining talent.

Talent attraction-Recruitment One of the most important practices of HR is recruitment. When we are referring to Web Technology in recruitment we want to attract top performers and high potentials as compared to our competitors. The focus is on attracting attention of individual with skills, competencies, and behaviors that are rare. Online recruitment is one of the most widely discussed functions of e-hr. The benefits of online recruitment are substantial in terms of cost, time, candidate pool and quality of response.

The use of technology improves the sorting and contacting of candidates. The internet can facilitate the selection of employees, especially where long distances are concerned. Video conferencing and online tests, for example, have been extensively used at the early stages of the selection process which results in cost and time savings, gives an organisation a more up to date image and it provides global coverage 24 hours a day. However there is always the risk of resumes overload, as well as low reputation and effectiveness of websites and databases.

Its use is still not widespread in Mauritius and advertisements which fail to reach their target audience are a waste of resources. It is not the first choice of most talented person since recruitment is most of the time done that someone knowing your skill and requests your service. Talent Retention-Reward and Performance Management Employee self service allows employees to submit electronically their preferences in terms of benefit selection, reducing the burden for the Human Resource Department.

Experience has shown that after the implementation of a self service employee benefits system, employees may still be calling with benefit questions confused about their choices and unable to grasp a broader rewards perspective However if web delivered employee benefits, if properly implemented and managed, entail economies for the HR department. The manager self service allows him to take on or confirm salary actions, salary changes, bonuses and stock management and informs managers on the choice they need to make or verify about rewards of their subordinates and asks them to insert their decision.

Performance management is one of the most important activities of HR. It is not enough to simply go through the business as usual and much disliked annual exercise of assessing performance and driving rewards based on a performance assessment. The information system will be drive and modifies goals as needed, assesses performance against goals, and provides instant feedback which will give them an indication of their strength and weaknesses thus focusing on skill development and motivate employees to stay with the organisation.

However this may lead to Substitution of individual judgments and Challenge the nature of an organisation and the role of management Talent development-Training and Development and e-learning E- Learning is one of the mostly discussed aspects of E-hr and probably the one with the most potential in terms of cost benefits. The internet can be used in training and development in pure e learning activities and career management.

3m – Innovation at 3m Corporation essay help writing: essay help writing

This went against the incrementalist approach that for so long had pervaded 3M. After all, as Mary Sonnack, division scientist and an internal 3M consultant on the new Lead User methodology, noted “3M gets so much revenue from incremental products . . . like a blue Post-it note instead of just a yellow one. ” Outside the window, the late autumn breeze rippled through the tall Minnesota grass—a seasonal reminder that it had been a year since the group first embarked on the Lead User process (see Exhibit 1).

The method, including training, had called for less than six months dedicated to the entire process. But the lengthy commitment from participants as well as 3M senior management might just pay off if it took the Medical-Surgical Markets division from a stagnating business to a reinvigorated enterprise. Clearly, however, unless the team came up with successful product ideas and effective positioning, the new methodology for product innovation would die with the winter frost. And so might the entire business unit. History of 3M Corporation1

In 1902, on the banks of Lake Superior, five investors got together to excavate what they thought was high-quality corundum, a mineral almost as hard as diamond that manufacturers used for producing abrasives. What they dug up under the banner of the Minnesota Mining and 1Much of the information on 3M history comes from G. C. Nicholson, “Keeping Innovation Alive,” Research-Technology Management, vol. 41 (3), May/June 1998, pp. 34-40 and 3M Annual Report, 1998. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Professor Stefan Thomke and Research Associate Ashok Nimgade prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 1998 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www. hbsp. harvard. edu.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. 699-012 Innovation at 3M Corporation (A) Manufacturing Company, however, turned out low-grade and worthless. After filling one $20 order, the venture folded up its mining operations and turned instead to the sandpaper business. Here, disaster struck again: the abrasives they had imported from Spain refused to stick to the sandpaper.

Research and development (R&D) then at 3M, as the company became known, took place in a primitive laboratory so small the sole technician had to back out to let the boss in. The young technician figured out the problem after plunging some sandpaper into water and noting an oil slick. Follow-up investigations revealed that during shipment from Spain, an ocean storm had caused olive oil to leak into the abrasive material. This insight allowed for fixing the sandpaper problem while also establishing the emphasis on technology and innovativeness at 3M.

By 1916, survival assured, the company started paying stock dividends. The firm, now headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota, initially stayed close to abrasives, developing the world’s first waterproof sandpaper in the early 1920s. 3M technicians began bypassing purchasing agents in order to better understand product needs. Often, they walked into factories and workplaces and talked directly to workers, an unheard of practice that yielded unexpected dividends. While visiting an auto-body shop in the 1920s, for instance, Richard Drew, a young lab assistant, heard a torrent of screams and curses.

Mary Kay Ash best essay help: best essay help

Mary Kay Ash Mary Kay products have been available for nearly 50 years. Using her total life savings of $5,000 the founder Mary Kay Ash started her business, a single mother of three trying to support her children. Putting god first, family second and career third she managed to create a multibillion-dollar international company that would reflect her values along with a fulfilling life (Ash, 1995). Early Years One of Mary Kay’s believes was that one should not reveal her age. The exact birth year of Mary Kay is unknown but thought to have been around 1916.

She was the youngest of four children of Edward and Lula Wagner of Hot Wells, TX. With her father being ill with tuberculosis it was her responsibility to cook, clean and care for her father while her mother was working. School years for Mary Kay were great but the circumstances her parents were unable to send her to college. By the time Mary Kay was seventeen she was married and went on to have three children of her own (www. notablebiographies. com). She began studying to become a doctor and selling part time for Stanley Home Products in Houston, TX, but soon learned that selling was her trait.

In 1952, Mary Kay began working for a company in Dallas, TX by the name of World Gift Company in sales. After 25 years of corporate sales she decided to call it quits (Ash, 1995). Change For Mary Kay she was upset for the way she had been treated in the male-dominated business world. Mary Kay turned her attention to writing which turned out to be the business plan for her operation. In 1963, Mary Kay took her savings of $5,000 and the help of her son Richard Rogers and opened her first store in Dallas, TX. With only nine beauty consultants that she called her team, she began what today is Mary Kay Inc.

The first year of operation the team made nearly $200,000 (Stefoff, 1992). Known for the Pink Cadillac’s that were given as incentives for top sales directors, Mary Kay thought the most effective strategies would be incentives. Diamond bee pins were also another incentive that kept her team to doing their very best. With such incentives her team made her company a great success. As the company’s growth continued, new products were added with sales the first two years nearly a $1 million (Allen, n. d). Later Years In 1981, Mary Kay published her life story selling over a million copies.

She called it quits with the company in 1987 and retired becoming chairman of the company. Mary Kay’s P&L, not profit and loss but People and Love (Ash, 1995). With thirty-seven markets world wide, and well over 350,000 consultants, Mary Kay Inc. now makes over $1 billion in sales in nineteen different countries (Allen, n. d). The company went public in 1968, but went private again in 1985. To this day, it remains one of the largest firms in the US (Stefoff, 1992). Fortune Magazine has listed Mary Kay as one of the five hundred largest companies since 1992.

Also listed in the book The 100 Best Companies to Work for in America, which now employs over 475 thousand people (www. notablebiographies. com). Conclusion Despite her conservative views, conventional approach to combining family and job responsibilities, and ultra feminine appearance, Mary Kay was a tough business woman with a large knowledge of marketing and sales. She helped innumerable women to careers and to the financial security that derives from earning one’s own money. Though her personal views may not be typical of other women who have strived for their civil rights, Mary Kay nevertheless encouraged and empowered legions of women.

Through her belief in women’s abilities and her willingness to give them a chance, she made the dream of self-sufficiency a reality for hundreds of thousands of women worldwide. She was a tough businesswomen with a huge knowledge of marketing and sales. For women Mary Kay was one of top 10 places to work. She gave many women worldwide a chance for success and living a dream that for many may have never happened. Mark Kay had the determination to make the business a huge success and change the lives of women all across the world. References Ash, M (1995). Mary Kay: You Can have It All. Rocklin, CA: Prima Stefoff, R (1992).

Blood Disorders global history essay help: global history essay help

BLOOD DISORDERS Pamela Butler Axia University of Phoenix Health & Diseases Blood disorders can affect one’s life and health in many ways. Blood disorders come in many types and have many symptoms and treatments. However, with proper knowledge of symptoms, lifestyle factors, and family history one can prevent and treat these disorders before becoming life threatening. After reviewing each scenario provided it is established that each individual is suffering from a different type of blood disorder.

We will be discussing the three disorders established, the cause of these disorders, how these disorders are diagnosed, and the treatment and prevention methods for these disorders. Scenario One In scenario one Amy, a four-year-old Caucasian female is currently at risk of contracting Iron Deficiency Anemia. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when a person’s body does not receive the proper amount of iron needed to produce a sufficient supply of red blood cells or hemoglobin within the body.

Every red blood cell contains hemoglobin, which is the part of the cell that carries our oxygen. Without the appropriate amount of iron within one’s body, the body makes fewer and smaller red blood cells leaving the body with less hemoglobin to distribute oxygen throughout one’s body to tissues and cells (WebMD, 2005-2009). With less oxygen reaching the tissues and cells of one’s body, the functions of these tissues and cells begin to suffer sometimes leaving a person with less energy and paled or discolored skin (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009).

There are many reasons that a person can have low levels of iron in ones blood stream such as heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding inside one’s body, pregnancy, an inability to absorb iron, and a lack of iron in ones diet. Since ones, blood contains iron, the loss of too much blood from one’s body in cases such as a heavy menstrual period or internal bleeding causes an individual to lose the iron needed to sustain the proper amount of hemoglobin in one’s body. Pregnant woman may also suffer from too little iron in one’s body due to the iron not only being used for ones, self-but for, one’s growing fetus as well.

The inability to absorb iron from the foods that are eaten through the small intestine in cases such as an intestinal disorder, the removal of part of the small intestine, or a regular use of prescription-strength stomach acid blockers can also cause one to have low iron within one’s body (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009). Since iron in one’s body derives from the food that one eats, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is the lack of iron in one’s diet. In order to sustain a good level of iron in one’s body one needs to include foods such as meat, eggs, dairy products, or iron-fortified foods into ones diet.

If one suspects that, he or, she may be suffering from iron deficiency anemia medical attention is recommended. Iron deficiency disorder is mainly diagnosed by the use of blood tests administered by ones medical provider. Tests used to determine if one is suffering from an iron deficiency disorder include tests that examine the size and color of one’s blood cells, a check of one’s hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and a measurement of ferritin. If diagnosed with an iron deficiency disorder the first step to treating this disorder is to begin an iron supplement in the form of an iron tablet or multivitamin.

The second step to treating this disorder is to introduce a diet that is rich in iron into one’s life. If one with this disorder is able to increase and maintain the amount of iron in one’s body this disorder will no longer affect the individual suffering from it. To help prevent future problems associated with iron deficiency anemia future testing is recommended. Along with regular testing a diet rich in iron based foods such as red meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, breads, pastas, spinach, raisins, nuts, and dark green leafy vegetables should be adhered to.

Scenario Two In scenario two Marcus, a 5-year-old African American male is susceptible to the blood disorder Sickle Cell Anemia, because his mother is a carrier. As stated by The HealthCentral Network, Inc (2004-2009), “Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S”. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder where one copy of the sickle cell gene or hemoglobin S is passed down from each parent and present in the recipient.

If only one gene is present in the recipient, the person is known as being only a carrier to the disorder of sickle cell anemia and not one that is initially affected by it. When an individual carries two genes, one from each parent of hemoglobin S the red cells in his or, her body are shaped like sickles or, crescent moons and tend to clump together making them sticky, stiff, and fragile. Sickle cell anemia can be found in individuals of all races but is a disorder that mainly affects individuals of African American, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean descent.

If one suspects that, he or, she may be a carrier of sickle cell anemia and is worried that he or, she may have passed this trait or disease down to one’s children a blood test can be given to diagnose sickle cell anemia. In testing for sickle cell anemia, ones doctor will take a sample of one’s blood to check for the presence of hemoglobin S. If one’s doctor determines that, the screening of one’s blood is positive he or, she will then conduct further tests to determine whether one or two genes are present.

In confirming the findings of the blood results, a sample of blood will then be examined under a microscope to check for a large number of sickle cells; if the results are found to be positive further blood tests will then be done to test for anemia. There currently is no cure for sickle cell anemia other than a bone marrow transplant however; treatment is currently available to help control the affects of this disease. Treatments for this disease include a wide range of options from pain relievers to blood transfusions.

Individuals that suffer from sickle cell anemia get treatments as signs of the disease occur but most treatments are administered as ways to help prevent infections, relieve pain, and control complications associated with this disease. Unfortunately, sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease so methods of preventing it from occurring are sparse. However, being tested for this disease before conceiving a child can give one the option on whether to go forth with having a child who may be born with this disease or not.

If one wishes to go forth with conceiving children other options such as an in vitro fertilization procedure that helps one to have a healthy non-affected child is available (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009). Scenario Three In scenario three Richard an individual who has noticed a significant amount of bruising over the last couple of weeks may be suffering from a disease called thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurs when there are a deficient number of platelets in one’s blood. When one has a deficient number of latelets in one’s blood, one’s blood is unable to clot properly which can result in superficial bleeding into the skin, prolonged bleeding of cuts, easy or excessive bruising, spontaneous bleeding, and blood in urine and stool. Causes of thrombocytopenia may result from certain drugs that one has taken such as heparin, and histamine blockers. Thrombocytopenia may also be caused by the use of alcohol, a stem cell injury, marrow aplasia, fibrosis, cancer, or an enlargement of one’s spleen. Diagnosis of this disorder is conducted by the use of a blood test, physical examination, and a bone marrow examination.

In diagnosing if an individual has contracted thrombocytopenia ones doctor will conduct a blood test to count the number of platelets that are currently in one’s blood and physically examine one’s body for signs of an enlarged spleen. If it is determined that one has the disorder one’s doctor will then order a bone marrow examination and special blood tests to help determine the cause of the disease (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009). Treatments for thrombocytopenia include medications, surgery, blood transfusions, and plasma exchange.

Medications used to treat this disorder may include medications that suppress one’s immune system or medications that block antibodies that are attacking platelets. Surgery is used when one’s spleen needs to be removed and plasma exchange and blood transfusions are used for individuals with severe bleeding. In some cases, no treatments are used or medications causing the disorder are eliminated. To prevent the reoccurrence or occurrence of this disorder, it is advised that one be monitored regularly by one’s doctor. Blood disorders can occur to one, by both genetic and un-genetic means.

Coke Case english essay help online: english essay help online

The intangibles of Coke are the long time relationship with customers, the brand image, reputation, symbol of the company. )Test again but do not use the blind test and compare the difference. Before launching the new coke, the company should have issued some sample first to fathom the customer reaction to the new product. 8)Taste buds: 9)Actually, I do not agree with the idea of launching the new coke as a brand extension because Coke has built its market share from the loyal customer of the classic taste. Its competitor attacked to another class of consumers who prefer the sweeter taste.

Even if Coke launches the new Coke as the attack brand, it will be very difficult for it to success because for the customer who likes the sweeter one, they will choose Pepsi instead as Pepsi already similarly built a long term relationship with its customers. And the fact has improved that New Coke do not make any difference to the situation. 10)Marketing research is far from an exact science. Sometimes data is important for decision making process but basing solely on data will be failure. Especially, as marketing treats matters which relate to human, there are many factors more than data which need the consideration.

After Viewing the Simpson’s popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

After viewing The Simpsons it has become apparent that the six key factors influencing homers overall health and physical activity play a big part in his life. Homer’s Heredity factors influencing his overall health and level of physical activity are hard to determine as he is a cartoon character and no real evidence of his family’s history has been shown in the popular TV series. But for example if his father had suffered from a heredity disease he might possibly have taken or take his health more seriously. Signs of unhealthy hereditary aspects in homer and his father are that they are both overweight and both are balding.

They also both share the common feature of no intelligence and forgetfulness. These generic features which were passed on to homer are negative and haven’t helped his overall health and level of Physical activity. Abraham (homer’s father) wasn’t there for most of homer’s childhood as he was in the Second World War. Homers mother left him at the age of 11 and these aspects must have had a great impact on the way he grew up and the level of understanding that he adopted about life. He acquires the same laid back nature as his father but doesn’t believe that they are similar in anyway.

He didn’t participate in much physical activity as a teenager and was an overweight adolescent who drunk. Wether these habits were passed down or just equated on his own from other factors in his life homer didn’t care about the damages and disruption he was causing his body by not being healthy and engaging in physical activity. Another factor which has influenced Homers overall health and level of physical activity is his lack of education. Homer is a low level night class graduate and has no awareness or knowledge of the extreme importance of being healthy and engaging in physical activity.

He never takes notice of TV ads which promote good health and physical activity habits, but instead takes notice of ads regarding food and beer. Because of his lack of education, Homer is quite stupid and would eat until he gets sick and can‘t fit anymore into himself or drink until he is completely blind and passes out. Not having an education about these sorts of things has shown how bad the effects are, Homer doesn’t know and has never been taught about how to be an overall healthy person. Lifestyle is a major factor of homers overall health and physical activity level.

Homer doesn’t do exercise or eat healthy. He is a borderline alcoholic and visits his local pub, Moe’s tavern regularly. There he socialises with drunken low lives and then returns home at night drunk and tired. Homer also tends to eat a lot of junk food, especially donuts which he cannot resist. He will also eat mouldy old food if in need and doesn’t care about the quality of it or the calories it contains let alone the harmful bacteria which could be lurking inside it. Homer likes to eat at the Frying Dutchman, which he almost put out of business on its “All You Can Eat Night”.

Since then, Homer’s picture had hung in the restaurant, where he’s known as “Bottomless Pete: Nature’s Cruellest Mistake. ” Homer has a routine of getting up, going to work, going to moes then arriving home and going to bed. On the weekends Homer will occasionally engage in recreational sports or doze off in his hammock in the backyard. He will not even play a game with his children or go for a run down the street, Homer does not do exercise. Homer drives recklessly to his destinations and doesn’t care fro road rules.

He also endures in countless rick taking behaviour including riding a skateboard off a cliff or getting involved with the mafia by mistake, it is his stupidity and ignorance which get Homer into these types of situations on a regular basis. Homer has also been hospitalised on numerous occasions for various heart attacks and injuries caused by his ruthless behaviours. He depends on his wife to look after him everyday without fail which angers her occasionally. Also Homer releases his stress on his son Bart who he strangles when angry or coned for money or any other privileges.

His health is not managed properly and its effects have been shown on the show throughout its later years. Homer has priorities such as work, his family, money and drinking/eating these factors impact on his overall health and level of physical activity. Homer loves his family, and he’ll do just about anything to prove it—even if that means making himself look foolish. Homer works at Springfield’s nuclear power plant as a safety inspector, a job he secured after passing the specialized training course on his third attempt.

Not once does he consider the health-damaging side-effects of his gargantuan size, all he wants is freedom from going to work: “Oh, I’m never going to be disabled,” he moans, “I’m sick of being so healthy! “Once during a strike, Homer’s critical functions could be filled only by a brick placed on a lever. Homer doesn’t take much pride in his work and normally just sits there eating donuts while watching TV or socialising with a college. Although he was trained Homer has little idea of how to do his job this could be caused by his poor diet and lack of physical activity which keep your brain alert and ready for a days work.

Homer also sees money as a priority in life and will do close to anything to obtain it. He seems to always get conned or have to engage in some daring act before he can get his money (which he never does). Homers want for money could have been caused by his immense eating and drinking lifestyle, which is not cheap. This therefore means he may need more money to replace the loss caused by drinking and eating a lot. Homer doesn’t care about his health and believes that, being healthy is too expensive. Drinking duff beer and eating donuts or other junk foods give comfort to Homer.

He doesn’t see these things as dead objects, but he sees them as alive and wanting to be eating. In many episodes homers food will come alive and beg to be eating. Homer cannot resist and quickly gobbles down 12 donuts in one go. Another factor that influences Homers overall health and level of physical activity is the amount of motivation that he is given. Homer often receives small amounts of motivation from his family who tell him he needs to loss some weight and that he ’can’ do it if he applies himself.

Homers friends on the other hand don’t seem to notice homers weight problem, drinking problem or lack of exercise. They just take him as he is, this is mainly because most of Homers friends are a “bunch of low life’s and bums” and have the same problems and issues themselves. Marge motivates Homer stop drinking and lose weight; he tries and sometimes succeeds but then puts it back on again due to temptation from the media, friends and the environment in which he lives. Homer doesn’t believe that being obese and drinking a lot is a problem.

He doesn’t feel he needs to change and majority of the time doesn’t listen to motivation if he is told. Homers environment also plays a large part in his influence to be overall healthy and have a healthy level of physical activity. Homers pub, Moe’s tavern is local, therefore easy to get to and a temptation for him. Also not many people in homers local town engage in PA or are substanualy healthy. All homers friends are drinkers and smokers, and Homer likes to keep his image of a typical American man. Homer lives in a low socio-economic and socio-cultural environment and this has an impact on his lifestyle.

Homer has no ethics or morals about his health and isn’t ashamed to say that he is fat and stupid. There are fitness facilities surrounding Homers environment which are available to him, but he doesn’t use them. These include the gym, which in one episode, he had never heard of it and called it a “gim” and also various parks around his town. As you can see the six factors, heredity, education, lifestyle, priorities, motivation and environment have all contributed to homer being in the state he is today.

Machiavelli as a Humanist essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

A humanist is defined as one who is concerned with the interests and welfare of humans. Niccolo’ Machiavelli can be thought of as a humanist. Although opinions on this differ greatly depending on whom you speak with. Machiavelli’s life consists of so many examples and lessons that he has learned throughout his life. Through my paper, I intend to examine his perception of morality based on his political writings and life experiences. Niccolo’ Machiavelli was born on May 3, 1469 and died in 1527. Although we do not know much about his early life, we know that he was educated according to the humanist ideals of the Renaissance.

He was trained at an early age by a latin teacher named Paolo da Ronciglione. He spent his youth in the city of Florence which suffered from continuous political instability. Machialvelli, a humanist, had a practical approach to politcs. He came up with the idea that “the end justifies the means”. He argued that whether a government is “good”, can only be determined by looking at whether it is effective. 5 Machiavelli worked under the Republican government led by Piero Soderini. In 1512 when the Spanish troops defeated the republican army the Medici family took over rule of Florence.

As a result Machiavelli was put into internal exile. In 1513 he was wrongly accused of conspiring against the Medici family. He was then imprisoned and tortured for several weeks. Afterwards he lived in a small town outside of Florence. It was then that he began his literary career by writing one of his most remembered and debated books called “The Prince”. It is also one of the most famous works in the history of political philosophy. His experiences as a young man were reflected in his work. “The Prince” has often been read as a book that promotes a sly and mean way of attaining political power. However, he discerns that morals are very important even though political action sometimes go beyond moral considerations. 5 He also wrote poems and plays and other well known books such as, “The Art of War”. In “The Prince”, he asks the question who is a better ruler, the one who is loved by his subjects or the one who is feared by them? 5 Machiavelli felt that it would be good to be both of them but if you had to choose then fear would be the best choice out of the two. He made observations about the conduct of political leaders and whether or not they were able to achieve their goals.

He then gave recommendations based on these considerations. It is not obvious what he expected to achieve by writing “The Prince”. According to his writings, he did not believe that Christianity should play a role in government. He believed that it hindered the states power to govern. Machiavelli asserts, the state needs to restrict the power of the church, allowing it to exercise its office only in the spiritual realm. 4 Traditional political theory incorporated “God” as a way of ensuring stability. Machiavelli did not agree with this. He believed that the power of the state was more important than the moral law of God.

One of his most famous passages from his book “The Prince” reads, “If all men were good this precept would not be a good one but as they are bad and would not observe their faith with you, so you are not bound to keep faith with them. ” 4 It was because of such bold statements that “The Prince” was put on a prohibited book list by the Catholic church and possibly why today the word “Machiavellian” means devious or unscrupulous in political dealings. 4 Machiavelli believed that power is best kept intact when the ruler understands that it is power that keeps them strong and not external influences such as religion.

He did not promote violence for the sake of itself. He promoted doing whatever it took to keep the state strong and powerful. This was a view similarly shared by one of our modern day activists, Malcom X. In approximately the last 500 years “The Prince” became a favorite book of numerous political leaders such as Louis XIV, Napoleon Bonaparte and Benito Mussolini mainly due to the technical lessons to be learned from it. He used the term virtu’ in his book “The Art of War” which is a dialogue on military affairs.

It describes the great ability of a general who is able to adapt to various battlefield conditions as they present themselves. It is said that the most vilified of political thinkers is also the one of whom it has been said that he concentrated all his real and supreme values in what he called virtu’. 6 What he meant by this was that a prince would have to develop a different psychology than what he is used to. The “new” prince is “prepared to vary his conduct as the winds of fortune and changing circumstances constrain him and not deviate from the right conduct if possible, but be should be capable of ntering upon a path of wrong doing when it becomes necessary”. 7 Some ninety years ago Villari said that Machiavelli always use the word virtue in the sense of courage and energy both for good and evil. To Christian virtue in its more general meaning, he rather applied the term goodness, and felt much less admiration for it than for the pagan virtue that was always fruitful of glory. 2 Although the political life of Niccolo Machiavelli is quite interesting when analyzing his views on government and religion, his personal life and experiences were equally a representation of him as a humanist.

He was described by some as never offensive and possessing a genuine understanding of human weakness. Niccolo formed a quite distinct perception of life formulated with generosity and a passion for great deeds. He understood the life lessons of human malice. He learned this through his own personal experiences. Although Machiavelli was only nine years old at the time he remembered hearing people talk about the political events taking place involving the Medici family who ruled Florence at that time.

Cosimo de’ Medici the elder had impoverished or banished anyone who he believed due to their wealth or influence may obstuct his plans. 1 Cosimo was willing to do “whatever it took” to ensure absolute power of the state. He believed that if you want to expand your power politically you can not always follow the Christian principals of morality. Cosimo eventually died and was succeded by his son, Piero who also passed away after only 1 month as the head of the Medici regime. The regime was then headed by Piero’s two sons, Lorenzo and Giuliano.

Giuliano was later killed in a conspiracy that was created to kill him and his brother Lorenzo. Lorenzo fled to his escape. Once in his early twenties Machiavelli heard the sermons of a Dominican friar named Girolamo Savonarola. However, he did not share the views of Savonarola. Savonarola belived that the sins of a people have their roots in the behavior of princes. 8 Since Machiavelli did believe that Savonarola was a prophet albeit a liar, he always spoke of him with respect but never became one of his followers.

According to Machiavelli, Savonarola made quite a few political mistakes. He allowed the death of 5 Florentines to occur with out defending their right to an appeal by using a new law that Savonarola himself had encouraged the passage of. In reality as Machiavelli later wrote, the fact that the friar had neither endorsed their right to appeal nor condemned their execution “harmed his reputation” more than any other action. 9 After the death of Savonorola, Machiavelli was nominated as secretary of the Second Chancery which handled the dominions and foreign affairs of Florence.

His job was to keep the Signoria and the Ten informed on military and political problems so they could make appropriate decisions. He was a highly unusual chief who knew how to transform his subordinates into friends. 10 This became apparent in letters written by his subordinates. Niccolo’ had a lively curiosity and his wit brought laughter to the members of the Chancery. In July 1499, his job became increasingly difficult when he was sent on his second mission to meet Caterina Sforza Riario.

He was sent there to persuade her to accept the renewal of the contract for her son Ottaviano Riario to fight for Florence in the reconquest of Pisa without the increase of salary that she was requesting. 11 Although she liked Florence she refused. Niccolo’ then tried to convince the Signoria that Caterina would be more persuaded it they performed deeds instead of words. Deeds such as paying their old debts and offering better conditions in exchange for using her sons troops. Caterina was always concerned about “matters of honor,’ which she held “above all things. ” 12 Machiavelli undoubtedly admired her behavior.

He also admired her beauty and intelligence. He believed that he had convinced her to settle for a verbal promise instead of a written commitment, however, she soon informed him that she needed a written commitment from Florence. He was undoubtedly surprised and hurt probably due to the fact that he had already told the Signoria that she had agreed and now this made him look bad. In any case, Caterina remained without the protection of Florence, which did not lift a finger when Cesare Borgia laid siege to Forli. 13 Once her fortress was taken she was held for two weeks.

Machiavelli wrote about her again in his book called the “Discourses”. He told the story of a strong woman abducted with her children. Machiavelli also mentioned Caterina in his Art of War, when he described how she defended the fortress of Forli against Cesare Borgia. 14 His words showed deep admiration for her. She had the spirit to await an army as neither the King of England or the Duke of Milan did. 14 His memory of this countess whom he met on one of his first missions remained vivid over the years, and with his accounts of her deeds, he introduced her into legend, making her live forever. 4 Although Machiavelli is no longer shocking, he is still a subject of much debate and controversy. This is mostly due to the fact that he was misunderstood in the past. Works Cited 1. Viroli, Maurizio. Niccolo’s Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000. 13 2. P. Villari, Life and Times of Machiavelli, tr. Linda Villari, 4 vols(London,n. d), II, 92 3. The political Calculus: Essays on Machiavelli’s Philosopy, edited by Anthony Parel, University of Toronto Press, 1972, pp. 157-78 4. Cunningham, Lawrence S.

Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan free college essay help: free college essay help

Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan University of Phoenix Leading a nutritious and healthy lifestyle with the incorporation of exercise is the path I am currently walking on and will continue to follow in my later years. Following the healthy eating plan I currently put myself on is a step in the right direction and the many steps that will follow will be the guide to a continuous nutritional lifestyle. I am currently living with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease that causes demyelination.

Demyelination occurs when there is loss of the myelin sheath that insulates the cells in the central nervous system. (Gutierrez, 2009) When an attack occurs unpredictably, it can last a couple of days to a couple of weeks, given the medication taken. The recovery time varies and the disease does not worsen in between attacks. (WebMD, 2009) Currently the disease does not come between my health and my workouts. Upon feeling weak in my muscles at times, I will slow down or completely stop temporarily.

Feeling weak does not happen often enough where it completely affects my workout, though there is no telling what the future may hold with my health and this disease. A disease I may possible develop in my later years is diabetes. My mother is currently living with it. Diabetes is a disease that is hereditary, making one at risk of developing the disease. In addition, my mother is Hispanic and my father is African American and both ethnic backgrounds make me more at risk fordeveloping diabetes. Being overweight also contributes to the development of diabetes.

I already have two strikes against me and will not allow myself to become overweight to add to the possibility of developing the disease. In addition, as one ages, the chances of developing diabetes increases. (WebMD, 2009) Understanding any disease with how it is developed to how it can be prevented helps with daily management. Coping with diabetes there are ways which can prevent the development of the disease. “?. Exercise and a healthy diet can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance – a condition that often develops prior to full-blown type 2 diabetes. (WebMD, 2009). The incorporation of a healthy diet and if overweight, undergoing a weight loss program helps prevent diabetes. For those who already have diabetes, there are various medications one can take to regulate the blood sugar levels. Living with MS and with the possibility of developing diabetes, my diet has been re-modified. My eating habits are fairly healthy, but thediet could be better. As I make myself more aware of my health, well-being, history of family health issues and diseases, I realize that re-evaluating my diet would be wisest.

I am currently consuming nutritious foods, but not have completely done away with eating unhealthy foods. I do continue to eat fatty foods at times to satisfy my cravings but knowing that if there are no adjustments to my diet the possibilities of developing diabetes can occur. Looking at what my mother goes through with her injections and the unstableness of her sugar levels, I do not want to go through. My mom has been in and out of the hospital several times and had a near death experience because her sugar levels were low.

Diabetes is a serious disease that needs to be well managed. If diabetes is not maintained one can become extremely ill. Modifying my diet has now become a priority and following the My Pyramid Plan is what is on the agenda. With the continuance of the 45min run and following the diet indicated below, I believe I will be well on my way to losing weight and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Avoiding second helpings for a week to condition myself to overcome that habit is part of the plan, as well. The diet plan is a realistic goal for me.

To follow the goal is just a matter of mentally conditioning myself mentally to overcome the cravings. The nutritional goals I intend to follow are: Ensure my diet is low in saturated fat, cholesterol and overall reduce my sugar, salt and total fat intake. I will adjust the items I choose at the supermarket and do away with sweets by substituting it for sweet fruits. Eat a variety of foods, especially from all food groups. By choosing foods from different food groups, it brings a variety to my meal plan. Eat five servings of fruit and vegetables a day.

I intend to create a menu incorporating five servings of each and place it on my refrigerator just, so that I can consume the total daily servings. Make sure I balance my intake of calories with what I burn, so I monitor my weight loss goal. The menu I create will include a calorie count of each food, so that I can keep track of how many calories I consume against the calories I burn. This diet plan is a 2000 calorie food pattern. This plan is based on average needs for a 35 year-old female, 5 feet 3 inches tall, physically active 30 to 60 minutes a day, in the healthy weight range.

The calorie needs may be more or less than the average, so the weight should be checked regularly. If gradual weight loss is not visible, adjust the amount total intake. 1 Make Half Grains Whole Aim for at least ounces of whole grains a day. 2 Vary Veggies Aim for this much every week: Dark Green Vegetables = 3 cups weekly Orange Vegetables = 2 cups weekly Dry Beans and Peas = 3 cups weekly Starchy Vegetables = 3 cups weekly Other Vegetables = 6 1/2 cups weekly Oils & Discretionary Calories Aim for 6 teaspoons of oils a day.

Limit the extras (extra fats and sugars) to 265 Calories. (United States Department of Agriculture, 2009) Creating a diet to follow is easier planned than followed. One has to follow successfully aself planned diet, especially when there is a drastic change from unhealthy foods to healthy foods. Additionally, living in a home where others are not on a diet can be challenging. Eating with the familywhen only one individual on a diet is a challenge to one’s will power. I can say for myself that my will power is average.

Itis hard sometimes when my husband is eating a steak dinner or fried spicy hot chicken, my favorite. I will give in at times. There were situations where I completely gave in, but as I continue to educate myself, I have come to realize that sometimes cheating is not worth because it eventually catches up to one’s health in a not so good way. My approach to avoid having to deal with giving into temptation is to eat before the rest of the family doesor to eat before I leave work. That way I am not eating late nor will I be hungry by the time I come home.

Another challenge I may come across is if the Multiple Sclerosis becomes aggressivein my later years where a work out regimen may not be an option. Therapy and medication would have to be the option to handle the condition if it worsens. Depending on how bad the condition is, I may be able to incorporate some kind of exercise whether it is just walking or picking up some weights. At least there will be some kind of physical activity. Upon dealing with the progression of the disease along with age, the diet would have to be modified to suit the deficiencies I will encounter as an older woman living with MS.

Perhaps adjusting to lighter and smaller meals would be best considering there would be a possibility that I may be bound to a wheelchair which can quickly result in weight gain. In addition, with age come ailments. Seasonal changes affects the body especially the joints. I currently like to run on the treadmill and at times jog outside. Adjusting to the climate to prevent from creating additional aches and pains, indoor activity would be best. Another challenge, due to heredity would be the possibility of developing diabetes. A strictdiet would have to be in place.

Physical activity may be adjusted to being indoors. If I become hypoglycemic while outdoors there is the possibility of passing out. Rather than risk the incident, creating an activity for indoors may be best. There have been many of times where my mother has not felt well outdoors and thank goodness someone was with her during those moments. I know of a woman who died in her sleep due to the blood sugar levels being low. Being around others who live with this disease and seeing their experiencesis a wake up call to know not to play around with my health when it comes to this disease.

Diabetes is scary if one does not pay close attention to patterns of the bodily reactions (sugar levels) to particular foods; it becomes a game of Russian Rulet. As long as a healthy diet is followed with consistency the results will affect my physical well-being in a positive way. Having more energy and not feeling exhausted most of the time would be proof of how effective the diet is. With the proper foods, my intellect will also improve. I will be able to think more clearly. Additionally, seeing a consistency with weight loss on a weekly basis will show how the diet is working.

Both combinations of healthy eating and having an exercise regimen are not only effective in ways of losing weight, but also, allow one to live and feel better physically and mentally. In addition, with the incorporation of more sleep time in my schedule, it should be a major improvement in my well-being. Realizing that no matter how healthy the diet is, lack of sleep always affects one’s thinking, focus and how information is retained. On the other hand, upon not following my nutrition and exercise plan, I will continue to maintain my weight of 161lbs. and for my height itis considered overweight.

Team Leadership from a Biblical Perspective research essay help: research essay help

Servant Leadership The first thing to be considered in developing a theological understanding of team leadership is servant leadership. Servant leadership is at the heart of Christian leadership. Servant Leadership is different from servanthood. All Christians, not just leaders, are called to be servants, serving each other, following Jesus’ example in washing his disciples’ feet, and loving our neighbours as ourselves. Along with that call to servanthood is the need we each have to allow ourselves to receive from Jesus, just as he washed his disciple’s feet.

When Peter protested, Jesus told him, ‘Unless I wash you, you have no part with me. ‘ (John 13:8) In his inspiring book, Leadership: Trilogy on Leadership and Effective Management, Anthony D’Souza1 states: When discussing leadership and managerial skills, we need remind ourselves that Christian leadership essentially involves service. When we consider the church and/ or church related institutions, we grasp the concept of service. Yet when mention corporations and businesses, the word “service” sounds out of place. Part of the confusion may come from not understanding the true concept of leadership.

For many, the word leadership connotes power, authority, honour, prestige, or personal advantage. That’s not Christian Leadership. Here’s my description of Christian Leadership. It Seeks to be of service, rather than to dominate; Encourages and inspires; Respects rather than exploits others’ personalities; Reflects, prays, and acts on Jesus Christ’s words, “whoever wishes to be first among you, shall be servant, even as the son of man came not be served, but to serve and give his life as a ransom for many” (Mt 20:27).

What underpins servant leadership is the motivation behind our actions as leaders. If personal desire was the sole decision criteria, Jesus would have chosen not to go through the pain and suffering on the cross. In the garden at Gethsemane, Jesus prayed, ‘Father if you are willing take this cup from me, yet not my will, but yours, be done. ‘(Luke 22:42) The weight of the burden of taking not only our guilt but also our sins themselves, had become too heavy. Even at this point, Jesus could have got up and walked away. Jesus’ leadership modelled? servant leadership? throughout his ministry.

In the same vane, Dave Williams2, in his book, The Art of Pace Setting Leadership says: “Greatness is measured by a person’s unselfish willingness to serve others” [15:1989]. This will require us also to set aside personal gain,? to make sacrifices, and to put the needs of others above the direction we may prefer for ourselves. There are people who are highly career minded, people whose main motivation is to get themselves in a position where they will gain some reward. This is the complete opposite of the leadership Jesus demonstrated. Some may suggest that servant leaders are weak.?

However, nothing could be further from the truth. They? model integrity, where their thoughts, words and actions flow from a consistent desire. The word integrity comes from the Latin word meaning ‘whole’ or ‘complete’, as in integer, or whole number. One of the biggest reasons for leaders losing the respect of their followers is that the lack true integrity where their private lives and thoughts do not match their public statements, or that they are inconsistent, adopting principles that are popular and appropriate to the moment, rather than sticking to their underlying, but potentially unpopular, principles.?

Maintaining integrity? is not always easy! Servant leadership is not a particular style of leadership, but rather relates to the motivation behind a leader’s thoughts, words and actions. Leaders can fit any of the leadership styles described in several literature, and still be very much a servant leader. Servant leaders are not leaders on the basis of their position or leadership role, but rather lead according to their calling, vision and principles.?

One of the challenges for servant leaders is to ensure that their vision and principles are in line with others in their organisation, and therefore it is highly important for them to engage with others to develop a common vision and shared values. Whilst serving others as the heart of leadership may not appear easy, it is perhaps in one sense easier for a leader to be consistent with the vision and values that they hold for themselves, rather than always seeking to live up to an image, to constantly seek opportunities to sell themselves, or to be for ever trying to read the political signals sent out by others.

Shared Responsibility A team is a group of people coming together to collaborate. This collaboration is to reach a shared goal or task for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. A group of people is not necessarily a team. A team is a group of people with a high degree of interdependence geared towards the achievement of a common goal or completion of a task rather than just a group for administrative convenience. A group, by definition, is a number of individuals having some unifying relationship. Team members are deeply committed to each other’s personal growth and success.

That commitment usually transcends the team. A team outperforms a group and outperforms all reasonable expectations given to its individual members. That is, a team has a synergistic effect — one plus one equals a lot more than two. Team members not only cooperate in all aspects of their tasks and goals, they share in what are traditionally thought of as management functions, such as planning, organizing, setting performance goals, assessing the team’s performance, developing their own strategies to manage change, and securing their own resources.

A success or failure is felt by all members, not just the individual. Failures are not blamed on individual members, which gives them the courage to take chances. Successes are felt by every team member, this helps them to set and achieve bigger and better successes. In addition, failure is perceived as a learning lesson Strategy Strategic thinkers have a significant part to play: The men of Issachar in (1 Chron 12:32) had a place in David’s army on account of being men “who understood the times and knew what Israel should do”.?

Issachar contributes just 200 men out of a total force of 336,000, yet these men made a unique contribution. . All of the others are described as “brave warriors”, “armed for battle”, “experienced soldiers” or “armed with every type of weapon”, yet it is clear that the men of Issachar bring knowledge and insight that more than makes up for their lack of fighting force. Biblical leaders who were in tune with God were given clear strategies as to how they would achieve the goal that was set before them. Many of these required unconventional choices.

Gideon was instructed by God to restrict his numerical forces severely and to seek to cause the enemy to panic and flee, undoubtedly reducing the death toll amongst his troops. Joshua was given precise instructions as to how he should take the city of Jericho. Paul chose to follow God in appealing to stand trial in Rome before Caesar, when he could have been set free. George Barna3 [103:2001] says: Strategic leaders are analysts of reality. They observe people and situations and collect empirical information, they run it through their mental grid to arrive at conclusions about the real conditions and opportunities of the world.

They remain sufficiently detached to arrive at objective conclusions. Many strategic leaders view emotions and sensitivity and detrimental to the cause. Their allegiance is to truth and efficiency in making the vision reality. For the Christian leader, prayer not only gives us God’s perspective on what our vision should be, but also on how we should reach it: the decisions and choices necessary for reaching it.? Luke records Jesus giving the Great Commission to the apostles in Acts 1 v 8? telling them that they will be his witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.

In this case there is no clearly articulated strategy – the disciples are scattered from Jerusalem as a result of persecution, and then guided by God stage by stage. (eg Acts 8v26, 13v4) For Jonah, the strategy is clearly outlined, and Jonah is so uncomfortable at the prospect of being used by God in this way that he heads in the opposite direction with well known consequences. Christian leaders will need to trust God as they walk towards the vision, yet be willing to make bold, and possibly unconventional choices as they perceive God is leading them.

For God is in charge: “I know the plans I have for you,” declares the Lord, “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future. ” (Jeremiah 29:11)Yet this does not mean that Christian leaders should not carry out a strategic analysis of a situation. Luke records Jesus teaching “Suppose one of you wants to build a tower. Will he not first sit down and estimate the cost to see if he has enough money to complete it. “(Luke 14:28). George continues to say: Strategic leaders tend to be very through in their investigations and do not hesitate to ask the hard questions.

They don’t mind creating controversy, because their primary quest is to understand reality in order to develop a workable plan. Once they have amassed the facts and carefully analyzed them, strategic leaders are prone to develop creative, albeit sometimes complex solutions. [103] In stressing the importance of the need for full information on the leader’s part, Robert Clinton4, in his book, The Making of a Leader, emphatically says: Leaders show lack of balance by operating on partial knowledge, by manipulating of the situation, or by not balancing various guidance inputs.

Normally, major decisions will see the convergence of God’s voice in the heart (the emotional desires), God’s voice in circumstances (confirmation from mature fellow Christians in the local body in which we participate), and God’s voice in the word. It is the balance of elements that allows us to move with certainty. [146:1988] The bible gives us the principles to determine the strategy. We may or may not be given specific guidance as to how we should approach the vision; we may or may not receive this guidance at the strategic or at the tactical level.

However, just as Jesus taught the disciples to think and act according to the principles of the Kingdom, so we too can develop our understanding of the principles of the Kingdom, and their application to the mission and ministry of our organizations.? Daniel was elevated to high position in the court of Nebuchadnezzar because of his knowledge of God, and served Darius as one of three administrators. Daniel 6:3 indicates that Daniel had exceptional qualities as an administrator.? Good Team Leader In order for a team to succeed, there is need to have a good leader.

The following is an excerpt from www. teal. org. uk Commitment to people Most team members are primarily concerned about relationship and about being valued as a team member, before they are concerned about the task that the team is to undertake. Feeling secure in a group environment is an important pre-requisite before individual contribution. The good team leader is able to spend time building the team, not only when the team starts off, but when a newcomer joins an existing team. Desire to Support and Serve

Whilst team members want to see the ability to lead from the front, they are also strongly motivated by the ability to lead from the back!? Servant leadership from the team leader is vital if team members are in turn, to want to serve each other. This is a particularly key topic for Christian leaders. There is a balance to be struck between a willingness to take on any chores that need to be done by the team, and taking an inappropriate balance of roles so that the leadership is diminished. Enthusiasm, Energy, Inspiration and Expertise

Unsurprisingly team members want to be inspired and motivated by team leadership which has the energy and enthusiasm to fire them up.? However, they also want to feel secure that the team leader has themselves, or has access to,? the necessary expertise to lead the team in the right direction. The leader doesn’t have to be the most knowledgeable of the subject at hand, but if they are not, they must encourage the input of others. Willingness to shoulder responsibility. Team leaders are tested under pressure.

When challenges arise, as they inevitably will, the leader will need to take responsibility to ensure that they are fixed as far as possible and that the team is strengthened as a result. This does not mean that the leader should admit that issues beyond their control are in any way their fault, (although they should be honest in admitting their mistakes), but rather adopt a proactive stance to ensure the team is not deflected from its course. Ability to achieve more as a team. Teams only become a team once there is some synergy within the group i. e. he team process adds value to that which a disparate group of individuals would achieve undirected. ? This is likely to require the team leader to explore leadership models that share the leadership role within the team, to have an understanding of different individuals team roles, strengths and gifts, establish a mutual accountability within the team, and to create a team environment which is open, fun and allows healthy and productive discussion. A Christian Team Leader is one who inspires others to live in a Christ-like manner and lives with integrity.?

This Leader not only directs another to believe in the teachings of Jesus Christ” but also sets an example and inspires others to live as he does.? A Christian Leader helps others in need, shows their passion and love for the Lord, and is humble in all things.? A Christian Leader does not have to be a pastor, deacon, or elder of the church, it is the very people in the choir, an ambitious young adult, or a child memorizing a Bible verse, and these are the Christian Leaders.? In the book, Excellence in Leadership, John White5, [50:1986] states: Good leaders are not workaholics.

They work hard without being in bondage to work itself. They are not frightened of work. They are not frightened of delegating work. A good leader sees work as a means of achieving a specific goal. The value of work is not measured by the status of people who perform a specific type of work. All work is valued by its necessity in achieving the goal. In Nehemiah’s case the goal is to make Jerusalem defensible. To accomplish that Nehemiah both assigned the work to others and participated in the work himself.

Water Pollution homework essay help: homework essay help

Although some kinds of water pollution can occur through natural processes, it is mostly a result of human activities. We use water daily in our homes and industries, about 150 gallons per day per person in the United States. The water we use is taken from lakes and rivers, and from underground (groundwater); and after we have used it– and contaminated it– most of it returns to these locations. The used water of a community is called wastewater, or sewage. If it is not treated before being discharged into waterways, serious pollution is the result.

Historically, it has taken humanity quite a bit of time to come to grips with this problem. Water pollution also occurs when rain water runoff from urban and industrial areas and from agricultural land and mining operations makes its way back to receiving waters (river, lake or ocean) and into the ground. Stormwater is a point source that contributes to water pollution. Because impervious surfaces (parking lots, roads, buildings, compacted soil) do not allow rain to infiltrate into the ground, more runoff is generated than in the undeveloped condition.

This additional runoff can erode watercourses (streams and rivers) as well as cause flooding when the storm water collection system is overwhelmed by the additional flow. Because the water is flushed out of the watershed during the storm event, little infiltrates the soil, replenishes groundwater, or supplies stream baseflow in dry weather. Pollutants entering surface waters during precipitation events is termed polluted runoff. Daily human activities result in deposition of pollutants on roads, lawns, roofs, farm fields, etc.

When it rains or there is irrigation, water runs off and ultimately makes its way to a river, lake, or the ocean. While there is some attenuation of these pollutants before entering the receiving waters, the quantity of human activity results in large enough quantities of pollutants to impair these receiving waters. Water Pollution Management and Sustainment Plan My plan for water pollution management in the community is to develop an educational program of pollution control for the community. Hold community eetings to explain the need for water pollution management. Contact some specialist to come and speak at the community meetings. Hold educational water pollution seminars for the public and community leaders. Develop a time line for assessment of existing storm drain systems to determine need for replacement to eliminate seepage. Study peak rainfalls to determine reasonable peak flow runoff storage needs. Protect the water supply by using the proper amount of fertilizer for your lawn and garden.

Over watering of your lawn can wash away fertilizer off your lawn and into storm drains, so be sure you are watering in short amounts throughout the day. Also make sure you are not overusing fertilizer. Rain can carry this fertilizer through town drainage systems and into a nearby lake. Also make sure that when you are doing other lawn work, such as mowing or raking leaves, that you properly dispose of the waste. Although washing a few leaves down the storm drain may seem harmless, these leaves as they decompose can add harmful chemicals to the water supply.

Bag organic waste and dispose of it properly, or consider beginning a modest compost pile to use the waste as free organic fertilizer. Resist pouring paint, oil, or other chemicals down the drain in your sink. Not only can some of these chemicals harm your pipes, but they can also harm the water supply. Instead, dispose of these items using the instructions on the label. CONCLUSION Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent.

Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a serious issue. But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water. Challenges will consist of encouraging the government to enforce stronger laws against dumping. Encourage the community to become proactive about waste, and attending the community meeting. Encourage monitoring and conducting regular sites on a continuous basis.

Futurismo En Huxley scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

De estas nuevas concepciones art? sticas, nacen las llamadas “Vanguardias”. La palabra Vanguardia viene de una terminolog? a militar, denominaci? n ocupada para referirse a los de primera l? nea, los de adelante, de avanzada en un pelot? n o ej? rcito. Vanguardia por tanto, son los de avanzada, los que se adentran (primero) en un territorio desconocido. Dentro de las Vanguardias, el primer movimiento consolidado es el Futurismo, que se despliega en Par? s a trav? s de un manifiesto firmado por el italiano Filippo Marinetti, publicado en el diario Le F? garo, el 20 de febrero de 1909.

En Par? s porque sigue siendo, en ese entonces, la guarder? a de todo brote cultural, en parte por su reconocida m? stica, y en parte por su c? ntrica posici? n geogr? fica que le permite recibir y exportar influencias culturales. En este primer manifiesto, propone una ruptura con el clasicismo acad? mico y quiere crear una est? tica proyectada al futuro y ligada tem? ticamente a la tecnolog? a moderna en sus aspectos m? s din? micos. El Futurismo capta la velocidad. Para Marinetti: “La velocidad es la fuente de toda belleza” y a? ade: “Un autom? vil de carreras es m? hermoso que la Victoria de Samotracia”. (Marinetti, 1978: 130), disponible en l? nea). Rompe con est? ticas anteriores, deshumaniza al humano, idolatra la m? quina: “No ten? amos Se? ora ideal [? ] Nada por quien morir, sino es por el deseo de desprendernos al fin de nuestro valor audaz” (Marinetti, 1978: 127) Se plantean once puntos que constituyen el cuerpo del Manifiesto, de los cuales, uno se? ala que “El Tiempo y el Espacio han muerto ayer” (Marinetti, 1978: 130), tomando como par? metro la velocidad y partiendo del concepto de dinamismo universal de Bergson.

El futurismo aboga por una destrucci? n de lo antiguo, de lo establecido, por una libertad que consiste en liberarse de las cargas sociales y vivir en peligro. El Manifiesto es rudo, crudo, violento; y es uno de sus principales rasgos: la violencia: “Queremos glorificar la guerra- ? nica higiene del mundo [? ] combatir la moralidad” (Marinetti, 1978: 130-131) y sigue: “El arte no puede ser m? s que violencia, crueldad e injusticia” (Marinetti, 1978: 135) “Los futuristas llevaron la glorificaci? n de la tecnolog? a moderna a un extremo grotesco y autodestructivo” (Berman, 1991:19)

Lo que Marinetti y sus seguidores llamaron Futurismo es tanto un repudio al pasado como una preocupaci? n exacerbada y de adoraci? n por los augurios del futuro. Para los futuristas, el futurismo era una filosof? a de vida con grandes preocupaciones pol? ticas y fundada en el rechazo de un conjunto de fuerzas que cre? an obstaculizantes del crecimiento y la modernizaci? n de Italia, de ah? a la idea de destrucci? n. En este contexto podemos destacar que aunque Marinetti public? su Primer Manifiesto en Par? s, era italiano y en esta ? poca, las naciones estaban reci? n surgiendo como naciones propiamente tal, y es por esta raz? que se impregna de progresismo todo el arte, de un nacionalismo pogresista; no de un progreso mundial sino localista. Italia ha sido una de las zonas m? s productivas art? sticamente, la cuna de la Modernidad, del Renacimiento y sus huellas han quedado all?. Los futuristas luchan contra todo ese pasado en pro del progreso, la velocidad “porque queremos librar a nuestro pa? s de su gangrena de profesores, de arque? logos, de cicerones y anticuarios. Italia ha sido durante muchos a? os la bolsa de chamarilleros, y nosotros queremos desembarazarla de sus museos innumerables, que la cubren de innumerables cementerios” (Marinetti, 1978: 132).

En este vasto marco nos centramos para ocuparnos de la novela futurista “Un mundo feliz” de Aldous Huxley que intentar? abordar desde el futurismo como una antiutop? a social vinculada al fascismo. El fascismo, en tanto, es una ideolog? a (principalmente) nacida en Italia, que “parece ser una especie de respuesta a la crisis estructural y coyuntural que azota a las sociedades capitalistas europeas en el periodo de entreguerras. El fascismo se presenta, por tanto, como un arma de combate, que se pretende absoluta, en la lucha contra las clases explotadas. El fascismo propone los principios de una estrategia pol? ica: liquidaci? n total y definitiva del movimiento obrero mediante la destrucci? n del bolchevismo, instauraci? n de un Estado totalitario conservando un orden jer? rquico inexorable que aplaste definitivamente a las masas, con intenciones de expansi? n imperialista declaradas y justificadas. El fascismo propone una soluci? n radical frente al comunismo, y signific? una nueva y aterradora realidad para las clases explotadas” (Bourderon, disponible en l? nea) II. Un mundo Feliz, de Aldous Huxley

Dunkin Donuts to India online essay help: online essay help

Dunkin Donuts to India India’s economy is growing rapidly and with the country’s interests coming together with U. S. interests the opportunity for companies to enter into this market is also growing. While many fast food businesses have recently opened in India, there may be no uniform way to enter into the country. For Dunkin Donuts to become a powerful food chain in India we must look at different entry strategies such as exporting, importing, joint venture, and foreign direct investment. Our company is a franchise that has seen growth all over the world.

While exporting a franchise to India is a billion dollar industry in the country, it only accounts for 3% of India’s market. Although franchises are a small part of the market the risk of opening a one is relatively low and is an ideal investment for entrepreneurs in the country. Even with our strong brand recognition, there also needs to be an understanding of the diverse cultures and tastes that exist in India. In metro cities retail space can be expensive and the quality of the space is somewhat poor.

There is also lack of legal structure with no specific laws on franchising. Even with these cons, exporting franchises is becoming the popular entry to reach the Indian consumer (“India Country Commercial Guide”). Although there are no specified laws when it comes to exporting a franchise to India, licensing has many key laws that affect doing business in India including the Competition Act of 2002, the Trademarks Act of 1999, the Consumer Protection Act of 1986, and other labor and tax laws.

Before an agreement is made an Indian court must decide if the contract is reasonable and if it is in the public’s best interest. The licensee must also not release confidential information about the licensor. There are also laws that promote healthy competition and protect the licensor’s trademark. With such strong restrictions put into place, doing a license with a local business may be a safer way for our company to penetrate India’s market. However, we would be limiting ourselves on market control and putting it in the hands of the licensee (Anand).

Joint ventures are also popular in India, but all ventures must have government approval which can be obtained through the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). This can take a long time to process because a mistake in a joint venture can be costly. The partner’s long term expectations and roles must be clearly defined and examined (“India Country Commercial Guide”). Although this entry strategy will lower the financial risk our company will be taking, it is not necessarily the type of strategy that we have previously used when entering other countries.

For years, India has not allowed foreign direct investment in the retail market. There are over 12 million mom-and-pop stores dominating this industry. In 2006, the Indian government implemented new rules which allow single brand retail chains to own 51%. Since then several international companies have entered the market including housewares, apparel, and cosmetics. Even with these new rules, foreign fast food chains that have entered India found it hard to compete with current Indian fast food chains (Rao)

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In the decades that made up the fifties, sixties, and seventies numerous events that would paint the canvas of American education took place. Equality was an idea that some thought we would never see. Civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. saw this idea of equity as an obtainable dream that was in the hearts of all Americans. Though desegregation and the fair treatment of African Americans was at the forefront of the civil rights movement, there were several issues that would be brought to the attention of law makers, federal judges, and the education system.

Such issues included segregation, bilingual students, and special needs education. In 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the opinion of the court in one of the most influential cases to ever be presented on the floor of the Supreme Court: “? it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. 1 This ruling, made in the case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, KS, effectively overturned a decision made in the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. For nearly sixty years, it had been considered constitutionally justified to segregate the public education system. The opinion delivered by Chief Justice Warren served as a platform from which the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1964 would be propelled. Before this would occur, many obstacles would have to be conquered. On September 2, 1957 Arkansas Gov.

Orval Faubus defied a federal court order to desegregate public schools by dispatching the State National Guard unit to prevent 9 African American students from entering Central High School. It wasn’t until a federal judge had issued an injunction against the Governor’s use of National Guard troops and President Dwight D. Eisenhower had dispatched one thousand Army troops to the school that the students were able to attend their first day on September 25. Shortly thereafter, the case of Cooper v. Aaron was presented to the Supreme Court.

The request by the Little Rock Arkansas School Board to temporarily suspend their plan to desegregate was denied. It was the thought of the Chief Justices that if this request was granted it would be the first of many attempts to delay desegregation thereby further hindering the education of African American students. Subsequent Supreme Court decisions in cases such as Green v. Kent County School Board (1968), U. S. v. Montgomery County (1969), and Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), were all in support of desegregation.

Title IV of the CRA of 1964 called for the desegregation of public schools. Title VI assured nondiscrimination when funds were distributed to federally assisted programs. Years of turmoil and strife led to the 1974 Equal Education Opportunities Act (EEOA). The EEOA provided that no state could deny equal education based on race, color, sex or national origin. The EEOA pointed out a set of students that had been previously overlooked. Those of different national origin also had a different native language. The case of Lau v. Nichols addressed the needs of bilingual students.

It was ruled that school districts must provide remedies for non-English speaking students. The ASPIRA Consent Decree of the same year required that Limited English Proficient (LEP) students must be taught, at least partly, in their native language. A year later, in 1975, the National Association of Bilingual Education was founded proving that we had taken another step towards equity in education. One of the most overlooked issues of the time period was the special needs student. Samuel Kirk coined the term “learning disability” at a Chicago conference in 1963.

A year later, the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities was formed. Later, it became known as the Learning Disabilities Association of America. It was some seven years later in 1971 when the Supreme Court ruled that students with mental retardation are entitled to a free public education. The case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania served as a catalyst to bring to the public eye the needs of the mentally handicapped. The next year, Mills v the Board of Education of Washington, D. C. extended the ruling of PARC v.

Pennsylvania to include students with disabilities. This ruling also required that educational alternatives must be provided that fit the child’s needs. The Rehabilitation Act, which became law in 1973, required accommodations in school including participation in programs and activities as well as access to buildings. Section 504 of this act guaranteed people with disabilities would enjoy civil rights in the context of federally funded institutions. 504 plans are used today in place of Individualized Education Programs (IEP’s) for those students who do not qualify for special education.

The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) became law in 1975. This law required free and appropriate public education (FAPE) that was suited to meet a student’s individual needs. If we look at this era as a whole, it’s a lot to take in. Several monumental legislative actions were taken to ensure that all students were granted an opportunity to receive an adequate education. We often times look at these decades and think only of the racial implications. We do it a great injustice if we do not take into account the other areas that were significantly impacted.

Due to the outspoken nature of critics of a broken education system, we now have a system in place that takes into consideration the needs of all students. Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, president of Notre Dame University and a member of the Civil Rights Commission, said it best in the Commission’s 1961 annual report: “Americans might well wonder how we can legitimately combat communism when we practice so widely it’s central folly: utter disregard for the God-given spiritual rights, freedom and dignity of every human person. ” 2

Selection and Recruitment summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

This paper will analyze the theoretical principles behind the relevant screening and selection method and then apply the theories to the Jandal Air Call Centre. The first section of this paper defines and describes the key concepts of validity, predictive validity, utility and reliability and then investigating the nature of call centre work and identifying the key competencies required in the Jandal Air Call Centre. The second section will critically evaluates the selection methods such as application blanks, biographical data, resumes and cover letters, reference checks and initial interviews.

The third section will analyze and evaluate the selection methods of personality tests including service orientation inventories, cognitive testing, work samples, integrity tests, structure interviews and assessment centre’s. This paper concludes with a final screening and selection plan for the Jandal Air Call Centre and considers its implementation. Organization’s major challenge in the rapidly changing work environment is designing and managing successful staffing processes. (Heneman & Judge, 2006).

Organizations use external or internal recruitment methods to get the best possible candidate in order to achieve their goals and objectives. Legge (1995), argues that the integration and internal consistency of human resource systems is very important for organizational success. Thus he says that the selection and recruitment processes are the foremost part of finding and identifying potential candidates. Success in securing appropriate and skilled employees sets upper limits on potential organizational performance, however good the management and development of that workforce be (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006).

Heneman and Judge (2006), suggest that although costs need to be considered in evaluating assessment methods, more consideration should be given to the fact that valid selection measures pay off and will return many times their cost. Firms that are less selective or hire lower-skilled employees are likely to experience significant effects on productivity, while hiring a mismatched employee can result in poor performance and higher turnover rates (Batt, 2002).

The importance of careful selection is punctuated in the case of front-line service roles, as these employees are situated at the organizational-customer interface, representing the organization to customers (Ashforth & Humphery, 1993). However, according to Hays Recruitment (2009), due to the current economic climate, pressure to maximize sales and revenue has created demand for experienced telesales consultants, while the need to maintain customer bases has created demand for capable customer service representatives.

Selectors need to be aware of how well particular methods predict future performance which is the validity and of the different methods cost, relative to the increased accuracy they bring which the utility (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006). In staffing, there is a concern with the validity of predictors both in terms of accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction (Heneman and Judge, 2006). It is important to use predictors that are an accurate representation of the knowledge, skills and other abilities (KSAOs) to be measured.

In order to assess the various screening and selection methods we must first understand the key concepts of validity, reliability and utility. According to Heneman and Judge (2006), validity refers to the accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction, as reflected by the scores obtained from a measure. That is the strength of the relationship between a predictor and job performance; the degree to which we are measuring what we think we are measuring.

Models of the Criminal Justice System english essay help: english essay help

The crime control model and the due process model of the criminal justice system in use today seem only to have one thing in common. That is that each model obviously wishes to control crime. Each model seems to be like day and night as far as how that goal is met. The differences in these models are outstanding. Every step along the road to controlling crime is quite the opposite of each other. The major difference is how the criminal and criminal act is dealt with. The crime control model wishes to get the matter dealt with as quickly as possible whether or not all the proper steps to proving guilt have taken place.

The due process model wishes to take the time to have all rights and responsibilities accounted for. In addition, the crime control model allows for the brunt of the responsibilities to be carried out by law enforcement, while the due process model expects that evidence be handled correctly and provided in a trial where the judge and jury have the authority. The moral value of each process is quite different as well. The basic principles surrounding penalty for a criminal are set at opposite ends of a spectrum between the models.

The crime control model has no time to believe a criminal can change and suggests that the penalties should be severe, to include use of capital punishment. The due process model hopes to see the criminal rehabilitated and put back into society and disagrees with death as a suitable punishment. The crime control model holds the individual completely responsible for their actions no matter what the case may be. The due process model allows for human error basing crime on other standards such as age, demographics, or social standing.

I do not feel that either model could survive on its own. I absolutely believe that it has to be an even mix of the two. Both models are to extreme and separate. An individual, criminal or not should have the right to a trial with proper evidence one-way or the other. I do personally agree with the use of capital punishment but it should only be used in extreme cases. I also believe that humans do make mistakes and some are perfectly capable of realizing that mistake and should be given the opportunity to go through some sort of rehabilitation process.

As far as who should have the control in deciding the innocence or guilt and punishment when needed, it should be a group effort. Law enforcement should have the duty of obtaining evidence in a manner that does not infringe upon anyone’s rights and that evidence should be made available during a fair trial where a judge and jury decides the outcome. While both sides of each model have good reasoning and effectiveness, I cannot agree with one all the way.

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Running head: INSIDE CRIMINAL LAW Inside Criminal Law Robert Godin Axia University of Phoenix Inside Criminal Law The first main function of criminal law is protect and punish. It is also known as the legal function. The main function of this legal function is to uphold social order by protecting the citizens from criminal harm. There are two types of criminal harm. The first is harm caused to individual people both to themselves and their property. These crimes can be from murder, assault, theft or even arson.

The second harm can be cause to everyone by unsafe foods, contaminated city drinking water, poorly maintained sewage and unsafe buildings. The second main function of criminal law is maintain and teach also know as the social function of the law. This function of criminal law provides laws that make penalties for crimes that are wrong morally but do not cause any type of harm to anyone with the exception to maybe a persons family members. Some people believe that criminal laws do not just say what is expected of the people but also criminal laws teach people also. Laws change over time to fit how society looks upon things.

Take sodomy for example; Sodomy is a illegal and a criminal law but we see more and more now, married couples committing this act. Also look at the “porn” industry, they make a lot of movies and take many pictures of two people committing sodomy but it is now accepted by many in our society. There are four written sources of criminal law. One of the sources is the U. S. Constitution. The others include statutory law, administrative law, and case law. The Constitutional law is based on the U. S Constitution and the constitutions of each state. A constitutional law is the supreme law and all other laws are based off of the constitutional law.

If a law is considered unconstitutional, it will not be enforced and will be erased. Statutes are passed by legislative bodies at any level of government. Federal statutes are laws that are passed by Congress and become federal laws. State statutes are laws that are passed by the state legislature and those that are passed become state laws. There are also laws that are passed by both cities and counties which are called ordinances. An example of a city ordinance is no person shall ride a skate board on the sidewalk in the downtown area of the city.

A administrative law is a law that is passed by a federal, state, or local government agency which is created to perform a particular job. Some examples of these agencies are Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). OSHA watches over the safety and health of all the workers in the U. S. If a company is not giving the proper amount of breaks or is not trying to provide a safe working environment for its employees, OSHA steps in and penalizes the company for the wrong doing.

The EPA is in charge of protecting our environment. If a company is disposing chemicals incorrectly the EPA is in charge of penalizing the company for the specific violation. The FDA controls the foods and drugs that are created in the U. S. All foods and drugs in the U. S. must go through the FDA for approval first before they are shipped out of factories. If the FDA finds something wrong an item, they are responsible to make sure that item does not get distributed to people in the U. S. A justification defense can be Duress.

Duress occurs when a person is threatened by another person to commit a crime which the person would not normally commit. In order to be able to use duress as a defense, there are certain requirements that must be met. The first requirement is the threat must be of either serious bodily harm or of death. The second is the threat to the person must be more severe than the crime that is going to be committed by the person. Next, the threat must me instant and unavoidable. Finally the person being threatened must have committed the crime because they were forced against their will to commit it.

An excuse defense can be voluntary intoxication. A person can say they were intoxicated by either drugs or alcohol when they committed the crime and were not in the right frame of mind when it occurred. The down fall of this is the person that was intoxicated at the time of the crime voluntarily became intoxicated by consuming too much alcohol or taking illegal drugs. If this person would not have consumed alcohol or took illegal drugs, the crime would not have committed. The Bill of Rights has provided the foundation for common safeguards of the accused in the U. S. ince it was established. The safeguards that were given to the people are of the following. 1. The Fourth Amendment protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures. 2. The Fourth Amendment requires that no warrants for a search or an arrest can be issued without probable cause. 3. The Fifth Amendment requires that no one can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without the “due process” of law. 4. The Fifth Amendment prohibits double jeopardy from occurring. 5. The Fifth Amendment guarantees that no one can be required self incriminate himself or herself. . The Sixth Amendment guarantees a person a speedy trial, a trial by jury, a public trial, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a lawyer at different periods of criminal trials. 7. The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bails and fines and cruel and unusual punishments. At first the Bill of Rights offered people protection only against the federal government. Since then, the common safeguards for the Bill of Rights have been put in effect by state governments as well as more protection which was granted by the passing of the fourteenth amendment.

Both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments say that no one should be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law. This says that the government can not take away these items without having justifiable reason to do so. The decision can not be based on just an individuals judgment when making that decision. (Inside Criminal Law) Reference (2006). Inside Criminal Law. In Criminal Justice in Action: The Core (pp. 76-91). : Thomson Learning, Inc.

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As it was started in US and now it’s touching the boundary of India also. Recession is a phase in which rupee depreciate, cash crunches, money market slowdown, inflation comes. All in all it’s become difficult to bring money from the pocket of an individual. As we know price of the steel, iron goes up, we would like to postpone our purchasing but if we won’t spend, how producer could makes his bread. If the producer starts reducing the price of the commodity with such belief that customer buy the product in all case.

This will bring only when he starts cutting its cost of production. Cost cutting means reduction in variable cost. As price of steel, iron, equipments, machinery, are touching sky, only way to reduce the cost is the reduction in employees. Hence people fear of their job security. In fear of the job security, people are generally shifting their purchasing. All of them either producer, investor, customer, employee posing each other to create recession Negative Aspect of Recession on Indian Economy As recession have various negative effects on Indian economy.

The capital market was facing the downfall, liquidity is dropping down, an individual don’t have money to spend, producers are increasing their price, but to cope with market they are creating deployment. Positive effect of recession on Indian economy The recession in US led to decrease in demand of products, reduces the price of crude oil. Foreign investors who were not able to find a good return, facing Indian like country, so foreign currency is coming. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES Government step: Government of India can took various steps to bear the pressure of recession.

The RBI by reducing the cash reserve ratio can float the money in market, so the liquidity crisis can be faced. And also it can remove burden of VAT on the business class. The government on Jan 5 released Rs. 800 crore to be paid to exporters as duty drawback. If government under its some scheme allows people to convert their black money into white money through investment will also help in boosting liquidity solution. Survival strategies for an Individual An individual when faces recession time, finds him unable to do anything. But an individual has a great power to reduce the effect of inflation.

Firstly an individual pay off its all debts, if any. Secondly he has planned his whole budget on monthly basis, on what product he has spent now, and things of which purchasing can be postponed. Survival strategies for investors The recession affects the stock market badly. The slowdown in capital market, tensed the investor. The investors now plugging back their money due to fear of recession. An investor after seeing the situation of US, obviously will behave in such manner. In this phase investor has to follow the policy of ‘wait and watch’. For compensating the risk he can diversify his portfolio.

Survival strategies for an employee Unemployment is the worst situation emerges due to recession. This has created fear in the mind of employee either the company will retain him or he has to switch to another one. But there is advice to employee this is not a right time to change the job. Stick to your job and try to find your actual worth in the company. Survival strategies for an employer/Business The businessman is finding impossible for them to stand in recession. The export industry, the IT industry, agriculture sector, banking services, are finding hard to earn bread.

So an employer has to change their policy. Firstly retain your existing customer then go for potential one. Prepare your expenditure chart daily. Instead of retrenchment, change the salary package. Motivate your employees for doing hard work. Convince them for long working hour. To reduce the risk, segment your market. Daily calculate the inflow and outflow of cash from the organization. Keep in touch the changes government made in economic policy.

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Report Introduction: Any successful business the owners is always calculate the performance of the company, comparing it with the company’s historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of your company’s effectiveness, however, I will calculate the statement of financial performance and statement of financial position, so I need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, profits, and total assets.

I must be able to read between the lines of the financial statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible. This very big data overload could seem astounding. Luckily, many well-tested ratios out there make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify of the desert hotel company’s strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking. As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques are not definitive.

Numerous off the balance sheet and income statement factors can play a role in the success or failure of a company. This discussion contains descriptions and examples of the eight major types of ratios used in financial analysis: Profitability, Liquidity, short-term liquidity and Long-Term Analysis Ratios are highly important profit tools in financial analysis that help financial analysts implement plans that improve profitability, liquidity, financial stability and management efficiency for the business.

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Organizational climate is shared perception of the way things are around the organization. It is individual perception and cognitive representation of the work environment both. Organizational climate is comprised of mixture of norms, values, expectations, policies and procedures that influence work motivation, commitment and ultimately, individual and work unit performance. Positive climate encourages, while negative climates inhibits discretionary effort. ‘Organizational climate’ refers to the quality of working environment.

Every organization is different and has a unique feeling and character beyond its structural characteristics. Thus every organization deals with its member in a distinct way through its policies on allocations of resources, communication pattern, reward and penalty, leadership and decision making style, etc. The organizational policy and conviction with regard to all these and a cluster of other related activities influence the feelings, attitudes and behavior of its members and results in the creation of the unique organizational climate.

Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on individual motivation and job satisfaction. It does this by carrying certain kinds of expectancies about what consequences will follow from different actions. Individuals in the organization have certain expectations and fulfillment of these expectations depend upon their perception as to how the organizational climate suits to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus organizational climate provides a type of work environment in which individuals feels satisfied or dissatisfied.

Since satisfaction of individual goes a long way in determining his efficiency, organizational climate can be said to be directly related with his performance in the organization. Organizational climate studies data relating to individual perception of organizational properties in identifying organizational climate. Denison (1996) argues that developing a universal set of dimensions was often the central issue of the climate researchers so that comparative studies could be made possible in different organizational settings.

He compared this approach to that of the culture research that used a post-modem perspective which examined the qualitative aspects of individual social contexts where each culture that was seen as unique and was not expected to have general qualities which had become central to the climate research. Jones and James (19790 argued that one of the assumptions of the climate literature is that a relatively limited number of dimensions could characterize a wide cross-section of social settings. Jones and James labeled their factors as follows: Conflict and ambiguity’, which ‘reflected perceived conflict in organizational goals and objectives, combined with ambiguity of organizational structure and roles, a lack of interdepartmental cooperation, and poor communication from management. Also included were poor planning, inefficient job design, a lack of awareness of employee needs and problems, and a lack of fairness and objectivity in the rewards process. ’ ‘Job challenge, importance and variety’, which ‘reflected a job perceived as challenging, which involve a variety of duties, including dealing with other people.

The job was seen as providing autonomy and feedback, and demanding high standards of quality and performance. ’ ‘Leader facilitation and support’, which ‘reflected perceived leader behaviors such as the extent to which the leader was seen as helping to accomplish work goals by means of scheduling activities, planning, etc. , as well as the extent to which he was perceived as facilitating interpersonal relationships and providing personal support. ’ ‘Workgroup cooperation, friendliness, and warmth’, which ‘generally described relationships among group members and their pride in the workgroup. ‘Professional and organizational esprit’, which ‘reflected perceived external image and desirable growth potential offered by the job. Also included were perceptions of an open atmosphere to express one’s feelings and thoughts, confidence in the leader, and consistently applied organizational policies, combined with non-conflicting roles expectations and reduced job pressure. ’ ‘Job standards’, which ‘reflected the degree to which the job was seen as having rigid standards of quality and accuracy, combined with inadequate time, manpower, training and resources to complete the task. 2.

Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity All things in our society are connected in some way, for example, how humans relate to each other. Complex ideas and analysis are not without their own set of unique connections. The intricate theories of economics are a prime example of this connection. To gain an accurate understanding of how supply and demand are connected, and its role within the market, one must analyze the functions of each as separate entities, and how they relate to economics as a whole.

To begin analysis, one must examine what causes change between supply and demand. Once this has been achieved, investigating how changes in price and quantity influence market equilibrium, and how the necessity of a good and the availability of substitutions impact price elasticity will need to be conducted. The final step will be to compare and contrast market systems and the role of an economist within these systems. In order to discover what causes change in supply and demand, people need to understand the definition, different forms, components, and principles.

Supply is defined as the amount of product a producer is willing to provide or sell, while demand is the amount of product a buyer is willing to receive or buy. There are two forms of supply: individual and market. Individual supply is the amount of product offered at different prices at a given time by a seller. Market supply is the amount of the product in the marketplace. The components of supply are the price of the product, the price of input goods, the state of technology, taxes and subsidies, and expectations about the future market price.

An example of a cause that would change supply is the change in the cost of supplies and resources: if the cost goes up, producers will decrease their supply. The law of supply is the amount of the products offered by the sellers, directly related to prices of all things being equal (ceteris paribus). There are two forms of demand similar to supply: individual and market. Individual demand is the quantity of the product or service that one plans to buy at different prices at a given time. Market demand is the sum of people’s demand in the marketplace.

Just like supply, demand has its own determinants such as the price of the goods, the price of substitute goods, the price of complementary goods, tastes and preferences, a consumer’s income, and expectations about the future. An example of a cause that would affect demand is the change from a higher or lower income. This would cause an increase or decrease in demand. The law of demand is the quantity inversely related to the price, ceteris paribus. Oftentimes in supply and demand, pricing affects every aspect that goes along with it; if pricing stays stable, consumers will be able to purchase equal amounts of products.

A family’s income creates a demand for the amount of products that are used on a weekly basis. When price increases, consumers tend to buy less of a particular good creating a demand curve. Depending on the consumer who notices pricing starting to rise, they will purchase extra goods to help them save money until the price lowers. This frequently affects the way things are sold in our local markets. If a change in demand exists, people will use substitute items because of cost. The use of a substitute item will shift the demand curve and will create a new demand curve with the substitute item taken into account.

Additionally, prices change due to market value which impacts the consumer. Availability of certain goods helps keep prices low which influences market equilibrium because consumers will be able to purchase more goods. When a shortage of goods exists, this also affects the markets equilibrium because as prices go up, purchasing becomes less and the consumer only gets a portion of what they would normally pay for that good at the same price. The necessity of a good for a consumer can be determined by the following variables: price, substitution cost, complimentary goods, income, taste/preferences, and expectations.

Elasticity of demand can be summarized the measure of how responsive consumers are to a change in price. If the price of the good goes up, the consumer will buy less of the good, if the price of the desired good decreases, the consumer will purchase more of that good. This concept applies to all the variables listed above. A change in price in either direction is going to affect the consumer’s decision to acquire the good. A good way to look at all the variables is isolating each variable to determine the effect of each with respect to the elasticity price.

The key to elasticity is that it is a unit-less measure. The exact number of units does not matter; the ratio of the percentage changes in quantity divided by the percentage change in price. Additionally, time and budget percentages are variables of elasticity price. The longer a consumer has to look for an option to buy the good will determine the effect of the result to elasticity price. A product that requires a large percentage of the consumer’s budget will make the good elastic.

The above variables are examples of how necessity of a good can affect the price elasticity of a product. A competitive market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service which the individual buyer or seller has no impact on the price of the traded good or service. In the market there are two main systems: demand curve and supply curve. The demand curve shows the relationship between the prices of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to purchase in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant.

The supply curve shows the relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity of the good that producers are willing and able to supply to the market in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant. The economist uses models to determine the competitive equilibrium and to define the comparative statics in a market. The economist, in these systems, uses the data to allocate resources in the most efficient way while reducing waste. The supply of goods and services and demand for goods and services are the two forces that make the market economies work.

There are similarities between these two forces — they both show the relationship between the price of the good and the quantity of that good. The future expectation of the market affects both curves. Supply and demand connect when their quantity and their price meet. A competitive equilibrium exists if the quantity demanded by the consumers meets the quantity supplied by the sellers, The competitive equilibrium point is determined by the demand and the supply forces, it is the point from which the market has no incentive to move.

The demand curve is based on the price of the good, the price of complimentary goods, the price of substitute goods, the consumer’s income, the consumer’s taste and preferences, and the future expectations; it is derived from the consumer’s behavior. The supply curve is based on the price of the good, the price of the ingredients to make the good, the technology that is used to make the good, the taxes and subsidies imposed on the good, and the future expectation; it is derived from the seller’s behavior. The economist collects information, analyzes it, and devises theories in an attempt to learn how the world works.

These theories rely heavily on the demand and the supply in a given market. These particular systems determine the competitive equilibrium and define the comparative statics in a market. The competitive equilibrium assist in reducing chaos in the market and in better allocating resources. In conclusion, identifying the concepts behind supply and demand will help one understand its role in economics. Additionally, this knowledge will assist in shaping the habits and decisions consumers are faced with on a daily basis. Having examined the factors listed above, one will have a more astute understanding of the connectedness of supply and demand.

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