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All Praise is due to Allah, We praise Him and we seek help from Him. We ask forgiveness from Him. We repent to Him; and we seek refuge in Him from our own evils and our own bad deeds. Anyone who is guided by Allah, he is indeed guided; and anyone who has been left astray, will find no one to guide him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, the Only One without any partner; and I bear witness that Muhammad, sws, is His servant, and His messenger. Today’s khutbah is about Patriotism: love for one’s country. Is it wrong to love one’s country? Should we love our country more than we love Justice, or God?

Should our love for country blind us to what’s right and what’s wrong? In our mass media there are frequent questions as to whether we Muslims can be trusted, whether we are loyal to this country or whether our loyalties lie elsewhere.. We have a duty set out clearly what Islam has to say about Patriotism so that we can remove unfounded fears and phobias about our presence here in India. Islam does not forbid a Muslim to love his homeland or the country in which he lives or grew up. What is reprehensible is basing one’s feelings of loyalty and disavowal and loving and hating should always be based on islam and piety.

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to love Makkah because it was the most beloved land to Allaah, but he did not love the kaafirs who lived there, rather he fought them because they fought against Islam and killed Muslims. Neither he nor his companions ever gave precedence to their love of Makkah over the laws of Allaah, so when Allaah forbade those who had migrated from Makkah to go back to it, except for Hajj and three days after it, they adhered to that and did not stay there for longer than that period. Their love for Makkah did not make them disobey Allaah.

Islam orders us to do our best to become good citizens in the countries we live in. Muslims have to honor the laws of the country where they live as long as such laws do not contradict the teachings ofIslam. Muslims living in the contemporary world should be realistic enough to adopt a policy of harmony and peace as far as possible. According to Sheikh Faysal Mawlawi, deputy chairman of the European Council for Fatwa and Research, Muslims living in non-Muslim countries are to respect the symbols of those countries such as the national anthem, national flag, etc.

This is part of what citizenship dictates as per modern customs. … Thus, standing up for the national anthem is not a form of prohibited loyalty. If a Muslim is to change a wrong action in a majority non-Muslim country, let him do that through da`wah, wisdom, and fair exhortation. At the same time, he should not obey any rules that involve disobedience to Allah. Note: The Holy Quran urges Muslims to ‘enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong’ and it describes the Believers as “…the best of people, those who enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong, and who have faith in Allah. [sura 3:110] . Loyalty to a country should never be a simple matter of ‘my country right or wrong’. That’s basically immoral, unethical and ultimately disloyal and un-patriotic. The most loyal thing a citizen can do is to speak out when things are going the wrong way. When politicians wage unjust wars it is our duty to speak out. We must be witnesses to fair dealing. We must be just, not only when it’s easy, but also when it’s unpopular and risky. We must always be fair and just, even to our enemies “O ye who believe! tand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others towards you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to Piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do“. Sura 5:8 al-Maa’ida. 0Allah commands justice. It’s not an option. It’s an obligation. Muslims are called upon to the highest of callings… to follow in the footsteps of the Prophets, to be witnesses to fair dealing, even if it be against our families and our own interests our first loyalty is to Allah, creator of the heavens and the earth.

This means upholding the truth and being faithful to our conscience. This should make us the most patriotic of all citizens, not simply blind followers of capricious politicians. As Allah has said: “Allah forbids you not, with regard to those who fight you not for (your) Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them: for Allah loveth those who are just” [Sura 60:8, al-Mum’tahina] Prophet Muhammad sws once declared that: The best jihad is to speak a word of truth in the court of an unjust ruler” Muslims are reminded to put wrong things right with their hands, and if they cannot do that, they must speak out against it, and if they are too weak to do so, then they must at the very least, hate the injustice in their hearts. A Muslim is he from whose tongue and hand other Muslims are safe, and a true Believer is one in whom all of mankind has a sanctuary for life and property. ” We are not allowed to undermine the security or integrity of the countries we live in.

We must earn the trust of our neighbours. We are obliged to remind our fellow citizens, and our governments, to be consistent on human rights issues, and to be even handed with people living inside and outside our national borders. Let us pray to Allah and ask for His divine Mercy and intervention. O Allah, help us to become worthy and valued citizens of every land where Muslims live. Help us to earn the respect and affection of our neighbours, through our adab, our good conduct and through our service to society which we render out of love and gratitude to You.

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BTN 7-4 – Page 312 TO: Wendy Geiger DATE: June 19, 2011 SUBJECT: Manual Accounting Modifications for Expanded Business M E M O R A N D U M This memo is to advise you of the best possible ways for you to modify your current manual accounting system to accommodate the expanded business activities for your retail store. Pursuant to our conversation, you generally obtain your goods on credit using purchase orders, and your sales are primarily cash.

You currently keep your manual accounting system using a general journal and a general ledger, and you make one summary entry for cash sales at the end of each business day. Due to increased demand for your products and higher sales volume, including credit sales, maintaining the accounting records has become time consuming, but you would like to continue with your manual system. Allow me to provide pertinent information that will assist you in continuing your manual system in the most efficient way.

The accounting information system is one that collects and processes relevant data from transactions, and organizes them into relevant reports. This system is also used to report and record the exchange of goods and/or services. It is critical for you to understand how and what transactions are occurring in your business. A small business like yours can be effective with a manual process and with the use of special journals and subsidiary ledgers.

With the issues you mentioned in mind, most of your transactions can be categorized into the special journals with the use of four individual journals to complement the general journal you are currently using. Special journals are used to record and post transactions, and are uniquely designed for each business, but for most merchandising companies, the journals used are sales journals, for recording sales on credit; cash receipts journals, to record sales made by cash; purchases journals, for recording goods obtained on credit; and cash disbursements journals, for recording payments made by cash.

You are also able to use this format for your ledger. In order to understand special journals, it is necessary for you to understand that a subsidiary ledger is a list of detailed information on specific accounts of individuals with some commonality in the general ledger. One critical ledger is Accounts Receivable, which stores transactions of individual customers. This ledger will give relevant information on the individual customer, the date of purchase, the amount paid, and the amount owed.

The other important ledger is Accounts Payable, which stores relevant data of individual suppliers. You would generate this ledger with similar information gleaned from my instructions regarding the Accounts Receivable ledger. These two ledgers are critical for recording your data, and they eliminate the need for posting same in the general ledger. The numbers at the bottom indicate the respective accounts delineated in your Chart of Accounts.

You are already summarizing each cash sales at the end of each business day, but my advice would be for you to continue recording the daily sales and purchases because it is necessary for you to balance your subsidiary ledger with your general ledger. Daily reconciliation will enable you to track any and all discrepancies more easily. Total your sales journal accounts at the end of each month and this amount should be the amount in the debit column in the Accounts Receivable.

Regarding the last column, you will find more consistency in your inventory system if you follow this procedure. I cannot stress the importance of proving the account balances in the general ledger and subsidiary ledgers periodically for accuracy after posting. You will first prepare a trial balance of the general ledger and confirm that all your debits are in balance with your credits. Additionally, Prepare a schedule of individual accounts and amounts. This is referred to as testing the subsidiary ledger.

Generate a schedule of your customers’ accounts to show the balance owed. If everything balances, the accounts are assumed correct. This method of accounting information system might seem challenging to you at first, but I assure you that this is the most advantageous way for you to maintain your manual system. It is imperative you balance your journals and ledgers every day, without fail, to avoid any unnecessary discrepancies. The example I have provided should be a head start and I am always available if you need additional information, or if I can be of further

Estee Lauder History and Mission Statement essay help 123: essay help 123

History The original Estee Lauder label was launched by Estee and her husband Joseph Lauder in New York City in 1946; it is a U. S manufacturer and marketer of skin care, cosmetics, and hair-care and fragrance products. She began her business with skin care products, and first sold to beauty salons and hotels, however, in the early year, Estee facing the rejection of convince Madison Avenue to carry her product, she began to market directly to targeting high-class customers by selling her product through boutiques and department stores. In 1961, Hong Kong market opening; in 1964, a line for men named Aramis was launched; in 1967, Mrs.

Estee Lauder was named one of ten Outstanding Women in US; in 1995, Estee Lauder went public; in 1998, a new division named ELC Online was created, Estee Lauder was one of the first major cosmetics firms to offer online shopping; in 2004, Jane business was sold and Mrs. Estee Lauder passed away; 2006, Stila was sold. In a course of 60 years, Estee Lauder has expanded into a superpower possessing 18 beauty product brands, among which are the 5 brands designed and launched by the group itself: the original Estee Lauder; Clinique Laboratories, Inc. a specialist in allergy-tested, fragrance-free and dermatologist-approved cosmetics; Aramis Inc. , a pioneer in prestige fragrances and grooming products for men; Prescriptives, which emphasizes on personalized make-up; and Origins, for those seeking natural ingredients. The company’s other 13 brands were all results of strategic acquisitions. The portfolio of brands can be categorized into: the core labels for mature customers, including Estee Lauder, Clinique, Aramis, Prescriptives, and La Mer; eco-correct labels, namely Aveda and Origins; and hip labels, comprising Bobbi Brown, M.

A. C. , Lab Series, Rodan + Fields, American Beauty, Flirt. Donna Karan, Darphin1, Jo Malone, Bumble and Bumble, Tommy Hilfiger, and Kate Spade. Although Estee Lauder has passed away, but her spirit of purse beauty will be pass down by her children and grandchildren. Vision “Bringing the best to everyone we touch and being the best in everything we do. ” Estee Lauder’s current vision is easy to understand and inspiring, we are not only selling cosmetic, not only the method to become beauty, we are actually selling a dream, a dream of “every ladies can become a beauty”.

As Estee Lauder’s belief that every woman can always have beauty and style. Mission Statement We are a family company committed to working together with uncompromising ethics and integrity. We strive to always: • Provide customers with innovative cosmetic products of the highest quality. • Deliver outstanding service by treating each individual as we ourselves would like to be treated. • Create an environment that fosters personal growth and well being. • Build partnerships with our suppliers, retailers and colleagues based on fairness and trust. • Enhance our reputation of image, style and prestige. Pursue profit, but never at the expense of quality, service or reputation. • Eliminate waste and reduce inefficiencies in order to provide maximum value to our customers. • Be responsible citizens in every community we serve. Estee Lauder brand spirit continues today and become a valuable basis for future development. Cooperation with the style pioneer, to seek a breakthrough in the pursuit of science and technology and a huge loyal consumer base is the reason for the success of Estee Lauder. The Estee Lauder beauty journey will seek to continue forever.

Scheme of Work college admission essay help: college admission essay help

SCHEME OF WORK Centre:Course Code: Name of CourseHorticultureSession length:2. 5 hours Name of tutor:Number of sessions:6 Aims of course: To introduce students to horticulture giving them a basic understanding of plant life. Demonstrating and giving practical sessions on planting bulbs and seeds to develop the student’s skills and knowledge. Assumed knowledge: Basic skills read & write and ICT To enrich the learners’ experience and in line with Ofsted priorities, embed these 6 strands into your scheme of work IN THE SPACES BELOW, WRITE HOW EACH WILL BE COVERED DURING THE COURSE Health & Safety – ensuring learners are safe

The classroom is suitable for the purpose of teaching/ learning that is safe from dangers, and hazards. Equality & DiversityBased on individual identified needs, differentiation and learning styles have been taken into account. Literacy, Language, Numeracy Will be integrated into the activities Information and Learning TechnologyWill be integrated into the activities Education for Sustainable Development Progression to the next level, another course, employment, volunteering etc Part of your lesson observation

Week or dateLearning outcomes and summary of session topicsTeacher activitiesLearner activitiesAssessment methodsResources 1Students will learn the differences between annual, biennial and perennial life cycles. Discussion of life cycles: use concept of the ‘timeline’ to explain Small group work -Students to research plants which fit into each category Targeted questions Check individual understanding and HandoutsExamples of Plants Blackboard, chalk Handouts Paper / Pens 2Students will learn the differences between . ‘hardy’ and ‘half hardy’ plants

Introduce concept of ‘hardy’ and ‘half hardy’ plantsStudents to research plants which fit into each categoryTargeted questions Check individual understanding and HandoutsExamples of plants Handouts Books Paper/ pens 3Students will learn the difference of a ‘shrub’ , ‘tree’ and ‘herbaceous’ Tutor lead discussion Students to research the difference types which fit into each category Discussion Activity Handouts Example of plants Reference books Internet Paper and pens Handouts 4To plant a bulb in pots Tutor lead discussion DemonstrationPractical; Planting bulbs label each pot

Place pots outside. Observation Questions and answersBulbs 13cm pot Compost Labels pencil Watering Can 5 Students should know • How to raise plants from seed in a glasshouseTutor lead discussion DemonstrationPractical; Planting seeds Label the tray Place in the greenhouseObservation Questions and answersSeeds Trays Compost Labels Pencil Watering can 6 Students should know: How to raise plants from seed. Review progress of seeds sown last time. students to produce a ‘storyboard’ of the process of sowing seeds carried out last time. Observation Discussion StoryboardsPaper Pens

The Accounting Profession and Nat buy essay help: buy essay help

THE JOURNAL OF ACCOUNTING ANAN Volume 1, No 1, March 2009 Published by: Nigerian College of Accountancy, Jos Postgraduate Professional College and Training Arm of ANAN … Advancing the Science of Accountancy EDITORIAL BOARD Prof. Edet Robinson Iwok, Ph. D, FCNA Prof. A. A. Okwoli, Ph. D, FCNA Prof. Abimaje Akpa, Ph. D, FCNA Prof. B. C. Osisioma, Ph. D, FCNA Prof. Edet B. Akpakpan, Ph. D, FCNA, Prof. A. C. Ezejulue, Ph. D, FCNA Prof. A. S. Mikailu, Ph. D, FNIA Chairman, Education, Training, Research and Technical Committee, ANAN Chief V.

C. Azie Accountant-General of the Federation Auditor-General of the Federation Registrar, ANAN Chairman, Fed. Inland Revenue Service Director of Research, National Universities Commission Treasurer, ANAN – Business Manager Prof. M. A. Mainoma, Ph. D, FCNA Mr. C. B. Umoh Editor-in-CHief Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Associate Editor Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Member Secretary Assistant Secretary The Journal of Accounting is a biannual publication.

All contributions of articles, book reviews, research notes, etc, intended for consideration for publication in this Journal should be in English and should be submitted in two hard copies and a soft copy. Articles, book reviews and research notes intended for consideration for publication are subjected to reviews by three experts in the related field. The primary criterion for publication in the Journal is the significance of the contribution to the advancement of the science of accounting and related literature.

The decision of the Editorial Board, based on the advice of the reviewers, is final and not subject to negotiation. All correspondence, enquiries, contributions and research notes should be submitted to: The Editor, The Journal of Accounting, C/o Nigerian College of Accountancy, Plot 42T Bauchi Ring Road, Dogon Dutse, P. M. B. 2734, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Subscription Rates: Nigeria Outside Nigeria – N1000 (Exclusive of postage) N1000 $10 (Exclusive of postage) Prof. Edet R.

Iwok Editor-in-Chief iv EDITORIAL Like any other profession, Accounting is not static. It constantly responds to the dynamism of human existence because Accountants are by nature curious and experimental. Their curiosity causes them to enquire into the proximate problems affecting their profession and practice. Again, two great inventions that have helped accountants and indeed professionals in other fields of human endeavour are the inventions of writing and of scientific method.

The continuous growth of accounting knowledge and practical insights requires a reasoning, questioning, and experimental mind of the Accountant. The birth of The Journal of Accounting is therefore, a platform for reasoning, questioning and experimental mind in the field of accounting and its closely-related disciplines. It is a platform for cross-fertilization of ideas and of advancing the science of accountancy in line with ANAN’s vision and mission.

In this maiden edition of The Journal of Accounting we try to grapple with the following issues: The Effect of Audit on Corporate Sustainability, Growth and Development; Accounting and Nation Building; The Role of Accountants in the Attainment of Banking Sector Consolidation Objectives in Nigeria; The Use of Ratios in Financial Analysis and Prediction of Financial Crisis; The Relationship and Problems of Auditors in a Joint Audit Exercise: A Survey of Ten Audit Companies in Nigeria; Accountants Role in Investing in Stocks and Shares in the Capital Market; The Undisclosed Facts on Exempted Value Added Tax (VAT) Items in Nigeria: A Survey of Northern and Southern Zones; and Entrepreneurship and Africa’s Quest for Development: A Review of Family Business in Nigeria. It must, however, be made clear here that contributors’ views expressed in the treatment of issues in the Journal do not and may not represent the views of the Editorial Board, the College, and/or the Association as a whole. Finally, the Editorial Board wishes to acknowledge with gratitude the support of ANAN Council in granting the permission to commence the publication of this Journal. iii The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009

THE EFFECT OF AUDIT ON CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY, GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT By J. R. A. Adefiranye Abstract For profitability and liquidity, companies need adequate finances. Finance stakeholders (that is, shareholders, creditors and other financial lenders) are the providers of these finances. Their interests and beliefs in the activities of the companies are required to make them invest. A recent ‘share investments’ survey in Lagos and Abuja, involving 100 respondents covering investors and prospective investors (60 and 40 respondents respectively), revealed that 70 percent of the investors place heavy reliance on the integrity of a company’s auditor before investing in that company. 0 percent of the prospective investors chose never to advance money of whatever form to any company because they have lost confidence in audit firms. This, they hinged on the fact that companies, despite their stunning performance reports attested to by audit firms, still go bankrupt. Using questionnaires and interviews, we gathered relevant data from investors, prospective investors, audit firms and some financial institutions (banks) for this study. We analysed these data using descriptive and inferential statistical analysis tools. It was discovered that there is a very strong link between audit and finance stakeholders’ confidence in financial statements.

This means that even though a company may put good corporate governance structure in place, audit still has a greater role to play in making the companies perform better and gain access to ‘investible’ funds. The recommendations made by the study include the need for accounting professional bodies to ensure that auditors take the issue of ethical practices with all seriousness. If well coordinated, confidence of the investing public will be won and companies will gain access to more funds that will Introduction bility of companies to remain in business, grow and develop has always been linked to profitability and liquidity. Virtually all stakeholders are in accord on the fact that these two profitability and liquidity are the necessary ingredients for corporate growth and development.

To make these possible, that is to be profitable and liquid, companies need reasonable and sustainable investments. The quantum of investment is one important factor in the determination of the extent to which a company can do business. Ceteris parribus, a company with more investments has a higher possibility of being parribus, profitable and possibly liquid than another with lesser investments. To be able to invest, however, every company needs reasonable and sustainable finances. Usually, shareholders, creditors and other lenders (especially financial institutions such as banks), contribute these finances. In A 1 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 his study, these investors shareholders, creditors and other financial institutions are collectively referred to as finance stakeholders. For any company to be able to raise reasonable finances for investments, finance stakeholders’ interests must be won. A company that successfully and convincingly wins her finance stakeholders’ interest will, therefore, be able to pull more finances to itself, hence, have reasonable amounts for investments, than the one which is unable to win such interests. Winning of these highly required interests is not magical. Finance stakeholders will not hesitate to advance more finances to the company once they are convinced n the performance(s) of the company’s agents (the managers of the company) and/or are sure of the security of their investments. If the agents can show, with convincing evidence(s), that they adequately managed and utilized the initial amounts given to them, the stakeholders investments are secured and have higher probability of yielding better returns, they (company agents) can be sure of receiving more amounts when needed. Reports on the extent to which the companies’ resources have been utilized, which will inform the finance stakeholders on the need for increased finances, when required, or otherwise, are embodied in a document called statements. financial statements.

Preparation of financial statements is one of the mandatory statutory obligations of all companies, especially the public companies (PLCs) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. They (financial statements) are prepared by the agents of each company. For the fact that each company’s agents have the yam and the knife, that is, they are responsible for running the affairs of the business and reporting their stewardship, there is a higher possibility of record manipulations in such a way as will favour them and cover up their inefficiencies in what is called creative accounting. accounting. This is one of the major problems in agency relationships. To this extent, finance stakeholders do not just rely on financial statements as presented by the agents of the companies.

They, instead, rely on the statements based on the opinion(s) of a ‘third party’ who serves as ‘eagle eyes’ to each auditors. company. This third party is what we know as auditors. Our interest in the contributions of audit to corporate growth, if any, was gingered by responses from some respondents in a recent ‘shares investment’ survey conducted in Lagos and Abuja. (One hundred (100) persons, including both investors and prospective investors, constituted the respondents). Two most striking issues from their responses are the one from a prospective investor that he will not advance his money to any company by way of any investment 2 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 whatsoever except the company’s financial statement and/or prospectus are ttested to by some specific audit firms (he mentioned some audit firms), and the other that responded that he does not have interest in investing in any company or advancing loan to any company, except a business to be personally owned by him, for the fact that auditors mostly compromised their positions for financial gains (field study, 2006). In a follow up questionnaire to this respondent, so as to help in supporting his allegations, he, though, declined to mention names, queried the easier collapse of banks and some companies especially prior to the ‘mega-bank’ era recently introduced by the Central Bank of Nigeria, under the governorship of Prof. Charles Soludo, despite the fact that these banks and companies presented stunning and impressive financial statements, attested to as ‘true and fair’ by audit firms. Considering the recent turbulence in Cadbury Nigeria, for instance, one will ordinarily agree with this respondent.

It is on these that the problems to be addressed by this discussion rely. The first problem is, what impact has audit on sustainability, growth and development of companies? The second problem is, what is/are the expectation(s) of the investing public from the professional bodies that are regulating accounting practices in Nigeria with respect to upholding ethical standards of audit in Nigeria? We shall test one hypothesis in this study. The null of the hypothesis is that “the growth of any company has no relationship with investing publics’ confidence in its audited financial statement”. Efforts were made to gather relevant data from five states in Nigeria: Lagos, Abuja, Kaduna, Kano and Rivers.

These were chosen by virtue of conglomeration of businesses and banks and the presence of head offices of most of the companies and banks. In addition, eleven corporate bodies comprising companies and banks were selected to aid in the conduct of the study. The remainder of the paper has the following organization. Section two summarizes some of the theoretical issues on which this study is based, section three presents the research methodology adopted for the study, section four presents and discusses the findings of this study while section five offers concluding remarks and recommendations. Theoretical Issues Auditing: From Civilization to Date 3

The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 The word ‘auditor’ literally means ‘one who hears’. Auditing is as old as civilization. It was used in ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire, and the Great Mercantile establishments of the middle ages. Prior to 1500, the main focus of accounting was on governmental and family units. In this period, two scribes were used to keep independent records of the same transactions and it was designed to prevent defalcations within the treasures of the ancient rulers. Between 1850 and 1905, the corporate form of business was brought into the fore. This came up as a result of the industrial revolution, which brought up corporations.

Between 1933 and 1940, a relative confusion arose regarding the main objective of auditing. This centered on the issue of ‘fraud detection’. While some held this as the main objective of audit, others thought otherwise. The periods between 1940 and 1960 introduced a significant change in audit objectives. With the pronouncements of American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) in 1951, auditors are expected to hold fairness of financial statements as a virtue rather than emphasize fraud detection. With continuous amendments, it became obvious that even though fraud detection is not to be held as the main objective of auditing, it yet forms an integral part of it.

Walter and Williams (1992:138) captured this as clear as possible thus: …in performing the audit, the auditor obtains evidence concerning each of the specific objectives, (which includes existence or occurrence, completeness, rights and obligations, valuation or allocation and presentation and disclosure). From the evidence accumulated, the auditor reaches a conclusion as to whether any of management assertions are misrepresentations. Subsequently, conclusions about the individual assertions are combined to reach an opinion on the fairness of the financial statements as a whole. This had always been the position of the courts of law. For instance, in Re: Kingston Cotton Mill Co. 1876) 2 ch, 279, the court posited that: … an auditor is not bound to be a detective, or as was said, to approach his work with suspicion or with a foregone conclusion that something is wrong. He is a watchdog but not a bloodhound… if there is anything calculated to excite suspicion, he should prove it to the bottom;… Even though, Judge Cardozo, in Ultra Mares Corp. v. Touche (1931), in an attempt to uphold the doctrine of privity of contract held that: … if liability for negligence exists a thoughtless slip or blunder, the failure to detect a theft or forgery beneath the cover of deceptive entries may expose accountants to a liability in indeterminate amount, at an indeterminate time, to an indeterminate class. The 4 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 azards of a business conducted on these terms are so extreme as to enkindle doubt whether a flaw may not exist in the implication of a duty that exposes to these consequences. The court yet found the auditors guilty of negligence. Quoting Alan (1970:305), Olugbami (1999) wrote: …litigations against accountants have increased dramatically in recent years. The practice of suing accounting firms, which has grown in popularity among disillusioned investors and their attorneys, is the subject of much controversy in the financial community… when a company goes bankrupt, a disgruntled investor tries to find a solvent party from whom he recover damages. Often, this is the independent accounting firm… further, certain recent decision have shown that accountants are vulnerable to litigation…

Decided cases, for example, Credit Alliance Corporation And Leasing Services Corporation v. Arthur Andersen & Co. (1981); Funds Of Funds Ltd V. Arthur Andersen & Co (1982), have consistently shown that aggrieved parties can succeed in cases against accounting professionals where the report they relied upon, by virtue of the professionals’ attestation, are faulty or falsified. The profession has not in any way exposed the auditors to dangers, for the fact that, whenever the professional accountants have reasons to doubt the correctness of reports they are to attest to, they have the liberty to either decline attesting to such a report or if they must, they should give necessary qualifications to the report.

The use of the words ‘subject to’, ‘except’, ‘adverse’, etc, by the auditors, whenever they are in doubt as to any material misstatement by the company’s agents, is what is needed to put whoever is using the financial statement on guard. This also saves the professional from undue litigations and embarrassments. For professionals to do their work as best as possible, however, independence must remain their virtue and watchword. Whenever an audit firm makes a mistake of getting too involved in other consultancy activities with their clients, the result is not always palatable. This is obvious in the recent Enron’s case. As reported by Alexander, et al (2002), the fall of the once prestigious Chicago accounting firm, Arthur Andersen, came as a result of doing more of consulting than audit.

Just as was warned by a one time policy maker of Arthur Andersen, Gagel Mike, who was forced to retire at an earlier period in 1992, “…if you ever cheapened it (the audit) or give it away, you lost your birthright as a professional” (Alexander, 2002). 5 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 From all issues raised above, it can be seen that investors, shareholders and other persons in the finance stakeholders group, place very heavy reliance on the opinion of the auditors, hence, take their decisions based on these independent parties opinions. Also, third parties can successfully move against the professionals in case the reports attested to by these professionals were found to be misleading or misrepresenting.

A professional accountant has the liberty to expose him/herself to any danger but it should be noted that the danger is as a result of his/her action(s) and not necessarily a professional hazard. hazard. Economic Benefits of Auditing From the contributions of Walter and Williams (1992:16), economic benefits derivable from audit include: a) gaining and maintenance of access to capital markets especially by large companies; b) securing of loans and advances from banks and other institutional lenders with more favourable terms; c) granting of credits at lower interest rates by creditors and the acceptance of lower dividend or no dividend at all by investors so as to llow room for needed investments where necessary; d) improvement of company’s credibility; e) enhancement of employees’ honesty and efficiency since they are ever conscious of auditors’ presence; f) influencing of managements to be more truthful and forthright in their representations and although audit of financial statements is a statutory requirement, it indirectly affects the market value of companies; and g) it helps in ensuring the accuracy of information available in the financial market. These benefits suggest that audit has an effect on the activity(ies) of a company. We shall find out if these hold true in the companies selected for this study. Problems and Challenges of Agency Theory An agency relationship is created whenever ownership of a business is separated from its management. The concept of corporations has its roots in the eye opener case of Salomon Vs Salomon & Co (1876). Companies are different from proprietorships and partnerships in that, whereas, both proprietorships 6 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 nd partnerships are mostly and usually managed by some or all their owners, PLCs, companies, especially PLCs, have their management divorced from their owners, hence, creating principal-agent relationships. Quoting Jensen and Meckling (1976), Musa (2006:3) stated that conflict of interest between corporate insiders and outside investors are central to the analysis of modern corporations. This is because insiders, who control the assets of the companies, can use them in a way that is detrimental to the interest of outside investors. Assets could be diverted through outright theft, dilution of outside investors through insider dealings, expropriation through excessive salaries, etc.

Views of this nature had been put forward in earlier studies such as that of Shleifer and Vishny (1997). Augmenting this, Jensen (1986) was quoted by Musa (2006) that insiders can use corporate assets to pursue investment strategies that would yield them personal benefits at the expense of outside investors. In order to reduce or eliminate these and other agency problems, earlier studies such as that of Shleifer and Vishny (1997), La Porta, et al (1998), Zingale (2003), Gompers, et al (2003), Black, et al (2003), Sanda, et al (2004), Anderson, et al (2004), Musa (2006), among others, have placed so much of emphasis on effective corporate governance as the solution.

Using corporate governance variables which essentially are board composition, board size and power separation between board chairperson and CEO, these studies established that companies’ managers’ objectives can be aligned with the objectives of the paribus, shareholders vis-a-vis the companies themselves. This, for sure, ceteris paribus, will bring about sustainability, growth and development in companies. While not disagreeing with the views of these researchers, we want to tentatively posit that the alignment of these agents’ objectives with their principals’, which ultimately should lead to sustainability, growth and development of companies, is better ensured where professionals truly live up to their responsibilities. We shall conveniently take a final stand on this subsequently. Methodology This study is both historical and descriptive in nature.

Stratified random sampling method was used to select the companies used in the study. To do this, companies were classified as basic production, distribution and service. In the factbook of the Nigerian Stock Exchange (2006), one hundred and ninetyseven (197) companies are listed as registered companies. By classification of 7 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 the companies into service, production and distribution sectors, ninety-nine (99) companies are in the service sector, sixty-nine (69) are in the production sector and twenty-nine (29) are in the distribution sector. After considering their capital base, eleven (11) big companies were selected for our study.

Six(6) companies were selected from the service stratum for the fact that Nigeria economy is currently dominated by service industry; three(3) were selected from the production stratum; while two(2) were selected from the processing stratum. For their sizes, it is believed that the selected companies have the tendency to employ and utilize good auditing services, hence, will be good enough for our study. Data for this study was collected using primary data instruments: questionnaire and interview. Using purposive sampling, a total of fifty(50) questionnaires were distributed to the investing public alone. Ten(10) questionnaires were sent to each of the five(5) states chosen for this study.

The questionnaires were targeted at existing shareholders, and prospective investors. Our belief is that this number will be adequate for generalization for the fact that we were privileged to know that the shareholders held substantial shares in companies, and the prospective investors chosen show good interests in investments. Interviews were conducted, especially with audit firms (three in number) used for this study. Three bank managers, who gave us audience, were also interviewed. To analyse the data, descriptive and inferential statistical analysis techniques were employed. These are: Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation and percentages. Whereas percentages was used in analysis of some of the Segment i. ii.

Issues Confidence in Financial Statement (X) Confidence in Financial Statement tied to Audit (Y) Yes 16 13 No 5 3 Undecided 1 6 Source: Field Survey (2007) Table 1b: Summary of the analysis of table 1a issues for Pearson’s computations X ya = 16 x Y ya = 13 y XY yay = 13 xy x X2 ya2 = 16 x Y2 ya2 = 13 y Source: Computation of Field Survey (2007) result Analysis: Using Karl Pearson’s formula 8 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 This analysis indicates that there is a very strong link between auditing and shareholders’ confidence in financial statements prepared by companies (0. 74). That is, most shareholders relied on the financial statements for the fact that the statements were audited. Segment i. ii. iii.

Issues Subscription to shares (even if) not backed up with audit attested prospectus Auditi g has a strong impact on corporate growth and ng n development Auditors living up to publics expectations in Nigeria Yes 2 38 15 No 39 3 28 Undecided 2 2 0 Source: Field Survey (2007) From table 2 above, 91 percent of the respondents will be pleased to subscribe to the shares of any company provided its prospectus is attested to by auditors, not necessarily because they have good corporate governance structure in place. Also, 88 percent of the respondents are of the opinion that auditing has a strong impact on corporate growth and development. However, only 35 percent of the respondents opined that auditors are living up to expectations of the investing public in Nigeria.

Findings From the computations based on tables 1a and 1b, it is glaring that the confidence of shareholders in the financial statements presented to them by their agents (company managers), is increased by virtue of the attestation of auditors. Where finance stakeholders, especially shareholders, have confidence in a company’s financial statement, they are very likely to advance more money to the company whenever such is required for investments, especially in profitable ventures. This advancement of money can be by way of increasing the quantum of shares they already acquired, thereby introducing fresh capital, or opting not to receive dividend so as to allow the company to have enough reserves to be used for the new project(s), etc.

Adventure into reasonable and profitable ventures will likely aid the company to be more profitable, hence, grow, develop and get well sustained. 9 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 Based on the outcome of our statistical tests and respondents’ positions, we reject our null hypothesis and accept the alternative that the growth of any company is strongly linked with investing public’s confidence in its audited financial statements. Table 2(i & ii)’s responses also buttress our initial stand on the link between audit and company growth. This shows that with the assistance of audit, companies can easily obtain whatever amount they require from finance stakeholders.

This is well backed up with the responses from bank managers interviewed. As put by most of the respondents (bank managers), another major requirement for advancing loans of any sort, apart from collateral, to any company, is their audited financial statements. The position, as given by table 2(iii), presents a great challenge to auditors in Nigeria. 65 percent of our respondents posited that auditors in Nigeria are not living up to expectations. Can this be a major reason why Nigerians are not adequately responding to company shares as expected and/or why there are not many public companies as may be anticipated in a big country like Nigeria?

Some of the reasons put forward by these respondents for their position on this issue include: Indication of failure especially as seen in the aspect of bank distress in Nigeria, and the fact that there was not much to suggest that auditors had pre-warned or qualified their reports on these distressed institutions; contributions of some auditors in tax evasion practices of companies; failure of some audit firms to conduct themselves in line with the provision of CAMA (1990); and deviation from professional ethics due to poor economic conditions and the quest for financial gains. Concluding Remarks and Recommendations Auditing plays a very formidable role in the ability of companies to pool adequate financial resources needed for investments.

This is essentially appreciated in the way it increases the confidence of finance stakeholders in the financial reports prepared by the company agents. Companies that present good and hopeful report(s) will easily win the interest of finance stakeholders, hence, get required access to ‘investible’ funds. The stakeholders, however, do not just rely on the reports for the fact that they have been prepared by their agents or for the fact that good corporate governance structure had been put in place but for the fact that a reliable audit firm, respected by them, had attested to the validity and reliability of the ‘stunning reports’. 10 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 It is unfortunate that most finance stakeholders in Nigeria score audit firms low as at present.

The implication of this is that companies cannot benefit as much as they ought to, since the source of finance (finance stakeholders) is not too well disposed to their reports. With this, we can take a position that companies in Nigeria, on the average, are not yet attaining optimal level of finance, as it ought to be. Subject to any convincing proof to the contrary, we can confidently posit that there is a strong link between finance stakeholders’ current view of audit and low patronage to company shares and low degree of companies floating (formation) in Nigeria. Companies that are audited by trusted audit firms will always gain access to needed finance than the one audited by an audit firm not trusted by majority finance stakeholders.

Since it is glaring that the expectations of the investing public from audit are so high, professional bodies have a lot to do. Going by the responses of financial institutions and some investors, audit has positive impact on the market value of companies in the capital market. This is easily drawn from the fact that shares of such company are much sought after, in addition to the fact that financial lenders rely on it as an additional requirement for loans and advances to the companies. However, most companies in Nigeria are not yet benefiting from this, that is, most of the economic benefits derivable from audit are not yet tapped by Nigerian companies.

In line with the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations are proffered: First, since it is the duty of shareholders, in the annual general meeting, to appoint external auditors, they should ensure that proven integrity, especially from track records, is their guiding principle in appointing auditors. This is very important for the fact that other finance stakeholders are also interested in who and what the company’s audit firm is. This should be taken as serious as, or more serious than, the way corporate governance is considered. Second, professional bodies must continuously hold seminars, workshops, etc, with all their members. In each of these gatherings, the need for upholding professional ethics, no matter the circumstance or situation any member finds him/herself, must always be given a better place. Strategies on how to align ethical issues with personal beliefs of members should also be utilized in these discussions.

The word of Gagel “… if you ever cheapened it or give it away, you lost your birthright as a professional” (Alexander, 2002) should be adopted as an anthem for professionals. Third, professional bodies should openly discipline any member found 11 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 wanting in his/her duty as a professional. The essence of open trial and conviction (if warranted) is, to serve as deterrent to other members, and show the investing public that the bodies have ‘zero tolerance’ to unethical conducts. This will surely increase the respect of the public to the professionals and the professional bodies. In the long run, it will positively affect the confidence of the public in audits and auditors.

Fourth, professional bodies should consciously organize seminars, workshops, symposiums, etc, to sensitise the investing public on their activities. In line with this, there should be room for ‘protocol free access’ by members of the investing public to the professional bodies. This will make it possible for any disgruntled member of the investing public to lay direct complaint(s) against any professional. This will not only increase their confidence in the professional bodies, but will also serve as a caveat to professionals themselves. Overall effect of this will positively affect audit and improve the companies’ performances. Fifth, professional bodies must constantly review issues on ethics and ethical conducts and make wide publications on their findings.

These publications must be made available to their members, all accounting departments in Nigerian universities and colleges and the general public at large. Lastly, we recommend researches into the reason(s) why some companies’ shares are ever active on the Nigerian Stock Exchange while others seem as if they are crawling. Also, there is the need to find out why investing crawling. public in Nigeria are not too keen about trading in companies shares when compared with their interests in bank shares. 12 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 References Alan, J. (1970). “Auditors Liabilities”, In, Olugbami, K. (1999), “The Role of Audit in Corporate Development”, unpublished B. Sc. project submitted to the department of Accounting, A. B. U. , Zaria.

Alexander, D. ; Burns, G. ; Manor, R. ; McRoberts, F. ; and Torriero, E. (2002). “The Fall of Tribune, Andersen: Greed Tarnished Golden Reputation”, Chicago Tribune, September 1, 2002, 1c. Anderson, R. ; Mansi, S. and Reeb, D. (2004). “Board Characteristics. Accounting Report Economics, Integrity and the Cost of Debt”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 37, September, 11, 315-342. Black, B. ; Jang, H. and Kim, W. (2003). “Does Corporate Governance Affect Firm 327. Value? ”, Working Paper 327. Stanford Law School. Auditing, Carmichael, D. (1975). Perspectives in Auditing, Mc-Graw Hill Inc. , U. S. A. Gompers, P. ; Ishii, J. ; and Metrick, A. 2003). “Corporate Governance and Equity Prices”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, February, 107-155. Economics, Jensen, M. (1986). “Agency Cost of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers”, Proceedings, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 76, pp. 323-329, In Musa, F. (2006), “The Impact of Corporate Governance on the Performance and Value of Banks in Nigeria: An Agency Approach”, Nigerian Journal of Accounting Research, Research, 4, 1-15. Jensen, M. and Meckling, W. (1976). “Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behaviour, Economics, Agency Costs and Capital Structure”, Journal of Financial Economics, 3, pp. 305-360. In Musa, F. 2006), “The Impact of Corporate Governance on the Performance and Value of Banks in Nigeria: An Agency Approach”, Nigerian Research, Journal of Accounting Research, 4, 1-15. La Porta, R. ; Lopez-de-silanes, F. ; Shleifer, A. and Vishny, J. (2002). “Investor Protection Finance, and Corporate Valuation”, Journal of Finance, 57, 1147-1170. Musa, F. (2006). “The Impact of Corporate Governance on the Performance and Value of Banks in Nigeria: An Agency Approach”, Nigerian Journal of Accounting Research, Research, 4, 1-15. Auditing, Robertson, J. and Frederick, G. (1992). Auditing, 5th Ed. Business Pub. Inc. , Texas. Sanda, A. ; Mikailu, A. and Tukur, G. (2004). Director Shareholding, Board Size and Financial Performance of Firms in the Nigerian Stock Exchange”, Nigerian Research, Journal of Accounting Research, June, 2-34. Shleifer, A. and Vishny, R. (1997). “A Survey of Corporate Governance”, Journal of Finance, Finance, 52, 737-783. Auditing, Walter, G. and William, C. (1992). Modern Auditing, 5th Ed. , John Wiley & Sons, New York. Today, Woolf, E. (1986). Auditing Today, 3rd Ed. , Prentice Hall, London. Zingale, L. (2000). “In Search of New Foundations”, Journal of Finance, 55, 1623-1653. Finance, 13 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 ACCOUNTING AND NATION BUILDING By A. E. Okoye T Introduction: he changing environment has not only extended the boundaries of accounting but has created a problem in diversifying the scope of the subject.

For the purpose of this paper we adopt the definition of American Accounting Association (AAA) that defined accounting as the process of identifying, measuring and communicating economic information to permit informed judgement and decision by the user of the information. According to Mark (2000:95), since the mid-1970s, in U. S the number of new Ph. D’s in economics has held steady at approximately 750 to 800 per year. This means that the supply of new academic economists is quite high when compared to the number of new Ph. D’s in related disciplines like accounting. New Ph. D’s in accounting in the US for example, the total is not more than 75-100 per year. At this pace, it will take 20 years to fill current vacancies in accounting.

What is surprising is how slowly the supply of Ph. D’s from highquality doctoral programs in business has grown during recent years. Employment opportunities in the private sector are so attractive that talented accounting undergraduates, for example, do not find the Ph. D sufficiently rewarding to encourage them to pursue advanced degrees. This might explain the failure of accounting students to pursue advanced degrees. The Nigerian situation in accounting research is dangerously low. This paper attempts to highlight certain critical issues that influence the quality of the accounting information available to decision-makers at both micro and macro economic levels of a nation.

The issues covered include: i Nature of Accounting Information ii Historical antecedents of Accounting and civilization iii International Accounting issues iv Consequences of Accounting diversity v Benefits of Harmonization vi Forensic Accounting 14 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 vii Environmental Accounting viii Human Resource Accounting ix Accounting Best Practices The main objective of this paper is to create awareness among Accountants (information preparers) and interest groups (information users) on various issues that relate to Accounting as a discipline. The readers will also see this paper as a clarion call to help and improve the quality of Accounting information in whatever decision-making capacity they are operating.

Nature of Accounting Information Accounting generates three basic types of information namely scorekeep/stewardships information, attention directing information and problem solving score-keeping information provided by financial accounting relates to the statutory financial statement which must be prepared in most cases on annual basis. Most stakeholders are interested in this set of information because it highlights the profit/loss for the period and the Balance sheet which show the structure of organization assets and liabilities. Most accountants rigidly hold on the financial Accounting because they erroneously see it as the only professional section of accounting. There is a fusion between AttentionDirecting and Problem-solving information.

While the Attention-directing is mainly supplied by cost Accounting, problem-solving information is supplied by management accounting. Attention- directing and problem solving information relate to issues of planning, control and decision making for short and long range operations. Many operative decision-making processes rely on such information like budgeting, variance analysis, capital investment appraisal, cost determination, contract costing and a lot of other information Accountants need to de-emphasis on the score-keeping information and pay more attention on the attention-directing and problem-solving information required for day to day decision making by management.

Though score-keeping or steward accounting is a statutory requirement Accountants need to understand the short-comings of financial accounting information. Limitations of Financial Accounting: Financial Accounting is a statutory requirement and the format and disclosures are well spelt out by Companies and Allied Matters Act of 1990 and Statement of Accounting Standard (SAS I) as pronounced by Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB). Though the nature and contents of 15 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 statutory financial statements are useful, there are many limitations which mitigate against its usefulness. (i) The statements are published once a year and mainly at the end of the financial year.

This means that an interested party must wait for twelve calendar months before receiving the information required to evaluate the managerial performance for the period. (ii) The statutory requirement of Financial Statements is historical in nature (Historical Cost Accounting HCA). This means that the statements do not show any thing about the future of the organization except where analysts start to interpret the figures in forms of ratios, percentages and trends. (iii) Since monetary values are placed on items, it is impossible to reflect the value of staff, customer or competitive strength of the organization compared with others in the same industry in a set of published Financial Statement. (iv) In Nigeria as at today, there is no standard method of taking care of inflation in our financial statements.

This means that most Assets and Liabilities are either over-valued or under-valued in the financial statement which is misleading to decision-makers. (v) Auditing which is designed to give an independent view of the financial statements is based on random sampling which means that the audit work is not detailed enough to highlight all the weaknesses in the financial statement. Lapses of the management team cannot be highlighted in the financial report such as favouritism, marginalization, poor working capital management etc. This explains why many companies with unqualified audit reports collapse soon after huge profit figures have been reflected in their financial statements (Okoye, 2000:3).

Historical Perspectives of Accounting Accounting and civilization have slim boundaries in terms of history, and a separation of one from the other may not be successful without inflicting injury on the other. According to Garry (1999) “Accounting at any point in time and place can represent the level of civilization then and there”. Edward in his work, looked at accounting history from three phases namely; the Record Keeping phase the ancient practice the Bookkeeping Phase (Italian methods) and the Accounting phase (the modern method) (Edward, 16 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 1960:447). In similar vain, Alexandra (2002) highlighted accounting developments in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and Rome. Mesopotamia (3500BC-2000BC): About 3500BC evidence of record keeping could (3500BC-2000BC): be traced in Babylonia and Syria.

As it is reported that the oldest known records of commerce were kept in the Mesopotamia valley. Prosperous farmers from Assyrian, Chaldean-Babylonian and Symerian were reported to have triggered businesses and small industries giving rise to more than one banking firm in Mesopotamia, employing standard measures of gold and silver and extending credit for some transactions. Egypt: The Egyptian accounting system was similar to those in Mesopotamia. Egypt: The scribes occupy key position in the Egyptian government administration, as evidenced in the special qualification of an Egyptian’s scribe, which include skill in reading, writing, arithmetic and proficiency in wording the administrative formulas among others.

China: Accounting in ancient China was used as a means of evaluating the China: efficiency of government programmes and the civil servants who administered them. This form of accounting is similar to performance measurement or management accounting of today. It was reported that the Chinese accounting achieved a reasonable level of sophistication during the Chao Dynasty of 1122256 BC, and was only improved upon after the introduction of the double entry system. Rome: Accounting historian, James Don Edwards reported that record keeping Rome: and bookkeeping under the Roman Republic reached higher degree of perfection and accuracy than those of the Babylonians and Egyptians (Edwards 1960:450).

The accounting system in ancient Rome evolved from records traditionally kept by the heads of families, where records of household receipts and payments were kept in an “Adversarial” (day book) and monthly postings made to a “codex “codex accepti et expensi” (cash book). The importance of this household or family expensi” records and accounts was for the purpose of submitting regular statements of assets and liabilities as required by law, which form the basis of taxation and determination of civil rights. The characteristics of the Roman Accounting innovations include an elaborate system of checks and balances for government 17 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 receipts and disbursements by the ‘quaestors’, (managers of the treasury and supervisors of government books) and the use of an annual budget to coordinate and control government fiscal and monetary policies.

Factors Shaping Accounting Development The development and practice of accounting has been influenced a great deal by several factors which constitute the reason for diversity in the practice and reporting in accounting. Some of these factors according to Germon and Meek (2001), are External Finance, Legal System, Political and Economic ties with other countries and level of inflation as discussed below: Finance: External Finance: The relationship between a business enterprise and providers of business capital changes quite drastically when new capital is secured in international financial markets. Then the information demands of both domestic and international sources of finance have to be satisfied, which typically means going beyond national expectations and customs in providing financial reports.

System: Legal System: The accounting system of some countries, are regulated by the national law, which may be at variance with the international accounting standard. In most code law countries, accounting principles are national laws. The legal system of the country is what regulates the practice and accounting reporting format of such countries, which is mainly aimed at determining how much income tax a company owes the government. This type of accounting procedure is only favorable to the government and not other stakeholders, leading to diversities on the international accounting scene. Countries: Political and Economic Ties with other Countries: The political development of a country will determine the development of accounting in the country as well.

Accounting technology is imported and exported just as political systems and ideologies are, and countries have similar accounting for this reason. The Untied States has influenced accounting in Canada due to geographic proximity and close economic ties and because a number of Canadian companies routinely sell shares of common stock or borrow money in the United States. Almost every former British colony and Commonwealth countries which include Botswana, Gambia, Zimbabwe, Singapore, Malaysia, Antigua, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Malawi, Zambia and Pakistan has an accounting profession and 18 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 financial accounting practices patterned after the U. K. model.

Former colonies of France and Germany have been influenced by their “mother countries”. The coming together of various countries, in form of clusters has aided diversities of accounting on the international scene. Inflation: Level of Inflation: The level of inflation which is also known as the price level changes is a major factor that has caused diversities in the practice and reporting of accounting on the international scene. Some countries recognize the impact of inflation in the preparation of their financial reports. Countries like Argentina, Brazil, Mexico have their financial reports prepared using the price level changes method, instead of the historical cost principle.

International Accounting Issues The Accounting model is a type of model that classifies accounting practice of various countries into different categories. Various approaches have been used by various writers, but for the purpose of this study, accounting models based on certain distinguishing features of accounting will be used. Accounting, according to Gernon/Meek (2001), is grouped into three models based on certain distinguishing features of accounting, with close identification of national patterns that conform to the identified features, such as Fair Presentation model, Legal compliance model and Inflation adjusted model as discussed below: Model: i.

The Fair Presentation/Full Disclosure Model: This model of accounting is oriented toward the decision needs of external investors. Under this model, financial statements enable investors to judge managerial performance and to predict future cash flows and profitability. Under this model, financial statements are said to represent a fair picture of the company’s financial position. This is also the approach adopted by the International Accounting Standards Committee. Nigeria, Australia, Canada, South Africa, and Singapore are examples of countries under this classification. Model: ii. The Legal Compliance Model: This is also called the continental model.

This type of accounting model is designed to satisfy government imposed requirements as computing income taxes or demonstrating compliance with the national government’s macroeconomic plan. The demand for public disclosure is low in legal compliance model of accounting. 19 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 iii. The Inflation-Adjusted Model: This model is an addition to one or two of the above models, which incorporates recognition of inflation in the presentation of its financial statement. Some countries with this type of accounting model in addition to some of the features of the fair presentation model give cognizance to the level of inflation, while some in addition to the legal compliance model give recognition to inflation. Under this model, financial statements are not prepared based on historical cost.

Countries also abandon inflation adjustments once inflation is tamed e. g. a recent occurrence in Argentina and Brazil. Consequences Of Accounting Diversity Due to the diversities of accounting practices and reporting on the international scene, many consequences are inherent, which may be of adverse effect to the users of accounting reports and the credibility of the financial statements across the nations. According to Ezejelue (2001) “the problems created by the divergences in accounting standards, particularly in furthering global integration of world economies, are so enormous that the pressure for global accounting harmonization is mounting”.

Financial statements of companies from different countries are not comparable, which may inherently delay decision making at various levels. Some of the consequences on the following are as stated below: Corporate Management: Managers of multinational companies, make use of financial reports from various countries across the globe, which makes it difficult for them to compare growth and make prompt decisions, because of the diversities of accounting standard and regulatory bodies on the international scene. Investors: Investors face a lot of challenges, trying to make effective decision, using financial statements from different companies in different countries of the world, due to the fact that financial statements cannot be compared across countries.

According to Gernon & Meek (2001) if investors, analysts, and underwriters experience difficulties with GAAP diversity, financial markets are not as efficient as they could be and therefore returns to investors are less than they ought to be. This is a powerful indictment of GAAP diversity. 20 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 Stock Markets and Regulators: The stock market does two things, which include the protection of investors against risk and market quality. For these two objectives to be achieved there is need for accurate and correct disclosure of information from the listed companies, so that judgment can be drawn from the available information.

Therefore if the information available is not consistent and sufficient, then these twin objectives cannot be achieved, which will be to the detriment of the stock market and regulators. Harmonization and Standardization are closely related but different. In the word of Deegan (2004:192), “harmonization does not mean absolute standardization”. Harmonization as defined above relates to the agreement of things, standardization on the other hand ‘implies making something to conform to a fixed standard’ (Ezejelue 2004:320). It is ‘a process that attempts to make accounting standards released by different countries as similar as possible’ (Deegan 2004:192). It can therefore be inferred that standardization facilitates harmonization.

The reported divergences in national accounting policies and practices are so enormous that they could constitute a cog in the wheel of further advancement in bilateral, regional and global trade liberation, investments, and financial and capital flows, as well as in strengthening multilateral systems to foster deeper economic integration among the world’s economies. Benefits of Harmonization Specifically, international accounting harmonization will bring about the following benefits; i) Increase financial and capital flows with lower cost of capital. ii) Enhanced internationalization and integration, through diversification of Global businesses. iii) Reconciliation of financial statements of multinational companies (MNCs) will be easy due to ‘standardization’ and or ‘harmonization’. v) Cross-border analysis of financial information will be an easy task due to the agreeability and comparability of financial statements, hence increased cross border investment. v) The tendency to reduce operational cost of MNCs competition among the accounting and auditing firms (Ezejelue, 2004:327). 21 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 Other benefits of international accounting and auditing standards are listed below: i) Greater international comparability of financial reports. ii) A more level playing field, engendering cross-border mergers and acquisition, as well as cross-border capital flows. iii) Improved global business competition. iv) Assistance to developing countries. v) Reduce bookkeeping cost and allow more efficient preparation of financial statements. i) Reconciliation of adversarial interest between the preparers and users of financial statements. vii) More efficient analyses and use of financial statement and hence increase the credibility of the entire financial reporting system. A Forensic Accountant as Expert Witness/Consultant A forensic accountant is one who has mastered the science of accounting and is able to assist lawyers and the courts to understand and apply accounting issues to the law and to disputed matters. Forensic accounting experts have extensive experience in investigations to determine solutions to disputed accounting matters, to write expert reports on their investigation, and to appear in court as expert witnesses.

The expert may be hired solely as a consultant to an attorney and his client during litigation, or as one who provides opinion evidence as an expert. Expert witness accounting can be somewhat like politics. While the expert witness accountant must be independent of the parties to the dispute, he may conclude from the facts, and his interpretation of them, that his engaging attorney is correct and that the opposition is wrong. If he can demonstrate the proof of his conclusions, he is a strong expert witness (Zeph Telpner & Micheal Mostek 2003:2). Accounting often baffles non-accountants, and, in its advanced theory, it also can baffle long-time accountants.

Even the most skillful and experienced lawyer can misunderstand what the accountant is telling him. The accountant seems to speak in a different language. Even lawyers who are also certified public accountants (CPAs) but have not practiced public accounting, or have minimal accounting experience, often misunderstand accountants. Of course, judges and juries are not immune to confusion relative to accounting. The attorney must help the accounting expert witness to state his conclusions in 22 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 terms that the attorney, the judge and the jury can understand. Consultant The role of a forensic accountant as a consultant is not limited to litigation support or expert witnessing.

A forensic accountant might be hired to review and strengthen internal controls, to determine if assets are missing, or to discover if tax laws or accounting laws, rules have been applied correctly to company transactions. Forensic accountants are often hired to determine if an embezzlement has occurred or, if so, how much is missing and how it was d Fraud Auditing, Forensic Accounting and Financial Auditing In the lexicon of accounting, terms such as fraud auditing, forensic accounting, investigative accounting, litigation support and valuation analysis are not clearly defined. By today’s usage, the broadest term is litigation support, which incorporates the other four terms.

But traditional accountants still feel some distinctions apply between fraud auditing and forensic accounting. Fraud auditing, they say, involves a proactive approach and methodology to discern fraud; that is, one audits for evidence of fraud. The purpose is to detect fraud. Forensic accountants, on the other hand, are called in after evidence or suspicion of fraud has surfaced through an allegation, complaint, or discovery. Financial auditing generally is not intended to search for fraud but to attests that financial statements are presented fairly. Movements are afoot to compel financial auditors to design their audits in such a way that fraud can be discerned and criminal acts can be discovered.

But at this writing no law has been passed to that effect, nor have professional societies included those obligations as a matter of professional diligence (Jach Bologna & Robert Lindquist 1995:5). Human Resource Accounting (HRA) HRA can be defined as the measured quantification of human organizational inputs such as recruiting, training, experience and commitment. The objective of HRA is not just the recognition of the value of all resources used or contributed by the firm, but it also includes the improvement of the management of human resources so that the quantity and quality of goods and services are increased. The basic objective underlying HRA is to facilitate the effective and efficient management of human resources. 23

The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 Significance of HRA Though HRA is primarily to be used as a managerial tool, it has significant uses for present and potential investors and other users of financial statement. HRA is used for both internal and external purposes. Internal Purposes: HRA facilitates decision making processes in the following Purposes: areas: i Direct recruitment vs promotion ii Transfer vs retention iii Retrenchment vs retention iv Decision on relocating plants, closing down existing units, developing overseas subsidiaries External Purposes: i It helps potential investors on making long-term decisions to invest or not. i It provides a more realistic view of the rate of return of human resources employed. iii It helps to look into the problem of training costs and benefits, and turnover. Important Factors in developing HRA in an organization i Before introducing HRA in an organization, the organizational climate must support the introduction. ii Senior management must have strong support of the HRA philosophy. i The organization must be prepared to make a substantial commitment of time and effort to develop the HRA. iii There must be staff who are interested and knowledgeable in HRA or who are willing to learn it. Why is HRA Receiving attention in Recent time? The recognition of Human Resources as an Asset. ii The recognition that effectiveness of the assets rely on HRA. iii It constitutes over 50% of the total asset of any organization. Measurement of Human Resources and their Appraisal 24 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 HRA focuses on two issues namely: i How human resource asset should be valued e. g should historical cost or replacement value or present value be used; ii The implications of capitalized human resources e. g. should it be amortized? What are the tax implications on human resource amortization? What are the implications of HRA on internal and external auditing, once they are recorded?

Once it is accepted that human resources are assets, the question of measuring the cost of the asset arises. The monetary approaches to measurement of human assets are broadly based either on cost or economic value. The cost approaches involves computation of the cost of human resources to the organization. The cost are capitalized and amortized over useful life of the asset. Basically, the cost approaches are: i The Historical Cost Approach ii The Replacement Cost Approach iii The Opportunity Cost Approach Socio-economic Accounting/Environmental Accounting Socio-economic accounting aims at measurement and reporting “the impact of exchanges between a firm and its social environment”.

The objective of socio-economic accounting “is to internalize the social costs and benefits to determine a more relevant and exhaustive result that represents the socioeconomic profit of a firm” (Porwal, 2001:446) Measurement and reporting of the social performance of profit-oriented firms forms the core of “Corporate Social Performance” (CSP). The American National Association of Accountants’ (NAA) committee on Accounting for Corporate Social Performance identified four major areas of social performance: i) Community Development: This includes socially oriented activities that are Development: primarily of benefit to the general public, e. g. eneral corporate philanthropy, housing construction, financing of health services and volunteer activities among employees, food programmes, and community planning and improvement. ii) Human Resources: This includes social performance directed towards the wellResources: being of employees, e. g. improvement of employment practices, training programmes, working conditions, promotion policies and provision of job enrichment schemes and employee benefits. 25 The Journal of Accounting Vol. 1 No. 1 March, 2009 iii) Physical Resources and Environmental Contributions: Activities directed towards alleviating or preventing environmental deterioration (pollution), e. g. ir, water, noise pollution, conservation of scare resources, and the disposal of solid waste are included in this area. iv) Product or Service Contributions: This area includes consumerism, product quality, packaging, advertising, warranty provisions, and product safety. Social Accounting And Social Auditing: The NAA Committee defined Social Accounting as “the identification, measurement, monitoring and reporting of the social and economic effects of an institution on society… It is intended for both internal managerial and external accountability purposes, and is an outgrowth of changing values that have led society to redefine its notion of a corporation’s social responsibility.

The accountants would do well to recognize that cost of operating a business is something more than what is being disclosed in public accounts, e. g. , pollution of environment (noise, water, air), spread of diseases, dislocation of inhabitants of a locality, local housing and transport problems, closure of cottage industries, social tensions and several other social evils. This is on the liability side. What it does: providing roads, schools and colleges, dispensaries, railway lines, employment, etc is the asset side. Hence, instead of income, we should measure benefit-cos

Strategic Audit of a Corporation essay help services: essay help services

Business Policy & Decision Making 1. What is the study of strategies management? Ans: the study of strategies management therefore emphasizes the monitoring and evaluating of external opportunities and threats in light of a corporation’s strengths and weakness. Strategic management is that set of managerial decision and action that determine the long run performance of a corporation 2. Give the evolution of strategic management

ANS: it include environment scanning (Both external and internal), strategy formulation ( strategic or long –range planning ), strategy implementation, and evaluation and control. 3. Has learning become part of strategic management? Ans: strategic management has now evolved to the point that its primary value is to help the organization operate successful in a dynamic, complex environment. To be competitive in dynamic environment, corporation has to become less bureaucratic and more flexible. . Explaining the term triggering events ANS: A Triggering event is something that stimulates a change in strategy. 5. Some of the possible trigging event ANS: New CEO, by asking a series of embarrassing question, the new CEO cuts through the veil of complacency and forces people to question the very reason for the corporation existence Intervention by an external institution The firm‘s bank suddenly call for payment in full n an old one.

Threat of a change in ownership, another firm may initiate a takeover by buying the company‘s common stock. Management recognition of a performance gap, A performance gap exists when performance does not meet expectation. 6. Strategic Management consist of how many basic element Ans: four basic elements 1 environment scanning, 2 strategy formulation, 3 strategy implementation and 4 evaluation and control 7. What is environment scanning?

Ans; environment scanning is the monitoring, evaluating and disseminating of information from the external and internal environment to key people within the corporation. 8. Explain strategy formulation ANS: SSTRETEGY FORMULATION IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LONG –RANG PLAN FOR THE EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENT OPPORTUNITIS AND THREATS, TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION CORPORATE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES’ It include defining the corporation mission, specifying achievable objective, developing strategy and sitting policy guidelines. . What are strategies, name the three kinds discussed ANS: A STRATEGY of a corporation is a comprehensive master plan stating how the corporation will achieve its mission and objective, it maximize competitive disadvantage. The three kind of strategy are as following 1 corporate describes a company ‘s overall direction in terms of its general attitude toward growth and management of its various business and product lines. 2.

Business strategy usually occurs at the business unit or product level, and it emphasizes improvement of the completive position of a corporation’s product or services in the specific industry market served by that business unit. 3. Functioning strategy is the approach taken by a functional area, such as marketing or researching and development, to achieve corporate and business unit objective and strategies by maximizing resources productivity.

Maglev Trains free essay help online: free essay help online

MAGLEV TRAINS TRAINS THAT FLY ON AIR 5/16/2011 IEC-CET UTTAM JALAN SEMINAR REPORT on “MAGLEV TRAINS:TRAINS THAT FLY ON AIR ” Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology In Electrical Engineering Submitted By UTTAM JALAN 0809020094 Under the Guidance of MR. ASHOK KUMAR DEPTT. OF EE Session: 2010-11 Deptt. of Electrical Engineering IEC COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY [Approved by AICTE, Govt. of India & Affiliated to U. P. Technical University, Lucknow] CERTIFICATE

Certified that UTTAM JALAN have carried out the seminar work presented in this report entitled “MAGLEV TRAINS” for the award of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering during the academic session 2010-11 from Gautam Buddha Technical University, Lucknow. The seminar embodies result of the work and studies carried out by Student himself and the contents of the report do not form the basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else. MR. ASHOK KUMAR MR.

RAJIV RANJAN Seminar co-ordinater Seminar guide EE Deptt EE Deptt. . Prof. SUNIL KUMAR H. O. D. EE Deptt. Acknowledgement I extend my sincere gratitude towards Prof. SUNIL KUMAR Head of Department for giving us his invaluable knowledge and wonderful technical guidance. I express my thanks to Mr. ASHOK KUMAR our group tutor and also to our staff advisor Mr. RAJIV RANJAN for their kind co-operation and guidance for preparing and presenting this seminar.

I also thank all the other faculty members of EE department and my friends for their help and support. Date: Table of Content CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. ABSTRACT a LIST OF TABLES N. A. LIST OF FIGURES c LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS N. A. 1. Introduction to Maglev Trains 2. Reasons for use 3. Types of Maglev Trains 4. Swiss Metro-Tunnel Link 5. LLNL Inductrack 6. Construction and Operation 7. Characteristics 8. Concept of cost reduction useful for NASA 9.

Constructional Details 10. Design of Levitation Tracks 11. Summary a Abstract Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation), is a system of transportation that suspends, guides and propels vehicles, predominantly trains, using magnetic levitation from a very large number of magnets for lift and propulsion. This method has the potential to be faster, quieter and smoother than wheeled mass transit systems. The power needed for levitation is usually not a particularly large percentage of the overall consumption; most of the power used is needed to overcome air drag, as with any other high speed train.

The highest recorded speed of a Maglev train is 581 kilometres per hour (361 mph), achieved in Japan in 2003 , 6 kilometres per hour (3. 7 mph) faster than the conventional TGV wheel-rail speed record. The first commercial maglev people mover was simply called “MAGLEV” and officially opened in 1984 near Birmingham, England. It operated on an elevated 600-metre (2,000 ft) section of monorail track between Birmingham International Airport and Birmingham International railway station, running at speeds up to 42 km/h (26 mph); the system was eventually closed in 1995 due to reliability problems.

Perhaps the most well known implementation of high-speed maglev technology currently operating commercially is the Shanghai Maglev Train, an IOS (initial operating segment) demonstration line of the German-built Transrapid train in Shanghai, China that transports people 30 km (19 mi) to the airport in just 7 minutes 20 seconds, achieving a top speed of 431 km/h (268 mph), averaging 250 km/h (160 mph).

Pet Grooming assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

• Grooming is an important part of dog care. Depending on the breed, age, and health of the dog, grooming may be a daily activity. Many breeds require significantly less grooming than this, but regular grooming helps to ensure the dog is healthy and comfortable. Pet grooming Is the important part of responsible pet care. Pet Grooming keeps the house Pet Hygienic and odor free, and controls dander and shedding. Pet Grooming can remove tangles and loose hair. With regular use of Grooming Products you can actually reduce the chances of your Pet staying dirty. Owning pets is a big responsibility.

Cat and dog owners should take care to groom their pets properly and train them to be good members of society. Grooming is important not only for looks but for overall pet health. Training is essential to having a pet able to bond with you and the rest of your family. Keeping your pets clean and groomed is essential to their living healthy lives. Just like humans, dogs should be bathed regularly (a few times a year) and when otherwise needed (after an encounter with a skunk, for example). Don’t bathe your dog too often, as it will deplete the natural oils in the dog’s coat that keep the fur and skin healthy.

Though cats are better at self-cleaning than dogs, they may need to be bathed once or twice a year. Remember to use species-specific shampoos and purchase them from a reputable retailer. Clip dog and cat nails at least once a month. Use pet clippers to do this. Give your pets food that promotes dental health, and consider a professional veterinary oral cleaning once a year. Grooming your pets doesn’t mean that they have to be made-up and untouchable; it simply means that you’re taking good care of their health by keeping a watchful eye on their hygiene.

Pets, like humans, are more likely to remain healthy when they are clean and well groomed. Contrary to popular belief, dogs and cats are not wild animals; they require regular grooming attention to keep them healthy in their domestic environments. One of the major benefits of a regular grooming regimen is that you will become familiar with your pet’s body. This allows you to quickly recognize problems with his health, so you can bring them to your veterinarian’s attention sooner. Remember that you should seek help from your veterinarian if you think that your pet will be difficult to groom alone.

Executive Summary Pawsitive Pet Grooming is a pet daycare facility catering to professionals who have disposable income and the desire to provide quality care for their pets while they are work. It is a response to a real market need in a high-end high-income market. 1. 1 Objectives 1. To launch the business and develop sales approaching Php. 250,000. 00 per month by the end of the first year. 2. To break even in the second year, and be profitable by the third year. 3. To increase sales by 20% per year in the second and third year while also becoming profitable. 1. 2 Mission

We will be the leaders in the market of pet care for the upscale community by providing a positive environment for the animals that we house. Our operations will instill in owners confidence in our ability to care for their pets in appropriate ways. We will control significant market share and increase profit as we grow and expand. We will develop our business conservatively, financing our growth through operational revenue. 1. 3 Keys to Success 1. The initial location will be in an upscale community on the outskirts of the metropolitan area. 2. We will cater to the needs of our pet owners as much as possible. 3.

We will uphold the statement ‘the customer is always right’ because when it comes to pet, owners know best. 4. The business finances will be run in an organized and timely manner. 2. 1 Start-up Summary The start up for Pawsitive Pet grooming will be simple and cost efficient. Rent and utilities will be the main expense, which will consist of a large building space and office. There will be many advertising expenses in the beginning that will promote the service, and this expense will lessen as months go on and people become aware of our service. Start-up inventory will be mainly shampoo and grooming supplies, food for the dogs, and other upplies like bedding. Assets will be the kennels and play structures for the dogs, and the bathing facilities. Services Pawsitive Pet grooming offers upscale dog owners a place where they can leave their pets while at work, and away for weekend trips or on vacation. It also offers feeding and exercising, as well as washing, grooming and low-level veterinary services. The location will be a large lot on the outskirts of a high-income residential area. Our projections include a heavy rent because of the location requirements. Customers pay by the day, by the hour, or by the month.

Our assumption is that the average customer generates about Php. 50,000. 00 per month. Market Analysis Summary The market for Pawsitive Pet grooming is all of the dog owners in the metropolitan area and surrounding areas of the city. We believe that this is going to be 2/3 of the population, and we have a goal of gaining a 50% market share. We have a target of a 20% yearly profit increase as the business continues. 3. 1 Target Market Segment Strategy We have chosen our target market because they own canines and have the ability to afford a service such as Pawsitive Pet Grooming.

We are aware that our service is an extra in life, not a necessity. We anticipate and expect to cater to the upper-class citizens within our geographical area. 3. 2 Service Business Analysis Our familiarity with this business indicates that the service we offer is not currently available anywhere within the metropolitan area. We think our marketing problem will be more a matter of making dog owners aware of the Doggie Pause, than it will be related to the competition. 3. 3 Market Segmentation Our target market consists of canine owners that have the financial capabilities to care for their dogs in an elaborate manner.

Most will be from double income homes with high profile jobs that require an extensive amount of time away from the home. Our target market consists of men and women primarily between the ages of 35 and 65. They live in the upscale suburbs surrounding the metropolitan area. Our market segment customers will lead a lifestyle in which their canines play a large part, and these pets are often seen as “children” by their owners. 3. 4 Competition and Buying Patterns Our real competition is owners choosing to leave their dogs at home unattended. We recognize that only relatively wealthy people will be interested in spending an average of Php. 0,000. 00 monthly to provide daycare for their dogs. Still, there should be sufficient market. Strategy and Implementation Summary Pawsitive Pet Grooming will focus on the geographical market of upper-class suburbs surrounding the metropolitan area. Our initial site will be in Makati City. Our target market consists mainly of men and women ages 35-65. 4. 1 Competitive Edge Pawsitive Pet Grooming is the first pet daycare facility of its kind. Never before has there been a place where a pet owner could take their dog to be cared for, for the day.

The owner feels no guilt in leaving the dog because it is a secure, safe and fun environment. 4. 2 Sales Forecast Sales are based on an hourly fee for each dog. There will be a Php. 500. 00/hour charge for the “day care. ” This includes the care of the dogs, and grooming services. Forecasted sales are based on the estimated number of dogs that will be cared for daily, and an average of how many hours each dog will be housed per day. There is an assumption that we will initially be offering services Monday through Friday, 7 AM to 6 PM, with time for owners to drop off and pick up their pets before and after work.

Sales will increase as months go on, due to an increase in number of dogs per day that we are caring for. Services will expand to include weekends and long-term “vacation” boarding as the need and demand arises. Sales Forecast| | Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| Sales| | | | | | | | Pawsitive care hours (all inclusive)| P 450,000| P 600,000| P 750,000| Other| P 50,250| P 87,000| P 100,000| Total Sales| P500,250| P687,000| P850,000| | | | | Direct Cost of Sales| Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| Pawsitive care hours (all inclusive)| P 150,550| P 300,500| P 490,600| Other| P54,988| P65,950| P70,000|

Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales| P205,538| P366,450| P560,600| Management Summary The management team will consist of the two co-founders, Jonalyn Hallig and Joan Hallig. We do not anticipate taking on other managers until locations are opened in other metropolitan areas. As we grow we expect to need outside guidance in the areas of accounting and financial advising. Personnel Plan| | Year 1| Year 2| Year 3| Dog care assistants/groomers| P176,000 | P290,800 | P276,800 | Admin/etc. | P80,800 | P150,000 | P250,000 | Total People| 4| 4 | 5 | | | | | Total Payroll| P256,900 | P440,800 | P526,800| | | | Financial Plan We want to finance the start-up of our company mainly through personal investment and a short-term business loan. We think this is a good risk/return situation and we will provide the necessary personal guarantees to secure the business loan. We will finance growth through the collection of the fees for our services. We understand that without these payments we will not be able to be a profitable business. Tools and Other Services of grooming Various types of currycombs Curry or Curry Brush: A tool made of rubber or plastic with short “teeth. ” A shedding blade

Shedding blade: A metal shedding blade with short, dull teeth is used to remove dead hair from certain types of harsh coats. The shedding blade is not used to cut the hair. Scissors and Clippers: Cutting tools used to remove/shorten hair on certain types of coats or in sensitive areas. Not all types of coat are suitable for clipping ie double coated breeds such as Border Collies are designed to keep the dog cool in summer and warm in winter, and should not be clipped unless the dog is matted. Stripping Combs/Knives: Tools used to help grab the longer hairs on a harsh coat and pull them out by the root.

Helps maintain a proper coat in many terriers and schnauzers. Most often used on show dogs. Slicker brushes are typically used after primarily brushing with a bristle or a wire pin brush. They are used to smooth the coat and to take out mats and tangles. They are provided with fine wire pins that are secured to a flat base. The pins are bent at an angle approximately halfway down the pin. The slicker brush is typically used on dogs with long coats and those with curly coats. For heavier and thicker coats, one is recommended to use a brush with stiffer pins.

This type of brush comes in a wide range of sizes and degrees of pin stiffness. Rakes are important grooming tools especially for double-coated dogs such as the Newfoundlands or Siberian Huskies. They are good in removing dead hair from the undercoat. The undercoat rake’s teeth are especially designed to penetrate through the overcoat down into the thick undercoat to remove loose hair faster and easier than a standard comb. Rakes can also be used for untangling and dematting. Coat King is a particular type of stripping knives, useful in hand stripping for the removal of dead undercoat prior to clipping.

These tools are suitable for many dog breeds and coats and they have become more and more popular among dog owners and groomers. They are a good tool for removing loose hair, and thick undercoats. Also, they can be used for dematting and detangling. Although they are quite a new grooming instrument, they are now widely used and recommended for dog owners. Stand dryers are also available for a quick drying of the dog’s coat. Commonly, when a dog is brought to a groomer this implies a thorough cleaning of the coat as well. And because the dog cannot leave the shop while wet, special driers have been manufactured.

These can be stand driers, cage driers or hand driers and are more common in professional grooming places than in the owner’s house. Brushes and Combs Brushes and combs are the backbone of a groomer’s profession. They come in a variety of styles, from slicker brushes to steel combs to deshedding tools, but each brush has a purpose. Some pet breeds require a steel comb to untangle long, fine hairs, while other animals simply need a good rubdown with a bristled brush or slicker brush. Animal, breed and hair type all factor into the type and size of brush used on each animal. Nail trimming

Nail trimming is essential for maintaining good health. If a dog’s nails are allowed to grow, they will curl over into a spiral shape; walking will become increasingly painful to the dog as they grow, putting pressure on the dogs toes (a bit like walking in shoes that are too small). Uncut nails may curl so far that they pierce the paw pad, leading to infection and debilitating pain. If one does not trim a dog’s nails on a monthly basis the quick will grow along with the nail, making it nearly impossible to cut properly. Owners may choose to trim nails themselves or may opt to take their pet to a groomer or veterinarian..

Bathing Supplies A variety of pet shampoos from flea and tick to simple hair care products are often kept on hand by professional groomers. Shampoos are available in a number of different scents. However, like hair salons, a groomer may find they prefer one product over another and only carry that product line. Other bathing supplies, like towels, wash cloths and sponges, may also be used. Nail Care To create a completely groomed look, a pet must have its nails taken care of, too. Nail trimmers and files come in a range of sizes, from small to large, depending on the dog to be groomed.

Ear Care Keeping your pet’s ears clean is part of a professional groomer’s job, and groomers use specially designed tools, such as pet ear hair pullers, to keep the area in tip-top shape. Other ear care items most groomers keep on hand include common household products, such as cotton swabs, moist wipes or cotton balls. Dental Care Proper dental care is important to your pet’s overall health. When your pet visits the groomer, it may get a full dental cleaning with a pet-sized toothbrush. Specialty pet toothpastes and floss may even be used, if your pet will tolerate it.

Tooth scalers, in a number of different styles, such as angled or straight, are also used to scrape plaque and other debris from the teeth. Time Table Day1—–Selecting a topic Day6—–Making a notes or source card Day 8—–Focus the topic Day 12—–Background study of research Day 18—–Listing more key words about the topic Day 22—–Submit the topic to the professor Day 28—–Find the sources Day 30—–Write the body from the notes Day 33—–Write the introduction and conclusion Day 35—–Evaluation of work Day 42—–Submit the complete research work to the professor

Abc Case Study Got Milk argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Got Milk-Case Study SUMMARY: – “GOT MILK” – necessity is the mother of invention This campaign; one of the most popular campaign of 1990s was borne out of one such necessity which changed the world of advertising with its innovative approach. It established how a brand can be resurrected with a creative branding strategy. In order to revive the declining sales of milk this campaign was started for California Milk Processor Board and was carried out by Goodby, Silverstein and partners. The powerful ad campaign was started in 1993.

It superbly understood the minds of consumers and characteristically identified and targeted them. Recognising that taste and health are the two benefits which people looked for it started the campaign accordingly. They applied the deprivation strategy by partnering with the other food products whose consumption cannot be imagined by the American population without milk. This worked quite well and milk consumption increased. They targeted the consumers with a 360 degree approach and advertisements in prints and Media complemented each other.

Earlier the taste and milk as a accompany to the other food products was used as a promotion point. But later recognising that parents and women also give a lot of importance to the health benefits simultaneous campaign highlighting these benefits was also aired. Later they also targeted the Hispanic population. This change in strategy from time to time according to needs of time made this a strategy which was exemplary. A number of ad campaigns were targeted on same lines after its success.

Now the future will present them with new challenges like should CMPB keep on doing what it has been doing or should it focus on newer channels and customers to sustain the success of campaign. Q1. Analysis of Brand Culture The California Milk Processor Board (CMPB) launched its legendary “got milk? ” advertisement campaign in the year 1993 as a part of its promotional strategy to revitalize the declining sales of milk. Prior to launching this campaign, CMPB had launched several other campaigns that stressed on the health benefits of milk and milk products.

However, the plummeting sales figures prompted CMPB to further analyze the situation which divulged that although milk was a popular commodity that was consumed by many, it seldom occupied the consumer’s mind share in the wake of a multitude of alternate beverage. Two other interesting factors that this analysis revealed were that in the consumer’s mind milk was primarily for the family’s consumption and they rationed and shared the drink and secondly, most people ignored the health benefits when it came to deciding upon a choice of beverage.

Secondly, consumers across different age-groups asserted that milk is a accompanying beverage with a variety of food items like cereals, cookies and sandwiches. Another interesting revelation was the high demand for milk among the Latino community, who accounted for a sizable part of California’s populace. Having conducted a thorough research, CMPB decided to change the nature of the relationship that consumers shared with their milk and launched the “got-milk? ” campaign that was not only an instant success; it also accounted for a rise in the sale of milk.

The campaign was targeted at 70% of California’s market who were also regular milk drinkers and attempts were made to make the user view the advertisements at home during the times of milk consumption, at the store and on the way to the stores. The campaign was based on a “milk deprivation” strategy that tried to make the consumers realize how difficult it was to not have any milk to wash down cereals, cookies or sandwiches. Five years later, CMPB once again introduced the health aspect to the “got-milk? ” advertisement fearing the eventual death of the campaign.

This campaign was a huge success as it tried to forge a new relationship by identifying milk as a domestic consumption product. The organization left no stones unturned in its attempts to increase consumption. New flavours and campaigns were lost and the cartons were placed in strategic locations that the target group visited and the milk ads were complemented by that of other food items. It did not try to change the already existing notion that milk is mainly consumed at home. Rather, it reinforced the idea and brought the family together.

Another, salient aspect is CMPB’s sensitivity while launching a campaign that targeted the Hispanic community. The campaign highlighted their strong family values as well as the importance of milk and was very well-received in the community. The popularity of this campaign led to it proliferating and becoming a household name. Several leading companies and the American Girl Scouts endorsed the product and a host of “got-milk? ” merchandise was launched. The main idea behind this was to ensure that milk occupied a larger share of the consumer’s mind by taking the campaign to all corners of society.

Eventually, attempts were made to launch the program both nationally as well as globally. However, the campaign almost ran into trouble owing to the farmer’s protest, but eventually the same farmers continued to sponsor the campaign. The growing popularity and affective involvement of California’s populace helped the formation of a relationship that spoke of the CMP’s reputation and the user’s experience with the product and the associated symbols which eventually became a part and parcel of people’s lives. Q2. Evaluate the CMPB marketing program now and back in early 90’s.

What do you see as is strength and weaknesses? What changes would you make? Marketing program of CMPB in early 90s: 1. The new campaign urged consumers to change their behavior as it moved away from early campaigns like never mentioning of how milk could benefit the healthy diet and never actually showing milk in the ads. They actually tried to convey the message that food is incomplete without milk. 2. The television ads displayed the deprivation strategy which had a direct impact on the minds of the consumers. The ads were humorous and well received by the focus groups.

It created a positive image of milk as a necessity in the mind of consumer. 3. The communication program used various promotion tools like point-of-purchase displays, ‘got-milk’ logos on cereal boxes, coupons, billboards which showcased the food-milk relationship. 4. The program identified three ideal times to communicate the milk message to reach the consumers. The primary focus being television and targeting consumers when they drank most. 5. The annual budget on the marketing campaign was doubled which provided enough muscle to compete with other beverages in the history. . The impact of the program was beyond the expectation as milk consumption in California increased whereas nationally the consumption declined over same period. It actually halted the decline in the sales. 7. The campaign was successful enough to be acclaimed at the national level and was launched along with the ongoing ‘milk mustache’ campaign. 8. The amount of awareness it generated wasn’t equivalent to the increase in the consumption pattern. 9. Lack of different varieties of milk affected the sales growth. New marketing program of CMPB: 1.

In the new program CMPB tried to move step away from the original deprivation strategy but it didn’t affect the consumption and purchasing decisions to the same degree as earlier marketing program did. 2. The increase in the price of the milk led to the decline in sales which made the reformulation of the ‘got milk’ campaign. 3. They tried to incorporate the health message along with the ‘got milk’ campaign and also began grassroots campaigns targeting people from different age groups 4. The introduction of flavored milk led to distribution of milk through vending machines, schools and fast food restaurants.

The vending machine sales were higher than that of other beverages. 5. This new program tried to cover both the health aspects as well as occupying the mind share of the consumers. 6. It led to the market for licensed merchandise as well as had an impact on marketing of other commodities as well. By 2005 with the exciting initiatives towards health, expanded distribution and Hispanic-marketing CMPB came back to its initial formula of deprivation strategy. Brand Value Chain: $23 million Licensed products Increase in sales Fairly Forgettable Mind share

TV Ads| Association with food| Consumption increased| Sale of licensed products as well as partnerships with various firms| Additional Communication Programs| Rebranded milk as a necessity| Total turnaround of $31 million| | Media strategy| Identification of three ideal times for advertising| Program reaches national and international level| | Program Quality Multiplier: The marketing program ‘got milk’ did affected the mindset of the consumers with a clear message that was conveyed through its association with food as well as showcasing milk as a necessity.

The program was loud to get the attention of the consumers and with which consumers could relate. Marketplace conditions: The competition was from other beverages found in the market. Between 1975 and 1993 consumption of beverages was increased however in the same period milk was one of the few beverages to actually experience the decline in the consumption pattern. The distribution of milk through schools, vending machines and tie-ups with fast food joints made an impact on the overall sales of the milk.

The target market for the campign was the 70% of California’s population i. e. 21 million people. Investor Sentiment: Joseph and Brenda Cochran file a lawsuit against the dairy program as they didn’t wanted to pay for the advertising cost at national level however the Supreme court gave the order in the favor of milk processors so that the campaign continued and CMPB received the funds from the farmers. The per capita milk consumption was flat or down since 1997 but the sales hit 10 year high in 2002-03 with 740 million gallons but a drop by 1% in 2004.

Q3 Evaluate the Hispanic marketing initiatives and does CMPB risk alienating its current customer base? Hispanic population formed around 32. 5% of population of California in 2001 and was continuously increasing as can be seen from Exhibit 3. The consumers under this category are not only increasing but they are also categorised as heavy milk drinkers. The amount of money spent by them on milk was also more as compared to the other consumers. So it was a wise decision by CMPB to target this section of population.

Earlier CMPB was targeting the section with the earlier strategy which it had already used for its promotion in other parts, but soon it realised that the population has different characteristics and that in order to capture such a promising customer base it would be better to come up with a new strategy. The new strategy recognised the cultural dimension and place which milk occupied in minds of Hispanic and Spanish population. They now established image of “got milk” campaign with milk positioned as a sacred thing.

Also since milk was so important in their family lives, they came up with a new slogan “Family, Love and Milk”. The slogan “got milk” was not translated in those ads. This shows the segmental approach which is often followed by the companies in order to gain acceptance in varied cultural backgrounds. Advertisements were targeting the customers’ psychology and made them to act in form of purchase. Hispanic culture was recognised and highlighted in the advertisements. This became a source of excitement among the population.

They felt that by doing this company is giving them importance and recognising them as a potential customer base. They responded well to it and sales of milk increased in the region. By doing so the company CMPB did not risk alienating its current customer base. Hispanics were an increasing demographic base and spent around 30% more than the white and other category which had second highest expenditure on milk. It was a good decision to target this customer base, but since it was different culturally it had to take those traits in account. Now if they would not have targeted competition would have captured the market.

The CMPB has already a well defined place in the minds of other customers who would not be much affected by the change in advertisement program which had occupied their minds for such a long time. And then it was still present but as a different program. Also, they kept the original tagline “GOT MILK” so that the old customers can still identify with the campaign. So this way company could communicate its message to a new section of customers at the same time retaining its old customers by reminding them that it is the same brand with a new perspective. Submitted By: – Group 5 P31006, P31052, P31054 P31083, P31092

Assignment on Local Advertising of Bangladesh gp essay help: gp essay help

Local advertising refers to optimizing delivering ads according to the position of the recipient (client, user). It is used in geo marketing, local search through internet often fuels uses optimization for targeting the advertising. Advertising to a local merchant or business as opposed to regional or national advertising and placed at rates available to local merchants is known as Local Advertising. Walton Group Walton Hi-Tech Industries Ltd. Walton HIL) is the pioneer of Refrigerator, Freezer, Air Conditioner and Motorcycle Manufacturing Technology in Bangladesh. R. B. Group (Mother Company) is the country’s top business Group in electrical and electronics, Motorcycle, Electricity generating equipments and other household electrical ; electronics appliances using the brand name WALTON giving the tag line “Avgv‡`i cY? ”. The company has been running its business with a great reputation since 1977.

WALTON brand’s main products are different types of Televisions (CRT, LCD, and LED), DVD Players, Motorcycles, Refrigerators ; Freezers, Microwave Ovens, Steam Ovens, Domestic and Industrial Generators, Manganese ; Alkaline Batteries, Air conditioners and various types of necessary and useful home appliances etc. Walton Group is telecasting the high definition TV commercials using the famous faces of Bangladeshi showbiz world. All of their commercials are quite authentic examples of local advertising in terms of models, jingles, props, locations and products.

In Walton Mobile Advertising they have used tribal people here and remote places like hills of Chittagong or sea beach of Cox’s Bazar to show the network connection power of the phone set. Its features like image clarity, capturing power, mp3 and FM radio options with Neo-RTMPS operation, flat platform and slim body of the phone set everything is described properly in the 40 seconds of the ad The jingle tune used in the ad does not sound irritating to the audiences’ ear and its high definition picture clarity leaves a good feeling in the viewers mind even after ending the ad The commercial’s YouTube link is: ttp://www. youtube. com/watch? v=RnR-GS6y-x4 Kohinoor Group Their new beauty soap product is Sandalina Sandal Soap. The commercial of this soap has some royal types of set up as animating the users of this soap are someone having aristocratic background. The makers of the ad perfectly portrayed the aristocracy through the famous actress Joya Ahasan. Their tag line is also “i? cPP©vq AvwfRvZ? ”The drama based scene, perfect amount of aristocracy, royal sets, props, background music everything is portrayed very well in the 55 second of ad and the soap also has print media advertisements.

The commercial’s YouTube link is: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=h5h7n-K7H20 Amin Jewelers Limited Jewelries are the most loved and sophisticated gifts for women of any ages. Though nowadays its purchase and use are only limited in a particular group of people because of the rising price of gold, diamond and other jewels in global market. Even after that woman of Bangladesh love to wear jewelries. And in this sector Amin Jewelers Limited has a profound ground in Bangladesh since 1966. They are the most old jewelry house in Bangladesh still performing their business with so much fame, trust and profits.

The recent TV commercials of Amin Jewelers Limited show their new addition of aristocratic jewels in market like Blue Diamonds, White Earth Diamonds, Antic Gold, Pink Pearls etc. The commercial’s YouTube link is: Blue Diamond: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=FClWzDaZXrE White Diamond: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=RFiOPcITsa8 Antic Gold: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=WMYgmhWsHao Pink Pearl: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=I0OPEpvvzlA Pran Foods “PRAN” is currently the most well known household name among the millions of people in Bangladesh and abroad also.

Since its inception in 1980, PRAN Group has grown up in stature and became the largest fruit and vegetable processor in Bangladesh. It also has the distinction of achieving prestigious certificate like ISO 9001:2000, and being the largest exporter of processed agro products with compliance of HALAL ; HACCP to more than 70 countries from Bangladesh. PRAN is the pioneer in Bangladesh to be involved in contract farming and procures raw material directly from the farmers and processes through state of the art machinery at our several factories into hygienically packed food and drinks products.

The brand “PRAN” has established itself in every category of food and beverage industry and can boost a product range from Juices, Carbonated Drinks, Confectionery, Snacks, and Spices to even Dairy products. Recently in their commercials of “Gura Masala” they are using the word of “c„w_exi †miv njy` / me‡P‡q jvj I Svj gwiP ” etc. which is obviously grabbing the attention of mass people. The commercial’s YouTube link is: Pran Gura Holud – http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=s4yBM7a1rUA Pran Gura Morich – http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=2Z1iALJD-_Y

The Good Earth essay help online: essay help online

Are you sympathetic or unsympathetic towards a character’s dilemma or difficult decision? Why? I am extremely sympathetic towards the dilemma that was going on with the Chinese people in the famine. I feel bad for them because they didn’t have any money or food. They were so hungry that they ate each other at times, even their children. It was such a struggle for them every day of their lives during the famine. People didn’t have food and were rapidly becoming sick; children were being born with physical problems and weren’t being born healthy.

Imagine if you saw your mom or dad eating your brother or killing your sister because there’s not enough food to support more people. How would that make you feel? Imagine having no food and having to hunt for your food. What if you were forced to work as a slave and were treated very bad. If I were to be living in such a crisis I wouldn’t survive more than a month; especially since I have never been through anything as bad as a famine. We are so used to being under a roof and having everything we need, which is why it would be hard for us to survive.

I never really thought about what it would be like if this were to occur one of these days. Thanks to this book, now I think about these kinds of things. How will I survive or react if I were to be living in a famine? Alejandro Escamilla English II Pre-AP Writing Summer Assignment If you could change the outcome of the story, what change would you make? Why? If I could change the outcome of The Good Earth I would make it so that Wang Lung doesn’t die as fast and rather buries his sons and he dies at the end. I would like to do this also because I’d like for the land to stay how Wang Lung wanted it.

I didn’t like the part that the kids decided to sell the land; which is why I would rather have Wang Lung live longer and bury his own sons and daughters. Here is the part that I would like to change. [Wang Lung heard his second son say in his mincing voice, “This field we will sell and this one, and we will divide the money between us evenly…” But the old man heard only these words, “sell the land,” and he cried out and he could not keep his voice from breaking and trembling with his anger, “Out of the land we came and into it we must go-…” “If you sell the land, it is the end. ”]

I think the kids should have taken the land and cultivated it just like Wang Lung did. I would have liked this better because it would have ended in a happy ending. I think the book was sad enough with things going the way Wang Lung wanted. Wang Lung put so much work into his land and should at least have had his land how he wanted it when he passed away. Alejandro Escamilla English II Pre-AP Writing Summer Assignment I agree/disagree with ______’s decision to __________ because… I disagree with Wang Lung’s two sons’ decision to sell the land because Wang Lung put lots of work into it.

Selling the land would have meant a waste of time for Wang Lung and would be like throwing away all his work. After all the work Wang Lung did on his land he should at least be thanked by his sons by them taking care of the land just like he did. I know that if I was in Wang Lung’s position and actually lived to see the land being sold I would be very mad and disappointed of my sons’ decision. The sons should have at least put the money into some better land. Rather than being greedy and just using it to ship rice to the sea and not do anything for their father.

Unlike the sons the father was considerate and worked on the land with his family in mind. He worked on his land to help support his whole family. Wang Lung was emotionally attached to his land. He wanted to see his entire family raised on his land, even his grandsons. I know what it’s like to be so attached to something and then losing it. I used to have a dog that I grew up with and took care of for many years. Then one day I lost him and was very sad, I was mad because I had took really good care of him all my life. Alejandro Escamilla English II Pre-AP Writing Summer Assignment Of what other book or story does this book remind you?

In what ways? The book “The Good Earth” reminds me of a book I read last year called “Across Five Aprils”. It was a book that took place during the Civil War and included farming as a thing that the family did which is why I was reminded of this book. I am also reminded of this book because they both seem like they take place around the same era. The style of the author is also very similar. Both stories are very sad and they both have a sad ending; not the usual happy ending of every other book I’ve read. In “Across Five Aprils” at the end of the story when all seems well President Lincoln is assassinated.

The story “Across Five Aprils” ends in an unhappy ending, just like in “The Good Earth”. Both stories provide great life lessons and are kind of hard to understand at first; mainly because of the author’s style of writing. “Across Five Aprils” is the only book that comes close to reminding me of “The Good Earth”. The reason why it’s the only book is because I don’t usually read these kinds of books. I am not too interested in the topic. I am more into the action and adventure books, but I have noticed that these kinds of books are the ones that teach great life lessons and you learn a lot more from them.

Alejandro Escamilla English II Pre-AP Writing Summer Assignment What life lessons did you find in the book? “The Good Earth” has many life lessons and maybe the ones I found aren’t the same as others because we all interpret things in different ways. One big life lesson that I came across was that when things get rough don’t back down and become weak, instead become stronger and push forward. In other words always see the light at the end of the tunnel. I think this life lesson is the best out of the book because it really helps out to think of this when you find yourself in a tough situation.

Another life lesson found in “The Good Earth” is when you are in a bad position always know that you will someday rise out of that hole that you feel that you are stuck in. Wang Lung was very poor and when the time came he bought a piece of land and worked hard on it. Pretty soon he noticed that he no longer was in the same position that he was in a while back. Now he had become a wealthy farmer. I am glad that I found these life lessons in this book and plan on applying them to every aspect of my life and when I find myself troubled.

I believe that these life lessons can help anybody that is having a hard time in life. I also plan on passing down these life lessons to people that I know and hopefully help them in their every day struggles. Alejandro Escamilla English II Pre-AP Writing Summer Assignment If you were to make the book into a movie, what changes would you make and why? This book seems like it was meant to be read by a higher age group. If I were to make this book into a movie I would make it more for all age groups so that younger kids may also watch the movie.

The reason for that is because I think that the story has a lot of life lessons that should be learned. If younger kids learn the life lessons at a younger age they will really go through every day easier and know what to do when they come across troubles. The book has many words that wouldn’t be in the movie and many people might say that this is bad because it is not showing the raw thing and what it really was like. But the movie is all about the life lessons and learning something greater than just what it used to be like for the Chinese people back then.

I want the movie to leave a lasting impression on its viewers and for them to walk out of wherever they watched it with a different mindset. I know that if I had seen this movie at an earlier age it would have helped me through my struggles faster and understand why things happen. Then others might say that kids would mature too quickly, but I fight back against that statement. I think it’s better to mature faster than to struggle and not know what to do or how to react when things don’t go in your favor.

Going Back to School summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Going Back to School my life’s destiny ENG 121 English Composition I April 16, 2011 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Destiny, Life and Legacy these three words have so much power behind them than one could imagine. These three words have been made up the web of my life. Destiny is something that is to happen or has happened to particular person or thing, it’s the predetermined, usually inevitable or irresistible course of events. It’s the power or agency that determines the course of events. We all have a destiny it’s our purpose in life.

Not everyone discovers their destiny but those that do are the few lucky ones. Life is what we make it. We have the power to make out life as good or bad as we want without rewriting destiny’s plan. I believe that everything happens for a reason. Legacy, this is a word that touches me deeply. Legacy is what I will leave behind when I leave this world. It’s how I will be remembered. I want my legacy to continue for generations to come well after I have past. Growing up I never thought that college could even be possible to do because it seemed like such a huge dream.

I had never known anyone that went to college. So this has been a huge accomplishment for me to be enrolled in college. I wanted to be a great role model not only for my children but for the rest of my family. When I was in high school I wasn’t the greatest of students. Whenever asked what it was I wanted to do with my life I was clueless all I knew was that I wanted to hang out with my friends. It wasn’t until I went to a military based academy that I changed my whole outlook on school. There is where I graduated and received my high school diploma.

I remember graduation day and feeling such a great sense of accomplishment. The greatest gift was seeing my family in the crowd, smiling and cheering me on. That is when I knew I could do anything I set my heart to with enough drive and determination. After graduating high school I attended a community college studying criminal justice. I enjoyed being a full time student but yet there was something missing. It was something that I felt I had to do to fulfill a space in my life and that was enlisting into the military. I then enlisted into the United States Army.

I was a very proficient soldier and that showed through my work performance. Having been as proficient as I was, I was tasked with multiple jobs that were well above my rank. Having been given so many responsibilities this left little time for anything else. So I put school off for a while. I did eventually manage to complete a few classes while in the Army. After I discharged from the military I knew that this was the perfect time to continue my education. When I am asked what motivated me to go back to school I would definitely have to say my children.

I am very strict on them when it comes to their education. One day I sat there and thought about what it was that I wanted to do with my life. I have always considered myself to be an artist; I am a creative deep soul that enjoys anything that will allow me to express my creativity. I have always had a passion for photography. Therefore I knew that that is what I wanted to do for the rest of my life. I always felt that there were two types of jobs, one that makes a lot of money which is the realists job the nine to five jobs that most people do but hate.

Then there’s the handful of people that follow their passion. In an online article it states, “In a world of mounting economic pressure driven by intensifying global competition, passion is essential to the kind of performance improvement needed to succeed. ” Without passion people will be choosing between the lesser of two stresses: stress from being unemployed versus the stress of being in a dead-end job. I am aware that photography is a competitive career and only the best make the most money but that is not my reason for purposing this career it’s for the art of it.

A dream of mine has always been to open up my own photography studio. Once I decided what I wanted to do I started searching online and researching different colleges. I could have gone into an Art college but I decided that I would earn a degree in business first. Once I receive my degree in business I will then focus on getting my Bachelors in photography/ graphic arts. I looked up many colleges and I chose Ashford University. After talking to the student advisor it just seemed to fit so I enrolled in the business program for my Associates degree.

I have currently taken three courses here at Ashford University and am pleased with the university. I enjoy being back in school and learning new things. I am anxious to receive my degree and to see the final outcome. I plan to take every bit of knowledge I’ve learned and hold on to it throughout my life and career because I know that it will be a tool in my success. Destiny cannot be changed but I do believe that I am one of the few people that have discovered their purpose in life and found their destiny. I am exactly where I need to be.

My photography will be my legacy and help my dream and wishes come true and that is to be remembered for generations to come well after my life has past. I want my children to have something to hold on to forever. This is why I chose to go back to school. It’s only a stepping stool for greater things to come. REFRENCES Destiny. (n. d. ). Dictionary. com Unabridged. Retrieved April 16, 2011, from Dictionary. com website: http://dictionary. reference. com/browse/destiny Shontell, A. (2010). What do you do when you hate your job. Retrieved April 16, 2011from Website: http://www. businessinsider. com/what-do-you-do-when-you-hate-your-job-2010-10

Agro- Processing Industry in India college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Table of Contents 1. AGRO-PROCESSING: AN INTRODUCTION3 2. GROWTH OF AGRO PROCESSING SECTOR3 3. GOVERNMENT POLICIES4 4. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR AGRO-PROCESSING INDUSTRY6 5. GOAL 20157 6. ORGANISATION-VAPCOL8 7. PRODUCT: CASHEW-NUT9 7. 1 Cashew industry in India: An Overview10 7. 2 Supply chain of Cashew product marketed by Vapcol11 7. 3 Value Addition Process12 7. 4 Sales and distribution and Marketing of Cashew nut12 REFERENCES13 List of tables Table 1: Agro-Processing Industries in India—Growth, Status and Prospects4 Table 2: Product-Portfolio of VAPCOL9

List of figures Figure 1: Cashew production, consumption, export, import trend 10 Figure 2: State wise domestic production trend11 Figure 3: Procurement channel of Cashew12 Figure 4: Flow chart of Cashew processing12 ? 1. AGRO-PROCESSING: AN INTRODUCTION As per definition, Agro processing is a set of techno-economic activities, applied to all the produces, originating from agricultural farm, livestock, aqua cultural sources and forests for their conservation, handling and value-addition to make them usable as food, feed, fibre, fuel or industrial raw materials.

This specific sector has experienced expansion during last five decades, starting with a handful of facilities which were mainly operating at domestic/cottage level. If properly developed, agro-processing sector can make India a major player at the global level for marketing and supply of processed food, feed and a wide range of other plant and animal. The scope of the agro-processing industry encompasses all operations from the stage of harvest till the material reaches the end users in the desired form, packaging, quantity, quality and price.

Agro-processing is now regarded as the ‘sunrise sector’ of the Indian economy due to its large potential for growth and likely socio economic impact specifically on employment and income generation. While up to 14 per cent of the total work force is engaged in agro-processing sector in developed countries directly or indirectly; in India, only about 3 per cent of the work force is involved in this sector. This reveals vast untapped potential for employment.

Our country has diverse agro-climatic conditions and consumer preferences and hence it produces a vast variety of agricultural and livestock materials. The losses in farm produce in India on account of poor post harvest management have been assessed to be of a very high order. The estimated loss includes losses during storage, handling and milling/processing. By adopting proper agro processing technology, the extent of post harvest losses could be brought down to less than fifty percent of the existing level. The 2. GROWTH OF AGRO PROCESSING SECTOR

Starting with a small number of processing facilities in 1950-51, a fairly well spread network of processing facilities has been developed in the Country. Agro-processing technology in India has been continuously making steady progress towards modernization. The table mentioned below gives information of the latest development trends in respect of major crops/crop groups. Table 1: Agro-Processing Industries in India—Growth, Status and Prospects Sl. No. CropRecent products, processes, trends and technologies 1Rice Fully automatic modern rice mills

Partially cooked/quick cooking rice Breakfast cereals and value-added products Attractive packaging and branding 2Wheat Fully automatic roller flour mills Whole bran wheat flour, Fortified wheat flour Attractive packaging and branding Large number of baked products Automatic chapatti making machines 3MaizeCorn flour-packaged and branded, Baby corn Corn flakes and value-added products including ready-to-eat snacks (salted & sweetened) Starch material, corn oil with specific consumer desired attributes Large, automatic corn processing plants Coarse- CerealsValue-added products including breakfast foods & extruded fortified tasty products 5PulsesAutomatic processing units for pulses with driers, colour sorters and packaging unit Cold storing of processed pulses Snack foods and other value added products 6SoybeanProduction of full fat soy flour/enzyme active soy flour for bakery and fortified foods Ready-to-eat snack foods Source: agricoop. nic. in Major problems faced by Agro-processing units have been: (a) Low capacity utilization, b) Poor recovery of the finished product from the raw materials, (c) Problems of arranging adequate working capital and its management, (d) Low product quality and (e) Unreliable assured power supply. 3. GOVERNMENT POLICIES The Government has formulated and implemented several schemes to provide financial assistance for setting up and modernizing of food processing units, creation of infrastructure, support for research and development and human resource development in addition to other promotional measures to encourage the growth of the processed food sector. The Centre has permitted under the Income Tax Act a deduction of 100 per cent of profit for five years and 25 per cent of profit in the next five years in case of new agro processing industries set up to package and preserve fruits and vegetables. •Excise Duty of 16 per cent on dairy machinery has been fully waived off and excise duty on meat, poultry and fish products has been reduced from 16 per cent to 8 per cent. •Most of the processed food items have been exempted from the purview of licensing under the Industries Development and regulation) Act, 1951, except items reserved for small-scale sector and alcoholic beverages. •Food processing industries were included in the list of priority sector for bank lending in 1999. •Automatic approval for foreign equity up to 100 per cent is available for most of the processed food items except alcohol, beer and those reserved for small-scale sector subject to certain conditions. •The Union Commerce Ministry has approved a brand promotion campaign for value-added “Made in India” cashew being launched in the West Asian market by March end.

The campaign, mooted by Cashew Export Promotion Council of India (CEPCI), involves a financial assistance of US$ 344,787 by the Ministry. •Full repatriation of profits and capital has been allowed. •Zero duty import of capital goods and raw material for 100 per cent export oriented units. •Sales of up to 50 per cent in domestic tariff area for agro based, 100 per cent export oriented units is allowed. •Government grants have been given for setting up common facilities in agro Food Park. •Full duty exemption on all imports for units in export processing zones has been done.

Food Safety and Standard Act, 2006 Till the year 2005, thirteen different laws were applicable on the food and food processing sector. •FSSA will be aided by several scientific panels and a central advisory committee to lay down standards for food safety. These standards will include specifications for ingredients, contaminants, pesticide residue, biological hazards and labels. •The law will be enforced through State Commissioners of Food Safety and local level officials. •Everyone in the food sector is required to get a licence or a registration which would be issued by local authorities.

Under APMC Act ?Transaction outside the regulated mandis is prohibited by most states. ?The procurement of agricultural produce should not be facilitated directly from farmer’s fields. ?Most states do not encourage direct marketing and Contract Farming. ?The private sectors are not allowed to invest for the infrastructure improvement. ?The purchaser has to be a registered agent at the wholesale market Under Model Act ?There is no compulsion to sell through existing markets administered by the APMC ?

This act enables procurement of agricultural produce directly from the Farm Gate ? This act enables contract farming and there is provision for direct sale of farm produce 4. SWOT ANALYSIS FOR AGRO-PROCESSING INDUSTRY 4. 1 Strength: •Raw material is available throughout the year •This sector is getting support from the government and is being socially accepted as an important area •There is vast domestic market for agro processing of different agric products •There is vast network of manufacturing facilities all over the country 4. 2 Weakness: There is high requirement of working capital in this industry. •The linkages between R&D labs and industry are inadequately developed. •Remuneration is less attractive for talent in comparison to contemporary disciplines. •There is inadequate automation with respect to the information. •There is low availability of new reliable and better accuracy instruments and equipments management. 4. 3 Opportunity: •Large crop and material base in the country due to agro-ecological variability offers vast potential for agro processing activities. Integration of developments in contemporary technologies such as electronics, material science, computer, bio-technology etc. offer vast scope for rapid improvement and progress. •Opening of global markets may lead to export of our developed technologies and facilitate generation of additional income and employment 4. 4 Threat: •This industry might have to face competition from global players •Trained manpower is shifting to other industries and other professions due to better working conditions prevailing there.

Such shift may lead to shortage of manpower in agro-processing industry. •Rapid developments in contemporary and requirements of the industry may lead to fast obsolescence. 5. GOAL 2015 ?Ministry of Food Processing Industries had commissioned a vision document for the growth of FPI sector. ?Processing of perishables is aimed to increase 20 percent. ?Value addition is aimed to increase to 34 percent from the present level of 20 percent. ?Share of agro processing industry in world trade has to be up from 1. 6 percent to 3 percent. 6. ORGANISATION-VAPCOL

VAPCOL (Vasundhara Agri-Horti Producer Company Limited) is a Producer Company established under section 581A of the India Companies Act 1956 to market the products produced by its producer members across the country. VAPCOL is a multistate marketing company, which markets its product under the brand name of “VRINDAVAN”. Vapcol is promoted by BAIF (an NGO established in 1948 by Dr. Manibhai Desai to uplift the tribal farmers of south Gujarat). The products of Vapcol are a result of years of implementation of the Wadi programme initiated by BAIF.

Wadi is a comprehensive programme for improving living standards of marginalised families in remote areas. Its mission is to satisfy its customer by providing consistent quality, service at reasonable price and thus provide remunerative prices and market to our producer owners. VAPCOL is engaged in food processing and marketing of fresh and processed fruits, nuts and vegetables produced in the operational areas of the member organisations. VAPCOL is primarily involved in establishing market linkages for various fresh and processed farm produce from the members.

VAPCOL also facilitates the support to the member organisations to develop their supply chains, to implement producer oriented schemes and to take up value chain activities. VAPCOL producers group forms a complex of Cooperatives in Gujarat and Vibhags (Division) with no cooperative structure in Maharashtra. The producer groups from other states like Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan are also part of VAPCOL. All the processing units of VAPCOL are spread across the country right from Gujarat, Maharashtra, MP, UP to Rajasthan.

Table 2: Product-Portfolio of VAPCOL Product PortfolioMain ingredientsSuppliers and Area Market (Area coverage)Competitors Mango PicklesRaw mango, salt, Spices, Vegetable oilMember cooperatives, Valsad and NasikValsad, Navasari, PunePravin, Mothers Recipe, Nilons, Kamdhenu Mixed PicklesRaw mango, Lemon, Green chilli, carrot, salt, Spices, Vegetable oilMember cooperatives, ValsadValsad, Navasari, PunePravin, Mothers Recipe, Nilons, Kamdhenu Karvanda PicklesKarvanda, salt, Spices, Vegetable oilMember coop, Peint , NasikValsad, NavasariLocal unbranded pickles.

Karela/Lemon/B186 PicklesLemon, salt, Spices, Vegetable oilOpen market purchase, Dharampur Market Valsad, Navasari, PunePravin, Mothers Recipe, kamdhenu Kesar Mango PulpKesar Mango, Preservatives, SugarMember cooperatives, Valsad and PeintValsad, Navasari, PuneLarge number of small players Alphanso Mango PulpAlpanso Mango, Preservatives, SugarMember cooperatives, Valsad and PeintValsad, Navasari, PuneLarge number of small players CashewRaw cashewMember cooperatives, Valsad and NasikValsad, Navasari, Pune, MumbaiLocal vendors getting the supply from Konkan region and Kerala Source: OTS study by PRM 31 participants . PRODUCT: CASHEW-NUT Raw cashew nuts grow on trees and a single nut is attached to and hangs below a false fruit or cashew apple. The most significant difficulty in processing cashew nuts is that the hard outer shell, which contains the edible kernel, contains caustic oil which can burn the skin and produce noxious fumes when heated. The oil (referred to commercially as CNSL, cashew nut shell liquid) contains 90% anacardic acid and 10% cardol. Cashew nuts are kidney shaped and brittle which makes it difficult to remove the shell without breakage.

Whole white kernels are the highest grade and larger whole kernels fetch higher prices. In actually, a cashew is not a nut. Technically it’s a seed stemming from the bottom of the cashew apple grown on trees. Botanical name of cashew is Anacardium occidentale also known as “Nature’s Vitamin Pill”. 7. 1 Cashew industry in India: An Overview India is a major player on the cashew world stage. While cashew cultivation originated in Brazil, today cashew is cultivated in Asia, Africa and Latin America.

In the year 2000, the total global area under cashew cultivation was around 4,000,000 ha, while the estimated average productivity was around 510 kg per ha and total raw 11 nut production was 1. 8 million tonnes. India is the second largest country in the world cashew economy for area under cultivation as well as production of raw cashew nuts, second only to Brazil. Today cashew is cultivated on around 720,000 ha in India, yielding an output of 450,000 MT and an average productivity of 710 kg/ha. The cultivation of he crop is mostly confined to the western and eastern coastal areas of peninsular India. Kerala is the largest cashew producing states since long back but its share in total production in the country has decreased over the time. And Maharashtra has improved a lot in it cashew production. Production of raw cashew nuts in India Figure 1: Cashew production, consumption, export, import trend over the year from 1970-71 to 2001-02 Source: Based on the paper compiled from various publications of the Cashew Export Promotion Council of India, Kochi Figure 2: State wise domestic production trend

Source: Based on the paper compiled from various publications of the Cashew Export Promotion Council of India, Kochi 7. 2 Supply chain of Cashew product marketed by Vapcol After looking at state wise production trend and the procurement area of cashew marketed by vapcol, it seems very strange that its procurement areas are those areas which do not produce cashew much. But it make sense for vapcol to procure the cashew produced in that area as it had been set up for the very purpose of marketing those products produced by the tribal farmers under the Wadi program initiated by BAIF.

Procurement Village-level GVMs act as primary producer groups and procure raw cashew from farmers and transport to the nearest cooperative. GVMs do primary grading and sorting, according to laid down guidelines. Figure 3: Procurement channel of Cashew The cooperatives buy the sorted raw cashew at a pre-announced price and pay GVMs accordingly on a fixed date, with a commission per kg of procurement. The GVMs disburse payments to farmers, according to quantities sold. 7. 3 Value Addition Process After procurement of raw cashew from Wadi plot-holders and others at a redetermined price, processing is done in cluster-level cooperatives as follows. Figure 4: Flow chart of Cashew processing Inter-cooperative transfer of raw cashew is practiced to ensure that the processing activities continue beyond a few months in cooperatives where procurement has been inadequate, and to reduce the pressure on new processing centres, where labour may not be skilled enough to process the entire stock of raw cashew procured. 7. 4 Sales and distribution and Marketing of Cashew nut Processed cashew is sold by cooperatives directly to wholesalers or marketed through the VAPCOL.

After deducting marketing charges, it passes on the final price realised to each cooperative. VAPCOL sells cashew to wholesale traders, through its own retail outlets at Kaprada, Dharampur, Pune, and Sutarpada, and to large buyers like TRIFED, Mumbai Grahak Panchayat and Apna Bazaar. REFERENCES •Agro-Processing Industries in India—Growth, Status and Prospect R. P. Kachru (Asstt. Director General (Process Engineering), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi) •http://www. scribd. com/doc/33781119/Agro-Processing-sector-in-India •OTS Report of VAPCOL

Human Resource Management Strategy college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Human Resource Management Strategy:Intangible assets Talk about ‘strategy’ we can trace back to a general Greek word ‘strategos’. It means ‘army’ and ‘lead’. (Bracker, 1980 cited in whittington,1993). The same as the case of HRM, traditional HRM not taken serious until it undergo the test of time. Intangible assets include trademark, copyright, business secret and so on. Human Resource is the significant intangible assets of enterprise competition ability today. Sometimes intangible assets are valuable than physical assets. For example…

The John Lewis Partnership has been developing an unusual HRM strategy. This enterprise divides to two subsidiaries of the John Lewis Department Stores and the Waitrose supermarket chain. There are about 66,000 staffs which named ‘partners’ not ‘employees’ working for JLP. Further, this organization is owned by all partners not employer. There is a complicate organization structure for a democratic enterprise. Each democratic bodies has right to decide their representatives by voting. Their HRM strategy focuses on ‘employer of distinction’ and emphasis on a fair competition model.

The centre of the strategy is ‘powered by our principles’ (PbOP) which comprises faithful, honesty, esteem, commission, achieving common target. First of all, they have a set of method for each stage of the partners’ career. For instance: evaluating, recruitment, training, promotion and so on. Each partners’ behaviors were reported. Following, other feature is setting appropriate work-life balance to ensure the balance between home, leisure and work. There is a career vacation plan for every partner with five years’ work.

There are a large number of benefits which partners can choice by themselves. Such as travel to a desirable country, check in luxury hotel and boating. Thirdly, HRM strategies of JLP maintain competitive salary and attractive benefit based on annual financial reports. Such as 2005, the organization take out 15% profits as bonus which cost 1870 pounds for each partners. It is approximately triple folds than Marks & Spencer’s bonus which paid 500 pounds for each employee. John Lewis also has a unique non-contributory strategy of pension.

Compare with companies in this industry such as Tesco and Sainsbury, they require contribution and even raise the contribution rate. Finally, there is a magazine named The Gazette which all level partners can publish anonymous article to criticize managers even chairman and afford information to all partners. John Lewis who is the founder of JLP recognized a freedom work circumstance is one of the keys to succeed. John Lewis Partners was ranked NO. 1 in for salary and bonus and NO. 4 in the guardian best entrepreneur in 2005.

In opinion polls, John Lewis was called the best fair employer. John Lewis Department Stores and Waitrose, they belong to one organization. The strategy of John Lewis Department Store is a little bit similar to that of Semco which is a democratic company. They both used HRM strategy successfully. There are several advantages of democratic organization. Such as their employees are more enthusiastic and more active for their work, more accurate decision-making by make every staffs’ suggestion together because of two hands are better than one and attract more talent to their companies.

Democracy must become a mainstream management strategy as intangible assets. All in all, while traditional HRM strategy is always downplayed by organization, nowadays HRM strategy as a significant intangible asset becomes more and more popular. Although intangible assets cannot be seen and touched, it makes a huge number of invisible money. Use these intangible assets can bring unexpected rewards. With the development of HR, more potential competence can be found.

Mendel Patterns of Inheritance homework essay help: homework essay help

Mendel on Patterns of Inheritance Mendel was the first to see that traits in each person were passed down, not just from the parents, but also from grandparents, great-grandparents, great-great-grandparents, etc. He also figured out that not every person is the same as his or her own parents. Some of these traits can come from other family members that are no longer living. Mendel is the first to also describe these traits as passages through the generations.

There are at least three reasons for Mendel’s success; 1) He focused on just a few traits – seven to be exact – instead of many traits as others did; 2) he thoroughly documented and quantified all of his experimental results; and 3) he chose to study these traits in the garden pea, Pisum sativum. With Mendel’s novel, he talks about how traits are passed on by ones parents. That these traits are passed on as a whole and not usually unaltered to the offspring. Mendel also realized that with the reproduction, each parent would contribute one hereditary factor to his and her offspring.

This means that the trait giving to each individual that he or she has one maternally derived factor and one paternally derived factor, thus having one factor from his or her mother and one from his or her father. Some of the advantages that Mendel had when choosing the garden pea to do his experiments on was that of, Mendel as a young boy grew up in the fields of growing foods. He was born to a peasant farmer. Mendel also knew just what would need to be done and how to grow these items as well.

He went on to become a priest at the age of twenty-one but still studied things such as plant breeding and wanting to understand more about hereditary. Out of the six major concluding principles that Mendel hypothesized about, I chose to do one, two, and six. With one, it talks about how the hereditary characteristics are passed down from the parents to the children. These basic units of inheritance are known as a gene instead of a trait. These different forms of genes are called alleles, which is how Mendel referred to the traits.

With two, it talks about how every individual has two alleles for every gene. These can be either identical or not. If they happen to be identical then it is said to be that the trait is known as homozygous. If it is not identical, than it is that that the traits are heterozygous. With six, it talks about how the independent assortment applies to two or more genes. This is considered to be simultaneously. This states that alleles of one gene are passed to his or her offspring independently of all the other allele’s genes.

To What Extent Can Close Relationships Be Considered a Personal, Private Matter or Should Social Psychologists Engage with Aspects of Society in Order to Provide an Adequate Understanding? Make Use of One of the persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

To what extent can close relationships be considered a personal, private matter or should social psychologists engage with aspects of society in order to provide an adequate understanding? Make use of one of the interrogative themes in your discussion. This essay will use the model of the diversity of family relationships to demonstrate the processes that social psychologists employ to study the complex intricacies from the social psychoanalytical and social cognitive perspectives of close relationships in sibling relationships and couples.

It will acknowledge the conflicted psyche in dynamic relation with the external world in the social psychoanalytical perspective and the individual as an “information processor” within their social world from a cognitive social perspective, and discuss whether this is as a result of individual choice and agency indicating autonomy, or the societal pressures experienced and structures or forces of society that influence human behaviours.

After reading the research papers, my inclination is to agree with Steve Duck suggestion (1999, cited in Sclater, 2007) that when considering close relationships it is necessary to take account of a multiplicity of factors in order to be able to make an evaluation. Close relationships are both formed by the individual as well as the social world around them and each is interwoven in their creation.

The ability to form and maintain close personal relationships is a fundamental part of human existence. From the moment we are born, our family generally become the most important influence on our future emotional and physical development into adults. The people we come into contact with during our developmental years, our friends, teachers, relatives and other social contacts will all contribute to sculpt the mature adults we will eventually become.

The close relationships that we have throughout our lives can be complex however, and don’t always fit in with the normative views of society in general. The ideology of a “traditional”, normative heterosexual family no longer exists as such, with a change from the nucleus family – for example, the decline in marriage, increase in cohabitation and children born outside of marriage, the increase in divorce and trend of extended (blended) families and society’s gradual acceptance of gay and lesbian relationships/marriages/parenting.

With such diversity in human relationships, it is therefore difficult for psychologists to generalise on what constitutes a family and aspects of relationships also the patterns and processes involved or to predict patterns of behaviour, but studies are still carried out to find out what makes people attracted to each other, why they fall in love, what causes people to stay together in a relationship and the type of problems that cause conflicts in relationships and whether this is brought about by the individual involved or through involvement of the social world that shape behaviours.

The tensions of defining “family” emphasise the importance of the divergent courses of social psychology towards sociological social psychology (SSP) to study societal processes and people as part of the culture and structures they live within and psychological social psychology (PSP) highlights the important role of the family especially in child development and early socialisation. People’s behaviours cannot exist in a vacuum and must be considered as positioned within the wider social, cultural, economic and political group that affects them and this will have different outcomes on relationships.

For example, if a member of a social group starts a new close relationship be it personal or romantic, it will in turn be likely to affect their behaviour towards the group, and cause a ripple effect. The person will devote some of their time to the new relationship, their social system will also be a factor, and thus all the cogs of the machine will be potentially behaving differently as a result of the change. It is interesting to consider how much agency we exert during developing years and how much we are governed by the rigid structures put in place by society and the expectations of our individual cultures.

At school, we choose friends usually from within our classmates (propiquinity effect, Bersheid and Reis, 1998, cited in Day Sclater, 2007) but society, in the form of our teacher/school dictates which class we will be in, so interest lies in how much of this choice of friendship is agency and how much is dictated by the structure of our society. Society’s structures influence personal choices, as demonstrated in Edward and Lucey’s (2006, cited in Lucey, 2007) research on five Bangladeshi sisters living in the UK.

Azra, the eldest sister is held up as an example to her younger sisters of how they should live their lives, to achieve respect and approval from within their culture. The themes of individual-society and agency-structure dualism are both demonstrated as although the girls focussed on all have agency to make certain choices in their lives, they are very much guided by the structural forces and rules within their society and the strict Muslim cultural regime. Habiba, the second oldest sister describes how she doesn’t want to let Azra down by achieving bad exam results and feels pressured into studying hard to obtain success.

The unconscious internalised processes of introjection (taking in) and projection (putting out) of Azra’s purity, kindness, goodness and good sense onto the younger sisters as a measure for their behaviour and achievement (‘internal policeman’) at the risk of her disapproval or disappointment in their failure is shown as especially important, and results in splitting, separating the good from bad, desirable attributes from undesirable ones. Individual-Society dualism knowledge reflects from the nature of the individual i. e.

Azra, within her social setting and reflects the interaction between biological and social factors. Sabina, the next eldest sister describes her reputation as ‘a family’, rather than describing herself as an individual. She considers the family as a whole to be her personal identity. These descriptions of teenage Asian girls are examples of situated knowledge as an interrogative theme, as cultures such as theirs have a very close knit community and live under close scrutiny of each other and so the need for approval would be greater. Heinnink 1999, cited in Lucey, 2007) found that Asian teenage girls are more influenced by cultural traditions than British white girls and other young girls of this age. The girls’ choices are limited by both their unconscious selves and social forces, although they play and active role in their identity formation as individuals and as family and community members. There is a dynamic conflictual unconscious that assumes the existence of defences such as splitting, projection and projection identification to cope with anxieties and to productively resolve the active conflict experienced.

A strong family bond is described between the Muslim family and the societal structures that enforce certain expectations of their culture. Mitchell (2003, cited in Lucey, 2007) argued the internalisation of siblings as ego-ideals, using the Asian girls, especially their unconscious projective identification with Azra as support for this, with her embodying all that is good. Similarly, Esther’s relationship with her father, observed by Turp (2004, cited in Hollway, 2007) demonstrates the intersubjective social space between people and the social meanings available to them from a social psychoanalytic perspective.

When Esther bumps her head and becomes upset, her father picks her up to calm her, asking her what happened and when Esther is able to show him by knocking her head again in the same place and then rubbing it to demonstrate the event to him, she turns a bad experience for her into the introjection of good internal objects as her father praises her cleverness at being able to show him exactly what had upset her at only eight months of age.

Her parents’ response to her actions produces good internal objects for her, enabling her to build upon these developmentally. This would have the effect of increasing her internal self worth – her pleasure is generated from her father’s pleasure in her behaviours.

Steve Duck’s research (1999, cited in Day Sclater, 2007) demonstrates from a social cognitive perspective different studies in different populations to map processes and patterns of attraction, love, conflict and stability, quantifying and manipulating variables to generalise principles of each process or pattern, although he is keen to express that although some general principles in relationships operate, which are revealed through systematic research, controlled experiments and laboratory based studies, these can limit understanding on relationships when considered part of the real world experience and it may be better to study in a more realistic setting.

Long term relationship research on heterosexuals has been extended to include data on gay and lesbian relationships, although Duck acknowledges that much of the research focuses on young couples, excluding the trend for older individuals to remarry creating blended families, and he admits that the results may have been different had the older subjects been included, as factors such as courtship length are different from younger couples. Duck’s research suggests that society considers relationships that endure to be a “success” and those that do not to be a “failure”, as seen with the celebration of lengthy relationships with ceremonious silver wedding parties and re-enactment of vows. Similarly, courtships that extend beyond the expected time frame of the particular societal group ‘norm’ are looked upon with scepticism of the relationship ever proceeding to the next level of commitment.

Other research has indicated the success of a close relationship depends on fairly predictable global factors such as demographics, similarities in race, age, religion, economic background and intelligence. The alternative idea of S-V-R theory (stimulus-value-role) proposed by Murstein (1971, cited in Duck, 1999, cited in Day Sclater, 2007) agrees on the primary influence of stimulus features such as looks, background, etc, but subsequent matching of values and attitudes continues the success of the relationship and finally role behaviour determines whether the couple are suitably matched to enable the continuation of the relationship as a working unit.

Individuals look to the society that surrounds them for approval and acceptance of their relationship and in the case of gay, lesbian or bisexual relationships, often feel pressured to conceal their relationship through fear of upsetting or perhaps disappointing others. The forceful effect of societal structures and conventions over individual independent agency here is clear, free will or choice is suppressed. Similarly, young unmarried heterosexual couples in a sexual relationship may feel they would meet with disapproval from their social network of friends or parents if they sleep together when visiting parents or friends, again, society dictates expected behaviour from individuals. Some researchers (Zeifman and Hazan, 1997; Ainsworth et al. 1978, cited in Duck 1999, cited in Day Sclater, 2007) suggest that childhood attachment theories also extend to adult relationships and that secure attachment (confident), avoidant attachment (lack of acceptance of others) and anxious/ambivalent attachment (dependency/insecurity) styles can also be seen in adult styles of loving. It could be argued that all of these attachment “labels” are as a result of the interaction of the individual with society. Duck (1999, cited in Day Sclater, 2007) acknowledges that placing populations in different socio-cultural, political, geographical and economic contexts causes various effects on relationships. The individual processes the information available from the social world to interpret meaning, both from language and unspoken communication as in body language, which is in turn influenced by the unconscious.

This essay commenced with the discussion of Edwards and Lucey’s research (2006, cited in Lucey, 2007) on the Bangladeshi sisters and the social psychoanalytic approach to their close sibling relationship, emphasising the dynamic and inseparable nature of the individual to their surrounding social world and analysis of unconscious and conscious processes, defence mechanisms against the anxieties caused and the fact that it is interpreted qualitatively. It went on to discuss Turp’s social psychoanalytic observations (2004, cited in Hollway, 2007) of baby Esther and how her father’s pleasurable responses were internalised by her as a good base on which she can build developmentally. Finally, Duck’s (1999, cited in Day Sclater, 2007) cognitive social approach of the individual as an information processor, taking meaning from both spoken and unspoken communication, which also acknowledges the need to use situated knowledge (i. e. geographical, socio-cultural, etc. in the exploration of social relationships using both real life as well as laboratory based experimentation, and concludes that many factors need to be taken into account to fully understand close relationships. 2005 words References: Day Sclater, S. (2007) ‘Close Relationships’ in D. Langdridge and S. Taylor, ‘Critical Readings in Social Psychology’, Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Hollway, W. (2007) ‘Self? in W. Hollway, H. Lucey and A. Phoenix (eds. ) Social Psychology Matters, Milton Keynes, Open University Press. Lucey, H. (2007) ‘Families’ in W. Hollway, H. Lucey and A. Phoenix (eds. ) Social Psychology Matters, Milton Keynes, Open University Press.

Movie Pollock essay help: essay help

Unit 4 Assignment “Pollock” Alison Williams The movie “Pollock” staring Ed Harris as Jackson Pollock is a story of how art was affected by an artist. The movie follows the latter years of Pollock’s life as he rises to fame as a painter but also watches him struggle with life. American artist Jackson Pollock was an alcoholic, manic-depressant and often an uncontrollable, angry and insecure man. However, through one woman and when he painted, he found a sense of freedom and peace, a release from his anger and sadness. Out of tragedy he helped create a movement in Abstract Expressionism.

This essay will focus on how this movie showed his last years as an artist, the art and movement he created, it’s tragic end and what as a student I have learned from this. The movie starts with Pollock living with his brother in New York City. He is drinking too much and takes no responsibility for what his is doing. You sense there is something broken within his family throughout the movie. Maybe jealousy of his family because of his abilities, there was a sense of Pollock wanting to be accepted and loved by those close to him, but them finding it hard to do so with his actions.

During this time he meets Lee Krasner, another abstract artist played by Marcia Gay Harden. Standing by him during times of need and often taking care of she ended up becoming Pollock’s lover, wife, and biggest supporter. Knowing of Pollock’s alcohol abuse, anger and unpredictable behavior, she puts aside her own needs and aspirations. She recognized his talent and brilliance as an artist and wanted to see him succeed, forfeiting her own career. She also suffers the brunt of his cruelty, self-absorption, his infidelities, and his alcoholic rages. However, she balanced his erratic nature by being a strong supporter at his side.

To get him away from the drinking, insecurity, and the stress of city life, they move to the Hamptons where nature and sobriety help Pollock achieve a breakthrough in style. Living in the Hamptons away from the city, Pollock takes in the nature around him, begins to garden and has long walks on the beach. With a clear head free of alcohol and stress he begins to paint in an abstract way that he began with, but changes the way he paints by moving the canvas to the floor so that he can walk around the canvas and become one with the art that he was creating.

As he does this, the movie shows that by accident with paint spilling onto the floor he see how the dripping of the paint created a newer abstract. This began the change in his style that broke the art critics in 1947. The `drip and splash’ style for which he is best known emerged. With his canvas already on the floor, instead of using the traditional easel he poured and dripped his paint from a can or brush sometimes instead of using brushes he manipulated it with sticks, trowels or knives. When asked about his style of painting he said “Sometimes I use a brush but often prefer using a stick.

Sometimes I pour the paint straight out of the can. I like to use a dripping, fluid paint. A method of painting is a natural growth out of a need. I want to express my feelings rather than illustrate them. ” (Demange) You can see in the movie that he creates with his subconscious and inner emotions, dancing around the canvas flinging paint and creating beautiful pieces that are first resemble spatters, but as you look closely and watch him work, it forms a beautiful motif. This technique raises his art to the top but begins a tragic decline of a young artist.

These paintings made Pollock immediately famous, and got him a feature article in Life magazine. After two years of sobriety, Pollock begins a decline that in the end spiraled out of control. In 1956 Lee Krasner finally leaves him for a to Europe. The movie made me wonder why she put up with so much from Pollock for as long as she did. After she left, Pollock, with his mistress, Ruth Kligman by his side and her friend Judith Metzger, they watch as Pollock drinks himself to near unconsciousness and drives them all into a ravine. Pollock’s life ends sadly, almost hard to watch.

Judith also dies with Ruth surviving. At this time, Pollock had already stopped painting in 1955, the year before his death at age 44. This movie tells about a famous artist who helped redefine modern art in the United States. Pollock invented a new kind of painting that changed the way the world looked at art. Until the twentieth century, most paintings were representational-artists “represented” their subjects in a way that was realistic and recognizable. However, during the first half of the twentieth century, artists like Jackson Pollock started to explore other methods of representation.

When he first began painting, Jackson Pollock painted representational objects such as people and animals. However, as we see in the movie “Pollock” he helped to create a whole new art movement called Abstract Expressionism-an “abstract” image is one where the subject is not represented realistically. Instead, the artist uses color and shapes to suggest the most general qualities of the subject. “Expressionism” is a kind of art that expresses feelings and thoughts. Abstract Expressionism is art that shows emotions and ideas through non-representational forms. Demange) Watching the life of Pollock on film was in parts painful to watch. He was such a talented artist and to self-destruct they way he did with such astonishing talent was sad. As a student learning about modern art, I am glad that I chose to watch the movie “Pollock”. I learned that there is more to just brushing paint onto a canvas. The movie showed how in Pollock’s life, there was and inner being that came out on canvas and that this can’t be taught to someone. You can see in the movie that Pollock did not plan the way he wanted his paintings to look.

He painted by following his immediate thoughts and emotions at the time instead of planning or sketching it out first or having a subject to view. Pollock combined careful movement with exact color and line produce beautiful works. Though his paintings appear accidental, they required careful control and thought. I especially liked how he wasn’t afraid to take a painting and touch it up, change it. He wasn’t afraid of ruining something that he didn’t feel was complete. I also learned how love would prevail all. Lee Krasner was an inspiration to me during this film. She stood by someone who she believed in and the potential in Pollock.

To put her career ambition on hold to support someone who in some sense didn’t want it was true strength. This movie showing the last years as an artist life, his rise and fall, the art and movement he helped create, it’s tragic end is something as a student have new found appreciate for learning about. References Demange, D. (n. d. ). Biography: jackson pollock. Retrieved on August 7, 2011 from http://www. manythings. org/voa/people/Jackson_Pollock. html Harris, E (Director). (2000). Pollock [Web]. Available from http://movies. netflix. com/WiMovie/Pollock/60003760? trkid=2431210

Sources of Finance extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Section 1 – Sources of Finance There are 4 main types of business ownership: • Sole trader • Partnership • Private limited company (Ltd) • Public limited company (Plc) Each of these types of business needs to raise finance for capital investment Sole Trader This is a business that is owned by one person. Sole Traders are responsible for raising all the finance to set up and run the business. Usually a sole trader would be for a small business/ (businesses with a flat organisational structure). A Sole Trader can be held responsible for all the debts of the firm.

Most owners like to feel in control of their own business, so this may lead to many small businesses to stay as Sole Traders, even though this will limit funding. Sole Traders have no legal formalities to go through, besides registering for VAT if their turnover reaches a certain amount. Partnership This is a business that owned by a number of people between 2 to 20. All partners can contribute to the financing of the business to help manage the success of the business. A partnership can also be held responsible for all the debts of the firm.

Having more partners in the business will cut down the amount of control that the owners have over the business. Partnerships have no legal formalities but may choose to sign a Deed of Partnership. Private Limited Company (Ltd) This is a business that is owned by shareholders (friends and associates). Private limited companies could sell shares to family, friends and associates. The owners of the private limited company can be held responsible up to the value of their investment in the business. Usually when forming limited companies, they have to produce two documents;

Memorandum of Association and Articles of Association. Public Limited Company (Plc) This is a business that is owned by shareholders (the general public). Public organisations are usually run by the government. Public limited companies can raise finance by selling shares on the stock market. Sole trader/ Partnership Personal Capital – this is the money that an individual, partner or shareholder has saved up to help in the process of running the business. If the person uses the money to invest in their own or another business, then the source of finance is classified as personal savings. Advantages |Disadvantages | |It is a quick way of funding the business |If the business goes bankrupt then the individual is also to | | |lose the money in the process and will not get the money back | |You wont have to pay it back if you lose the money in the | | |business | |

Retained profit – This is when a business makes a profit and keeps it and doesn’t spend it, the finance department simply call it Retained Profit. The retained profit will be useful for the business in buying important facilities such as new machinery, vehicles, computers and this money will be used to develop the business. Retained profit is also kept for the future just in case the business goes bankrupt. Advantages |Disadvantages | |If the retained profit is kept in advance, and then the |If you use the retained profit to develop the business such as | |business goes bankrupt, at least it could use the retained |buying new machinery then you wont e able to reward staff for | |profit to help it in its finance |their hard work and keep them motivated | |Easily accessible and no interest charge on the retained |The business risks its own money | |profit | |

Sales of assets – Business balance sheets have several fixed assets on them. A fixed asset is anything that is not used in the production of goods or services; this includes things such as buildings, fixtures and fittings, machinery. When a business desperately needs money, it can decide to stop offering certain products or services and because of that it could start selling its fixed assets. Advantage |Disadvantage | |The assets are ready to be sold |You are going to reduced the amount of assets the business has | | |got | Mortgage – A mortgage is a form of a long term loan, though it will tend to be on property or some other fixed asset. This is also known as a secured loan, this means that the loan is secured to the asset it was borrowed for.

If lets say the person who has lent the money from the lender, then the lender can take legal proceedings to repossess the asset. There are two types of major mortgages which are; • Repayment mortgages • Interest only mortgages |Advantages |Disadvantages | |You are able to pay the money monthly for a certain amount of |You end up paying more money than you borrowed | |time for example, you could pay a mortgage for ? 25 a month for| | |10 years if you borrowed ? 20k | | Loan – A loan is a type of debt. Like all debt instruments, a loan requires the redistribution of financial assets over time, between the lender and the borrower. The borrower initially receives an amount of money from the lender, which they pay back, usually but not always in regular instalments, to the lender.

The service is generally provided at as cost, referred to as interest on the debt. |Advantages |Disadvantages | |You are able to borrow a lot of money |You will end up paying more money in interest than you borrowed| |You are able to pay back the money at a time that suits you | |

Bank overdraft – This usually occurs when a check is presented for collection and there are not sufficient funds on deposit to make normal payment. Bank overdrafts are a very common form of borrowing money in the UK. The bank and the borrower agree upon the maximum size of the overdraft, but interest is only charged to the extent that the overdraft is used. Advantages |Disadvantages | |They are flexible |When borrowing money you are limited to how much you should | | |take | |They don’t have a fixed amount of money paid every month | |

Leasing – Leasing is a contract between the leasing company and the customer (lessee). The company will buy and own the asset that the customer requires. The customer hires the asset from the company and has to pay the rental fee over a pre-determined period for the use of the asset. There are two types of leasing; • Finance leases – under a financial lease the rents will cover all the costs of the asset therefore the value of the rental is equal to or greater than 90% of the costs of the asset. Operating leases – this type of lease is normally used when the asset has a probable resale value, for example aircraft or vehicles The most common form of operating lease is known as contract hire. Essentially, this gains the customer the use of the asset together with added services. A very common example of an asset on contract hire would be a fleet of vehicles. Advantages |Disadvantages | |You can avoid buying expensive needs for the business when |Some leases contain hidden costs | |starting up | | |Flexible terms |Some leasing requires restoration of the leased equipment | | |before returning it |

Hire purchase – Hire purchase is a method of obtaining business assets without having to invest the full amount in buying them. A hire purchase agreement allows the hire purchaser sole use of an asset for a period after which they have the right to buy them, often for a small or nominal amount. Advantages |Disadvantages | |The payments do not change as the interest rate is usually |Hire purchase is a long term commitment, it may not be | |fixed |possible, or prove costly to terminate them early | |Easy and quick to raise finance | Trade credit – Trade credit is when a business provides goods or services to a customer with an agreement to bill them later. It can be viewed as an essential element of capitalization in an operation business because it can reduce the required capital investment to operate the business if it is managed properly. Advantages |Disadvantages | |You can pay the creditors some time after the goods are |You have a credit limit amount which is the key element in | |delivered |credit insurance policies and is the maximum amount for which a| | |business can be insured in respect of a buyer at any one time |

Credit cards – A credit card is a type of retail transaction settlement and credit system, named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. A credit card is different from a debit card in that the credit card issuer lends the consumer money rather than having the money removed from an account. It is also different from a charge card (through this name is sometimes used by the public to describe credit cards) in that charge cards require that the balance be paid in full each month.

In contrast, a credit card allows the consumer to revolve their balance, at the cost of having interest charged. |Advantages |Disadvantages | |You can make purchases conveniently |Credit cards carry high interests rates | | |It is a costly way of borrowing and is similar to overdraft |

A small sole trade in my local area has big plans to expand her business over the next 10 years. The sole trader, Jane Moss, produces and prints T-shirts to order. Her business currently employs 5 staff. Her plans to explain tie in with her business plan produce fashion items and accessories for high street retailers. Her plan has 3 stages Stage one is to move from sole trader to partnership. This will help to increase the amount of T-shirt printing capacity. Expenditures Stage two is to expand from a partnership to Ltd by inviting family and friends to invest in shares.

This will enable the business to invest in a small factory to produce a limited range of fashion clothing to supply to selected outlets. Stage three is to become a Plc, floating on the stock market. This will enable the fashion factory to expand to cater for the high street market The table below highlights the sources of finance needed to finance expansion for the business. |STAGE |SOURCES OF FINANCE x2 |ADVANTAGES |DISADVANTAGES | |1. SOLE TRADER – PARTNERSHIP |1.

Bank Loan |Responsibility is shared in |You don’t have enough control | | |2. Partners Capital |the business and this means |over the business as you would | | | |that work in the business is |have if you were a sole trader | | | |done faster | | |2. PARTNERSHIP – PRIVATE |1.

Financial institutions |The company is owned by the |In a private limited company | |LIMITED |2. Private shareholder’s funds|shareholders who have equal |there are more people who are | | | |part of the business |involved and this means you wont| | | | |be the boss of the company | | | |because it might be owned by | | | | |someone else | |3. PRIVATE LIMITED – PUBLIC |1. Private holders funds |One of the main advantages is |The accounts have to be made | |LIMITED |2.

Public funds |that the owner has limited |public to the employees, because| | | |liability, which means they |it is a public company where any| | | |will need lots of money to buy|one can buy stock. | | | |stock, pay wages and so on… | | The Money Cycle Cash flow within a business accounts for money flowing in and out of the business. Below is a table that shows some examples of in flows and out flows. Money in (receipts/income) |Money out (payments/expenditure) | |Customer – cash and credit customers |Taxes | |Grants |Electricity | |Loans |Monthly instalments for loan or mortgage | |Mortgages | |

What is a Money cycle? The Money cycle is basically the movement of money going in and out of the business. If the business has no money, it cannot pay for its expenses and buy its raw materials to be able to make sales, and therefore it will have no revenue. The cycle has to be continuous. [pic]Simplifying the money cycle Managing the cash flow cycle Most of the small businesses seem to fail as a result of bad cash planning, so it is a fundamental key factor that the industrialist gets this important concept at an early stage, presumably in the introduction of the business.

The main aim of a business in the case of managing the cash flow cycle is that it has to make sure that there are enough inflows. A business can achieve this aim by making sure that their customers pay in time and by trying to reduce outflows. How do debtors and creditors differ? The difference between debtors and creditors is that, debtors are people who owe money to the business and creditors are a business or a person that is owed money. Type of business |Indicators of problems | |Supplier |Difficulty in fulfilling orders | | |Late delivery | | |Asking for payment on delivery | |Debtor |Late payment | | |Reduced order | | |Offering partial payment or seeking to negotiate other | | |arrangements | |Creditor |Asking to be paid early | | |Asking for payment to be made on delivery or trying to | | |negotiate new terms | What is a current asset?

Current assets are items that a business own and they could be turned into cash in the short term, such as stock or debtors. Property, including cash, that will be or could be converted into cash, in the normal operation of the business, or earlier, usually within one year, e. g. , cash, accounts receivable, inventory. Assets that form part of the working capital of a business and are turned over frequently in the source of trade. The most common current assets are stock in trade, debtors, and cash. An illustration from Jane Moss’s business would be the building where she has based the business, and the transport that she uses to transport the goods, e. g. t-shirts. What is a current liability? Debts or accrued amounts owed that are to be paid within a year.

Current liability categories include accounts payable, notes payable, taxes payable, current portion of principal on intermediate-term or long-term debt, cash dividends payable, accrued interest and other accrued liabilities. Examples of Jane Moss’s liabilities are the accounts payable (due within a year from the balance sheet date), salaries payable and taxes. ‘Working capital’ Working capital is the difference between current assets and current liabilities. It is money that a business needs to run the business from day to day. It is also an essential key element that the current assets remain higher that the current liabilities. Examples of working capital include paying wages and buying new stock.

Why is it important to control working capital and how can this being achieved by a business? It is important to control working capital and how it is being achieved because it the money that a business needs to run from day to day and you need it to pay your debts and short term liabilities. Making sure that your customers pay their debts in time can control your working capital. [pic] The working capital cycle Businesses always have to make sure that their current assets are higher than their current liabilities to make sure that they have enough money to run the business from a day to day basis. Current assets involve stock, and stock itself needs careful management.

A Stock turnover analysis and just-in-time production is usually involved to help reduce the amount of money spent on stock. Section 3 – Cash Flow Forecast A Cash Flow Forecast is an estimate of when and how much money will be received and paid out of a business. It usually records cash flow on a month-by-month basis, for a period of two years. Inflows: Loan ? 15,000 – January Sales – Jan/Feb/March – ? 9000, April – ? 8500, May/June – ? 8400 Savings – January – ? 1000 Outflows: Materials – Jan/Feb/march – ? 600, April – ? 400, May/June – ? 350 Wages – Each month ? 5000 Rent for outlet – each month – ? 500 Heating – January – ? 100, May ? 75 Light – January – ? 40, May ? 35 Insurance – each month – ? 200 Equipment – April – ? 1500 |January |February |March |April |May |June | |  | | | | | | | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Inflows |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Loan |15000 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 | |Sales |9000 |9000 |9000 |8500 |8400 |8400 | |Savings |1000 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Total Inflows |25000 |9000 |9000 |8500 |8400 |8400 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Outflows |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Materials |600 |600 |600 |400 |350 |350 | |Wages |5000 |5000 |5000 |5000 |5000 |5000 | |Rent |500 |500 |500 |500 |500 |500 | |Heating |100 |0 |0 |0 |75 |0 | |Light |40 |0 |0 |0 |35 |0 | |Insurance |200 |200 |200 |200 |200 |200 | |Equipment |0 |0 |0 |1500 |0 |0 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Total Outflows |6440 |6300 |6300 6100 |6160 |6050 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Net Cash Flow |18560 |2700 |2700 |2400 |2240 |2350 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Opening Balance |0 |18560 |21260 |23960 |26360 |28600 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Closing Balance |18560 |21260 |23960 |26360 |28600 |30950 | Assume Jane encounters the following situations: • wages have to rise by 20% • suppliers materials cost rises by 10’% • the bank only agree to a ? 7500 loan   |January |February |March |April |May |June | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Inflows |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Loan |7500 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 | |Sales |9000 |9000 |9000 |8500 |8400 |8400 | |Savings |1000 |0 |0 |0 |0 |0 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Total Inflows |17500 |9000 |9000 |8500 |8400 |8400 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Outflows |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Materials |660 |660 |660 |440 385 |385 | |Wages |6000 |6000 |6000 |6000 |6000 |6000 | |Rent |500 |500 |500 |500 |500 |500 | |Heating |100 |0 |0 |0 |75 |0 | |Light |40 |0 |0 |0 |35 |0 | |Insurance |200 |200 |200 |200 |200 |200 | |Equipment |0 |0 |0 |1500 |0 |0 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Total Outflows |7500 |7360 |7360 |8640 |7195 |7085 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Net Cash Flow |10000 |1640 |1640 |-140 |1205 |1315 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Opening Balance |0 |10000 |11640 |13280 |13140 |14345 | |  |  |  |  |  |  |  | |Closing Balance |10000 |11640 |13280 |13140 |14345 |15660 |

The problems now faced by Jane are that in April there is a negative cash flow so she has to make sure that she has a flexible overdraft from the bank. Cash flow and Working Capital Management The cash flow forecast of the business is very essential in that it will help the business monitor where it is getting its income and how the money is flowing out of the business. There are some reasons why cash flow problems might occur and these are; Overtrading Overtrading tends to happen in a business which is growing rapidly. Sometimes an entrepreneur will be too keen to chase the new business and handle more work than is expected. Pushing the business can be a good thing thought sometimes this will result in unnecessary problems which could have been avoided in the beginning.

In other words overtrading is the activity of a firm that even with high profitability cannot pay its own way for lack of working capital and finds itself in a liquidity crisis. Overtrading is a common problem, and it often happens to recently started businesses and to rapidly expanding businesses. Cash often has to leave the business before more cash comes into it. For example, wages and salaries are usually payable weekly or monthly and there may also be other expenses that need to be met promptly, such as the telephone bills and rent. Below is an example of overtrading I found on a very useful website; www. businesslink. gov. uk An example of overtrading Emily’s business is three years old. Her annual turnover is ? 200,000 and her annual profit is ? 18,000.

She operates with a bank overdraft of up to ? 25,000. Her working capital is sufficient to steadily expand the business. Emily succeeds in winning a contract to supply Business A. The order is for ? 40,000 a month for two years. She will be paid 75 days after delivery. She rings her suppliers. She orders everything that she will need to fulfil the contract in the first few months. She tells them all to deliver everything as soon as possible. The first month Things go very well. All the suppliers start delivering as promised. The only problem is that she is short of space. The second month Things still look good. She has made the first delivery to Business A.

She increases her overdraft. The third month Emily has problems. She has made more deliveries to Business A but her overdraft is at the limit. She is getting calls from unpaid suppliers. The fourth month Emily has a crisis. She cannot pay all her suppliers. Some have stopped delivering and are threatening legal action. She thinks that she will be fine because she is still supplying Business A. The fifth month Her overdraft is ? 4,000 over the limit. Three suppliers start legal action. The bank refuses to pay her any more cheques. But her first payment from Business A arrives on time. The sixth month The next Business A payment does not arrive on the due day.

She cannot fulfill any more orders. The bank demands that the overdraft be repaid within seven days. Emily closes the business and blames the bank. However, if timings and payments of deliveries from suppliers and to customers had been negotiated and regulated more successfully beforehand and at the start, the closure may have been avoided. Below is another way of avoiding overtrading: Karen’s business is three years old. Her annual turnover is ? 200,000 and her annual profit is ? 18,000. She operates with a bank overdraft of up to ?25,000. Her working capital is sufficient for her to steadily expand the business. Karen wins a contract to supply Business B. The order is for ? 0,000 a month for two years. She will be paid 75 days after delivery. Karen’s plan Karen asks Business B to pay her in 45 days in return for a small reduction in the contract price. Business B agrees. Karen rings her suppliers to place the orders. She orders carefully and schedules the delivery dates so that her payments are delayed for as long as possible. She asks her biggest supplier to wait an extra 15 days for payment. In view of the bigger orders they agree. She decides to devote more time to persuading all her other customers to pay on time. She decides not to take any money out of the business for three months. She has savings and can manage to do this.

She draws up an impressive written plan and presents it to the bank. The bank agrees to increase the overdraft limit to ? 50,000. The contingency plan Karen finds out about factoring. She does not intend to do it but she works out how much money she could obtain if she did. What happened? Due to her careful resourcing of cash, the plan worked brilliantly. She did not need to factor her debts because she got the balance just right. Business B was pleased and after six months increased the size of the order. Karen considered the risks of being too dependent on just one customer and began to look for new business opportunities to complement her existing business. Ways to avoid overtrading Setting new payment terms – Negotiating payment terms, or telling customers that new terms will apply for future orders, but the business should also be aware that customers may object. Much will depend on the strength or weakness of competitive position. • Offering discounts for prompt payment – This can be effective in accelerating payment, boosting cash flow and reducing bad debts. However, there are disadvantages – it can be expensive and must be policed to ensure that customers only take discounts when they pay promptly. • Using factoring or invoice discounting – Factoring involves selling your invoices to a specialist finance company which takes on the administration and cost of recovering the invoice payments.

With invoice discounting, you raise a loan from a finance company against the value of your invoices, but you keep the responsibility and cost of recovering invoice payments. • Improving stock control – it costs money to hold stock and raw materials, so turning them over more quickly will cut costs. Faster stock turnover means that there will be a shorter interval between the time that the business has to pay their suppliers and the time that their customers pay the business the same goods. Section 4 – Solvency There are two main solvencies used by business owners to assess their levels of solvency ? current ratio ? acid test ratio Current ratio The current ratio is a test of a business’s financial strength.

It calculates how many in assets are likely to be converted to cash within one year in order to pay the business’s debts that come due during the same year. The current ratio is calculated by dividing the total current assets by the total current liabilities. The current ratio is worked out by dividing the current assets by the current liabilities:- CURRENT RATIO =Current assets Current liabilities Acid Test Ratio An Acid Test Ratio is an accounting ratio which determines whether a company can meet its short-term obligations. It consists of current assets as shown on the balance sheet less stock expressed as a ratio of current liabilities. If this is positive, the company can meet its current liabilities out of liquid assets held. ACID TEST RATIO =Current assets – stock

Current liabilities The possible causes of a business becoming insolvent are that • This means that your liabilities are too much and this also means that you will have debts with the creditors • Debts with the bank 5 methods a business could use to avoid becoming insolvent (insolvency – a term for going bankrupt applied to companies or bankrupt) • Business could carry out a ratio analysis from time to time so they can determine how well they are able to meet their liabilities • Business could also compare the ratio analysis with other businesses in the industry • They could also provide enough working capital • They could have credit checks on new debtors They could negotiate deals with creditors Indicators of problems Usually the main difficulty in a business is when it faces insolvency and what makes it harder is to try and keep a low profile on its financial problems. Other businesses in the area can put the business in a worse position by chasing in on their misfortune. |Type of business |Indicators of Problems | |Supplier |Difficulty in fulfilling orders | | |Late delivery | |Asking for payment on delivery | |Debtor |Late payment | | |Reduced order | | |Offering partial payment or seeking to negotiate other | | |arrangements | |Creditor |Asking to be paid early | | |Asking for part payment to be made on delivery or trying to | | |negotiate new terms | |Sainsbury Plc |2005 |Restated | | |? m |2004 | | | |? | |Fixed assets |7,299 |8,452 | |Stock |559 |753 | |Debtors and other assets |3,063 |2,740 | |Cash and current asset investments |697 |562 | | | | | | | | | |Current Assets Total |4319 |4055 | |Current Liabilities |5097 |4906 | | | | | Net assets |4,459 |5,099 | | | | | |Shareholders’ funds |4,374 |5,018 | |Minority interest |85 |81 | | | | | |Capital employed |4,459 |5,099 | The working capital situation of the business (current assets – current liabilities) for 2004 and 2005 is that Working capital: 2004 = 4055 – 4906 = -? 851m 2005 = 4319 – 5097 = -? 78m The current assets were more in 2005 and than in 2004 despite the fact that there was more capital employed in 2004. The table also shows that is has a negative impact on Sainsbury. The year in which Sainsbury was able to meet financial obligations on time would have to be 2005 because they bought less stock and make more money coming into the business. Sainsbury could maintain adequate levels of solvency by making sure that their customers pay in time, Sainsbury could reduce their borrowing if they need money to run the business and they could make sure that the different departments in the store have set strict budgets for their spending.

How solvency ratios can be used to monitor the financial health of the business To achieve Merit / Distinction: Explain how solvency ratios can be used to monitor the financial health of the business Apply the solvency ratios to the business. Do the current ratio and acid test ratios give different impressions of the situation? Have Sainsbury managed to reduce their stock levels and has this had a positive effect on their solvency position? What do these ratios tell us about the businesses ability to meet its debts and its level of solvency? Based on the information evaluate the financial health of the business ———————– Make Sales Pay Expenses Cash In Creditors Production/ service Cash Debtors

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1. What was the overall theme of the book in relation to nursing? I think the overall theme of Bed Number Ten is to uncover the truth behind what can and really does happen today in the hospital setting as well as long term care units. Most of the time care givers in general underestimate the seriousness of caring of other human beings. 2. Was nursing portrayed in an overall negative or positive manner? I thought nursing was portrayed in a positive and negative manner. Some negative manners in this book that was portrayed: 1. nurses not educated on a unfamiliar disease 2. ack of awareness, clarification and brainstorming 3. lack of communication between doctors, ending up in duplicate labs and x-rays 4. violation of HIPPA regulations Some positive manners in this book that was portrayed: 1. Ginnie one of the physical therapist, going above the call of duty by coming in on her off shifts every Sunday evenings to care for Sue. (pg 239) 2. the nurse in Dr. Lohman’s office allowing Bill to read a paragraph in a medical book about Guillain-Barre syndrome. (pg 25) 3. building patient and nurse trust relationships 3. Reaction of Sue’s husband.

What a faithful, loving, caring, thoughtful, selflessness and very attentive man he was to his wife’s needs. He became very active throughout her whole hospital stay coming up with a call bell for assistance from staff, meeting with Dr. Lohmann on a regular basis, taking over the house finances, praying with her, faithfully visiting with her sometimes twice a day. He became a single parent within weeks and became very involved in his two daughters lives continuing to keep prior engagements. 4. A few health problems encountered were lack of bedside manners, communication from doctors, nurses and physical therapists.

Lack of knowledge of patient diagnosis. 5. My personal reaction if I received this type of nursing care that Sue received would not have been good. When I became able enough to return back to Gulfland Hospital I would have made an appointment with the manager of the ICU department to tell of my experience. Not to get anyone fired but to inform the manager of much needed education on unfamiliar diseases. 6. I do have a personal family experience that relates to the content of this book. I have an older sister who has MS. She was diagnosed at the age of 22, she is now 53. Praise God!

It was very hard decision to place her in long term care. It was the best decision because she needed nursing care 24 hours 7 days a week. Since I am the only sibling in the medical field I became the family spoke person. 7. Reading this book has impacted my nursing future career by waking up the dogma in me. I have became more perceptive in my nursing cares by listening more to my patients fears, investigate the meaning of what my patient says and using more open-ended statements or questions. This is a much needed assignment for all nursing students especially early in the program as nursing 100.

Case Analysis on Low Morale in the Workplace essay help for free: essay help for free

THE ISSUE OF LOW MORALE IN THE WORKPLACE Prepared for Jack Smith Radar Systems Flight Chief Ogden ALC Prepared by Mary White Program Manager Radar Systems Section Ogden ALC February 27, 2011 THE ISSUE OF LOW MORALE IN THE WORKPLACE INTRODUCTION For the majority of the employed population, the workplace can be a daunting environment. There are many factors that contribute to this negative experience including difficult coworkers, lack of appreciation, confined working quarters, long work hours, etc. These factors are the underlying causes of low morale in the workplace.

Low morale can have devastating consequences to productivity and work ethic, and therefore must be properly evaluated for possible solutions. Morale is more than people just being happy and eager to work. It is an entire thought process that leaves people feeling appreciated and fulfilled in what they do every day. According to The Free Dictionary, morale can be defined as “the state of the spirits of a person or group as exhibited by confidence, cheerfulness, discipline, and willingness to perform assigned tasks; or the degree of mental or moral confidence of a person or group; spirit of optimism. These definitions both use some of the same keywords such as group of people and willingness to perform tasks. These factors can be detrimental to mission success, which is why low morale is not something to be taken lightly. It is unrealistic to expect that people are always going to enjoy what they’re doing and not encounter any setbacks. It is when there is a constant feeling of getting nowhere, being underappreciated, and not having the tools to do the job that morale can be affected. The purpose of this report is to analyze the causes of low morale in the workplace, and to hopefully implement solutions to improve morale in our section.

First I will explain why morale is so important in a work environment, and what some of the signs of low morale can be. Next, I will use statistics from other workplaces, based on the latest Climate Assessment Surveys, to compare the morale in each work center within the directorate. This will narrow down the causes whether the directorate as a whole is involved or just the section itself. This will provide a starting point on where to implement the solutions. I will also provide examples of other workplaces that have faced the issue of low morale, and some of the ways they were able to overcome it.

Lastly I will summarize the overall problems and solutions presented, and propose an action be taken to remedy the issue. ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS I have been a working citizen since the age of sixteen, so I have experienced many work environments, all of them with varying levels of morale. According to Finger (2005), “morale is more influenced from the top down than from the bottom up. There is no single factor that consistently explains good or poor morale. Rather, a combination of related factors results in good or poor morale. It seems that it is more a collaboration of different events that contribute to the morale of the workplace. I will admit that leadership and supervision play a large role in the welfare of their workers. I am not referring to only next level supervision but also to the upper management that make decisions which trickle down to the workers. As a military member I experienced the worst environment for morale out of any other workplace. The problem in this case was the upper management. They were ordering mandatory 12 hour shifts every day and there was never any reason for people o be motivated because they already felt like they were being punished. The problem with supervision also was that they were not realizing that the fatigue and bad attitudes of the workers was caused by the 12 hour shifts, or if they did they were ignoring it. I believe a good workplace supervisor should be aware of the many signs of slipping morale in the workplace before it is too late. According to Chris Joseph (2008), contributor to Business Weekly, “Signs of low morale may be obvious, such as an openly hostile employee, or could be more subtle, such as an employee’s gradual loss of interest in the job. Some of the other signs are high absenteeism, customer complaints, poor attitude, poor work quality, and loss of groupthink. In addition, other leadership related competencies that contribute to low morale in healthcare workers include poor communication, lack of empowerment, lack of energizing staff, distrust of management, poor interpersonal relations, and inflexible working conditions (Dye ; Garman, 2006). High absenteeism rates among the most common signs of low morale. If you were to compare the attendance records from 5 years ago to today, it would show a 22% increase in employee absenteeism.

If the employees do not feel like they are in a positive work environment, then finding an excuse to take leave or call in sick can be more frequent. One of the other signs I’ve noticed around the workplace lately is frequent lateness for work or extended lunch breaks. Since the Radar Systems require many customer interactions just too keep the systems running smoothly, it is of vital importance to ensure the workers are happy, therefore the customers are happy. Since employees work with customers on a regular basis, a sign of low morale is frequent complaints from the customers.

Customer may cite examples of being treated rudely or indifferently, or may complain about a lack of follow-up on a question or problem. This type of behavior leads to dissatisfied customers and, ultimately, a loss of business. Another sign that the flight’s morale is not great is poor attitude among the workers. In addition to being openly hostile or bitter, an employee can exhibit a bad attitude in other ways. Some are not offering contributions during meetings or may be reluctant to help other employees.

Some also display a lack of enthusiasm toward jobs and are performing only the minimum duties that are required to maintain employment. Poor work quality can be a sign of low morale, especially from a worker who was once a top performer. These workers may have been passed over for a promotion or are no longer challenged by their jobs and have lost interest. For newer employees, poor work quality could be a sign of low morale, or it could be the result of inadequate training or a lack of understanding of the job requirements.

I believe we have both of these scenarios in our workplace. Groupthink in our flight has also been affected by low morale. As the saying goes, misery loves company. In the workplace, disgruntled employees often hang out together to complain. Our cubicle aisles seem to be filled with a lot more whining and complaining people. If you notice several low-achieving employees who are constantly congregating around the water cooler or in the break room and speaking in hushed tones, it could be a sign that the low morale is widespread.

Now that I’ve explained some of the indicators of low morale in the workplace, I’ll introduce some of the statistics comparing our workplace to others. The Air Force Climate assessment Survey is a tool used to identify areas in the workplace that need improvement. “This is a great opportunity for you to provide feedback about how well your leadership and organizations are functioning,” said Gen. John Jumper, Air Force chief of staff. “Sustaining the world’s pre-eminent air and space force requires excellence in the work environment.

This survey will provide valuable information to all Air Force leaders to achieve that goal. (Solomon, 2003)” According to the Air Force Climate Assessment Surveys of 2009 and 2010, workplace morale has plummeted by almost 30%. Survey analysis showed: — Forty-two percent of all survey respondents are generally unsatisfied with their jobs, a two-point decrease since the 2008 survey. — While up slightly from 2008, civilians indicated they generally don’t have trust in their unit’s senior leadership and direct supervisor. – The 2008 survey showed that the strain on manpower and time continues to be a concern for the total force. The majority of home-station civilians report an increase in levels of stress, workload and hours worked due to personnel being deployed. — Despite the perceived increase in stress levels, workload and work hours, overall retention numbers remained steady with the 2008 survey. Most importantly, according to the behavioral scientists at AFMA, among those who completed the survey, civilians whose leaders used the 008 survey results to make improvements within the organization tended to mark “slightly agree” or higher to questions about unit performance, satisfaction, unit flexibility and unit commitment. This shows that the survey results have actually been used by leadership to make improvements in the workplace. Now based on the results of the Climate Assessment Surveys, I believe supervisors can use these to implement changes in the workplace that can positively impact morale. Here are some other ideas that can improve morale. * Recognize birthdays and personal accomplishments.

Most employees appreciate it when their supervisors remember their birthdays or acknowledge personal milestones. Knowing that managers are aware of employees’ lives outside of work makes them feel like a valued member of the team rather than just anonymous workers. * Treat them with respect. Treat employees with the courtesy and respect they deserve — say please and thank you, ask about their weekend, and take an interested in projects that they’re working on. * Establish an employee-recognition program. Employees want supervisors to be aware and appreciative of their work.

Create an employee-of-the-month program or a wall of fame to recognize workers’ notable contributions. Such programs demonstrate an employer’s appreciation and also offer incentives for other staff members to increase their productivity. * Check in with staff members. Hold meetings with individual workers or groups of employees several times throughout the year to address any questions or concerns that they may have. Ask for their feedback and reactions to new company policies, and be sure to update them on what steps you’ve taken to solve any problems. Back them up. Though customer satisfaction is important to every business, supervisors must support their employees if they encounter problems despite having followed company protocol. Don’t let your workers get yelled at or mistreated by customers or co-workers. * Get to know them. Ask about hobbies and interests, find out if they have spouses or children, and talk about your respective plans for the weekend. * Offer financial rewards. Performance bonuses are easy ways for managers to show appreciation for employees’ outstanding achievements.

And there is no doubt that workers like them. * Conduct employee-satisfaction surveys. If nothing you do seems to be improving employee morale, conduct a survey to determine what is making workers unhappy. In short, an unhappy employee is an unproductive employee. I believe supervisions needs to pursue policies like the ones mentioned above to help the workplace become a more enjoyable place to work. Not only will employees start to look forward to their workdays, but the organization will benefit from newfound efficiency.

Conclusion I have explained why morale is so important in a work environment, and what some of the signs of low morale can be. Then I used statistics from other workplaces, based on the latest Climate Assessment Surveys, to compare the morale in each work center within the directorate. Lastly I summarized the overall problems and solutions presented. In conclusion, employee morale can make or break the organization. Employees with higher morale have a better attitude, maintain higher customer service levels and are more productive.

On the other hand, bad morale reduces efficiency and productivity, spreading through an organization quickly from just a handful of disgruntled employees if left unchecked. emeraldinsight. comemeraldinsight. com WORKS CITED Fink, Nicole. “The High Cost of Low Morale: How to Address Low Morale in the Workplace through Servant Leadership. ” The Leading Edge, Retrieved Feb. 2011. ;http://www. roberts. edu/Academics/AcademicDivisions/BusinessManagement/msl/Community/Journal/TheHighCostofLowMorale. htm; Garner, Robert. “How to Improve Employee Morale. Steps to Success. Retrieved Feb 2011. ;www. humannatureatwork. com/employee-morale-article-3-partII. htm; “Morale Boosters That Work. ” Find Articles. com. 2008. Retrieved Feb 2011. ;findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0IBP/is… /ai_110458539/; Rothberg, Deborah. “HR Execs: Lousy Leadership Is Leading Cause of Low Morale. ” CIO Insight. 2006. Retrieved Feb. 2011. ;http://www. cioinsight. com/c/a/Past-News/HR-Execs-Lousy-Leadership-Is-Leading-Cause-of-Low-Morale/; Rowden, April. “Air Force Climate Survey

Learning Organization persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Ch. 1: Why is shared information so important in a learning organization as compared to an efficient performance organization? Discuss how an organization’s approach to information-sharing might be related to other elements of organization design, such as structure, tasks, strategy, and culture.

Shared information is so important in a learning organization as compared to an efficient performance organization because in a learning organization it promotes communication and collaboration so that everyone is fully engaged in identifying and solving problems, enabling the organization to continuously experiment, improve and increase its capability (Daft, 2010, p. 31).

A learning organization follows a horizontal structure which disbands the vertical structure by flattening the distance between managers a the top of the organization and putting emphasis on self-directed teams which include members from several functional areas creating less boundaries (Daft, 2010, p. 31). In a learning organization, employees play a role in the team or department and roles may be continually redefined or adjusted. There are few rules and knowledge and control of tasks are located within the group. Information within a learning organization serves a distinct and separate purpose.

Information is widespread and ensures that all employees are aware of the information. They maintain open lines of communication with everyone, including customers. The culture within a learning organization encourages openness, equality, continuous improvement, and change. Awareness is the key essential to the success. Ch. 1: What are some differences one might expect among stakeholder expectations for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business? Do you think nonprofit managers have to pay more attention to stakeholders than do business managers? Discuss.

Some differences that one might expect among stakeholder expectations for a nonprofit organization versus a for-profit business is profit versus service. Nonprofit managers pay attention to the satisfaction of its stakeholders, volunteers and donors because they directly impact the success of the company. Nonprofit stakeholders are usually invested into the company for a personal reason and thrive on helping the business to succeed. Business managers are much more at the “will” of their shareholders who make money from the profit that the company is brining in.

Ch. 2: How might a company’s goals for employee development be related to its goals for innovation and change? To goals for productivity? Can you discuss ways these types of goals might conflict in an organization? A company’s goals for employee development might be related to its goals for innovation and change and goals for productivity because strong employee development goals are one of the characteristics common to organizations that regularly show up on the Fortune magazine’s list of top companies to work for (Daft, 2010, p. 63).

These goals are operative which provides the employee direction and motivation, decision guidelines and standard of performance (Daft, 2010, p. 64). Knowing where the company has been and is going is essential to business success. If not properly outlined and instilled within employees, conflict within the organization will emerge. Ch. 2: Suppose you have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of the police department in a medium-sized community. Where would you begin, and how would you proceed? What effectiveness approach would you prefer?

Understanding organizational goals and strategies, as well as the concept of fitting design to various contingencies, is a first step toward understanding organizational effectiveness (Daft, 2010, p. 74). Following this essential and crucial first step, would be the internal process approach which measures the internal organizational health and efficiency. To serve the public properly and efficiently, a department cannot be “rotting” from the inside. Assessing the internal process will show what the organization does with the resource it has.

Ch. 3: What types of organizational activities do you think are most likely to be outsourced? What types are least likely? The types of organizational activities that I believe are most likely to be outsourced are activities such as IT, Human Resources, call centers and law. Types that are least likely would be those that give the organization its competitive edge over other competitors. References Daft, R. L. (2010). Organzation Theory and Design 10th Ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Political Philosophy of the Philippines argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT POLITICAL PHILOSPHY (PRESIDENT BENIGNO SIMEON “NOYNOY” AQUINO JR. ) 2011 Graft and Corruption has always been a big problem for the Philippines. Many presidents (if not all) in the past, are solidly accused of creating and approving projects of which the budget is way more than the necessary expenses and way more than the outcome. Some are accused of accepting bribes from various groups of big syndicates that operate lottery illegally.

Some of these presidents were greatly affected by all these accusations about their governance that they resort to forced resignation, but some were brave enough to stand by their government and stay seated in the throne despite all the allegations thrown against them. I know that this administration has been very consistent in telling the people about their prime focus for the next six years of the Aquino governance, and that is a government that is free of corruption.

From the time of the 2010 presidential elections until now, it has always been the greatest advocacy of President Aquino. For this year’s State of the Nation Address, the President took time to emphasize all the lapses and anomalies of the previous administration that were discovered in the early part of the present administration. There were investigations and inspections done to know where all the money of the national budget had gone. And they discovered that there are a lot of questionable releases of budgets.

President Aquino also shared their solution to all these arising questions like appointing a Truth commission, who will lead the investigations regarding all the questionable budget approval of the previous administration. Also, included in the State of the Nation Address are the different strategies that are considered by the government to answer the rising problem of unemployment in the country, the plans for the Philhealth, the National Land Use Bill, and many more.

For me, this is a good way to start the 6-year governance of this administration. Corruption is now in the minds of the people as something that is tearing this country apart, as something that is bringing the people down and as something that is inevitable to any administration. But with the strong determination and the strong will that this government is showing the people against corruption, they are gaining the trust of the people and with trust comes the support, which is for me an important part in any government.

The fight of the government against corruption is something that the people appreciates because they have witnessed how life is with a corrupt leader, and with this fight the people sees a new light, they see a hope that there really could be a bright future for all of us. I also would like to emphasize that this philosophy of the government if pursued well, could actually bring a big big change in the state of the country today, more funds to go to proper projects for the people. But the question still remains.

Can they really eliminate corruption within the government? Of course I am not against the capacity of the government to execute all their plans against corruption, but the government is a big institution and the president cannot do it all by himself. He would need the support and participation of all the employees from the highest position in the palace to the smallest rank in all the branches of the government. This philosophy is great but we need to impose it properly so that all the plans will not go into waste and so that we will all benefit from it.

Benefits of the Acai Berry write essay help: write essay help

Benefits of the Acai Berry Robyn Roberson May 30, 2011 Gamma Alexis LeBlanc Aveda Institute Benefits of the Acai Berry The Acai berry (ah-SAH’-ee) is known around the world as a “super fruit” The Acai berry is a one inch-long purple berry; that grows high atop the 90 foot tall Acai palm tree, native to Central and South America. This highly perishable berry is related to the blueberry and cranberry; and holds more antioxidant power than the blackberry, oranges, and even red wine. The berry must be eaten or processed within 24 to 48 hours because it loses its benefits and freshness quickly.

In the Special Acai Report the Acai berry is mentioned, “to have the antioxidant concentration of five times higher than that of Gingko Biloba, the popular “brain boosting” herbal supplement that is renowned for its antioxidant properties. Due to the vitality of this fruit, it is also referred to as the “Viagra of the Amazon. ( Special Acai Report – 2005, 1)” Other benefits attributed to this amazing little berry are anti-aging properties, joint flexibility, decreased susceptibility to heart related problems, lowers cholesterol, and fights depression.

It is even known aide in curing cancer. Antioxidant is defined as, “a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When the chain reaction occurs in a cell, it can cause damage or death of the cell. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions.

They do this by being oxidized themselves. (Wikipedia, 2011 1)” These antioxidant rich berries aide skin by reducing the effects of aging and providing better elasticity. An E-zine article stated, “Regardless of whether it is used as a topical cream or as an oral pill, the Acai berry supplements can nourish the skin and improve skin tone. We often cover our face with creams made from multiple chemicals, not all of which are beneficial to the body. Acai berry is a natural product and improves the body’s ability to heal itself by removing harmful free radicals in the body.

In addition to antioxidants, Acai supplements contain phytonutrients and vitamins for proper skin regeneration. ( Drake, 2011 2). ” In essence, this berry is a “fountain of youth. ” Besides the ability to benefit cosmetically, other health benefits of the Acai berry have shown to lower the risk of heart disease, lower cholesterol levels with proper diet, elevate one’s mood therefore alleviating depression, and also provides a boost of energy. Perhaps the most interesting fact about the Acai berry is from a study done by the University of Florida. The study showed extracts from acai berries triggered a self-destruct response in up to 86 percent of leukemia cells tested, said Stephen Talcott, an assistant professor with University of Floridas’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. ” The study also explained, “that it was not intended to show whether compounds found in acai berries could prevent leukemia in people; rather, this was only a model and we do not want to give anyone false hope. We are encouraged by the findings, however. Compounds that show good activity against cancer cells in a model system are most likely to have beneficial effects in our bodies. University of Florida, 2006 2, 4)” In summation, the acai berry may not fully cure cancer, but it’s benefits for the human body go beyond skin care. The acai berry may be small, but it’s benefits are worth it’s weight in gold. Acai is not a drug, so it has no side effects. Supplements containing acai may; so, as always, it is important to read labels. Health benefits, better skin, and increased energy are just a few reasons to give the Acai berry a try. It can be found whole in certain areas and in creams, juices, and even dietary supplements. Just 1 to 4 ounces every day can have such amazing benefits.

Plus, nearly 8 in 10 people who purchase acai supplements and products will reorder the product, a true testament to the value of the berry. Citations Amherst. (2005). Special Acai Report . Retrieved from http://www3. amherst. edu/~dmirwin/AcaiReport. html Drake, J. A. (2011). E-zine Articles. E-zine. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles. com/? Acai-Berry-and-the-Benefits-to-Your-Skin=1948689 University of Florida. (2006). University of Florida News. Retrieved from http://news. ufl. edu/2006/01/12/berries/ Wikipedia. (2011). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Antioxidant

My Sexuality descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

In our lives there are many people and events that influence your beliefs or things that you do as time goes on. Our sex lives are sometimes hard for us to talk about. We struggle to tell our children “the facts of life,” and we struggle to tell our partners what pleases us. Sex is personal, and, at its best, is an intimate treasure savored privately. We each want to please and be pleased, to feel warm, safe, and desired. Our sexuality is also sometimes hard to talk about.

Events that happen in our lives and the people we bring into our lives change us as a person making it harder for some people to talk about their sexuality then it may be for others. I for one have had many contributions in my life that has caused my sexuality to be the way it is. Family happens to be one of the biggest contributions when it comes to my sexuality. Parents are different when it comes to sexual intercourse at a young age. Fathers are always more open with their sons about it and less open with it to their daughters.

When it came to my father it was exactly that. It was against everything in him to have sex before marriage. His parents were brought up in the 1920’s in Italy where it was against all morals to get pregnant or even have sex before marriage. My older sister got pregnant before she was done with high school and dropped out. When my grandpa on my father’s side had found out about her pregnancy he got extremely mad at my father because in his eyes it was my father’s fault she got pregnant before marriage. So I promised my father I wouldn’t shadow what she did and finish school.

I felt like I could never come to my father for help when it came to guys because I felt that he would be disappointed in me for anything I did sexually. When it came to puberty, I couldn’t even ask him to be put on birth control because to him birth control gives girls a reason to have sex. “They feel “protected” when they are on the pill it, it will give them a reason to keep having sex. ”, is what he always used to say. Though one thing he didn’t realize is that birth control not only helps you from getting pregnant, but it also helps with girls cramps during their menstrual cycle. Now, my mother was a bit different.

She had told me that I don’t have to be scared to come to her, talk, and go to the doctor’s to be put on birth control if I thought I was going to get sexual in any of my relationships. Even if had to happen behind my father’s back. She made me feel more comfortable about any sexual encounters that I may have been involved in because I knew I could trust her about anything I had to talk to her about or anything I felt nervous about in my relationships. Religion is a big part of my life and also helped sculpt my sexuality. I had planned on being a virgin until marriage because in church I was taught that premarital sex is a sin.

Though another concept that I learned in church is that Jesus died on the cross for our sins so they can be forgiven. Although, I had sex before marriage I do believe my religion does keep me from trying things like masturbation, kinky sex and pornography. Abortion is one thing that I am STRONGLY AGAINST. I believe that if you “think” you are ready and responsible enough to have sex that you should “think” you are ready and responsible enough for any of the consequences that come with your so called “readiness”. I don’t like when friends or acquaintances talk about getting abortions when they think they are pregnant.

School has been another big impact on my sexuality. Classes and teachers always really pushed about waiting to have sex. When students were caught having any kind of sexual relationship in school they were suspended and if numerous offenses happened they were sometimes expelled. So basically they put in your head that sex was wrong. In health class you are taught about STD’S and how you should wait to have sex when older and when you feel you are 100% ready to take care of any consequences that may come. Also they try to talk to you and tell you not to be ashamed of your sexuality whether you are straight, bi or homosexual.

Peer-pressure is a HUGE thing in school. Drugs, sex, and partying are three of the main things that are peer-pressured in high school. My friends and other peers were having sex at younger ages. They tried to persuade me to start having sex with boyfriends and/or start/try masturbation because they thought it was fun and/or thought it felt good. It wasn’t because they were in love. Being raped at a young age caused me to be more cautious on who I talk to, trust, and hang out with. I have more of an attitude to certain people I don’t trust or like.

I hold a lot of grudges when someone does something to lose my trust. It takes a lot of time to build the to forgive them and for them to earn their trust back then before. The rape has also caused me to push people away that I believe come too close. One last thing it caused me to lose was a lot of self respect and self worth. I don’t feel comfortable being naked with significant others or even being naked around myself. It made me feel disgusted of myself. I also became pregnant by the rape which made me feel even worse and not only that I have been raising my son since age 14.

Though it did help me to be more aware and cautious of who I hang around and who I bring around my son. It also has shown me that a lot of men are still to immature to be in a serious relationship and caused me to lose a lot of relationships because of their immaturity. I am getting better as years goes on to get over the rape and move on with my life but again there is some things in your life that you can never forget. Since we grow up with so many different influences and events that happen in our lives, it could be difficult for some to realize where our beliefs come from.

Though the events in my life caused me to be more cautious and grow up faster then others have some of them would have been better off undone. To recognize or at least be aware of what caused my beliefs, attitudes and values has helped me in a variety of ways whether it helped me be more careful of the things I do or the people I keep my loved ones and myself around or even made me a stronger person. Factors in my life had even caused me to be sure of my sexuality and made me who I am today as a more mature and stronger women then I would have been if some of my life events haven’t happened.

Texting Addictions, How Can They Affect the Addicted Person and You? admission essay help: admission essay help

Texting addictions, how can they affect the addicted person and you? If you haven’t noticed, texting can become an addiction and you may not realize it but you may be addicted . Texting addictions are really a problem. They cause so many things. They aren’t something to joke about. They are serious. Research says most teenagers send at least a hundred texts a day. The key words here are “at least”. Teenagers say texting is addictive. They worry when they don’t get texted back immediately.

Without their phones, they feel as if they are missing something. They also get very anxious. Texting causes all kinds of injuries. It causes sleeping disorders, because children and teenagers wake up in the middle of the night just to text people back. They put their phone in a place so that it will wake them up when they get a message. Teenagers and children with phones have thumb injuries, referred to as “Texting Tendonitis” or “Nintendonitis”. It can also cause sore wrists.

You may end up with neck, shoulder, joint, and elbow pain. In the long run, you could have arthritis. Those pains are because you bend, or “hunch”, over when you text. And texting to much can cause headaches. A person with a texting addiction sometimes texts in class, while doing homework, and during activities. This can cause bad grades. When they text during class, they get bad daily grades but also bad test grades because they won’t be paying attention. If they don’t pay attention in class they won’t know the material.

This will cause them to be unable to study for tests. The people who text while driving also have consequences. They can get tickets and/or fines. Texting addictions have been known to be the cause of many car accidents. If someone is texting while driving, they won’t be watching the road. Consequently they will hit a car, person, or another object. These are just a few effects of texting addictions. There are many more. Well, now you know what can happen.

Product Life Cycle of Nokia cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Kapil Kumar 1807 A01 Regd Id 10810515 The product life cycle The most effective way to reduce the impact on the environment is to integrate environmental considerations into the product development process. To do this, designers must consider the environmental impact of materials, energy and toxicity across an e–product’s entire life cycle. The product life cycle begins when raw materials are extracted from the earth and ends when the materials from the products are reused, recycled, recovered or discarded. Currently, most of what we produce goes straight to landfill.

The aim is to close the loop and recycle materials back into the manufacturing process. This will conserve the earth’s mineral resources, save energy (by reducing mining and transportation) and reduce waste. NOKIA PRODUCT CYCLE Life cycle thinking, the so called “cradle to grave” approach, requires that environmental performance of all members in the chain is known and managed. M= Material E= Energy W= Waste & Emissions FROM START TO FINISH Ever wondered where your toaster came from? Every product goes through many different Stages – from the raw materials to the finished item – and production processes Raw materials Stage 1 mining metal ore and smelting into metal alloys *pumping oil and cracking into fuel to make plastics *refining sand into glass and semiconductors *cutting trees and processing them into wood or paper Manufacture Stage 2 Manufacture – parts formation and assembly *transforming material into part via mould or tool *combining parts into subassemblies *combining subassemblies into products *packing products for distribution Purchase Stage 3 Purchase – from shelf to users *exposure of product in retail outlet *support by advertising media *information about product (staff, advertising, leaflet) Use Stage 4 Use – consumption of product installation of products *First use *regular use *maintenance and repair Stage 5 Disposal – collecting and moving the used product *consumer uses the collection system *collectors decide whether the product is reusable, recyclable, or disposable Stage 6 Disposal – reuse, recycling and disposal, and sorting and processing *If reusable, the product is serviced, repackaged and redistributed *If recyclable, the product is disassembled: recyclable components are sent to recycling Centers and non-recyclable components treated as disposable *If none of these apply, the product is land filled or incinerated The complete life cycle of Nokia Commitment to protecting the environment is an integral part of the Nokia Corporate culture and it is embedded in our values. –Life cycle thinking, a conceptweare working to embrace, covers all environmental concerns relating to our products. We believe that Nokia’s open and ethically sound approach will help us reach the goal of sustainable development” – Chairman of the Board and CEO, Jorma Ollila Sustainable development is defined as “meeting the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs”. Environ- mental protection is not something that can be added on at the end.

It comes at the beginning, taking into account all phases of the product lifecycle. In “old school” environmental manage- meant a company is responsible only for Its Own environmental impact. At Nokia, however, we have adopted a “life cycle concept” of environmental management. This concept takes into consideration all phases of the product’s life cycle, from design and raw mate- rails, to manufacturing and packaging, distribution and use, and finally to end of life treatment. For this reason, the environmental policies and performance of our suppliers are an important part of our own environmental performance.

Hence we take environmental issues into consideration when assessing potential or existing suppliers. Environmental management is not a separate process but an integral part of all our operations, and those of our suppliers, inseparable from the processes of manufacturing, distribution and disposal. To reach that goal, we make continual improvements in our own environmental performance, and expect the same of our suppliers. Nokia environmental guidelines for our suppliers. The supplier shall have an environmental policy. This policy, a statement of the organisation’s environmental principles and intentions, provides the framework for action.

It shall be approved by the company’s management and be relevant to the organization and its operations. When the organization is part of a larger one, its sub-policy should not be in conflict with policies at higher levels, but should provide more detail and be relevant to individual locations. The policy shall include commitment to environmental protection, prevention of pollution, Compliance with environmental legislation, and continual Improvement. The supplier shall evaluate its suppliers’ environmental performance and set Environmental improvement targets as necessary.

The environmental performance in each stage of the entire supply chain Contributes to the total environmental impact of the final product. This “cradle to grave” approach adopted by Nokia requires that the environmental performance of all members of the chain is known and effectively managed. This ex- tends upstream along the supply chain to suppliers of components and to the extraction of raw materials. Going downstream this covers the use of the product, as well as the eventual disposal or recycling of components or materials.

The supplier shall upon request declare the raw material content of its Products delivered to Nokia. Customers are placing increasing demands for full material declaration, i. e. the total raw material content of the product. This demand applies throughout the whole supply chain. This information is needed in order to utilize the material in the best possible way, e. g. for recycling purposes. A full material declaration is preferable; from the start a minimum requirement is A list of environmentally relevant materials according to a list provided by Nokia End of Life (EoL) practices

The supplier shall upon request provide end of life treatment Recommendations for its products. Producer responsibility will require the producer to take back and recycle certain types of end products at the end of their useful lives. Recycling can mean one of several options, e. g. reuse, recycling, refurbishment or conversion. In order to manage the recycling process and increase the eco-efficiency of the process, it is necessary for us to have the relevant data on the raw materials and treatment of the components in our products.

Russia vs. Czech personal essay help: personal essay help

You are the CEO of a company that has to choose between making a $100 Million investment in Russia or Czech Republic. Both investments promise the same long run return, so your choice is driven by risk consideration asses that various of losing business in each of these nation. Which investment would you favor and why? * If I am the CEO of a company and will invest a $100 million between Russia or Czech Republic, I would do first some research of how was the latest and previous performance of the two.

So while I have researching about the nation’s performance in investing, I choose to invest in Czech Republic because it’s much more economic and politically stable country but But Czech Republic is, compared to Russia, very small. Only Russian capital Moscow has the same population as whole Czech Republic. But Czech is much more “western” and economic is faster growing. But market in Russia is not so full as in Czech republic and there is more space for another companies.

It’s your choice. But if you go with Czech Republic, you can also easily expand to Slovakia. They have very similar laws and language because it was Czechoslovakia before. I choose Czech Republic also because it has cheaper land, labour and resources. It is also more powerful than Russia. It is an investor thought to research first the how well the performance of desired country to invest that is why it is important to know first what is the best in making a decision.

Institutional Security and Violence writing essay help: writing essay help

Institutional Security and Violence Administration and leadership is the key to establishing and maintaining humane prisons by willing to carry out court mandated reforms. Disciplinary procedures are to provide for the fair and impartial determination and resolution of all disciplinary charges placed against inmates when they violate the rules, they may lose good time or be placed in segregation if the violation of the charges are serious enough.

The physical layout of the facility is to keep society out and to keep inmates in, for the safety of inmates and staff the areas with little to no clear view need to have cameras, facilities are outlined with fences to prevent any attempts to escape, alarms and other security detection systems installed around the facility (Redding, 2004). Inmates who are affiliated with gang activity are often moved or transferred to other state institutions; other types of strategies used have been separation and isolation of the gang leaders and segregation of confirmed gang members (Trulson, Marquart, & Kawuch, 2008).

This is usually conducted by the gang identification task force; every prison has an investigation unit that handles the gang identifications and takes pictures of affiliated tattoos, which identifies the gang name and their members. Grievance procedures are complaints and concerns from a prisoner to the administration in a formal way this is a method by which prisoners receives a written response, it does not undermine authorities, (Wallenstein, 1989).

Humane institutions are to provide safety for the inmates as well as the staff in which rehabilitation is possible, including the protection of the inmates from victimization within the institution. Screening and classification of inmates are classified according to the risks they pose to other prisoners, personnel and the community, than are placed in the proper institution with the custody and management needs of the inmates (Redding, 2004). Staff training and education is an opportunity to assist officers in becoming a more efficient and effective officer, training is ongoing in the fforts of keeping the officers informed of the day to day changes made in procedures by the administration. The use of force by officers is necessary to enforce the law or to protect themselves or others from harm, officers use only the amount of force necessary to accomplish control of the offender, there are two types of force type one which is a type of escort techniques such as the goose neck, this a technique that applies pain to the wrist but does not break or permanently damage the wrist, this is applied if an offender acts up while being escorted from one area to another.

Type two is used if the offender attacks or turns on the officer it consist of strikes and blows designed to stop an offender such as a stop kick or a palm blow to the forehead all of these uses of force are designed by professional hand to hand combat experts to provide officers ways of getting offenders to comply or for the officer to defend themselves without going over the use of force continuum, All use of force training is conducted by state or federally certified officers. References Redding, H. (2004).

The components of prison security. Retrieved from http://www. ifpo. org/articlebank/components_prison_security. html Trulson, C, Marquart, J, & Kawuch, S. (2008). Gang suppression and institutional control. Correctionsone. com, Retrieved from http://www. correctionsone. com/prison-gangs/articles/1842642-Gang-suppression-and-institutional-control/ Wallenstein, A M. (1989). Inmate grievence procedures. Jail operations bulletin, 1(11), Retrieved from http://www. ncjrs. gov/app/publications/abstract. aspx? ID=121048

Preposition: Grammar and English Prepositional Phrases buy essay help: buy essay help

In grammar, a preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase or combines with a noun to form a phrase. For example, in the sentence “The cat sleeps on the sofa”, the word “on” is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase “on the sofa”. In English, the most used prepositions are “of”, “to”, “in”, “for”, “with” and “on”. Simply put, a preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence. Another simpler term, a preposition is a prior explanation, typically found before a noun, pronoun, or substantives, that explains the noun, pronoun, or substantive.

Examples would be beneath, between, under, above, below, upon, atop, into, onto, within, without, or across. (The princess found the pea ‘underneath’ her mattress. ) A postposition would be for the same use but used after the noun, pronoun, or substantive. (He drew a line on the map from one state and ‘across’. ) Students are commonly taught that prepositions cannot end a sentence, although there is no rule prohibiting that use. [1][2] Winston Churchill is said to have written, “This is the sort of English up with which I will not put,”[2] illustrating the awkwardness that would result from a rule against the use of terminal prepositions. However, the attribution of this quote to Churchill is almost certainly apocryphal. [3]) In many languages (e. g. Urdu, Turkish, Hindi and Japanese), the words that serve the role of prepositions come after, not before, the dependent noun phrase. Such words are commonly called postpositions; similarly, circumpositions consist of two parts that appear on both sides of the dependent noun phrase. The technical term used to refer collectively to prepositions, postpositions, and circumpositions is adposition.

In more technical language, an adposition is an element that, prototypically, combines syntactically with a phrase and indicates how that phrase should be interpreted in the surrounding context. Some linguists use the word “preposition” instead of “adposition” for all three cases. [4] In linguistics, adpositions are considered members of the syntactic category “P”. “PPs”,[5] consisting of an adpositional head and its complement phrase, are used for a wide range of syntactic and semantic functions, most commonly modification and complementation. The following examples illustrate some uses of English prepositional phrases:

Thank You for Interview university essay help: university essay help

Dear Name: I would like to thank you and your administrative team for the opportunity to meet with you and to get a feel for the practice manager position in Conover, NC. I found the questions asked during today’s interview to be very engaging and it was exciting to be able to meet the team – a very knowledgeable, fun, and friendly group of people. Yesterday’s interview served to reinforce my interest in becoming part of the team.

If there is any other information I can provide to help expedite the decision making, please let me know. Again, I appreciate the time you, and the rest of the team, took to talk with me and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Best regards, FirstName LastName Dear Mr. /Ms. Last Name: Thank you for taking the time to interview me for the second time. I appreciate your interest in my candidacy for the Marketing Director position.

As we discussed, my strong skill set and my experience with ABC Company in a very similar role would enable me to provide strong leadership, and to immediately provide the guidance and expertise to improve departmental performance exponentially. I am pleased to have had a chance to talk with you again, and thank you again for your consideration. I look forward to hearing from you. Best Regards, Your Name Dear Mr. /Ms. Last Name: Thank you for taking the time to interview me for the second time.

I appreciate your interest in my candidacy for the Marketing Director position. As we discussed, my strong skill set and my experience with ABC Company in a very similar role would enable me to provide strong leadership, and to immediately provide the guidance and expertise to improve departmental performance exponentially. I am pleased to have had a chance to talk with you again, and thank you again for your consideration. I look forward to hearing from you. Best Regards, Your Name

Small Business Enterprise best college essay help: best college essay help

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all I want to thank the Almighty Allah for giving me life and strength to finish this assignment on time. I want to thank my family for supporting me through this major task and providing me with all the resources needed. I love you guys. I want to especially thank my friends who have one way or the other helped me in completing this assignment. Thanks to my fellow colleague Seedy Mohamed Ceesay for your constant help and encouragement. Finally I owe a big thank you to my lecturer Mr Amara. Keep up the good job of trying to make us understand. INTRODUCTION

A small business is a business that is privately owned and operated, with a small number of employees and relatively low volume of sales. Small businesses are normally privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships. The legal definition of “small” varies by country and by industry, ranging from fewer than 15 employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, 50 employees in the European Union, and fewer than 500 employees to qualify for many U. S. Small Business Administration programs. Small businesses can also be classified according to other methods such as sales, assets, or net profits.

Small businesses are common in many countries, depending on the economic system in operation. Typical examples include: convenience stores, other small shops (such as a bakery or delicatessen), hairdressers, tradesmen, lawyers, accountants, restaurants, guest houses, photographers, small-scale manufacturing, and online business, such as web design and programming, etc. Why do people start a small business? Some want to spend more time with family, and starting a business allows them to do that. Some find it exhausting to be outside the house all day, dealing with traffic, co-workers, meetings and interruptions.

Some people hate answering to a boss all the time- needing permission to schedule a dentist appointment or take the day off when they’re sick. Some people are unmotivated by the security of a regular pay check and prefer the challenge of the direct rewards or losses that entrepreneurs see from their efforts. Maybe you want to build an empire and become famous, or create a wealth-generation machine that you can pass on to your children. Or perhaps you can’t convince anyone to recognize your unique vision and you’ve decided that it will never come to fruition unless you strike out on your own.

Or maybe you’re thinking of self-employment because you’ve been unemployed for so long that you feel that you’ve exhausted all the other options. Becoming a small business owner has unique challenges and rewards that aren’t right for everyone. You must be driven, disciplined and able to identify a product or service that people need – one that they will pay enough for to allow you to live comfortably. You have to develop marketing skills and be able to find your own work, because it won’t fall into your lap until after you’re well established. Business owners need to understand how to budget, keep records and handle small business taxes.

They must familiarize themselves with employment laws if they want to hire staff. They also need a plan for protecting their business and everything that’s tied to it if something goes wrong. TASK ONE Using an organisation of your choice, explain the following: Describe the profile of a selected small business Haaba’s beauty saloon Haaba’s beauty Salon has been serving the Gambian for over 3 years. The owner, Haaba, has 3 years experience as a haircutter and as a professional stylist for weddings, proms, and special occasions. The salon has a full-service staff with very little experience in hair and nail care.

Haaba’s Salon goals are to create a friendly, relaxed, warm, and comfortable place for men and women, children, and families. She also enjoys providing salon services for people to enjoy having their hair and nails done. The salon’s interior provides a natural environment filled with beautiful greenery, soothing stereo music, and cable TV to make the entire family feel comfortable. Haaba is always there to finish up client’s hair so as to give them the best looks. The salon services offered are haircuts, highlight colouring, perms, updos, bridal, homecoming, special occasion styles and nail care.

Make an appointment today and experience the friendly, warm, and comfortable service you deserve. Review and analyse the performance of a business Performance measurement could be seen in two ways mainly, * Organisational performance measurement * Individual/work-force measurement ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT Under the section, performances are measured under the following characteristics or element: * Level of output- is it below expectations or above expectation? Is there any deviation between planned results or actual results? * The profitability of the organisation. The level of market share. * The sales return and return on capital. * Durability in terms of time, frame and business existence. INDIVIDUAL/WORK-FORCE MEASUREMENT Here, performance is measured by taking into accounts the following elements: * The level of overtime spent by the individual beyond the normal time. * How efficient and effective is the work force or individual efficiency and effectiveness takes into account performing a task within a shorter period, competency reduction in errors and mistakes * The output and the time frame required. The level of punctuality and commitment of the work force towards meeting objectives and goals. * The meeting of a bench-mark or a yardstick set by the organisation or management. Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the business Small Enterprise Strengths Personal Touch Customers will often pay a premium for personalized attention. In many companies where products and prices differences are minimal, the human factor emerges as a prime competitive advantage. Greater Motivation Key management of small enterprise normally consists of the owner(s). They ork harder, longer and with more personal involvement. Profits and losses have more meaning to them than salaries and bonuses have to the employees of a multinational company. Greater Flexibility A small enterprise has the prime advantage of flexibility. Big company cannot stop operation without opposition from organized labor, or even increase price of their products without possible intervention from government. Small enterprises have shorter lines of communication. Their product lines are narrow, their market limited and their factories and warehouses are close by.

They can quickly spot trouble or opportunity and take appropriate action. Less bureaucracy In small business the whole problem can be understood readily, decision can be taken quickly and the results checked easily. But in a multinational company, bogus management structure can lead to delay in taken action and bureaucratic influences. – Unobtrusive (Less Conspicuous) Small company can try new sales tactics or introduce new products without attracting undue attention or opposition. This is possible because it is not quite as noticeable as multinational company.

Large company is constantly faced with proxy battles, antitrust actions and government regulations. It is also inflexible and hard to change or restructure. Weaknesses of small business enterprise Location The location of my shop is very bad. During the rainy season, there are massive pools of water and cars rarely want to come around that area, therefore, I hardly have any clients during that period. Attitude The attitude of my staff towards a client is excellent but they hardly come to work. If they ever show up, it’s never on time.

I have to always call them and wake them up before they come to work and the absenteeism is very rampant. It is always one excuse or the other. Management style The management style I use in my salon is laissez faire. I offer no or very little guidance to my staff, amidst leaving them to make decisions on their own. As much as it could be overtly effective in those situations where most employees or members happen to be highly qualified and skilful in their area of experience, it has often led to poor roles definition plus a sheer lack in motivation.

Quality of products I use very poor quality products in my saloon. I buy the cheap things so as to get more profit at the end of the day. The shampoo and hair lotions I use have very poor quality thereby destroying my clients hair. This therefore discourages them to come back to my saloon. External Opportunities and Threats Situational analyses consider opportunities and threats from the external environment. External opportunities include things such as gaps in the market that no company is currently serving, new markets and other clear growth opportunities.

External threats include new product releases from competitors and new competitors arising in the market. A range of external factors can present either opportunities or threats, depending on the specifics. Changes in the law, for example, can provide distinct opportunities to some businesses in an industry while threatening the survival of others. Changing consumer preferences and market-changing new product categories, as another example, can give new entrepreneurs a world of opportunities while seriously threatening established brands. RECOMMENDATIONS TO OVERCOME WEAKNESSES Lack of experience.

Not everyone is cut out to be an entrepreneur. Analyze the strength and weaknesses of starting your own business. It is important for business owners to be self-starters who are good at planning, organizing, and making decisions that can benefit their business in the long-term. It is also important to choose the right business for you; which may not be the most profitable, but the one in which you have the most interest and skill sets. Network with other more experienced business owners online and in your community to obtain feedback on how you can start and maintain a successful enterprise.

Poor business location. Knowing your target consumers will help you identify where to best market your products and services. Insufficient capital. Many entrepreneurs are not aware exactly how much they need for start-up capital— and how long it will take before their business turns a steady profit. Do your research and plan ahead to identify areas where your business may fall short. Investigate possible funding sources, such as venture capitalists. Poor credit arrangements. A comprehensive business plan will help eliminate poor credit arrangements. Poor inventory management.

Keep updated and accurate inventory records to avoid future problems. Unexpected growth. Although it is often hard to predict the future economy, come up with a plan for what to do in both positive and negative situations. Consider consulting companies that specialize in helping businesses deal with situations involving unexpected growth. Bench marking: If one person lags behind, the organization can’t move forward as a unit. It is difficult to evaluate an employee’s performance if you don’t know what standards you should use. Benchmarks are standards for employee work that the company requires.

The employee’s ability to meet those benchmarks should be the foundation of the performance evaluation. Set benchmarks in several areas and communicate your expectations for meeting standards to employees. Benchmarks for Productivity Employees should know exactly how much work they are expected to do in a work day. The optimum situation is when this productivity can be measured, such as in producing a number of units. Even non-manufacturing productivity can be measured, however, in terms of sales, publicity articles written, contacts initiated, successful negotiations and so forth.

Set specific benchmarks in any area of productivity in which you want to measure an employee’s effectiveness. Benchmarks for Quality Quality of work must be a part of a performance appraisal. Establish levels of expertise you expect, and use those as benchmarks. You can measure error rate in products produced, customer satisfaction and effectiveness of projects against a standard you establish. This can be stated as a percentage. Example: Employee meets quality standards 85 percent of the time. Benchmarks for Living Up to Company Values

Each company should have a mission statement and a set of values by which it operates. Your performance appraisal can assess how often and how well an employee lives up to those values. Set a benchmark that demands compliance in the neighborhood of 90 percent of the time, and see how your employees are aligned with company values. Benchmarks for Product or Service Effectiveness If your product or service does not live up to certain standards, you will soon be out of business. This is at least partially the responsibility of employees.

Evaluate employees against a product or service effectiveness by making them responsible for improvements. You can set benchmarks for making improvements, such as: Employee contributes quality improvement suggestions frequently. The word “frequently” would be your benchmark in this case, and though it is somewhat subjective, at least it gives you a starting point for evaluations. Definition of job procedures: Established work procedures have proven to be beneficial in many ways. They play an integral role in performing jobs safely, providing standardized training and being assistive with investigations.

Job procedures are defined as a step-by-step description of how to proceed, from start to finish, in performing a task properly. Where confusion seems to run rampant is in determining whether a job requires an actual job procedure or should be considered a “task” which is a segment of work which requires a set of specific and distinct actions for its completion or if it should be a “practice” which is a set of guidelines helpful for a specific type of work that may not always be done in the same way. Planning

Planning is an essential business function that requires a dedicated effort from the company’s management team in order to fully realize the benefits. Companies often have an annual planning process whereby the strategies and budget for the upcoming year are determined, but, ideally, planning should be a part of everyday management thinking. It is a mindset of continually looking for ways to make the enterprise more competitive. During the planning process, goals are set for both the short and long term.

Once goals are set, strategies are determined to reach the goals. Information is the raw material that fuels the planning process. Management must gather detailed information about the strengths and weaknesses of competitors in order to come up with strategies that create a competitive advantage for the company. Market research is also key; understanding your customers will allow you to better attract and serve them. Consumers’ needs change, their tastes change, and what they are willing to pay for products or services changes depending on the economic environment.

Planning requires vision, or the ability to see success for your company before it occurs. Knowing where you want the company to be in three to five years and what you want to achieve during that time is an essential ingredient of successful planning. Companies must allocate their resources to what they determine are their best opportunities, and should be constantly seeking out new opportunities. A company’s best opportunities result from a combination of its capabilities, or what it does particularly well in comparison to its competitors, and what the most critical customer needs are.

The business owner must anticipate this and bring in additional talent as well as build the skills of the existing team members through additional training and education SOURCES AND AVAILABILTY OF PROFESSIONAL ADVICE A management of an organisation might not be in a better position to solve or overcome the fundamental weaknesses of business performance. Therefore, shareholders and management may prefer to call on external parties based on area of specialty. Whatever concrete advices are given and implemented within the organization.

External sources of professional advices usually come from: Financial consultant: provision of salient advices on financial statement, cash-flow statement, trading profit and loss account. Management consultant-provision of advices on management structure, planning and coordinating of activities, task allocation and definition of jobs, human resources planning, which would be based on division of labour and specialization. Legal consultant-every organization has a legal practitioner that handles legal matters of the organization.

The practitioner advices on appointment of staff, legal relationship between the government and the organization, between management and staff and between business and business. It is the responsibility of management to improve on its existing financial records. Keeping track records on debt collection, payroll system, and financial auditing and balance sheet statement will definitely improve on existing weaknesses of the organization. Failure to abide to this financial discipline will definitely create bankruptcy and liquidation of the organization.

Failure to abide to this financial discipline will definitely create bankruptcy and liquidation. USING THE SAME ORGANISATION, SUGGEST NEW ARES OF EXPANSION: AND INVESTIGATE WAYS OF STRENGTHENING EXISTING PERFORMANCE. Finding new customers is the major challenge for Small business owners. Small businesses typically find themselves strapped for time but in order to create a continual stream of new business, they must work on marketing their business every day.

Common marketing techniques for small business include networking, word of mouth, customer referrals, yellow pages directories, television, radio, outdoor (roadside billboards), print, email marketing, and internet. Electronic media like TV can be quite expensive and is normally intended to create awareness of a product or service. * 2. 2) investigate ways in which existing performance could be maintained and strengthened As there are lot of small businesses across the globe, it is necessary to maintain sustainability and survival.

The act of maintaining and strengthening existing business by management and show proprietorship is quite difficult and complex. But nevertheless, it is a responsibility bestowed on owners to maintain and strengthen their projects or organisations. These factors or elements are characterized with the maintenance and strengthening of existing business: MARKET SHARE/POSITIONING: market share is the number of customer’s portfolio attached to that business, and it is always determined in percentage. A given percentage must be maintained as a market share in order for sustainability and growth.

BUSINESS PENETRATION: the strengthening of a business requires constant and persistent market penetration in all corners of the segmented markets by reducing the price for products and maintaining quality product and delivery. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP: existing business must establish cordial and friendly relationship between the organisation and its customers, regardless of whether the customer is an existing or potential one. MAINTAINING APPROPRAITE PERFORMANCE RECORD: the management must closely monitor the performance of the workforce.

The performance record takes into account absenteeism, high labour turnover, punctuality, productivity and efficiency, etc ADVISORY RELATIONSHIP: businesses must receive advices from experts in all corners in order to protect the business. Some of the fundamental advisors come from legal practitioners, financial consultants, management and market consultants. PRODUCT QUALITY AND DELIVERY: the research and development should constantly work to maintain and provide quality product and services, plus quick delivery and accessibility by customers.

How do I Structure a Performance Review? The performance review is written to meet several goals. Those goals include judging the viability of your employee’s performance, benchmarking that performance and developing a career path for your employee. While the information within the review will vary by employee, the structure of each performance review should be quite similar. General Performance The employee’s general performance includes basic workplace responsibilities, such as attendance, punctuality and policy adherence.

General performance also incorporates the “soft” responsibilities, including attitude, cooperativeness, approachability and the employee’s overall ability to take clear direction. Although these aspects are not immediate aspects of the employee’s specific job responsibilities, these aspects can greatly affect the overall success or failure of the employee’s job success. Therefore, it is important that you not only address these aspects, but provide supporting examples, such as an attendance record, customer compliment or customer complaint.

Specific Job Responsibilities The specific job responsibilities are the immediate items in which the employee is responsible for completing every day and without fail. Depending on the position, these responsibilities may include customer service, sales, inventory and even resolutions. These are the responsibilities that directly affect the business when they are not completed. Your review of these specifics should include a close analysis of your employee’s productivity and success within the position. Like the general performance section, you hould support your findings and comments with supporting information. This will make the information and findings easier for the employee to understand during your performance review discussion. Year-to-Year Comparison If you are evaluating a tenured employee, your performance review should include a section that provides a year-to-year or evaluation-to-evaluation comparison. The comparison should review the continued progress, as well as the areas that need improvement. This evaluation comparison will also begin to show a pattern of expectancy from your employee.

In the event of a poor evaluation, a comparison of evaluations will help you to identify if your employee is just having a subpar year, struggling in a certain area or simply needing a change from the position. Comparisons also help to identify employees that have grown through their position with hopes of advancement or promotion. Goal Settings Goal setting is an essential force in the performance review. The goals that are set within the performance review are based on the findings of the aforementioned sections. This individualized section will provide the employee with steps toward improving their position and success within the company.

The goals should include items such as improved attendance, refined metrics adherence and improved accuracy. The goals should be clearly stated and within the employee’s reach. Considerations It is important that you provide an unbiased review of the employee. The performance review should be based on facts that are supported with evidence that has been collected throughout the year. Avoid using rumors, innuendos and guesswork when completing the performance review. It is also advised that you complete the review when you are clear-headed, well-rested and without anger to ensure that you providing a fair review. 2. 3) SUGGEST NEW AREAS IN WHICH THE BUSINESS COULD BE MAINTAINED AND STRENGTHENED JUSTIFYING SUGGESTIONS. New opportunities are benefited and competitive merits opened to existing businesses. Whether small or large, business faces opportunities during their stay in operation or business activities. Some of the new opportunities available to existing businesses are as follows: IDENTIFICATION OF AREA OF EXPANSION: it is the responsibility of marketers to expand their marketing activities to areas outside central marketing, but rather to evaluate and target market that falls outside their geographical locations.

This simply means that targeting locations is instrumental to market shares, customer portfolio and profitability. EXPORT MARKETING: Local marketing does not require the expected growth and profit organisation and marketers need to venture into export market known an international trade. Export trade increase profitability and growth, but fall due to some obstacles ranging from room language barrier, conversion of currency, government regulation, climatic condition and culture of the people. MARKET DEVELOPEMENT: according to Ansoff, one new opportunities of business is through market development.

It is a process that marketers and organisations undertake by not only looking at contemporary market (existing) but rather to look at new methods through market development that targets new customers, new locations, new perceptions and culture and above all product appreciations. RESEARCH TECHNIQUES: In the modern competitive environment, research techniques and development play a crucial role in creating opportunities for business. These require techniques based on quantitative and qualitative. Qualitative techniques deal with sound opinions, views, and perceptions of people both within and outside the organisation.

On the contrary, qualitative techniques evaluate issues or provide information to organisation in the form of percentage, comparing performances, assessing actual and planned objectives or results. At the end, critical analysis is made and sound decisions taken on a particular problem. RE-BRANDING: this has been an opportunity for organisation and marketers. When the product is rebranded, it becomes appealing to new customers. It also creates market penetration by taking a rebranding product to the same contemporary market.

This adds value to the organisation in terms of customer confidence, customer retention and company’s image and reputation is bestowed. IDENTIFY BUSINESS OBJECTIVES AND PLANS, AND PREPARE ACTION PLANS TO THE CURRENT IMPLEMEMTATION (BASED ON THE SITUATION AN SOCIETY) * 3. 1) REVIEW EXISTING BUSINESS OJECTIVES AND PLANS An important part of your business plan is to state what your goals as a company are. If you are a startup, then you’ll want to project out for several years. For instance you would state your current position and where you plan to be in six months, one year, and so on.

You’d list your product or services and explain your growth plans for the listed periods. If you’re an existing business, you would show your current position, and then do the same type of projections. A business plan is not a one-time document, at least it shouldn’t be. Most businesses put together a business plan during their start-up phase to organize, attract partners and employees, and to try and get a loan or financial investment. This is a great use of a business plan, however far too often once the company has started up the plan isn’t touched again.

Ultimately, a business plan is about results, about making your business better. If you don’t think doing a business plan will improve your business, then don’t do one. Planning for planning’s sake is a waste of time. Where a plan is most likely to make your business better is by allowing you to: 1. Set priorities properly. 2. Track plan vs. actual results and make course corrections. 3. Plan and manage the critical numbers that aren’t intuitive: not just profit and loss, but the relationship to cash flow, balance sheet, and ratios. 4. Communicate your plan to others: partners, employees, lenders, and investors.

You may have a great plan in your head, but as soon as you need to explain it to others, you need to write it down. Reviewing Your Plan So how do you maintain your business plan? We have to first establish that without regular review — monthly or at least quarterly review of your planned vs. actual results, with practical analysis of the reasons for variance — planning is likely to be a waste of time. Real planning requires regular reviews just as much as navigation requires knowing where you are as well as where you were and where you wanted to go.

Every real plan needs to be full of specific dates, budgets, forecasts, and management responsibilities. People involved have to know there will be tracking and following up on specifics. Then that plan must be reviewed against results, and those reviews should produce course corrections and fine tuning. Generally a business hopes for a consistent long-term strategy built on short-step incremental changes, not major revisions. Consistency is important to strategy, and the business should avoid the temptation to jump around from one strategy to another so quickly that no strategy is ever really implemented.

Remember that even a mediocre strategy well and consistently implemented is much better than a brilliant strategy that wasn’t implemented. However, businesses do come to crossroads demanding major revisions in their business plan. These are some signs that indicate its time to review your plan: Major changes in market situation. Look especially for changing market factors and changing market behavior. * Have your underlying business assumptions changed? As an example, the Internet has changed the business landscape so enormously that in some industries almost any plan that was developed without a view of the Internet may need revisions.

That may not be true for a landscape architect or restaurant, but for a travel agent, graphic artist, or market researcher it’s obvious. * Do you have new competition? Have new competitors emerged, or existing competitors changed the business landscape so much that you need to review and revise? * Has the product or service picture changed? For example a new technology may have emerged, changing the market perception of what you sell. There may be new products or services offering related solutions to the same user needs you satisfy. Major changes in internal situation.

The most obvious major changes are changes in ownership, which are frequently the result of changing partnerships, divorces, deaths, and investment. The company takes on new partners, or sells out to a larger company. On a more ominous note, the company suffers significant declines in sales, profits, and financial health. Always keep the revision in perspective. While you do want to review and correct constantly, you don’t want to change a strategy unless you are sure it isn’t working or you see real changes in the underlying assumptions that formed the foundations of strategy.

Maintaining Your Plan The purpose of maintaining your plan is to use business results to guide your future decisions. The plan itself has no value if it doesn’t help you improve business. That’s regardless of how good or bad, how brilliant the ideas, writing, or how elaborate the tables and charts. Its value is the decisions it leads to. That means, of course, that to make a plan worth the effort of developing it, you’ll want to follow it up. Whether that’s every month or every quarter, you need to track results, analyze the difference between plan and actual results, and manage.

Change things that need to be changed. Compare what you planned to what happened in reality. Ask yourself the following questions: * What went wrong, and how can we fix it? * What went right, and how can we take advantage of it? * What changes took place in the competitive landscape that could be updated in the plan? * What changes took place affecting our market that could be updated in the plan? * What changes took place internally in our organization that could be updated in the plan?

After you’ve answered these questions, update your plan accordingly, set new budgets and milestones, adjust your financials, and repeat the process with another review of your plan again next month or next quarter. Update your plan accordingly again, and keep repeating. You’ll find that maintaining your business plan gives you a better grasp on your business, your market, and everything else that happens with your company. Conclusion Starting a small business is complex, time-consuming and life-altering. There are many more things that go into running it than just providing the product(s) or service(s) that your business offers, however.

You’ll also be responsible for your business’s finances, protecting your business and personal assets, keeping your business legal, paying taxes, keeping records, managing employees and more. If you understand what you’re doing and know how to minimize the risks and challenges, the independence, personal satisfaction and financial rewards you can achieve as an entrepreneur can make starting a small business the best decision you’ll ever make. (Make your dream a reality. Find out what you can do to reach this financial goal

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‘Interpreter of Maladies’ explores how one culture adapts to living with another. ’ Discuss. In Jhumpa Lahiri’s short story collection ‘Interpreter of Maladies’, the writer silhouetted the adaption of one culture to live within another in the form of allowing differences to exist and reaching a compromise. Lahiri drew the readers into the witness of different people battling with the obstacles they encounter.

While some people like Mrs Sens, fell to the abysm of culture-displacement because of her unwillingness to adjust herself into the new society; whereas for individuals like Mr Kapasi, are stopped by the hindrance of misunderstanding on the way of bridging the culture gap. However, tolerance can resolve the difficulty in the coexisting culture, which is evident in the marriage of Sanjeev and Twinkle. To begin with, the unwillingness to adapt into a new culture will not allow two cultures to live with one another. This stance was clearly built up in Lahiri’s depiction

In Interpreter of Maladies a couple is navigating between the Indian traditions they’ve inherited and the baffling new world in which they grew up in. The Dases hire an old-fashioned Indian guide, Mr. Kapasi, to drive them out to the Sun Temple in Konarak, India. Mr. Kapasi, conversant I nine languages, informs the family that he also works as an interpreter for a doctor. Because her family has their fair share of problems, Mrs. Das confides in Mr. Kapasi to help solve her unhappiness. Mr. Kapasi is at a loss as to how he should “interpret” her secret. Finally, Mr.

Kapasi just asks Mrs. Das a question, “I beg your pardon, Mrs. Das, but why have you told me this information? ” (Lahiri 200) Mr. Kapasi’s feelings towards Mrs. Das grew as the day went on, but soon finds out that Mrs. Das is just looking for a good time like her other affair back home. Mr. Kapasi finds it odd that Mr. Das would call his wife by her first name when talking to his daughter and interprets this behavior as a sign that the marriage may not be a good one, meaning he might have a chance with Mrs. Das. Mr. Kapasi observes Mrs. Das, feeling slightly attracted to her. She wears a red-and-white-checkered skirt that stops above her knees, slip-on shoes with square wooden heel, and a close-fitting blouse styled like a man’s undershirt. The blouse is decorated at chest-level with a calico applique in the shape of a strawberry” (Lahiri 187). Mr. Kapasi, amazed at what Mrs. Das is wearing because it shows off all of her assets. Indian culture dictates that women do not take their clothes off nor do they wear tight clothes. To Mr. Kapasi this is like wearing nothing because he has never seen anything about the waist on his wife. Mrs. Das excites Mr.

Kapasi because she is so interested in his job and at lunch she invites him to sit next to her. Mr. Kapasi’s attraction for Mrs. Das grew as the day passed. When Mr. Kapasi picks up the family at the hotel he realizes how distant Mrs. Das… Interpreter Of Maladies In the book of short stories, Interpreter of Maladies, by Jhumpa Lahiri, there are many flawed couples and relationships. Some of these are flaws that are incredibly annoying such as in “This Blessed House” where Twinkle is   obsessed with religious symbols and statues, or flaws that are hard to overcome such as Mrs.

Das   in “Interpreter of Maladies” who experiences extreme guilt that she constantly works at pushing away. With the help of Freudian theory one can analyze the flaws in these people and observe that their already strained relationships are a result their struggles to balance their three personality aspects of id, ego, and superego. The Freudian theory is based on three terms the id, superego and ego. This theory was invented by Sigmund Freud, a psychiatrist and hypnotic expert of the late 1800s and early 1900’s.

The id is the unconscious desires of the human personality that strive to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive desires. The superego is the more realistic view and provides standards for judgment and represents internalized ideals. The ego is largely the conscience that mediates the id and superego. The ego satisfies the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure over pain. With the support of Sigmund Feud’s theory, it is inevitable that these couples and relationships are doomed to fail if the id and superego are imbalanced.

In “This Blessed House” Twinkle and Sanjeev are a perfect example of the id theory. The id is the subconscience and desires of ones personality. Twinkle has an imbalance of the id. She is spoiled, demanding and usually her desires are fullfilled. When she finds each symbol her obsetion is fullfilled until she finds the next one to fullfill what her suppressed desires need. Soon this gets very annoying to Sanjeev because his desires are getting replaced by her new obsession. Sanjeev married Twinkle because he was lonely. Sanjeev was lonely,with an excessively generous income for a single man, and had.. In Jhumpa Lahiri’s ‘Interpreter of Maladies’ Mr. Kapasi , the main character, seems to be a person with mixed feelings. He does not seem to have fixed stand neither in his job nor on his thoughts. His thoughts and experience are structured by the strict cultural society of India. His hidden wants and desires suppressed by the community rules are looking for way to come out. The consequence is his changing thoughts and desires which at different parts of the story appear differently and brings instability in his life.

At the beginning of the story he seems to be surprised by the strange behavior of Das couples, then at the middle of the story he seems to be attracted towards Mrs. Das and at the end of the story he seems to be getting distracted from her slowly. It can be said that he had no fixed stand in life and his thoughts and feelings were changing. Mr. Kapasi’s cultural beliefs and thoughts get first blow when he looks at Das family. At the beginning of the story Mr. Kapasi seems to be surprised by the way Das couple acted in taking care of their children’s needs.

He does not find this to be in tune with Indian culture. Children very much depend on their parents in Indian society. But in this family the parents seems to have no close affection towards children as seen by Mr. Kapasi. This statement from the story supports this fact, ‘In the rearview mirror Mr. Kapasi watched as Mrs. Das emerged slowly from his bulky white ambassador, dragging her shaved, largely bare legs across the back seat. She did not hold the little girl’s hand as they walked to the rest room. ’ This brings a upheaval in his thoughts and beliefs.

When he looked at them, he guessed that the family was Indian but their dresses were like those of… “To what extent are the stories about a sense of loss? Discuss. ” The anthology of short stories in Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies assays the ramifications of loss in peoples’ lives. Largely, the stories deal with losing one’s identity as a result of the migrant experience, the disintegration of relationships through a loss of communication, and the loss of self-respect whilst undergoing traumatic experiences.

Conversely, Lahiri also explores the uplifting qualities of the human condition by illustrating the importance of harbouring a sense of hope when overcoming the trials and tribulations of life. The fabric of Interpreter of Maladies is interwoven with the theme of displacement and the sense of isolation often experienced by migrants. As an Indian-American herself, Lahiri admitted to the struggle of trying to co-exist in two immeasurably different worlds; “I felt the intense pressure to be two things, loyal to the old world and fluent in the new, approved of on either side of the hyphen”.

To this extent, her characters exhibit similar patterns as they attempt to assimilate into a new culture and lifestyle. Trapped in the cultural upheaval, they often experience an identity crisis in which they strive for a balance that captures the best of both worlds. Mrs Sen’s poignant story and ultimate failure to adjust to American society marks a prime example of the ramifications of the migrant experience.

Haunted by memories of a cherished past, the isolated young woman is unable to attain a sense of belonging as part of the American community. The cultural divide between the life of her childhood and the life she now leads is far beyond her comprehension. Her adamant desires for attaining fresh fish and playing old family tapes is a symbol of her attempt to preserve her culture, just as her refusal to learn driving is a metaphor for her aversion to assimilation. However, her ultimate failure lies at the conclusion of the story,…

High Blood Pressure compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

#3 #3 Reason for admission: High blood pressure STUDENT: Jeannette Sutton PATIENT INITIALS: HPT ROOM #_____ Nursing Diagnosis: Risk for imbalanced fluid volume r/t decreased sodium level AEB patient taking hydrochlorothiazide. Supporting data: Thiazide drugs promote excretion of Na, CL, K and water. First time pt will be taking this drug. STG: Pt will maintain sodium levels of 135-145 by 1700hrs after taking initial dose this morning. Interventions: 1. Administer medication as prescribed in the morning. RATIONAL: medication is going to increase output which may cause the depletion of electrolytes.

We will be able to see the change in Na by 1700hrs. 2. Monitor strict in & out put of fluids. RATIONAL: to prevent dehydration and depletion of electrolytes. 3. Assess neuromuscular and LOC every 4-6 hrs. RATIONAL: low sodium will causes the pt to have muscle cramping, weakness, and fatigue. Teach pt adequate nutritional intake. RATIONAL: Eating the right foods will help the medication regime and disease process. #2 Nursing Diagnosis: Knowledge deficit r/ disease process AEB pt newly diagnosed with high blood pressure and states not knowing ow to modify lifestyle. Supporting data: Pt diagnosed with high blood pressure. Pt stating doesn’t know how to modify lifestyle. STG: Pt will verbalize 3things that will help him manage disease process by 1700hrs today. Interventions: 1. Teach pt nutritional goals ie low in fat and cholesterol, low in salt; importance of exercise, and smoking cessation. RATIONAL: decrease risk of CHD 2. Instruct patient to take medication at the same time each day and not to stop taking it. RATIONAL: To prevent rebound hypertension. 3. Monitor and teach daily weigh ins.

RATIONAL: A wt gain of 2lbs or more in one day can be an indicator of fluid retention and must be addressed to physician. 4. Assess blood pressure and teach patient how to adequately take weekly blood pressure. RATIONAL: Ensure medication is doing its job and another drug is not needed and to monitor BP levels. Good indicator if pt must contact physician. Evaluation: Nursing Diagnosis: Ineffective tissue perfusion r/t cardiopulmonary AEB consistent elevated blood pressures of 160/90, increased cholesterol 278 and LDL 134, and abnormal ECG. Supporting data: 3 BP readings of 160/90 Cholesterol levels > 200

LDL >100 STG: Pt will have adequate circulation status AEB strong peripheral pulses with no signs of edema by 1700 hrs today. Interventions: 1. Monitor for edema on extremities. RATIONAL: Complication of high BP can be Right sided CHF which in turn can cause peripheral edema. 2. Assess BP and pulses every 4-6 hrs. RATIONAL: Good indicator of complication with this patient. 3. Teach pt active ROM exercises. RATIONAL: promote peripheral circulation. 4. Administer hydrochlorothiazide as directed. RATIONAL: to decrease fluid overload and prevent edema. Evaluation: Clinical Assignments:

Question 7.11 write my essay help: write my essay help

a. The risk that Spring Water face is residual risk. Residual risk is the risk that remains after management implemented internal control or taken some response to inherent risk. In this case, Spring Water Spa Company already applying internal control activities in their daily operation so that to reduce inherent risk that may bring harm to their company. b. In the sales/cash receipts system of Spring Water, there were 3 different levels of authorized people doing their respective independent job of processing their company daily sales.

They have the main control strength of segregation of duties among the employees from different positions:- -The sales person mainly focus on the recording of initial order by customer, then print the sales receipt from cash register that shows the total, any discounts, sales tax and grand total. After that collect payment from customer either by check or credit sales, gives the receipt to customer and then deliver the item to customer. Besides, he also handles sales return by issue return slip when necessary. The assistant manager main job is to provide a daily reconciled report for the manager’s review by using the totals in the cash register tapes, cash in the cash register, total of consecutively numbered sales invoices and the return slip. – The manager review cash sales, credit sales, and credit sales. Besides, he also prepares the daily bank deposit and physically makes the deposit at the bank and files the validated bank deposit. At the end of month, the manager performs bank reconciliation. At last, the cash register tapes, sales invoices, return slips, and reconciled report are mailed daily to corporate headquarter to be processed with files form other store and weekly Sales and Commission Activity Report is returned to each store manger for review.. c. In the sixth component of the COSO ERM framework deals with control activities, the control activities in the Spring Water Spa Company falls on :- i. Proper authorization of transaction and activities ii. Segregation of duties – segregation of accounting duties iii. Design and use of documents and records iv. Independent checks on performance reconciliation of two independently maintained sets of records d. Problem avoided or risk mitigated by the control identified in question b:- – only sales person is authorized to touch the cash register to take order from customer so if there is any fraud committed at the cash register, the sales person will be liable and thus, he will take good care of the accuracy of every each transaction that being recorded by him. – after payment has been made by customer, then only the receipt will be given to the customer and to be directed to the warehouse to obtain the item purchase or shipment of delivery is made.

This means that after payment is settled by customer, the sales person will come out with a receipt as evidence that payment has been made and the items shall be taken out to customer. This will avoid the risk of items delivered out of store without any evident of payment and bring to abnormal stock lost. – assistant manager job of preparing reconciled report again reviewing of those sales transaction records that made by sales person and therefore any discrepancy or abnormal figure found will be detected by the assistant manager. after manager review the report, reconciliation will be done to ensure the accuracy of the data and after that the reconciled report and other records are mailed daily to corporate headquarters to be processed. This level of activities reduce the risk that manager to commit fraud. e. Spring Water can improve its system of control by create a well designed computer information network for their cash/ receipts cycle so that to reduce the human error risk, reduce work redundancy and to make sure the process of the cash/ receipts cycle will be carried out more effectively and efficiently.

Bladerunner/Frankenstein Essay essay help for free: essay help for free

Assessment Task Question: Texts reflect the changing values and perspectives of their times. How true is this shown to be in the texts you have studied? In your answer make detailed reference to both texts. Composed over a century and a half apart, Mary Shelley’s Romantic/Gothic novel Frankenstein and Ridley Scott’s postmodernist film Bladerunner, both explore different values and perspectives of Transgressing nature’s laws, and playing God, and the role of nature in society.

Composed in the late 20th century, Scott is heavily influenced by the Post modern sensibility, scientific research, mainly cloning, and loss of confidence in the traditional world view. In Shelley’s early 19th Century context, she is heavily influenced by Romantic sensibility, also, early scientific research, political and social revolution, and belief in the power of an individual. Through both narrative and filmic devices, both texts explore how values and perspectives change heavily due to the time they are living in.

First published in 1816, Shelley’s novel explores a protagonist as he attempts to play God, in transgressing nature’s laws by creating “human” life. With modern science thriving in the early 19th century, Shelly was highly influenced by 2 scientists. Mary owned a copy of Humphrey Davy’s celebrated science lecture. In it he stated “it (science) has bestowed on the human scientist that which may almost be called creative; which have enabled him to modify and change the beings surrounding him”. Mary also modelled aspects of her book on Galvanism, created by Galvani; it was a theory to reanimate human corpses through electrical currents.

Shelley utilises the Chinese box structure to recount the hubristic scientist, Victors, early days at the University of Ingolstadt and his encounter with Professor Waldman. IN his opening lecture Waldman espouses the power of the modern scientist declaring, “tey have acquired new and almost unlimited powers. ” Using emotionally heightened language Shelley shows Victor’s reaction to these words, portraying him as the embodiment hubris as he immediately decides that “more, far more, will I achieve… I will pioneer a new way, explore unknown powers. Shelley draws on her knowledge of Goethe Faust, who Victor was categorized as. Like Faust, Victory blasphemously attempts to usurp Gods powers and tear apart nature’s mysteries in his excessive desire for knowledge and control. Paralleling Shelley’s exploration, but in the context of the late 20th century, Scott’s post modernism film explores similar ideas on transgressing natures laws. Like Shelley, Scott also uses the context of his time period to shape the meanings in the film of playing God, and usurping nature’s role. The 1980’s saw a huge advancement in modern day science.

Geneticists focused on mapping the genetic sequence in the human genome, in the University of California, a gene was transferred from one mouse to another. In 1982, Barney Clark was given the first ever mechanical heart, and the first test tube baby was born just before 1980. This relates to Scott’s depiction of a dystopic world in Los Angeles, 2019, is one which makes a clear moral statement. In this world science and technology are portrayed as mechanisms of control and exploitation, rather than as a means to improve the times of others.

This is conveyed through the films mes-en-scence which includes an abundance of technology and machinery. These images clash with those of urban decay and a population who suffer from a series of genetic diseases. Living in the post modernist era, Scott would have been affected by this time, when texts were typically saturated with irony and allusion. Such works also tend to subvert traditional models of unity and coherence and instead try to capture the sense of discontinuity and apparent chaos characteristic of the electronic age.

Tyrell was the perfect example of this; he shows his wilful blindness in the creation of the Nexus 6 replicates. The immorality of his decisions is symbolised through his thick lensed glasses, this is heightened through the symbolism of the owl which is artificial. Tyrell’s complete disregard for his practices of creating “human” life as a product is reflected through his dialogue when he states about Rachel “she is an experiment, nothing more. ” Shelley explores the idea of having a meaningful relationship with the natural world.

Shelley’s novel portrays the natural world as a source of beneficence and morality which can offer solace to those in need. Shelley’s ideas on nature are influenced by Romantic elements, with its focus on nature as a source of morality but with sublime elements having the power to trigger feelings of awe but also spiritual inspiration. Victor removes himself voluntarily from nature’s moral influence during his time at the University of Ingolstadt when he spends every waking hour on his creation.

He acknowledges that, immersed in his own obsessive pursuit, he becomes “insensible to the charms of nature” so that “winter, spring and summer passed away durin my labours…” In breaking his bond with the natural world, he breaks his ties with his family, his morality, and with good health. Shelley employs emotive language to portray Victor’s defilement of mature and its processes as he attempts to usurp its power and create new life.

Words such as “horrors”, “tortured”, and “seized by remorse”, evoke his inner pain which results from his wrong doing, but also his ability to control in his manic obsession. Similarly, Scott explores the idea that mankind needs to have a sound relationship with the world of nature. The 1980’s were a time of growing concern for the environment as a result of pollution arising from commercial exploitation, industrialization and urbanization. There issues were linked to threats of irreversible environmental damage.

Bladerunner uses the Film noir style to show the degradation of the environment. Everything within this world is commodified, including plants and animals. The only sign of living nature is the bonsai trees, which is a symbol of nature diminished and controlled. When Tyrell’s creature, Batty, like Frankenstein’s creature confronts his maker it is don within the massive “mountainous” Tyrell building. Whils drawing a clear parallel with Mount Blonc, this world space is alienating for the responder.

Rather than embodying the indefinable beauty of sublime nature which Victor experiences, this “mountain” is definitely artificial. Ironically, it is also one of the primary reasons for the absence of nature. Texts reflect the changing values and perspectives of the times the author was living in. Bladerunner and Frankenstein both explore the Authors perspective on transgressing nature’s laws, and playing God, also, the role of nature in society.

Wild Life essay help us: essay help us

WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT INTRODUCTION The wild life laws have a long history and is the culminative result of an increasing awareness of the compelling need to restore the catastrophic ecological imbalances introduced by the depridations inflicted on nature by human being. The earliest codified law can be traced to 3rd Centuary B. C. when Ashoka, the King of Maghadha, enacted a law in the matter of preservation of wild life and environment.

But, the first codified law in India which heralded the era of laws for the wild life and protection was enacted in the year 1887 by the British and was titled as the Wild Birds Protection Act, 1887 (10 of 1887). This Act enabled the then Government to frame rules prohibiting the possession or sale of any kinds of specified wild birds, which have been killed or taken during the breeding season. Again the British Government in the year 1912 passed the Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1912 (8 of 1912) as the Act of 1887 proved to be inadequate for the protection of wild birds and animals.

The Act of 1912 was amended in the year 1935 by the Wild Birds and Animals Protection (Amendment) Act, 1935 (27 of 1935). After the Second World War the freedom struggle for India started taking its shape and wild life was relagated to the background. But after independence, the Constituent Assembly in the Draft Constitution placed “Protection of Wild Birds and Wild Animals” at entry No. 20 in the State List and the State Legislature has been given power to legislate.

It was not till late 1960’s that the concern for the depleting wild finally aroused. ACT 53 OF 1972 The first comprehensive legislation relating to protection of wild life was passed by the Parliament and it was assented by the President on 9th September, 1972 and came to be known as The Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 (53 of 1972). LIST OF AMENDING ACTS 1. The constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. 2. The Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1982 (23 of 1982). . The Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1986 (28 of 1986) 4. The Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1991 (44 of 1991). 5. The Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1993 (26 of 1993). THE WILD LIFE (PROTECTION) ACT, 1972 (53 of 1927) [9th September, 1972] An Act to provide for the protection of 1[wild animals, birds and plants] and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. 2[* * *] CHAPTER I PRELIMINARY 1.

Short title, extent and commencement. (1) This Act may be called Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. 3[(2) It extends to the whole of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. ] 3) It shall come into force in a State or Union Territory to which it extends, 4[* * *] on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint, and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act or for different States or Union territories. 2. Definitions. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,- (1) “animal” includes amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles and their young, and also includes, in the cases of birds and reptiles, their eggs; (2) “animal article” means an article made from any captive animal or wild animal, other than vermin, and includes an article or object in which the whole or any part of such animal 5[has been used, and ivory imported into India and article made therefrom]; 6[* * *] 4) “Board” means the Wild Life Advisory Board constituted under sub-section (1) of section 6; (5) “captive animal” means any animal, specified in Sechedule I, Schedule II, Schedule III or Schedule IV, which is captured or kept or bred in captivity; 6[* * *] (7) “Chief Wild Life Warden” means the person appointed as such under clause (a) of sub-section 4. [(7A) “circus” means an establishment, whether stationary or mobile, where animals are kept or used wholly or mainly for the purpose of performing tricks or manoeuvres;] (8) “closed area” means the area which is declared under sub-section (1) of section 37 to be closed to hunting; (9) “Collector” means the chief officer in charge of the revenue administration of a district; (10) “commencement of this Act”, in relation to- a) a state, means commencement of this Act in that State, (b) any provision of this Act, means the commencement of that provision in the concerned State; (11) “dealer” means any person who carries on the business of buying and selling any captive animal article, trophy, uncured trophy 1[meat or specified plant]; (12) “Director” means the person appointed as Director of Wild Life Preservation under clause (a) sub-section (1) of section 3; 2[(12A) “Forest Officer” means the Forest Officer appointed under clause (2) of section 2 of the indian Forest Act, 1927;] 3[* * *] 14) “Government property” means any property referred to in section 39; 2[or section 17H;] (15) “habitat” includes land, water or vegetation which is the natural home of any wild animal; (16) “hunting”, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, includes,- (a) capturing, killing, poisoning, snaring and trapping of any wild animal and every attempt to do so, (b) driving any wild animal for any of the purposes specified in sub-clause (a), (c) injuring or destroying or taking any part of the body of any such animal or, in the case of wild birds or reptiles, damaging the eggs of such birds or reptiles or distrubing the eggs or nests of such birds of reptiles; (17) “land” includes canals, creeks and other water chanels, reservoirs, rivers, steamsand lakes, whether artificial or natural, 1[marshes and wetlands and also includes boulders and rocks]; (18) “licence” means a licence granted under this Act; [(18A)] “lives stock” includes buffaloes, bulls, bullocks, camels, cows, donkeys goats, horses, mules, pigs, sheeps, yaks and also their young;] (19) “manufacturer” means a manufacturer of animal articles; (20) “meat” includes blood, bones, sinew, eggs, fat and flesh, whether raw or cooked, of any wild animal, other than vermin; (21) “National Park” means an area declared, whether under setion 35 of section 38, or deemed, under sub-section (3) of section 66, to be declared, as a National Park; (22) “notification” means a noification published in the Official Gazette; (23) “permit” means a permit granted under this Act or any rule made thereunder; (24) “person” includes a firm; (25) “prescribed” means by rules made under this Act; [(25A) “recognised zoo” means a zoo recognised under section 38H; (25B) “reserve forest” means the forest declared to reserved by the State Governement under section 20 of the Indian Forest Act,1927 (16 of 1927);] (26) “sanctuary” means an area declared, whether under section 2[26A] or section 66, to be declared as wild life sanctuary; 2[(27) “specified plant” means any plant specified in Schedule VI;] (28) “special game” means any animal specified in Schedule II; (29) “State Government”, in relation to a Union territory, means the Administrator of the Union territory appointed by the President under article 239 of the Constitution; (30) “taxidermy”, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means the curing, preparation or preservation of trophies; 1[(30A) “territorial waters” shall have the same meaning as in section 3 of the Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zoo and other Maritime Zones Act, 1976 (80 of 1976);] (31) “trophy” means the whole or any part of any captive animal or wild animal, other than vermin, which has been kept or preserved by any means, whether artificial or natural, and includes- (a) rugs, skins and specimens of such animal mounted in whole or in part through a process of taxidermy, and (b) antler, horn, rhinoceros horn, hair, feather, nail, tooth, musk, eggs and nests; (32) “uncured trophy” means the whole or any captive animal or wild animal, killed wild animal, ambergris, musk and other animal products]; (33) “vehicle” means any conveyance used for movement on land, water or air and includes buffalo, bull, bullock, camel, donkey, elephant, horse and mule; (34) “vermin” means any wild animal specified in Schedule V; (35) “weapon” includes ammunition, bows and arrows, explosives, firearms, hooks, knives, nets, poison, snares and traps and any instrument or apparatus capable of anaesthetizing, decoying, destroying, injuring or killing an animal; (36) “wild animal” means any animal found wild in nature and includes any animal specified in Schedule I, Schedule II, Schedule III, Schedule IV, Schedule V, wherever found; (37) “wild ife” includes any animal, bees, butterflies, crustacea, fish and moths; and aquatic or land vegetation which form part of any habitat; (38) “Wild Life Warden” means the person appointed as such under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 4; 1[(39) “zoo” means an establishment, whether stationary or mobile, where captive animals are kept for exhibition to the public but does not include a circus and an establishment of a licensed dealer in captive animal. ] CHAPTER II AUTHORITIES TO BE APPOINTED OR CONSTITUTED UNDER THE ACT 3. Appointment of Director and other officers. – (1) The Central Government may, for the purposes of this Act, appoint,- (a) A Director of Wild Life Preservation; (b) Assistant Directors of Wild Life Preservation; and (c) such other officers and employees as may be necessary. (2) In the performance of his duties and exercise of his powers by or under this Act, the Director shall be subject to such general or special directions, as the Central Government may, from time to time, give. 3) The Assistant Directors of Wild Life Preservation and other oficers and employees appointed under this section shall be subordinate to the Director. 4. Appointment of Life Warden and other officers. – (1) The State Government may, for the purposes of this Act, appoint,- (a) a Chief Wild Life Warden; (b) Wild Life Wardens; 1[* * *] 2[(bb) one Honorary Wild Life Warden in each district; and] (c) such other officers and employees as may be necessary. (2) In the performance of his duties and exercise of his powers by or under this Act, the Chief Wild Life Warden shall be subject to such general or special directions, as the State Government may, from time to time, give. 3) 3[The Wild Life Warden, the Honorary Wild Life Warden] and other officers and employees appointment under this section shall be subordinate to the Chief Wild Warden. 5. power to delegate. – (1) The Director may, with the previous approval of the Central Government , by order in writing, delegate all or any of his powers and duties under this Act to any officer subordinate to him subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in the order. (2) The Chief Wild Life Warden may, with the previous approval of the State Government by order in writing, delegate all or any of his powers and duties under this Act, except those under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 11, to any officer subordinate to him subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in the order. 3) Subject to any general or special direction given or condition imposed by the Director of the Chief Wild Life Warden, any person authorised by the Director or the Chief Wild Life Warden to exercise any powers, may exercise those powers in the same manner and to the same effect as if they had conferred on that person directly by this Act and not by way of delegation. COMMENTS Sub-section (2) of section 5 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 gives power to the concerned authority to delegate his powers to any of his subordinate officers. Therefore, it could not be be said that another person except the Chief Wild Life Warden or such other officer who has been authorised by the State Government can file a complaint upon which cognizance can be taken; Jagdish Singh v. State of Bihar, (1985) Cri LJ 1314 (Pat). 6. Constitution of Wild Life Advisory Board. (1) The State Government, or in the case of a Union territory, the Administrator, shall, as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act, constitute a Wild Life Advisory Board consisting of the following members namely :- (a) the Minister in charge of forests in the State or Union territory, or, if there is no such Minister, the Chief Secretary to the Government, or, as the case may be, the Chief Secretary to the Government of the Union territory, who shall be the Chairman; (b) two members of the State Legislature or, in the case of a Union territory having a Legislature, two members of the Legislature of the Union territory, as the case may be; (c) Secretary to the State Government, or the Government of the Union territory, in charge of forests; 1[(d) the Forest officer in charge of the State Forest Department by whatever designation called, ex officio;] (e) an officer to be nominated by the Director; (f) Chief Wild Life Warden, ex officio; [(g) officers of the State Government not exceeding five; (h) such other persons, not exceeding ten, who, in the opinion of the State Government, are interested in the protection of wild life, including the representatives of tribals not exceeding three. ] 2[(1A) The State Government may appoint a Vice-Chairman of the Board from amongst the members referred to in clauses (b) and (h) of sub-section (1)]. (2) The State Government shall appoint 1[the Forest Officer in charge of the State Forest Department]. (3) The term of office of the members of the Board referred to in clause (g) of sub-section (1) and the manner of filling vacancies among them shall be such as may be prescribed. 4) The members shall be entitled to receive such allowances in respect of expenses incurred in the performance of their duties as the State Government may prescribe. 7. Procedure to be followed by the Board. – (1) The Board shall meet at least twice a year at such place as the State Government may direct. (2) The Board shall regulate its own procedure (including the quorum). (3) No act or proceeding of the Board shall be invalid merely by reason of the existence of any vacancy therein or any defect in the constitution thereof or any irregularity in the procedure of the Board not affecting the merits of the case. 8. Duties of Wild Life Advisory Board. It shall be the duty of the Wild Life Advisory Board to advise the State Government,- (a) in the selection of areas to be declared as sanctuaries, National Parks 1[***] and closed areas and the administration thereof; 2[(b) in formulation of the policy for protection and conservation of the wild life and specified plants;] (c) in any matter relating to the amendment of any Schedule; 3[* * *] 4[(cc) in relation to the measures to be taken for harmonising the needs of the tribals and other dwellers of the forest with the protection and conservation of wild life; and] (d) in any other matter connected with the protection of wild life which may be referred to it by the State Government. CHAPTER III HUNTING OF WILD ANIMALS 5[9. Prohibition of hunting. – No person shall hunt any wild animal specified in Schedule I, II, III and IV except as provided under section 11 and section 12. ] COMMENTS Section 9 of the Act says that no person shall “hunt’ any wild animal specified in Schedule I, Elephant is inluded in Schedule I; State of Bihar v. Murad Ali Baig, AIR 1989 SC 1. 6[* * *] 11. Hunting of wild animals to be permitted in certain cases. – 1)Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force and subject to the provisions of Chapter IV,- (a) the Chief Wild Life Warden may, if he is satisfied that any wild animal specified in Schedule I has become dangerous to human life or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, by order in writing and stating the reasons therefore, permit any person to hunt such animal or cause such animal to be hunted; (b) the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer may, if he is satisfied that any wild animal specified in Schedule II, Schedule III, or Schedule IV has become dangerous to human life or to property (including standing crops on any land) or is so disabled or diseased as to be beyond recovery, by order in writing and stating the reasons therefore, permit any person to hunt such animal or cause such animal to be hunted. 2) The killing or wounding in good faith of any wild animal in defence of oneself or any other person shall not be an offence: Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall exonerate any person who, when such defence becomes necessary, was committing any act in contravention of any provisions of this Act or any rule or order made thereunder. (3) Any wild animal killed or wounded in defence of any person shall be Government property. COMMENTS To decide whether in killing an animal the accused acted in self defence or not, the nature and ferocity of the animal will be relevant. On the basis of the facts and circumstances of the case there can be no doubt that the accused acted in defence of his life and his act did commensurate with defence. Thus in this case of killing the tiger in good faith in defence of oneself it can not be said that the accused was committing any offence prior to shooting the tiger that charged at him.

Therefore, the impugned order of conviction and sentence is contrary to the provisions of section 11 of the Act and as such it is liable to be set aside; Tilak Bahadur Rai v. State of Arunachal Pradesh, 1979 Cri LJ 1404. 12. Grant of permit for special purposes. -Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Act, it shall be lawful for the Chief Wild Life Warden, to grant 1[* * *] a permit, by an order in writing stating the reasons therefore, to any person, on payment of such fees as may be prescribed, which shall entitle the holder of such permit to hunt subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, any wild animal specified in such permit, for the purpose of,- (a) education; 2[(b) scientific research; (bb) scientific Management. Explaination. For the purposes of clause (bb), the expression, “Scientific management” means- (i) translocation of any wild animal to alternative suitable habitat; or (ii) population management of wildlife without killing or poisoning or destroying any wild animal;] 3[(c) Collection of specimens- (i) for recognised zoos subject to the permission under section 38-I or (ii) for museums and similar institutions; (d) derivation, collection or preparation of snake-venom for the manufacture of life-saving drugs:] 4[Provided that no such permit shall be granted- (a) in respect of any wild animal specified in Schedule I, except with the previous permission of the Central Government, and (b) in respect of any other wild animal, except with the previous permission of the State Government. ] 1[* * *] CHAPTER IIIA PROTECTION OF SPECIFIED PLANTS 17A. Prohibition of picking , uprooting, etc. of specified plant. Save as otherwise provided in this Chapter, no person shall- (a) wilfully pick, uproot, damage, destroy, acquire or collect any specified plant from any forest land and any area specified, by notification, by the Central Government; (b) posses, sell, offer for sale, or transfer by way to gift or otherwise, or transport any specified plant, whether alive or dead, or part or derivative thereof; Provided that nothing in this section prevent a member of a Scheduled tribe, subject to the provisions of Chapter IV, from picking, collecting or possesing in the district he resides any specified plant or part or derivative thereof for his bona fide personal use. 17B. Grants of permit for special purposes. – The Chief Wild Life Warden may, with the previous permission of the State Government, grant to any person a permit to pick, uproot, acquire or collect from a forest land or the area specified under section 17 A or transport, subject to such conditions as may be specified plant for purpose of- (a) education; (b) scientific research; (c) collection, preservation and display in a herbarium of any scientific institution; or (d) propogation by a person or an institution approved by the Central Government in this regard. 17C. Cultivation of specified plants without licence prohibited. (1) No person shall cultivate a specified plant except under and in accordance with a licence granted by the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf: Provided that nothing in this section shall prevent, who immediaely before the commencement of the Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) act, 1991, was cultivating a specified plant from carrying on such cultivation for a period of six months from such commencement or where he has made an application within that period for the grant of a licence to him, until the licence is granted to him or he is informed in writing that a licence cannot be granted to him. (2) Every licence granted under this section shall specify the area in which and the conditions, if any, subject to which the licensee shall cultivate a specified plant. 17D. Dealing in specified plants without licence prohibited. (1) No person shall, except under and in accordance with a licence granted by the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in this behalf, commence or carry on business or occupation as a dealer in a specified plant or part or derivate thereof : Provided that nothing in this section shall prevent a person, who immediately before the commencement of the Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1991, was carrying on such business or occupation, from carrying on such business or occupation for a period of sixty days from such commencement, or where he has made an application within that period for the grant of a licence to him, until the licence is granted to him or he is informed in writing that a licence cannot be granted to him. (2) Every licence granted under this section shall specify the premises in which and the conditions, if any, subject to which the licensee shall carry on his business. 17E. Declaration of stock. – (1) Every person cultivating, or ealing in, a specified plant or part or derivative thereof shall, within thirty days from the date of commencement of the Wild Life (Protection) (Amendment) Act, 1991 declare to the Chief Wild Life Warden or any other officer authorised by the State Government in his behalf, his stocks of such plants and part or derivative thereof, as the case may be, on the date of such commencement. (2) The provisions of sub-sections (3) to (8) (both inclusive) of section 44, section 45, section 46 and section 47 shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to an application and a licence referred to in section 17C and section 17D as they apply in relation to the licence or business in animals or animal articles. 17F. Prossesion, etc. , of plants by license. -No licensee under this Chapter shall- (a) keep in his control, custody or possession- i) any specified plant, or part or derivative thereof in respect of which a declaration under the provisions of section 17E has to be made but has not been made; (ii) any specified plant, or part or derivative thereof which has not been lawfully acquired under the provisions of this Act or any rule or order made thereunder; (b) (i) pick, uproot, collect or acquire any specified plant, or (ii) acquire, receive, keep in his control or possession, or sell, offer for sale or transport any specified plant or part or derivative thereof, except in accordance with the conditions subject to which the licence has been granted and such rules as may be made under this Act. 17G. Purchase, etc. of specified plants. – No person shall purchase, receive or acquire any specified plant or part or derivative thereof otherwise than from a licensed dealer: Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to any person referred to in section 17B. 17H. Plants to be Government property. (1) Every specified plant or part or derivative thereof, in respect of which any offence against this Act or any rule order made thereunder has been committed, shall be the property of the State Government, and, where such plant or part or derivative thereof has been collected or acquired from a sanctuary or National Park declared by the Central Government, such plant or part or derivative thereof shall be the property of the Central Government. (2) The provisions of sub-sections (2) and (3) of section 39 shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to the specified plant or part or derivative thereof or they apply in relation to wild animals and articles referred to in sub-section (1) of that section. ] CHAPTER IV SANCTUARIES, NATIONAL PARKS 1[* * *] AND CLOSED AREAS Sanctuaries 18. Declaration of sanctuary. 2[(1) The State Government may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute any area comprised within any reserve forest or the territorial waters as a sanctuary if it considers that such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wild life or its environment. ] (2) The notification referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify, as nearly as possible, the situation and limits of such area. Explaination. -For the purposes of this section it shall be sufficient to describe the area by roads, rivers, ridges or other well-known intelligible boundaries. COMMENTS (i) The purpose of the notification declaring the area as Game Reserve under the Rajasthan Wild Animal and Birds Protection Act, 1951; or the declaration of the area as a sanctuary under the notification dated 1. 1. 975 declaring the area as protected forest under the Rajasthan Forest Act, 1953 is to protect the Forest Wealth and Wild Life of the areas; Tarun Bharat Sangh, Alwar v. Union of India, AIR 1992 SC 514. (ii) The respondents are entitled to declare any area other than area comprised with any reserve forest or territorial waters as a sanctuary as per the provisions of section 18 of the Act, but that can be done only after following the provisions contained in the Act. The respondents can take follow up action for evicting persons from the area falling within the declared sanctuary in accordance with the provisions as contained in CHAPTER IV of the Act. None of this things has been found to be followed by the respondents in passing the orders prejudicially affecting the petitioners.

Therefore, the impugned orders are not sustainable in law and accordingly they deserve to be quashed; Jaladhar Chakma v. Deputy Commisioner, Aizwal, Mizoram, AIR1983 Gau 18. 19. Collector to determine rights. – 3[When a notification has been issued under section 18] the controller shall inquire into, and determine, the existance, nature and extent of the rights of any person in or over the land comprised within the limits of the sanctuary. 20. Bar of accrual of rights. -After the issue of a notification under section 18, no right shall be acquired in, on or over the land comprised within the limits of the area specified in such notification, except by tastamentary or intestate. 21. Proclamation by Collector. When a notification has been issued under section 18, the collector shall publish in the regional language in every town and village in or in the neighbourhood of the area comprised therein, a proclamation- (a) specifying, as nearly as possible, the situation and the limits of the sanctuary; and (b) requiring any person, claiming any right mentioned in section 19, to prepare before the Collector, within two months from the date of such proclamation, a written claim in the prescribed form, specifying the nature and extent of such right with necessary details and the amount and particulars of compensation, if any, claimed the respect thereof. 22. Inquiry by collector. The Collector shall, after service of the prescribed notice upon the claimant, expeditiously inquire into- (a) the claim preferred before him under clause (b) of section 21, and (b) the existence of any right mentioned in section 19 and not claimed under clause (b) of section 21, so far as the same may be ascertainable from the records of the State Government and the evidence of any person acquainted with the same. 23. Powers of Collector. -For the purpose of such inquiry, the Collector may exercise the following powers, namely:- (a) the power to enter in or upon any land and to survey, demarcate and make a map of the same or to authorise any other officer to do so; (b) the same powers as are vested in a cilvil court for the trial of suits. 24. Acquisition of rights. (1) In the case of a claim to a right in or over any land referred to in section 19, the Collector shall pass an order admitting and rejecting the same in whole or in part, (2) If such claim is admitted in whole or in part, the Collector may either- (a) exclude such land from the limits of the proposed sanctuary, or (b) proceed to acquire such land or rights, except where by an agreement between the owner of such land or holder of rights and the Government, the owner or holder of such rights has agreed to surrender his rights to the Government, in or over such land, and on payment of such compensation, as is provided in the Land Acquisition Act, 1894. 1[(c) allow, in consultation with the Chief Wild Life Warden, the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the sanctuary. ] 25. Acquisition proceedings. (1) For the purpose of acquiring such land, or rights in or over such land,- (a) the Collector shall be deemed to be a Collector, proceeding under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894; (b) the claimant shall be deemed to be a person interested and appearing before him in pursuance of a notice given under section 9 of that Act; (c) the provision of the sections, preceding section 9 of that Act, shall be deemed to have been compiled with; (d) where the claimant does not accept the award made in his favour in the matter of compensation, he shall be deemed, within the meaning of section 18 of the Act, to be a person interested who has not accepted the award, and shall be entitled to proceed to claim relief against the award under the provisions of Part III of that Act; (e) the Collector, with the consent of claimant, or the court, with the consent of both the parties, may award compensation in land or money or partly in land and partly in money; and (f) in the case of the stoppage of a public way or a common pasture, the Collector may, with the previous sanction of the State Government, provide for an alternative public way or common pasture, as far as may be practicable or convenient. (2) The acquisition under this Act of any land or interest therein shall be deemed to be acquisition for a public purpose. 26. Delegation of Collector’s powers. The State Government may, by general or special order, direct that the powers exercisable or function to be performed by the Collector under sections 19 to 25 (both inclusive) may be exercised and performed by such other officer as may be specified in the order. 1[26A. Declaration of area as sanctuary. -(1) When- (a) a notification has been issued under section 18 and the period for preferring claims has elapsed, and all claims, if any, made in relation to any land in an area intended to be declared as a sanctuary, have been disposed of by the State Government; or (b) any area comprised within any reserve forest or any part of the territorial waters, which is considered by the State Government to be of adequate ecological faunal floral geomorphological, natural or zoological significance for the purpose of protecting, propogating or developing wild life or its environment, is to e included in a sanctuary, the State Government shall issue a notification specifying the limits of the area which shall be comprised within the sanctuary and declare that the said area shall be sanctuary on and from such date as may be specified in the notification: Provided that where any part of the territorial waters is to be so included, prior concurrence of the Central Government shall be obtained by the State Government: Provided further that the limits of the area of the territorial waters to be included in the sanctuary shall be determined in consultation with the Chief Naval Hydrographer of the Central Government and after taking adequate measures to protect the occupational interest of the local fishermen. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the right of innocent passage of any vessel or boat through the territorial waters shall not be affected by the notification isued under sub-section (1). (3) No alteration of the boundaries of a sanctuary shall be made except on a resolution passed by the Legislature of the state. ] 27.

Restriction on entry in sanctuary. – (1) No person other than,- (a) a public servant on duty, (b) a person who has been permitted by the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer to reside within the limits of the sanctuary, (c) a person who has any right over immovable property within the limits of the sanctuary, (d) a person passing through the sanctuary along a public highway, and (e) the dependents of the person referred to in clause (a), clause (b) or clause (c), shall enter or reside in the sanctuary, except under and in accordance with the conditions of a peemit granted under section 28. 2) Every person shall, so long as he resides in the sanctuary, be bound- (a) to prevent the commission, in the sanctuary, of an offence against this Act; (b) where there is reason to believe that any such offence against this Act has been committed in such sanctuary, to help in discovering and arresting the offender; (c) to report the death of any wild animal and to safeguard its remains until the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer takes charge thereof; (d) to extinguish any fire in such sanctuary of which he has knowledge or information and to prevent from spreading, by any lawful means in his power, any fire within the vicinity of such sanctuary of which he has knowledge or information; or (e) to assist any Forest Officer, Chief Wild Life Warden, Wild Life Warden or Police Officer demanding his aid for preventing the commission of any offence against this Act or in the investigation of any such offence. [(3) No person shall, with intent to cause demage to any boundary-mark of a sanctuary or to cause wrongful gain as defined in the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (45 of 1860), alter, destroy, more or deface such boundary-mark. (4) No person shall tease or molest any wild animal or litter the grounds of sanctuary. ] 28. Grant of permit. -(1) The Chief Wild Life Warden may, on application, grant to any person a permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary for all or any of the following purposes, namely :- (a) investigation or study of wild life and purposes ancillary or incidental thereto; (b) photography; (c) scientific research; (d) tourism; (e) transaction of lawful business with any person residing in the sanctuary. 2) A permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary shall be issued subject to such conditions and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed. 1[29. Destruction,etc. , in a sanctuary prohibited without permit. -No person shall destroy, exploit or remove any wild life from a sanctuary or destroy or demage the habitat of any wild animal or deprive any wild animal of its habitat within such sanctuary except under and in accordance with a permit granted by the Chief Wild Life Warden and no such permit shall be granted unless the State Government, being satisfied that such destruction, exploitation or removal of wild life from the sanctuary is necessary for the improvement and better management of wild life therein, authorises the issue of such permit. Explanation. For the purposes of this section, grazing or movement of live-stock permitted under clause (d) of section 33 shall not be deemed to be an act prohibited under this section. ] 30. Causing fire prohibited. -No person shall set fire to a sanctuary, or kindle any fire, or leave any fire buring, in such manner as to endanger such sanctuary. 31. Prohibition of entry into sanctuary with weapon. -No person shall enter a sanctuary with any weapon except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer. 32. Ban on use of injurious substances. -No person shall use, in a sanctuary, chemicals, explosives or any other substances which may cause injury to or endanger, any wild life in such sanctuary. 33. Control of sanctuaries. The Chief Wild Life Warden shall be the authority who shall control, manage and maintain all sanctuaries and for that purpose, within the limits of any sanctuary,- (a) may construct such roads, bridges, buildings, fences or barrier gates, and carry out such other works as he may consider necessary for the purposes of such sanctuary; (b) shall take such steps as will ensure the security of wild animals in the sanctuary and the preservation of the sanctuary and wild animals therein; (c) may take such measures, in the interests of the wild life, as he may consider necessary for the improvement of any habitat; (d) may regulate, control or prohibit, in keeping with the interests of wild life, the grazing or movement of 2[live-stock]. 3[* * *] 4[33A. Immunisation of live-stock. – (1) The Chief Wild Life Warden shall take such measures in such manner, as may be prescribed, for immunisation against communicable diseases of the live-stock kept in or within five kilometres of a sanctuary. (2) No person shall take or cause, to be taken or grazed, any live-stock in a sanctuary without getting it immunised. ] 34. Registration of certain persons in possession of arms. (1) Within three months from the declaration of any area as a sanctuary, every person residing in or within ten kilometres of any such sanctuary and holding a licence granted under the Arms Act, 1959 (54 of 1959), for the possession of arms or exempted from the provisions of that Act and possessing arms, shall apply in such form, on payment of such fee and within such time as may be prescribed, to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer, for the registration of his name. (2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1) the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer shall register the name of the applicant in such manner as may be prescribed. 1[(3)No new licences under the Arms Act, 1959 (54 of 1959) shall be granted within a radius of ten kilometres of a sanctuary without the prior concurrence of the Chief Wild Life Warden. ] National Parks 35. Declaration of National Parks. -(1) Whenever it appears to the State

Government that an area, whether within a sanctuary or not, is, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological association or importance, needed to be constituted as National Park for the purpose of protecting, propogating or developing wild life therein or its environment, it may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute such area as a National Park: 2[Provided that where any part of the territorial waters is proposed to be included in such National Park, the provisions of section 26A shall, as far as may be, apply in relation to the declaration of a National Park as they apply in relation to the declaration of a sanctuary. ] (2) The notification referred to in sub-section (1) shall define the limits of the area which is intended to be declared as a National Park. (3) Where any area is intended to be declared as a National park, the provisions of sections 3[19 of 26A (both inclusive except clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 24)] shall, as far as may be, apply to the investigation and determination of claims, and extinguishment of rights, in relation to any land in such area as they apply to the said matters in relation to any land in a sanctuary. (4) When the following events have occured, namely:- a) the period for preferring claims has elapsed, and all claims, if any, made in relation to any land in an area intended to be declared as a National Park, have been disposed of by the State Government, and (b) all rights in respect of lands proposed to be included in the National Park, have become vested in the State Government, the State Government shall publish a notification specifying the limits of the area which shall be comprised within the National Park and declare that the said area shall be National Park on and from such date as may be specified in the notification. (5) No alteration of the boundaries of a National Park shall be made except on a resolution passed by the Legislature of the State. (6) No person shall destroy, exploit or remove any wild life from a National Park or destroy or damage the habitat of any wild animal or deprive any wild animal of its habitat within such National Park except under and in accordance with a permit granted unless the State Government, being satisfied that such destruction, exploitation or removal of wild life therein, authorises the issue of such permit. (7) No grazing of any 1[live-stock] shall be permitted in a National Park and no 1[live-stock] hall be allowed to enter therein except where such 1[live-stock] is used as a vehicle by a person authorised to enter such National Park. (8) The provisions of sections 27 and 28, sections 30 to 32 (both inclusive), and clauses (a), (b) and (c) of 2[section 33, section 33 A] and section 34 shall, as far as may be apply in relation to a National Park as they apply in relation to a sanctuary. 3[* * *] Closed Area 37. Declaration of closed area. – (1) The State Government may, by notification, declare any area closed to hunting for such period as may be specified in the notification. (2) No hunting of any wild animal shall be permitted in a closed area during the period specified in the notification referred to in sub-section (1). WILDLIFE PROTECTION ACT (contd. )

Sanctuaries or National Parks declared by Central Government 38. Power of Central Government to declare areas as sanctuaries or National Parks. – (1) Where the State Government leases or otherwise transfers any area under its control, not being an area within a sanctuary, to the Central Government, the Central Government may, if it is satisfied that the conditions specified in section 18 are fulfilled in relation to the area so transferred to it, declare such area, by notification, to be a sanctuary and the provisions of 5[sections 18 of 35] (both inclusive), 54 and 55 shall apply in relation to such sanctuary as they apply in relation to a sanctuary declared by the State Government. 2) The Central Government may, if it is satisfied that the conditions specified in section 35 are fulfilled in relation to any area referred to in sub-section (1), whether or not such area has been declared, to be a sanctuary by the Central Government or the State Government, declare such area, by notification, to be a National Park and the provisions of sections 35, 54 and 55 shall apply in relation to such National Parks as they apply in relation to a National Park declared by the State Government. (3) In relation to a sanctuary or National Park declared by the Central Government, the powers and duties of the Chief Wild Life Warden under the sanctions referred to in sub-sections(1) and (2), shall be exercised and discharged by the Director or by such other officer s may be authorised by the Director in this behalf and references, in the sections aforesaid, to the State Government shall be construed as references to the Central Government and reference therein to the Legislature of the State shall be construed as a reference to Parliament. 1[CHAPTER IV] CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY AND RECOGNISATION OF ZOOS 38A. Constitution of Central Zoo Authority. – (1) The Central Government shall constitute a body to be known as the Central Zoo Authority (hereinafter in this Chapter referred to as the Authority), to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act. (2) The Authority shall consists of- (a) chairperson; b) such number of members not exceeding ten; and (c) member-secretary, to be appointed by the Central Government. 38B. Term of office and conditions of service of Chairperson and members, etc. – (1) The chairperson and every member shall hold office for such period, not exceeding three years, as may be specified by the Central Government in this behalf. (2) The chairperson or a member may by writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government, resign from the office of chairperson or, as the case may be, of the member. (3) The Central Government shall remove a person from the office of chairperson or member referred to in sub-section (2) if that person- (a) becomes an undischarged insolvent; b) gets convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for an offence which in the opinion of the Central Government involves moral turpitude; (c) becomes of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court; (d) refuses to act or becomes incapable of acting; (e) is, without obtaining leave of absence from the authority, absent from three consecutive meetings of the Authority; or (f) in the opinion of the Central Government has so abused the position of chairperson or member as to render that person’s continuance in office detrimental to the public interest: Provided that no person shall be removed under this clause unless that person has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in the matter. (4) A vacancy caused under sub-section (2) or otherwise shall be filled by fresh appointment. (5) The salaries and allowances and other conditions of appointment of chairperson, members and member-secretary of the Authority shall be such as may be prescribed. (6) The Authority shall, with the previous sanction of the Central Government, employ such officers and other employees as it deems necessary to carry out the purposes of the Authority. 7) The terms and conditions of service of the officers and other employees of the Authority shall be such as may be prescribed. (8) No act or proceeding of the Authority shall be questioned or shall be invalid on the ground merely of the existance of any vacancies or defect in the constitution of the Authority. 38C. Functions of the Authority. -The Authority shall perform the following functions, namely:- (a) specify the minimum standards for housing, upkeep and veterinary care of the animals kept in a zoo; (b) evaluate and assess the functioning of zoos with respect to the standards or the norms as may be prescribed; (c) recognise or derecognise zoos; d) identify endangered species of wild animals for purposes of captive breeding and assigning responsibility in this regard to zoo; (e) co-operate the acquisition, exchange and loaning of animals for breeding purposes; (f) ensure maintenance of stud-books of endangered species of wild animals bred in captivity; (g) identify priorities and themes with regard to display of captive animals in a zoo; (h) co-ordinate training of zoo personnel in India and outside India; (i) co-ordinate research in captive breeding and educational programmes for the purposes of zoos; (j) provide technical and other assistance to zoos for their proper management and development on scientific lines; (k) perform such other functions as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act with regard to zoos. 38D. Peocedure to be regulated by the Authority. – (1) The Authority shall meet as and when necessary and shall meet at such time and place as the chairperson may think fit. (2) The Authority shall regulate its own procedure. 3) All orders and decisions of the Authority shall be authenticated by the Member-Secretary in this behalf. 38E. Grants and loans to Authority and Constitution of Fund. – (1) The Central Government may, after due appropriation made by Parliament by law in this behalf, make to the Authority grants and loans of such sums of money as that Government may consider necessary. (2) There shall be constituted a Fund to be called the Central Zoo Authority and there shall be credited thereto any grants and loans made to the Authority by the Central Government, all fees and charges received by the Authority under this Act and all sums received by the Authority from such other sources as may be decided upon by the Central Government. 3) The Fund referred to in sub-section (2) shall be applied for meeting salary, allowances and other remuneration of the members, officers and other employees of the Authority and the expenses of Authority in the discharge of its functions under this Chapter and expenses on objects and for purposes authorised by this Act. (4) The Authority shall maintain proper accounts and other relevant records and prepare an annual statement of accounts in such form as may be prescribed by the Central Government in consultation with the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. (5) The accounts of the Authority shall be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor-General at such intervals as may be specified by him and any expenditure incurred in connection with such audit shall be payable by the Authority to the Comptroller and Auditor-General. 6) The Comptroller and Auditor-General and any person appointed by him in connection with the audit of the accounts of the Authority under this Act shall have the same rights and privilege and the authority in connection with such audit as the Comptroller ad Audit-General generally has in connection with the audit of the Government accounts and, in particular, shall have the right to demand the production of books, accounts, connected vouchers and other documents and papers and to inspect any of the offices of the Authority. (7) The accounts of the Authoriy, as a certified by the Comptroller and Auditor-General or any other persaon appointed by him in this behalf, together with the audit report thereon, shall be forwarded annually to the Central Government by the Authority. 38F. Annual report. – The Authority, shall prepare in such form and at such time, for each inancial year, as may be prescribed, its annual report, giving a full account of its activities during the previous financial year and forward a copy thereof to the Central Government. 38G. Annual report and audit report to be laid before Parliament. -The Central Government shall cause the annual report together with a memorandum of action taken on the recommendations contained therein, in so far as they relate to the Central Government, and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such recommendations and the audit report to be laid as soon as may be after the reports are received before each House of Parliament. 38H. Recognition of zoos. – 1) No zoo shall be operated without being recognised by the Authority : Provided that a zoo being operated immediately before the date of commencement of the Wild Life (Protection) (Amendation) Act, 1991 may continue to operate without being recognised for a period of 1[eighteen months from the date of such commensement] and if the application seeking recognition is made within that period, the zoo may continue to be operated until the said application is finally decided or withdrawn and in case of refusal for a further period of six months from the date of such refusal. (2) Every application for recognition of a zoo shall be made to the Authority in such form and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed. (3) Every recognition shall specify the conditions, if any, subject to which the applicant shall operate the zoo. 4) No recognition to a zoo shall be granted unless the Authority, having due regard to the interests of protection and conservation of wild life, and such standards, norms and other matters as may be prescribed, is satisfied that recognition should be granted. (5) No application for recognition of a zoo shall be rejected unless the applicant has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard. (6) The Authority may, for reasons to be recorded by it, suspend or cancel any recognition granted under sub-section(4): (7) An appeal from an order refusing to recognise a zoo under sub-section (5) or an order suspending or cancelling a recognition under sub-section (6) shall lie to the Central Government. 8) An appeal under sub-section (7) shall be preferred within thirty days from the date of communication to the applicant of the order appealed against: Provided that the Central Government may admit any appeal preferred after the expiry of the period aforesaid if it satisfied that the appellant had sufficient cause for not preferring the appeal in time. 38I. Acquisition of animals by a zoo. – Subject to the other provisions of this Act no zoo shall acquire or transfer any wild animal specified in Schedule I and Schedule II except with the previous permission of the Authority. 38J. Prohibition of teasing, etc. , in a zoo. – No person shall tease, molest, injure or feed any animal or cause disturbance to the animals by noise or otherwise or litter the grounds in a zoo. ] CHAPTER V TRADE OR COMMERCE IN WILD ANIMALS, ANIMAL ARTICLE AND TROPHIES 39. Wild animals, etc. , to be Government property. (1) Every- (a) wild animal, other than vermin, which is hunted under section 11 or sub-section (1) of section 29 or sub-section (6) of section 35 or kept or 1[bred in captivity or hunted] in contravention of any provision of this Act or any rule or order made thereunder or found dead, or killed by 2[* * *] mistake; and (b) animal article, trophy or uncured trophy or meat drived from any wild animal referred to in clause (a) in respect of which any offence against this Act or any rule or order made thereunder has been committed; 1[(c) ivory imported into India an article made from such ivory in respect of which any offence against this Act or any rule or order made thereunder has been committed; (d) vehicle, vessel, weapon, trap or tool that has been used for committing an offence and has been seized under the provision of this Act,] shall be the property of the State Government, and, where such animal is hunted in a sanctuary or National Park declared by the Central Government, such animal or any animal article, trophy, uncured trophy or meat 2[derived from such animal, or any vehicle, vessel, weapon, trap or tool used in such hunting] shall be the property of the Central Government. 2) Any person who obtains, by any means, the possession of Government property, shall, within forty-eight hours from obtaining such possession, make a report as to the obtaining of such possession to the nearest police station or the authorised officer and shall, if so required, hand over such property to the officer-in-charge of such police station or such authorised officer, as the case may be. (3) No person shall, without the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer- (a) acquire or keep in his possession, custody or control,or (b) transfer to any person, whether by way of gift, sale or otherwise, or (c) destroy or damage, such Governement property. COMMENTS

The wild animals which are dead in a private land, the owner of the land is entitled to claim ownership of the dead animal. The body of a wild animal which is found on a particular land becomes the absolute property of the owner of the soil even if killed by a trespasser, unless, the trespasser chased the animal on the land of one person and killed it on the land of another. The dead elephant in question had not been chased or persued by the forest authorities, but it had been shot by some unknown persons and it voluntarily quit the reserve forest and entered the private land where it died. In this view, the order of the lower Appellate Court can not be sustained; B. Natwall Valid v.

State of Tamil Nadu, AIR 1979 Mad 218. 40. Declarations. – (1) Every person having at the commencement of this Act the control, custody or possession of any captive animal specified in Schedule I or Part II of Schedule II, or any uncured trophy derived from such animal or salted or dried skins of such animal or the musk of a musk deer or the horn of a rhinoceros, shall, within thirty days from the commencement of this Act, declare to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer the number and description of the animal, or article of the foregoing description under his control, custody or possession and the place where such animal or article is kept. 2) No person shall, after the commencement of this Act, acquire, receive, keep in his control, custody or possession, sell, offer for sale or otherwise transfer or transport any animal specified in Schedule I or Part II of Schedule II or any uncured trophy or meat derived from such animal, or the salted or dried skins of such of animal or the musk of a musk deer or the horn of a rhinoceros, except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer. 1[(3) Nothing in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) shall apply to a recognised zoo subject to the provisions of section 381 or to a public museum. ] (4) The State Government may, by notification, require any person to declare to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer any animal article or trophy (other than a musk of a musk deer or horn of a rhinoceros) or salted or dried skins derived from an animal specified in Schedule I or Schedule II in his control, custody or possession in such form, in such manner, and within such time, as may be prescribed. 41. Inquiry and preparation of inventories. – 1) On receipt of a declaration made under section 40, the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officers may, after such notice, in such manner and at such time, as may be prescribed,- (a) enter upon the premises of a person referred to in section 40; (b) make inquiries and prepare inventories of animal articles, trophies, uncured trophies, salted and dried skins and captive animals specified in Schedule I and Part II of Schedule II and found thereon; and (c) affix upon the animals, animal articles, trophies or uncured trophies identification marks in such manner as may be prescribed. (2) No person shall obliterate or counterfeit any identification mark referred to in this Chapter. 42. Certificate of ownership. – The Chief Wild Life Warden may, for the purposes of section 40, issue a certificate of ownership in such form, as may be prescribed, to any person who, in his opinion, is in lawful possession of any wild animal or any animal article, trophy, uncured trophy and may, where possible, mark, in the prescribed manner, such animal article, trophy or uncured trophy for purposes of identification. 43. Regulation of transfer of animal, etc. – 1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), sub-section (3) and sub-section (4), a person (other than a dealer) who does not possess a certificate of ownership shall not- (a) sell offer for sale or trasfer whether by way of sale, gift or otherwise, any wild animal specified in Schedule I or Part II of Schedule II or any captive animal belonging to that category or any animal article, trophy, uncured trophy, uncured trophy or meat derived thereform; (b) make animal articles containing part or whole of such animal; (c) put under a process of taxidermy an uncured trophy of such animal, except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer. (2) Where a person transfers or transports from the State in which he resides to another State or acquires by transfer from outside the

State any such animal, animal article, trophy or uncured trophy as is referred to in sub-section (1) in respect of which he has a certificate of ownership, he shall, within thirty days of the transfer or transport, report the transfer or transport to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer within whose jurisdiction the transfer or transport is effected. (3) No person who does not possess a certificate of ownership shall transfer or transport from one State to another State or acquire by transfer from outside the State any such animal, animal article, trophy or uncured trophy as is referred to in sub-section (1) except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer within whose jurisdiction the transfer or transport is to be effected. 4) Before granting any permission under sub-section (1) or sub-section (3), the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer shall satisfy himself that the animal or article referred to therein has been lawfully acquired. (5) While permitting the transfer or transport of any animal aticle, trophy or uncured trophy, as is referred to in sub-section (1), the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer- (a) shall issue a certificate of ownership after such inquiry as he may deem fit; (b) shall, where the certificate of ownership existed in the name of the previous owner, issue a fresh certificate of ownership in the name of the person to whom the transfer has been effected; (c) may affix an identification mark on any such animal, animal article, trophy or uncured trophy. (6) Nothing in this section shall apply- [(a) to tail feather of peocock and the animal articles or trophies made therefrom;] 2[(b) to any transaction entered into by a recognised zoo subject to the provisions of section 38I or by a public museum with any other recognised zoo or public museum. ] 44. Dealings in trophy and animal articles without licence prohibited. – (1) 3[Subject to the provisions of Chapter VA, no person shall, except under, and in accordance with, a licence granted under sub-section (4)] (a) commence or carry on the business as- (i) a manufacturer of or dealer in, any animal article; or 4[ * * *] (ii) a taxidermist; or (iii) a dealer in trophy or uncured trophy; or (iv) a dealer in captive animals; or (v) a dealer in meat or (b) cook or serve meat in any eating-house;5[(c) derive, collect or prepare, or deal in, snake venom:]

Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall prevent a person, who immediately before the commencement of this Act was carrying on the business occupation specified in this sub-section, from carrying on such business or occupation for a period of thirty days from such commencement, or where he has made an application within that period for the grant of a licence to him, until the licence is granted to him or he is informed in writing that a licence cannot be granted to him: 1[Provided further that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to the dealers in tail feathers of peacock and articles made therefrom and the manufacturers of such articles. ] Explaination. -For the purposes of this section, “eating-house” includes a hotel, restaurant or any other place where any eatable is served on payment, whether or not such payment is separately made for such eatable or is included in the amount charged for board and lodging. 2) Every manufacturer of, or dealer in, animal article, or dealer in captive animals, trophies or uncured trophies, or every taxidermist shall, within fifteen days from the commencement of this Act, declare to the Chief Wild Life Warden his stocks of animals articles captive animals, trophies and uncured trophies as the case may be as on the date of such declaration and the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer may place an identification mark on every animal article, captive animal trophy or uncured trophy as the case may be. (3) Every person referred to in sub-section (1) who intends to obtain a licence, shall 2[* * *] make an application to the Cheif Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer. (4) (a) Every application referred to in sub-section (3) shall be made in such form and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed to the Chief Wild Life Warden or the authorised officer. [(b) No licence referred to in sub-section (1) shall be granted unless the Chief Wild Life Warden, or the authorised officer having regard to antecedents and previous experience of the applicant, the implication which the grant of such licence would have in the status of wildlife to such other matters as may be prescribed in this behalf and after making such inquiry in respect of those matters as may think fit, is satisfied that the licence should be granted. ] (5) Every licence granted under this section shall specify the premises in which

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Web-based Enrollment Information System for Asian Computer College A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Computer Studies Department City College of Calamba In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree For Bachelor of Science in Information Technology 3rd Rev. SY 2011-2012 Bagsic, Abegail C. Dela Cruz, Jeaniva C. Recamata, Julie Ann A. August 2011 1. 0The Problem and its Background 1. 1Introduction Modern technology is a part of our daily life. It helps individuals and industries perform their tasks and daily routines, including their transactions.

Modern technology gives an advantage in accomplishing our work. This technology includes devices and information systems that help us attain faster and reliable transactions. Each system lessens the load on workforce and paper work of the organization. Asian Computer College (ACC) is an institution that has been administered by Mrs. Myra Grace Caritos-Ricalde. This institution offers pre-school, grade school, and high school level education. ACC is composed of two distinct schools—the ACC Main and the ACC Annex. The ACC Main is located at Mayapa, Calamba City while the ACC Annex is located at Punta, Calamba City.

Currently, ACC has almost 800 students enrolled and is using a manual system of enrollment, i. e. , the institution encounters different stumbling blocks such as time consuming, human errors, and loss of records. Most institution now uses IT-based system to address these stumbling blocks. One such systems is a Web-based Enrollment Information System. This system will help the staff assigned in organizing the data and information of enrollees. With this system, the paper works and transaction time will be reduced. The students, teachers and administrators can transact with this system by viewing their files and reports.

Some of the benefits of the proposed system are data retrieval and data manipulation. In data retrieval, the user can easily retrieve the records in a secured database. Data manipulation includes adding, deleting, editing and searching of records. 1. 2Statement of the Problem The researchers seek the solution to address the problems encountered in the enrollment procedure at ACC. At present, this institution is using a manual process of enrollment. Because of this, the organization experience different difficulties in their enrollment procedure, e. g. loss of and disorganization of student files. This takes too much time in making repetitive error corrections. Specifically, the study aims the following: 1. How to develop an information system that can effectively manage and organize the files of enrolled students? 2. How to develop a system that would shorten the time the faculty member and students spent in enrolling? 3. How to develop a system that assists the student in viewing their records? 4. How to develop a user friendly system that may improve or strengthen the relationship between the institution and their students? 1. Objectives of the Study 1. 3. 1General Objective Generally, this study aims to propose an automated system that may overcome the problems of the manual procedure of enrollment at Asian Computer College. The proponents seek to answer these problems using an It-based system. 1. 3. 2Specific Objectives Specifically, the study aims the following: 1. To develop a system that can manage and organize the files of enrolled students. 2. To create a system lessens the time the faculty members and students spent in enrolling. 3. To develop a system that can assist students in viewing their records. . To develop a user friendly system between the organization and their students. 1. 4Conceptual Framework INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Figure1. Conceptual Framework This figure shows the Hierarchy Input Process Output (HIPO) model. The HIPO model shows the data that institute use in their enrollment transaction. By the implementing the process the organization will come up to beneficial results. 1. 5Significance of the Study This study features the understanding of procedures and process in developing Web-based Enrollment Information System. Individuals

Both the organization and the students will benefit with the enrollment system. In the organization, the faculty members will have organized files of new students enrolled. On the part of the students, they can enroll easily and they can be assured that their information is secured in a database. Institution This study will help the users to manage different transactions efficiently and effectively. It can be a step to an innovation for the institution. This shall gain an assured trust and confidence from the new enrollees regarding their educational institution.

Other Institution This proposed system may be replicated in other institutions of learning affiliated or associated with ACC. Future Researchers This proposed system opens opportunities for its improvement and adaptation to new emerging technologies, e. g. , use of wireless devices in enrollment. 1. 6Scope and Limitation The scope of this study is to represent the architectural design of the automation of the students’ records management system interfaces gracefully with the information required in an Enrollment System.

The major functions of this study are as follow: 1. The proposed system has a database where the administrator can add, edit and delete data. The database contains the students’ records like students personal information, payments and subject load. 2. The students can easily query their records. This will help the students to verify their records mostly likely their balance and the possible error in their record. 3. Searching of data is an automatic function of the system. The system indexes the records quicker searches. However the proposed system has limitations: . Online payment, the students should personally pay their accounts in the school cashier. 2. Only authorized school personnel and duly registered and allowed students may use this system. 1. 7Definition of Terms ACC – Asian Computer College, an institution which offer pre-schooling, elementary and high school education. Database – a secured storage area for data and information; use for record keeping and retrieval 2. 0Review of Related Studies 3. 0Research Methodology 3. 1Research Design It is a work plan, but not just a work a plan. It is a work plan or it can e thought of as the structure of research that contains all the details what has to be done to complete the study, it is the one that holds all of the aspects in a research project together. Summarize a multifaceted plan formation efficiently. So the function of this is to ensure that the data obtained enables us to answer the initial question as clearly as possible. Obtaining appropriate data entail specifying the type of data needed to answer the research question, to test a theory, to evaluate a programme or to accurately describe some phenomenon.

The proponents used the descriptive method in doing this study, aside from searching for the things that they may include in the study; the proponents also do observing while having an interview with the client. They also used the prototyping method, to know what the users or the client wanted for the proposed system, to have them an idea of what designs they can construct for the proposed system and what kind of interface does the users mostly attracted with, And the suggestions of the client is needed also for the proposed system.

In doing all this schemes the proponents follow the process of getting all the information, they used the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC). Here, the proponents only used the first, second and third stages, which are Problem Definition, System Analyzing and System Design. ? Diagram of SDLC [pic] Preliminary Investigation. To start doing the study, the proponents identify first what problem does the client has. System Analysis. Then, after identifying the problem, they started to gather all the information that can help for the completion of the study. After that, they analyzed all the information that they’d gathered. System Design.

Then, from the information that proponents gathered, they already have an idea of what design they can create for the proposed system, with the help also of the client, the suggestions of client, the things that wanted by the client. 3. 2Research Locale [pic] The study conducted from June 29 and July 7, 2011 at Asian Computer College-Campus 2, Punta Calamba City 3. 3Population of the Study/ Sampling Design The proponents make an interview with the client, an Informational Interview. After of all the interviews, the proponents gave a questionnaire to the client which contains some questions that can help for doing the study. . 4Data Gathering Tool For the start of working with the study, the proponents gather first all the data that are needed for the study. In gathering those data, the proponents do some course of action (schemes) to get all the information that is needed for doing the study. ¦Interview. The proponents conducted some interviews to the client, an informational interview, particularly to the administrator or the principal of Asian Computer College (ACC) to know all the needed information, suggestions of the client, what they want to be in the proposed system. Internet Surfing. The world wide web or usually known as the internet is the worldwide collection of networks and gateways and trendiest contrivance to conduct a lot of researches. It contains a widespread number of information that can be use to develop the system properly. ¦Library Research. The proponents do some research with the help of library, that endow with several books, report, articles and even thesis samples that are full of information necessary for developing the study, that gives help for doing the study. ¦Questionnaires.

Aside from interview, the proponents gave a questionnaire to the client or the administrator, questions that are needed to answer by her for some additional information for the study. ¦Document Review. The proponents got some things from the client, things that can help the proponents for the study, like the sample registration form of the school that is divided in three copies, copy of the student, accounting and registrar. 3. 5Data Gathering Procedure The proponents did a lot of schemes in completing all the information that is needed for the study and to complete the proposed system.

So, first the proponents present a request letter to the chosen client to ask permission for the study purposes. Then, the approval of the client let the proponents to ask some things, the proponents make an interview with them, which is an informational interview, and then, they start to make an open-ended questions, that allows the proponents to ask what they wanted to ask to the client that is related to the study. Aside from having an interview with the client, the proponents also prepared a questionnaire for the client to answer it, to keep track also the topic that they do talks about.

Then, after the interview, the proponents started to have a research that is related to the study that they’re working, they use some methods for these, they do surfing the internet, for some wide information that they can get here and they went also to the library for additional information that can help also for the study. ———————– STUDENTS BASIC INFORMATION STUDENTS SUBJECT LOAD RECORDS OF PAYMENT WEB-BASED ENROLLMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ASIAN COMPUTER COLLEGE ORGANIZE FILES ACCURATE RECORDS ERROR PREVENTION CITY COLLEGE OF CALAMBA Dalubhasaan ng Lungsod ng Calamba Tel no. 545-0055

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Davidson CollegeMark C. Foley Department of EconomicsFall 2002 Principles of Economics Problem Set #4 Suggested Solutions Short Answers 1. Define isoquant. What is measured on the axes of a diagram with isoquants? What is the relationship between the isoquant map and the production function? An isoquant is a curve that shows all combinations of inputs that will produce the same level of output, provided that the inputs are used in a technologically efficient manner (i. e. it is the maximum output you can get for a combination of inputs (L,K)). The quantities of the two inputs (usually K and L in our examples, but they can be other inputs) are measured on the axes. The relationship is that an isoquant is a graphical representation of a production function such as Q = f(K,L,F). If we change the production function to be Q = g(K,L,F) then we’d get a different isoquant map. 2. Isoquants are downward-sloping, non-intersecting, convex curves. Explain the basis for each of these characteristics.

Isoquants must slope downward so long as each input is productive and has a positive marginal product. Hence, the only way to maintain constant output after increasing the quantity of one input is to decrease the quantity of the other. Isoquants cannot intersect. If they did, it would mean that the same combination of inputs produces two technically efficient (maximum) levels of output, which is not possible. Isoquants are convex because, as the first input becomes scarcer and the second input more abundant, it becomes ore difficult to substitute one input for another and keep output constant. That is, as you downward (to the right) along a convex isoquant, for one-unit increases in Labor, the decline in capital becomes less and less (since labor becomes less and less productive; diminishing MPL). Or similarly, as you move downward (to the right) along a convex isoquant, for one unit decreases in Capital, the increase in labor necessary to stay at the same production level is greater and greater (because of diminishing MPL). . For a particular combination of capital and labor we know that the marginal product of capital is 6 units of output and that the marginal rate of technical substitution is 3 units of capital per unit of labor. What is the marginal product of labor? MRTS = MPL/MPK so 3 = MPL/6 thus MPL = 18. 4. If a firm’s isoquants were straight lines, what would that imply about the two inputs? Is this realistic – give an example of why or why not?

This would indicate that they are perfectly substitutable, which is not particularly realistic since for most products it typically takes at least some labor to make them, even if it’s just a person to maintain or program a machine. 5. If a firm’s isoquants were L-shaped, what would that imply about the two inputs? Is this realistic – give an example of why or why not? This would indicate that they are perfect complements and will be used in fixed proportions, which is more realistic since many production processes require a given ratio of L to K, such as 1 worker per 1 computer.

One could also think of products for which 2 workers utilize one machine, or vice versa. Textbook Problems & Applications Ch. 13 Problems 2 & 9 2. (a) The opportunity cost of something is what must be given up to acquire it. (b) The opportunity cost of running the hardware store is $550,000, consisting of $500,000 to rent the store and buy the stock and a $50,000 opportunity cost, since your aunt would quit her job as an accountant to run the store. Since the total opportunity cost of $550,000 exceeds revenue of $510,000, your aunt shouldn’t open the store since her profit would be negative. 9. Quantity |TVC |TFC |TC |AFC |AVC |ATC | |0 |0 |200 |200 |— |— |— | |1 |10 |200 |210 |200 |10 |210 | |2 |20 |200 |220 |100 |10 |110 | |3 |40 |200 |240 |66. 7 |13. 3 |80 | |4 |80 |200 |280 |50 |20 |70 | |6 |320 |200 |520 |33. 3 |53. 3 |86. 7 | |7 |640 |200 |840 |28. 6 |91. 4 |120 | The efficient scale is 4 houses since that minimizes average total cost (ATC).

Muzon Bagong Pag-Asa Multi-Purpose Cooperative university essay help: university essay help

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS Barangay Muzon of City of San Jose del Monte in Bulacan is one of the barangay with a big population. People lived there need a good and stable job to support their everyday needs. That’s why Barangay Muzon made a program that will help the needs of the people of their Barangay in terms of financial needs. One of their programs they made is the “Muzon Bagong Pag-asa Multi-Purpose Cooperative”. It is a cooperative that provides financial assistant to those who are in need.

The project has its limitations and it is not sufficient to fulfill all their needs, but still it’s a way to help decrease the poverty of barangay muzon. Now on their 10th year, now having 471 members and still counting . There is no doubt that the process of inputting records data is not that easy. The process they are using right now is manual. For example, if they want to search for a certain information about a member, they will do is to go and search that big pile of folders which is a huge time waster. nother example is searching for accounts that is already due. With having a automated system, all this time waster will be solved. searching for a members information will be just a few clicks away. creating a list of accounts with dues will be effortless. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM This system will automate all the transactions of Muzon Bagong Pagasa Multipurpose Cooperative including the Membership application and Savings Account, the client will normally fill up the form and pass it to the teller/admin will encode the client’s information the system.

Loan Application, the client must have the initial/shared capital before he/she fill up the form and the admin will encode it to the system. Credit Payment, the client must go to the cooperative to pay their credit then the admin will encode the amount to the system and it will automatically print the receipt. The receipt contains the amount paid, date and time, account name and number, and balance. Monitoring of Payment Delinquency, can detect, send notices to their client thru Short Message Service (SMS) and update the client’s status of their account and the other programs. However, when the ue date of payment falls on weekends and holidays the notice will be sent two days before the said date. In Employees Salary the program will automatically compute the salary of the employees by inputting their attendance. II. SCOPE AND LIMITATION SCOPE The primary objective of this program is to computerize or automate all the transactions of Muzon Bagong Pag-asa Multi-Purpose Coopertive such as: 0 Membership 0 Loan Application 0 Credit Payment 0 Monitoring of Payment Delinquency 0 Savings 0 Dispatching of Notice to delinquent members through Short Message Service 0 Employees Salary Printing Ability for specific data 0 It has a Web-Based portal where members can check their account details, balance, payment due dates and others . they can also check all the information about Muzon Bagong Pag-Asa Multipurpose Cooperative like what services they are offering and how will they avail it. 0 the Web-Based Portal can be accessed on all OS as long they have an internet connection 0 This system will generate daily reports for the following : ¦ Payment collected for the whole day All clients who paid their loan and who did not 0 It has an Audit Trail for the monitoring of Log-In and Log-out of all the user 0 Back-Up Plan III. LIMITATION Our program shows the modernization of all the transaction of Muzon Bagong Pag-asa Multi-Purpose Coop. On the other hand, all programs have their limitations. In this project the limits are the following , It cannot accept application for membership online, and it still requires signatures for specific documents. And it also not working when it was not operated by a specified administrator or a user who knows how to operate the program. .

A Reflective Essay on Surgical and Anaesthetics Roles of Odp for an Abdominal Hysterectomy narrative essay help: narrative essay help

REFLECTIVE ESSAY ON THE LEARNING CONTRACT CONSIDERING THE SURGICAL AND ANAESTHETICS ROLES OF ODP FOR AN ABDOMINAL HYSTERECTOMY. By AKINYEMI AKINTARO 0711964 Dip of HE (ODP) Enhanced Theatre Practice OPE09-1 REFLECTION ON THE LEARNING CONTRACT. This is a reflective essay based on my experience of participating in delivery of anaesthetic and surgical care to a patient undergoing abdominal hysterectomy under general and regional anaesthesia.

I will be describing the process involved, my participation and contributions, what I learnt during the experience and how this gained knowledge will improve my professional competency. Reflection is a way in which health professionals can bring theory into practice because reflection has a potential to uncover knowledge and promote action. Reflection also promotes better clinical judgement. Dyke (1999) emphasised that reflection is a vital part of the practitioner’s daily work.

Johns(2000) also described reflection as a window through which the practitioner can view and focus self within the context of his/her own lived experience in a way that enable him/her to confront, understand and work towards resolving the contradictions within him/her between what is desirable and actual practice. The use of a recognised frame work allows for a more structured interpretation when reflecting upon practice (Dyke, 1999). For the purpose of this essay I am going to use Gibbs’ (1998) mode of reflecting.

This is a reflective cycle which provides a straight forward and structured framework and encourages a clear description of the situation, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other options are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what the professional would do should the situation arise again. It must be noted however that any reflective practice is reliant on memory and interpretation of events – selective memory is a particular problem especially following a negative event (Newell, 1992).

I will for the purpose of reflecting on this experience pay particular attention to the administration of epidural, the surgical scrubbing technique, accountability, and my roles as ODP in the above mentioned processes After deciding on hysterectomy as the topic for my learning contract, I had a discussion with my lead mentor, anaesthetic and surgical mentor on how best to give me the opportunity to be involved in two specific hysterectomy cases so that I can have both the anaesthetic and surgical assessment.

Then I set about getting materials; literatures from journals, internet, textbook, and discussion with my mentors, other senior colleagues and consultants. In the period of sourcing for this specific knowledge base I have learnt a lot about hysterectomy; types, choices, emotional implications, and alternatives and I can say this will really help me in my future role as a professional. Analysis and Evaluation. Anaesthetic. For the purpose of fulfilling this learning contract I assisted the anaesthetist in preparing the patient who is to undergo abdominal hysterectomy under general anaesthesia.

And I was supervised by my anaesthetic mentor during this process. I earlier prepared the room, check the anaesthetic machine, set up the intravenous fluids ,brought out anaesthetic drugs , prepare for difficult intubation and set up for epidural. I checked the patient in by confirming her name, date of birth, last time she had anything to drink or eat. I was actually left alone to totally work with the anaesthetist without any contribution from my mentor. The anaesthetist also showed me how to set up the PCA pump infusion for post operative pain relief which the patient will take to the recovery.

The anaesthetist talked me through the epidural insertion which was later connected to the Epidural pump. The experience was very good for my confidence and I also learnt the importance of preparing and be organised for the anaesthetic process; anything can happen in a split of a second. Epidural On completing this learning contract I now know that the advantage of epidural over spinal anaesthesia is the ability to maintain continuous anaesthesia after placement of an epidural catheter, thus making it suitable for procedures of long duration.

This feature also enables the use of this technique into the postoperative period for analgesia, using lower concentrations of local anaesthetic drugs or in combination with different agents. Also I have a better understanding of the anatomy of the Epidural space, loss of resistance Arachnoid space, and Cerebrospinal fluid. I have also learnt about the potential complications of epidural e . g Hypotension, Inadvertent high epidural block, inadvertent high epidural block, Local anaesthetic toxicity, Total spinal, Accidental dural puncture (Visser, 2001).

Learning about the potential complications of epidural reinforced my knowledge in being able to choose the right anaesthetic monitoring equipment. Knowing that Spinal and epidural anaesthesia can cause unpredictable and profound arterial hypotension necessitate the use of adequate monitoring like the; Pulse oximetry, ECG and Blood pressure cuff. This knowledge will help me to be able to select appropriate monitoring devices during epidural catheter insertion. Also it goes without saying that an epidural must be performed in a work area that is equipped for airway management and resuscitation.

I now know that the hypotension is caused by vasodilatation because the sympathetic nerves that control tone are blocked. Peripheral pooling of blood occurs, resulting in a reduced venous return to the heart and a decrease in cardiac output. This is the reason for having a Hartmann’s fluid at hand and the important of hartmann’s fluid was emphasised by Casey (2000), along with the establishment of an intravenous access, because the effect of the epidural may cause vasodilatation and a drop in blood pressure due to autonomic and sensory fibres being blocked before motor fibres.

I am better aware now why it is important that that the patient should be informed of the possible risks and complications associated with epidurals. While the anaesthetist would have done this it is an essential role of the ODP to reassure the patient and encourage the patient to ask any question that might be important to them. It is also possible to talk the patient through the procedure of the epidural, like the position; what the patient will feel or won’t feel; the cold spray to the back etc

Roles of ODP in during Epidural When preparing for the epidural administration , I made sure the followings were ready and on hand; A basic universal pack which includes catheter, filter, Tuoy needle and loss of resistance syringe ; 1% or 2 % lignocaine, fentanyl, 10 – 20 mls normal saline, tegaderm and epidural dressing , sleek, transpore e. t . c I also made available Skin preparation solution of Chlorhexidine gluconate and I litre of Hartmann’s solution.

The ODP also makes sure that before an epidural is performed, the anaesthetic room should be checked to make sure that there is proper equipment for airway management, resuscitation and routine vital signs monitoring must be available. The most important role of the ODP in assisting the anaesthetist to carry out an epidural procedure is to make sure everything that will be needed is on hand and ready to go. It is also important to make sure all the drugs and consumables to be used are in date and the ODP should be ready to assist the anaesthetist by opening things that are needed and also drugs on request.

Another important role of the ODP which I recognised is in the positioning of the patient for epidural catheter insertion. The position could either be Sitting or Lateral Decubitus positions. When discussing with the anaesthetist, he said the position should be lateral decubitus to allow for ease of insertion. And as mentioned earlier reassuring the patient is another important skill that an ODP needs to develop. Surgery. I scrubbed for the case, set up the instrument, check the patient with the name band and consent form. I prepped and draped the patient with the surgeon’s assistant and positioned my trolley for the start of the case.

Completing this learning contract afforded me the opportunity to build up on the knowledge I had gained previously on scrubbing, gloving and gowning In each operating area there is a separate ‘scrub-up’ zone outside the operating room. The scrubbing process involves series of steps like brushing of nails, cleaning and drying of hand and arms. However, the aims are to remove dirt, skin oil, and transient micro-organisms from the nails, hands, and forearms; to reduce the resident microbial count to as near zero as possible and to leave an antimicrobial residue on the skin to prevent re-growth of microbes for several hours (Nicolette, 2007).

During the completion of this learning contract; and through my discussion with senior colleague , reading journal and textbooks ;I learnt more about the importance of aseptic surgical scrubbing is essential and needs to be done religiously, with the practitioner being accountable to make sure that; they use proper scrubbing technique; only sterile items are used within the sterile field; check for the package integrity before use; make sure that items of doubtful sterility are considered unsterile and whenever a sterile barrier is permeated, it must be considered contaminated.

The scrubbed practitioner must never forget that sterile gowns are considered sterile in front from shoulder to level of sterile field and at the sleeves from 2 inches above the elbow to the cuff. The cuff should be considered unsterile because it tends to collect moisture and is not an effective bacterial barrier. Other areas of the gown that must be considered unsterile are the neckline, shoulders, areas under the arms, and the back. These areas may become contaminated by perspiration or by collar and shoulder surfaces rubbing together during head and neck movement.

Accountability as related to swabs and sharps counting. According to Hughes (2002) the concept of professional accountability remains an ever-present issue in the operating theatre; with nurses and ODPs often acting under the instructions of anaesthetists and surgeons, assuming that they are void of responsibility. Accountability is different from responsibility. Accountability means that the practitioner is able to give an explanation of, and justification for his or her actions. Whereas, responsibility relates to carrying out instruction accurately and within an agreed time – frame.

HPC (2004)standard of proficiency for ODPs , outlining the autonomy and accountability for ODPs, states that an ODP must be able to practice within the legal and ethical boundaries of their profession…… and be able to exercise a professional duty of care. Hence, an ODP involved in the scrub or circulating role must be accountable for swabs and sharps counting and cannot pass the responsibility to another person. Scrubbing for an abdominal hysterectomy case made me to appreciate better the importance of swab counting, anticipating the surgeon and decision making.

Because of the different layers in structural anatomy of the abdominal wall it is important to follow the case closely as it progresses so as not to loose any swabs or sharps. According to Dunscombe (2007) Instrument count is as important as sharps count and should be carried out concurrently by the circulating and the scrub person before the procedure, with each person simultaneously viewing the instrument and audibly counting it. Items added during the procedure must also be counted and recorded. Swabs, sharps and instrument must be counted as each layer or major cavity is being closed and towards the end of the case.

The instrument tray for abdominal hysterectomy is similar to most sets for general operations. There are scissors, artery and dissecting forceps, sponge holders, towel clips, needle holders, diathermy forceps etc. According to AfPP (2007) the scrubbed practitioner must recognise and identify the instruments and their purpose within the set. Gilmour(2008) maintained that the scrubbed practitioner is responsible for ensuring that all instruments are fit for purpose and able to perform the task required.

If sterility is compromised (instruments found to be contaminated with blood or body tissue) then the set and instrument must be removed from theatre and reported to the sterile service department. The scrubbed practitioner must ensure that all instruments are accounted for throughout a surgical procedure, and if an instrument was to break intraoperatively then all the pieces must be retrieved and discarded with the appropriate note made on the tray list if necessary. At the end of the procedure all instruments must be counted and checked by the scrubbed and circulating practitioner.

The scrubbed practitioner must ensure that all sharps and consumables are removed from instrument tray to prevent injury to either sterile services staff or those who transport the instruments between theatre and the sterile department. However, now I know that the most important instrument in the abdominal hysterectomy trays is clamps and retractors. Clamps are instrument specifically designed for holding tissue or other materials, and most have an easily recognisable design.

They have finger rings ,for ease of holding; shank, whose length is approximate to the wound depth; ratchets on the shanks near the rings, which allow for the distal tip to be locked on the tissue or object grasped(Dunscombe,2007). During the surgical operation, and when the incision was made through the abdominal wall to the peritoneum and the peritoneum was retracted with self-retaining retractor, I found it easy to follow the procedure and identify the tissue and organs around the uterus; identifying landmarks like he round and broad ligaments, bladder, cervix etc. This is possible because I had read up on the anatomy related to abdominal hysterectomy. According to HPC (2004) standard of proficiency, an ODP must be able to gather appropriate information…, be able to draw on appropriate knowledge and skills in order to make professional judgement…. and understand the need for carer-long self-directed learning. The feedback after the case was positive with some constructive advice on how to be a better scrub practitioner.

The completion of this learning contract afforded me the opportunity to build on my previous knowledge and for example develop my role from circulating to scrubbing. I have more confidence preparing, assisting and participating in general and gynaecological cases, both from anaesthetic and surgical point of view. It is essential that the ODP in the scrub role has a basic knowledge of the structural anatomy involved in the procedure to scrub for. This will help to anticipate the needs of the surgeon very well and on time

Conclusion During the process of fulfilling the learning contract I gained some important knowledge which I am certain will help to make me a better practitioner One of the most important thing I learnt is the importance of articulate preparation and anticipation in becoming a competent and reliable ODP, in both anaesthetic and scrub roles. Also having good basic functional structural anatomy knowledge of the procedure (both anaesthetic and scrub role) taken place helps to function very well as a practitioner.

Effective communication is also important, for example in the anaesthetic room I learnt the importance of informing the patient about effect of the procedure they are having. Like explaining the effect of epidural to reassure them. Before this learning exercise I usually think only the anaesthetist can give explanation to the patient about certain things. But from my discussion with the anaesthetist, I was made to understand that as long you are capable of taking responsibility for the information given then that should be okay.

According to Taylor and Campbell(1999) effective communication, both verbal and written, is fundamental to the organisational management of the operating department. I also appreciate better the importance of swabs, sharps and instruments counting and when to do the counting as each layer is being closed. As a practitioner, I have a responsibility to make sure that the instruments are adequate and functional before the procedure and to make sure that everything is accounted for at the end of the procedure. Generally, I would say that this learning contract afforded me the opportunity to progress from the circulating role to the scrub role.

Also I gained more confident assisting the anaesthetist in the anaesthetic room. On reflection I can say that I have gained more practical knowledge in anaesthetics and I can anticipate better than before, to assist the anaesthetist. I understand now what are needed to provide general and regional anaesthesia for typical gynaecological and general cases. I have learnt that the anaesthetic assistant’s key role were that they needed to continually anticipate and respond to the requirement of the anaesthetist, while at the same time remaining the patient’s advocate and ensuring that safe practice is maintained .

This view is supported by Harvey (2005) while emphasising the need for the whole anaesthetic team to work together, anticipating each other’s needs and requirement, this will help to dealt with, safely, any problem encountered during the administration of anaesthesia . Anytime I have the opportunity to assist in the abdominal hysterectomy operation either as a scrub practitioner or ODP assisting the anaesthetist I am certain I would be able to bring all these experience to good use. References Alexander. M, Fawcett. N, & Runciman. P,(1994), Nursing Practice – Hospital and Home – The Adult.

Churchill Livingstone: London. Casey, W (2000) Spinal Anaesthesia- A practical guide (page I). Nda[online] Available at : http://www. nda. ox. ac. uk/wfsa (Accessed: 31 Feb, 2008). Chang, A. , Ip, W. , T. H. Cheung, T. (2004), ‘Patient – controlled analgesia versus conventional intramuscular injection: a cost effectiveness analysis’ Journal of Advanced Nursing 46(5) pp. 531 – 541. Cooley. C, (2000) Communication skills in palliative care. Professional Nurse. 15(9) 603-605. DeLamar, L. (2007) ‘ Anaesthesia’ in Rothrock J (ed) Alexander’s care of the patient in surgery. 13th edn. Missouri: Mosby.

Pp. 120 – 122. Dyke, M (1999) ‘Reflection on perioperative practice: When is it right to say no? ’ British Journal of Theatre Nursing,9(12)pp. 584 – 587. Dunscombe,A. (2007) ‘Sutures, needles and instrument’,in Rothrock J (ed)Alexander’s care of the patient in surgery. 13th edn. Missouri: Mosby. pp. 158 – 181. Fischer, B. & Chaudhari, M. (2006) ‘Techniques of Epidural block’ Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, 7(11)pp. 422 – 426. Gilmour,D. (2008)‘Instrument integrity and sterility: the operative practitioner’s responsibilities’ . Journal of perioperative practice. 18(7) pp. 292 – 296.

Glaze,J(1999)The reflective practitioner, British journal of Theatre Nursing. 9(1)pp. 30 – 34. Griffiths, R (2000), ‘Anaesthesia: circulation and invasive monitoring’ BJPN, 10(3) pp 167- 171. Harvey, P. (2005) ‘The role of the ODP in Obstetric Haemorrhage’ JOODP. 1(11)pp. 16-19. Johns, C. (2000) ‘Becoming a reflective practitioner’ Blackwell Science, Oxford. Newell, R. (1992), Anxiety, Accuracy and Reflection: the limits of professional development, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, pages 1326-1333. Nicolette, L (2007) ‘ Infection prevention & control in the preoperative setting’ , in Rothrock J(ed) Alexander’s care of the patient in surgery.. 3th edn. Missouri: Mosby . pp. 80-82. Reed, J. Proctor, S. (1993) Nurse Education – a Reflective Approach, Edward Arnold, London. Taylor, M. and Campbell, C. (1999) ‘Back to basics – Communication Skills in the Operating Department’. British Journal of Theatre Nursing 9(5) pp. 217 – 221. Visser, L (2001) ‘Epidural Anaesthesia’ Update in Anaesthesia, 13(11) pp 1- 4. Nda[online] Available at : http://www. nda. ox. ac. uk/wfsa (Accessed: 21 March, 2008). Bibliography. McEwen, D. (2007) ‘Gynaecologic and Obstetric Surgery’ in Rothrock J(ed) Alexander’s care of the patient in surgery… 3th edn. Missouri: Mosby . pp. 411 – 465. Kumar, B. (1998) Working in the operating department. 2nd edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Pp. 125 – 144. Gwinnutt, C. L. (1996) Clinical Anaesthesia, 1st edn. Oxford, Blackwell. Mrcogn, R. et al (1995) ‘Bone loss after Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation’ Obs & Gyn. 86(1) pp. 72-77. Walsgrove, H. (2001) ‘Hysterectomy’, Nursing Standard, 15 (29) pp. 47 – 53. Wu, S. et al (2005) ‘Decision – making tree for women considering hysterectomy’ Journal of Advanced Nursing 51 (4) pp. 361 – 368.

Project on Big Bazaar Bansankari .Bangalore cheap essay help: cheap essay help

RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT ON “A Study on Buying Behavior of Customers in Big Bazaar bansankari” Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of MASTER`S DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BY DEBASHISH ROY MBA – l Year, 2nd trimesters 25th November -25th December DAYANANDA SAGAR BUSINESS SCHOOL S M Hills, kumaraswamy layout Bangalore-560078 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this as an opportunity to thank with bottom of my hear all those without whom the journey of doing my project would not have been as pleasant as it has been to me.

Working on my project was a constant learning experience with all sweat and tear which was its due but not without being richly stimulating experience of life time. I am very thankful to Director, Prof. Vijay sarthi for giving me their valuable advice and guidance towards fulfillment of the project Finally I would like to convey my heartiest thanks to all my well wishers for their blessing and co-operation throughout my study. They boosted me up every day to work with a new and high spirit. Debashish Roy DECLARATION I hereby declare that this Research Project entitled, “A Study on Buying

Behavior of Customers in Big Bazaar bansankari “written and submitted by me, under the guidance of Mr. kartik, is my original work and that has not been submitted to any other University / Institute previously DEBASHISH ROY PGDM-2ND TRIMESTER CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the Research Project Report entitled, “A Study on Buying Behavior of Customers in Big Bazaar bansankari” for the award of “POST GRADUATES DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT from DAYANANDA SAGAR BUSINESS SCHOOL, BANGALORE, has been carried out by DEBASHISH ROY.

The Report embodies result of original work and studies carried out by the student himself and the contents of the Report do not form the basis for award of any other Degree to the candidate or to anybody else. Dr. VIJAYA SARTHI DIRECTOR Date Dept. PGDM DAYANANDA SAGAR BUSINESS SCHOOL ————————————————- CONTENTS CHAPTER-I1-8 ,, i) Introduction 2 ii) Objectives of the study 4 iii) Scope of the study 5 iv) Importance of study 6 v) Research Methodology 7-8

CHAPTER-II9-33 Theoretical perspective 10-33 , CHAPTER-III34-75 i) Data collection 35-36 ii) Data analysis and interpretations 37-75 CHAPTER-IV76-82 i) Findings of research77-78 ii) Recommendations79-80 iii) Conclusion81-82 CHAPTER-V83-90 Limitations of the study84 Bibliography LIST OF GRAPHS & CHARTS 1. Customer s monthly income38 2. Customers visit Big Bazaar40 3. Apart from Big Bazaar visit retail outlet41 4. Purpose behind visiting big bazaar42 5. Demand for other retail outlets in a mall43 6. Products mostly purchased by customers45 7.

Expenditure pattern of customers coming47 8. Time spent by customers in shopping49 9. Comparison of footfalls in weekdays and weekends51 10. Customers preference of timing to visit big bazaar53 11. List of products and purchasing products on a unplanned basis55 12. Brand preference of customers in big bazaar57 13. Comparison of brand preference on different product category59 14. Mode of payment of customers in big bazaar61 15. Comparison of factors which encourages customers to come63 16. Services of the sales personnel in Big Bazaar65 17. Customers’ mode of transport to big bazaar66 8. Parking space availability in big bazaar68 19. Customers preference towards Kirana store69 20. Comparison of Big bazaar with any Kirana store71 21. Comparison of Big bazaar with others Organized retailers73 CHAPTER – I vi) Introduction vii) Objectives of the study viii) Scope of the study ix) Importance of study Introduction As customer’s tastes and preferences are changing, the market scenario is also changing from time to time. Today’s market scenario is very different from that of the market scenario before 1990. There have been many factors responsible for the changing market scenario.

It is the changing tastes and preference of customer which has bought in a change in the market. Income level of the people has changed; life styles and social class of people have completely changed now than that of olden days. There has been a shift in the market demand in today’s world. Technology is one of the major factors which is responsible for this paradigm shift in the mark. New generation people are no more dependent on haat market and far off departmental stores. Today we can see a new era in market with the opening up of many departmental stores, hyper market, shopper’s stop, malls, branded retail outlets and specialty stores.

In today’s world shopping is not any more tiresome work rather it’s a pleasant outing phenomenon now. My study is based on a survey done on customers of a hypermarket named big bazaar. Big bazaar is a new type of market which came into existence in India since 1994. It is a type of market where various kinds of products are available under one roof. My study is on determining the customer’s buying behavior of customer’s in big bazaar and the satisfaction level of customers in big bazaar. My study will find out the current status of big bazaar and determine where it stands in the current market.

This market field survey will help in knowing the present customers tastes and preferences. It will help me in estimating the customer’s future needs , wants & demands. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To find out the buying behavior of the customers coming in to Big Bazaar in NCR. 2. To determine the current status of Big Bazaar. 3. To find out the customers response towards Big Bazaar. 4. To study the satisfaction level of customers in different attributes of Big Bazaar. 5. To identify main competitors of Big Bazaar. Scope of Study

The scope of this research is to identify the buying behavior of customers of Big Bazaar in bansankari area. This research is based on primary data and secondary data. Due to time constraint only limited number of persons contacted. This study only focuses on urban buying behavior of customers because the research conducted in bansankari area. The study does not say anything about rural buying behavior of customer because rural norms/status/attitude & acceptance of the rural customers differs with urban customers. The scope of research is limited for bansankari area.

It provides help to further the research for organized retail sector in bansankari area. It aim to understand the skill of the company in the area like technological advancement, competition in management. Importance of Study The study shows customers buying pattern with Big Bazaar in bansankari area. Its provide guideline for further research in bansankari area for organized retail. Research says about customer buying behavior towards Big Bazaar in bansankari area. The study rate of customer satisfaction level with Big Bazaar for bansankari area.

The research is also important to identify Market size, growth and Market Potential of Big Bazaar in bansankari area. The research shows future Scenario of Big Bazaar in current perspective. The study shows Opportunities and challenges for Big Bazaar respect of internal & external environment. Research say about main competitors in the field of organized retail sectors. The study provide guideline to further extension of Big Bazaar in bansankari area . The study provide help to know the customers satisfaction with Big Bazaar stores. Research Methodology Technology, customers tastes and preferences play a vital role in today’s generation.

Research Methodology is a set of various methods to be followed to find out various information’s regarding market strata of different products. Research Methodology is required in every industry for acquiring knowledge of their products. Area of study: The study is exclusively done in the area of marketing. It is a process requiring care, sophistication, experience, business judgment, and imagination for which there can be no mechanical substitutes. Research Design – Exploratory Research. Sampling Design: Non Probability sampling- Convenience sampling Data Collection : –

Data is collected from various customers through personal interaction. Specific questionnaire is prepared for collecting data. Data is collected with mere interaction and formal discussion with different respondents. Some other relevant information collected through secondary data Tools of Analysis : – The market survey about the techniques of marketing and nature of expenditure is carried out by personally interacting with the potential customers in Big Bazaar. CHAPTER-II Theoretical Perspective Theoretical Perspective Retailing The Indian consumer could well be crowned King with all economic indicators in the right place.

Queuing up for the coronation ceremony are a multitude of global companies that are looking at India as the next consumer market powerhouse. And it seems to be the retail sector that will give the desi consumer royal status. In this study I will try to find out the present scenario of retail market in India. This project will give focus on the global scene to retail industry and what will drive the growth of industry in the future. Retailing is the final step in the distribution of merchandise, the last link in supply chain – connecting the bulk procedures of commodities to the final consumers. Retailing in India is thoroughly unorganized.

There is no supply chain management perspective. According to a survey by AT Kearney, an overwhelming proportion of the Rs. 400,000 crore retail markets are UNORGANISED. In fact, only a Rs. 20,000 crore segment of the market is organized. From a size of only Rs. 20, 000 crores, the ORGANISED retail industry will grow to Rs. 180,000 crores by 2005. The TOTAL retail market, however, as indicated above will grow 20 per cent annually from Rs. 400,000 crore in 2000 to Rs. 900,000 crores by 2009 A study by McKinsey points out that India’s market for consumer goods can reach a w $450 billion by 2011 – making it one of the five largest in the world.

Further, KPMG in a recent report titled `Consumer Markets in India – the next big thing? ‘ has said: “India represents an economic opportunity on a massive scale, both as a global base and a domestic market. ” The report, however, finds that the next leap in the growth of the consumer market will be spearheaded by the changing dynamics of the retail sector. “Companies expect that the next cycle of change in Indian consumer markets will be the arrival of foreign players in consumer retailing. Although FDI remains highly restricted in retailing, most companies believe that will not be for long,” says Deepankar Sanwalka,

Executive Director and Head – Consumer Markets, KPMG India. FDI in retail has once again begun to appear imminent following Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s recent interview to McKinsey, in which he expressed confidence that he would be able to get the Left parties on board on the matter. KPMG is in fact going ahead with its plans to conduct a series of five roadshows in the US and a few countries in Europe to hold discussions about the opportunities in India’s consumer markets, especially in retail. And the numbers do lend credence to the enthusiasm.

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) country briefing on India, 2005, estimates the retail market in India will grow from $394 billion in 2005 to $608. 9 billion in 2009. In fact, KPMG finds that the organised retail sector in India is expected to grow at a higher rate than GDP growth in the next five years, driven by changing lifestyles, strong income growth and favourable demographic patterns. According to EIU, India currently has more than five million retails outlets, out of which 96 per cent are smaller than 500 sq. ft. But this scenario is changing fast.

The structure of retailing is developing rapidly with malls becoming increasingly common in large cities, and development plans being projected at 350 new shopping malls by 2012. Emerging trends in organized retailing Over the last five years, a number of large business groups such as Tata’s, RPG, Raheja’s and Piramal’s has set up stores/malls and built businesses within retail. These include the Rs1. 9bn Food World – a leading supermarket chain set up by RPG; the Raheja’s Rs1. 8bn Shopper’s Stop – a multi-brand departmental outlet and the Crossroads Mall set up by the Piramal’s.

While many of these initiatives were initially driven by the need to use existing real estate, they are beginning to assume the contours of a serious business today. Fuel retailers, notably BPCL and HPCL are also expanding their presence from fuel retail to grocery and convenience stores. Suitability of location, optimal utilization of real estate, diversifying business to reduce reliance on the commodity nature of fuel retail business and improve margins are the key factors that has lead fuel majors to enter into the retailing. Also, existing family owned businesses are expanding their businesses.

The more successful of them are the Nilgiris – a Bangalore base food retailer, Viveks – a 40-year old Chennai based chain selling consumer durables and Narula’s – the food chain in North India. Interestingly, manufacturers are also looking for forward integration and are building chains around brands. Brands in apparel, footwear and durables have driven the growth of specialty chains and upgraded existing multi-brand outlet. Theme for a mall Although the retail sector in India highly fragmented and consists predominantly of small, independent, owner-managed shops, it happens to be the country’s second largest employer after agriculture.

The country is currently witnessing a boom in retailing, thanks mainly on account of an increase in the disposable incomes of middle and upper-middle class households. More and more corporate houses, including large real estate companies, are now entering the retail business directly or indirectly. One sign of the modernization of Indian retailing is the rapid growth in the number of speciality malls and theme malls. The Piramals, Tatas, Rahejas, ITC, S. Kumar’s, RPG Enterprises, Aerens, Omaxe and mega retailers like Crosswords, Shopper’s Stop and Pantaloon have taken the lead in organizedretailing.

Emergence of specialty retailing Though organised retailing is still at a nascent stage – accounting for only around two per cent of the $180 billion retail market in India – it is likely to touch 10 per cent by the end of this decade. Four product categories have led the organised retailing wave: foods, apparel, lifestyle products, consumer durables and electronics. In recent times, several theme malls such as Gold Souk (jewellery malls), Wedding Mall, Electronic Mall, Auto Mall, etc catering to specific needs and occasions have been completed or announced.

Many top developers are now toying with the idea of developing speciality malls. Speciality malls are already a success in the West, whereas the concept is in its infancy in India. One could venture so far as to say speciality and theme based retailing will drive the growth of organized retailing in India. ORGAINSED RETAILING Organised retailing got a leg up during 2004 with the opening of new format stores, rapid growth of existing players, start-up of new-generation shopping malls, the Government’s intention of allowing a certain level of foreign direct investment in retail and the formation of a retailers’ association.

With consumer sentiment positive during most of 2004, it led to substantial spending across a number of categories such as consumer durables, clothing and lifestyle, automobiles and telecom products. At the beginning of this decade, organised retailing accounted for a mere $2. 9 billion in India. This is only 1. 25 per cent of the estimated total retail market. This share has already grown to 2 per cent. Growth projections for retail business vary widely. Some studies estimate that by 2007, the share of organised retail in the retail pie will jump three times to reach 5-6 per cent.

Retail in India largest industry accounting for over 10% of the country GDP and around 8% of the employment. Retail industry in India is at the cross road. It has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast paced industries with several player entering the market. The future is promising the market is growing government policies are becoming more favorable and emerging technology and facilitating operations. Some key facts retail in India largest industry accounting for over 10% of the country GDP and around 8% of the employment. The market size of Indian retail industry is about US $ 312 billion. Indian consumption cosmos

During past decades private final consumption expenditure has been the key driver economic growth in India. The headquartered in Mumbai the company operates over 12 million square feet of retail space as over one thousand stores across 71 cities in India and employees over 35,000 people. The companies leading formats include Pantaloons a chain of fashion outlet, Big bazaar, uniquely Indian hypermarket chain, food Bazaar a supermarket chain blends he look, touch and feel of Indian Bazaars with aspects of modern retail like choice convenience and quality and control a chain of seamless destination malls.

FUTURE GROUP Future group, led its founder ; group CEO Mr. Kishore Biyani is one of India leading business house with multiple business spanning across the consumption space. While retail firm the core business activity of future group, group subsidiaries are present in consumer finance, capital, insurance, brand development ; entertainment. The first set of Big bazaar store open in 2001 in Kolkata, Hyderabad and Bangalore. A layout chart of Big bazaar located at bansankari LAYOUT INDEX 1. FOOD BAZAAR 2. CROKERY ; UTENSILS 3. SOAPS AND DARTERGENT 4. PERFUMES ; COSMETIC 5. MEDECINES 6.

DRY FRUITS 7. PILLARS USED FOR DISPLAYING INFORMATION (SIZE CHART, SECTION DESCRIPTION) 8. KIDS CASUAL WEAR 9. KIDS WINTER WEAR 10. KIDS JEANS AND SHORTS 11. INFANT SHIRTS AND T-SHIRTS 12. ACCESSORIES-SUNGLASSES, WRIST WATCHES ETC. 13. SOFT TOYS 14. SPORTS ITEMS 15. BOOKS FOR KIDS 16. DIFFERENT VIDEO GAMES FOR KIDS 17. LADIES SAREE 18. LADIES WESTERN 19. LADIES ETHINIC 20. LADIES ACCESSORIES – LINGERIES 21. GOLD BAZAAR 22. MENS FORMAL 23. MENS WESTERN 24. MENS ETHINIC 25. MENS INNERWEAR 26. FOOT WEAR 27. CASH COUNTER 28. LADIES ACCESSORIES 29. HOME BAZZAAR 30. BATHROOM FITTINGS 31. ELECTRONIC BAZZAAR 32.

HARDWARES 33. MUSIC STORES 34. FOOD COURT 35. FUN ZONE FOR KIDS DESCRIPTION HELP DESK – As you can see from the layout, the Help Desk is located in the first floor. A person can get all information about the stores of big bazaar from the person sitting in the help desk. Help Desk uses paging service as a tool for the convenience of its employees and customers. KIDS SECTION – The kids section is located in the first floor of big bazaar. In the kid’s section kid’s accessories like diapers, trolleys, suckers, water bottles are available in one part. Kid’s jackets and baba suits are available in another part.

Kids casual wear (jeans and shorts) are placed in one part of it and infant shirts ; t-shirts are also placed in another part. In this section the pillars are used for displaying information like size chart and section description. The apparels are available at a price of Rs149 to Rs499 onwards. MENS SECTION – Next to it is the men’s section that is in the first floor . It is divided in to three parts. At one part men formal shirts (150-799) are available. In other parts men trousers, suits and blazers (999-2499), fabrics and ethnics (150-2299) are available respectively.

LADIES SECTION – Next to it is the ladies section that is in the extreme right side. The ladies section is segregated in to three parts. Ladies section starts from ladies ethnics (299-1199), ladies western wear (149-899),, ladies sarees(149-4999) ladies accessories – lingerie’s, respectively. Promotional scheme – With an add on to the above products there are various other products which are available with a promotional scheme. The various products under this scheme includes girl t-shirts, infant winter wear etc.

Non-Promotional scheme – There are various other products available without any promotional scheme which includes jeans, infant baba suits, infant t-shirts, kids night wear, kids salwar suits etc. Sports Store – Beside the kids section there is a sports store where various kinds of sport items are available. Gold bazaar- gold bazaar is located between ladies section and men’s section in the first floor. It the store where the customer can purchase gold of genuine quality. Food Bazaar – The food bazaar is in the ground floor of the building. Various kinds of food items, fruits and vegetables are available there.

Sitting arrangements are well made so that people can sit and take tea, coffee or snacks or any other food item. Food court – At the top floor there is a food court. Where the customer can relax and can have food also. Fun zone – This section is located at the top floor of the big bazaar with the food court at the one side and fun zone at one Conner. Cash Counter – The cash counter is located just near the exit BOARD OF DIRECTORS Mr. Kishore Biyani, Managing Director Kishore Biyani is the Managing Director of Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited and the Group Chief Executive Officer of Future Group. Mr. Gopikishan Biyani, Wholetime Director

Gopikishan Biyani, is a commerce graduate and has more than twenty years of experience in the textile business. Mr. Rakesh Biyani, Wholetime Director Rakesh Biyani, is a commerce graduate and has been actively involved in category management; retail stores operations, IT and exports. He has been instrumental in the implementation of the various new retail formats. Mr. Ved Prakash Arya, Director Ved Prakash Arya, is an engineer by training and is a graduate of the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. Prior to joining Pantaloon Retail, he was the CEO of Globus. Mr. Shailesh Haribhakti, Independent Director

Shri Shailesh Haribhakti, is a Chartered Accountant, Cost Accountant, and a Certified Internal Auditor. He is the Deputy Managing Partner of Haribhakti ; Co. , Chartered Accountants and past president of Indian merchant Chambers. He is on the Board of several Public Limited Companies, including Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Ltd. , Ambuja Cement Eastern Ltd. etc. He is on the Board of Company since June 1, 1999. Mr. S Doreswamy, Independent Director S. Doreswamy, is a former Chairman and Managing Director of Central Bank of India and serves on the board of DSP Merrill Lynch Trustee Co and Ceat Limited Dr.

D O Koshy, Independent Director D. O. Koshy, holds a doctorate from IIT, Delhi and is the Director of National Institute of Design (NID), Ahmedabad. He has over 24 years of rich experience in the textiles and garment industry and was instrumental in the setting up of NIFT centres in Delhi, Chennai and Bangalore. He is a renowned consultant specializing in international marketing and apparel retail management. Ms. Anju Poddar, Independent Director Anju Poddar, holds a Bachelor of Engineering from University of Oklahoma and is a Director, NIFT, Hyderabad chapter.

She also serves on the board of Maharishi Commerce Ltd and Samay Books Ltd, Ms. Bala Deshpande, Independent Director Bala Deshpande, is Independent Director, Pantaloon Retail (India) Ltd. and also serves on the boards of Deccan Aviation, Nagarjuna Construction, Welspun India and Indus League Clothing Ltd, Mr. Anil Harish, Independent Director Anil Harish, is the partner of DM Harish ; Co. Associates ; Solicitors and an LLM from University of Miami. He also serves on the board of Mahindra Gesco, Unitech, IndusInd Bank and Hinduja TMT, Major Milestones * 1987 Company incorporated as Manz Wear Private Limited.

Launch of Pantaloons trouser, India’s first formal trouser brand. * 1991 Launch of BARE, the Indian jeans brand. * 1992 Initial public offer (IPO) was made in the month of May. * 1994 The Pantaloon Shoppe – exclusive menswear store in franchisee format launched across the nation. The company starts the distribution of branded garments through multi-brand retail outlets across the nation. * 1995 John Miller –Formal shirt brand launched. * 1997 Pantaloons – India’s family store launched in Kolkata. * 2001 Big Bazaar, ‘Is se sasta aur accha kahi nahin’ – India’s first hypermarket chain launched. 2002 Food Bazaar, the supermarket chain is launched. * 2004 Central – ‘Shop, Eat, Celebrate in the Heart of Our City’ – India’s first seamless mall is launched in Bangalore. * 2005 Fashion Station – the popular fashion chain is launched * 2006 Future Capital Holdings, the company’s financial arm launches real estate funds Kshitij and Horizon and private equity fund In division. Plans forays into insurance and consumer credit. Multiple retail formats including Collection i, Furniture Bazaar, Shoe Factory, EZone, Depot and futurebazaar. com are launched across the nation.

Group enters into joint venture agreements with ETAM Group and Generali. * 2007- future group cross $1 billion mark. * 2008- Future group holding becomes the second group company to make a successful initial public offering in the Indian capital market. * 2009- Big bazaar crosses the 100 store mark making one of the fastest ever expansion of a hyper market format anywhere in the world. Future Group Future Group is one of the country’s leading business groups present in retail, asset management, consumer finance, insurance, retail media, retail spaces and logistics. Future Group is present in 61 cities and 65 rural locations.

The group’s flagship company, Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited operates over 10,000,000 square feet (930,000 m2) of retail space, has over 1,000 stores and employs over 30,000 people. Some of its leading retail formats include Pantaloons, Big Bazaar, Central, Food Bazaar, Home Town, eZone, Depot, Future Money and online retail format www. futurebazaar. com. Future Group companies includes, Future Capital Holdings, Future Generali India, Indus League Clothing and Galaxy Entertainment which manages Sports Bar, Brew Bar and Bowling Co. Future Capital Holdings, the group’s financial arm, focuses on asset management and consumer credit.

It manages assets worth over $1 billion that are being invested in developing retail real estate and consumer-related brands and hotels. The group’s joint venture partners include Italian insurance major Generali, French retailer ETAM group, US-based stationary products retailer Staples Inc and UK-based Lee Cooper and India-based Talwalkar’s, Blue Foods and Liberty Shoes. Future Group’s vision is to, “Deliver Everything, Everywhere, Everytime to Every Indian Consumer in the most profitable manner. ” The group considers ‘Indian-ness’ as a core value and its corporate credo is – Rewrite rules, Retain values.

MAJOR INDIAN RETAILERS The low-intensity entry of the diversified Mahindra Group into retail is unique because it plans to focus on lifestyle products. The Mahindra group is the fourth large Indian business group to enter the business of retail after Reliance Industries Ltd, the Aditya Birla Group, and Bharti Enterprises Ltd. The other three groups are focusing either on perishables and groceries, or a range of products, or both. RPG Retail-Formats: Music World, Books ; Beyond, Spencer’s Hyper, Spencer’s Super, Daily ; Fresh Pantaloon Retail-Formats: Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar,

Pantaloons, Central, Fashion Station, Brand Factory, Depot, aLL, E-Zone etc. The Tata Group-Formats: Westside, Star India Bazaar, Steel junction, Landmark, and Titan Industries with World of Titans showrooms, Tanishq outlets, Chroma. K Raheja Corp Group-Formats: Shoppers’ Stop, Crossword, Hyper City, In orbit Lifestyle International-Lifestyle, Home Centre, Max, Fun City and International Franchise brand stores. Pyramid Retail-Formats: Pyramid Megastore, TruMart Nilgiri’s-Formats: Nilgiri’s’ supermarket chain Subhiksha-Formats: Subhiksha supermarket pharmacy and telecom discount chain.

Trinethra- Formats: Fabmall supermarket chain and Fabcity hypermarket chain Vishal Retail Group-Formats: Vishal Mega Mart BPCL-Formats: In & Out Reliance Retail-Formats: Reliance Fresh Reliance ADAG Retail-Format: Reliance World German Metro Cash & Carry Shoprite Holdings-Formats: Shoprite Hyper LITERATURE REVIEW BY SOUMEN CHATTERJEE Unique customer perception (UCP): According to soumen, Unique Customer Perception is what is required by companies instead of Unique Selling Proposition. It is ultimately that customer look for satisfaction based on the picture of perception derived from various sources.

If these perceptions of customer can be analyzed then promotion would be easier for customer centric marketing. This has lead to the concept – “Customer Perception is the Rule and not Customer Satisfaction”. HUAWEI Satisfy customers perception is the biggest challenge: In meeting customers’ requirements and measuring customers’ satisfaction indexes, customer perception should be definitely a key consideration. Qualified services in the operation execution layer, technical management layer and business development layer are necessary. It is more important to understand customer expectations and make efforts to exceed their expectations.

In customer satisfaction management, the biggest challenge is customer perception management, or customer perception satisfaction. The major characteristics of service is intangible, hence the core value of services is not like a physical product but the spiritual experience and perception of customers. The final aim and ideal effect of service provisioning is to have customers perceive and enjoy the service. Such perception is both at psychological and behavior levels, and it is the contents of high quality life in the modern society.

Customers are seeking for material deliverables as well as perceptive enjoyment when purchasing a service product. Since perceptive enjoyment is a vital service objective, one of the key service management objectives shall be meeting customers’ perceptive enjoyment. ORGANIZATIONAL CHART CSD Big Bazaar: Is se sasta aur acha kahin nahin Big bazaar is the company’s foray into the world of hypermarket discount stores, the first of its kind in India. Price and the wide array of products are the USP’s in Big Bazaar. Close to two lakh products are available under one roof at prices lower by 2 to 60 per cent over the corresponding market prices.

The high quality of service, good ambience, implicit guarantees and continuous discount programmes have helped in changing the face of the Indian retailing industry. A leading foreign broking house compared the rush at Big Bazaar to that of a local suburban train. Food Bazaar – Wholesale prices Food Bazaar’s core concept is to create a blend of a typical Indian Bazaar and International supermarket atmosphere with the objective of giving the customer all the advantages of Quality, Range and Price associated with large format stores and also the comfort to See, Touch and Feel the products.

The company has recently launched an aggressive private label programme with its own brands of tea, salt, spices, pulses, jams, ketchups etc. With unbeatable prices and vast variety (there are 42 varieties of rice on sale), Food Bazaar has proved to be a hit with customers all over the country. Big Bazaar Big Bazaar is a chain of shopping malls in India, owned by the Pantaloon Group and which work on Wal-Mart type economies of scale. They have had considerable success in many Indian cities and small towns. Big Bazaar provides quality items but at an affordable price.

It is a very innovative idea and this hypermarket has almost anything under one roof…. Apparel, Footwear, Toys, Household Appliances and more. The ambience and customer care adds on to the shopping experience. Is Se Sasta Aur Accha Kahin Nahin !! What’s in store for you at Big Bazaar? 1,70,000 products at 6- 60 % discount. At Big Bazaar, you will get : A wide range of products at 6 – 60 % lower than the corresponding market price, coupled with an international shopping experience. If you deal in the categories mentioned there’s a big deal of success for you. Products available in Big bazaar

Apparel and Accessories for Men, Women and Children. | Baby Accessories. Cosmetics Crockery Dress Materials Suiting ; Shirting Electrical Accessories Electronics Footwear | Toys Home Textiles Home Needs Household Appliances Household Plastics Hardware Home Decor | Luggage Linens Sarees Stationery Utensils ; Utilities | Food Bazaar’s core concept is to create a blend of a typical Indian Bazaar and International supermarket atmosphere with the objective of giving the customer all the advantages of Quality, Range and Price associated with large format stores and also the comfort to See, Touch and Feel the products. FOOD BAZAAR’ a division of Pantaloon Retail India Ltd is a chain of large supermarkets with a difference. It was flagged off in April’02. With store sizes ranging from 8,000 sq ft to 15,000 sq. ft. in Mumbai (two stores), Kolkata, Bangalore ; Hyderabad, it is opening more stores at Gurgaon (Delhi), New Bombay ; Nagpur. It currently caters to over 1. 2 million customers every day across 4 outlets in India and is soon set to expand and double this figure across 8 outlets all over the country by June2003. Food Bazaar offers the Indian consumer the best of Western and Indian values.

The western values of convenience, cleanliness and hygiene are offered through pre packed commodities and the Indian values of “See- Touch- Feel” are offered through the “Mandi” atmosphere created by displaying staples out in the open, all at very economical and affordable prices without any compromise on quality. This satisfies the Indian consumer and comforts her before making her final buying decision. At other super markets, the consumer is deprived of this factor. Truly the Indian consumer now agrees with Food Bazaar: “Ab Ghar Chalaana kitna Aasaan”.

Food Bazaar represents the company’s entry into food retail and is targeted across all classes of population. Food Bazaar replicates a local ‘mandi’, to provide the much important ‘touch & feel’ factor which Indian housewives are used to in the local bazaar. Food Bazaar has over 50,000 stock keeping units which cover grocery, FMCG products, milk products, juices, tea, sugar, pulses, masalas, rice wheat etc, besides fruits and vegetables. All products are sold in MRP or at discounts range between 2% to 20%. Fruits and vegetables are sold at prices comparable to wholesale prices. CHAPTER -III ii) Data collection iv) Data analysis and interpretations ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- Data Collection ————————————————- Data can be classified under two categories depending upon the sources utilized.

These categories are, ————————————————- i) Primary data ii) Secondary data DATA COLLECTION Data is collected by using various methods. For the purpose of fulfilling the objective of study and for completing the Research project Report, both primary and secondary data collected. PRIMARY SOURCES: Questionnaire Keeping in view the objective of study a questionnaire (as given Annexure) was selected there is Twenty in all. All questions are small in size and arranged logically. The language is simple to understand. Interview

Information was also obtained by conversation with Customers . they were interviewed personally. SECONDARY DATA: The second information is taken from company document available on websites The other related journals information and industry association’s sites have also been viewed. SAMPLING DESIGN In the backdrop of objective set, a sample study conducted in Delhi& NCR. SAMPLE SIZE: 80 CONSUMERS contacted during this research work. The nature of sampling is NON PROBABITITY –CONVINANCE SAMPLING helped in keeping the path of research in focus throughout the work. Collection of the questionnaire

Sufficient time was given to the respondents to answer the questionnaire. Problem faced while collecting and filling questionnaire Some of the respondents were hesitant to answer the questionnaire. Some respondents did not want to answer the questionnaire, so they left it unanswered. Where the respondents did not find the relevant answer in his choice provided, they added they added their own choice or left it unanswered. Tabulation After all the questionnaires were collected back, the responses were tabulated. Each answer of the respondent was tabulated to its respective category. ANALYSIS I have done a market field survey on big bazaar.

I have surveyed around 80 respondents of big bazaar bansankari who come to visit big bazaar. A specific questionnaire is prepared for the customers and data is obtained from them by moving around big bazaar and personally interacting with them. The customers gave me valuable information regarding their consumption pattern in big bazaar. I collected all those information and a proper analysis is done. All the analysis and its interpretations are discussed below. Each of the analysis is done as per the information obtained from the customers and a serious interpretation has been done to best of my effort.

Customer s monthly income Higher income Group| 5%| Middle Income Group| 50%| Lower Income Group| 20%| No Income Group| 25%| INCOME GROUP 5% 50% 20% 25% Higher Income Group (> Rs. 60000) Middle Income Group (Rs. 40000-60000) Lower Income Group(Rs. 10000-40000) No Income Group (< Rs. 10000) Analysis: The above diagram shows the distribution of income level of customers coming in to big bazaar. Among the 80 respondents 50% of customers are of middle income level that is between Rs10000 – 40000 per month. Least number of customers visiting Big bazaar are the higher income level people (> Rs. 0000 pm) that constitute only 5%. The lower income level of people coming to big bazaar constitutes of 20%. 25% of people belong to no income group which mostly consists of students. Interpretation: Big bazaar is the hub of shopping for middle level income group people because of its reasonable price on its each product category. The higher level income group people don’t prefer to do shopping in big bazaar as it doesn’t deal with branded products. The higher level income group people are very status conscious and their psychology is such type that they don’t prefer much to visit big bazaar as it is a discounted store.

The lower income group people come in to big bazaar as they get goods at a discounted price. Hence big bazaar should include branded products in its product category which will encourage higher income group people to come in to big bazaar. Probably not much of lower income group people come to big bazaar as they don’t like to have any shopping experience rather they just go for nearby store where they can get their necessity goods. Even they purchase goods on a regular basis on a small quantity. So they don’t have much interest to come to big bazaar and do shopping. Customers visit Big Bazaar Weekly| 29%|

Monthly| 34%| Quarterly| 23%| On unplanned basis| 14%| Interpretation: From this I interpret that in big bazaar 34% customers visit monthly, 29% customer visit weekly 23% customers visit quarterly and 14% customers visit on planned basis , it means mostly customers visit weekly and monthly basis for purchase their requirements. Apart from Big Bazaar visit retail outlet Yes| 64%| No | 36%| | | | | Interpretation: From this I interpret that 64% customers of big bazaar visit other retail stores for their requirements and 36% customers of big bazaar generally do not visit other retail stores. It shows that customers atisfaction level is more in big bazaar. Purpose behind visiting big bazaar Shopping| 60%| Outing| 10%| Both| 30%| Analysis: Out of the 80 respondents 60% of respondents visit big bazaar for shopping, 10% for outing and 30% visit big bazaar for both the purposes. Interpretation: From this I interpret that big bazaar is purely a shopping complex but it also facilitates a certain kind of ambience and decorum to the people that they also visit it for the purpose of outing. The infrastructure and ambience of big bazaar is so that people even like to go there even also they don’t have to purchase anything.

People enjoy doing shopping in big bazaar. This is very nice for it as often customers. Demand for other retail outlets in a mall Garment Outlet | 65%| Footwear Outlet | 20%| Food Court | 30%| Entertainment | 20%| Gift Corner | 10%| Jewelers and Watches Store | 10%| Analysis: The above graph shows that 65% of people visit garment outlet in a mall other than that of big bazaar. 30% of people also prefer to visit food court in a mall other than big bazaar. 20% of the people go to footwear outlet in a mall other than big bazaar. 20% of people also go to mall for entertainment purpose.

Some people that are 10% each also visit gift corner store and jewellery & watches store in a mall other than big bazaar. Interpretation: From this analysis I come to know that most of the people tend to visit garment outlets in a mall other than big bazaar as it has some exclusive branded outlets. People also go for footwear stores as malls have branded footwear stores in it. People go for watching movies to mall for entertainment. Yet a few people visits gift corners and jewellery stores in a mall. This is of course a threat for big bazaar that it is not able to attract customers from other retail outlets and retain them with it.

Big bazaar should definitely include more of branded products in its product category in order to bring in the customers of mall to it and retain them with it. It can include some of the exclusive branded outlets of cloths and jewellery in it in order to attract the brand choosy customers. Products mostly purchased by customers in big bazaar Clothes| 60%| Grocery | 70%| Food Item| 50%| Leather Item | 25%| Electronic Item | 15%| Gift Item| 10%| Any other Item | 10%| Analysis: This chart clearly indicates that the demand for grocery that is 70% is highest by the customers followed by clothes rated 60%.

The next highest demand is for food items that is 50%. 25% demand is for leather items in big bazaar. Electronic items holds 15% of demand and gift items and other items has a demand of only 10% by the customers of big bazaar. Interpretation: From this analysis I interpret that customers demand are high for grocery and clothes followed by food items in big bazaar. Electronic items have a little demand by the customers. Gift items and other items are not much in demand by the customers. I can interpret that clothes, grocery and food items are the major products which hold maximum number of customers.

So big bazaar should maintain its low pricing and product quality to keep hold of the customers and also it should keep more qualitative products of gift and leather items so that people would go for more purchase of these items from it. Big bazaar has many local branded products of grocery and cloths and it is successfully selling it. It should also include branded products so that more sales can take place. Expenditure pattern of customers coming in to big bazaar Below Rs. 500 /single visit| 11%| 500-1000 /single visit| 16%| 1000-1500 /single visit| 22%| 1500-2000 /single visit| 22%|

More than 2000 /single visit| 29%| Analysis: We can clearly see from this graph that majority of the customers spend a lot in big bazaar that is 29% of people spend more than Rs2000 in a single visit to big bazaar. Equal number of people that is 22% of people each spend Rs 1000-1500 and Rs 1500-2000 respectively in a visit to big bazaar. 16% of people spend Rs 500-1000 and only 11% of customers are there who spends less than Rs500 in their visit to big bazaar. Interpretation: From this I interpret that most of the customers purchase goods in bulk which leads them to spend a lot.

Volume sales are high in big bazaar. Customers tend to purchase more goods from big bazaar as it provides goods at a discounted rate. Probably those persons who spend more in a visit to big bazaar are purchasing on a monthly basis. Those customers who are spending very less money that is below Rs 500 are mostly coming in just to move around big bazaar and spend time. In the process they used to spend money on food items and also purchase some products while roaming in it. Impulse buying behavior of customers comes in to play to a large extent. More discounts shall be provided to people who does bulk purchase.

This will encourage people to purchase more products. Time spent by customers in shopping in big bazaar Less than half an hour| 10%| Half an hour to 1 hour | 15%| 1 hour to 1 1/2 hours | 35%| 1 1/2 hours to 2 hours | 22%| More than 2 hours | 18%| Analysis: People spend a lot of time in shopping in big bazaar. Majority of the respondents (35%) said that they spend at least 1 hour to 1 ? hours in big bazaar. 22% respondents also said that they spend 1 ? hours to 2 hours in their visit to big bazaar. Only 10% of people said that they spend very little time that is less than half an hour in big bazaar.

Interpretation: As per the given data I interpret that customers are very product choosy now a days and that’s why they spend a lot of time in shopping in big bazaar. Probably customers might even be spending more time in big bazaar as it provides a very nice ambience and atmosphere for the people to shop in. Hence those persons who spend half an hour or less than half an hour in big bazaar are those persons who just come to purchase limited products and come only because of low pricing of products. People also spend much time in it but purchase very few goods.

The sales personnel should focus on the people who take long time in shopping and purchases a lot and provide special kind of service to them as they are the major customers. Comparison of footfalls in weekdays and weekends Weeks days| 40%| Weekends | 60%| Analysis: The above graph shows that more number of people comes to big bazaar in weekends than that of week days . 40% of people visits big bazaar in weekdays where as 60% of people visit big bazaar in weekends. Interpretation: I can clearly interpret from this that most of the people tend to visit big bazaar in weekends rather than that of week days.

There are more footfalls in big bazaar in weekends than that of week days. Though there is not much difference as 40% of people visit big bazaar in week days hence in weekends the footfall increases by 10%. As people come more in weekends, so big bazaar should keep it open for more time in week ends. The infrastructure can be changed a bit in week ends so that customers can see more products clearly and can move around comfortably. In order to bring in more number of customers in week days big bazaar should provide some schemes in week days which will encourage people to come in to it in week days also.

Hence the crowd is more in weekends and big bazaar should avail more parking spaces for its customers in weekends. It can make some temporary arrangement for parking every weekend. It should not spend much money in advertising and displaying of products in weekdays rather it should advertise and display products more in weekends as more number of people comes in weekends. Customers preference of timing to visit big bazaar 10 A. M – 1 P. M | 8%| 1 P. M – 3 P. M | 17%| 3 P. M – 6 P. M| 35%| 6 P. M – 10 P. M| 40%| | |

Analysis: The above pie chart shows that most of the people prefer to visit big bazaar in evening time than that of the day time. Only 25% of people tend to visit big bazaar during day time while 75% of people tend to visit big bazaar during after noon time. Interpretation: From the above analysis I interpret that evening time is the peak time for big bazaar and day time is the off peak time for big bazaar. There is more number of people found in big bazaar during evening time than that of day time. Probably more of products are being sold during evening time in big bazaar than that of day time.

Big bazaar shall provide some special offerings during day time so that more people should come in during day time. It could offer some special kind of product in daytime which will be not available during evening time. In this way it will bring in more number of people during day time for getting the special kind of products but along with that it will be able to sale other products as people do a lot of impulse buying at big bazaar. Comparison of customers purchasing with planned list of products and purchasing products on unplanned basis Yes| 50%|

No| 40%| Ever 10% Analysis: As shown in the graph out of my total respondents of 80, 50% of customers come to big bazaar with a planned list of products. 40% of people come in to big bazaar without any planned list of products to be purchased from big bazaar. Interpretation: As per the data obtained from the customers of big bazaar I interpret that most of the customers comes in to big bazaar with a planned list of products. Few customers come to big bazaar without any planned list of products and purchases products depending on their selection.

These people basically come to the mall and hence get in to big bazaar. Depending on the product category and brand and quality of products they purchases goods. Some couples come to mall and go to food bazaar to have food together and to have chit chat among them. The customer who comes with a planned list of products purchases more products than that of the customers who comes without any planned list of products. So big bazaar should provide more variety and essential goods so that more number of people should come in with a planned list of products.

Brand preference of customers in big bazaar Yes | 10%| No| 50%| Depends on category | 40%| Analysis: As seen in the above chart it is clearly known that only 10% of people come in to big bazaar with a list of brands in advance. 50% of people completely deny that they don’t prepare in list of brand in advance. 40% of people told that they prepare a list of brand depending on the product category. Interpretation: From this I interpret that customers don’t opt for much brand preference while purchasing products in big bazaar. A few customers search for brands but depending on the product category.

Customers probably don’t decide for brands on products as there are not much of known branded products available at big bazaar. On product categories like grocery and clothes, big bazaar has many local branded products. Customers purchase a lot of these as its cheap in price even though its quality is not so good. As most of the customers belong to lower class and middle class people, they purchase those local branded products as it gives them value for money. Different products of the same category have different prices. Quality of products varies with the price.

This enables customization of products for various types of customers. Customers search for brands mostly in apparel section. Some customers also pre decides the brand on the local manufactured grocery and food products of big bazaar. Big bazaar should include more of the branded products in its each category so that customers have more options to choose among the brands. This will bring in more number of people to big bazaar which will definitely increase the sales. Comparison of brand preference on different product category Cloths| 40%| Grocery| 40%| Gift Items| 33%| Electronic Items| 25%|

Leather Items| 2%| Any Other Item| 12%| Analysis: This graph shows that cloths and grocery are the only two items on which customers mostly prefer the brands that is 40% each. 33% brand preference is on gift items and 25% is on electronic items. Brand preference on leather items is 2% and 12% on any other item. Interpretation: From this I interpret that some of the products brand are pre decided in advance and for some of the products customers don’t at all pre decide any brand. As per electronic goods are concerned customers pre decide the brand as many branded electronic products are available in big bazaar.

The customers pre decides brands on cloths and grocery most as big bazaar produces much of local brands and also have some well known branded products of clothes with it like flying machine jeans. Mode of payment of customers in big bazaar Cash Payment| 55%| Credit Card| 19%| Debit Card| 26%| Analysis: As per my study is concerned, out of the total respondents 55% of people make cash payment in big bazaar. 19% of them uses credit card as their mode of payment and 26% of the people makes payment in big bazaar through their debit card.

Interpretation: As per the obtained data I interpret that more number of people makes cash payment in big bazaar. A fraction of people uses their credit card for payment in big bazaar and a very few people uses their debit card for payment. I can interpret that quick exchange of money for goods is done in big bazaar as most of the people mode of payment is cash payment. Hence sometimes big bazaar has to wait for a short time period as some of the customers make their payment through credit and debit card. Comparison of factors which encourages customers to come in to big bazaar Price| 60%|

Service | 40%| Ambience | 50%| Product Variety | 65%| Product Quality | 20%| Convenience | 35%| Analysis: People are mostly encouraged to come to big bazaar because of its cheap price and availability of variety of products. Around 65% of the total respondent said they are mostly encouraged to come to big bazaar as it has variety options. Even most of the customers said that they get goods there in a discounted price and so they come in to it. Many customers also said that they feel good about the service and ambience provided by big bazaar.

Around 35% of customers also said that convenience is also another factor which leads them to come to big bazaar. Product quality is rated at very low that is only 20% which encourages the customers to come to big bazaar. Interpretation: From this analysis I interpret that big bazaar is a well known for its variety options. People mostly come to big bazaar as they get various kinds of products under one roof. It is also clearly known that big bazaar sales its goods at a discounted price as compared to the market. Even it provides a good service and ambience to its customers which encourages them to visit big bazaar more and more times.

I can also interpret from this that big bazaar has located itself in a good place from where it is able to attract customers. As a hypermarket which is to be located far off the city, big bazaar has located itself in a good place from where it is convenient for people to visit big bazaar. Big bazaar should try and produce more qualitative products so that customers can get more satisfaction and would never think of not doing shopping in big bazaar. Services of the sales personnel in Big Bazaar Very good17% Good29% Ok36% Poor13% Very poor5%

Interpretation: From this I interpret that 36% customers realize service of sale personnel in Big Bazaar is OK, 29% realize good, 17% realize Very Good, 13% realize Poor and 5% customers is very dissatisfied with sales personnel’s in Big Bazaar. Customers’ mode of transport to big bazaar Hired Vehicle | 10%| Two-wheeler| 40%| Four-wheeler| 35%| Any Other | 15%| Analysis: Around 40% of the total respondent of comes in to big bazaar with their own two wheelers. The second majority of people consist of people riding four wheeler and coming in to big bazaar.

Only 15% of people of the total respondent visits big bazaar on hired vehicles. 10% customers of the total respondent comes in any other mode of transport. Interpretation: From the above data I interpret that there are more number of four wheelers coming found in big bazaar than that of two wheelers. People prefer more to go to big bazaar in four wheelers than that of two wheelers. A few people are found who comes in to big bazaar with a hire vehicle. Probably they might be the tourists. Parking space availability in big bazaar Less than adequate | 45%| Adequate | 45%|

More than adequate | 10%| Analysis: As it is shown in pie chart most of the people say big bazaar does not provide adequate parking space. Equal number of people also says that adequate space is provided for parking big bazaar. Only 10% of people say that more than adequate space is available for parking in big bazaar. Interpretation: Analyzing the above data, I interpret that customers are not satisfied with the parking space availability provided by big bazaar. Hence it’s a threat for big bazaar as it may loose its customers because of less parking space availability.

Even though many customers say adequate space is available for parking in big bazaar but also it is a threat for big bazaar as it is seen more number of people are expected to come in to big bazaar. In holidays probably it will be very difficult for customers to park their vehicle in big bazaar. Customers preference towards Kirana store Yes | 65%| No| 35%| Analysis: Out of my total respondent of 80 customers, 65% of them says they go to their nearby kirana store and 35% said that they don’t at all go to any kirana store. This shows that majority of people go to kirana store even though they visit big bazaar.

But some customers are there who never goes to any kirana store. Interpretation: As per the given data I analyze that most number of people tend to purchase goods from nearby kirana store even if they come to big bazaar. I can conclude from this that a kirana store is a competitor of big bazaar. Some customers never go for shopping in kirana store as of it does not have much variety option available with it. Probably they are more interested in having a shopping experience rather than to just go and purchase goods from kirana store.

Comparison of Big bazaar with any Kirana store | Price| Service| Variety| Quality| Convenience| Shopping Experience| Ambience| Big bazaar| 70%| 50%| 100%| 40%| 25%| 90%| 95%| Kirana store| 30%| 50%| 0%| 60%| 75%| 10%| 5%| Analysis: The above graph shows the comparison of different factors between big bazaar and a nearby kirana store. 70% of people say big bazaar provides goods at a cheaper price as compared to that of a kirana store. 50% of people say big bazaar provides better service and another 50% of them say kirana store provides better service.

Each and every customer that is 100% agrees that there are more variety of products available at big bazaar than that of kirana store. As per quality of goods is concerned 60% of the customer say kirana store provides better qualitative products while 40% of the customers say big bazaar also provides qualitative products. 75% people say it is more convenient for them to go to a kirana store while 25% of them say going to big bazaar is more convenient for them. Around 90% of respondents said it is a good shopping experience at big bazaar while 10 of them said that they also have a good shopping experience at kirana store.

As per ambience is concerned 95% of customers said big bazaar provides much nice ambience than big bazaar while 5% of them said that ambience provided by kirana store is also equivalent to that of big bazaar. Interpretation: I interpreted from this that a kirana store is one of the competitor of big bazaar. It is a threat for big bazaar as some of the attributes of a kirana store provides more satisfaction to customers. Big bazaar should try to improve on each of its attributes and out compete the kirana store so that it can convert the customers of kirana store to be the customers of big bazaar.

Comparison of Big bazaar with others Organized retailers based on following points | Price| Service| Variety| Quality| Convenience| Shopping Experience| Ambience| Big bazaar| 45%| 50%| 55%| 52%| 54%| 46%| 58%| O. Org. Retails| 55%| 50%| 45%| 48%| 46%| 54%| 42%| Interpretation: I interpreted from this that other organized stores is another competitors of big bazaar. It is a threat for big bazaar as some of the attributes of other organized stores store provides more satisfaction to customers. Big bazaar should try to improve on each of its attributes and out compete the other organized stores.

SWOT ANALYSIS OF BIG BAZAAR A SWOT analysis is done to know the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of any company. This analysis will explain about the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of big bazaar. Strengths of Big bazaar * Large variety option * Cheap price * Huge customer Base * Volume sales Weaknesses of Big bazaar * Lacks in branded products * Low in product quality * Unable to provide enough parking space to its customers Threats for Big bazaar * Opening up of other discounted stores like Vishal mega mart * Convenience of customers to nearby kirana stores Availability of products in other retail outlets Opportunities for Big bazaar * To open up more and more number of big bazaars in different cities of the country. * To grab the rural market * To bring in the customers of other retail outlet by dealing with branded products. * Add more products to its product category CHAPTER-IV Findings FINDINGS 1. Most of the customers buy their requirement in Big Bazaar on the basis of Weekly and monthly basis. Customers realized that Big Bazaar stores provide qualitative products/service with reasonable price. 2.

At present time Big Bazaar provide different types of product assortments to the customers. 3. Continuously opening of Big Bazaar chains in different major cities, increasing quantities of the customers & profit show that Big Bazaar most accepted name in organized retail chain in India. 4. Big Bazaar mainly deal with middle income group people who want qualitative product with reasonable cost. 5. Big bazaar has a good reputation of itself in the market. 6. Big bazaar has positioned itself in the market as a discounted store. 7. Big bazaar holds a huge customer base. The majority of customers belong to middle class family. . Impulse buying behavior of customers comes in to play most of the times in big bazaar. 9. There are more than 168 big bazaars in different cities of India; it seems that there is a vast growth of big bazaar lying as customers demand is increasing for big bazaars. 10. Big bazaar is a hypermarket as it provides various kinds of goods like apparels, grocery, stationary, food items, electronic items, leather items, watches, jewellery, crockery, decorative items, sport items, chocolates and many more. It competes with all the specialty stores of different products which provide goods at a discounted rate all through the year. 1. The major players in retail industries are Big bazaar, The Tata Groups (Croma, Westside), Vishal Retail Group, Reliance Retail, & Sabka Bazaar etc. SUGGESTIONS * Big bazaar should include more of branded products its product category so as to attract the brand choosy people to come in to big bazaar. * Big bazaar should provide large parking space for its customers so that they can easily park their vehicles. * It should make different cash counters for different customers. Cash counter and credit card payment counter should be placed differently in order to reduce the rush and save the customer’s time.

This will be a kind of motivator for the customers of big bazaar. * The service of the sales person is needed to be improved. Personal care should be taken by the sales person for the customers so that the customers feel good. * During the off peak hour’s big bazaar should provide some offers to its customers so that people would be encouraged to come to big bazaar during off peak hours. The customers who are present in the mall during the off peak hours of big bazaar will definitely go in to big ba

Racism Against Native Americans and African Americans buy essay help: buy essay help

Racism against Native Americans and African Americans Sometimes I imagine that racial diversity would be a boon to human kind if there was no such thing called “racial hatred”. Now if you tell me that if there was only one kind of race then I will tell you that if all roses were red then what you would have given for a funeral? My point is that diversity is what makes this world keep going amusingly and these notions of race and ethnicities as big and small, upper class and lower class, superior and inferior are just mere perspectives.

In my opinion there is only one kind of race and that is “Human Kind” and we all are doing these buzzes because we lack unity in diversity. There are no race-specific DNA traits which demonstrate my view that racism is social but not biological. From the Roman Empire to today’s ultra modern age, from Hitler to Osama Bin Laden, and from Thomas Jefferson to Rev. Jeremiah Wright; people never forget to show this acquired sense of racism. Why I called it acquired? Because a white man is not born to hate black or a black man is not born to hate white.

But we are the mere appointee of this prejudiced perspective we have been taught by our family, neighborhood, and society for years and years. Society has never been able to get away from this prejudice but we pretend like we don’t care about it calling ourselves trans-racial society but I doubt the truthfulness of our intention. Why? Because the ghosts of our bitter experience of racism either towards Native Americans or towards African Americans keep on haunting us with the events like one in Rosebud and Pine Ridge counties in South Dakota or even worse event like “Jena 6” in Louisiana.

It looks like this thing will go on and on unless the elimination of social prejudice to “judge people by color but not the content of character” they have as MLK used to say. But I have to be optimistic that we have been able to institutionalize this racial discrimination by creating Civil Rights Act which prohibits the discriminatory treatment in employment decisions on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. You have posed a very important question in the lecture that- How is that so much discrimination exists, when there are laws to protect it? The Jena 6” incident answers this query because a person who is obliged to protect the juveniles start treating them on the basis of their skin color clearly demonstrates that the laws are very weak and vague to protect one as a free citizen. I think that race is not a problem here but racism is the problem. When we use the terms race and color why it does directly applies to blacks and browns which makes me think that whites are the “status quo” of all races.

As you have mentioned in the lecture that the history of the Native Americans often gets overlooked is true because the act of ethnic cleansing by the white European settlers was kind of victory to them but I actually consider it an inhumane act. And the act of Americanizing the Native Americans is an invasion of culture and norms which is the true color of a colonist. The racist images and stereotypes by the European Americans against the Native Americans as explained by the authors in chapter 6 clearly proves the “Dominant Rules” slogan. Recently, the whole world seemed obsessed talking about president Obama.

Why? Because he gained astonishing success in his short political career or he is a very skilled orator or he is a very intelligent man who was also the president of prestigious Harvard Law Review. I think these are superficial reasons but the real reason is that he is the first black president in the history of United States. Anybody who runs for president should be a good orator, intelligent, and smart but Obama gained much more buzz than usual because he broke the “status-quo” as I have mentioned earlier. The black neighborhoods are generally considered poor and the white neighborhoods rich.

These patters of thinking have the general consequence of institutionalizing racism in terms of poverty. The stereotype that young black men are criminals and drug abusers has further ghettoized the African- American community and has destroyed any possibility for normal family and community relations. As a result it has contributed in the disruption of the family, prevalence of more single parents, children raised without a father in the ghetto. Inability of these people to get jobs has further complicated the living standard of the people.

If you are from the Boston area, it’s no surprise that there are more shootings and stabbings in Dorchester and Roxbury than Newton and Beacon Hill. So, it sends a wrong message that young black men are violent and hostile. The place where I was born and raised never had racial problem but immense ethnic and caste problem. The south Asian countries are in great turmoil of caste exploitation and ethnic exploitation which I think is new to most Americans. So, it’s very interesting for me to draw the comparisons in between racial and ethnic exploitation in terms of power.

Usually, the higher castes dominate the lower castes and virtually enslave them for their benefits. The lower castes are regarded “Untouchables” which I think is an evil and the ugliest form of humanity. In case of race, I think discrimination and privilege portrays the power. At the individual level someone who is an advantaged member of a disadvantaged group could discriminate against someone less privileged than him/her or against someone with less power from a privileged group and at the institutional level that cannot happen because it is the groups in power who do the discrimination.

The Immorality of Cloning college application essay help online: college application essay help online

The immorality of cloning Casey Chelchinskey 12S The classification of a “clone” is the genetic copy of a life form. Cloning is a topical South African issue which we are faced with in our lives. The laws in South Africa which govern genetic manipulation state that neither therapeutic nor reproductive cloning is accepted. I take a firm stand against cloning and I believe it is unjust, intolerable and destructive for the future of humanity. The birth of the cloned sheep, Dolly, resulted in an immense impression around the world.

This miraculous experiment was thought to be impossible and increased the possibility of human cloning. All countries should forbid human cloning as it reduces the value of life, removing individuality as well as destroying the social and moral systems that humans have extensively refined. Clones will be produced to create “spare parts” for other individuals, or even for medical research. Therefore, clones will be seen as disposable property, ultimately having less human rights; they will be bred and exterminated for the benefit of others.

I undoubtedly concur that it is immoral to take away life in order to “harvest” body parts, whether that person is an adult, a child, or an embryo. By creating a duplication of a person, robs them of their individuality. Human dignity would in this way be undermined. Pro-activists can argue that, a clone is an identical twin; they exist and do not have destroyed human uniqueness. But there is a clear difference between being a twin and being one of a million clones of the same person.

We are “playing” God, by creating a physical being through a non-natural procedure; by using humanity’s own invention. God commanded us to control the earth and have power over it (Gen 1:26-27). This does not necessarily mean that every probable use of technological advancement is good for humanity. In all probability God had reasons for creating the reproductive process, and we should not be careless about replacing it with our own methods. Human cloning will decrease the amount of families worldwide. Cloning needs one DNA cell, this can cause more single-parent families.

Children who are conceived by cloning cannot have a blood-related mother and father. This can be very difficult for the child. By permitting human cloning, many problems would occur such as bullying and racism. I understand that research of cloning will help infertility. But I believe it is more important to value life, individuality, and family than curing a minor number of people. In my opinion the government should intervene in this dispute of cloning. I insist that cloning humans should be unaccepted and opposed.

Apposes need to voice their opinions. If cloning is accepted scientists will experiment. Eventually funds will run out, would they just stop, or will they keep taking the hard-earned money we work for? We should be spending the money on something essential like finding a cure for AIDS. We should be helping the people that are alive now and need assistance rather than creating more people who possibly will add to the world’s problems. Ask yourself the question, do you want to live on a planet where science technology controls everything, even our birth?

Compare and Contrast Pride and Prejudice my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Is it possible for a film to show an audience the internal tensions between two potential lovers? Or do the details of the script, sets, costumes and cinematography block the view? For example, look at Jane Austen’s classic love story “Pride and Prejudice” as told in two very different films. While both versions correctly tell the tale of love winning out over one girl’s selfish conceit and opinionated judgments, Simon Langton’s A&E miniseries holds true in every way to the depth of the story, while Joe Wright’s 2005 feature film dances over only the popularly known highlights.

The resulting views of the story and romantic tension are, of course, completely different! Rarely in Hollywood is the filmwright known to follow an author’s original meaning or intent. Thus the filmwright’s job in any film is to create a solid foundation so the director can do whatever he or she pleases with the rest. In this assignment, both filmwright’s perform their duties perfectly – a story is told. Debra Mogach, filmwright for the 2005 version, loses miles of depth in the personalities of all the key characters and even many of the minor ones.

It is lucky for her that she got help from Emma Thompson with some of the dialogue or we probably wouldn’t hear a single line from the original text! Langston’s writer, Andrew Davies, on the other hand, stays very true to the original book: both in the highlights of the story and in the depth of the characters. Because of his attention to Austin’s development of each “cast” member, the audience is drawn deeply into many of the characters’ internal lives.

And that is how it’s supposed to work: the many details of the characters’ personalities are supposed to be portrayed in the script as well as in every other aspect of a film. After the director has accepted his script and somewhere during casting, the sets must be chosen. In the case of these films the “sets” are on location: several places in the UK. You would think that Hollywood would be able to get that part pretty accurate.

A&E apparently didn’t have any trouble – the homes, halls and streets of Longbourne, Derbyshire, London, Rosings Park and certainly Pemberly are brought to life and certainly give the audience insight into the lives and struggles of the people who dwell in them. Joe Wright, however, clearly loose in his understanding of the period he was filming, succeeds only in belittling every character’s position in life distracting his audience from getting any grip on the personality issues that should be causing the tension.

The portrayal of the lives of characters should lift the audiences’ understanding of life and customs very different from their own – not create more questions. Once actors have been cast and sets accepted the costumers go into a fever developing each character’s wardrobe to both fit and suit them. Dinah Collin, of A&E’s production, is a master of English period costuming – and in this film she outdoes herself! Every costume is absolutely precise with the time period and particularly with the character’s station in life and current activities.

The clothes each person wears give the audience a clear understanding of precisely who they are. Jacqueline Durran, of the 2005 film, did a very precise job of costuming to the director’s vision for his film. All of the characters are dressed below their station, and rarely properly for the period requirements for even the activities in which they are engaged. Instead of questions being answered and removed for the audience, more are created and none are answered. Will the audience see clearly what the tension is, let alone the idea of what its bearers are feeling?

This is what we are looking for. The script, locations, actors and costumes are in place. Lights, cameras,? ah yes, cinematography! Now the director begins his real work of storytelling with camera angles, focus and attention. Now Joe Wright pulls the plug and washes the audience down with him into misunderstanding the period, its protocols and, therefore, its people. When one does not understand any of those, how can one possibly understand any internal emotional tensions?

Wright does do some really artsy and amazing things with his cameras, but they don’t seem to have too much to do with the story. He especially uses them to try to portray Darcy’s emotions (because the actor certainly doesn’t get the opportunity to), but at such odd moments and with such little clarity that you don’t really notice it until your 3rd or 4th viewing! He has a gift for developing amazing scenery shots – really – but, other than having one or the other of the actors included in the shot, they basically never have anything to do with the story.

When Simon Langton, however, uses a sweeping shot of countryside, village or house – which he does many times – it absolutely, always shows us something new of a character, and not always just the one in the picture! Langton adds and adds and adds to his characters and their relationships. Never once does Langton’s audience lose track of what is building between any of his characters. So, both directors use their cameras successfully to create mood and interest of some sort or another. And, both directors do some interesting foreshadowing and story telling with their cameras.

And both directors create beautiful pictures. But did both directors combine all of this interesting cinematography with their script, sets and costumes to honestly portray the tension between two potential lovers? Can it be done? Since both the feature film and the miniseries tell the story accurately it would seem they would both clearly tell of the emotional tension between the two lovers. But cinema is a type of storytelling that requires every visual detail to fall in line with the purpose of the story.

After looking some into the visual details of each of these films it seems: a) this should not be the deciding film in determining Hollywood’s ability; and, b) A&E has taken every opportunity this story offers to prove itself entirely capable. For while both versions correctly tell the tale of love winning out over one girl’s selfish conceit and opinionated judgments, Simon Langton’s miniseries carries the story in every detail, while Joe Wright’s 2005 feature film only portrays the popularly known highlights and does not give any understandable degree to any of the characters.

Plastic Bags essay help service: essay help service

South Australia’s new laws are being passed to make supermarket customers to use something other than plastic bags, starting in January of 2009, and then place a permanent ban on May 4th. This ban would not take into effect of the plastic bags used for fruit and vegetables as long as they meet Australian standards. A bill was proposed in Israel by the of MK’S Estherina Tartman and Dov Henin to reduce the use of plastic bags in supermarkets and restaurants for free in Jerusalem. (Parliament to Consider 2008), (Waldoks 2008), (McMahon 2008)

Plastic bags are affecting everything for everybody. They are effecting our government, environment, and all the humans on this earth. As our economy is struggling with oil prices we are spending twelve billion barrels of oil per year on plastic bags when only a few out of trillions are getting thrown away or recycled to use again. Only one percent of bags worldwide and two percent in the United States get recycled. When not recycled they end up in landfills where they take five – hundred to one – thousand years to break down when they are not bio gradable products like they are.

While rolling down the streets clogging drains, polluting the air, and killing animals they were the leading cause of the 1988 flood in Bangladesh. As for killing animals the Ocean Blue Society for Marine Conservation studied that more than one million birds and one – hundred thousand mammals and sea turtles die every year from getting tangled or eating plastic. There study also discovered that there are more than forty – six thousand pieces of plastic floating in every square mile of the ocean when fifty to sixty years ago there wasn’t any plastic out there.

Also the Ocean Conservancy in Washington found three – hundred twenty – five, nine – hundred, and twenty – one bags along the coastline. (Mieszkowski 2007), (Hennigan 2008), (Dodd 2008), (MaMahon 2008) The government issues and the environmental issues due to plastic bags both affect the people in this world. The gas prices affect us as well as the polluted water, but what about those people that have to clean or recycle all of the waste from plastic bags. A San Francisco recycling center has been shut down multiple times due to clogging of the machine from plastic bags.

Workers use there shifts to clean the machine and get it back into working form. As machines are being shut down due to the clogging from plastic bags, it is costing recycling plants nearly one million dollars a year in shutdown time. As for John Jurinek a manager at Recycle Central his opinion on plastic bags when asked what was wrong with it, he said, “Everything” (Mieszkowski 2007 ? 10). Because of this most municipal recycling operations in southwestern public services are not allowed to accept plastic shopping bags for recycling anymore.

Not only are they getting tangled in recycling equipment, but also farming equipment as well. During harvest season they get tangled up in cotton gins and they affect the machines value. “They block seeding machinery and prevent proper planting of corn and soybeans” Shapiro 2008 Virginian Pilot ? 8) said Thomas Wrigt a Winsor Supervisor. (Shapiro 2008), (Mieskowski 2007) After putting all this information together about the bans and regulations, price and use, and all the effects plastic bags have on the environment and people, its safe to say that we need to reduce the use of plastic bags.

Many cities and states, and even countries have started banning and trying to reduce the use of them and help our environment. The government also has realized plastic bags are becoming a problem and have forced stores to place a ban, bring your own, or raise prices on plastic bags. Plastic bags are causing affects on everybody and everything. They are hurting our economy, environment, and people and the use of them needs to stop and be reduced considerably.

How Media Affects Society essay help: essay help

How The Media Affects Society The media is undoubtedly a significant and influential aspect in modern day society. As a means of communication in a world very much advanced in technology, the media touches all types of people through various forms such as the radio, newspapers, televisions etc. The question remains: what information is left unbiased and untarnished? The people within society must sort through the many bits of information fed to them and unfortunately, in most cases, all bits of media is taken as the whole truth.

The ways in which media impacts society to a great extent are through the facts it chooses to reveal, as recently seen in the case of the Tamil war in Sri Lanka. The tone in which it is presented such as the recently reported cases of Tamil protest on the streets of downtown Toronto and finally in the manner it chooses to target certain audiences, such as the case of Victoria George-Pazzano in Mexico. The media affects society through the facts it chooses to reveal. The media can choose to mention certain things and not to mention certain things.

As seen in the recent Tamil war in Sri Lanka all mainstream media outlets were banned from broadcasting out of the country. The media then proceeded not to broadcast any of it, leaving people unaware of it on a global scale, until the Tamils outside of Sri Lanka began to protest and make other countries aware of the situation. The media chose not to reveal this information and if it was not for the protest and marches held around the world it is possible, that society could have never known that genocide was being used against the Tamil Tigers.

Society needs the media to be informed on the events happening around the world, but sometimes the media may not choose to show us what is exactly going on. This can result in society not knowing how to react to what is happening in other parts of the world. Just as important as the facts the media chooses to reveal, the tone and manner in which the media presents these facts plays a large role on society’s take on events. The tone in which the media presents the facts in can be hostile, neutral or in favour.

The tone can affect society’s view on the situation, resulting in either a positive or negative reaction. As seen on May 10th when thousands of Tamils met on Toronto’s Gardiner Expressway, for almost 4 hours shutting down a key artery in the city’s road network. If the media had said, “The Tamil protesters are keeping Torontonians hostage in their own city” vs “The Tamil protesters are bravely doing what needs to be done to save their families”.

This could have resulted in Toronto turning against the Tamil community and possibly resulting in hate crimes, but instead the tone of the media was in favour of the protesters. Which has resulted in a positive reaction from Toronto and the Canadian government. The tone in which the facts are presented by the media, can easily change the point of view of the consumer, and can have either a positive or negative reaction regardless of the truth behind the facts. Lastly, the media uses its voice to target certain audiences for certain reactions. Who can the media target?

In the case of Victoria George-Pazzano, a 29 year old woman who suffered a severe asthma attack while on vacation in Mexico became critically ill. Victoria’s family pleaded to the Canadian government and Ontario hospitals to bring her home,but were continuously told that there were no beds and doctors available to treat in all of Ontario. The family of Victoria then pleaded there case to the media, who in return targeted the government officials and found out that either the hospitals or the officials were lying to Victoria’s family because there were more than 20 beds available at the time.

Because the media targeted the government with the right tone and direction of attention, the heat was put on the government for action because all of the attention was affecting there reputation. Without the media Attention, Victoria George-Pazzano would have died in a hospital bed in Cancun Mexico because the government of Canada pushed her aside. With these three weapons at the media’s disposal, namely the facts it chooses to reveal, the perspective it chooses to take and the people it wishes to target. The media holds a great deal of power and influence over society.

Of course, it may be for a positive effect or a negative one. Would one rather live in fear of all the rapes, assaults, robberies and murders that are reported or live happy, not knowing about every crime that takes place? That is another debate altogether. But, one thing is for certain: the people should not live blindly at the word and mercy of the media or another. There should always be room for doubt, speculation and of course one’s own opinions. Although the media may carry a great influence over society, each person is entitled to think for oneself.

Evaluation of Strategic Hrms in Erp Implementation cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

This then behooves that an exposure to same source of information but processed differently in human minds will result into different results as witnessed in developed and underdeveloped nations. Professional information based on services of governance is fast growing in the high technology information sector. But the management of services rendered is largely unexplored area of strategic management.

Realization of stable and strong human capital management solution that will meet organizational needs for current and future needs are basic requirement in many public sector organizations. A flexible rewards and recognition program that will keep employees motivated and engaged Comprehensive training opportunities that will enable employees to continue to grow and contribute to your organization an effective program to manage employee absences. When employees are absent or focused on other issues, productivity suffers.

And instead of managing your core business, you spend your time administering absence and leave policies and worrying about how presenteeism is affecting productivity as well as employee morale. Now that Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has shown itself to be a source of significant business value, many organizations public sector inclusive are looking to extract even more from their existing ERP systems. Shifts in corporate structure and new compliance requirements are driving the need for improved access to information, process clarity and cost savings.

In order to realize greater Return On Investment (ROI) in ERP systems, ERP applications need to be tailored to more effectively support adaptive business processes and help drive growth. Enterprise Resource Planning solutions strategically position Public sector services technology assets to align with and adapt to business processes, reducing total cost of running public sector services and improving responsiveness, quality and ROI.

Public sector is vast and being a consumer of taxes and impact on quality of life, and major consumer of private sector, they serve as major demonstration of technological innovator to the world at large. Historically, the public sector has always been the vanguard of innovator for major new technologies; ERP is no exception in Nigeria, and a driver for enabling research in academia and private sector.

This role will continue and the story of technological revolution will and trajectories will continue Successful technological innovation relies on where innovator has been drawn from on knowledge of users in order to relate the innovation to users’ requirements to satisfy latent demand to provide functionality that is extremely welcome. Many public sector services are being inundated with pressure from private sector, the financial sector operatives, inventory, treasury and investment operatives, supply chain, public sector budgeting, Human resources budgeting , career management and employee life cycle management.

Getting a robust ERP system is a necessity for public sector to position itself for effective performance and challenges in service delivery Furthermore, internal dimensions of use of project champions to see them through inevitable challenges and difficult that may arise in the organization during the process of implementation and adoption of new technology and/or ERP solution. As part of the initiatives in ERP is complementary assets that should be in place during the process of implementation is control which will help enhance value in the technology.

While public sector organization may be seen to have the asset listed above, these may not be the sum of assets and individual skills but more importantly the management structures, information flow and ability to retain staff. At the moment, much public sector governance is focus on improved service deliver. Innovation now focus on efforts to change, while many public services fall within competitive range of stimulus for innovation, some public services are competing feature in both public and private provision along side each other.

The level of competition may vary but the existence create a niche that worth studying ‘Marketization’ is the theme of many government policies to public services. Motivated to sometimes for simple expediency to save cost, to produce and operate cheaper services, to make public service more responsive to customer and introduce more advance management philosophies. Public services do often exit in complex supply chain services, inventories and arrangement with several player most of which are commercial firm.

So public services are liable to vary in terms of how far they are subject to pressure similar to those involved in market selection and in the mainstream of innovation analyses. Therefore this forms a base and provides an excellent ground for studies of public sector ERP solution research. While Public sector may have high level of intermediation. Mostly the stake holder must have a buying in any technological innovation hence it will go no-where. The End Users in most cases do have limited say in the process. Therefore making diffusion and roll-out a difficult and complex process.

This development is another reflection of role of professionals in many areas of service delivery in public sector Public sectors are usually organized in many MDA’s. Empirically, it would often be inappropriate to the establishment as the unit of analysis in ERP survey. Many ERP implementations are roll-out from the centre on a planned established centrally. This research will utilize Structural equation modeling (SEM) statistical technique. This enables testing and estimating causal relationships using a combination of statistical data and qualitative causal assumptions.

Structural Equation Models (SEM) encourages confirmatory rather than exploratory modeling; thus, it is suited to theory testing rather than theory development. It usually starts with a hypothesis, represents it as a model, operationalises the constructs of interest with a measurement instrument, and tests the model. The causal assumptions embedded in the model often have falsifiable implications which can be tested against the data. With an accepted theory or otherwise confirmed model, SEM can also be used inductively by specifying the model and using data to estimate the values of free parameters.

Often the initial hypothesis requires adjustment in light of model evidence. Among its strengths is the ability to model constructs as latent variables (variables which are not measured directly, but are estimated in the model from measured variables which are assumed to ‘tap into’ the latent variables). This allows the modeler to explicitly capture the unreliability of measurement in the model, which in theory allows the structural relations between latent variables to be accurately estimated.

Factor analysis, path analysis and regression all represent special cases of SEM. . CONCLUSION: This research utilize both theoretical and analytical models to evaluate and explain the impact of strategic human resource on Enterprise Resource planning implementation in public sector service delivery. ERP systems have come to signify a never-before opportunity for organisation to gain a clear edge and improve their service delivery. This research presents a novel framework for evaluating human resources management system integration in ERP implementation in public sector.

Leadership in Movie 300 essay help free: essay help free

Identify and explain at least two different incidents involving the same leader(s). if the incident involves two individuals or a group making a decision, leadership behaviour by different individuals can be identified. Incident I Though military activity was forbidden by Spartan law during the Carneia festival, King Leonidas decides to prepare for war with Xerxes before the Persian king and his troops could advance to Sparta. He knew that he would not get the support of the politicians to get the bigger Greek army to follow him.

Therefore he chose 300 Spartans who had sons to carry on their names to be his bodyguards and decides go to war. His vision and strategy was to block the only road through which the massive army of Xerxes could pass. Vastly outnumbered, the Greeks held back their enemies in one of the famous last stands of history. Leonidas was self-confident and had a strong moral conviction in his course and the ability to inspire trust among his followers to achieve his goals. He is seen as both charismatic and transformational as he could convey his vision and form strong emotional bonds with his followers.

Transformational leaders take charismatic leadership one step further in that they can articulate a compelling vision of the future and also motivate and influence followers to transcend self-interest for the benefit of society. Incident II In the final stand-off with the Persians, betrayed by Ephialtes, Leonidas commands his Spartans to fight until death for the sake of their country. Though Leonidas knew that death was certain, true to the Spartan tradition, they decide to stick to their code of honour on what it means to be a Spartan.

Though the Spartans faced insurmountable odds in terms of numbers, a true Spartan warrior is always willing to die for his country. They define themselves by sacrifice and freedom. At the ‘Hot Gates”, as the Persians surrounded the Spartans, Xerxes’s general demands their surrender declaring that Leonidas may keep his title as King of Sparta and become Warlord for all Greece, answerable to only Xerxes. Even all these riches and glory did not tempt Leonidas, unlike Ephialtes who succumbs to Xerxes’ display of women and false sense of belonging and purpose.

Spartans are taught never to surrender and are among the most enigmatic cultures in history. According to the Path-Goal theory of leadership, leadership behaviour can influence the satisfaction and performance of the followers. It emphasizes the relationship between the leader’s style and both the characteristics of the follower and the situation. The theory proposes that a leader’s behaviour is motivating or satisfying to the follower, if the behaviour increases the attractiveness of the goals, while simulateously follower confidence in achieving them.

The leader is therefore, very active in guiding, motivating and rewarding followers in their work. In short, the leader steers the follower down a path to their goals by selecting behaviours that are best suited to individual follower’s needs and the situation. In doing so the leader also navigates the follower around obstacles that lie on the path towards goal achievement. Diagram p. 76 The four behaviours generally included in this model are supportive, directive, participative and achievement-oriented.

The path-goal theory stipulates that a leader may exhibit any or all of these types of leadership and that the best type of leadership for a given situation will be dependent on the individual follower and the specific situation. In King Leonidas, one could see a supportive leader, who shows concern for his troop’s well-being and personal needs. This was evident in his grief for the loss of his general’s son and his concern for Delios who sustained an eye injury. Leonidas’ behaviour is also open, friendly, approachable and he creates a team climate where all his people are treated equal.

He also allows fun and humour in the battlefield so as to reduce stress and boost morale of his people. When one of his Spartan soldiers were told by the Persians that they would be faced with a barrage of arrows so dense that they would blot out the sun, he laughed saying that they will be delighted to fight in the shade. This shows that laughter and fun are at the heart of any successful workplace battle. Leonidas also displays directional leadership by telling his people to do exactly what they are supposed to do, giving specific uidance to follow rules and procedures in the battle against Persians and planning and scheduling their attack plans. Leonidas is bold and creates and promotes vision. He courageously challenges and inspires his people to success. He engages in participative leadership by consulting with the troops on ideas, opinions and suggestions, thus encouraging participation in decision making. He tours the battlefield and engages in conversation with them to listen to their ideas and compliment their achievements. Effective leaders interact with employees and consistently look for ways to praise them.

Leonidas is also an achievement-oriented leader who shows confidence in his people and assists them in accomplishing goals. His behaviour emphasizes excellence in performance and he sets clear and challenging goals for his people. As it can be seen in the first incident , when Leonidas decides to go for war with the Persians his efforts were mainly concentrated on planning how he could funnel the Persians into the narrow pass of ‘Hot Gates’. It is evident in his following lines “We will use our superior fighting skills and the terrain of Greece herself to destroy them.

We will march north to the coast… We will block the Persian coastal assault by rebuilding the great Phocian Wall. From there we will funnel them into the mountain pass we call “Hot Gates”. In that narrow corridor, their numbers will count for nothing. Waves and waves of Persian attack will smash against Spartan shields. Xerxes losses will be so great, his men so demoralized, he will have no choice but to abandon his campaign. The path-goal theory opens up the possibility for long-term commitment to goals and for intrinsic motivation by followers.

The theory also emphasizes that the job of the leader is to eliminate roadblocks that may occur enroute to goal achievement while simultaneously developing followers to overcome these obstacles on their own. By manifesting the appropriate behaviours leaders can increase followers’ effort-to-performance expectances. These increased expectations will improve followers’ effort levels and rewards attained, which in turn will increase followers satisfaction and performance levels and the acceptance of their leaders.

Leonidas is the opposite of Xerxes, who sits up in his high tower, who bribes, seduces and kills men to achieve victory. At one point, suring the war when Xerxes says, “How can you ever stand against me when I would gladly kill any one of my men for victory? ” Leonidas replies, “And I would die for any one of mine”. That is the essence of Leonidas. While Leonidas goes down to the battle field to fight along with his men, Xerxes is carried in the golden throne by crouching slaves. He has no values and ethics and his troops are not morally and ethically in alignment.

Xerxes is so incompetent and whips soldiers so they would perform. He has no strength, character and personality compared to Leonidas. Because of the poor skills, motivation and coordination of his team, Xerxes losses were considerable. He himself noted that “he had in his army many men, indeed, but few soldiers”. Leonidas could have decided to accept Xerxes’ offer and retreat from war, thus submitting to Xerxes’ demands. Instead he thinks nothing of the honour he would get from the Persian King, but for the sake of his country and people, even if death is evitable he decides to sacrifice himself for the whole of Greece.

Cinema City Analysis my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

The subsequent years were marked by the development of the company’s business in the Israeli market, including such landmark events as the launch of the first multiplex in Israel in the early 1980s. Today Cinema City is opening in Israel state-of-the-art megaplexes, which will replace the first generation of mulitplex theatres. In the second half of 1990s, Cinema City began to expand internationally. The company’s primary focus was Central and Eastern Europe. In 1997, the company launched its first multiplex in Budapest, Hungary, and in 1999, it entered the Czech and Polish markets.

In 1999 Cinema City signed a strategic agreement with IMAX? and since that time the company has been? the exclusive operator of IMAX? theatres in Poland, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary. In 2000 the Company opened its first multiplex in Poland – Sadyba Best mall in Warsaw.? In 2002 Cinema City achieved a leading position in Poland by acquiring four multiplexes from one of its main competitors at the time. Also in 2002 the company’s New Age Media subsidiary was established to run the growing cinema advertising activity in the Cinema City multiplexes.

In 2003 the company established its film distribution company – Forum Film Poland, to represent Walt Disney as well as other leading US and Polish studios in Poland.? In 2005 the film distribution company – Forum Film Hungary, was established in Hungary.? In 2006, the company opened? New Age Media Hungary. In 2004 the Company launched its activity? in Bulgaria, which culminated in 2006 with the opening of its first multiplex and IMAX? cinema in Sofia. In 2006 Cinema City signed its first lease agreements for the multiplexes in Romania. The first Cinema City multiplex in Romania opened in November 2007.

This was driven primarily by the revaluation of the company’s long-term investment in the Mall of Russe, Bulgaria, to its increased fair market value, as described in the notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements. During the year, we bought out the interests of our former partner, Ocif, in two of our Bulgarian mall development projects. This transaction was driven by Ocif’s failure to satisfy certain commitments to us (including meeting payment deadlines) and our ongoing concerns with Ocif’s ability to meet future obligations.

We currently plan to seek a new joint venture partner to replace Ocif, but this may take some time given current market conditions. Nonetheless, our real estate activities are otherwise progressing well. We currently expect in March to open our second mall in Bulgaria in Plovdiv. We are very excited about this opening, which is currently proceeding as planned even in today’s challenging real estate market. In the course of 2009, we expect to complete opening 13 new multiplexes with about 140 screens.

In January 2009, we opened an 8 screen multiplex in Pardubice, the Czech Republic, and an 8 screen multiplex in Bacau, Romania. Together with the Plovdiv opening scheduled for March that would account for 27 new screens by the end of the first quarter of 2009. 2009 has already begun strongly for the company, supported by a continuing well received supply of international and local movies. With that said, we are of course cognisant of the financial and real estate crisis that has swept the world and that has begun to have a material impact in our territories of operation.

While we are aware that a sustained downturn in the economy could have a materially adverse impact on movie theatre admissions and on our ability to execute our aggressive growth strategy, we will accordingly monitor the external environment diligently. We continue to remain optimistic that our industry will emerge relatively unscathed. Indeed, we have noted that during past economic downturns movie going often increases. Consumers desire to spend their smaller pools of discretionary funds on relatively inexpensive forms of “escapist” entertainment such as the movies.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to our Cinema City employees for helping make 2008 such a successful year and for their continued hard work and dedication. With our ambitious plans for continued growth and development, we are committed more than ever to becoming the premier cinema exhibitor in Europe. We know that our ultimate success will continue to largely depend on the ongoing contribution of each one of them. And last but not least, I would like to thank our millions of customers in six countries who continue to share in our never ending love for the movies.

As we say in the movie business? to be continued? Moshe Greidinger, CEO 11 March 2009 III. Goals and aims3 Cinema City’s strategic goal is to become the number 1 cinema operator in Europe. The company will continue to strengthen its position as the largest multiplex operator and film distributor in Central and Eastern Europe and to maintain its position as one of the leading operators in Israel.? The company plans on expanding its operations into other countries of the CEE region as well as it researches expansion into the markets very distant from CEE.

The company’s current investment plan through 2011 call for developing? over 45 new multiplexes with over 470 screens? in all the countries in which it currently operates, with a particular focus on Romania, where in 2007 it opened first 2 multiplexes and so far has signed over 30 lease agreements to develop multiplex operations in most of the country’s major cities. Cinema City growth will be sustained by strong demand for modern entertainment venues. The company’s key strategic objectives include:?

Strengthening its position in its existing markets. Cinema City intends to consolidate its position as the largest multiplex operator in Poland by expanding its activities in Poland while strengthening its position as a leading operator in Hungary, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Romania and Israel. Expanding into new markets in Central and Eastern Europe. Based on the same operating model as used in Central Europe, Cinema City plans to launch its activities in other countries of the region.

Strategic Management Process academic essay help: academic essay help

Definition: strategic management is the set of managerial decisions and actions that determines the long-run performance of an organization. It involves all the four functions of management. Strategic plans provide a common vision for the whole organization. The strategic management process is a series of steps that formulates the strategic planning, implementation and evaluation. Step 1: The first step is identifying organization’s current mission, objectives and strategies. Every organization needs a mission.

Defining the organization’s mission forces managers to carefully identify the scope of its products and services. It is also important for managers to identify the goals currently in place and the strategies currently being pursued. A company’s goals provide the measurable performance targets that employees strive to reach. Knowing the company’s current goals gives managers a basis for assessing whether those goals need to be changed. For the same reasons, it is important for managers to identify the organization’s current strategies.

Step2: The second step is external analysis. Analyzing the environment is a critical step in strategy process. Managers in every organization need to do external analysis. They need to know, for instance, what the competition is doing, what pending legislation might affect the organization, or what the labor supply is like in locations where it operates. In analyzing the external environment, managers should examine both the specific and general environments to see what trends and changes are occurring.

After analyzing the environment, managers need to assess what they have learned in terms of opportunities that the organization can exploit, and threats that it must counteract. The same environment can present opportunities to one organization and pose threats to another in the same industry because of their different resources and capabilities. For example, southwest Airlines has prospered in a turbulent industry, while others such as American and Delta have struggled. Step3: The third step is internal analysis.

This step forces managers to recognize that every organization, no matter how large or successful, is constrained by the resources and capabilities it has available. An understanding of the organization’s culture is a crucial part of Step 3 that’s often overlooked. Managers should be aware that strong and weak cultures have different effects on strategy and that the content of a culture has a major effect on strategies pursued. The combined external and internal analyses are called he SWOT analysis because it’s an analysis of the organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Based on the SWOT analysis, managers can identify a strategic niche that the organization might exploit. Step4: the forth step is formulating Strategies. Once the SWOT analysis is complete, managers need to develop and evaluate strategic alternatives, then select strategies that capitalize on the organization’s strengths and exploit environmental opportunities or that correct the organization’s weaknesses and buffer against threats.

Strategies need to be established for the corporate, business, and functional levels of the organization. This step is complete when managers have developed a set of strategies that give the organization a relative advantage over its rivals. Step5: the fifth step is implementing strategies. To be successful, strategies must be implemented carefully. People with the right skills may be needed to make some of the strategies to work. Re-organizing the existing structure to meet the new business environment may be necessary as well.

Employees and managers at all level must be briefed about the strategy, so that there will be a unified vision in the organization. Step6: the sixth step is evaluating the strategies implemented. The actual performance is measured and compared against set standards. If necessary, corrective action is taken. Anne Mulcahy, chairman and CEO of Xerox Corporation, made strategic adjustments to improve her company’s competitiveness in the information services industry. She did this after assessing the results of previous strategies and determining that changes were needed.

Comapre and Contrast Qualitative and Quantitative english essay help: english essay help

Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative approaches to research This essay will compare and contrast the 3 articles below in relation to qualitative and quantitative approaches to research focusing on the design and methods used in each study including sampling, data collection and data analysis. The first chosen article by Winkens et al. (2006) uses a qualitative method to look at the manifestations of mental slowness in the stroke population.

Toulotte, Thevenon, Watelain and Fabre (2006) uses a case comparison quantitative study to identify healthy elderly fallers and non-fallers by gait analysis under dual task conditions and the study by Girou, Loyeau, Legrand, Oppein and Brun-Buisson (2002) uses a randomised clinical trail (RCT) to find the efficacy of hand rubbing with alcohol based solutions versus standard hand washing with antiseptic soap. The purpose of research studies is to explore the information within the given environment and consider their viability and effectiveness and whether these can add value for learners to the overall experience (Sarantakos 1993).

The term ‘Research’ can consist of different meanings, research enquires can be defined as; a methodical, formal and precise process employed to gain solutions to problems and to discover and interpret new facts and relationships. (Waltz and Bausell 1981, p. 1). The goals of research are to formulate questions and aim to find the answers to those questions. The immediate goals of research are categorised as exploration, description, prediction, explanation and action, where they provide a strategy for figuring out which questions to ask and which answers to seek (Sarantakos 1993).

Researchers can decide the type of research they want to carryout according to which methods would suit their research. Qualitative research is a systematic method of inquiry which follows a scientific in depth method of problem solving deviating in certain directions (Thomas and Nelson 2001). With qualitative research a hypothesis is often not given at the beginning of research studies and develops as the data unfolds. The researcher is the primary data collector and analyser. Data can be collected via interviews, observations and researcher-designed instruments (Thomas et al. 001). The goal of qualitative research is the development of concepts which helps us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings, giving due emphasis to the meanings, experiences, and views of all the participants (Pope and Mays 1995). The researcher is able to gain an insight into another person’s views, opinions, feelings and beliefs all within natural settings (Hicks 1999). A quantitative research method was originally developed in the natural sciences to study natural phenomena (Bryman 1988).

This can be visualized as it uses numerical forms of representation which then can be presented in forms of graphs and tables (Denscombe 2003). Quantitative research is associated with many different approaches to data collection; the main fundamental characteristics are as follows; the approach is concerned with obtaining numerical information which can be analysed using statistics, where it does not need to go beyond the use of what is stated as ‘Descriptive’ (Silverman 2000, p 26). The form that evidence should take has led to a lively debate about possible methodological approaches.

Cormack (2000) suggested that the methodology section in research should clearly state the research approach to be used, to ask whether the method is appropriate to the research problem and whether the strengths and weaknesses of the chosen approach are stated. According to Hardey and Mulhall (1994), the methodology section should include an overall description of the research design and details of the proposed methodology. It is important to give a thorough description of how the research took place and to include all the steps taken in order to allow other readers to follow the article.

The article by Winkens et al. (2006) uses a semi-structured interview which is conducted on the basis of a loose structure consisting of open ended questions that define the area to be explored, at least initially, and from which the interviewer or interviewee may diverge in order to pursue an idea in more detail (Britten 1995). The use of semi-structured questionnaires has many advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include the flexibility of the interviewer allowing them to follow up on any unexpected responses and to eek clarification on any answers. It also provides a depth of information as well as a breadth of information. The disadvantages of using semi-structured interviews are the analysis of data obtained is often complicated and time consuming and the data may contain irrelevant information. In this study it was identified that there could have been some bias when using semi-structured interviews as it enabled the interviewers to guide the interviews and therefore the patients answers, in the direction of preexisting hypotheses.

The authors of this study did identify the reason for the use of this method and therefore they justified its use. They suggested that as the study was an explorative in nature it required a broad approach (Winkens et al. 2006). Using this approach can cause inconsistencies between the interviews and therefore can effect the outcome of the interview. Every effort should be made to keep the questioning similar. If a discussion is made in one interview then that topic should be made available to the next interviewee and so forth. The study by Wikens et al. 2005) suggested that they used a standardised procedure to administer the interview, however in the article it is not stated what this standardised procedure was. By not stating the procedure it would be difficult for another research to repeat this study and get similar results making it less reliable. When looking at the main topics in the interview that were used in the study by Wilkens et al. (2005) participants may have interpreted the questions asked in a different way. Interviewers therefore have to ensure that the questions they ask are understood by the participants.

Effective Oral Communications scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

In today’s business world one of the most important skills that need to be mastered is that of effective oral communication. Effective oral communication is about the speaker’s selection of content, their presentation skills and their overall connection with the audience. For oral communication to be successful it has to have great content. This content must encompass an overview of the topic, clarity of an argument, credible sources and a conclusion. Topics of speeches should be clear and easily understood by the audience.

An orator begins by stating the topic of the speech and give supporting points or overview that supports the theme of the talk. This overview should directly tieinto the subject of the speech. An overview will provide the audience with points of reference to segment the speech into understandable portions. An overview also provides the speaker a roadmap to follow during the speech to stay on subject and maintain attention of the audience. An overview should be spaced to the time allotted for the speech and not be too lengthy causing the audience or speaker to drop into theweeds of detail.

Clarity of an argument should begin with the speaker’spoint of view. Supporting facts and points are the basis of why the speaker believes inhis argument. A Baptist preacher would not be as effective in his message of salvation if he didn’t include the reasons to become saved and the process or pathway for that salvation. Or a board member fighting for budget dollars for an initiative for his division. He will need to present an effective argument, site facts and the benefits to the company to be rewarded the funds for the project.

Sourcing facts is critical in oral communication. Today with the abundance of internet plagiarism and the possibility of fabricated facts, a speaker’scredibility is often supported and enhanced by their ability to provide sources for their points. Using recognizable reference(s) is also important during the speech to give the listener pointsto validate and support the speech they have heard. Internet informationmust be researched and sited also. Free information can often be disguised as excerpts from published periodicals orresearch papers. Giving credit where it is do is thical and will provide solid facts to base a speech upon. Conclusions should be a summation of the speech. Oral speakers will need to wrap up their speech by drawing the strings of closure on the topics they have discussed. A military General preparing his men for battle doesn’t end with the words of dying, but concludes with words of success and victory. He ties the valor of action with the satisfaction of completing the mission. Credible conclusions are the summation of the whole speech with recapitulates significant points the speaker would like to leave with the audience.

Memorable oratory has the component of the topic, but arguably it is the speaker and their presentation of the information that stays with the audience. Presentations should have strong mechanics, eye contact and delivery. Oral mechanics beginswith the flow of the speech. Does the presentation follow a logical pattern? Is the oratory concise and the components of the speech fit together like a puzzle congealing to complete a picture? The speakershould proceed through the introduction, the body of the message and then sum up the speech with a conclusion without having to tell the audience of each segment.

The message must bind together with transitions, connecting statements or the bridging ideas from section to section. The conclusion should be strong to leave the audience with the message points. The whole speech should remain in a time frame predetermined to respect the time of the audience and to be able to frame the speech for good execution. A speaker needsto practice eye contact with their audience. Eye contact provides a two way non-verbal communication explaining to the speaker that the message is registering with the audience; a visual pulse of understandingexhibited by the group.

Eye contact gives the speaker credibility with the audience. The old adage of looking someone in the eye to tell if they are telling the truth also works with oral communication. Looking the audience in the eye relays that you know your content and you are sincere in communicating it to the group. Eye contact, stated earlier, will also tell the speaker when a point hits home by the responsive head nods, smiles or verbal agreements. Equally important as choosing a topic is the overall delivery of a speech. Speech inflection, facial expression, pace and good pronunciation are key to a successful experience for the listener.

For effective oral communication, speakers should practice pronouncing eachword clearly and slowly. Majority of people talk too fast for their audience. During the speech, the orator should vary their expression with the use of volume, pitch, tone and speed of their voice to retain interest for the audience. The inflection in ones’ voice also needs to fluctuate to indicate emphasis on points. The ultimate goal of a successful effective oral communication is to connect with the audience. Using prior study on the knowledge and experience level of your audience will help the oral communicator craft a speech that is poignant and meaningful.

To retain elements of a speech, the topic will need to connect with the audience. A speech regarding the technique of gutting and field dressing a deer will not be receptive with an audience of PETA members, but probably would be of great interest to some subscribers of Field and Stream Magazine. Understanding your audience is just as important as understanding your topic. An audience’s knowledge and experience level willalso enhance your speaking engagement. Generally, most people are knowledgeable about current or mainstream topics. Dr.

Dirnberger, Biology professor at Kennesaw State, can effectively communicate the symbiotic relationship of man and the sea to a bunch of Boy Scouts, but if he dives deeper into the ocean and explores the nature of the erosion of barrier reefs to the ecological habitat of starfish then he has lost his Boy Scout audience. A good speaker understands the limitation of their listener’s knowledge base. Experience of the audience is also important. With the same audience, Dr. Dirnberger can teach Boy Scouts about the reaction to nitrogen in the blood stream when diving.

But trying to describe decompression sickness to boys that have never dived in the ocean will not be understood without the experience of diving or going through decompression. Presenters can account for the fleeting nature of oral presentations by making sure that they leave lasting impression on their audience by ensuring their speech hasthe components of great content, the speaker has polished presentation skills and their topic connects with the audience. These elements will ensure the listeners know where they’ve been and where they’re going during an effective oral communication.

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Learning Objectives See Week 6 objectives listed on http://ecampus. phoenix. edu. Required Reading and Assignments 1. Read Ch. 2, 9, 21, and Appendix K in Business. 2. Read materials posted in course materials. 3. Assignment: Corporate Compliance Plan Access the Riordian virtual organization found on your rEsource page. Create a Corporate Compliance Plan for Riordian. The plan must synthesize your learning throughout the course and apply the legal principles of business management to Riordian.

Focus your plan on managing the legal liability of officers and directors of Riordian. Your plan should address the following: ADR, enterprise liability, product liability, international law, tangible and intellectual property, legal forms of business, and governance. Create your Corporate Compliance Plan as if you were going to distribute this to the officers and directors of Riordian. Outline the prevention and management guidelines of the legal aspects listed above.

Use your individual assignments throughout the course to bring insight into this project. Implement enterprise risk management based on the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) recommendations. COSO can be used to structure your plan. Be sure to incorporate key concepts from your readings where appropriate. Address specific laws or aspects of the law that must be adhered to by Riordian and outline steps for employees to adhere to these laws.

The plan must also address how to handle situations when laws are violated or in question (such as when to call in legal counsel, what rights the employees have, or who to turn to when actions are taken against Riordian). Use APA format to create your Corporate Compliance Plan, and limit the plan to 10 pages. Post your assignment as a Microsoft Word attachment 4. Respond to the discussion questions posed by your faculty

Air Pollution and Plant Deciduous Trees college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Vanrex, Inc is a manufacturer of paints for home, businesses and institutions’. The company also supplies coasting for manufactured product and automotive parts. Vanrex is a diversified company that also manufactures pain cans, aerosol can, brushes, roller and other paint applicator. Vanrex is situated on the outskirt of an urban area that has grown out and around the plant.

Residential neighbor are located closely on all sides and public concern is environmental matters is at a higher level nationally than ever. Previously, the site has been inspected by ODH & E and USEPA which they found the plant in compliance with the regulatory requirement There are complaints concerning the air pollution caused the plant. Obviously, there are two different sources affecting the air in Hayestown: the fugitive dust and stack emissions.

In other to enhance the environmental program Vanrex took some steps in reducing the pollution such as establishing control over all new projects that are part of pollution control effort, continually reviewing the operation of the plant and strengthened the environmental group of Vanrex. From my own point of view, I think the residents are gunning for zero emission which is not possible in this situation. In order to reduce pollution in the area, I have recommendations for both the residents and the plant

Possible solution for the residents Plant deciduous trees in locations around their home to provide shade in the summer, but to allow light in the winter. Check daily air quality forecasts Clean frequently to remove dust and molds Possible solution for the plant They should reduce the use in their methane They should be gunning for technologies or equipment upgrades that reduce or eliminate equipment venting or fugitive pollution, There should also be an improvements in management practices and operational procedures

Body Art and the Asian Culture essay help tips: essay help tips

Body Art & the Asian Culture Marcie Helman March 22, 2009 Body art is a definitive and visual part of the Asian culture used to identify social and religious representations. The term tattoo is derived from the Tahitian word tatu, meaning to mark [1]. Throughout history, many cultures have socially acceptable ways in which to showcase their individuality. Contrary to popular belief, in the Asian culture, body modification is typically considered to be distasteful and socially unacceptable.

The resurgence and ultimate popularity of the Asian Hanzi and Kanji characters is most prevalent in today’s younger generation. However, the significance of Asian characters used in today’s modern society is not as symbolic as its ancient representation. In the early 1700’s, the Japanese used tattoos as a form of branding as a classification of criminals within their society. Those who bore the mark of dishonor on their foreheads were called Ronin, a masterless samurai warrior[2]. These criminals were believed to be the grass root society in which the “yakuza” was born.

The Yakuza felt that because tattooing was painful, it was a proof of courage; because it was permanent, it was evidence of lifelong loyalty to the group; and because it was illegal, it made them outlaws forever. Historians note that this type of punishment replaced the earlier ostracism of nose or ear amputation. These types of punishments are clearly very visible and physical attributes that cannot be shielded or otherwise hidden. The Horis, the Japanese tattoo artist, were the undisputed masters in the use of color, perspective and imaginative design.

One of the most intricate and colorful tattoo designs is found in the Irezumi, a culturally Japanese form of the body art. Early Chinese traditions regarding body art is quite surprising given our modern culture and the freedom of expression. It was believed that in early China, the art of Ci Shen and Wen Shen[3], loosely translated means to “puncture the body”, was considered distasteful and was an uncommon practice because it was a desecration of the body. The Chinese believe that the body is a precious gift and must be treated with respect. To harm, or in this case, puncture, was clearly sacrilegious.

Synonymous with the Japanese culture, it was also used as a form of branding for their criminal population. There are hundreds of islands that make up Polynesia (also referred to as Oceania) including the more well-known islands of Hawaii, Tahiti, New Zealand, Marquesas, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. Early Polynesian history is not of written form, therefore, the use of this art to express their individuality was more pronounced than that of the Eastern lands of Japan and China. Most of what is known today within the French Polynesian society has been passed from generation to generation through legends, songs and ritual ceremonies.

People were able to easily identify each other’s origins solely based on the design of their body art. Polynesian body art is used in many ritualistic and ceremonial rites of passage. Different symbols, design motifs and markings depict maturity, genealogy and rank within their society. Polynesian tattooing is considered to be the most intricate and skillful tattooing of the ancient world. It is believed that most everyone in ancient Polynesian society bore a tattoo; it was a symbol of their mana, their spiritual power or life force[4].

The design and placement on the body of the tattoo is decided by the “master”, a highly revered elder within the village and surrounding community. Other variables that determine design and location of the tattoo on the body are life events. An example would be if they were a warrior; preparing for or returning heroically from, battle. A composite of the more familiar Polynesian islands with their cultural adaptations regarding tattoos and interpretations within their social group will be elaborated below. Captain Cook had assisted in the popularity of this art by discussions with other British citizens.

It has been noted that Ma’i, a Polynesian who accompanied Captain Cook back to the British Isles had become partly famous and enjoyed celebrity status because of his tattoos. By the middle of the 18th century, it had become a tradition in the British Navy and by 1862 was commonplace to have at least one professional tattoo artist in residence at most British ports[5]. In Thailand, the Sak Yant is a protective tattoo that covers the body of Thai soldiers. This is an ancient tradition that spans centuries. One of he most highly esteemed locations for Sak Yant is located about 30 miles west of Bangkok called the Wat Bang Phra Buddhist temple. In today’s modern society, incorporating the use of both Asian character symbols as well as the Asian-inspired art such as dragons and tigers, the art has become much more a part of contemporary lifestyles. As cited above, the art of tattooingspans the Asian region in ways that are intricate with its culture. The direction in which tattooing as an art and personal statement seems to be making its inroads into the middle-class community, allowing our newest generation of twenty-something’s to lead the way.

With the traditional Asian culture, it seems to be that even the most austere conservatives are more tolerant and accepting, maybe even allowing, this brand of individuality. It is also reflected in the popularity of American youths depiction of body art who are brandishing Asian inspired motifs that are more concurrent with traditional styles. Most notably, North American statistics show that one in seven people have at least one tattoo further emphasizing how tattoos are appearing more frequently than in previous generations. REFERENCES

Bmw Five Forces persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Another major external factor affecting the current situation of BMW is that industry structure is becoming more and more concentrated. In this era of auto-industry consolidation, BMW is seen as a medium-sized business which could face problems in the future if it doesn’t take into consideration strategic alliances. One of the external economic factors is that in the last years a large degree of overcapacity has been experienced in the car industry running at 20% to 30% in Europe.

This overcapacity has been caused by a drop in demand and sales, probably because of a global economic instability which has led consumers to reduce spending on non essential goods. (Johnson 2008) The decline is brought about by lower car demand in North America and Western Europe, both relatively mature car markets that have been adversely impacted this year by high energy prices and fragile consumer sentiment. (Lynch 2005) The automobile industry is becoming more and more competitive, with 6 major groups which have been formed in the last 3 years.

Strategy is a perceived pattern in actions past or yet to come. It is a label applied to patterns in action; strategy evaluation requires a consideration of both current and likely future results against the resources committed to the strategy. This is only an overview of the major concerns and findings from Johnson G. Scholes K. and Whittington R. (2005). Key environmental influences like any modern industry, car manufacturing today is strongly affected by external social and environmental pressures, which influence both current production practices and the development of future products and technologies.

Environmental standards are mostly set by government regulation and even associations within the automobile industry. These acts aim to as anti-emission laws get stricter every year, and companies look to double or triple their fuel efficiency, alternative technologies are being developed to replace the traditional gasoline engines, and have started to hit the market. Increased fuel-economy and decreasing vehicle weight are gradual changes that slowly improve automobile performance; disruptive technologies include new fuel sources such as electricity, solar energy, and fuel cells. Jarzabkowski 2004, p539-60) Below is the graph showing the production of car’s in UK 2003-04. Global production per car manufacture Source: International Organisation of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers A stage has been reached in which a change in thinking is required. In addition, global economic activity has been influenced by falls in equity prices and geopolitical tensions, including the related threat to oil prices, all having a negative impact on the economy. These factors have also influenced development in the majority of the world automobile markets.

Increases in safety standards for automobiles, also mean that nowadays cars take longer time to be developed and manufacturers should now focus on pre-marketing activities, making cars look more desirable to consumers due to their safety. (Stacey 2007) Competitive Forces Competitive forces determine the relative market power of competitors, the kind of competition they engage in, the factors that give some of them a competitive advantage, and the relative attractiveness of that market compared to others.

BMW’s rival Daimler-Chrysler continued competing in the traditional executive and luxury segments of the automobile market, particularly with Mercedes cars that are known worldwide for engineering excellence. Whilst in the past, BMW’s strength was in smaller cars, the current product portfolio competes directly with Mercedes’s middle- and upper-class luxury cars. (Vaara 2004, p1-36) Q: 2 Competitiveness in the automobile industry with perspective to BMW using Porter 5 forces The structure of an industry and ability of firms to act trategically depend on strength of five forces, their analysis allow develop the competitive advantage of the organisation. Year on year incumbents in the car industry grow in size as well as their scale of production which reduce costs of production and final price of output. In order to survive in the market firms have developed strong customer knowledge, branding, special levels of service and access to distribution channels which create high barriers. (McLaren 2004 p191-201) Threat of new entrants Analyse shows that threat for new entrants is low mainly due to huge capital and cutting-edge technology.

Car industry is highly depended on their suppliers, because of advancement of technology and materials needed to build car. Even though all firms produce cars, no two firms are totally different and no two firms are exactly the same. Strategic group maps display different competitive positions that rival firms occupy. Based on Information contained in perceptual map it is easy to notice that more and more firms are going into all sort of alliances which help to offer more and more cheap cars. Additionally, there are many substitutes, but these decrease if the special features of material increase. Hambrick 2004, p91-98) Bargaining power of suppliers and buyers Overall suppliers are weak because they are spread all over the world and can not easily integrate forward, however more and more companies move into close partnerships with suppliers, even by acquiring them in order to reduce costs and exclusivity. The buyer concentration ratio and information availability is high as well as ratio of firms producing cars, on the other hand the power of buyers is weak due to low demand for non-consumer goods- automobile, high switching costs and low ability to backward integrate.

The threats of substitutes are moderately strong because there are many different and less expensive transportation facilities. (Ahlstrom and Sjostrom 2005, p230-40) On the other hand, intense rivalry is strong because the major players are dominant in the market by nearly same technology and manufacturing processes, supplier’s relationship and distribution systems. The ease of differentiating cars and price based competition. BMW is looking at entering into alliances, joint ventures, partnerships as it is the safest way of securing a market share, product attractiveness and competitive prices.

In a decision to purchase a BMW product or that of the competitor, an individual will be influenced by a group of people that he or she wants to join. People in a certain social class or in a certain income level, and they are referred to as inspirational group for that individual. (Gereffi 2004, p78-104) Owning a BMW 3 series indicates that a person has entered a certain exclusive club of BMW drivers. In recent times BMW has enhanced this concept by promoting special clubs for BMW drivers. There are also three factors that affect the buyer behaviour that a marketer must take cognisance of; they are social, personal and psychological.

It will therefore be highlighted how these factors affect the consumer behaviour and in turn how the consumer behaviour affects the buying decisions. (Coe et al 2004, p468-84) Competitive rivalry within industry BMW attractive product variations were a very good source of strength , for example the MINI car released with navigation systems and sunroofs along with BMW brand quality leading to unexpected increase in the MINI sales , also BMW is Enhancing the Value Chain Activities (Specially The Supply Chain) using the shared components.

Appearance Versus Reality college application essay help online: college application essay help online

In the play, The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams, appearance versus reality is one of the main themes. Each main character lives in their own fantasy world, where they forget about reality, and it reflects on their appearance. While they do not belong in society, they have very different views on how life should be. Firstly, Laura does not feel she belongs in society and often is isolated from reality.

Secondly, Amanda believes that her daughter, Laura, should focus on finding gentlemen callers, for it is the most important part of life, but what Amanda does not realize is that the world is not the same as it was when she was growing up. Thirdly, Tom tries hard to ignore the reality of his life and make his life seem more interesting by dreaming of his own life adventures and leaving to go to the movies to find adventure. Laura is separated from reality, and has a hard time adjusting to modern society.

The world she lives in holds the comfort and meaning that the real world does not provide for her, and it consists of her imaginary friends, the glass menagerie. She brings her glass animals to life, and gives them a personality where they have their own feelings and can tell her what they like and what they do not like. When Jim is over he noticed her collection and asks her about it. Jim: Unicorns – aren’t they extinct in the modern world? Laura: I know! Jim: Poor little fellow, he must feel sort of lonesome.

Laura: Well, if he does, he doesn’t complain about it. He stays on a shelf with some horses that don’t have horns and all of them seem to get along nicely together… Put him on the table. They all like a change of scenery once in a while! (Williams, 83-84) Laura’s glass menagerie collection is very important to her. It provides her an alternative life in which she can live separated to reality. Not only is she separated from reality, but she also has a hard time fitting in with modern society. Laura dropped out of her college after a few days of being there.

The day she dropped out was the day after her hands could not hit the right keys on her first speed test. Also that day she had a bad stomachache where she almost could not make it to the washroom on her own. When her mother realized that she dropped out, many months later, she questioned Laura about it and she replied that she was just out walking. At first her mother did not believe her. Amanda: Laura, where have you been going when you’ve gone out pretending that you were going to business college? Laura: I’ve just been going out walking…

Amanda: From half past seven till after five every day you mean to tell me you walked around in the park, because you wanted to make me think that you were still going to Rubicam’s Business College? (Williams, 14-15) After her bad day at school, Laura felt she did not belong in college so she did not make another attempt at it and just dropped out of school. She went back to her own world and wandered the streets, simply walking nowhere. She does not think about the future and lives for her own fantasy world. When her brother invites over a gentleman caller for her she is too scared to answer the door.

It reveals how her shyness can sometimes make her seem immature, and stuck in the past not moving on or growing up. Laura also tends to live in the past, but more importantly she lives among her sterile, unchanging glass animals, where unicorns, “extinct in the modern world,” still remain, and where any change (such as a broken horn) requires banishment. Laura’s shyness represents an emotional and social immaturity, just as her small bust suggests a lack of physical development. (Berkowitz) When Laura tries to move forward, she often finds herself back in the same spot she was to begin with.

Society cannot be a part of her, for she simply does not fit in. The world that surrounds her is replaced with her own world where glass animals talk, and nothing changes. As Laura fails to belong in society, she forgets the modern world and lives in her own. Even though the reality of modern day life has changed in the past years, Amanda believes that gentlemen callers should be an important part of her daughter’s life. What Amanda fails to realize is that Laura’s life is not like hers and that modern society has changed.

Amanda’s main focus for her daughter is gentlemen callers. It seems as if it is one of the few things she ever thinks about. She constantly tells her children about the stories of her past, where she had many gentlemen callers of her own. Sometimes, she likes to believe that Laura will soon have company and that they will have to entertain them. Amanda: It’s almost time for our gentlemen callers to start arriving. … How many do you suppose we’re going to entertain this afternoon? Laura: I don’t believe we’re going to receive any, Mother.

Amanda: What? No one – not one? You must be joking! … Not one gentleman caller? It can’t be true! There must be a flood, there must have been a tornado! Laura: It isn’t a flood, it’s not a tornado, Mother. I’m just not popular like you were in Blue Mountain…. (Williams, 10) What Amanda does not realize is that Laura is not at all like she was in her younger years: popular, full of life, and always entertaining her gentlemen callers. Some nights she would wish on the moon, hoping one day Laura would marry and live a happy life on her own.

Laura feels she is fine without any men in her life, but Amanda still believes that it is not true and that every girl needs a man to be able to truly live. She tries desperately to get Laura a gentlemen caller so she can she how wonderful it could be to have one around. Tom: I thought perhaps you wished for a gentleman caller. Amanda: Why do you say that? Tom: Don’t you remember asking me to fetch one? Amanda: I remember suggesting that it would be nice for your sister if you brought home some nice young man from the warehouse. I think that I’ve made that suggestion more than once. Williams, 40-41) When Amanda convinces her son to bring Laura home a gentleman caller from work, he does just that. Though Tom does not tell him that it is for him to meet his sister, Amanda was still excited that a man is coming over. This reveals how important Amanda thinks a gentlemen caller is for her daughter. Almost instantly, she starts preparing for him by decorating the whole apartment where he is to visit. The gentleman caller that is being expected is named Jim O’Connor. He is invited over for dinner and has no idea what is in store for him.

In Sally Boyd’s essay on Tennessee Williams, she says, “Pinning all her hopes for the future on a marriage for her daughter, Amanda asks Tom to find a suitable young man among his friends at the warehouse… Amanda is so excited over the prospect of a gentleman caller for her daughter that she practically redecorates the apartment in preparation. ” (Boyd). The gentlemen callers coming over for Laura is unsuccessful. When everything seemed right for Laura, she finds out that he is already engaged. This upset both her and Amanda. Amanda thought she had it right but things are not the same as they used to be.

Things have changed and gentlemen callers are not as common. What Amanda fails to realize is that life nowadays is different, for she still believes that gentlemen callers are important in every girl’s life, especially her daughter’s. By creating life adventures and constantly leaving to go to the movies, Tom finds he can leave the reality of his life and make his life seem more appealing. His mother does not believe that when he leaves he goes to the movies. Tom goes much too often, and always comes home really late. Tom adores adventure, and feels he can never have enough of it.

If he is not working, he is out finding adventure or watching movies. Amanda: …Laura says that you hate the apartment and that you go out nights to get away from it! Is that true, Tom? … But, why – why, Tom – are you always so restless? Where do you go to, nights? Tom: I – go to the movies. Amanda: Why do you go to the movies so much, Tom? Tom: I go to the movies because – I like adventure. Adventure is something I don’t have much of at work, so I go to the movies. Amanda: But, Tom, you go to the movies entirely too much! Tom: I like a lot of adventure. (Williams, 33)

When Tom leaves the house, he does not go anywhere but to work or the movies. His life revolves around the two of them as well as his family, who he does not care for that much. Amanda tells him how selfish he seems when he cannot do something for the family as simple as paying the lighting bill. He uses the movies as a way to escape reality. When it comes to his job he would give it up to have more adventure in his life. Leaving his job would make him more separated from reality. Tom: … For sixty-five dollars a month I give up all that I dream of doing and being ever!

And you say self – self’s all I ever think of. Why, listen, if self is what I thought of, Mother, I’d be where he is – GONE! [talking about his father. ] As far as the system of transportation reaches! Don’t grab at me, Mother! Amanda: Where are you going? … Tom: I’m going to opium dens! … I’m a hired assassin, I carry a tommy gun in a violin case! … They call me Killer, Killer Wingfield, I’m leading a double-life, a simple, honest warehouse worker by day, by night a dynamic czar of the underworld, Mother. I go to gambling casinos, I spin away fortunes on the roulette table!

I wear a patch over one eye and a false mustache, sometimes I put on green whiskers. (Williams, 23-24) Creating adventure is how he separates himself from the real world. He uses it as an excuse to run from his life problems and it provides him with a more interesting life to live. He avoids what he does not want to be part of, failing to realize that he will have to face it all eventually. His life may seem more appealing, but it is not the life he is put on this world to live. To avoid Amanda’s questions and remarks, Tom threatens to go to the movies, his characteristic way of dealing–or not dealing–with unwanted responsibilities.

The movies are an escape from the grind at the shoe warehouse where he works and the problems at the apartment; both environments seem like prisons to Tom–prisons shutting him away from his true destiny as an artist. (Fordyce) As dull as his life may seem, having to work in a warehouse and having a family that does not belong into society, he tries to put it behind him and let adventure lead him. This never seems to work for him, as he stays with his family instead of leaving them. Even though Tom attempts to forget his life, he finds adventure in movies and pretends it is part of his real life just to make his life seem more interesting.

Appearance versus reality is the main theme of The Glass Menagerie. It is shown through Laura, Amanda and Tom––all the main characters. Laura has a hard time fitting into society, and finds herself separated from it. Amanda believes that her daughter should focus her life towards gentlemen callers, for they are the most important things of life, even though currently it is not. Also, Tom is always leaving home to go out to the movies, creating adventure for himself to forget his life at home and at his work. Even though the family appears to fit in society, they lack the knowledge of the true reality.

Life of Ayub Khan cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Ayub khan’s life:- Ayub Khan’s era is known for the industrialization in the country. He created an environment where the private sector was encouraged to establish medium and small-scale industries in Pakistan. This opened up avenues for new job opportunities and thus the economic graph of the country started rising. He also tried to raise the education standards of the country by introducing educational reforms. He was the first Pakistani ruler who attempted to bring in land reforms but the idea was not implemented properly.

Labor, law and administrative reforms were also introduced during his regime. Ayub Khan also initiated Family Laws in the country. He planned a new city and moved the capital from Karachi to Islamabad in 1962. Every thing was moving in the right direction for Ayub Khan till the start of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. The performance of the Pakistani army was good but the war caused a rapid decline of the country’s economy. He is also criticized his role at the Tashkent Declaration.

Many believe that he negated the victory on the battlefield with a defeat at the negotiating table. His right-hand man, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, also turned against him and launched his own party, the Pakistan Peoples Party, with the aim to remove Ayub from power. The Awami League under Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman started propagating his rule as pro West Pakistan and claimed that his policies had snatched away the Bengali’s rights. The rest of the political parties formed an alliance, the Democratic Action Committee, with a one-point agenda, i. e. the removal of Ayub Khan’s government.

In addition, Ayub’s policies of concentrating political power in his own hands, his control over the press and media, imposing state of emergency in the country, and his interference in religion were also responsible for his downfall. Adding insult to injury, Ayub Khan decided to celebrate a decade of his rule in 1968 and made exaggerated claims about the development in the country. By the end of 1968, the public resentment against the Ayub’s regime touched a boiling point and an anti-Ayub movement was launched by the urban-middle class; including students, teachers, lawyers, doctors, and engineers.

The Joint Labor Council called for a labor strike. Demonstrations and agitation swept the whole country. Law and order broke down and Ayub was left with no other option but to step down. On March 25, 1969, he resigned and handed over the power to the Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army, General Muhammad Yahya Khan. The first time military was directly involved in politics of the country was when Ayub Khan, a serving Commander-in-Chief, was inducted into Muhammad Ali Bogra’s Federal Cabinet in 1954, and was given the portfolio of Defense.

As Commander-in-Chief and Defense Minister, Ayub Khan played a key role in negotiations concerning Pakistan’s entry into United States’ sponsored military alliances, C. E. N. T. O. and S. E. A. T. O. On October 7, 1958, Iskander Mirza enforced the first Martial Law in Pakistan with the help of Ayub Khan. Ayub Khan was designated as the Chief Martial Law Administrator. However, the two leaders couldn’t work together for long. Ayub Khan snatched away Mirzas’ powers and assumed charge as the President of Pakistan, in addition to his role as Chief Martial Law Administrator.

Later on he gave himself the rank of Field Marshal. Most people in Pakistan welcomed Ayub Khan’s takeover because they were sick and tired of the political instability that had racked the country since its birth in 1947. Immediately after assuming his new responsibilities, Ayub tried to wipeout corruption and get rid of several social problems the country was facing. All these steps enhanced Ayub’s popularity among the masses. However, he was conscious of the fact that he could not rule under military cover for long and thus appointed a Constitutional Commission headed by Justice Shahab-ud-din.

On Ayub’s instructions, the report presented by the Commission on May 6, 1961, was examined by many committees, modified, and was finally given the shape of a Constitution. On June 8, 1962, Martial Law was lifted from Pakistan and the new Constitution was introduced. According to this new Constitution, Presidential form of government and the principle of Basic Democracy were introduced. The imposition of the Constitution made no change in the powers of Ayub Khan and he remained President even under the new setup.

Presidential elections were held in 1965. The Combined Opposition Party nominated Fatima Jinnah as their candidate in the election but Ayub Khan managed to sweep the polls. His critics consider rigging as the chief cause of his victory as they believe that Fatima Jinnah secured fewer votes than her popularity, which was quite visible during her public meetings before the election. However, another factor considered for her defeat was that the franchise was limited in the election.

Masses only had a chance to turn up in the public meetings but had no right to vote. Ayub Khan’s era is known for the industrialization in the country. He created an environment where the private sector was encouraged to establish medium and small-scale industries in Pakistan. This opened up avenues for new job opportunities and thus the economic graph of the country started rising. He also tried to raise the education standards of the country by introducing educational reforms.

He was the first Pakistani ruler who attempted to bring in land reforms but the idea was not implemented properly. Labor, law and administrative reforms were also introduced during his regime. Ayub Khan also initiated Family Laws in the country. He planned a new city and moved the capital from Karachi to Islamabad in 1962. Every thing was moving in the right direction for Ayub Khan till the start of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1965. The performance of the Pakistani army was good but the war caused a rapid decline of the country’s economy.

He is also criticized his role at the Tashkent Declaration. Many believe that he negated the victory on the battlefield with a defeat at the negotiating table. His right-hand man, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, also turned against him and launched his own party, the Pakistan Peoples Party, with the aim to remove Ayub from power. The Awami League under Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman started propagating his rule as pro West Pakistan and claimed that his policies had snatched away the Bengali’s rights.

The rest of the political parties formed an alliance, the Democratic Action Committee, with a one-point agenda, i. e. the removal of Ayub Khan’s government. In addition, Ayub’s policies of concentrating political power in his own hands, his control over the press and media, imposing state of emergency in the country, and his interference in religion were also responsible for his downfall. Adding insult to injury, Ayub Khan decided to celebrate a decade of his rule in 1968 and made exaggerated claims about the development in the country.

By the end of 1968, the public resentment against the Ayub’s regime touched a boiling point and an anti-Ayub movement was launched by the urban-middle class; including students, teachers, lawyers, doctors, and engineers. The Joint Labor Council called for a labor strike. Demonstrations and agitation swept the whole country. Law and order broke down and Ayub was left with no other option but to step down. On March 25, 1969, he resigned and handed over the power to the Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Army, General Muhammad Yahya Khan.

Biscuit Industry college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Executive Summary Malaysia Biscuits (M) Sdn. Bhd. Was incorporates in 1990 at Sibu Sarawak with the workforce of 140 people up to date, Malaysia Biscuits under small and medium category and distributes his product to all retailer outlets and supermarket all over Malaysia.

Malaysia Biscuit looking to expand his business into International level and two of his products that receive award from International Institute of quality Selection is Pineapple Cookies and Chocolate Chip, Malaysia Biscuit intend to make these two product become a global brand, the first step for Malaysia Biscuit to make his products become a global brand is to enter the International Market.

To do that, research is needed so that Malaysia Biscuit able to identify which country is the most potential for him to enter at the first place. The target market for this research will be China, Taiwan, Singapore and Indonesia and will take over 6 month’s maximum. The research will be carry out in two phases, Phase One: Preliminary Screening, at this stage the data will be base on the secondary data and research will base on the Demographic, Political, Economic and social-Culture environment.

The second phase of the research will be conducted base on the primary research survey with the local research company in order to get the data on consumer behaviour and information on the marketing mix strategy. Unfortunately, the secondary data research has some weakness due to the problems related to availability, age of the data, accuracy, reliability and comparability of the data. Further research need to carry out so the decision can be make on which country to enter or did the company ready to enter the market at this stage.

Taxation and Price Control on the Economy essay help us: essay help us

Taxation and Price Control on the Economy March 22, 2009 Taxation, a system of raising money to back our government, in which all governments require payments of money-taxes-from people. The government use tax money to pay for expenses that are well needed such as: the service of America soldiers, police officers service, hospitals and the list go on. Without taxes to fund its endeavors, the government could not exist. Is the tax levied (imposed) on the producers or consumers?

Every walk of life has to face the music of taxation at one level or another. Taxes are used for many reasons such as stimulating the economy to governing spending. According to Johnson (2005) tax levy was used as a form of governing particular behaviors. Taxation based upon the wealth or a particular sect of people in a higher financial category was instituted as a way to generate finances to run the government and often to aid the government in day to day business ventures.

In the current financial economy direct taxes such as: income tax, real property tax, business licenses are some of the required supplements to taxation. Indirect taxes such as: general sales taxes on groceries, marriage licenses and auto purchases become the revenue needed to sustain governmental functions while encouraging the usage or non-usage of a product or services. Both the producers and consumers are affected by the usage of tax levy principles. How does the tax affect supply or demand? Taxation affects everyone including the supply and demand chain of production.

What is supply? Supply is ones ability to provide a product or service to another with a variety of prices, quantity and times that equally dependent upon the demand for service. Without a consistent supply of products and services, business and homes around the globe would fail. Taxation affects supply through the mechanism of growth. What is demand? In the respect of business, demand represents a need or ability of product to be purchased and used on a consistent bases; therefore creating a demand.

Taxation is expected but can be growth curve and devaluing curve for supply and demand. When a product is placed under high taxation such as tobacco products the consumption level is decreased, which means that the demand for the product will be affected by the cost associated. Supply also is affected when given extreme or high than normal taxation. Once again the producer of a product becomes affected by the decline in purchases from the consumer therefore, creating a domino effect on the economy (Johnson, 2005). How does the tax affect the equilibrium price and quantity?

Understand equilibrium price and quantity is realizing the algebraic expression of price, supply and demand. When quantity demands equal quantity supply! Example: Wal-Mart has 1 package of noodles left on the shelf and 25 people standing in line to purchase. The price of the product is subject to increase as its value is greater the available number; however, it there are 25 packages of noodles on the shelf and 1 person in line to purchase, the odds are favorable toward getting a reduced price for the noodles. In general this statement lends true toward any principle.

The more demand of the product the more costly it will be and the less demand the less costly it would be. In this market, describe a hypothetical situation where a price ceiling or floor could be imposed. Currently with the economic crisis in America, our newly elect president it trying to place a ceiling on bonuses and most CEO pay salaries. In light of the current issues surround AIG, a price ceiling might not be a bad ideal. There are many situations in our history when a price ceiling or floor was instituted to prevent the American public from being taken advantage of.

In 1979 – 1981 a price ceiling was established to control gasoline because the rapid cost increase that was passed on to the consumer and if any store owner was caught in an overage of the maximum price, they were found guilty of fraud. Then was the case in history when rent controls were place to regulate equilibrium for rent. At points in our history it is known that a ceiling or a floor was imposed to regulate a problem. In recent days of the Governor Sunny Perdue was trying to establish a ceiling on water being released from the Chattahoochee River to the Florida Panhandle.

According to the daily news reports via local news station (11-alive; Fox 5 and others) the city of Atlanta and surrounding cities was going to run out of water if the draught continued and the water levies were allowed to continue sending gallons of water down stream. After several petitions to stop the effort of water release the governmental officials came to an agreement but had the Supreme Court had to get involved the Governor for Atlanta was pushing for a ceiling or maximum amount water to be released that would not leave Atlanta desperate and its citizens without adequate water supply.

Public Transportation need essay help: need essay help

Public Transportation there are many kinds of commuters on public transportation: there are bus commuters, train commuters, and plain commuters. The first kind of commuter are people who ride the bus. At some point in their lifetime, everyone has had to ride the bus. Children ride the bus to school on a daily basis all the way through adolescence. People who live in large cities, ride the bus just about everywhere they need to go.

Local buses bring in large amounts of money for their area and can be very helpful to the people of the town. The second facet of transportation would be the train system. Among the many classifications of train systems, there are subways, trolleys, and rail ways. Subways are utilized by people who live in large areas. Trolleys are used by people who live in smaller areas, like suburbs. Rail ways, broken up in rail roads, are used all across the nation.

Rail road cars, drive on train tracks, and have become so popular that collectible toys have even been made after them. Rail ways help transport many of our nation’s most important goods, and without them we would be facing serious problems. The third type of transportation are airplanes. Air planes are mostly used for long distance traveling. Air planes are the most expensive of the three types, but they are still used very often. The wealthy often use air planes as their main way of traveling.

Air planes can be seen by some as dangerous and very risky because of their bad history in the past. Air planes are high flying machines that carry people from city to city and sometimes even across countries. Air planes are used by people in politics, the millitary, and even regular citizens. Air planes are very important to our country and help make our lives much easier. As you can see, there are many diffrent types of transportation, but they all help make our lives easier in their own special way.

Web Technology Will Certainly Enhance Talent Attraction personal essay help: personal essay help

Web Technology will certainly enhance talent attraction, retention and development in organization. Discuss in relation to specific HR practices. Introduction Talent acquisition, retention and development is becoming into the range as one of the most critical elements of Human Resource Management. For years, companies have struggled to capture market share through economization and downsizing, while growth had seemed to take a backseat. New technology and tools are now available to address attracting, developing and retaining talent.

Talent attraction-Recruitment One of the most important practices of HR is recruitment. When we are referring to Web Technology in recruitment we want to attract top performers and high potentials as compared to our competitors. The focus is on attracting attention of individual with skills, competencies, and behaviors that are rare. Online recruitment is one of the most widely discussed functions of e-hr. The benefits of online recruitment are substantial in terms of cost, time, candidate pool and quality of response.

The use of technology improves the sorting and contacting of candidates. The internet can facilitate the selection of employees, especially where long distances are concerned. Video conferencing and online tests, for example, have been extensively used at the early stages of the selection process which results in cost and time savings, gives an organisation a more up to date image and it provides global coverage 24 hours a day. However there is always the risk of resumes overload, as well as low reputation and effectiveness of websites and databases.

Its use is still not widespread in Mauritius and advertisements which fail to reach their target audience are a waste of resources. It is not the first choice of most talented person since recruitment is most of the time done that someone knowing your skill and requests your service. Talent Retention-Reward and Performance Management Employee self service allows employees to submit electronically their preferences in terms of benefit selection, reducing the burden for the Human Resource Department.

Experience has shown that after the implementation of a self service employee benefits system, employees may still be calling with benefit questions confused about their choices and unable to grasp a broader rewards perspective However if web delivered employee benefits, if properly implemented and managed, entail economies for the HR department. The manager self service allows him to take on or confirm salary actions, salary changes, bonuses and stock management and informs managers on the choice they need to make or verify about rewards of their subordinates and asks them to insert their decision.

Performance management is one of the most important activities of HR. It is not enough to simply go through the business as usual and much disliked annual exercise of assessing performance and driving rewards based on a performance assessment. The information system will be drive and modifies goals as needed, assesses performance against goals, and provides instant feedback which will give them an indication of their strength and weaknesses thus focusing on skill development and motivate employees to stay with the organisation.

However this may lead to Substitution of individual judgments and Challenge the nature of an organisation and the role of management Talent development-Training and Development and e-learning E- Learning is one of the mostly discussed aspects of E-hr and probably the one with the most potential in terms of cost benefits. The internet can be used in training and development in pure e learning activities and career management.

3m – Innovation at 3m Corporation essay help writing: essay help writing

This went against the incrementalist approach that for so long had pervaded 3M. After all, as Mary Sonnack, division scientist and an internal 3M consultant on the new Lead User methodology, noted “3M gets so much revenue from incremental products . . . like a blue Post-it note instead of just a yellow one. ” Outside the window, the late autumn breeze rippled through the tall Minnesota grass—a seasonal reminder that it had been a year since the group first embarked on the Lead User process (see Exhibit 1).

The method, including training, had called for less than six months dedicated to the entire process. But the lengthy commitment from participants as well as 3M senior management might just pay off if it took the Medical-Surgical Markets division from a stagnating business to a reinvigorated enterprise. Clearly, however, unless the team came up with successful product ideas and effective positioning, the new methodology for product innovation would die with the winter frost. And so might the entire business unit. History of 3M Corporation1

In 1902, on the banks of Lake Superior, five investors got together to excavate what they thought was high-quality corundum, a mineral almost as hard as diamond that manufacturers used for producing abrasives. What they dug up under the banner of the Minnesota Mining and 1Much of the information on 3M history comes from G. C. Nicholson, “Keeping Innovation Alive,” Research-Technology Management, vol. 41 (3), May/June 1998, pp. 34-40 and 3M Annual Report, 1998. ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Professor Stefan Thomke and Research Associate Ashok Nimgade prepared this case. HBS cases are developed solely as the basis for class discussion. Cases are not intended to serve as endorsements, sources of primary data, or illustrations of effective or ineffective management. Copyright © 1998 President and Fellows of Harvard College. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www. hbsp. harvard. edu.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. 699-012 Innovation at 3M Corporation (A) Manufacturing Company, however, turned out low-grade and worthless. After filling one $20 order, the venture folded up its mining operations and turned instead to the sandpaper business. Here, disaster struck again: the abrasives they had imported from Spain refused to stick to the sandpaper.

Research and development (R&D) then at 3M, as the company became known, took place in a primitive laboratory so small the sole technician had to back out to let the boss in. The young technician figured out the problem after plunging some sandpaper into water and noting an oil slick. Follow-up investigations revealed that during shipment from Spain, an ocean storm had caused olive oil to leak into the abrasive material. This insight allowed for fixing the sandpaper problem while also establishing the emphasis on technology and innovativeness at 3M.

By 1916, survival assured, the company started paying stock dividends. The firm, now headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota, initially stayed close to abrasives, developing the world’s first waterproof sandpaper in the early 1920s. 3M technicians began bypassing purchasing agents in order to better understand product needs. Often, they walked into factories and workplaces and talked directly to workers, an unheard of practice that yielded unexpected dividends. While visiting an auto-body shop in the 1920s, for instance, Richard Drew, a young lab assistant, heard a torrent of screams and curses.

Mary Kay Ash best essay help: best essay help

Mary Kay Ash Mary Kay products have been available for nearly 50 years. Using her total life savings of $5,000 the founder Mary Kay Ash started her business, a single mother of three trying to support her children. Putting god first, family second and career third she managed to create a multibillion-dollar international company that would reflect her values along with a fulfilling life (Ash, 1995). Early Years One of Mary Kay’s believes was that one should not reveal her age. The exact birth year of Mary Kay is unknown but thought to have been around 1916.

She was the youngest of four children of Edward and Lula Wagner of Hot Wells, TX. With her father being ill with tuberculosis it was her responsibility to cook, clean and care for her father while her mother was working. School years for Mary Kay were great but the circumstances her parents were unable to send her to college. By the time Mary Kay was seventeen she was married and went on to have three children of her own (www. notablebiographies. com). She began studying to become a doctor and selling part time for Stanley Home Products in Houston, TX, but soon learned that selling was her trait.

In 1952, Mary Kay began working for a company in Dallas, TX by the name of World Gift Company in sales. After 25 years of corporate sales she decided to call it quits (Ash, 1995). Change For Mary Kay she was upset for the way she had been treated in the male-dominated business world. Mary Kay turned her attention to writing which turned out to be the business plan for her operation. In 1963, Mary Kay took her savings of $5,000 and the help of her son Richard Rogers and opened her first store in Dallas, TX. With only nine beauty consultants that she called her team, she began what today is Mary Kay Inc.

The first year of operation the team made nearly $200,000 (Stefoff, 1992). Known for the Pink Cadillac’s that were given as incentives for top sales directors, Mary Kay thought the most effective strategies would be incentives. Diamond bee pins were also another incentive that kept her team to doing their very best. With such incentives her team made her company a great success. As the company’s growth continued, new products were added with sales the first two years nearly a $1 million (Allen, n. d). Later Years In 1981, Mary Kay published her life story selling over a million copies.

She called it quits with the company in 1987 and retired becoming chairman of the company. Mary Kay’s P&L, not profit and loss but People and Love (Ash, 1995). With thirty-seven markets world wide, and well over 350,000 consultants, Mary Kay Inc. now makes over $1 billion in sales in nineteen different countries (Allen, n. d). The company went public in 1968, but went private again in 1985. To this day, it remains one of the largest firms in the US (Stefoff, 1992). Fortune Magazine has listed Mary Kay as one of the five hundred largest companies since 1992.

Also listed in the book The 100 Best Companies to Work for in America, which now employs over 475 thousand people (www. notablebiographies. com). Conclusion Despite her conservative views, conventional approach to combining family and job responsibilities, and ultra feminine appearance, Mary Kay was a tough business woman with a large knowledge of marketing and sales. She helped innumerable women to careers and to the financial security that derives from earning one’s own money. Though her personal views may not be typical of other women who have strived for their civil rights, Mary Kay nevertheless encouraged and empowered legions of women.

Through her belief in women’s abilities and her willingness to give them a chance, she made the dream of self-sufficiency a reality for hundreds of thousands of women worldwide. She was a tough businesswomen with a huge knowledge of marketing and sales. For women Mary Kay was one of top 10 places to work. She gave many women worldwide a chance for success and living a dream that for many may have never happened. Mark Kay had the determination to make the business a huge success and change the lives of women all across the world. References Ash, M (1995). Mary Kay: You Can have It All. Rocklin, CA: Prima Stefoff, R (1992).

Blood Disorders global history essay help: global history essay help

BLOOD DISORDERS Pamela Butler Axia University of Phoenix Health & Diseases Blood disorders can affect one’s life and health in many ways. Blood disorders come in many types and have many symptoms and treatments. However, with proper knowledge of symptoms, lifestyle factors, and family history one can prevent and treat these disorders before becoming life threatening. After reviewing each scenario provided it is established that each individual is suffering from a different type of blood disorder.

We will be discussing the three disorders established, the cause of these disorders, how these disorders are diagnosed, and the treatment and prevention methods for these disorders. Scenario One In scenario one Amy, a four-year-old Caucasian female is currently at risk of contracting Iron Deficiency Anemia. Iron deficiency anemia occurs when a person’s body does not receive the proper amount of iron needed to produce a sufficient supply of red blood cells or hemoglobin within the body.

Every red blood cell contains hemoglobin, which is the part of the cell that carries our oxygen. Without the appropriate amount of iron within one’s body, the body makes fewer and smaller red blood cells leaving the body with less hemoglobin to distribute oxygen throughout one’s body to tissues and cells (WebMD, 2005-2009). With less oxygen reaching the tissues and cells of one’s body, the functions of these tissues and cells begin to suffer sometimes leaving a person with less energy and paled or discolored skin (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009).

There are many reasons that a person can have low levels of iron in ones blood stream such as heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding inside one’s body, pregnancy, an inability to absorb iron, and a lack of iron in ones diet. Since ones, blood contains iron, the loss of too much blood from one’s body in cases such as a heavy menstrual period or internal bleeding causes an individual to lose the iron needed to sustain the proper amount of hemoglobin in one’s body. Pregnant woman may also suffer from too little iron in one’s body due to the iron not only being used for ones, self-but for, one’s growing fetus as well.

The inability to absorb iron from the foods that are eaten through the small intestine in cases such as an intestinal disorder, the removal of part of the small intestine, or a regular use of prescription-strength stomach acid blockers can also cause one to have low iron within one’s body (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009). Since iron in one’s body derives from the food that one eats, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is the lack of iron in one’s diet. In order to sustain a good level of iron in one’s body one needs to include foods such as meat, eggs, dairy products, or iron-fortified foods into ones diet.

If one suspects that, he or, she may be suffering from iron deficiency anemia medical attention is recommended. Iron deficiency disorder is mainly diagnosed by the use of blood tests administered by ones medical provider. Tests used to determine if one is suffering from an iron deficiency disorder include tests that examine the size and color of one’s blood cells, a check of one’s hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, and a measurement of ferritin. If diagnosed with an iron deficiency disorder the first step to treating this disorder is to begin an iron supplement in the form of an iron tablet or multivitamin.

The second step to treating this disorder is to introduce a diet that is rich in iron into one’s life. If one with this disorder is able to increase and maintain the amount of iron in one’s body this disorder will no longer affect the individual suffering from it. To help prevent future problems associated with iron deficiency anemia future testing is recommended. Along with regular testing a diet rich in iron based foods such as red meats, seafood, poultry, eggs, breads, pastas, spinach, raisins, nuts, and dark green leafy vegetables should be adhered to.

Scenario Two In scenario two Marcus, a 5-year-old African American male is susceptible to the blood disorder Sickle Cell Anemia, because his mother is a carrier. As stated by The HealthCentral Network, Inc (2004-2009), “Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S”. Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder where one copy of the sickle cell gene or hemoglobin S is passed down from each parent and present in the recipient.

If only one gene is present in the recipient, the person is known as being only a carrier to the disorder of sickle cell anemia and not one that is initially affected by it. When an individual carries two genes, one from each parent of hemoglobin S the red cells in his or, her body are shaped like sickles or, crescent moons and tend to clump together making them sticky, stiff, and fragile. Sickle cell anemia can be found in individuals of all races but is a disorder that mainly affects individuals of African American, Middle Eastern, and Mediterranean descent.

If one suspects that, he or, she may be a carrier of sickle cell anemia and is worried that he or, she may have passed this trait or disease down to one’s children a blood test can be given to diagnose sickle cell anemia. In testing for sickle cell anemia, ones doctor will take a sample of one’s blood to check for the presence of hemoglobin S. If one’s doctor determines that, the screening of one’s blood is positive he or, she will then conduct further tests to determine whether one or two genes are present.

In confirming the findings of the blood results, a sample of blood will then be examined under a microscope to check for a large number of sickle cells; if the results are found to be positive further blood tests will then be done to test for anemia. There currently is no cure for sickle cell anemia other than a bone marrow transplant however; treatment is currently available to help control the affects of this disease. Treatments for this disease include a wide range of options from pain relievers to blood transfusions.

Individuals that suffer from sickle cell anemia get treatments as signs of the disease occur but most treatments are administered as ways to help prevent infections, relieve pain, and control complications associated with this disease. Unfortunately, sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease so methods of preventing it from occurring are sparse. However, being tested for this disease before conceiving a child can give one the option on whether to go forth with having a child who may be born with this disease or not.

If one wishes to go forth with conceiving children other options such as an in vitro fertilization procedure that helps one to have a healthy non-affected child is available (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009). Scenario Three In scenario three Richard an individual who has noticed a significant amount of bruising over the last couple of weeks may be suffering from a disease called thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia occurs when there are a deficient number of platelets in one’s blood. When one has a deficient number of latelets in one’s blood, one’s blood is unable to clot properly which can result in superficial bleeding into the skin, prolonged bleeding of cuts, easy or excessive bruising, spontaneous bleeding, and blood in urine and stool. Causes of thrombocytopenia may result from certain drugs that one has taken such as heparin, and histamine blockers. Thrombocytopenia may also be caused by the use of alcohol, a stem cell injury, marrow aplasia, fibrosis, cancer, or an enlargement of one’s spleen. Diagnosis of this disorder is conducted by the use of a blood test, physical examination, and a bone marrow examination.

In diagnosing if an individual has contracted thrombocytopenia ones doctor will conduct a blood test to count the number of platelets that are currently in one’s blood and physically examine one’s body for signs of an enlarged spleen. If it is determined that one has the disorder one’s doctor will then order a bone marrow examination and special blood tests to help determine the cause of the disease (Mayo Clinic, 1998-2009). Treatments for thrombocytopenia include medications, surgery, blood transfusions, and plasma exchange.

Medications used to treat this disorder may include medications that suppress one’s immune system or medications that block antibodies that are attacking platelets. Surgery is used when one’s spleen needs to be removed and plasma exchange and blood transfusions are used for individuals with severe bleeding. In some cases, no treatments are used or medications causing the disorder are eliminated. To prevent the reoccurrence or occurrence of this disorder, it is advised that one be monitored regularly by one’s doctor. Blood disorders can occur to one, by both genetic and un-genetic means.

Coke Case english essay help online: english essay help online

The intangibles of Coke are the long time relationship with customers, the brand image, reputation, symbol of the company. )Test again but do not use the blind test and compare the difference. Before launching the new coke, the company should have issued some sample first to fathom the customer reaction to the new product. 8)Taste buds: 9)Actually, I do not agree with the idea of launching the new coke as a brand extension because Coke has built its market share from the loyal customer of the classic taste. Its competitor attacked to another class of consumers who prefer the sweeter taste.

Even if Coke launches the new Coke as the attack brand, it will be very difficult for it to success because for the customer who likes the sweeter one, they will choose Pepsi instead as Pepsi already similarly built a long term relationship with its customers. And the fact has improved that New Coke do not make any difference to the situation. 10)Marketing research is far from an exact science. Sometimes data is important for decision making process but basing solely on data will be failure. Especially, as marketing treats matters which relate to human, there are many factors more than data which need the consideration.

After Viewing the Simpson’s popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

After viewing The Simpsons it has become apparent that the six key factors influencing homers overall health and physical activity play a big part in his life. Homer’s Heredity factors influencing his overall health and level of physical activity are hard to determine as he is a cartoon character and no real evidence of his family’s history has been shown in the popular TV series. But for example if his father had suffered from a heredity disease he might possibly have taken or take his health more seriously. Signs of unhealthy hereditary aspects in homer and his father are that they are both overweight and both are balding.

They also both share the common feature of no intelligence and forgetfulness. These generic features which were passed on to homer are negative and haven’t helped his overall health and level of Physical activity. Abraham (homer’s father) wasn’t there for most of homer’s childhood as he was in the Second World War. Homers mother left him at the age of 11 and these aspects must have had a great impact on the way he grew up and the level of understanding that he adopted about life. He acquires the same laid back nature as his father but doesn’t believe that they are similar in anyway.

He didn’t participate in much physical activity as a teenager and was an overweight adolescent who drunk. Wether these habits were passed down or just equated on his own from other factors in his life homer didn’t care about the damages and disruption he was causing his body by not being healthy and engaging in physical activity. Another factor which has influenced Homers overall health and level of physical activity is his lack of education. Homer is a low level night class graduate and has no awareness or knowledge of the extreme importance of being healthy and engaging in physical activity.

He never takes notice of TV ads which promote good health and physical activity habits, but instead takes notice of ads regarding food and beer. Because of his lack of education, Homer is quite stupid and would eat until he gets sick and can‘t fit anymore into himself or drink until he is completely blind and passes out. Not having an education about these sorts of things has shown how bad the effects are, Homer doesn’t know and has never been taught about how to be an overall healthy person. Lifestyle is a major factor of homers overall health and physical activity level.

Homer doesn’t do exercise or eat healthy. He is a borderline alcoholic and visits his local pub, Moe’s tavern regularly. There he socialises with drunken low lives and then returns home at night drunk and tired. Homer also tends to eat a lot of junk food, especially donuts which he cannot resist. He will also eat mouldy old food if in need and doesn’t care about the quality of it or the calories it contains let alone the harmful bacteria which could be lurking inside it. Homer likes to eat at the Frying Dutchman, which he almost put out of business on its “All You Can Eat Night”.

Since then, Homer’s picture had hung in the restaurant, where he’s known as “Bottomless Pete: Nature’s Cruellest Mistake. ” Homer has a routine of getting up, going to work, going to moes then arriving home and going to bed. On the weekends Homer will occasionally engage in recreational sports or doze off in his hammock in the backyard. He will not even play a game with his children or go for a run down the street, Homer does not do exercise. Homer drives recklessly to his destinations and doesn’t care fro road rules.

He also endures in countless rick taking behaviour including riding a skateboard off a cliff or getting involved with the mafia by mistake, it is his stupidity and ignorance which get Homer into these types of situations on a regular basis. Homer has also been hospitalised on numerous occasions for various heart attacks and injuries caused by his ruthless behaviours. He depends on his wife to look after him everyday without fail which angers her occasionally. Also Homer releases his stress on his son Bart who he strangles when angry or coned for money or any other privileges.

His health is not managed properly and its effects have been shown on the show throughout its later years. Homer has priorities such as work, his family, money and drinking/eating these factors impact on his overall health and level of physical activity. Homer loves his family, and he’ll do just about anything to prove it—even if that means making himself look foolish. Homer works at Springfield’s nuclear power plant as a safety inspector, a job he secured after passing the specialized training course on his third attempt.

Not once does he consider the health-damaging side-effects of his gargantuan size, all he wants is freedom from going to work: “Oh, I’m never going to be disabled,” he moans, “I’m sick of being so healthy! “Once during a strike, Homer’s critical functions could be filled only by a brick placed on a lever. Homer doesn’t take much pride in his work and normally just sits there eating donuts while watching TV or socialising with a college. Although he was trained Homer has little idea of how to do his job this could be caused by his poor diet and lack of physical activity which keep your brain alert and ready for a days work.

Homer also sees money as a priority in life and will do close to anything to obtain it. He seems to always get conned or have to engage in some daring act before he can get his money (which he never does). Homers want for money could have been caused by his immense eating and drinking lifestyle, which is not cheap. This therefore means he may need more money to replace the loss caused by drinking and eating a lot. Homer doesn’t care about his health and believes that, being healthy is too expensive. Drinking duff beer and eating donuts or other junk foods give comfort to Homer.

He doesn’t see these things as dead objects, but he sees them as alive and wanting to be eating. In many episodes homers food will come alive and beg to be eating. Homer cannot resist and quickly gobbles down 12 donuts in one go. Another factor that influences Homers overall health and level of physical activity is the amount of motivation that he is given. Homer often receives small amounts of motivation from his family who tell him he needs to loss some weight and that he ’can’ do it if he applies himself.

Homers friends on the other hand don’t seem to notice homers weight problem, drinking problem or lack of exercise. They just take him as he is, this is mainly because most of Homers friends are a “bunch of low life’s and bums” and have the same problems and issues themselves. Marge motivates Homer stop drinking and lose weight; he tries and sometimes succeeds but then puts it back on again due to temptation from the media, friends and the environment in which he lives. Homer doesn’t believe that being obese and drinking a lot is a problem.

He doesn’t feel he needs to change and majority of the time doesn’t listen to motivation if he is told. Homers environment also plays a large part in his influence to be overall healthy and have a healthy level of physical activity. Homers pub, Moe’s tavern is local, therefore easy to get to and a temptation for him. Also not many people in homers local town engage in PA or are substanualy healthy. All homers friends are drinkers and smokers, and Homer likes to keep his image of a typical American man. Homer lives in a low socio-economic and socio-cultural environment and this has an impact on his lifestyle.

Homer has no ethics or morals about his health and isn’t ashamed to say that he is fat and stupid. There are fitness facilities surrounding Homers environment which are available to him, but he doesn’t use them. These include the gym, which in one episode, he had never heard of it and called it a “gim” and also various parks around his town. As you can see the six factors, heredity, education, lifestyle, priorities, motivation and environment have all contributed to homer being in the state he is today.

Machiavelli as a Humanist essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

A humanist is defined as one who is concerned with the interests and welfare of humans. Niccolo’ Machiavelli can be thought of as a humanist. Although opinions on this differ greatly depending on whom you speak with. Machiavelli’s life consists of so many examples and lessons that he has learned throughout his life. Through my paper, I intend to examine his perception of morality based on his political writings and life experiences. Niccolo’ Machiavelli was born on May 3, 1469 and died in 1527. Although we do not know much about his early life, we know that he was educated according to the humanist ideals of the Renaissance.

He was trained at an early age by a latin teacher named Paolo da Ronciglione. He spent his youth in the city of Florence which suffered from continuous political instability. Machialvelli, a humanist, had a practical approach to politcs. He came up with the idea that “the end justifies the means”. He argued that whether a government is “good”, can only be determined by looking at whether it is effective. 5 Machiavelli worked under the Republican government led by Piero Soderini. In 1512 when the Spanish troops defeated the republican army the Medici family took over rule of Florence.

As a result Machiavelli was put into internal exile. In 1513 he was wrongly accused of conspiring against the Medici family. He was then imprisoned and tortured for several weeks. Afterwards he lived in a small town outside of Florence. It was then that he began his literary career by writing one of his most remembered and debated books called “The Prince”. It is also one of the most famous works in the history of political philosophy. His experiences as a young man were reflected in his work. “The Prince” has often been read as a book that promotes a sly and mean way of attaining political power. However, he discerns that morals are very important even though political action sometimes go beyond moral considerations. 5 He also wrote poems and plays and other well known books such as, “The Art of War”. In “The Prince”, he asks the question who is a better ruler, the one who is loved by his subjects or the one who is feared by them? 5 Machiavelli felt that it would be good to be both of them but if you had to choose then fear would be the best choice out of the two. He made observations about the conduct of political leaders and whether or not they were able to achieve their goals.

He then gave recommendations based on these considerations. It is not obvious what he expected to achieve by writing “The Prince”. According to his writings, he did not believe that Christianity should play a role in government. He believed that it hindered the states power to govern. Machiavelli asserts, the state needs to restrict the power of the church, allowing it to exercise its office only in the spiritual realm. 4 Traditional political theory incorporated “God” as a way of ensuring stability. Machiavelli did not agree with this. He believed that the power of the state was more important than the moral law of God.

One of his most famous passages from his book “The Prince” reads, “If all men were good this precept would not be a good one but as they are bad and would not observe their faith with you, so you are not bound to keep faith with them. ” 4 It was because of such bold statements that “The Prince” was put on a prohibited book list by the Catholic church and possibly why today the word “Machiavellian” means devious or unscrupulous in political dealings. 4 Machiavelli believed that power is best kept intact when the ruler understands that it is power that keeps them strong and not external influences such as religion.

He did not promote violence for the sake of itself. He promoted doing whatever it took to keep the state strong and powerful. This was a view similarly shared by one of our modern day activists, Malcom X. In approximately the last 500 years “The Prince” became a favorite book of numerous political leaders such as Louis XIV, Napoleon Bonaparte and Benito Mussolini mainly due to the technical lessons to be learned from it. He used the term virtu’ in his book “The Art of War” which is a dialogue on military affairs.

It describes the great ability of a general who is able to adapt to various battlefield conditions as they present themselves. It is said that the most vilified of political thinkers is also the one of whom it has been said that he concentrated all his real and supreme values in what he called virtu’. 6 What he meant by this was that a prince would have to develop a different psychology than what he is used to. The “new” prince is “prepared to vary his conduct as the winds of fortune and changing circumstances constrain him and not deviate from the right conduct if possible, but be should be capable of ntering upon a path of wrong doing when it becomes necessary”. 7 Some ninety years ago Villari said that Machiavelli always use the word virtue in the sense of courage and energy both for good and evil. To Christian virtue in its more general meaning, he rather applied the term goodness, and felt much less admiration for it than for the pagan virtue that was always fruitful of glory. 2 Although the political life of Niccolo Machiavelli is quite interesting when analyzing his views on government and religion, his personal life and experiences were equally a representation of him as a humanist.

He was described by some as never offensive and possessing a genuine understanding of human weakness. Niccolo formed a quite distinct perception of life formulated with generosity and a passion for great deeds. He understood the life lessons of human malice. He learned this through his own personal experiences. Although Machiavelli was only nine years old at the time he remembered hearing people talk about the political events taking place involving the Medici family who ruled Florence at that time.

Cosimo de’ Medici the elder had impoverished or banished anyone who he believed due to their wealth or influence may obstuct his plans. 1 Cosimo was willing to do “whatever it took” to ensure absolute power of the state. He believed that if you want to expand your power politically you can not always follow the Christian principals of morality. Cosimo eventually died and was succeded by his son, Piero who also passed away after only 1 month as the head of the Medici regime. The regime was then headed by Piero’s two sons, Lorenzo and Giuliano.

Giuliano was later killed in a conspiracy that was created to kill him and his brother Lorenzo. Lorenzo fled to his escape. Once in his early twenties Machiavelli heard the sermons of a Dominican friar named Girolamo Savonarola. However, he did not share the views of Savonarola. Savonarola belived that the sins of a people have their roots in the behavior of princes. 8 Since Machiavelli did believe that Savonarola was a prophet albeit a liar, he always spoke of him with respect but never became one of his followers.

According to Machiavelli, Savonarola made quite a few political mistakes. He allowed the death of 5 Florentines to occur with out defending their right to an appeal by using a new law that Savonarola himself had encouraged the passage of. In reality as Machiavelli later wrote, the fact that the friar had neither endorsed their right to appeal nor condemned their execution “harmed his reputation” more than any other action. 9 After the death of Savonorola, Machiavelli was nominated as secretary of the Second Chancery which handled the dominions and foreign affairs of Florence.

His job was to keep the Signoria and the Ten informed on military and political problems so they could make appropriate decisions. He was a highly unusual chief who knew how to transform his subordinates into friends. 10 This became apparent in letters written by his subordinates. Niccolo’ had a lively curiosity and his wit brought laughter to the members of the Chancery. In July 1499, his job became increasingly difficult when he was sent on his second mission to meet Caterina Sforza Riario.

He was sent there to persuade her to accept the renewal of the contract for her son Ottaviano Riario to fight for Florence in the reconquest of Pisa without the increase of salary that she was requesting. 11 Although she liked Florence she refused. Niccolo’ then tried to convince the Signoria that Caterina would be more persuaded it they performed deeds instead of words. Deeds such as paying their old debts and offering better conditions in exchange for using her sons troops. Caterina was always concerned about “matters of honor,’ which she held “above all things. ” 12 Machiavelli undoubtedly admired her behavior.

He also admired her beauty and intelligence. He believed that he had convinced her to settle for a verbal promise instead of a written commitment, however, she soon informed him that she needed a written commitment from Florence. He was undoubtedly surprised and hurt probably due to the fact that he had already told the Signoria that she had agreed and now this made him look bad. In any case, Caterina remained without the protection of Florence, which did not lift a finger when Cesare Borgia laid siege to Forli. 13 Once her fortress was taken she was held for two weeks.

Machiavelli wrote about her again in his book called the “Discourses”. He told the story of a strong woman abducted with her children. Machiavelli also mentioned Caterina in his Art of War, when he described how she defended the fortress of Forli against Cesare Borgia. 14 His words showed deep admiration for her. She had the spirit to await an army as neither the King of England or the Duke of Milan did. 14 His memory of this countess whom he met on one of his first missions remained vivid over the years, and with his accounts of her deeds, he introduced her into legend, making her live forever. 4 Although Machiavelli is no longer shocking, he is still a subject of much debate and controversy. This is mostly due to the fact that he was misunderstood in the past. Works Cited 1. Viroli, Maurizio. Niccolo’s Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000. 13 2. P. Villari, Life and Times of Machiavelli, tr. Linda Villari, 4 vols(London,n. d), II, 92 3. The political Calculus: Essays on Machiavelli’s Philosopy, edited by Anthony Parel, University of Toronto Press, 1972, pp. 157-78 4. Cunningham, Lawrence S.

Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan free college essay help: free college essay help

Personalized Nutrition and Exercise Plan University of Phoenix Leading a nutritious and healthy lifestyle with the incorporation of exercise is the path I am currently walking on and will continue to follow in my later years. Following the healthy eating plan I currently put myself on is a step in the right direction and the many steps that will follow will be the guide to a continuous nutritional lifestyle. I am currently living with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease that causes demyelination.

Demyelination occurs when there is loss of the myelin sheath that insulates the cells in the central nervous system. (Gutierrez, 2009) When an attack occurs unpredictably, it can last a couple of days to a couple of weeks, given the medication taken. The recovery time varies and the disease does not worsen in between attacks. (WebMD, 2009) Currently the disease does not come between my health and my workouts. Upon feeling weak in my muscles at times, I will slow down or completely stop temporarily.

Feeling weak does not happen often enough where it completely affects my workout, though there is no telling what the future may hold with my health and this disease. A disease I may possible develop in my later years is diabetes. My mother is currently living with it. Diabetes is a disease that is hereditary, making one at risk of developing the disease. In addition, my mother is Hispanic and my father is African American and both ethnic backgrounds make me more at risk fordeveloping diabetes. Being overweight also contributes to the development of diabetes.

I already have two strikes against me and will not allow myself to become overweight to add to the possibility of developing the disease. In addition, as one ages, the chances of developing diabetes increases. (WebMD, 2009) Understanding any disease with how it is developed to how it can be prevented helps with daily management. Coping with diabetes there are ways which can prevent the development of the disease. “?. Exercise and a healthy diet can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance – a condition that often develops prior to full-blown type 2 diabetes. (WebMD, 2009). The incorporation of a healthy diet and if overweight, undergoing a weight loss program helps prevent diabetes. For those who already have diabetes, there are various medications one can take to regulate the blood sugar levels. Living with MS and with the possibility of developing diabetes, my diet has been re-modified. My eating habits are fairly healthy, but thediet could be better. As I make myself more aware of my health, well-being, history of family health issues and diseases, I realize that re-evaluating my diet would be wisest.

I am currently consuming nutritious foods, but not have completely done away with eating unhealthy foods. I do continue to eat fatty foods at times to satisfy my cravings but knowing that if there are no adjustments to my diet the possibilities of developing diabetes can occur. Looking at what my mother goes through with her injections and the unstableness of her sugar levels, I do not want to go through. My mom has been in and out of the hospital several times and had a near death experience because her sugar levels were low.

Diabetes is a serious disease that needs to be well managed. If diabetes is not maintained one can become extremely ill. Modifying my diet has now become a priority and following the My Pyramid Plan is what is on the agenda. With the continuance of the 45min run and following the diet indicated below, I believe I will be well on my way to losing weight and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Avoiding second helpings for a week to condition myself to overcome that habit is part of the plan, as well. The diet plan is a realistic goal for me.

To follow the goal is just a matter of mentally conditioning myself mentally to overcome the cravings. The nutritional goals I intend to follow are: Ensure my diet is low in saturated fat, cholesterol and overall reduce my sugar, salt and total fat intake. I will adjust the items I choose at the supermarket and do away with sweets by substituting it for sweet fruits. Eat a variety of foods, especially from all food groups. By choosing foods from different food groups, it brings a variety to my meal plan. Eat five servings of fruit and vegetables a day.

I intend to create a menu incorporating five servings of each and place it on my refrigerator just, so that I can consume the total daily servings. Make sure I balance my intake of calories with what I burn, so I monitor my weight loss goal. The menu I create will include a calorie count of each food, so that I can keep track of how many calories I consume against the calories I burn. This diet plan is a 2000 calorie food pattern. This plan is based on average needs for a 35 year-old female, 5 feet 3 inches tall, physically active 30 to 60 minutes a day, in the healthy weight range.

The calorie needs may be more or less than the average, so the weight should be checked regularly. If gradual weight loss is not visible, adjust the amount total intake. 1 Make Half Grains Whole Aim for at least ounces of whole grains a day. 2 Vary Veggies Aim for this much every week: Dark Green Vegetables = 3 cups weekly Orange Vegetables = 2 cups weekly Dry Beans and Peas = 3 cups weekly Starchy Vegetables = 3 cups weekly Other Vegetables = 6 1/2 cups weekly Oils & Discretionary Calories Aim for 6 teaspoons of oils a day.

Limit the extras (extra fats and sugars) to 265 Calories. (United States Department of Agriculture, 2009) Creating a diet to follow is easier planned than followed. One has to follow successfully aself planned diet, especially when there is a drastic change from unhealthy foods to healthy foods. Additionally, living in a home where others are not on a diet can be challenging. Eating with the familywhen only one individual on a diet is a challenge to one’s will power. I can say for myself that my will power is average.

Itis hard sometimes when my husband is eating a steak dinner or fried spicy hot chicken, my favorite. I will give in at times. There were situations where I completely gave in, but as I continue to educate myself, I have come to realize that sometimes cheating is not worth because it eventually catches up to one’s health in a not so good way. My approach to avoid having to deal with giving into temptation is to eat before the rest of the family doesor to eat before I leave work. That way I am not eating late nor will I be hungry by the time I come home.

Another challenge I may come across is if the Multiple Sclerosis becomes aggressivein my later years where a work out regimen may not be an option. Therapy and medication would have to be the option to handle the condition if it worsens. Depending on how bad the condition is, I may be able to incorporate some kind of exercise whether it is just walking or picking up some weights. At least there will be some kind of physical activity. Upon dealing with the progression of the disease along with age, the diet would have to be modified to suit the deficiencies I will encounter as an older woman living with MS.

Perhaps adjusting to lighter and smaller meals would be best considering there would be a possibility that I may be bound to a wheelchair which can quickly result in weight gain. In addition, with age come ailments. Seasonal changes affects the body especially the joints. I currently like to run on the treadmill and at times jog outside. Adjusting to the climate to prevent from creating additional aches and pains, indoor activity would be best. Another challenge, due to heredity would be the possibility of developing diabetes. A strictdiet would have to be in place.

Physical activity may be adjusted to being indoors. If I become hypoglycemic while outdoors there is the possibility of passing out. Rather than risk the incident, creating an activity for indoors may be best. There have been many of times where my mother has not felt well outdoors and thank goodness someone was with her during those moments. I know of a woman who died in her sleep due to the blood sugar levels being low. Being around others who live with this disease and seeing their experiencesis a wake up call to know not to play around with my health when it comes to this disease.

Diabetes is scary if one does not pay close attention to patterns of the bodily reactions (sugar levels) to particular foods; it becomes a game of Russian Rulet. As long as a healthy diet is followed with consistency the results will affect my physical well-being in a positive way. Having more energy and not feeling exhausted most of the time would be proof of how effective the diet is. With the proper foods, my intellect will also improve. I will be able to think more clearly. Additionally, seeing a consistency with weight loss on a weekly basis will show how the diet is working.

Both combinations of healthy eating and having an exercise regimen are not only effective in ways of losing weight, but also, allow one to live and feel better physically and mentally. In addition, with the incorporation of more sleep time in my schedule, it should be a major improvement in my well-being. Realizing that no matter how healthy the diet is, lack of sleep always affects one’s thinking, focus and how information is retained. On the other hand, upon not following my nutrition and exercise plan, I will continue to maintain my weight of 161lbs. and for my height itis considered overweight.

Team Leadership from a Biblical Perspective research essay help: research essay help

Servant Leadership The first thing to be considered in developing a theological understanding of team leadership is servant leadership. Servant leadership is at the heart of Christian leadership. Servant Leadership is different from servanthood. All Christians, not just leaders, are called to be servants, serving each other, following Jesus’ example in washing his disciples’ feet, and loving our neighbours as ourselves. Along with that call to servanthood is the need we each have to allow ourselves to receive from Jesus, just as he washed his disciple’s feet.

When Peter protested, Jesus told him, ‘Unless I wash you, you have no part with me. ‘ (John 13:8) In his inspiring book, Leadership: Trilogy on Leadership and Effective Management, Anthony D’Souza1 states: When discussing leadership and managerial skills, we need remind ourselves that Christian leadership essentially involves service. When we consider the church and/ or church related institutions, we grasp the concept of service. Yet when mention corporations and businesses, the word “service” sounds out of place. Part of the confusion may come from not understanding the true concept of leadership.

For many, the word leadership connotes power, authority, honour, prestige, or personal advantage. That’s not Christian Leadership. Here’s my description of Christian Leadership. It Seeks to be of service, rather than to dominate; Encourages and inspires; Respects rather than exploits others’ personalities; Reflects, prays, and acts on Jesus Christ’s words, “whoever wishes to be first among you, shall be servant, even as the son of man came not be served, but to serve and give his life as a ransom for many” (Mt 20:27).

What underpins servant leadership is the motivation behind our actions as leaders. If personal desire was the sole decision criteria, Jesus would have chosen not to go through the pain and suffering on the cross. In the garden at Gethsemane, Jesus prayed, ‘Father if you are willing take this cup from me, yet not my will, but yours, be done. ‘(Luke 22:42) The weight of the burden of taking not only our guilt but also our sins themselves, had become too heavy. Even at this point, Jesus could have got up and walked away. Jesus’ leadership modelled? servant leadership? throughout his ministry.

In the same vane, Dave Williams2, in his book, The Art of Pace Setting Leadership says: “Greatness is measured by a person’s unselfish willingness to serve others” [15:1989]. This will require us also to set aside personal gain,? to make sacrifices, and to put the needs of others above the direction we may prefer for ourselves. There are people who are highly career minded, people whose main motivation is to get themselves in a position where they will gain some reward. This is the complete opposite of the leadership Jesus demonstrated. Some may suggest that servant leaders are weak.?

However, nothing could be further from the truth. They? model integrity, where their thoughts, words and actions flow from a consistent desire. The word integrity comes from the Latin word meaning ‘whole’ or ‘complete’, as in integer, or whole number. One of the biggest reasons for leaders losing the respect of their followers is that the lack true integrity where their private lives and thoughts do not match their public statements, or that they are inconsistent, adopting principles that are popular and appropriate to the moment, rather than sticking to their underlying, but potentially unpopular, principles.?

Maintaining integrity? is not always easy! Servant leadership is not a particular style of leadership, but rather relates to the motivation behind a leader’s thoughts, words and actions. Leaders can fit any of the leadership styles described in several literature, and still be very much a servant leader. Servant leaders are not leaders on the basis of their position or leadership role, but rather lead according to their calling, vision and principles.?

One of the challenges for servant leaders is to ensure that their vision and principles are in line with others in their organisation, and therefore it is highly important for them to engage with others to develop a common vision and shared values. Whilst serving others as the heart of leadership may not appear easy, it is perhaps in one sense easier for a leader to be consistent with the vision and values that they hold for themselves, rather than always seeking to live up to an image, to constantly seek opportunities to sell themselves, or to be for ever trying to read the political signals sent out by others.

Shared Responsibility A team is a group of people coming together to collaborate. This collaboration is to reach a shared goal or task for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. A group of people is not necessarily a team. A team is a group of people with a high degree of interdependence geared towards the achievement of a common goal or completion of a task rather than just a group for administrative convenience. A group, by definition, is a number of individuals having some unifying relationship. Team members are deeply committed to each other’s personal growth and success.

That commitment usually transcends the team. A team outperforms a group and outperforms all reasonable expectations given to its individual members. That is, a team has a synergistic effect — one plus one equals a lot more than two. Team members not only cooperate in all aspects of their tasks and goals, they share in what are traditionally thought of as management functions, such as planning, organizing, setting performance goals, assessing the team’s performance, developing their own strategies to manage change, and securing their own resources.

A success or failure is felt by all members, not just the individual. Failures are not blamed on individual members, which gives them the courage to take chances. Successes are felt by every team member, this helps them to set and achieve bigger and better successes. In addition, failure is perceived as a learning lesson Strategy Strategic thinkers have a significant part to play: The men of Issachar in (1 Chron 12:32) had a place in David’s army on account of being men “who understood the times and knew what Israel should do”.?

Issachar contributes just 200 men out of a total force of 336,000, yet these men made a unique contribution. . All of the others are described as “brave warriors”, “armed for battle”, “experienced soldiers” or “armed with every type of weapon”, yet it is clear that the men of Issachar bring knowledge and insight that more than makes up for their lack of fighting force. Biblical leaders who were in tune with God were given clear strategies as to how they would achieve the goal that was set before them. Many of these required unconventional choices.

Gideon was instructed by God to restrict his numerical forces severely and to seek to cause the enemy to panic and flee, undoubtedly reducing the death toll amongst his troops. Joshua was given precise instructions as to how he should take the city of Jericho. Paul chose to follow God in appealing to stand trial in Rome before Caesar, when he could have been set free. George Barna3 [103:2001] says: Strategic leaders are analysts of reality. They observe people and situations and collect empirical information, they run it through their mental grid to arrive at conclusions about the real conditions and opportunities of the world.

They remain sufficiently detached to arrive at objective conclusions. Many strategic leaders view emotions and sensitivity and detrimental to the cause. Their allegiance is to truth and efficiency in making the vision reality. For the Christian leader, prayer not only gives us God’s perspective on what our vision should be, but also on how we should reach it: the decisions and choices necessary for reaching it.? Luke records Jesus giving the Great Commission to the apostles in Acts 1 v 8? telling them that they will be his witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.

In this case there is no clearly articulated strategy – the disciples are scattered from Jerusalem as a result of persecution, and then guided by God stage by stage. (eg Acts 8v26, 13v4) For Jonah, the strategy is clearly outlined, and Jonah is so uncomfortable at the prospect of being used by God in this way that he heads in the opposite direction with well known consequences. Christian leaders will need to trust God as they walk towards the vision, yet be willing to make bold, and possibly unconventional choices as they perceive God is leading them.

For God is in charge: “I know the plans I have for you,” declares the Lord, “plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future. ” (Jeremiah 29:11)Yet this does not mean that Christian leaders should not carry out a strategic analysis of a situation. Luke records Jesus teaching “Suppose one of you wants to build a tower. Will he not first sit down and estimate the cost to see if he has enough money to complete it. “(Luke 14:28). George continues to say: Strategic leaders tend to be very through in their investigations and do not hesitate to ask the hard questions.

They don’t mind creating controversy, because their primary quest is to understand reality in order to develop a workable plan. Once they have amassed the facts and carefully analyzed them, strategic leaders are prone to develop creative, albeit sometimes complex solutions. [103] In stressing the importance of the need for full information on the leader’s part, Robert Clinton4, in his book, The Making of a Leader, emphatically says: Leaders show lack of balance by operating on partial knowledge, by manipulating of the situation, or by not balancing various guidance inputs.

Normally, major decisions will see the convergence of God’s voice in the heart (the emotional desires), God’s voice in circumstances (confirmation from mature fellow Christians in the local body in which we participate), and God’s voice in the word. It is the balance of elements that allows us to move with certainty. [146:1988] The bible gives us the principles to determine the strategy. We may or may not be given specific guidance as to how we should approach the vision; we may or may not receive this guidance at the strategic or at the tactical level.

However, just as Jesus taught the disciples to think and act according to the principles of the Kingdom, so we too can develop our understanding of the principles of the Kingdom, and their application to the mission and ministry of our organizations.? Daniel was elevated to high position in the court of Nebuchadnezzar because of his knowledge of God, and served Darius as one of three administrators. Daniel 6:3 indicates that Daniel had exceptional qualities as an administrator.? Good Team Leader In order for a team to succeed, there is need to have a good leader.

The following is an excerpt from www. teal. org. uk Commitment to people Most team members are primarily concerned about relationship and about being valued as a team member, before they are concerned about the task that the team is to undertake. Feeling secure in a group environment is an important pre-requisite before individual contribution. The good team leader is able to spend time building the team, not only when the team starts off, but when a newcomer joins an existing team. Desire to Support and Serve

Whilst team members want to see the ability to lead from the front, they are also strongly motivated by the ability to lead from the back!? Servant leadership from the team leader is vital if team members are in turn, to want to serve each other. This is a particularly key topic for Christian leaders. There is a balance to be struck between a willingness to take on any chores that need to be done by the team, and taking an inappropriate balance of roles so that the leadership is diminished. Enthusiasm, Energy, Inspiration and Expertise

Unsurprisingly team members want to be inspired and motivated by team leadership which has the energy and enthusiasm to fire them up.? However, they also want to feel secure that the team leader has themselves, or has access to,? the necessary expertise to lead the team in the right direction. The leader doesn’t have to be the most knowledgeable of the subject at hand, but if they are not, they must encourage the input of others. Willingness to shoulder responsibility. Team leaders are tested under pressure.

When challenges arise, as they inevitably will, the leader will need to take responsibility to ensure that they are fixed as far as possible and that the team is strengthened as a result. This does not mean that the leader should admit that issues beyond their control are in any way their fault, (although they should be honest in admitting their mistakes), but rather adopt a proactive stance to ensure the team is not deflected from its course. Ability to achieve more as a team. Teams only become a team once there is some synergy within the group i. e. he team process adds value to that which a disparate group of individuals would achieve undirected. ? This is likely to require the team leader to explore leadership models that share the leadership role within the team, to have an understanding of different individuals team roles, strengths and gifts, establish a mutual accountability within the team, and to create a team environment which is open, fun and allows healthy and productive discussion. A Christian Team Leader is one who inspires others to live in a Christ-like manner and lives with integrity.?

This Leader not only directs another to believe in the teachings of Jesus Christ” but also sets an example and inspires others to live as he does.? A Christian Leader helps others in need, shows their passion and love for the Lord, and is humble in all things.? A Christian Leader does not have to be a pastor, deacon, or elder of the church, it is the very people in the choir, an ambitious young adult, or a child memorizing a Bible verse, and these are the Christian Leaders.? In the book, Excellence in Leadership, John White5, [50:1986] states: Good leaders are not workaholics.

They work hard without being in bondage to work itself. They are not frightened of work. They are not frightened of delegating work. A good leader sees work as a means of achieving a specific goal. The value of work is not measured by the status of people who perform a specific type of work. All work is valued by its necessity in achieving the goal. In Nehemiah’s case the goal is to make Jerusalem defensible. To accomplish that Nehemiah both assigned the work to others and participated in the work himself.

Water Pollution homework essay help: homework essay help

Although some kinds of water pollution can occur through natural processes, it is mostly a result of human activities. We use water daily in our homes and industries, about 150 gallons per day per person in the United States. The water we use is taken from lakes and rivers, and from underground (groundwater); and after we have used it– and contaminated it– most of it returns to these locations. The used water of a community is called wastewater, or sewage. If it is not treated before being discharged into waterways, serious pollution is the result.

Historically, it has taken humanity quite a bit of time to come to grips with this problem. Water pollution also occurs when rain water runoff from urban and industrial areas and from agricultural land and mining operations makes its way back to receiving waters (river, lake or ocean) and into the ground. Stormwater is a point source that contributes to water pollution. Because impervious surfaces (parking lots, roads, buildings, compacted soil) do not allow rain to infiltrate into the ground, more runoff is generated than in the undeveloped condition.

This additional runoff can erode watercourses (streams and rivers) as well as cause flooding when the storm water collection system is overwhelmed by the additional flow. Because the water is flushed out of the watershed during the storm event, little infiltrates the soil, replenishes groundwater, or supplies stream baseflow in dry weather. Pollutants entering surface waters during precipitation events is termed polluted runoff. Daily human activities result in deposition of pollutants on roads, lawns, roofs, farm fields, etc.

When it rains or there is irrigation, water runs off and ultimately makes its way to a river, lake, or the ocean. While there is some attenuation of these pollutants before entering the receiving waters, the quantity of human activity results in large enough quantities of pollutants to impair these receiving waters. Water Pollution Management and Sustainment Plan My plan for water pollution management in the community is to develop an educational program of pollution control for the community. Hold community eetings to explain the need for water pollution management. Contact some specialist to come and speak at the community meetings. Hold educational water pollution seminars for the public and community leaders. Develop a time line for assessment of existing storm drain systems to determine need for replacement to eliminate seepage. Study peak rainfalls to determine reasonable peak flow runoff storage needs. Protect the water supply by using the proper amount of fertilizer for your lawn and garden.

Over watering of your lawn can wash away fertilizer off your lawn and into storm drains, so be sure you are watering in short amounts throughout the day. Also make sure you are not overusing fertilizer. Rain can carry this fertilizer through town drainage systems and into a nearby lake. Also make sure that when you are doing other lawn work, such as mowing or raking leaves, that you properly dispose of the waste. Although washing a few leaves down the storm drain may seem harmless, these leaves as they decompose can add harmful chemicals to the water supply.

Bag organic waste and dispose of it properly, or consider beginning a modest compost pile to use the waste as free organic fertilizer. Resist pouring paint, oil, or other chemicals down the drain in your sink. Not only can some of these chemicals harm your pipes, but they can also harm the water supply. Instead, dispose of these items using the instructions on the label. CONCLUSION Clearly, the problems associated with water pollution have the capabilities to disrupt life on our planet to a great extent.

Congress has passed laws to try to combat water pollution thus acknowledging the fact that water pollution is, indeed, a serious issue. But the government alone cannot solve the entire problem. It is ultimately up to us, to be informed, responsible and involved when it comes to the problems we face with our water. Challenges will consist of encouraging the government to enforce stronger laws against dumping. Encourage the community to become proactive about waste, and attending the community meeting. Encourage monitoring and conducting regular sites on a continuous basis.

Futurismo En Huxley scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

De estas nuevas concepciones art? sticas, nacen las llamadas “Vanguardias”. La palabra Vanguardia viene de una terminolog? a militar, denominaci? n ocupada para referirse a los de primera l? nea, los de adelante, de avanzada en un pelot? n o ej? rcito. Vanguardia por tanto, son los de avanzada, los que se adentran (primero) en un territorio desconocido. Dentro de las Vanguardias, el primer movimiento consolidado es el Futurismo, que se despliega en Par? s a trav? s de un manifiesto firmado por el italiano Filippo Marinetti, publicado en el diario Le F? garo, el 20 de febrero de 1909.

En Par? s porque sigue siendo, en ese entonces, la guarder? a de todo brote cultural, en parte por su reconocida m? stica, y en parte por su c? ntrica posici? n geogr? fica que le permite recibir y exportar influencias culturales. En este primer manifiesto, propone una ruptura con el clasicismo acad? mico y quiere crear una est? tica proyectada al futuro y ligada tem? ticamente a la tecnolog? a moderna en sus aspectos m? s din? micos. El Futurismo capta la velocidad. Para Marinetti: “La velocidad es la fuente de toda belleza” y a? ade: “Un autom? vil de carreras es m? hermoso que la Victoria de Samotracia”. (Marinetti, 1978: 130), disponible en l? nea). Rompe con est? ticas anteriores, deshumaniza al humano, idolatra la m? quina: “No ten? amos Se? ora ideal [? ] Nada por quien morir, sino es por el deseo de desprendernos al fin de nuestro valor audaz” (Marinetti, 1978: 127) Se plantean once puntos que constituyen el cuerpo del Manifiesto, de los cuales, uno se? ala que “El Tiempo y el Espacio han muerto ayer” (Marinetti, 1978: 130), tomando como par? metro la velocidad y partiendo del concepto de dinamismo universal de Bergson.

El futurismo aboga por una destrucci? n de lo antiguo, de lo establecido, por una libertad que consiste en liberarse de las cargas sociales y vivir en peligro. El Manifiesto es rudo, crudo, violento; y es uno de sus principales rasgos: la violencia: “Queremos glorificar la guerra- ? nica higiene del mundo [? ] combatir la moralidad” (Marinetti, 1978: 130-131) y sigue: “El arte no puede ser m? s que violencia, crueldad e injusticia” (Marinetti, 1978: 135) “Los futuristas llevaron la glorificaci? n de la tecnolog? a moderna a un extremo grotesco y autodestructivo” (Berman, 1991:19)

Lo que Marinetti y sus seguidores llamaron Futurismo es tanto un repudio al pasado como una preocupaci? n exacerbada y de adoraci? n por los augurios del futuro. Para los futuristas, el futurismo era una filosof? a de vida con grandes preocupaciones pol? ticas y fundada en el rechazo de un conjunto de fuerzas que cre? an obstaculizantes del crecimiento y la modernizaci? n de Italia, de ah? a la idea de destrucci? n. En este contexto podemos destacar que aunque Marinetti public? su Primer Manifiesto en Par? s, era italiano y en esta ? poca, las naciones estaban reci? n surgiendo como naciones propiamente tal, y es por esta raz? que se impregna de progresismo todo el arte, de un nacionalismo pogresista; no de un progreso mundial sino localista. Italia ha sido una de las zonas m? s productivas art? sticamente, la cuna de la Modernidad, del Renacimiento y sus huellas han quedado all?. Los futuristas luchan contra todo ese pasado en pro del progreso, la velocidad “porque queremos librar a nuestro pa? s de su gangrena de profesores, de arque? logos, de cicerones y anticuarios. Italia ha sido durante muchos a? os la bolsa de chamarilleros, y nosotros queremos desembarazarla de sus museos innumerables, que la cubren de innumerables cementerios” (Marinetti, 1978: 132).

En este vasto marco nos centramos para ocuparnos de la novela futurista “Un mundo feliz” de Aldous Huxley que intentar? abordar desde el futurismo como una antiutop? a social vinculada al fascismo. El fascismo, en tanto, es una ideolog? a (principalmente) nacida en Italia, que “parece ser una especie de respuesta a la crisis estructural y coyuntural que azota a las sociedades capitalistas europeas en el periodo de entreguerras. El fascismo se presenta, por tanto, como un arma de combate, que se pretende absoluta, en la lucha contra las clases explotadas. El fascismo propone los principios de una estrategia pol? ica: liquidaci? n total y definitiva del movimiento obrero mediante la destrucci? n del bolchevismo, instauraci? n de un Estado totalitario conservando un orden jer? rquico inexorable que aplaste definitivamente a las masas, con intenciones de expansi? n imperialista declaradas y justificadas. El fascismo propone una soluci? n radical frente al comunismo, y signific? una nueva y aterradora realidad para las clases explotadas” (Bourderon, disponible en l? nea) II. Un mundo Feliz, de Aldous Huxley

Dunkin Donuts to India online essay help: online essay help

Dunkin Donuts to India India’s economy is growing rapidly and with the country’s interests coming together with U. S. interests the opportunity for companies to enter into this market is also growing. While many fast food businesses have recently opened in India, there may be no uniform way to enter into the country. For Dunkin Donuts to become a powerful food chain in India we must look at different entry strategies such as exporting, importing, joint venture, and foreign direct investment. Our company is a franchise that has seen growth all over the world.

While exporting a franchise to India is a billion dollar industry in the country, it only accounts for 3% of India’s market. Although franchises are a small part of the market the risk of opening a one is relatively low and is an ideal investment for entrepreneurs in the country. Even with our strong brand recognition, there also needs to be an understanding of the diverse cultures and tastes that exist in India. In metro cities retail space can be expensive and the quality of the space is somewhat poor.

There is also lack of legal structure with no specific laws on franchising. Even with these cons, exporting franchises is becoming the popular entry to reach the Indian consumer (“India Country Commercial Guide”). Although there are no specified laws when it comes to exporting a franchise to India, licensing has many key laws that affect doing business in India including the Competition Act of 2002, the Trademarks Act of 1999, the Consumer Protection Act of 1986, and other labor and tax laws.

Before an agreement is made an Indian court must decide if the contract is reasonable and if it is in the public’s best interest. The licensee must also not release confidential information about the licensor. There are also laws that promote healthy competition and protect the licensor’s trademark. With such strong restrictions put into place, doing a license with a local business may be a safer way for our company to penetrate India’s market. However, we would be limiting ourselves on market control and putting it in the hands of the licensee (Anand).

Joint ventures are also popular in India, but all ventures must have government approval which can be obtained through the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). This can take a long time to process because a mistake in a joint venture can be costly. The partner’s long term expectations and roles must be clearly defined and examined (“India Country Commercial Guide”). Although this entry strategy will lower the financial risk our company will be taking, it is not necessarily the type of strategy that we have previously used when entering other countries.

For years, India has not allowed foreign direct investment in the retail market. There are over 12 million mom-and-pop stores dominating this industry. In 2006, the Indian government implemented new rules which allow single brand retail chains to own 51%. Since then several international companies have entered the market including housewares, apparel, and cosmetics. Even with these new rules, foreign fast food chains that have entered India found it hard to compete with current Indian fast food chains (Rao)

History of Education essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In the decades that made up the fifties, sixties, and seventies numerous events that would paint the canvas of American education took place. Equality was an idea that some thought we would never see. Civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. saw this idea of equity as an obtainable dream that was in the hearts of all Americans. Though desegregation and the fair treatment of African Americans was at the forefront of the civil rights movement, there were several issues that would be brought to the attention of law makers, federal judges, and the education system.

Such issues included segregation, bilingual students, and special needs education. In 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the opinion of the court in one of the most influential cases to ever be presented on the floor of the Supreme Court: “? it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. 1 This ruling, made in the case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, KS, effectively overturned a decision made in the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. For nearly sixty years, it had been considered constitutionally justified to segregate the public education system. The opinion delivered by Chief Justice Warren served as a platform from which the Civil Rights Act (CRA) of 1964 would be propelled. Before this would occur, many obstacles would have to be conquered. On September 2, 1957 Arkansas Gov.

Orval Faubus defied a federal court order to desegregate public schools by dispatching the State National Guard unit to prevent 9 African American students from entering Central High School. It wasn’t until a federal judge had issued an injunction against the Governor’s use of National Guard troops and President Dwight D. Eisenhower had dispatched one thousand Army troops to the school that the students were able to attend their first day on September 25. Shortly thereafter, the case of Cooper v. Aaron was presented to the Supreme Court.

The request by the Little Rock Arkansas School Board to temporarily suspend their plan to desegregate was denied. It was the thought of the Chief Justices that if this request was granted it would be the first of many attempts to delay desegregation thereby further hindering the education of African American students. Subsequent Supreme Court decisions in cases such as Green v. Kent County School Board (1968), U. S. v. Montgomery County (1969), and Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971), were all in support of desegregation.

Title IV of the CRA of 1964 called for the desegregation of public schools. Title VI assured nondiscrimination when funds were distributed to federally assisted programs. Years of turmoil and strife led to the 1974 Equal Education Opportunities Act (EEOA). The EEOA provided that no state could deny equal education based on race, color, sex or national origin. The EEOA pointed out a set of students that had been previously overlooked. Those of different national origin also had a different native language. The case of Lau v. Nichols addressed the needs of bilingual students.

It was ruled that school districts must provide remedies for non-English speaking students. The ASPIRA Consent Decree of the same year required that Limited English Proficient (LEP) students must be taught, at least partly, in their native language. A year later, in 1975, the National Association of Bilingual Education was founded proving that we had taken another step towards equity in education. One of the most overlooked issues of the time period was the special needs student. Samuel Kirk coined the term “learning disability” at a Chicago conference in 1963.

A year later, the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities was formed. Later, it became known as the Learning Disabilities Association of America. It was some seven years later in 1971 when the Supreme Court ruled that students with mental retardation are entitled to a free public education. The case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania served as a catalyst to bring to the public eye the needs of the mentally handicapped. The next year, Mills v the Board of Education of Washington, D. C. extended the ruling of PARC v.

Pennsylvania to include students with disabilities. This ruling also required that educational alternatives must be provided that fit the child’s needs. The Rehabilitation Act, which became law in 1973, required accommodations in school including participation in programs and activities as well as access to buildings. Section 504 of this act guaranteed people with disabilities would enjoy civil rights in the context of federally funded institutions. 504 plans are used today in place of Individualized Education Programs (IEP’s) for those students who do not qualify for special education.

The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) became law in 1975. This law required free and appropriate public education (FAPE) that was suited to meet a student’s individual needs. If we look at this era as a whole, it’s a lot to take in. Several monumental legislative actions were taken to ensure that all students were granted an opportunity to receive an adequate education. We often times look at these decades and think only of the racial implications. We do it a great injustice if we do not take into account the other areas that were significantly impacted.

Due to the outspoken nature of critics of a broken education system, we now have a system in place that takes into consideration the needs of all students. Rev. Theodore Hesburgh, president of Notre Dame University and a member of the Civil Rights Commission, said it best in the Commission’s 1961 annual report: “Americans might well wonder how we can legitimately combat communism when we practice so widely it’s central folly: utter disregard for the God-given spiritual rights, freedom and dignity of every human person. ” 2

Selection and Recruitment summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

This paper will analyze the theoretical principles behind the relevant screening and selection method and then apply the theories to the Jandal Air Call Centre. The first section of this paper defines and describes the key concepts of validity, predictive validity, utility and reliability and then investigating the nature of call centre work and identifying the key competencies required in the Jandal Air Call Centre. The second section will critically evaluates the selection methods such as application blanks, biographical data, resumes and cover letters, reference checks and initial interviews.

The third section will analyze and evaluate the selection methods of personality tests including service orientation inventories, cognitive testing, work samples, integrity tests, structure interviews and assessment centre’s. This paper concludes with a final screening and selection plan for the Jandal Air Call Centre and considers its implementation. Organization’s major challenge in the rapidly changing work environment is designing and managing successful staffing processes. (Heneman & Judge, 2006).

Organizations use external or internal recruitment methods to get the best possible candidate in order to achieve their goals and objectives. Legge (1995), argues that the integration and internal consistency of human resource systems is very important for organizational success. Thus he says that the selection and recruitment processes are the foremost part of finding and identifying potential candidates. Success in securing appropriate and skilled employees sets upper limits on potential organizational performance, however good the management and development of that workforce be (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006).

Heneman and Judge (2006), suggest that although costs need to be considered in evaluating assessment methods, more consideration should be given to the fact that valid selection measures pay off and will return many times their cost. Firms that are less selective or hire lower-skilled employees are likely to experience significant effects on productivity, while hiring a mismatched employee can result in poor performance and higher turnover rates (Batt, 2002).

The importance of careful selection is punctuated in the case of front-line service roles, as these employees are situated at the organizational-customer interface, representing the organization to customers (Ashforth & Humphery, 1993). However, according to Hays Recruitment (2009), due to the current economic climate, pressure to maximize sales and revenue has created demand for experienced telesales consultants, while the need to maintain customer bases has created demand for capable customer service representatives.

Selectors need to be aware of how well particular methods predict future performance which is the validity and of the different methods cost, relative to the increased accuracy they bring which the utility (Wolf & Jenkins, 2006). In staffing, there is a concern with the validity of predictors both in terms of accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction (Heneman and Judge, 2006). It is important to use predictors that are an accurate representation of the knowledge, skills and other abilities (KSAOs) to be measured.

In order to assess the various screening and selection methods we must first understand the key concepts of validity, reliability and utility. According to Heneman and Judge (2006), validity refers to the accuracy of measurement and accuracy of prediction, as reflected by the scores obtained from a measure. That is the strength of the relationship between a predictor and job performance; the degree to which we are measuring what we think we are measuring.

Models of the Criminal Justice System english essay help: english essay help

The crime control model and the due process model of the criminal justice system in use today seem only to have one thing in common. That is that each model obviously wishes to control crime. Each model seems to be like day and night as far as how that goal is met. The differences in these models are outstanding. Every step along the road to controlling crime is quite the opposite of each other. The major difference is how the criminal and criminal act is dealt with. The crime control model wishes to get the matter dealt with as quickly as possible whether or not all the proper steps to proving guilt have taken place.

The due process model wishes to take the time to have all rights and responsibilities accounted for. In addition, the crime control model allows for the brunt of the responsibilities to be carried out by law enforcement, while the due process model expects that evidence be handled correctly and provided in a trial where the judge and jury have the authority. The moral value of each process is quite different as well. The basic principles surrounding penalty for a criminal are set at opposite ends of a spectrum between the models.

The crime control model has no time to believe a criminal can change and suggests that the penalties should be severe, to include use of capital punishment. The due process model hopes to see the criminal rehabilitated and put back into society and disagrees with death as a suitable punishment. The crime control model holds the individual completely responsible for their actions no matter what the case may be. The due process model allows for human error basing crime on other standards such as age, demographics, or social standing.

I do not feel that either model could survive on its own. I absolutely believe that it has to be an even mix of the two. Both models are to extreme and separate. An individual, criminal or not should have the right to a trial with proper evidence one-way or the other. I do personally agree with the use of capital punishment but it should only be used in extreme cases. I also believe that humans do make mistakes and some are perfectly capable of realizing that mistake and should be given the opportunity to go through some sort of rehabilitation process.

As far as who should have the control in deciding the innocence or guilt and punishment when needed, it should be a group effort. Law enforcement should have the duty of obtaining evidence in a manner that does not infringe upon anyone’s rights and that evidence should be made available during a fair trial where a judge and jury decides the outcome. While both sides of each model have good reasoning and effectiveness, I cannot agree with one all the way.

Inside Criminal Law essay help services: essay help services

Running head: INSIDE CRIMINAL LAW Inside Criminal Law Robert Godin Axia University of Phoenix Inside Criminal Law The first main function of criminal law is protect and punish. It is also known as the legal function. The main function of this legal function is to uphold social order by protecting the citizens from criminal harm. There are two types of criminal harm. The first is harm caused to individual people both to themselves and their property. These crimes can be from murder, assault, theft or even arson.

The second harm can be cause to everyone by unsafe foods, contaminated city drinking water, poorly maintained sewage and unsafe buildings. The second main function of criminal law is maintain and teach also know as the social function of the law. This function of criminal law provides laws that make penalties for crimes that are wrong morally but do not cause any type of harm to anyone with the exception to maybe a persons family members. Some people believe that criminal laws do not just say what is expected of the people but also criminal laws teach people also. Laws change over time to fit how society looks upon things.

Take sodomy for example; Sodomy is a illegal and a criminal law but we see more and more now, married couples committing this act. Also look at the “porn” industry, they make a lot of movies and take many pictures of two people committing sodomy but it is now accepted by many in our society. There are four written sources of criminal law. One of the sources is the U. S. Constitution. The others include statutory law, administrative law, and case law. The Constitutional law is based on the U. S Constitution and the constitutions of each state. A constitutional law is the supreme law and all other laws are based off of the constitutional law.

If a law is considered unconstitutional, it will not be enforced and will be erased. Statutes are passed by legislative bodies at any level of government. Federal statutes are laws that are passed by Congress and become federal laws. State statutes are laws that are passed by the state legislature and those that are passed become state laws. There are also laws that are passed by both cities and counties which are called ordinances. An example of a city ordinance is no person shall ride a skate board on the sidewalk in the downtown area of the city.

A administrative law is a law that is passed by a federal, state, or local government agency which is created to perform a particular job. Some examples of these agencies are Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). OSHA watches over the safety and health of all the workers in the U. S. If a company is not giving the proper amount of breaks or is not trying to provide a safe working environment for its employees, OSHA steps in and penalizes the company for the wrong doing.

The EPA is in charge of protecting our environment. If a company is disposing chemicals incorrectly the EPA is in charge of penalizing the company for the specific violation. The FDA controls the foods and drugs that are created in the U. S. All foods and drugs in the U. S. must go through the FDA for approval first before they are shipped out of factories. If the FDA finds something wrong an item, they are responsible to make sure that item does not get distributed to people in the U. S. A justification defense can be Duress.

Duress occurs when a person is threatened by another person to commit a crime which the person would not normally commit. In order to be able to use duress as a defense, there are certain requirements that must be met. The first requirement is the threat must be of either serious bodily harm or of death. The second is the threat to the person must be more severe than the crime that is going to be committed by the person. Next, the threat must me instant and unavoidable. Finally the person being threatened must have committed the crime because they were forced against their will to commit it.

An excuse defense can be voluntary intoxication. A person can say they were intoxicated by either drugs or alcohol when they committed the crime and were not in the right frame of mind when it occurred. The down fall of this is the person that was intoxicated at the time of the crime voluntarily became intoxicated by consuming too much alcohol or taking illegal drugs. If this person would not have consumed alcohol or took illegal drugs, the crime would not have committed. The Bill of Rights has provided the foundation for common safeguards of the accused in the U. S. ince it was established. The safeguards that were given to the people are of the following. 1. The Fourth Amendment protects people from unreasonable searches and seizures. 2. The Fourth Amendment requires that no warrants for a search or an arrest can be issued without probable cause. 3. The Fifth Amendment requires that no one can be deprived of life, liberty, or property without the “due process” of law. 4. The Fifth Amendment prohibits double jeopardy from occurring. 5. The Fifth Amendment guarantees that no one can be required self incriminate himself or herself. . The Sixth Amendment guarantees a person a speedy trial, a trial by jury, a public trial, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a lawyer at different periods of criminal trials. 7. The Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive bails and fines and cruel and unusual punishments. At first the Bill of Rights offered people protection only against the federal government. Since then, the common safeguards for the Bill of Rights have been put in effect by state governments as well as more protection which was granted by the passing of the fourteenth amendment.

Both the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments say that no one should be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law. This says that the government can not take away these items without having justifiable reason to do so. The decision can not be based on just an individuals judgment when making that decision. (Inside Criminal Law) Reference (2006). Inside Criminal Law. In Criminal Justice in Action: The Core (pp. 76-91). : Thomson Learning, Inc.

Economic Recession in India essay help cheap: essay help cheap

As it was started in US and now it’s touching the boundary of India also. Recession is a phase in which rupee depreciate, cash crunches, money market slowdown, inflation comes. All in all it’s become difficult to bring money from the pocket of an individual. As we know price of the steel, iron goes up, we would like to postpone our purchasing but if we won’t spend, how producer could makes his bread. If the producer starts reducing the price of the commodity with such belief that customer buy the product in all case.

This will bring only when he starts cutting its cost of production. Cost cutting means reduction in variable cost. As price of steel, iron, equipments, machinery, are touching sky, only way to reduce the cost is the reduction in employees. Hence people fear of their job security. In fear of the job security, people are generally shifting their purchasing. All of them either producer, investor, customer, employee posing each other to create recession Negative Aspect of Recession on Indian Economy As recession have various negative effects on Indian economy.

The capital market was facing the downfall, liquidity is dropping down, an individual don’t have money to spend, producers are increasing their price, but to cope with market they are creating deployment. Positive effect of recession on Indian economy The recession in US led to decrease in demand of products, reduces the price of crude oil. Foreign investors who were not able to find a good return, facing Indian like country, so foreign currency is coming. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES Government step: Government of India can took various steps to bear the pressure of recession.

The RBI by reducing the cash reserve ratio can float the money in market, so the liquidity crisis can be faced. And also it can remove burden of VAT on the business class. The government on Jan 5 released Rs. 800 crore to be paid to exporters as duty drawback. If government under its some scheme allows people to convert their black money into white money through investment will also help in boosting liquidity solution. Survival strategies for an Individual An individual when faces recession time, finds him unable to do anything. But an individual has a great power to reduce the effect of inflation.

Firstly an individual pay off its all debts, if any. Secondly he has planned his whole budget on monthly basis, on what product he has spent now, and things of which purchasing can be postponed. Survival strategies for investors The recession affects the stock market badly. The slowdown in capital market, tensed the investor. The investors now plugging back their money due to fear of recession. An investor after seeing the situation of US, obviously will behave in such manner. In this phase investor has to follow the policy of ‘wait and watch’. For compensating the risk he can diversify his portfolio.

Survival strategies for an employee Unemployment is the worst situation emerges due to recession. This has created fear in the mind of employee either the company will retain him or he has to switch to another one. But there is advice to employee this is not a right time to change the job. Stick to your job and try to find your actual worth in the company. Survival strategies for an employer/Business The businessman is finding impossible for them to stand in recession. The export industry, the IT industry, agriculture sector, banking services, are finding hard to earn bread.

So an employer has to change their policy. Firstly retain your existing customer then go for potential one. Prepare your expenditure chart daily. Instead of retrenchment, change the salary package. Motivate your employees for doing hard work. Convince them for long working hour. To reduce the risk, segment your market. Daily calculate the inflow and outflow of cash from the organization. Keep in touch the changes government made in economic policy.

Liquidity Ratio and Profitability Ratio Report free essay help online: free essay help online

Report Introduction: Any successful business the owners is always calculate the performance of the company, comparing it with the company’s historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of your company’s effectiveness, however, I will calculate the statement of financial performance and statement of financial position, so I need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, profits, and total assets.

I must be able to read between the lines of the financial statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible. This very big data overload could seem astounding. Luckily, many well-tested ratios out there make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify of the desert hotel company’s strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking. As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques are not definitive.

Numerous off the balance sheet and income statement factors can play a role in the success or failure of a company. This discussion contains descriptions and examples of the eight major types of ratios used in financial analysis: Profitability, Liquidity, short-term liquidity and Long-Term Analysis Ratios are highly important profit tools in financial analysis that help financial analysts implement plans that improve profitability, liquidity, financial stability and management efficiency for the business.

Stusy of Organisation Climate of Tata Steel buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Organizational climate is shared perception of the way things are around the organization. It is individual perception and cognitive representation of the work environment both. Organizational climate is comprised of mixture of norms, values, expectations, policies and procedures that influence work motivation, commitment and ultimately, individual and work unit performance. Positive climate encourages, while negative climates inhibits discretionary effort. ‘Organizational climate’ refers to the quality of working environment.

Every organization is different and has a unique feeling and character beyond its structural characteristics. Thus every organization deals with its member in a distinct way through its policies on allocations of resources, communication pattern, reward and penalty, leadership and decision making style, etc. The organizational policy and conviction with regard to all these and a cluster of other related activities influence the feelings, attitudes and behavior of its members and results in the creation of the unique organizational climate.

Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on individual motivation and job satisfaction. It does this by carrying certain kinds of expectancies about what consequences will follow from different actions. Individuals in the organization have certain expectations and fulfillment of these expectations depend upon their perception as to how the organizational climate suits to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus organizational climate provides a type of work environment in which individuals feels satisfied or dissatisfied.

Since satisfaction of individual goes a long way in determining his efficiency, organizational climate can be said to be directly related with his performance in the organization. Organizational climate studies data relating to individual perception of organizational properties in identifying organizational climate. Denison (1996) argues that developing a universal set of dimensions was often the central issue of the climate researchers so that comparative studies could be made possible in different organizational settings.

He compared this approach to that of the culture research that used a post-modem perspective which examined the qualitative aspects of individual social contexts where each culture that was seen as unique and was not expected to have general qualities which had become central to the climate research. Jones and James (19790 argued that one of the assumptions of the climate literature is that a relatively limited number of dimensions could characterize a wide cross-section of social settings. Jones and James labeled their factors as follows: Conflict and ambiguity’, which ‘reflected perceived conflict in organizational goals and objectives, combined with ambiguity of organizational structure and roles, a lack of interdepartmental cooperation, and poor communication from management. Also included were poor planning, inefficient job design, a lack of awareness of employee needs and problems, and a lack of fairness and objectivity in the rewards process. ’ ‘Job challenge, importance and variety’, which ‘reflected a job perceived as challenging, which involve a variety of duties, including dealing with other people.

The job was seen as providing autonomy and feedback, and demanding high standards of quality and performance. ’ ‘Leader facilitation and support’, which ‘reflected perceived leader behaviors such as the extent to which the leader was seen as helping to accomplish work goals by means of scheduling activities, planning, etc. , as well as the extent to which he was perceived as facilitating interpersonal relationships and providing personal support. ’ ‘Workgroup cooperation, friendliness, and warmth’, which ‘generally described relationships among group members and their pride in the workgroup. ‘Professional and organizational esprit’, which ‘reflected perceived external image and desirable growth potential offered by the job. Also included were perceptions of an open atmosphere to express one’s feelings and thoughts, confidence in the leader, and consistently applied organizational policies, combined with non-conflicting roles expectations and reduced job pressure. ’ ‘Job standards’, which ‘reflected the degree to which the job was seen as having rigid standards of quality and accuracy, combined with inadequate time, manpower, training and resources to complete the task. 2.

Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity All things in our society are connected in some way, for example, how humans relate to each other. Complex ideas and analysis are not without their own set of unique connections. The intricate theories of economics are a prime example of this connection. To gain an accurate understanding of how supply and demand are connected, and its role within the market, one must analyze the functions of each as separate entities, and how they relate to economics as a whole.

To begin analysis, one must examine what causes change between supply and demand. Once this has been achieved, investigating how changes in price and quantity influence market equilibrium, and how the necessity of a good and the availability of substitutions impact price elasticity will need to be conducted. The final step will be to compare and contrast market systems and the role of an economist within these systems. In order to discover what causes change in supply and demand, people need to understand the definition, different forms, components, and principles.

Supply is defined as the amount of product a producer is willing to provide or sell, while demand is the amount of product a buyer is willing to receive or buy. There are two forms of supply: individual and market. Individual supply is the amount of product offered at different prices at a given time by a seller. Market supply is the amount of the product in the marketplace. The components of supply are the price of the product, the price of input goods, the state of technology, taxes and subsidies, and expectations about the future market price.

An example of a cause that would change supply is the change in the cost of supplies and resources: if the cost goes up, producers will decrease their supply. The law of supply is the amount of the products offered by the sellers, directly related to prices of all things being equal (ceteris paribus). There are two forms of demand similar to supply: individual and market. Individual demand is the quantity of the product or service that one plans to buy at different prices at a given time. Market demand is the sum of people’s demand in the marketplace.

Just like supply, demand has its own determinants such as the price of the goods, the price of substitute goods, the price of complementary goods, tastes and preferences, a consumer’s income, and expectations about the future. An example of a cause that would affect demand is the change from a higher or lower income. This would cause an increase or decrease in demand. The law of demand is the quantity inversely related to the price, ceteris paribus. Oftentimes in supply and demand, pricing affects every aspect that goes along with it; if pricing stays stable, consumers will be able to purchase equal amounts of products.

A family’s income creates a demand for the amount of products that are used on a weekly basis. When price increases, consumers tend to buy less of a particular good creating a demand curve. Depending on the consumer who notices pricing starting to rise, they will purchase extra goods to help them save money until the price lowers. This frequently affects the way things are sold in our local markets. If a change in demand exists, people will use substitute items because of cost. The use of a substitute item will shift the demand curve and will create a new demand curve with the substitute item taken into account.

Additionally, prices change due to market value which impacts the consumer. Availability of certain goods helps keep prices low which influences market equilibrium because consumers will be able to purchase more goods. When a shortage of goods exists, this also affects the markets equilibrium because as prices go up, purchasing becomes less and the consumer only gets a portion of what they would normally pay for that good at the same price. The necessity of a good for a consumer can be determined by the following variables: price, substitution cost, complimentary goods, income, taste/preferences, and expectations.

Elasticity of demand can be summarized the measure of how responsive consumers are to a change in price. If the price of the good goes up, the consumer will buy less of the good, if the price of the desired good decreases, the consumer will purchase more of that good. This concept applies to all the variables listed above. A change in price in either direction is going to affect the consumer’s decision to acquire the good. A good way to look at all the variables is isolating each variable to determine the effect of each with respect to the elasticity price.

The key to elasticity is that it is a unit-less measure. The exact number of units does not matter; the ratio of the percentage changes in quantity divided by the percentage change in price. Additionally, time and budget percentages are variables of elasticity price. The longer a consumer has to look for an option to buy the good will determine the effect of the result to elasticity price. A product that requires a large percentage of the consumer’s budget will make the good elastic.

The above variables are examples of how necessity of a good can affect the price elasticity of a product. A competitive market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service which the individual buyer or seller has no impact on the price of the traded good or service. In the market there are two main systems: demand curve and supply curve. The demand curve shows the relationship between the prices of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to purchase in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant.

The supply curve shows the relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity of the good that producers are willing and able to supply to the market in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant. The economist uses models to determine the competitive equilibrium and to define the comparative statics in a market. The economist, in these systems, uses the data to allocate resources in the most efficient way while reducing waste. The supply of goods and services and demand for goods and services are the two forces that make the market economies work.

There are similarities between these two forces — they both show the relationship between the price of the good and the quantity of that good. The future expectation of the market affects both curves. Supply and demand connect when their quantity and their price meet. A competitive equilibrium exists if the quantity demanded by the consumers meets the quantity supplied by the sellers, The competitive equilibrium point is determined by the demand and the supply forces, it is the point from which the market has no incentive to move.

The demand curve is based on the price of the good, the price of complimentary goods, the price of substitute goods, the consumer’s income, the consumer’s taste and preferences, and the future expectations; it is derived from the consumer’s behavior. The supply curve is based on the price of the good, the price of the ingredients to make the good, the technology that is used to make the good, the taxes and subsidies imposed on the good, and the future expectation; it is derived from the seller’s behavior. The economist collects information, analyzes it, and devises theories in an attempt to learn how the world works.

These theories rely heavily on the demand and the supply in a given market. These particular systems determine the competitive equilibrium and define the comparative statics in a market. The competitive equilibrium assist in reducing chaos in the market and in better allocating resources. In conclusion, identifying the concepts behind supply and demand will help one understand its role in economics. Additionally, this knowledge will assist in shaping the habits and decisions consumers are faced with on a daily basis. Having examined the factors listed above, one will have a more astute understanding of the connectedness of supply and demand.

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