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The overall purpose of the research is to assess the gaps between expectations and experiences in order to inform a new system. The literature review explains the background to the development of performance and its measurement in the public sector. It includes a detailed analysis of thinking on performance appraisal. The literature review concludes that performance appraisal can greatly benefit organisations, but appears to not be delivering in many cases. A conceptual model is developed to frame the empirical research. The research takes the form of a case study, and the findings are collated through qualitative interviews.

A focus group was conducted, which framed the issues of concern, and these were explored in much more detail through semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that there was a high level of understanding from staff of the need for performance appraisal. The largest gap between expectations and experiences lay in the current system, with respondents particularly concerned about the lack of training and over-simplistic documentation. Non-measurement of competencies was also a concern. Respondents were generally positive about recent experiences of appraisal.

The findings suggest that motivated managers have made the system work for them, despite concerns about process, and respondents believe fairness is generally achieved. More attention is required to appraise team effort. There was little appetite for a system that links appraisal to financial reward. The conclusions of the research have informed the main recommendation, to develop a new system that is much more comprehensive, and incorporates training and guidelines. That new system should be developed through engagement with staff. 3 Declaration

This first chapter provides an overview of the whole dissertation. It will give background to the research, explain exactly what the issue is that requires research, justify the project, and give an overview of the methodology that will be used. 1. 1 Background to the research Passenger Focus is the statutory watchdog for rail passengers in the UK. It acts as a passenger advocacy service, pushing for service improvements, by engaging with passengers to understand their needs, and then representing their views to the rail industry and relevant public agencies.

The organisation was formed in January 2006, resulting from the Railways Act 2005. It took over from the previous Rail Passengers Council and Committees (RPC) federal network that was considered ineffective by stakeholders. In particular, a House of Commons Transport Select Committee Report (2004) criticised the RPC, suggesting that whilst rail passengers need a strong consumer voice, the profile of the RPC is too low. Following this, the Government published its white paper The Future of Rail (H. M. Government 2004).

That paper was critical of the RPC, stating that the current federal structure inhibits effectiveness, the profile of the organisation was low, and that involvement with the industry and passengers could be better focussed. The proposals, which have now been implemented, created a new national body, and the regional autonomous committees were abolished. A new three year corporate plan has been adopted and the emphasis of the organisation has moved away from dealing with local parochial issues towards a more strategic operation that ensures the views of passengers are captured and acted upon.

Anecdotal views of committee members and staff are no longer used. The views of users are now captured through major research programmes, so the organisation can speak to stakeholders in the rail industry with authority. Output targets for the new organisation include measurement of the numbers of passengers engaged with, and outcomes are measured in terms of service improvements introduced on the basis of passenger views. 10 This is a considerable departure from the previous model.

The transformation was considerable, and the end result is consistent with the views expressed by Nutt and Backhoff (1997 p235) ; A transformation creates a sustainable metamorphosis from a vision that produces radical changes in an organisations products/services, consumers/clients, market channel, skills, sources of margin, competitive advantage, and persona, integrating these changes with core competencies. The table below demonstrates the scale of change. Table 1. 1 Summary of scale of change from RPC to Passenger Focus No. of staff

RPC 78 No. of non executive committee members 142 Budget p. a. No. of offices Business planning ?6m 9 Passenger Focus 46 16 ?4. 8 2 No corporate plan. Each region developed its own local informal business plan Corporate plan consulted on, approved by National Audit Office, and adopted. Annual business plan adopted. New corporate measures are in place, and the organisation is considered “fit for purpose” by the sponsor body, the Department for Transport. From a staff perspective, it would appear the transformation has been successful.

The figure below shows the 2007 overall measurement of staff satisfaction with the organisation. It can be considered very positive, and is 13% higher than the national government benchmark. 11 Figure 1. 1 Satisfaction levels – Extract from Passenger Focus Employee Opinion Survey 2007 Q80. Considering everything, I am satisfied to be working for Passenger Focus. 69% (Difference from national benchmark +13%) Key Positive neutral negative 7% 14% Source: Passenger Focus Employee Opinion Survey 2007

However, one work stream associated with the transformation remains outstanding, that is to design and implement a revised performance appraisal system. Previous work by the author (Mooney 2005) identified weaknesses in the appraisal element of the existing appraisal system. That study also highlighted research by Brumbach (2003) who suggested that the appraisal system can be perceived as a dishonest annual ritual. The literature review of this dissertation will examine this issue much more closely, and test these findings against empirical research.

The conclusions will lead to recommendations that the organisation can incorporate into a new system that will be introduced as soon as possible. 1. 2 Research Question The overall research problem concerns the credibility and effectiveness of performance appraisal systems. The literature review will outline many criticisms about the design and application of such systems. It was clear from conducting the literature review that much had been written about experiences of performance appraisal, but little could be found about expectations of the system.

The aim, therefore, of this dissertation is to assess the gaps between expectations and experiences, from the staff perspective, of performance appraisal, in order to inform an improved system. Five objectives have been identified, and by tackling these inter-related objectives, through the linking of previous research, a detailed literature review, and new empirical research, solutions to the problem should be identified. The objectives of this research are; i. To analyse and critically review literature on performance, and in particular how it is appraised 12 i. To conduct a critical review of the features of the current Passenger Focus appraisal system. iii. iv. v. To understand what staff expect from the system To capture experiences of the appraisal process To use the gap between expectations and experiences to provide empirical evidence that will inform an improved system. 1. 3 Justification for the research There are two key reasons for undertaking this research. One is to deal with a current “live” performance management issue, and the other is to try to fill a gap in academic research.

Consumer representation of rail passengers has recently undergone considerable change. Out of the embers of the previously inefficient federal network of Rail Passenger Council Committees has been born Passenger Focus. The new body was launched in January 2006, with a new corporate plan, three year business plan, and, critically, new ways of working. The previous ways of helping passengers, through tackling anecdotal issues was cast aside. The new organisation would put rail users at the heart of industry decisions. It would do that through undertaking significant market research. e actually asking passengers what mattered to them. With the launch of the new organisation came a new streamlined national board, and a small Executive Management Team (EMT). The author, as a member of the inaugural EMT was charged with ensuring effective staff performance is delivered from the outset. A new, but interim, Performance Appraisal system was put in place, but it was recognised that it would not be fit for purpose as the organisation took off. So, answering the research questions will assist in the development of a new effective performance appraisal system – a “live” management problem.

If employees are not happy with the existing appraisal system, they would be unwilling to take a full part in it, which in turn would lead to lower productivity (Wright and Cheung 2005). Secondly, an initial examination of relevant literature found gaps in the research. Much research has been undertaken on performance appraisal, not much of that complimentary of theory and practice. Roberts and Pregitzer (2007), as an example, suggest that performance appraisal is a yearly right of passage that triggers dread and apprehension in the most experienced, battle hardened managers.

This study provides 13 new empirical research on the views of recipients of performance appraisal – an area identified as a major gap in research on the subject (Simmons 2002, Redman et al 2000). 1. 4 Methodology 1. 4. 1 The research paradigm adopted is interpretive. According to Saunders et al (2007) the interpretive paradigm is a philosophical position which is concerned with understanding the way we humans make sense of the world around us. The reasons for this approach are set out in detail in the methodology. 1. 4. 2 The research approach is inductive (or qualitative).

The approach is more concerned with human issues than pure science. The literature review does not set out a definite theory, but does establish a conceptual framework to aid the gathering and analysis of data to answer the research question. 1. 4. 3. Research strategy. The chosen research strategy is a cross-sectional case study. The empirical data will be based on qualitative interview methods. This will offer the highest chance of successful research, as it will measure human response. It can also be achieved within the timescale of the project.

In summary, the research methods will include • • Focus group with volunteers from staff forum Semi-structured interviews focusing on expectations and experience of performance appraisal • Use of secondary data from detailed (and independent) Employee Opinion Survey The research will allow comparison between groups of employees, to determine if length of service or seniority is a factor. Confidentiality will be assured to participants, and the report will be edited to protect identification of individuals before it is circulated to the organisation’s management board. 1. Outline of the chapters 1. 5. 1 Chapter 1 This chapter gives an overview of the whole project. It sets out what the research area is, breaks it down into a series of objectives for the project, and relates this 14 to the background of the organisation that is to be studied in depth. This chapter also gives an overview of why an interpretive paradigm has been selected, and sets out and justifies the research strategy. 1. 5. 2 Chapter 2 This chapter reviews literature relevant to the research objectives. It builds a theoretical foundation upon which the research is based.

It commences with an examination of what performance is, and why it is measured. The chapter then considers how performance appraisal fits into the parent discipline of performance management. A review of literature covering appraisal systems and their application follows, and this includes reference to recent appraisals at Passenger Focus. The above secondary data will then lead to the building of the conceptual model that will be developed through the research. 1. 5. 3 Chapter 3 This chapter describes the methodology that will be used to gather the primary data.

It will outline the research paradigm selected, set out the research strategy, and also justify the selection of the methodology. Ethical issues will also be addressed in this chapter. 1. 5. 4 Chapter 4 This chapter will present the findings of the research. Due to the different methods used to research the questions, some of the findings will be set out in text, and some will be presented in tables. The data will be analysed preparation for the following chapter, which sets out the conclusions. in 1. 5. 5.

Chapter 5 Chapter 5 will set out conclusions about the research objectives through linking the research findings, with the findings of chapter 2. The chapter will discuss limitations of the research and set out opportunities for additional research that will further enlighten the problem area. 1. 5. 6 Chapter 6 Based on the conclusions of chapter 5, this chapter includes recommendations for a new performance appraisal system. 15 1. 6 Summary This opening chapter has introduced the reader to the organisation Passenger Focus, and cited its recent transformation.

The chapter has revealed the need for Passenger Focus to develop a performance culture, and within that, a robust performance appraisal system. The research question and objectives have been set out, together with the methodology to be used to tackle the objectives. 16 2. Literature review 2. 1 Introduction This chapter reviews literature relevant to the research objectives. It builds a theoretical foundation upon which the research is based. It commences with an examination of what performance is, and why it is measured. The chapter then considers how performance appraisal fits into the parent discipline of performance management.

A literature review covering appraisal systems and their application follows, and this includes reference to the system in place at Passenger Focus. The above secondary data will then lead to the building of the conceptual model that will be tested through the research. 2. 2 Performance defined The Oxford English dictionary defines performance as the “accomplishment, execution, carrying out, and working out of anything ordered or undertaken”. Armstrong and Baron (2005) argue that performance is a matter not only of what people achieve, but how they achieve it.

Bates and Holton (1995) suggest that performance is a multidimensional construct, the measurement of which depends on a variety of factors. Brumbach (1988) offers the most precise definition. “Performance means both behaviours and results. Behaviours are also outcomes in their own right and can be judged apart from results”. From the definition, and interpretations above, it can be argued that performance is not just about outputs, it is also concerned with actions and behaviours demonstrated to achieve given targets.

This issue will feature strongly through the research. Much has been written on the need to manage performance. The Audit Commission acknowledged this, suggesting in 1995 that performance management had become something of an industry in its own right, dominated by “industry experts” and management consultancies (Audit Commission 1995). Performance management is now considered an essential part of normal management (Rose and Lawton 1999) and is increasingly accepted as an integral part of public sector management (Wisniewski and Olafson 2004).

However, Hale and Whitman (2000) cite research by the Institute of Personnel Management (1992) that suggests no consistent definition emerged from over 17 1800 employers surveyed. Williams (2002) also indicates that performance management is difficult to define. This suggests a lack of understanding of performance measure issues from those who are subject to the processes, and this will be explored later. During research for this project, over 30 definitions of performance management were uncovered.

Most adopted a common strand along the lines of the definition provided by Armstrong (2000) who writes “performance management is a strategic and integrated process that delivers sustained success to organisations by improving the performance of people who work in them, and by developing the capabilities of individuals and teams”. The author, as a practitioner of Performance Management, offers the following, adapted from by Walters (1995) Performance Management is about the arrangements organisations make to get the right things done successfully.

The essence of Performance Management is the organisation of work to achieve optimum results and this involves attention to both process and people. Further research by Armstrong (2000) suggests that when it is used well, it will contribute to organisation success, and as such, is a vital management function. Radnor and McGuire (2004) also argued this point, but their research revealed, through a case study at Bradford Health Authority, that effective performance management in the public sector could be considered to be closer to fiction than fact.

Of all the literature reviewed on the wider subject of performance management, Radnor and McGuire (2004) are amongst the minority in conducting in-depth attitudinal surveys that aid their findings. 2. 3 Performance Management features McMaster (1994) and Williams (2002) amongst others, suggest that the key sequences of performance management are as follows; i. ii. iii. iv. Identification of strategic objectives Setting of departmental/team goals Activities identified/performance plan developed Outputs agreed 18 v. vi. vii. Monitor/review of performance through appraisal Determine development needs Allocate reward

For individuals, this entails they should be able to answer the following questions – What is expected of me? How am I doing? What shall I do next? What help will I need ? (Macauley and Cook 1994) Very little of the literature researched relates this to team performance. Notable exceptions are Armstrong and Baron (1998) who lament the lack of attention paid to team performance, and Brumbach (2003) who argues strongly for the importance of team management, and suggests the above four questions could be adapted to us/we. 2. 4 Performance Management in the public sector So when and why did Performance Management emerge into the public sector?

Performance management is an increasingly common phenomenon in the public sector (Adcroft and Willis 2005). All public sector organisations will be required to scrutinise the performance of the organisation and its staff. Examination of the literature review traces back first steps into performance management by the public sector to the conservative government of the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. It was under those Governments that organisational and managerial reforms were introduced, and public sector performance management became firmly established (Boland and Fowler 2000).

The public sector was becoming much more market orientated, and successive conservative governments tried to improve accountability by developing standards and targets (Harrison and Goulding 1997). These increased standards led to the development of the Citizen’s Charter in 1991, and this was the trigger for the launch of many charters in the public sector. The Citizens Charter (1991) developed the idea that there should be a link between an individual’s performance and their pay. It did not, however, examine whether money does motivate people.

In 1993, the Local Government Management Board (LGMB) published the first guidance to performance management aimed specifically at the public sector (LGMB 1993). Its clear message was that performance management links the strategy and service objectives of the organisation to jobs and people. It again linked the option of relating performance management to reward strategies. The guidance gave a clear 19 emphasis on the fact that organisational performance is a product of what people achieve and do (Rogers 1999). The Audit Commission published papers in the midnineties to strengthen the case for performance management in the public sector.

Three key elements emerged relevant to the individual perspective of performance management; i. There should be qualitative and quantitative standards for judging individual and organisation performance ii. iii. Organisation and individual feedback on performance should be provided Training and development needs should be identified to improve individual performance. (Audit Commission 1995) This guidance indicated that performance appraisal was just as much about development (forward looking) as review of performance ( backward looking).

Rose and Lawton (1999) noted how stressful it was at that time for managers to have to introduce new management practises, whilst continuing to deliver for customers, with little or no additional resources to facilitate implementation. They further argue that this was compounded by the fact that almost all systems were top down imposed, with little participation in design by participants. This key issue will be explored further. There were further drives to improve the effectiveness of public services as New Labour came to power in 1997 (Radnor and Maguire 2004).

A report by Gershon in 2004 provided a further catalyst for the not-for-profit sector to adopt improved service delivery (Manville 2007). This report was the catalyst for the Rail Passengers Council (predecessor to Passenger Focus) to significantly improve its corporate and business planning and link to individual staff objectives. Subsequent literature, notably Wisniewski and Olafsson (2004) and Radnor and Macguire (2004) recognise the importance of performance measurement and management in the public sector. Most of those public sector employees are labour intensive, and so they need to capitalise on the abilities and performance of staff.

Following this, the goal of performance management is to achieve human capital advantage, recognising that the individual staff member is the most important source of capital advantage (Armstrong & Baron 2005). 2. 5 The Passenger Focus Performance Management Cycle The current Passenger Focus model of performance management is set out below. It is very much individual based and allows for no measurement of team performance. 20 Armstrong and Baron (1998) and Brumback (203) lament the lack of attention paid to the management of team performance and this will be explored further in this research.

The sequence is as follows and is similar to the normal model as outlined above; i. ii. iii. iv. v. Identify strategic objectives Develop team plans Develop individual targets and outputs Performance appraisal Personal Development Plans/Rewards The theory appears reasonable, but application will be tested in detail throughout this research. The Passenger Focus model is generally “owned” by its HR Department and no formal training is given, apart from a briefing note circulated to managers. Williams (2002) recommends training being incorporated into the cycle to ensure consistency of application. . 6 Performance appraisal Performance Appraisal is increasingly considered one of the most important human resource practices (Boswell and Boudreau 2002). The following section will show how appraisal, although only one part of the wider system described above, is central to the effectiveness of Performance Management ( Piggot-Irvine 2003). The Oxford English Dictionary defines appraise as “estimate the value or quality of”. Linking this to performance, Bird (2003) suggest performance appraisal is the assessment of what we produce and how.

A workshop facilitated by the author prior to the commencement of this research, defined performance appraisal as measurement of what we do and how. Previous research by the author into the effectiveness of performance management within the predecessor to Passenger Focus (Rail Passengers Council) revealed that a reasonable system was in place but did not appear to be delivering. Corporately, the organisation was seen to be ineffective, hence the transformation, yet 98% of all staff were rated as good or excellent.

This adds weight to the view of Brumbach (2003) who suggests that the appraisal system can be seen as a dishonest annual ritual. There is much research which suggests that appraisal is not practiced well, or welcomed in some cases. Roberts and Pregitzer (2007) suggest that performance appraisal is a yearly right of passage that triggers dread and apprehension in the most experienced, battle hardened managers. More in depth research by DeNisi (1996) suggests that due to the subjective nature of appraisals, it is not surprising there has been much written on 21 ias, inaccuracy and inherent unfairness of most systems. St-Onge, Morin, Bellehumeur and Dupuis (2009) draw together a number of surveys showing worldwide dissatisfaction with appraisal, in particular citing research of 50,000 respondents that reveals only 13% of employees and 6% of Executives consider their firm’s appraisal process useful. Brown (2001) cites major problems in Towers Perrin Performance Appraisal practices. He cites lack of training for managers particularly important. Hartle (1997) cites study by the Local Government Management Board in 1990, concerning appraisal.

Key findings were; • • • • • Managers do not take the process seriously Inadequate effort from all involved Bad communications and training hinder effectiveness The systems are too individualistic, remote and divisive, and Ratings can be inconsistent and unfair Wilson and Western (2001) take this further, suggesting current appraisal procedures excite most staff to a level comparable to a trip to the dentist. The above critique appears harsh, and the research to follow will test these assumptions within Passenger Focus.

Despite the criticism and distrust, performance appraisal seems embedded into the public and private sector. It is here to stay. Managers and employees continue to accept performance appraisal systems whilst accepting they are fraught with inaccuracies ( St-Onge, Morin, Bellehumeur & Dupuis 2009). The following section looks at the components of performance appraisal. 2. 6. 1 The purpose of performance appraisal A starting point for a detailed literature review on performance appraisal should be what are the aims? Thinking on the benefits of appraisal systems has moved on.

Early literature, best demonstrated by Stewart and Stewart (1987), cites the benefits of appraisal systems, but these were mainly from the organisation perspective. Boice and Kleiner (1997) suggest the overall purpose of performance appraisal is to let an employee know how his or her performance compares with the manager’s expectations. Again, this is a one dimensional view. Fletcher (2006) takes a more balanced view, suggesting that for performance appraisal to be constructive and useful, there needs to be something in it for appraiser and appraisee.

Youngcourt, Leiva and Jones (2007) suggest that the common purpose of performance appraisal tends to be aimed at the measurement of individuals, and consider that this focus is insufficient. 22 From the organisation perspective, successful performance management is key to achievement of corporate goals. It is argued above that performance appraisal is the central component of performance management, and so it must be that for an organisation, the purpose of performance appraisal is attainment of corporate goals.

Caruth and Humphreys (2008) add to this viewpoint by suggesting it is a business imperative that the performance appraisal system includes characteristics to meet the organisational needs and all of its stakeholders (including management and staff). Bach (2000) suggests that one of the underlying purposes of performance appraisal schemes is to elicit corporate compliance. This may not be a major issue for Passenger Focus, as demonstrated by the table below. This is an extract from the Passenger Focus Employee Opinion Survey 2007 which examined employee engagement.

Figure 2. 1 Commitment to goals – Extract from Passenger Focus Employee Opinion Survey 2007 Q76. I feel committed to the organisations goals 83% (Difference from national benchmark +8%) Key Positive neutral negative 10% 7% Source: Passenger Focus 2007 Employee Opinion Survey However, most of the literature reviewed for this research concentrates on the purpose of Performance Appraisal from the individual perspective, particularly focussing on measurement of individual performance, identifying training and allocating rewards.

Weightman (1996) focuses on the individual when citing the purposes of performance appraisal, suggesting it can be used for many reasons, including; reward, discipline, coaching, counselling, raising morale, measuring achievement of targets and outputs, identifying development opportunities , improving upward and downward communication, reinforcing management control and selecting people for promotion or redundancy. Fletcher (1993) cites a study where 80% of respondents were dissatisfied with their appraisal scheme, in particular with multiplicity of objectives.

Randell (1994) also highlights a multiplicity of purposes including; evaluation, auditing, succession planning, training, controlling and motivation. Rees and Porter (2003) cite that a common problem is that schemes have too many objectives. They add that there can be conflict between objectives, but do not expand on this point. Based on the observations 23 of others, perhaps it is the conflict between control and development that is evident. What is consistent with all literature is that objectives of performance appraisal are a combination of backward looking/forward planning.

The above covers a large range of objectives, and begs the question if appraisal is trying to achieve too much. The research will determine whether that range of objectives is relevant from the employee perspective. Again, from the individual perspective, Simmons (2002) draws together a range of sources, arguing that a robust, performance enhancing and equitable performance appraisal system, which gains the commitment of professionals, is a key factor in achieving a good return on an organisations “intellectual capital”.

Murphy and Cleveland (1995) amongst many others, suggest a key purpose of performance appraisal is to determine pay and other financial compensation. The issue of outcomes of performance appraisal, such as pay, will be addressed later in this literature review and in the research. Role ambiguity is addressed by Pettijohn et al (2001) who suggest that performance appraisal can reduce role ambiguity. The most obvious reason for appraising an individual is to secure its improvement (Harrison & Goulding 1997) and it follows that securing performance improvement for all individuals, will enhance wider organisation performance.

Common to almost all purposes of performance appraisal is the concept of improving performance and developing people. Overall, some commentators focus on organisational goals as the key purpose, many focus on individual performance improvement. In a new organisation such as Passenger Focus, it is suggested that a scheme that meets both organisation and individual needs is critical. From the above, the following table lists the recognised purposes of performance appraisal.

Table 2. 1 Purpose of Performance Appraisal Purpose of Performance Appraisal 1. Achievement of Organisation Goals 2. Setting of individual objectives 3. Evaluation of individual performance against objectives 4. Improvement of Performance 5. Allocation of Rewards 24 This is reasonably consistent with the aims of the Passenger Focus Performance Appraisal Guidelines (appendix 1) which states; The performance review process provides a focus for continuous improvement.

The approach is designed to provide the following benefits: • • an open review of performance at regular intervals a focus for agreement about setting clear performance objectives which are linked to the corporate and business plan • • a review of development needs and the setting of development action plans a link to the annual salary review 2. 6. 2 Performance appraisal systems As with most organisations, Passenger Focus has a formal Performance Appraisal system embedded within the performance and planning cycle. There should always be a definitive written and communicated procedure for performance appraisal (Allan 1994).

Documentation for the scheme is contained within appendices 1 and 2 , and throughout this section, its robustness will be analysed. It was formulated in line with development of the Corporate Plan and Annual Plan. Developing an appraisal system that accurately reflects employee performance is a difficult task (Boice and Kleiner 1997). Caruth and Humphreys (2006) suggest that a successful performance appraisal system is one that has resulted from hard work, careful thinking, planning and integrated with the strategy and needs of the organisation. This will be examined through the empirical research.

A wide range of methods are used to conduct performance appraisals, from the simplest of ranking schemes, to complex competency and/or behavioural anchored ratings schemes (Snape, Redman & Bamber 1994). The nature of an organisations appraisal scheme is often a reflection on its resources and expertise (Redman & Wilkinson 2001). In comparison with other performance appraisal schemes, the Passenger Focus scheme can be considered simplistic. This is likely due to the immaturity of the organisation and a total of two staff in the HR function. There is a danger that highly defined chemes can be too bureaucratic, with the result that completion of paperwork, or ticking boxes, becomes the main driver (Rogers 1999). Harrison and Goulding (1997) consider it vital that employees are involved in the design of the system , for practical, operational and psychological reasons. 25 Passenger Focus has not involved staff in development of the system but has a chance to engage with staff in updating any system. 2. 6. 2. 1 Who appraises? All Passenger Focus staff, including the Chief Executive, are appraised, making it an inclusive system. This also includes all part time staff.

Bach (2000) trumpets the development in the expansion of performance appraisal to cover a larger proportion of the workforce. The Passenger Focus guidelines do not clarify who conducts appraisals, but is accepted that it the line manager. In all cases in Passenger Focus, the line manager is the appraiser (apart from the Chief Executive who is appraised by the Chairman). The rationale is that the line manager is best placed to carry out appraisals because of the amount of contact and greater experience ( Fletcher 1999). 2. 6. 2. 2 Other sources of feedback Research on the effectiveness of 360 degree appraisal is contradictory.

The predecessor of Passenger Focus, the Rail Passengers Council, experimented with 360 degree appraisal, but it is not now part of the formal system. Mabey ( 2001) concluded that the amount of empirical research on the impact of 360 degree appraisal is small, despite increasing popularity. Williams (2002) raises concerns about 360 degree feedback, citing that it brings with it ethical, logical, political and resource problems, and has the potential to do more harm than good. Research by CIPD in 2005 revealed that, of 506 organisations surveyed, only 14% were using 360 degree appraisal.

Backing up Mabey’s theory, of those using it, only 20% considered it effective. That means that only 14 organisations were using 360 degree appraisal and getting something out of it. Armstrong and Baron (1998) cite research by various organisations where widened feedback on behaviour of individuals against a list of core competencies has enhanced development plans. Kline and Sulsky (2009) suggested that it has been known for some time that performance feedback from multiple sources has been shown to lead to more reliable ratings and better performance improvements.

However, in the same research they cite Love ( 1991) stating that peer ratings are highly unreliable. 2. 6. 2. 3 Self appraisal Self appraisal is not used at Passenger Focus. Survey evidence gathered by Williams (2002) suggests that use of it is increasing slowly. There is little empirical evidence to suggest it is having any impact, and this is an area worthy of further investigation in 26 organisations where it does take place. Atwater ( 1998) identified some of the potential benefits of self appraisal, below, but fell short of evaluating their worth. i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Increases employees perception of fairness of the process Reduces potential for individual bias by providing further rating Provides a useful tool to increase communication in the process Helps clarify differences of opinion regarding performance requirements Increases commitment to development plans and new goals. Rees and Porter (2003) suggest self appraisal can have a part in structured feedback, as people can be their own harshest critic. 2. 6. 2. 4 Frequency of performance review and feedback Whilst Performance Management is a continuous process, appraisals are periodic activities (Rao 2004).

Most organisations have at least an annual review. Sahl (1990) suggests that frequent reviews are required to ensure progress is being made on developmental objectives. The Passenger Focus system requires a formal annual review with a less formal six monthly review. This is backed up by monthly informal one to one sessions between manager and staff member. The Passenger Focus Employee Opinion Survey of 2007 revealed a reasonable level of satisfaction with feedback on performance. Figure 2. 2 Manager feedback – Extract from Passenger Focus Employee Opinion Survey 2007 Q14.

My manager gives me regular feedback on my performance 63% (Difference from national benchmark +10%) Key positive neutral negative 21% 16% Source: Passenger Focus 2007 Employee Opinion Survey 2. 6. 2. 5 Training and guidelines An important element of developing an effective performance system is training for those individuals involved as raters (Boice and Kleiner 1997). Evans (1991) suggests that training should incorporate coaching and counselling, conflict resolution, setting performance standards, linking the system to pay (if applicable) and providing 27 employee feedback.

Williams (2002) also recommends training being incorporated into any system to ensure it is used consistently and effectively. Brown (2001) cites major problems in Towers Perrin Performance Appraisal practices and suggests lack of training for managers is particularly important. Pigott-Irvine (2003) cites research that suggests training for conducting appraisal should encompass all elements, such as values, purpose, objective setting, observation skills, interviewing and report writing. Rees and Porter (2003) also cite the need for training of use of the scheme to be included, covering the key skills appraisers need.

Training for employees should also be considered (Williams 2002). Farr (1993) notes the need for the requirement of training to be given to employees to receive feedback in a non-defensive manner. Bretz, Milkovich and Read (1992) also suggest that a lack of training of appraisees may cause discrepancies between expected and actual performance of the process, and associated satisfaction. Overall, training should increase the effectiveness of the Performance Appraisal system and lead to greater organisational success (Cook and Crossman 2004).

There is no formal training process for Passenger Focus appraisers or appraisees, and this is considered a major weakness. 2. 6. 2. 6 The Performance Appraisal Interview The appraisal interview should be conducted in an open and non threatening manner to help reduce anxiety or doubt appraisees may have (Harrison & Goulding 1997). Trust between appraiser and appraisee is an important factor. Performance appraisal could be seen as another form of management control (Bach 1998). This is even more important when there seems a reluctance or inability to collate objective information to inform the appraisal process (Pigott-Irvine 2003).

There is no requirement or mention within the Passenger Focus system to collate and prepare evidence of performance. Preparation is also considered important. Finding time to undertake appraisal can be challenging, particularly in a new organisation such as Passenger Focus, where the pace of work is frantic. However, where appraisal is working well, it is often because management have accorded it appropriate priority (Pigott-Irvine 2003). The Passenger Focus guidance is lacking in what could be covered in an appraisal interview. This literature review reveals a whole host of issues that could/should be covered in the interview.

Redman and Wilkinson ( 2001) cited research of the practice of Performance Appraisal at an NHS Trust hospital. The purpose of setting out this table below is to show the range of issues discussed and uncovered in the research. 28 Table 2. 2 Range of issues covered in appraisals Issue Achievement of work objectives Future work objectives Personality or behaviour Skills and competencies Training and Development Needs Career aspirations Pay or benefits Job difficulties How you might improve your performance How your supervisor might help you improve your performance Personal or domestic circumstances Source: Redman and Wilkinson 2001 2. . 2. 7 What is appraised Definitions of Performance Management earlier cite the need to align individual and organisational goals. It is only when the purposes of the organisation are agreed, and activities and products are defined and measured, can there be efficient use of resources ( Flynn and Strehl 1996). A survey by CIPD in 2005 revealed that 84% of respondents considered quantifiable measures of performance are essential to successful performance management. Armstrong and Baron (1998) describe how many organisations now use SMART criteria (specific, measurable, agreed, realistic and time related) for performance measurement.

It is not always done well. Rogers (1999) highlights that setting objectives and targets remain the core activity of performance appraisal, but in practice is poorly conducted, with little regard for ensuring that organisation and individual objectives are aligned as closely as possible. The Passenger Focus guidelines attached as appendix 1 gives passing reference to setting clear performance objectives, which are linked to the corporate and business plan, but the guidance stops there.

Of more concern is that no-one, apart from appraiser and appraisee, is reviewing the appropriateness and achievability of goals set. Setting goals which are unrealistic and not relevant may reduce a staff member’s individual 29 commitment. Clarity of role is also important, and could be examined through the process. If people do not know what is expected of them, there is a good chance that their behaviour will not conform to expectations (Youngcourt, Leiva & Jones 2007).

Simmons ( 2002) cited research on appraisal in universities which suggested that their appraisal was not particularly successful in increasing clarity of job responsibilities. The Passenger Focus system does not include for the measurement of competencies. Many organisations are moving towards inclusion of competency measurement. Competencies are important factors which contribute to high levels of individual performance and therefore organisational effectiveness (Armstrong 1999) and so there must be a strong link to the competencies staff have and their ability to achieve their set goals.

Specifications for employee competencies that are required could be usefully integrated into appraisal schemes (Rees and Porter 2003). Fletcher (1993) in an overview of appraisal methods, noted an increasing number of organisations using competency based appraisal combined with a results-oriented appraisal, which he concluded was a positive way forward. Redman and Wilkinson (2001) suggest that the appraisal of competencies has a number of benefits, most importantly, being able to direct employees towards areas where there is scope for behaviour.

The author has experienced competency measurement in a number of organisations worked for, and some of these competencies measured are set out in the table below. Table 2. 3 Examples of competencies measured Competency area Business thinking Competency Business awareness Problem solving Working with colleagues Team working Building relationships Developing self and others Inspiring people Building confidence Persuading and influencing Communicating and presenting Achieving Goals Delivering results Improving performance 2. 6. 2. Ratings systems and fairness 30 The rating system for Passenger Focus staff is simplistic. Staff are deemed to have either exceeded objectives (rating 1) met objectives (rating 2) or missed objectives (rating 3). The table below sets out the definitions. Table 2. 4 Passenger Focus Appraisal Ratings guidance Rating Description Objectives Exceeded Rating 1 Definition To score an overall ‘Objectives Exceeded’ rating it is likely that there is significant evidence of consistently high performance across all the areas of work covered by the objectives.

Sometimes this may be easy to quantify. For example if an objective was achieved much earlier than timescale at a reduced cost and with an enhanced result. It is also likely that an ‘exceeded’ rating will also mean that the individual achieved despite significant difficulties. For example, there may have been unforeseen difficulties that the individual overcame in order to maintain progress. To score an overall ‘Objectives Met’ rating it is likely that evidence of achievement covers all the work areas for which objectives were set.

This would reflect meeting all objectives. In some situations an objective may have ceased to apply owing to circumstances beyond the individual’s control. In such instances you should consider evidence of other performance achievements during the year which ought to be included in the review. The ‘Objectives Missed’ rating is likely to apply when there is evidence of under performance across the work areas for which objectives were set, provided the individual can be held personally accountable for the lack of result. Care is needed here.

For example, in the management of projects with high levels of complexity, it is necessary to identify the elements for which the individual is accountable, especially if the project has a mix of interrelated activities and involves many people. Objectives Met Rating 2 Objectives Missed Rating 3 Fairness of the system is considered important. Research by Cook and Crossman (2004) suggested that the perceived fairness of the system itself contributes to overall perception of fairness. The issue of accuracy in performance assessment is a problematic one (Atwater and Yammarino 1997).

Many studies on performance appraisal focus on the fairness/appropriateness of ratings systems. Earlier research by Henderson (1984) suggested that almost all employees are extremely wary of performance ratings. Later work by Harrison and Goulding (1997) revealed results of research into ratings within libraries. Their work suggested that subjectivity can be a problem where appraisers and appraisees are colleagues. They further suggest that managers may be uncomfortable with criticising staff they work closely with, and a 31 tendency towards centralised ratings could apply.

Giving criticism in a constructive way can be a very delicate subject (Rees & Porter 2003). Bascal (1999) argues that managers tend to avoid confrontation by scoring generously. More recent research (including by Armstrong & Mulis 1998, and Brumbach 2003) suggest that the ratings system can be perceived as a dishonest annual ritual. Employees themselves generally do not want to hear bad news, especially about themselves (Ashford 1999). 2. 6. 3 Outcomes of the system 2. 6. 3. 1 Improving Performance Rogers (1999) suggests that one of the key components of performance appraisal is solving problems – i. . improving performance. He also suggests that whilst many managers may have the skills to identify the need to improve performance, they may need much more support than is currently made available to sort them. Poor performance can arise from a host of reasons, including inadequate leadership, bad management or defective work systems (Armstrong 2000). Pigott-Irvine (2003) cited research that suggested the need to distance appraisal and disciplinary processes. This is also argued by Armstrong (2000) who suggests that capability issues should be taken outside of the appraisal process.

This appears sensible, but unrealistic to some extent. A key feature of the appraisal system is achievement of goals, and a lack of achievement must at least give managers an early warning that something is not right. 2. 6. 3. 2 Appraisal outcome and reward The current Passenger Focus performance appraisal system is not linked to pay, although previous versions have. Performance Related Pay is best described as the explicit link of financial reward to individual, group or company performance (Armstrong & Murlis 1991). There is much research on the subject of appraisal leading to pay.

Research by Simmons (2002) uncovered strong opposition from respondents in HE and FE sectors against linking appraisal to pay, citing divisive criteria and the impact on teams performance in particular. Marsden and French (1998) undertook research at the Inland Revenue on the impact of an appraisal scheme linked to performance related pay. They found that the scheme had the general effect of reducing motivation and teamwork. A new system of performance appraisal introduced at Rother Homes was considered a major success (Langridge 2004) and one key element was separation of pay and bonuses from the appraisal system. 2 Research into the link between performance appraisal and financial reward was undertaken in 1995. That piece of work concluded; There is no evidence to suggest that pay itself rewards motivation – moreover poor implementation of PRP can cause resentment and demotivate staff (Audit Commission 1995) . In drawing together research from this field, Rogers (1999) identified a long list of criteria which were critical to successfully linking appraisal to financial reward.

These included; • • • • • • Rewards are clearly lined and proportionate to effort and results Clear, fair and understood criteria are used to judge performance Clear and meaningful targets are set Employees and managers can easily monitor performance against targets The reward scheme is properly designed, implemented and maintained The scheme is designed to ensure individuals cannot receive inflated awards unrelated to their performance • Employees are involved in the development and operation of the scheme (Source; Rogers 1999)

Most of the literature review reveals weaknesses right across the practice of performance appraisal. It is suggested, then, that unless organisations invests significantly in this area, linking it to financial reward may be best avoided. There are other rewards, non financial, that are valued by employees. Williams (2002) suggests these include; • • • • • Formal commendations and awards Favourable mention in company publications Freedom concerning job duties and/or hours Increased responsibility More involvement in setting goals

Picking up this theme, Yukl (1994) suggests that research into what rewards people want should be undertaken and incorporated into the performance appraisal system. This will be explored further through the empirical research. 2. 6. 3. 3 Personal Development and Training 33 All commentators on performance appraisal agree that identifying and implementing development plans is a key outcome of the performance appraisal process. Performance is measured, and then from that appraiser and appraisee agree a plan to improve performance. Appraisal will focus on both short term issues and also long term career needs (Shelley 1999).

Research by Wilson and Western ( 2000) suggest that appraisers take the lead in determining the training and development to take place. If this is the case, it is of concern, as personal development requirements may take a poor second place to immediate on the job training. Rees and Porter (2003) suggest that care needs to be taken in establishing realistic priorities and to recognise the potential conflict between individual aspirations and organisational needs. 2. 6. 3. 4 Motivation and Job Satisfaction There is much research on how raters may distort final evaluation scores through their own motivation. Poon 2004). Some research has uncovered examples of managers deliberately distorting staff performance ratings for polit

Clostridium Tetani essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

In 1884, Arthur Nicolaier isolated the strychnine-like toxin of tetanus from free-living, anaerobic soil bacteria. The etiology of the disease was further elucidated in 1884 by Antonio Carle and Giorgio Rattone, who demonstrated the transmissibility of tetanus for the first time. They produced tetanus in rabbits by injecting their sciatic nerve with pus from a fatal human tetanus case in that same year. In 1889, C. tetani was isolated from a human victim, by Kitasato Shibasaburo, who later showed that the organism could produce disease when injected into animals, and that the toxin could be neutralized by specific antibodies.

In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and treatment. Tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed by P. Descombey in 1924, and was widely used to prevent tetanus induced by battle wounds during World War II. [2] [edit] Characteristics C. tetani is a rod-shaped, obligate anaerobe which stains Gram positive in fresh cultures; established cultures may stain Gram negative. [1] During vegetative growth, the organism cannot survive in the presence of oxygen, is heat-sensitive and exhibits flagellar motility.

As the bacterium matures, it develops a terminal spore, which gives the organism its characteristic appearance. C. tetani spores are extremely hardy as they are resistant to heat and most antiseptics. [3] The spores are distributed widely in manure-treated soils and can also be found on human skin and in contaminated heroin. [2] [edit] Vaccination Tetanus can be prevented through the use of an effective vaccine, simple or adsorbed Tetanus vaccine, combined Tetanus and Killed Polio vaccine, or the older DTP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis) vaccine. Side effects are rare, but if they do occur, include: * Fever * Pain at the injection site Unexplained crying in infants, irritability in older children or adults. Severe reactions are extremely rare and include anaphylaxis, seizures and encephalopathy. These events are thought to occur less if only the tetanus-diphtheria component of the vaccine is given[citation needed]. It is recommended that all infants receive the vaccine at 2, 4, 6, and 15 months of age. A fifth booster dose should be given at 4-6 years of age. After that, it should be given every 10 years. However, if a bite, scratch, or puncture occurs more than five years after the last dose of vaccine, the patients should receive another dose of vaccine. edit] Toxicity C. tetani usually enters a host through a wound to the skin and then it replicates. Once an infection is established, C. tetani produces two exotoxins, tetanolysin and tetanospasmin. Eleven strains of C. tetani have been identified, which differ primarily in flagellar antigens and in their ability to produce tetanospasmin. The genes that produce toxin are encoded on a plasmid which is present in all toxigenic strains, and all strains that are capable of producing toxin produce identical toxins. [4] Tetanolysin serves no known benefit to C. etani. Tetanospasmin is a neurotoxin that causes the clinical manifestations of tetanus. Tetanus toxin is generated in living bacteria, and is released when the bacteria lyse, such as during spore germination or during vegetative growth. A minimal amount of spore germination and vegetative cell growth are required for toxin production. [4] On the basis of weight, tetanospasmin is one of the most potent toxins known. The estimated minimum human lethal dose is 2. 5 nanograms per kilogram of body weight, or 175 nanograms in a 70 kg (154 lb) human. 2] The only toxins more lethal to humans are botulinum toxin, produced by close relative Clostridium botulinum and the exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria. Tetanospasmin is a zinc-dependent metalloproteinase that is structurally similar to botulinum toxin but with different effects. C. tetani synthesizes tetanospasmin as a single 150kDa polypeptide progenitor toxin that is then cleaved by a protease into two fragments; fragment A (a 50kDa “light chain”) and fragment B (a 100 kDa “heavy chain”) which remain connected via a disulfide bridge.

Cleavage of the progenitor toxin into A and B fragments can be induced artificially by trypsin. [4] [edit] Toxin Action Tetanospasmin is distributed in the blood and lymphatic system of the host. The toxin acts at several sites within the central nervous system, including peripheral nerve terminals, the spinal cord, and brain, and within the sympathetic nervous system. The toxin is taken up into the nerve axon and transported across synaptic junctions, until it reaches the central nervous system, where it is rapidly fixed to gangliosides at the presynaptic junctions of inhibitory motor nerve endings. 2] The clinical manifestations of tetanus are caused when tetanus toxin blocks inhibitory impulses, by interfering with the release of neurotransmitters, including glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. This leads to unopposed muscle contraction and spasm. Characteristic features are risus sardonicus (a rigid smile), trismus (commonly known as “lock-jaw”), and opisthotonus (rigid, arched back). Seizures may occur, and the autonomic nervous system may also be affected.

It is given at 2, 4, 6, and 15–18 months of age, followed by a booster before entry to school (4-6 years). This regimen provides protection from tetanus for about 10 years, and every 10 years thereafter, a booster shot of tetanus vaccine is recommended. [2] Tetanus is not contagious from person to person, and is the only vaccine-preventable disease that is infectious but not contagious. A C. tetani infection does not result in tetanus immunity, and tetanus vaccination should be given as soon as the patient has stabilized.

Letter of Recommendation mba essay help: mba essay help

Mr. has requested me to serve as a reference for him as he applies to your M. S. program. As the professor in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, I had the opportunity to appraise him from various angles for past four years. As a student, he has never been content with mere class work and presented technical seminars in various educational institutions.

His leadership qualities coupled with excellent time management skills and aided by his communicative skills allows him to take up any assignment with confidence. Other than his academics he is also one of the best students in the extra-curricular activities. He also represented the college in various inter college competitions. He has very good oratorical powers and is excellent manager, which was in his arranging many social like the fresher’s day in the second year.

During my contact with him I have found him to be intelligent, characterized by hard work and perseverance and a methodical young man capable of meeting deadlines. I have recognized his capacity to think originally and express his thoughts with clear expressions in English in oral as well as written forms. Occasional hitches tend to reinforce his commitment and resolve with the result but in the long run with his steadiness of mind under stress he can easily overcome this and his targets. I have found him to have persistent determination and a state of active curiosity while working towards his accomplishments.

Mr. Venkataharish is a reliable and disciplined person. Further he has the capacity of adapting himself to new and challenging environment. With these strengths and his co-operative nature, I firmly believe you would make him a successful candidate for pursuing higher studies in your university. I would be absolutely happy if his generation endorsement of mine coming out of close range of my observation of Mr. Venkataharish procures as admission in your esteemed university with suitable finance assistance. (A. Shanker)

Self Managed Teams admission essay help: admission essay help

Self Managed Teams Introduction Self-managed teams (SMTs) are relatively small groups of employees given substantial responsibility for planning organizing, scheduling and production of work products or service. SMTs however are more than just another way of directing groups. The concept, according to John Simmons, involves nothing less than, the complete restructuring of the jobs that people does. Thus, Self-managed work teams are groups of employees tasked with monitoring and reviewing a product or process in a firm and coming up with solutions to problems they encounter.

Self-organized semi-autonomous small group whose members determine, plan, and manage their day-to-day activities and duties (in addition to providing other supportive functions such as production scheduling, quality assurance, and performance appraisal) under reduced or no supervision. Also called self directed team, self-managed natural work team, or self managed team. Self managed teams are workers who have been organized into teams on the basis of relatively complete task functions.

They make decisions on a wide range of issues, often including such traditional management prerogatives as: * Who will work on which machines or work operations… * How to address inter-personal difficulties within the group… * How to resolve quality problems, and so forth. Also, these teams usually consist of five to fifteen employees, who: * Produce an entire product instead of sub-units… * Learn all tasks and rotate from job to job… * Take over vacation scheduling, order materials etc. Such groups are self-regulating and work without direct supervision.

Normally, a manager acts as the team leader and is responsible for defining the goals, methods, and functioning of the team. However, interdependencies and conflicts between different parts of an organization may not be best addressed by hierarchical models of control. Self-managed teams use clear boundaries to create the freedom and responsibility to accomplish tasks in an efficient manner. The main idea of the self-managed team is that the leader does not operate with positional authority. In a traditional management role, the manager is responsible for providing instruction, onducting communication, developing plans, giving orders, and disciplining and rewarding employees, and making decisions by virtue of his or her position. In this organizational model, the manager delegates specific responsibility and decision-making authority to the team itself, in the hope that the group will make better decisions than any individual. Neither a manager nor the team leaders make independent decisions in the delegated responsibility area. Decisions are typically made by consensus in successful self-managed teams, by voting in very large or formal teams, and by hectoring and bullying in unsuccessful teams.

The team as a whole is accountable for the outcome of its decisions and actions. Self-managed teams operate in many organizations to manage complex projects involving research, design, process improvement, and even systemic issue resolution, particularly for cross-department projects involving people of similar seniority levels. While the internal leadership style in a self-managed team is distinct from traditional leadership and operates to neutralize the issues often associated with traditional leadership models, a self-managed team still needs support from senior management to operate well.

Self-managed teams may be interdependent or independent. Of course, merely calling a group of people a self-managed team does not make them either a team or self-managed. As a self-managed team develops successfully, more and more areas of responsibility can be delegated, and the team members can come to rely on each other in a meaningful way Objective: The objectives of using SMTs are to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of specific tasks. This approach achieves these objectives by having SMT team members look beyond their individual task concerns, to the needs of specific groups and the entire organization.

Benefits and uses of SMTs: • Reduced absenteeism • Increased productivity • Increased employee satisfaction, morale & cohesiveness • Multi-skilled workforce benefit • Greater level of personal responsibility to the company’s targets • Unique flexibility in job functions • 100% of team members all pulling to a common goal • A significant reduction in day-to-day problems • Awards for achievement are shared equally The most beneficial aspects of self-managed teams are that they are management innovations that are based on an accurate understanding of human nature and motivation.

They eliminate bureaucratic/pyramidal values and replace them with humanistic/democratic value systems. They provide a work climate in which everyone has a chance to grow and mature as individuals, as members of a team by satisfying their own needs, while working for the success of the organization. “Self managed teams are closely associated with the concept of employee empowerment which entails the employee to have the requisite authority and resources required by him to carry out his responsibilities. Roadblocks and risks of SMTs Three major SMT roadblocks and risks are listed: 1.

The difficulty of rescinding the system, once it is established and experienced by the worker. 2. Varying levels and degrees of resistance by various elements in the organization. 3. Undue peer pressure and its consequences. How Self managed teams differ from Normal Work Team or group A self managed team differs from a normal work team or group in one essential way that the processes or the means to achieve the team goal are designed and decided by the team itself. Given the stiff competition at the global level, all organizations have been forced to focus on developing their human capital. Difference between Self directed team and Self managed teams Work Group – A group of people working together Team – A group of people working together toward a common goal Self-Managed Team – A group of people working together in their own ways toward a common goal which is defined outside the team – (Example – James River Corporation’s Kendallville Plant ALPHA team. They manufacture cardboard boxes as defined by executive leadership. Team does their own work scheduling, training, rewards and recognition, etc. Self-Directed Team – A group of people working together in their own ways toward a common goal which the team defines – (as above, but team also handles compensation, discipline, and acts as a profit center by defining its own future) Before anyone would try to implement something as aggressive as a self-managed (and subsequently self-directed) team, they should know and be able to articulate the expected benefits. A mature self-managed team, when compared to typical hierarchical management, would have measured results showing: How to Manage a Self-Directed Team

Self-directed teams are quietly but effectively altering the landscape of corporate business management. Top level managers are finding that self-directed teams are 30 to 50 percent more productive than traditionally structured teams. Step 1 Keep the focus on the whole process. To manage a self-directed team it’s important to redirect focus on the series of individual steps, as in the Taylor model, to the entirety of the process. By focusing on the entire process, each member of the team is constantly aware of how they and the other members are contributing on a daily basis to accomplish the overall task. Step 2

Gradually transfer management skills and roles. Part of your job as a manager of a self-directed team is to transfer your skills and roles as a manager to the team. The team as a whole needs to receive managerial training. As they do so, the team must decide as a group on how to delegate and divide different roles. You need to manage this process to make sure that it runs smoothly. Step 3 Meet regularly. As a manager of self-directed team you need to reconsider your own role. It’s important for you to think of yourself more as a floating member of that team, or as a team consultant, rather than as a supervisor or a manager.

If there is anything that you are still supervising it is the implementation of the team’s goals in terms of the company’s overall mission and vision. Step 4 Give the team an opportunity to correct itself. In cases where a team is under-performing or making errors, you need to manage the situation by bringing the problem to the team’s attention and soliciting possible action plans from the team to correct the problem. If the problems persist you should try to re-frame the team’s focus or mission. Only as a last resort should you change the membership of the self-directed team. My Learning: Not all groups are teams

Some people also use the word “team” when they mean “employees. ” A “sales team” is a common example of this loose or perhaps euphemistic usage, though interdependencies exist in organization, and a sales team can be let down by poor performance on other parts of the organization upon which sales depend, like delivery, after-sales service, etc.. However “sales staff” is a more precise description of the typical arrangement. From Groups to Teams Groups develop into teams in four stages. The four stages are: dependency and inclusion, counter dependency and fighting, trust and structure, and work.

In the first stage, group development is characterized by members’ dependency on the designated leader. In the second stage, the group seeks to free itself from its dependence on the leader and groups have conflicts about goals and procedures. In the third stage, the group manages to work through the conflicts. And in the last stage, groups focus on team productivity Recommendations and Suggestions: 1. To create a team, a demand for performance is more important than team-building exercises. You can get a group together and train them in teamwork for weeks but they won’t be a team until they have a common understanding of the need to perform.

First comes the strategic plan, then the tasks needed to carry out the plan, finally, teams are formed to do the tasks. 2. Team basics are often overlooked. Team basics are: size, purpose, goals, skills, approach, and accountability. 3. Teams at the top are the most difficult. Executives have complex, long-term challenges, heavy demands on their time. 4. There’s no need to throw out the hierarchy. Teams are the best way to integrate across structural boundaries. They are the best way to design and energize core processes. 5. Teams permit performance and learning at the same time.

Customer Satisfaction college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Customer satisfaction and retention: the experiences of individual employees The Authors Ove C. Hansemark, Ove C. Hansemark is based at the Department of Work, Economics, and Health, University of Trollhattan/Uddevalla, Uddevalla, Sweden. Marie Albinsson, Marie Albinsson is based at the Department of Work, Economics, and Health, University of Trollhattan/Uddevalla, Uddevalla, Sweden. Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore how the employees of a company experience the concepts of customer satisfaction and retention. A phenomenological method was used, allowing the informants’ own interpretations to be discovered.

Satisfaction was discussed from three perspectives: definition of the concept, how to recognise when a customer is satisfied, and how to enhance satisfaction. The informants’ experience pertaining to these three categories varied, and a total of seven ways to define, recognise or enhance satisfaction were discovered. These were: service, feeling, chemistry, relationship and confidence, dialogue, complaints and retention. All except the first two of these categories of experience were found to enhance retention, implying that the informants have found that strategies for enhancing both satisfaction and retention are similar.

The strongest connection between retention and satisfaction strategies turned out to be in terms of relationship and confidence. Introduction Customer satisfaction and retention are critical for retail banks, as they have an impact on profit (Levesque and McDougall, 1996). However, as business leaders try to implement the concept of customer satisfaction and/or retention in their companies, employees working with customers may come to regard customer retention (Levesque and McDougall, 1996) or satisfaction (Stauss et al. , 2001) as in themselves the goal of business.

Regardless as to what business leaders may be trying to implement in their companies, any employee interacting with customers is in a position either to increase customer satisfaction, or put it at risk. Employees in such positions should therefore have the skills to respond effectively and efficiently to customer needs (Potter-Brotman, 1994). Each individual in an organisation creates his or her own understanding of a phenomenon (Argyris and Schon, 1978), and each individual understanding consists of assumptions – not truths – as to the context. It is the understanding of the situation that provokes an action (Weick, 1979, 1995).

An individual interprets the world through his or her own mental model, creating his or her own world; a reality of the second order thus arises (Watzlawick, 1976) that is in some way incomplete (Senge, 1990). It is the experience and attitudes of the individuals in closest contact with customers that are most likely to affect whether or not customers are satisfied and willing to return to the company. It is also the people in direct contact with customers who determine who the retained and satisfied customers are, and their experience determines how they treat the customers.

However, we know very little about how employees in a company experience the concepts of customer retention and satisfaction. Customer satisfaction, rather than retention, has traditionally been the focus of research and managerial efforts. Customer satisfaction has been deemed directly to affect customer retention and companies’ market share (Rust and Subramanian, 1992). Service quality, service features, and customer-complaint handling determine customer satisfaction in banks. Service offerings, such as extended hours of operation and competitive interest rates also play a role in determining satisfaction (Levesque and McDougall, 1996).

Later research, however, has indicated that companies are more successful if they apply customer-retention rather than customer-satisfaction strategies (Knox, 1998). Moreover, customer retention has been found to be a key to profitability (Desai and Mahajan, 1998) and an important determinant of market share among service firms (Appiah-Adu, 1999). Previous research into customer satisfaction and retention has generally focused on the potential advantages of pursuing strategies for satisfying or retaining customers, rather than on the concepts themselves.

This paper will fill that research gap, by exploring how individuals serving customers experience the concepts of satisfaction and retention. How individuals within an organisation perceive these concepts is interesting for at least two reasons. First, if the people closest to the customers do not understand and accept the company’s attitude and rules about how to handle customers, then management has not successfully communicated their message. Without uniform understanding of the concepts, it is impossible for employees to promote the organisational goal.

Second, when various staff members’ experiences of satisfaction and retention differ; that is, if they have created their own mental models of the concepts, their different understandings lead to different actions in relation to customers. This could make it difficult to provide good service to customers. This research will examine the condition in a synchronous manner, from the perspective of the individuals dealing with customers. The paper will be of value to anyone interested in how a company’s staff actually experience and value customer satisfaction and retention.

Satisfaction and retention in theory Satisfaction is an “overall customer attitude towards a service provider” (Levesque and McDougall, 1996, p. 14), or an emotional reaction to the difference between what customers anticipate and what they receive (Zineldin, 2000), regarding the fulfilment of some need, goal or desire (Oliver, 1999). A similar definition is provided by Gerpott et al. (2001) who propose that satisfaction is based on a customer’s estimated experience of the extent to which a provider’s services fulfill his or her expectations.

Customer satisfaction brings many benefits. Satisfied customers are less price sensitive, buy additional products, are less influenced by competitors and stay loyal longer (Zineldin, 2000). Although customer satisfaction is important, it is not equally important to the company. There are many customers whose satisfaction is less important, such as those a company cannot serve or who are unprofitable; on the other hand, there are customers whose satisfaction is crucial to a company’s survival, and the goal should always be to satisfy those customers (Bhote, 1996).

Ovenden (1995) argues that organisations must be aware of how well or badly its customers are treated. Customers rarely complain, and when someone does, it might be too late to retain that customer. One important component in the concept of satisfaction is complaint management. Nyer (2000) has investigated the relation between consumer complaints and consumer satisfaction. The author found that encouraging consumers to complain increased their satisfaction, and this was especially the case for the most dissatisfied customers.

Research has also found that the more intensely a customer complains the greater the increases in satisfaction. Johnston (2001) claims that complaint management not only results in customer satisfaction, but also leads to operational improvement and improved financial performance. Research conducted by Athanassopoulos (2000) indicates that product innovations, staff service, price, convenience and business profile are all determinants of customer satisfaction. Bejou et al. (1998) propose that customer satisfaction can be enhanced through relationships, provided they are developed and managed to the customer’s satisfaction.

Satisfaction increases customer retention, and customer retention depends on the substance of the relationship between parties (Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult, 2000). Spreng et al. (1995) examine the importance of service recovery in determining overall satisfaction, arguing that a company is more likely to retain a customer by encouraging complaints and then address them, than by assuming that the customer is satisfied. Satisfied and properly served customers are more likely to return to an organisation than are dissatisfied customers who could choose simply to go elsewhere (Ovenden, 1995).

Consumers, even though satisfied, may suddenly decide to switch service providers. A satisfied customer may or may not intend to return to a company, which is the reason satisfaction does not necessarily lead to retention. Customer satisfaction can even increase in a company while retention levels remain unchanged (Lowenstein, 1995). Not all retained customers are satisfied; they may stay with a provider only because of lack of alternatives (Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult, 2000).

Reichheld and Aspinall (1993) also argue that satisfaction does not necessarily lead to repurchase or retention. Hallowell (1996) argues that customer satisfaction on its own cannot produce lifetime customers even though satisfaction can result in retention. Stauss et al. (2001) indicate that satisfaction is merely a step towards the goal of customer retention, and that retention effects increase with the degree of satisfaction. Retention can be defined as “a commitment to continue to do business or exchange with a particular company on an ongoing basis” (Zineldin, 2000, p. 8). A more elaborated definition is to define retention as the customers’ liking, identification, commitment, trust, willingness to recommend, and repurchase intentions, with the first four being emotional-cognitive retention constructs, and the last two being behavioral intentions (Stauss et al. , 2001). Retaining old customers also costs less than acquiring new ones. The company knows the customers and what they want, and the initial costs of attracting the customers have already been expended (Davidow and Uttal, 1989).

Old customers also pay less attention to competing brands and advertising, are less price sensitive and create favourable word-of-mouth (Desai and Mahajan, 1998). Customer retention also brings benefits such as employee retention and satisfaction, better service, lower costs (Reichheld, 1995), lower price sensitivity, positive word-of-mouth, higher market share, higher efficiency and higher productivity (Zineldin, 2000). Customers not wanted by the company, i. e. those who are unprofitable or whose needs cannot be met by the company, should, however, not be retained (Reichheld, 1996).

Potter-Brotman (1994) describes how service affects retention, and brings up the value of teaching all employees to be service providers, with the ability to enhance relationships with customers rather than endanger them. The author suggests that companies must concentrate on hearing customers’ unique voices in order to find out what kind of service they consider to be exceptional. Customers could defect at a rate of 10-30 per cent per year (Reichheld, 1996). A decrease of only 5 per cent in customer defection can increase profits up to 95 per cent, depending on the industry.

In banks, the increase is usually 85 per cent (Reichheld, 1996), and Reichheld and Kenny (1990) argue that this is because of longevity effects. Another advantage is that while customer acquisition strategies are easily copied by competitors, retention strategies are not. Stauss et al. (2001) studied the retention effects produced by customer clubs. Their results reveal that customers who are satisfied with the customer club are likely to be more satisfied with the relationship with the service provider, which, in turn, affects customer retention. The authors describe customer retention as the goal of customer clubs.

In addition, Appiah-Adu (1999) finds that the most critical element in retaining customers is the company’s customer philosophy, implying that companies ought to strive for complete satisfaction rather than just satisfaction among its customers. Desai and Mahajan (1998) look at the concepts of acquiring, developing and retaining customers from a cognitive and affective perspective. They provide examples of how cognition and affects are used to increase retention, and use frequent-flyer programs as an example of an effective way of building loyalty.

The authors suggest that in order to retain customers, companies must continually develop their products and services so as to meet the evolving needs of customers. Their research also assumes that retained customers are in fact satisfied, and not retained simply because of habit, indifference or inertia. Included in retention strategies is the development of new products and services to meet and satisfy the evolving needs of the customers; thus satisfaction is a component of retention.

Even though Johnston (2001) has shown that the relationship between customer satisfaction and retention is very weak, an understanding of the two concepts cannot always be achieved by isolating them from each other, but rather by examining the relationship between them. Gerpott et al. (2001) suggest that customer retention and customer satisfaction should be treated as distinct, but causally inter-linked constructs. According to them, “customer satisfaction is a direct determining factor in customer loyalty, which, in turn, is a central determinant of customer retention” (Gerpott et al. 2001, p. 253). Rust and Subramanian (1992) link quality to customer satisfaction and argue that this has a direct effect on customer retention and market share. In addition, Athanassopoulos (2000) discusses satisfaction as an antecedent of customer retention. The author examined customer satisfaction cues in retail banking services in Greece. The results of his study indicate that product innovativeness, staff service, price, convenience and business profile are dimensions of customer satisfaction.

The author also states that customers do not consider switching banks until they have encountered a series of negative effects. Appiah-Adu (1999) finds that the most critical element in retaining customers is the company’s customer philosophy. He also stresses that there is a difference between satisfaction and complete satisfaction, and that the goal should be to achieve the latter. Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult (2000) argues that customer retention is central to the development of business relationships, and that these relationships depend on satisfaction.

Knox (1998) argues that to build relationships, the company should strive for customer development. Retention is a significant part of customer development, since retained customers spend more with the company than with its competitors, thereby supporting profitable growth. In summary, the literature defines satisfaction as based on the difference between what customers expect and what they get. The benefits of satisfaction are many, the most prominent being less price sensitivity, purchase of additional products and less interest in competitors.

Good complaint management, product and service development, price and good relations contribute to satisfaction. Retention is defined as repurchase intentions and is obtained by good service and good relationships. Customer clubs and frequent-flyer programs are suggested as ways to increase retention. The benefits of retention are lower costs for the company, less price sensitivity, favourable word-of-mouth, greater market share and increased profits. The relationship between satisfaction and retention is described as weak, and research shows that satisfaction does not necessarily lead to retention.

Methodology and design This study intends to expand our understanding of how people who work with customers interpret the concepts of customer satisfaction and customer retention. A phenomenological method was used, since it allowed the presentation of people’s own interpretations of the two concepts (Gerber, 2001). Phenomenology could be seen as a philosophy, but it is also a technique for gathering and analysing data (Goulding, 1999). The method of phenomenology allows people’s “life-worlds” to be discovered (Kupers, 1998), thus capturing their intersubjective experiences.

Phenomenology is used to describe the structure of experiences as they present themselves to consciousness, and to find what is hidden in ordinary experiences (Gibb, 1998). Our pre-understanding, as researchers, of satisfaction and retention, was grounded in a literature-based review of previous research concerning satisfaction and retention. While collecting and analysing the data we endeavoured to keep our experience and knowledge at a distance, to eliminate the risk of colouring our interpretation of the informants’ experiences. A multiple-case design (Yin, 1994) was chosen, allowing many stories to be eard involving numerous and disparate interpretation of the concepts. The aim of the case-study method is not statistical generalisation, and the gathering of data does not require statistical sampling (Yin, 1994). Phenomenological studies should be concerned with the data, and could use non-probability sampling, with informants chosen because they have lived the experience. Lived experience “must be understood relative to the specific life-world from which it emerges” (Thompson et al. , 1990, p. 347). The unit of analysis was employees in direct contact with customers.

We hoped that each case would have its own unique characteristics, and that themes and categories would emerge from comparing stories. The marketing manager of a company, in this case a bank, was initially contacted by e-mail and asked to let his staff participate in the study. In total, 11 people in positions with close customer contact were chosen for the research (Table I). Small numbers of informants are traditional in phenomenological research, since considerable time is needed for in-depth interpretation of the long interviews (Bergadaa, 1990).

Participation was voluntary and the informants’ identities were kept anonymous. The informants were all working as either financial advisors, responsible for between 300 and 600 customers, or capital advisors, responsible for between 50 and 100 customers. Capital advisors have more responsibilities, and spend more time and contact per customer. Seven women (W1-W7) and four men (M1-M4) participated. The informants’ characteristics are summarised in Table I. Informants were interviewed individually in their habitual setting, i. e. n the bank where they worked, using a semi-structured format. Phenomenological principles were the basis for each interview. Informants were encouraged to speak freely about the research topic, in order to obtain the fullest descriptions of their experiences. The researcher withheld all personal views during the interview. The goal was to grasp the “life-world” the informants regard as real (Goulding, 1999). The emic terms, i. e. the words used by the informants themselves, were used in the follow-up questions (Ratneshwar, 1999).

Each interview lasted 40 minutes to an hour and was audio taped to include all data. It was then transcribed verbatim, i. e. without grammatical correction or other “tidying up” of the text (Ratneshwar, 1999). The reliability of transcripts was further ensured by transcribing things such as pauses or laughs, to make the reality of the informant more obvious to the reader (Silverman, 2000). The data were then analysed by reading and re-reading the data in depth to search for differences and patterns in the informants’ experiences regarding customer satisfaction and retention (Gerber, 2001).

Each individual interview was used to create a better understanding of shared experimental meanings, and this, in turn, gave a deeper comprehension of each individual case. This was a to-and-fro process, with interpretations being continuously revised and the context broadened as more of the text was understood. The process, also called bracketing, allowed us to examine the text from a phenomenological perspective without predefining informants’ experiences (Thompson et al. , 1990). A close examination in search of structures and meanings revealed various aspects of the informants’ experience.

Employee perceptions The bank in which the informants worked operates both in Sweden and abroad, providing service for individuals and businesses. It has about 600 branches, one-third of which are in Sweden, and over 20,000 employees world-wide. The informants were employees in three different local branches, located in smaller Swedish towns. They worked as either capital or financial advisors, responsible for between 50 and 600 customers each. Their customers were individuals with capital exceeding SEK250,000. 0 (about US$25,000. 00), or businesses. Increased satisfaction is a priority of the bank, and their goal is to have the market’s most satisfied customers by year 2004. The aim is both to decrease the number of dissatisfied customers, and increase the number of satisfied customers. The focus is not on a certain segment of customers, or on a certain business area, but on all customers throughout all business areas. The employees are informed about the goals and strategies through internal meetings and the business plan.

The bank surveys customer satisfaction once a year using a customer satisfaction index provided by an outside consultancy. The index consists of a large number of questions about matters such as service, personnel and treatment. Customers respond to each question on a scale from one to five, indicating whether they rate the factor in question as negative, positive or neutral. The results of the last customer satisfaction survey conducted in the bank indicated that 90 per cent of the bank’s customers were satisfied. Satisfied customers are defined as having good relations and communication with the bank.

The information collected via the survey is used to help enhance satisfaction, by improving on the matters customers have indicated they are dissatisfied with. The bank goes through the results to determine what customers feel are the bank’s strengths and weaknesses, and makes an activity plan for improving the bank’s weaknesses. The bank focuses mostly on responding effectively to complaints, and on what they term “hygienic factors”; that is, what customers expect in their contact with the bank; for example, cash in the ATM, and having people answering the phone when customers call.

The bank does not employ any retention strategies. Its focus is solely on satisfying its customers, and the bank expects this to lead to more retained customers. Retaining customers is, however, not a specified goal. All the interviews started with a discussion about the concept of the consumer, and the informants were asked to give their view of the customer. W1 is a financial advisor, responsible for about 350 customers. For her, customers are people who come to the bank because they want to, people with whom she has a good relationship.

W2 works as a financial advisor, and is responsible for over 600 customers. She has worked at various branches of the bank, and noted that there is a difference between how you handle customers in a small town and in a large town: in the former you are more personal. She thinks of customers as “the people the bank cares about and for whom we try to do our best”. W3 recently began working as a capital advisor, and divides her work between two branches. She has ten years’ experience as financial advisor, during which time she had a clientele of 300. She is now responsible for fewer than 100 customers.

The new job means fewer customers, but more time and contact per customer and more responsibility. She describes customers as relationships to other people, as opportunities to get to know someone to do business with, and adds that both parties should gain something from the relationship. W4 works as a financial advisor. She says: “A positive moment with a customer is when you feel you are making contact … when it is not purely professional, but when the customers have confidence in you. When you feel it and when you see you leave a satisfied customer. We deal with people – not money.

Without the customer the business stops”. W5 works as a financial advisor and is responsible for 300 customers, some she meets frequently, and others she has never met. She regards customers as existing in a service relationship, i. e. a relationship where you give the customer a lot of service because it is a deep relationship. W6 has worked as a financial advisor in various branches, and is responsible for about 300 customers with whom she has continuous contact. She views a customer as someone who is buying the bank’s services, and has chosen this bank before others.

W7 started working as a financial advisor just recently, but in spite of this, has built up a clientele of 370. She says her goal with customers is to build a good relationship and to satisfy them: “If we don’t have any customers we don’t have any business”. M1 works as a capital advisor. He views customers like this: “The customers are what I live off, so to say. They are the most important things we have – the only thing we have, really”. M2 works as a financial advisor handling loans and equity investments, and is responsible for around 400 customers. He has been working in the bank over 30 years.

He describes a customer as someone with whom he has a relationship, and says that this relationship is often the reason why customers choose to stay with the bank. M3 works as a financial advisor responsible for about 400 customers, and divides his time between two branches. He describes customers as what he and the company lives off, adding that his job is to serve them and do his best for them, building up trust in him and the company. M4 recently started working as a capital advisor, responsible for 50-100 customers, but he had worked as a financial advisor, responsible for about 400 customers, for over ten years.

He refers to a customer as someone you want to do business with or help in some way, since he works in a service-based company. In summary, most informants began describing what a customer means to them by strongly emphasising the relationship they have with their customers and the confidence they have in each other, thus connecting their descriptions to strong relations and feelings. Another viewpoint was that customers are the key to business, and as such the informants need to provide them with what they want and offer good service to satisfy them.

The concept of satisfaction resulted in three different discussions during the interviews: how to define a satisfied customer, how to know when a customer is satisfied and how to create or enhance satisfaction. Informants’ definitions of satisfied customers indicated three different experiences: a satisfied customer is someone with whom you have a good relationship in which you have gained trust; someone with whom you have good contact and an open dialogue; and a customer who is retained versus not retained.

Confidence in each other and the importance of a good relationship were themes articulated by many informants, and emphasised repeatedly throughout the interviews. W6, a woman with many years’ experience in the bank, explains why she finds it so important. She believes that if a customer does not trust her enough to give her the information needed to do a good job, the customer will not be satisfied with what she is doing: When a customer is satisfied, we have a good relationship. It is easy to sit and talk. The customer has confidence in me. This confidence, I view as a satisfied customer.

You can feel if the customer puts faith in you when you sit and talk. You feel whether the customer is relaxed and wants to answer questions. The customer needs to inform me as to his situation, for me to give the right recommendations. If you don’t have the entire picture, it is hard to give the right advice. It takes a while before a customer trusts you (W6). Dialogue and contact were also used to define satisfaction. W1, who has been working in the bank over 20 years, has found that good contact, in which dialogue is kept open, is the key to both a satisfied customer and a satisfied employee.

By good contact, she means that customers feel they can bring up things that dissatisfy them; through open dialogue, this dissatisfaction can be turned back to satisfaction: It is hard to define what a satisfied customer is – maybe you are never satisfied here in life. But I feel satisfied when I feel I have good contact with my customer. When, even if sometimes something negative is brought up, it can be turned into something positive – then I think they are satisfied (W1). The definition of a satisfied customer was also connected to the concept of retention.

Two different, and opposed, meanings were discovered: that a satisfied customer is a retained customer, and that a satisfied customer may not be a retained customer. The first meaning is illustrated by M1, who has experienced that satisfaction results from a very good relationship, which, in turn, gives you no reason to leave the bank – rather the opposite. The informant also stresses that this relationship is necessary in order to do business with the customer: Satisfaction is the basis of everything. I would have a hard time believing that a dissatisfied customer stays.

I think that when you are satisfied, you have built up such a relationship that you don’t want to change it. It takes a long time to build a good relationship. You don’t do it in a couple of meetings – it takes years. The first year you work, you spend most of your time meeting the customers and building relationships. The second year you start making business. You can’t make any business until you have a good relationship with the customer (M1). Other informants believe that regardless as to whether a customer is satisfied or not, he or she may switch banks.

Various reasons were given to explain this, such as changes in life, the feeling that the grass is always greener on the other side, technology, relationships and treatment. W2 illustrates this: Satisfied customers could, for example, be contacted by another bank and switch because they offer something extra. But, hopefully, the grass is not greener on the other side. They might notice that after a while. Just because they are satisfied, it doesn’t mean they can’t turn elsewhere (W2).

The informants were also asked how they knew when a customer was satisfied. The individual answers to this included a feeling, chemistry between employee and customer, mutual confidence and a good relationship and open dialogue. Each of these meanings is illustrated with examples. The informants typically experienced that it is possible to feel, or sense by looking at the body language, when a customer is satisfied. M3, having worked at the bank over ten years, trusts his feelings as to when customers are satisfied, rather than asking if they are.

He is aware that he cannot know for sure whether customers actually are satisfied, but believes that his feelings about the customer will give him a good idea of this: You never know – it is a feeling. You can see it in the customer, in their body language and things. You know most customers pretty well and can “read them” a little bit. But you don’t get a receipt for how satisfied they are. You can tell by looking at a person. It is easy when you have personal contact, harder when you are talking on the phone (M3).

Some informants trust the chemistry between people to determine if a customer is satisfied. W7 began her work as a financial advisor only recently, and speaks about the chemistry between people when talking about satisfaction. She connects it closely to the feeling, but emphasises the interpersonal chemistry in judging when a customer is satisfied. With the right chemistry, she feels it is possible to get the customer to open up a bit more: Many times, you can feel if the customers are satisfied – or especially if they are dissatisfied. It has to do with whether the chemistry between you is right.

Then I think you have a satisfied customer, when you get a little bit deeper and talk a bit more personally (W7). Mutual confidence and a good relationship were also used to determine whether a customer is satisfied. M1 has found that in a good relationship, the customer trusts you with more assets if he or she is satisfied. He regards these actions as a proof that the customer has confidence in him: You notice by their actions whether they are satisfied or not. Sometimes customers come back and trust you with more assets you didn’t know about.

Then I know I have done a good job, since they are willing to trust me with more money. Then it is definitively a satisfied customer (M1). An open dialogue was also said to be used when determining satisfaction. W3, a woman with long experience in her job, believes that open dialogue to find out whether the customer is satisfied is more important than simply trusting her feelings: Many customers tell you when they are satisfied. And we ask a lot and check with the customers whether they are getting what they want and whether they are happy.

And listen a lot (W3). How did the informants, then, consider satisfaction to be enhanced? The informants had four different experiences of how satisfaction can be enhanced: through a good relationship with mutual trust, open dialogue, effective complaint handling, and personal service. Each of these is exemplified as follows. Nearly all the informants shared the experience that in order to satisfy a customer, it is necessary to strive for confidence and build strong relationships. M3 illustrates this, revealing a deep concern for the customer.

For him, trust is a matter of mutual respect, something that is only created in a good relationship with the customer. He stresses the necessity of listening to the customer in order to determine what he or she really wants and needs, and says it is essential to find out as much as possible about the customer to be able to build confidence and a relationship: Regular contact with the customers, in one way or another, is important. Many times the personal relationship is as important as the conditions offered in keeping the customer satisfied.

And you have to listen to the customer – if he only wants to have contact once a year I cannot contact him more than that. He would lose trust in me if I did, since I wouldn’t be sticking to my part of the deal. So the more knowledge you have of a customer, the easier it is to retain him and to keep him satisfied. If they don’t have confidence in you, it is easy to lose the customer (M3). As with the other aspects of satisfaction mentioned in the interviews, open dialogue was also found to be necessary when striving to enhance customer satisfaction. The experience of W3 exemplifies this.

The informant emphasises the key words – asking, listening and responding: We ask a lot of questions, but the most important thing is to listen. And react if you get a signal that something is not good – we have to respond to that immediately (W3). Nearly all informants, who also seemed to think immediately of dissatisfaction when reflecting on satisfaction, mentioned the value of good complaint management. This issue had obviously affected informants deeply and some took the matter very personally. Despite this, they all said they valued complaints.

W3 believes that a dissatisfied customer can become satisfied if complaints are welcomed and the problem is solved; many times showing the customer that you care and are trying is enough. She connects this to winning back lost confidence. Her experience is that there is more to win than to lose in handling a complaint, referring both to the chance of winning the customer back and to possible positive word of mouth: If they tell us! Then we can do something about it. Maybe we can repair the damage. It is difficult, but a dissatisfied customer can become satisfied.

Because when we respond to a complaint in the customer’s favour, we show that we care about him. And we are hopefully able to build confidence again. If we solve the problem, the customer may tell his friends how well we fixed it – instead of telling them we didn’t. So either way, I think you win more than you lose on a complaint (W3). Service was also found to enhance satisfaction. W7 believes the level of service plays an important role in satisfying customers, arguing that different customers often want different kinds of services, but prefer to obtain them all in the same place, i. . the bank, this being more convenient for them. She also stresses the value of personal service: I think personal service plays an important part in satisfying customers. And that you have knowledge of more than one thing: we have the whole package, with law, inheritance, wills, etc. And I think they appreciate when you get in touch with them – they may not come in otherwise (W7). Notably, although most of the informants at some point brought up the concept of loyalty – which previous research has sometimes equated with retention none of them viewed retention and loyalty as the same.

Instead, the informants focused on how to define the concept, and how to enhance retention. Most informants tended simply to define a retained customer as someone who keeps coming back. In the few cases where informants attempted to deepen the definition, they described a retained customer as one who has a good relationship with and confidence in the bank, or simply being lazy or acting out of habit. A retained customer was also experienced as being, perhaps being, or not being satisfied. The relationship and confidence existing between the bank and the customer was used to explain why a customer was retained.

The experience of W4 illustrates this: A retained customer is someone who comes back for reasons as simple as the fact that he is recognised. He knows the staff and the staff knows him. He has confidence in the bank and in me (W4). The experience of some informants was that customers are often retained out of habit, because the customers are too lazy to search for an alternative. W6 puts this simply: Some customers are retained simply because they are lazy. It is very simple to continue with what they have. They stay out of habit, because their interest is not deep enough for them to engage in finding another solution (W6).

Are retained customers satisfied? The question as to whether or not retained customers are satisfied resulted in three different answers: they are satisfied, not satisfied, or might be but are not necessarily satisfied. W6 is the only one who gave the first answer. She strongly believes that retained customers are satisfied with the business they do and the relations they have in the bank: I think so! They see the whole picture, what we can offer. If they try another bank, you haven’t gained their confidence, and therefore they are not satisfied (W6).

The impossibility of satisfying everyone, and the inconvenience of changing banks, were reasons given for why some customers can be retained even though they are not satisfied. Voicing an opinion shared by many of the informants, W5 thinks that laziness is a bigger reason for retaining a customer than satisfaction. She believes that although many customers may want to change banks, for reasons such as not having a strong connection to the bank, they stay because it is more convenient than switching: I don’t think they always are [satisfied]. Because they are lazy as well.

Maybe they don’t know exactly how to switch banks … and here they know the bank, and recognise faces … I am sure a lot of people would like to change, especially younger people who don’t feel a strong connection with the bank. But they stay since it is convenient to have a contact within a bank. It is like going to the dentist, I assume – you would like to go to another one, since you are not completely satisfied with the one you have, but it is easier to stay than to look for a new one. It is convenient to stay (W5). A more indeterminate view was held by M1.

For him, the question as to whether or not a retained customer is satisfied depends on how satisfaction is defined. The informant thinks customers accept the situation and stay when it is “good enough”, even though they are not perfectly satisfied. He explains this by giving his definition of satisfaction, and, like many of the others, M1 connects it to the relationship with the customer. This, the informant feels, has to be good enough rather than perfect: when a customer is satisfied enough, he or she stays with the bank: It depends on how you define satisfied.

I think you are satisfied when you have an acceptable business relation. It is good enough, but not fantastic. Then I think they are satisfied. But by nature, I think we are always convinced that the grass is greener elsewhere. When a customer is perfectly satisfied, I think it means he is convinced he has the best under all circumstances – and, most of all, the best relationship with the person with whom he is making his businesses. But satisfied, it means you have it good enough, but you may be aware of or you may think that there are better solutions out there – for example, with a competitor.

But there are no reasons to check it out, since you already have it good enough (M1). How was retention to be enhanced? Again, the individual answers to this question differ, and include presentation of changes in service and products, chemistry between people, mutual confidence and good relationships, regular contact and open dialogue and handling of complaints. Presentation of changes was regarded as enhancing retention. W1, who has been working in the bank for over two decades, finds that customers are best retained by introducing changes, which she views as a response to the changing needs of the customer.

The informant meant that this demonstrates to the customer how important they are to the bank: To try – even if they are asking strange questions – to meet them in the best possible way. It doesn’t always mean the price. You can show them that we have other solutions as well. You have to bring in new things – not always the old stuff. Suggest new products, etc. Remember who they are and what they want. Make them understand they are important to us – invite them to customer meetings, special occasions (W1). Personal chemistry was also regarded as enhancing retention.

The chemistry existing between the customer and the advisor may often determine whether a customer is retained, according to W2’s experience. She illustrated this by happily describing one of her customers, stressing that he stays with the bank just because he gets along with her, rather than for any other reason: One of my customers [laugh] has done business with this bank nearly all his life. He thinks our interest rates are bad. He has one of those things that are extended every third month [laugh]. He thinks we are cheap and threatens to leave us every time (laugh).

But he is very sweet and thanks me for being nice and trying to do my best for him, he is buying my arguments. He stays with us each time, even though he claims he won’t. The chemistry between us is right. The “percentage” that finally makes up for it is the personal chemistry. He stays because of the chemistry, instead of leaving because of the interest rate (W2). As with the informants’ experience concerning the concept of satisfaction, most of them highly value the importance of striving for good relationships, built on mutual confidence in enhancing retention.

Describing a customer, W3 immediately makes the connection to relationships. When sharing her views on how to retain a customer, she emphasises the same thing, believing that confidence and relationships are two important pieces of the puzzle: Some people you get to know inside out, and have great conversations with. And since I have my own group of customers, they know that I know their stories, that they won’t need to tell them again next time they come. You also have to be serious and loyal and you must listen. Build confidence.

If you have all those pieces of the puzzle, I doubt they’ll leave. It is best to have a little bit of everything, with a focus on the soft values – the personal ones (W3). W4 has had the same experience, but emphasises the importance of the staff, arguing that staff treatment may determine whether or not a customer is retained. The informant stresses that the customer must feel welcomed by the bank, arguing that often it takes little more than simply being recognised by the employees: I believe it has to do with the way they are welcomed and treated at the office.

I don’t think that customers care which bank they are customers of, as long as they feel welcomed at the branch. The people, the staff, are of great importance. Customers come back for reasons as simple as the fact that they are recognised in the bank and the staff knows who they are. They have confidence in you. Then they feel safe (W4). In enhancing retention, regular contact and open dialogue were brought up repeatedly. Many informants placed great value in keeping in touch with their customers in an attempt to retain them. Here, individual views differ slightly as to why this contact is so important.

Some think it is enough to call simply to say hello and let the customers know you are there to help them; others have learned that each contact should be used to sell something. M2, who has been with the bank over 20 years, thinks contacts should be used to deliver information, believing an informed customer will find no reason to leave: Personal contact is important. I try to get together with my customers a couple of times a year, maybe not all of them. And some I try to meet more often. Try to keep them informed as to what we offer. Then it is up to them to decide whether or not they want to buy.

I think that when you keep the customers informed, they feel they have the best and are not worried about whether the grass is greener on the other side. And if I have informed the customer as to what we have, he knows. And if he doesn’t want it from me now, he won’t buy it from someone else either (M2). Another reason why one should strive for contact is to find out what the customer wants and needs. M4 puts it simply: You have to keep in contact. Talk to them. Frequent contact – but not more than they want. You have to listen to the customer.

Find out what they really want (M4). Complaint management was also regarded as enhancing retention. Most of the informants had learned by experience that handling dissatisfaction was important in retaining a customer. M1 stressed the need to listen to customers, to let them talk, in order to resolve complaints and by that retain the customers: I think you have to put a lot of time into a dissatisfied customer. First of all, let him tell you himself why he is dissatisfied. If you can make him tell you what is bothering him, and then try to fix that, he might stay with the bank.

But if you don’t give him the time, he will definitively leave (M1). In summary, the results revealed that informants tended to perceive the concepts of satisfaction and retention in different as well as similar ways. The individuals viewed the concepts in the light of as many as nine different types of experience (Figure 1). Most of the informants referred to more than one type of experience in defining or referring to a concept. The most salient factors were a good relationship characterised by mutual confidence, regular contact with open dialogue and proper complaint handling.

The latter took up a major part of many of the interviews, implying that informants have found that if complaints are not encouraged and dealt with, customers will not be satisfied or retained. Relationship and trust were also mentioned repeatedly in the interviews. The argument was that without a good relationship, business could not be conducted. While many of their experiences were related by the informants to both satisfaction and retention, a few were not. One of these is feeling, which was used in defining satisfaction, but not retention.

The reason it was not used to define retention could be very simple: satisfaction is harder to detect than retention, since the first concept relates to what the customer thinks, and the second to how he or she acts. The same goes for habit or laziness, which were used in explaining retention, but not satisfaction. Service and changes in the products offered were two other concepts that informants connected to either satisfaction or retention, but not to both (though these two could potentially be regarded as connected: changes could, for example, mean better service).

This could mean what it seems to imply: that informants differ regarding these and do not consider that changes enhance satisfaction or that better service will enhance retention. Another explanation could be that these experiences were simply not covered in the interviews, since the informants were allowed to speak quite freely, sharing their experiences in ways which were comfortable to them. Customer satisfaction was defined in various ways; for example, a satisfied customer is one who has confidence in his advisor, recognises the value of the job being done, and understands that mistakes are sometimes made.

With confidence, according to the informants, it is possible to build a good relationship. The informants’ awareness of the value of having good relationships with customers, and of the importance of winning customers’ confidence, indicates that those are important factors contributing to customer satisfaction. Informants’ mentioned four ways to ascertain whether a customer is satisfied or not, and all but the first are also connected with retention: feelings, chemistry, relationship and confidence and, finally, dialogue.

The latter two were important when defining satisfaction as well. It is, however, notable that rather than asking customers straight out if they are satisfied, some informants simply trust their feelings that they are. These informants believe that they know their own clients so well that they can “read” their feelings. The chemistry existing between people was also mentioned as a way to ascertain when a customer is satisfied. This makes one wonder whether the informants really know when a customer is satisfied or not. Not all informants simply trusted their feelings, though.

Some had experienced that you never know unless you ask, and emphasised the importance of asking questions, listening to what the customer says, and reacting immediately. To do this, regular contact was considered necessary. This reveals that the informants define customer satisfaction and believe they recognise it, sometimes with reference to the same experiences and sometimes to completely different ones. When sharing their experience as to whether and how it is possible to make a customer more satisfied, the theme of customer dissatisfaction was brought up repeatedly.

This was so prominent in the informants’ experience that it took up much of the interview time. For these informants, the concept of satisfaction was immediately connected with dissatisfaction. It seemed easier to think of a situation in which a customer had been dissatisfied, than one in which a customer had been satisfied. It was obvious that such situations deeply affected certain informants. Despite the feeling of awkwardness a dissatisfied customer can engender, the informants viewed complaints as positive and necessary.

Nearly all the informants valued and encouraged complaints, well aware that the company has more to gain if the customer voices dissatisfaction to them, rather than to a friend. The preferred way of handling complaints turned out to be listening to what the customer has to say. By listening, the real problem behind the complaint can be discovered and solved in the best way for the customer, turning dissatisfaction into satisfaction. By showing customers that you care and are willing to make an effort to solve their problems, informants also found it was possible to gain more customer confidence.

When pondering how to enhance customer retention, concepts such as dialogue and contact, relationships and confidence came up repeatedly, although the informants differed as to how these matters should be handled. Some informants found that it was enough simply to call and let customers know you were there for them, while others thought a bit of information or selling was needed each time. The need for contact in gaining trust and enhancing the relationship was emphasised.

While reflecting on these matters, informants also mentioned that they must share a bit of themselves to give the customer confidence, find something in common, and welcome and listen to the customer. The informants’ continual awareness of the need for personal contact and a good relationship in enhancing retention was striking. Whether staff in other positions share the same awareness is unclear, but this group does. This may, however, be a result of their working with extended customer responsibility, i. e. having their own group of customers to care for.

As was the case in enhancing satisfaction, complaint handling was also found to be of major importance in enhancing retention. The informants desired an organisation where employees have the authority to handle complaints and quickly solve problems, thus limiting the damage to relationships with customers. When reflecting on the connection between satisfaction and retention, the informants’ opinions divided them into two groups, one believing that the satisfied customer is retained, and the other arguing that satisfaction is no guarantee of retention. The first group believed that when customers are satisfied, they have no reason to leave.

In one case described in the results, a satisfied customer has built up such a relationship with the bank that he or she does not want to change banks. Another informant did not believe that a satisfied customer is necessarily retained; the argument was that if another bank offers better terms and conditions, even a satisfied customer may leave. Reversing the concepts, looking at whether a retained customer is satisfied, revealed three different viewpoints. One informant believed that retained customers are necessarily satisfied, reasoning that when customers stay, the bank has gained their confidence and they are completely satisfied.

One group of informants had found that a retained customer is not necessarily satisfied: while it is impossible to satisfy all customers, many of them are retained nevertheless. The inconvenience of switching banks was used to explain why customers who are not satisfied, or even dissatisfied, may still stay with the bank. Customer laziness was also frequently cited as an explanation – a tendency to stay because it is more convenient than switching. One informant brought the conversation back to relationships, arguing that customers can be etained because of the relationship they have with the bank, even though they may not be completely satisfied. Some of the factors found to enhance satisfaction, such as relationship and confidence, dialogue and complaints, were also found to enhance retention. The most commonly cited factors were the importance of handling complaints, and of building confidence and strong relationships. These two factors constantly came up in interview, and all the informants seemed to have found that without these ingredients, customers would be neither satisfied nor retained.

The only factors that differed in terms of enhancing either satisfaction or retention, were service and changes, the first being referred to when discussing satisfaction, the second being connected with retention. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to explore, from the perspective of the employees, how individuals dealing with customers interpret the concepts of satisfaction and retention. A phenomenological method was used so as to uncover the informants’ experiences. The results reveal that the informants perceive the concepts of satisfaction and retention in different ways.

This is in line with the findings of Argyris and Schon (1978), that each individual in an organisation creates his or her own understanding of a phenomenon. In other words, employees create a reality of the second order (Watzlawick, 1976) out of their concepts. The informants perceived satisfaction and retention in as many as nine different ways. Open dialogue and frequent contact with the customer was regarded as the key to customer satisfaction. This is closely connected to having good relationships, with high levels of trust, with customers.

Levesque and McDougall (1996) provide a similar description, but use the words “service quality”. One of the most experienced informants said you could recognise a satisfied customer when you had a good relationship with the customer, a relationship characterised by mutual confidence. No research has been found that offers a similar definition of satisfaction, although Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult (2000) suggest that relationships depend on satisfaction. Another important antecedent of satisfaction was demonstrated when the informants discussed how to know when a customer is satisfied.

Many informants mentioned being able to feel satisfaction, and claimed that you could tell by the chemistry existing between people. This is interesting, as it demonstrates the affective nature of the construct, and illustrates the importance of knowing the antecedents of customer satisfaction. When connecting customer satisfaction to customer retention, two interpretations were discovered: one that a satisfied customer is a retained customer, the other arguing the opposite. The informant who equated a satisfied with a retained customer, brought up the concept of relationship when explaining why customers choose to stay when satisfied.

This is supported by Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult (2000), who argue that relationships depend on satisfaction. Athanassopoulos (2000) also regards satisfaction as an antecedent of retention. However, the more common experience was that a satisfied customer is not necessarily a retained customer, which is supported by Reichheld and Aspinall (1993). The arguments were that customers could be offered something better elsewhere and choose to switch banks even though they might be satisfied with what they have. This is supported by Lowenstein’s (1995) finding, that a satisfied customer may suddenly switch provider for no obvious reason.

Appiah-Adu (1999) is of the opinion that customer satisfaction on its own cannot produce lifetime customers. During the interviews, four different approaches to enhancing satisfaction were uncovered: relationships characterised by mutual confidence, open dialogue, complaint handling and service. The need for good relationships, in which both parties have confidence in each other and open dialogue is possible, is in line with the findings of Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult (2000), who stress the importance of customer relationships. Bejou et al. 1998) also found that relationships developed and managed to suit the customer can enhance customer satisfaction. Levesque and McDougall (1996) confirm that service and complaint handling enhances satisfaction. Their research found these to be the most important customer satisfaction determinants in banks. According to them, satisfaction can be restored, but not enhanced, when a complaint is properly handled, which is why attempts to make it right the first time are preferred. Rust and Subramanian (1992) also suggest that complaint handling helps improve satisfaction, which is supported by Johnston (2001) and Nyer (2000).

Service as enhancing satisfaction finds support in Athanassopoulos (2000), who also indicates product innovation, price, convenience and business profile as determiners of customer satisfaction. The connection between retention and satisfaction was experienced in many different ways. Only one informant believed that a retained customer is necessarily satisfied. Ovenden (1995), who argues that in order to retain a customer, it is necessary to satisfy him, supports this. Desai and Mahajan (1998) also assume that retained customers are, in fact, satisfied, and not retained simply because of habit, indifference or inertia.

Johnston (2001), on the other hand, finds a weak relationship between satisfaction and retention, in line with most informants’ experience. Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult (2000) argue that not all retained customers are satisfied, saying they may not have achieved the kind of relationship in which they can be satisfied. The factors found to help retain a customer differed widely, including presentation of changes, chemistry between people, mutual confidence and a good relationship, open dialogue and regular contact, and handling of complaints.

Presentation of changes was felt to influence customer retention because new services or products should be offered to satisfy changing customer needs and wants. This was confirmed by Desai and Mahajan (1998), who suggest that companies must develop their products and services to meet the evolving needs of the customers, in order to retain them. One informant explained that chemistry between people determines whether a customer can be retained. This is closely connected to the informants’ experience that mutual confidence and strong relationships were important.

Potter-Brotman (1994) supports this by suggesting that employees’ ability to enhance customer relationships and to be good service providers affects customer retention. Eriksson and Lofmarck Vaghult (2000) view retention as depending on relationships as well, although their focus is on business relationships. The importance of confidence is also examined by Stauss et al. (2001), who indicate that a retained customer can be defined as someone who is committed, feels trust and is willing to recommend. A line could be drawn between relationships and open dialogue, since the first depends on the second.

Rust and Subramanian (1992) explain the advantages of open dialogue, suggesting that in order to retain customers a company must first listen to them. When sharing experiences pertaining to retention, nearly all the informants repeatedly brought up the keystone concept of complaints. This, too, is supported by Rust and Subramanian. They urge employees to l

Jamcracker Questions ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

The factors that drive the ASPs emergence are )Increasing cost of specialized software that have far exceeded the price range of small-medium businesses. 2)Usual urgency of a company to set up a IT capability internally – which is similar to the infrastructure already used/developed by many companies 3)Less investment for the base functionalities (which are provided by ASP) of an IT firm 4)Companies’ urge to support their services 24*7 unlike the traditional business operations 5)Optimizing the number of IT staff inside the organization so that some of the required functionalities could be cosourced or outsourced to an ASP 6)Companies’ move towards mobile workforce

Q2) How does Jamcracker fit in the ASP space? Explain the Jamcracker business model. Jamcracker’s business model was based on the ASP concept. But it wasn’t exactly the ASP. Rather, Jamcracker cooperated with ASP partners to combine application services through its enterprise IT management platform – “Jamcracker Enterprise”- into comprehensive offerings, including technical support and billing. For example, an ASP that provided an email application and another that provided desktop productivity application could, via Jamcracker technology, appear to the customer as an integrated service package.

Customers could pick and choose from an “a la carte” menu of the applications in the virtual “ASP cafeteria”. Jam cracker would then provide those application services in a “IT department in a box”. This implies that the customer would maintain a single contractual relationship with the Jamcracker rather than numerous relationships with specialized ASPs. Users would login to the Jamcracker platform once rather than separately onto each of the ASP platform.

Jamcracker’s Business Model The above explained “ASP Aggregation” methodology accomplished by Jamcracker solved problems inherent in the traditional ASP approach such as high customer acquisition cost, conflict between breadth of ASP offerings and scale economies and Data sharing. Revenues -The monthly fees that the customers paid for using Jamcracker’s Enterprise -A modest setup fee -Per-user-per-month fee for access to Jamcracker service infrastructure Reason: Network Effect

Customers get the suppliers and the suppliers in turn get the customers – which could get a better deal for the customers from the suppliers and a lower cost of distribution for the suppliers – and end as a virtuous cycle for all the involved parties. Mainly Targeted Areas before targeting the huge clients such as “fortune 500” -The midsized “unfortunate 5000” companies since they cant afford huge IT investments and hence would go f$or ASPs -simple applications such as email, expense reporting etc web-native applications Q3) Identify critical challenges that Jamcracker must address to create a credible and sustainable business model. The following challenges must be addressed by Jamcracker to sustain in their business model. -Reselling and branding issues should be considered in a case-by-case manner and not as a whole -Educating its customers in the details of the new ASP ntegrator approach to reduce their IT investments -Making the existing ASP integrator infrastructure more robust as the business grew rapidly -Need for professional services that would help and support its customers to convert their legacy data to ASP based system which would easily confide their trust in ASPs and in Jamcracker through which the customers would avail the ASP integrator services from Jamcracker over the long run. -Addressing the customer’s concerns over the ASP model’s service levels, data security and privacy so that the customers would feel secured with the ASP technology.

La Indolencia de Los Filipinos argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

La indolencia de los filipinos (y de los estudiantes tambien) 1. What was the effect of conviction of “inferiority? ” -The child or youth who tries to be anything else is blamed with vanity and presumption; the curate ridicules him with cruel sarcasm, his relatives look upon him with fear, strangers regard him with great compassion. No forward movement — Get back in the ranks and keep in line! With his spirit thus molded the native falls into the most pernicious of all routines: routine not planned but imposed and forced.

Note that the native himself is not naturally inclined to routine but his mind is disposed to accept all truth, just as his house is open to all strangers. The good and the beautiful attract him, seduce and captivate him although like the the Japanese he often exchanges the good for the evil, if it appears to him garnished and gilded. What he lacks is in the first place liberty to allow expansion to his adventuresome spirit, and good examples, beautiful prospects for the future.

It is necessary that his spirit, although it may be dismayed and cowed by the elements and the fearful manifestation of their mighty forces, store up energy, seek high purposes, in order to struggle against obstacles in the midst of unfavorable natural conditions. In order that he may progress it is necessary that a revolutionary spirit, so to speak, should boil in his veins, since progress necessarily requires the present; the victory of new ideas over the ancient and accepted one.

It will not be sufficient to speak to his fancy, to talk nicely to him, nor that the light illuminate him like the ignis fatuus that leads travelers astray at night: all the flattering promises of the fairest hopes will not suffice, so long as his spirit is not free, his intelligence is not respected. 2. What is the meaning of the statement, tila ka kastila? The pernicious example of the dominators in surrounding themselves with servants and despising manual or corporal labor as a thing unbecoming the nobility and chivalrous pride of the heroes of so many centuries; those lordly airs, which the natives have translated into tila ka castila, and the desire of the dominated to be the equal of the dominators, if not essentially, at least in their manners; all this had naturally to produce aversion to activity and fear or hatred of work. 3. What does Rizal mean by saying that indolence in the Philippines is a chronic but not an inherited disease? When in consequence of a long chronic illness the condition of the patient is examined, the question may arise whether the weakening of the fibers and the debility of the organs are the cause of the malady’s continuing or the effect of the bad treatment that prolongs its action. The attending physician attributes the entire failure of his skill to the poor constitution of the patient, to the climate, to the surroundings, and so on. On the other hand, the patient attributes the aggravation of the evil to the system of treatment followed.

Only the common crowd, the inquisitive populace, shakes its head and cannot reach a decision. Something like this happens in the case of the Philippines. Instead of a physician, read government, that is friars, employees, etc. Instead of patient, Philippines; instead of malady, indolence. 4. What proofs did Rizal give to show that pre-Spanish Malayans were not indolent? -Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Malayan Filipinos carried on an active trade, no only among themselves but also with all the neighboring countries.

All the histories of those first years, in short, abound in long accounts about the industry and agriculture of the natives; mines, gold-washings, looms, farms, barter, naval construction, raising of poultry and stock, weaving of silk and cotton, distilleries, manufactures of arms, pearl fisheries, the civet industry, the horn and hide industry, etc. , are things encountered at every step, and considering the time and the conditions in the islands, prove that there was life, there was activity, there was movement. 5.

How did it happen that the industrious pagan culture was transformed into that of an indolent Christian culture? -We have already spoken of the more or less latent predisposition which exists in the Philippines toward indolence, and which must exist everywhere, in the whole world, in all men, because we all hate work more or less, as it may be more or less hard, more ore less unproductive. The dolce far niente of the Italian, the rascarse la barriga of the Spaniard, the supreme aspiration of the bourgeois to live on his income in peace and tranquility, attest this.

It seems that there are causes more than sufficient to breed indolence in the midst of a beehive. Thus is explained why, after thirty-two years of the system, the circumspect and prudent Morga said that the natives have forgotten much about farming, raising poultry, stock and cotton and weaving cloth, as they used to do in their paganism and for a long time after the country had been conquered! ” 6. Why does the city of Hong Kong have more commercial and trade activities than the whole of the Philippines? It has more commercial movement than all the islands together, because it is free and is well governed. The great difficulty that every enterprise encountered with the administration contributed not a little to kill off all commercial and industrial movement. All the Filipinos, as well as all those who have tried to engage in business in the Philippines, know how many documents, what comings, how many stamped papers, how much patience is needed to secure from the government a permit for an enterprise.

One must count upon the good will of this one, on the influence of that one, on a good bribe to another in order that the application be not pigeon-holed, a present to the one further on so that it may pass it on to his chief; one must pray to God to give him good humor and time to see and examine it; to another, talent to recognize its expediency; to one further on sufficient stupidity not to scent behind the enterprise an insurrectionary purpose land that they may not all spend the time taking baths, hunting or playing cards with the reverend friars in their convents or country houses.

And above all, great patience, great knowledge of how to get along, plenty of money, a great deal of politics, many salutations, great influence, plenty of presents and complete resignation! 7. Was there gambling in the country before the coming of the Spaniards? -Yes, we do not mean to say that before the coming of the Spaniards the natives did not gamble: the passion for gambling is innate in adventuresome and excitable races, and such is the Malay, Pigafetta tells us of cockfights and of bets in the Island of Paragua.

Cock-fighting must also have existed in Luzon and in all the islands, for in the terminology of the game are two Tagalog words: sabong and tari (cockpit and gaff). But there is not the least doubt that the fostering of this game is due to the government, as well as the perfecting of it. 8. What are the effects of too many religious festivals on the country? Remember, that lack of capital and absence of means paralyze all movement, and you will see how the native was perforce to be indolent for if any money might remain to him from the trials, imposts and exactions, he would have to give it to the curate for bulls, scapularies, candles, novenaries, etc.

And if this does not suffice to form an indolent character, if the climate and nature are not enough in themselves to daze him and deprive him of all energy, recall then that the doctrine of his religion teach him to irrigate his fields in the dry season, not by means of canals but with amasses and prayers; to preserve his stock during an epidemic with holy water, exorcisms and benedictions that cost five dollars an animal, to drive away the locusts by a procession with the image of St. Augustine, etc.

It is well, undoubtedly, to trust greatly in God; but it is better to do what one can not trouble the Creator every moment, even when these appeals redound to the benefit of His ministers. We have noticed that the countries which believe most in miracles are the laziest, just as spoiled children are the most ill-mannered. Whether they believe in miracles to palliate their laziness or they are lazy because they believe in miracles, we cannot say; but he fact is the Filipinos were much less lazy before the word miracle was introduced into their language. 9.

What other evidence may be pointed out to show the lack of national sentiment? -The very limited training in the home, the tyrannical and sterile education of the rare centers of learning that blind subordination of the youth to one of greater age, influence the mind so that a man may not aspire to excel those who preceded him but must merely be content to go along with a march behind them. Stagnation forcibly results from this, and as he who devotes himself merely to copying divests himself of other qualities suited to his own nature, he naturally becomes sterile; hence decadence.

Indolence is a corollary derived from the lack of stimulus and of vitality. That modesty infused into the convictions of everyone, or, to speak more clearly, that insinuated inferiority, a sort of daily and constant depreciation of the mind so that it may not be raised to the regions of life, deadens the energies, paralyzes all tendencies toward advancement, and of the least struggle a man gives up without fighting. If by one of those rare incidents, some wild spirit, that is some active one, excels, instead of his example stimulating, it only causes others to persist in their inaction. There’s one who will work for us; let’s sleep on! ” say his relatives and friends. True it is that the spirit of rivalry is sometimes awakened, only that then it awakens with bad humor in the guise of envy, and instead of being a lever for helping, it is an obstacle that produces discouragement. 10. How do we know there was no national sentiment? -Absence of all opposition to measures prejudicial to the people and the absence of any initiative in whatever may redound to its good. A man in the Philippines is only an individual, he is not a member of a nation.

He is forbidden and denied the right of association, and is, therefore, weak and sluggish. The Philippines is an organism whose cells seem to have no arterial system to irrigate it or nervous system to communicate its impressions; these cells must, nevertheless, yield their product, get it where they can; if they perish, let them perish. In the view of some this is expedient so that a colony may be a colony; perhaps they are right, but not the effect that a colony may flourish.

Philippines Orient Airways persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Case Overview Philippine Orient Airways (POA) is an airline company that focuses on domestic operations. They took part of the market share when the Company was incorporated in January 21, 1997, and formally started operations after receiving the Operator’s Permit from the Government. With granting of the 5-year Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity (CPCN), it gave POA the approval to provide scheduled services. The contract was extended to the next 25 years upon passing of the Legislative Franchise in June 22, 1998.

This was to serve primary routes, to develop secondary routes and international destinations, for the public’s convenience. Following this was the issuance of the Air Carrier Operating Certificate (ACOC) to operate scheduled and non-scheduled flights. In order for POA to deserve these certifications, 13 of their stations utilized the online Gabriel Reservation System to enable fast, accurate and customer-friendly reservation and booking services.

Then, followed the cutover of all stations to Departure Control System – an automated check-in system allowing efficient passenger registration and boarding. In 2002, POA already operated 11,310 flights and carried 502,000 revenue passengers. But in 2003, the numbers went down to 8,150 flights and 457,870 revenue passengers. At present, they are maintaining a fleet size of 10 aircrafts, and having 855 employees (52 pilots, 131 flight attendants and stewards, and 672 ground personnel). Vision To be a chosen global airline that surpasses world-class standards Mission

POA shall: •Deliver the first-rate customer service combining Filipino hospitality and world-class competence • Carry people and cargo at the least cost and earliest time •Provide its employees with an ideal working atmosphere •Provide its stockholders profitability and fair gain on their investments Products 1. Festival Adventures – tour packages- roundtrip airfare, hotel accommodation, daily breakfast, and roundtrip transfers. 2. Explorer Advantage – one-time availment of booklet once and be able to fly as many as 11 times before purchasing yet another ticket.

Also suitable for customers travelling in big groups. 3. Dealer’s Advantage – additional 15 kg free baggage allowance, priority service and special rates. 4. Athlete’s Advantage – for sports enthusiasts – priority service, special discounts and additional free baggage allowance ranging from 15 kg to 35 kg depending on the type of equipment the member would enroll. 5. Soaring Treasures – for frequent flyers – a tie-up with Rewards Plus. Members are credited with points for the mileage they fly and these points can be exchanged for variety of premium items. Awards/Recognitions 1.

Diamond Award for the Transportation and Travel Industry sector in the 2001 Grand Prix Customer Service Awards. 2. 3-time awardee of the Consumers Union of the Philippines as the “Most Outstanding Domestic Airline. ” Held this distinction for 2 consecutive years running. 3. On-Time Performance (OTP) of 94% in 2002. 4. 97% OTP in 2003. Current Target Market Primary Target Market Professionals belonging in the middle class who travel both for leisure and business DemographicsPsychographics •Professionals between 25-45 years old •Middle class •college degree •Urban dwellers •Travels for leisure/business Internet savvy •Travels by bus/ship on out of town trips •No frills traveler •Values convenience and safety •Loves long weekends Secondary Target Market •Travel agencies with domestic and international services, looking to grow their partner airlines Case Facts Major Carrier# of passengersseat capacitypassenger load factor POA50200096500052% SAL1379000212300065% PPA2644000367300072% Total4525000676100067% Table 1: Competitive Performance Summary for 2002 Major Carrier# of passengersseat capacitypassenger load factor POA5516505020009% dec SAL140715013790002% dec PPA281277026440006% dec Total477157045250005% dec

Table 2: Comparative Passengers Carried in 2001 and 2002 Major Carrier# of passengersseat capacitypassenger load factor POA129000096500025% dec SAL208200021230002% inc PPA4222000367300013% dec Total7594000676100011% dec Table 3: Comparative Seat Capacity Offered in 2001 and 2002 Major Carrier# of passengersseat capacitypassenger load factor 20012002 POA48%52%4% inc SAL67%65%2% dec PPA66%72%6% inc Total60%67%7% inc Table 4: Comparative Passengers Load Factors in 2001 and 2002 Major Carrier2002 POA5255. 0025% SAL6305. 0030% PPA9210. 0044% Total20770100% Table 5: Comparative Revenues from Domestic Operations 2002

II. Statement of the Problem What changes/improvements should Philippine Orient Airways implement in order to regain their image increase their current market share? III. Case Objectives 1. To increase passenger load factor to 18 percentage points at the end of the 3rd year and increase volume of passengers carried to 15% 2. To improve employee-employer relationship by regaining their trust to boost their morale 3. To restore/improve public image IV. Assumptions 1. Industry average of breakeven load factor is 55% 2. Analysis of the market has been done V. Areas for Consideration

The areas/factors involved with Philippines Orient Airways are summarized below through the SWOT Analysis. SWOT Analysis STRENGTHSWEAKNESSES Standouts as it offers safety standards comparable to PPA while charging fares competitive with that of SAL. Employs the services of Liebherr Technik Phlippines. POA maintenance crew adheres to rigid standards, policies and procedures to ensure that each airplane is in excellent condition. Prices are very competitive with that of SAL, its closest contender. Both offer lower fares than market leader, PPA. Highly trained flight attendants and stewards. Hub in Cebu.

Enhanced products such as tour packages, easy-ticketing, membership and rewards programs. PPA as market leader is their sister airline sharing of best practices. Low seating capacity and Low Passenger Load Factor. Public image due to failed merger Low employee morale Net Losses Serving of notices for contract termination with accredited travelling agents. POA not serving routes of Manila-Clark-Manila, Davao-Zamboanga-Davao which SAL currently serves. OPPORTUNITIESTHREATS POA not serving routes of Manila-Clark-Manila, Davao-Zamboanga-Davao which SAL currently serves but willing to compete head-on should market conditions improve.

Holiday economics (Gloria’s Term – Policy set in 2001) – POA services more domestic routes than international. Boost tourism, as air travel market is part dependent on it. Competitors may offer POA employees better career opportunities. Economic conditions. Shrinking passenger market due to reluctancy to travel by air (SARS, 9/11 – social conditions) Fluctuating fuel prices. Table 1: SWOT Analysis STRENGTHS Safety and Maintenance POA makes sure that the safety of their passengers the top priority. To enforce this principle, they employed the services of Liebherr Technik Philippines (LTP), who is an affiliate of Liebherr Technik in Germany.

This company is the worldwide leader in aircraft maintenance, repair, and overhaul. Competitive Price Fares Despite the high quality standards that POA provide their customers, they still manage to charge competitive fare prices, which are comparable to Pan Philippine Airways (PPA) and Southern Airlines (SAL). This is to attract price-conscious customers who are targeting low air fares and still take advantage of the comforts of travelling by air. Sea travellers may now opt to take airplanes to get to their destination much quicker. Employee Trainings and Tests

Another factor that POA boast are their highly trained flight attendants and stewards that they take into the company. Before POA assigns any of their attendants and stewards on actual duty, they make sure that they get sufficient training. There are also series of tests given to them, to measure their psychological, IQ, and personality ratings. Hub in Cebu POA has implemented the operation strategy of hub and spoke, and using Cebu as their spot. Cebu is considered as the practical location to carry large number of travellers and cargos to other cities several times a day.

This is also made as an assembly point by passenger going to nearby regions in the country. Enhanced Product POA makes things easier for their customers. They provide tour packages, easy ticketing, membership and different rewards programs to satisfy customer needs and maintain market competitiveness. PPA as their Sister Airline Having Pan Philippines Airways as their sister company, POA can adapt their best practices and to provide their customers with the best service possible. They can also make improvements on lessons learned from past experiences.

There is also a possibility for sharing on resources for both companies. WEAKNESSES Poor Company Image POA’s image was tainted by the failed merger with its sister company (PPA) and rumors has been circulating that the company will fold up to bankruptcy. The company’s image is not only affected by the failed merger but also with the accident that took place on April 19, 2000 where flight 541 crashed in Davao which killed all 131 passengers aboard. Low Seating Capacity and Low Passenger Load Factor POA only has a seating capacity of 965,000 as compared to SAL’s 2,123,000 and PPA’s 3,763,000.

Their seating capacity represents 14. 27% of the whole seating capacity of the 3 major players. Even at full capacity they can only take a maximum of 14. 27% of the market assuming that other players will also be at full seating capacity. Its passenger load factor (PLF) is also very low as at 52% compared to its peers and industry. On the number of passenger carried in 2002, which is 502,000, only represents 10. 52% of the total travellers or market. Low Employee Morale Due to the failed merger with Pan Philippine Airways and rumours of POA heading into bankruptcy, employees were not sure of the company’s direction.

With employees having low morale, there is a tendency that the quality of their service will be affected and may reflect on how they will serve their customers. Net Losses POA have started to experience the impact of the decrease of their market share. Because of their market share going down, the company have incurred significant net losses, which may also affect further improvements and sustainability. Cut ties with Travel Agents Having expectations of POA of progress with the merger with PPA, with its ultimate goal to cut costs and greater efficiency by identifying tasks, they anticipated to have combined sales.

POA terminated its existing ties with accredited travel agents. OPPORTUNITIES Improved Market Conditions The market condition is gradually improving in 2003 as it just came from two major incidents, first is the 9/11 terrorist attack in the US in 2001, and the second is the effect of SARS on the first half of the year. Tourist both local and foreigners are starting to fly and travel again. Long holidays are approaching which gives the people a chance to travel and heads back home to their provinces. Holiday Economics R. A. 492 or the so called holiday economics, seeks to “rationalize” the celebration of the national holidays in the Philippines. The new law makes majority of the holidays “movable” to Mondays. This new law will boost local tourism which is normally enjoyed mostly by foreigners. This means that there will be more long-weekends that will give local people a chance to travel. Government Aggressive Campaign for Tourism The government is aggressively campaigning to boost Philippine tourism to other countries especially in Korea, China, USA, and Europe.

This campaign will result to more tourists coming in to visit the country, which will then result to increase number of passengers that will bring them to local destinations. THREATS Pirating of POA Skilled Employees POA employees are having low morale with the current status of the company. They may have tendencies to take job offers from other airline companies who need their assistance. The employees may even leave POA and look for a job that they think is going to be more stable. Economic Conditions In 2002, the Philippine economy grew by 4. 6% as compared to 2001’s 3. 4%.

The growth was robust but it was also the year of a record budget deficit. The country was burdened by the public sectors debt equal to more than 100% of GDP. The unemployment was also at its peak at 10. 2% leaving more people wandering on the streets without disposable income. The economy just came from mild recession in 2001 brought by dot com bubble, 9/11 attack, and SARS. Shrinking Passenger Market There can be disasters that may occur and also diseases, which may lessen the number of travellers. Examples are the 9/11 tragedy and the SARS outbreak. When problems like these occur, people will most likely refrain from flying out.

This will also cause less revenue and can result to net losses. Fluctuating Fuel Prices Fuel is one of the major costs spent by airline companies. If prices suddenly go up, it will greatly affect POA and other company’s profit. The increase in fuel prices cannot be easily passed on to passengers as it will significantly increase the air fares. If the air fare is high, most passengers may not afford it and may defer their travel when the prices go down. The result would be less people would be willing to pay high prices, and this will negatively affects POA’s profit. VI. Alternative Courses of Action

For our Alternative Courses of Action, we present the following: ACA #1: Re-brand the company to improve its image and remove the tainted impression from the market brought by failed merger. Pros -POA can have the chance to make the right changes with their old processes and remove the impression of people with their old company -They may get back the trust of their customers Cons -A lot of re-processing and re-organization effort would needs to be done -Some employees may not be able to adjust to new cultures that will be introduced to the organization – There are a lot of uncertainties that may arise

ACA #2: Design and implement an aggressive marketing program (low budget fares, e-ticketing, flight packages) to earn back the loss market and to increase net profit. Pros -Attracting frequent fliers to fly with POA instead of SAL or PPA -Attracting new customers that previously cannot afford to fly such as those who travel by sea or land. -Market share may increase significantly because more people from the lower class can now afford to fly. In effect, POA will generate more revenue and have more leverage on introducing new things to the market to improve the current customer service being provided. Introducing e-ticketing will make it more convenient for customers to book flights and reduce cost by eliminating the use of paper, in turn reducing waste and protect the environment. -The utilization of their aircraft will improve and their PLF would also improve. Cons -POA will need to initially spend more to fund the program. Given the uncertainty of their cash flow, any additional expenses may further impact their liquidity. -The program would be expensive and still does not guarantee success as competitors may launch the same aggressive program to counter POA to protect their market share.

ACA #3: Expand operations to cater to other untapped locations and be the first one to offer flights to that location. Pros -POA will be the only player, thus monopolize the market to that location -POA can be the first to get the market share for customers who want to fly the new destination -POA being the first to offer the flight to that location will create a good brand image and will result to passenger loyalty. -Customers who avail of this new destination may decide to also book their other destinations with POA Cons Number of passengers may be low as it is a new destination -POA may need to initially subsidize the unfilled flights or unutilized seating capacity -Additional expenses for POA setting up the flight to that location. ACA #4: Improve existing programs and benefits for employees. Pros -Happy employees will give quality service which in turn results to satisfied and happy customer. -Happy customers will patronage the airline, more repeat customers. -Happy employees reflects good service, each employee would be a marketing agent for the company. Offer discounts to employees and their immediate family. Employees to give feedback on their travel experience as an input to the marketing department. Cons -Improving the benefit of the employees or their compensation packages need further financing and increase their operating cost. ACA #5: Re-build or re-establish relationship with travel agents. Pros -Booking flights with POA will become easier and more accessible through travel agents. -Travel agents could bring more passengers as more and more travellers prefer to use travel agents as one stop shop on their travel needs. As a result POA will be able to regain the lost opportunity or flights that the travel agents booked with SAL instead of POA. -Market share will gradually increase. -Minimal cost and the fastest to implement Cons -Will not address the low company morale issue ACA #6: Combination of ACA #2, ACA #4, and ACA #5 Pros -POA will be able to cater internal and external customers -ACA #5 is the fastest and cheapest to implement. Cons -This will need a large amount of investment -Multiple action items to implement. VII. Conclusion and Recommendation

With the current situation of Philippine Orient Airways, our Group analyzed different ways on how to improve their current state and regain their market share. Having an airline company would entail an enormous amount of capital and continuous flow of money is a must, in order to sustain their people and the business itself. After numerous discussions, our Group decided to take ACA#6 as our action. ACA #6 has the combination of ACA #2, ACA #4, and ACA #5. With the combination of these three ACAs, we believe that POA has a better chance to bounce back with their decrease in market problem and improve the morale of their employees.

Strategies Employed to Cultivate High Performance common app essay help: common app essay help

Creating Corporate Culture: a study of strategies employed to cultivate High Performance Mentality within Sony Ericsson ABSTRACT: The current expansion of mergers and acquisitions forces new postmerged organizational cultures to take form, and requires solid strategies for handling that procedure. Research indicate that at least half of all mergers fail in creating expected synergies, and that the reason for failing is assumed integration issues such as culture clashes. Creating a strong organizational culture is often appointed a principal factor for managing a post-merged situation.

This study focuses on analyzing the acculturation process of Sony Ericsson, challenged by fusing Japanese and Swedish companies into a joint venture. The purpose is defining which criteria govern the strategic process of creating corporate culture in order for this to illuminate possible future problems. By applying an interpretative approach, with certain descriptive elements, I propose to illustrate the concepts of organizations and cultures as being process-based rather than structured systems.

On analyzing the case in light of theoretical discussions and earlier research, three statements connected to post-merger success emerged:1)Organizational type marginally affects the ability of creating a strong corporate culture2)Merger type affects the ability of creating a strong corporate culture to a certain extent3)Integration process extensively affects the ability of creating a strong corporate cultureCreating corporate values strongly connected to the employees? rivate norms was also found essential to succeeding in creating a strong culture. This further involves the need for providing a combination of top-down and bottom-up strategies on creating a long-term corporate culture.

Statement of Intent for Vice Presidency of Student Council essay help app: essay help app

Statement of Intent for Vice Presidency of Student Council My name is Zameena Jaffer and I am currently in IB 2. I have been involved in the Student Council for several years now as both a member and as a leader in office. I have been secretary of student council for three consecutive years and treasurer for one, and it is not my time to step up to the plate and take on a larger responsibility.

And there are a number of factors that make me a prime candidate for this position. First of which I am amongst the eldest group of students on the campus and that makes me more able to take on the responsibilities of the student body. I also have a lot of experience with student council and was amongst the group of people that pushed for the approval of black pants for primary and secondary students and also for the new IB common room and for subway to run our new canteen.

Not only am I approachable and understanding, I also genuinely care about the state of the student body and wish to do my best in order to improve it. I am the kind of leader that is extremely open to suggestions and I will be willing to apply any ideas that I receive from the student body. In fact, I very much encourage the student body to approach me with any questions, comments or concerns. I believe that I have the strong leadership qualities that this position requires and I will bring significant, healthy changes to the IST community.

Co-Curricular Activities research essay help: research essay help

Co-curricular activities prepare students practically for the future. The normal curriculum can only go so far as to teach and educate students about academic theories. But students whose only experience of school or college is one of rigid academic study may not be able to apply what they have learned in practice. If the co-curriculum was given an equal footing in student life there will be an improvement in the student ability to grasp things as a whole, because students will have received a more rounded education.

Co-curricular activities are particularly good at providing opportunities for students to work in teams, to exercise leadership, and to take the initiative themselves. These experiences make students more attractive to universities and to potential employers. The academic curriculum is really much more important and must continue to be given more status in schools and colleges than the co-curriculum. Students are meant to be receiving an education and gaining recognised qualifications. Higher Education institutions place a greater importance on the curriculum than the co-curriculum when selecting students, and so do employers.

Co-curricular activities are nice, but they have never been shown to actually play a vital role in a student’s life. And if they distract students from focusing on their academic qualifications, then they could be actually harmful. 2. )Most co-curricular activities are physically active, getting the student out from behind their desk and making them try new things. This is healthy and ensures that students are exposed to practical tasks, not just what is taught in class. The outcome of giving the co-curriculum the same status as the curriculum will therefore be well balanced individuals.

Future politicians, for example, will not only thrive on law or social studies, but will also become fluent in multiple languages, learn to tango and perform several calculus operations simultaneously, while also experiencing service through community work. Such are the more profound benefits of the co-curriculum being integrated into the syllabus. There is no obvious logic in having super talented individuals, instead society should lean itself towards making specialised individuals in their selected fields.

Most modern careers require expert knowledge and skills, which can take years to acquire. We should not distract a student from developing skills in whatever selected field he or she has chosen to specialise in. After all, when you see a doctor or employ an engineer, you are not interested in how “well-rounded” they are, just in whether they are good at their job. And the Prime Minister does not play soccer or tango in the House of the Commons, therefore they do not require such skills as part of their formal education. 3. Having a wide range of experiences prepares people better for the future, especially in today’s uncertain world. The broad education that the co-curriculum can provide is better preparation for life in a society where an individual may change career several times in their life. Students must therefore have a fundamental grasp of multiple skills. For instance, athletes who had their career cut short due to mishaps might venture into business, having had co-curricular experience of entrepreneurship as part of their education.

Speech and debate clubs might give a doctor or engineer the communication skills to move into broadcasting, teaching, or even politics. Placing more emphasis on the co-curriculum thus ensures a variety of possibilities for young people to choose from instead of being sidelined. Most specialist professions still provide a range of career opportunities, without any need to compromise academic education by over-emphasis on non-academic activities. For example, athletes who have been injured in mishaps can continue their career in the same field but just in a different post.

No longer could they play, but they could still coach or even give sports science lectures to aspiring super stars. And if someone does wish to radically switch career in mid-life, there are plenty of evening classes and continuing education opportunities to allow them to retrain. 4. )Students have a right to a broad education. Why should a science student have to give up music, or a social studies major not get opportunities for sport? Many children have talents in all sorts of different areas, and it is wrong to force them to specialise too early.

A career is not the only part of an adult’s life – school needs to make sure they have interests and skills that will help them in their family and leisure lives too. Through equal balancing of academic and co-curriculum, however, the students have the chance to exercise their rights and the opportunity to be multi-talented. Lopsided individuals are not the key to the future, instead by recognising each individual by their talents there exists a higher possibility for young people to learn and to grow in their studies. Choice works two ways.

If co-curricular activities are so good, then students should have right to choose whether they wish to pursue them, rather than forcing them to give equal importance to something they do not wish to do. Through equalising the demands of academic and co-curriculums there exists the possibility that a student may drop out because he or she may not be able to cope with the demands of both sets of activities. The right to an education is best exercised by giving students the choice to decide what field their lives would like to be based on, and about how to pursue these aims. 5. Many students do not take advantage of the extra-curricular opportunities they are currently offered. They may instead waste their time lazing around, or maybe even making trouble. These young people do not know what they are missing; if they could be made to try other activities they would surely enjoy them and gain a lot of benefit. If the co-curriculum was given formal importance, with students required to undertake at least one activity, then more people would try new things, and discover they like them. Making extra-curricular activity compulsory will take the fun out of it and strip it of its benefits.

Successful extra-curricular groups work precisely because the students have voluntarily chosen to be there. If some were forced to take part, they would be less enthusiastic and spoil the activity for the rest. And the more the activity is like ordinary school, the less attractive it will be to young people. Most of the personal development benefits associated with extra-curricular commitments – such as altruistic service, initiative-taking, and leadership skills – come from the voluntary nature of the activity.

If that voluntary aspect is removed, then the benefits are lost too. 6. )An ambitious co-curricular programme is quite affordable for schools and colleges of all kinds. State schools in Singapore and many public universities in the USA are able to offer strong co-curriculums, and elsewhere many state-funded institutions have thriving extra-curricular activities. Most co-curricular pursuits are not expensive to run, and those activities that might be more expensive, such as military cadet groups and science clubs, can often apply to outside agencies for funding.

Staff often given their time free, because they believe the activities are worthwhile for the students and enjoyable for themselves to run, and many groups can also be supported by unpaid volunteers from the wider community. Giving a greater place in education to the co-curriculum means that many more clubs and activities will have to be organised for students. This will be very expensive as it will require more staff and more resources to be paid for. This explains why most schools that currently offer a large co-curriculum are well-funded fee-paying institutions.

Most ordinary schools, dependent on state-funding, will never be able to match this spending and could not aim to offer an ambitious co-curriculum. If they try, it will be at the expense of more important academic activities. 7. )Many towns today do not have a strong civil society, and in more rural areas there may be no groups at all for young people to join outside school. If schools and colleges do not provide opportunities for youngsters to broaden their experiences, then students will not get them at all.

Boosting the place of the co-curriculum in schools is one way of addressing this weakness in modern society, as it will equip young people with the civic spirit, initiative and organising skills to set up their own clubs, teams and activity groups when they leave education. Finally, a successful co-curriculum often depends on building links between the school and the wider community, bringing local enthusiasts in to work with students, and sending students out to work on community projects, help in primary schools, perform for local audiences, etc.

Giving co-curricular activities greater importance in education can be harmful to civil society as a whole. There are many clubs, teams and groups available for young people already in most areas – e. g. Scouts, religious work, music, drama, sport, voluntary work in the community, etc. Why should these be ignored and only those done in school given academic credit of some kind? Often pursuits offered by schools end up replicating those already available in the wider community.

For example, a school hockey team may deprive the local town’s hockey club of young players, while school adventure activities might weaken the community’s Scouting and Guiding groups. So a strong co-curriculum may have the effect of killing off lots of worthwhile community-based activities because they do not receive school credit. This would be a shame as a strong civil society is vital to a thriving democratic culture, but also because groups that involve people of all ages possess great social and educational value.

Recommenadations on Unethical Ads and Effects on Children homework essay help: homework essay help

It also know as moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality; that is, about concept such as good and bad, right and wrong ,justice and virtue. Advertisement:- Advertisement is bring a product or services to attention of potential and current customers advertisement is focused on one particular product or service. Thus, an advertisement plan for one product might be very different then that for another product. Advertisement typically done with sings, brochures, commercial Implication Implication means the fact of being involved.

In what way the advertisement implicit the children’s they shows those thing in which children’s to buy this thing. Because children’s are not aware about advertisement of any thing. Company shows advertisement of anything at time of showing they shows it other way but at the time of using this is not as . Advertisement means to gain some profit RECOMMENDATION Advertising is a massive, mulAti-million dollar Niow Kanner and several colleagues are up-in-arms about psychologists and others who are using psychological knowledge to help marketers target children more effectively.

They’re outraged that psychologists and others are revealing such tidbits as why 3project that’s having an enormous impact on child development,” says Kanner, who is also an associate faculty member at a clinical psychology training program called the Wright Institute. “The sheer volume of advertising is growing, lke rapidly and invading new areas of childhood our schools. ” – to 7-year-olds gravitate toward toys that transform themselves into something else and why 8- to 12-year-olds love to collect things.

Last fall, Kanner and a group of 59 other psychologists and psychiatrists sent a controversial letter protesting Unethical practices The letter protesting psychologists’ involvement in children’s advertising was written by Commercial Alert, a Washington, D. C. , advocacy organization. The letter calls marketing to children a violation of APA’s mission of mitigating human suffering * Issue a formal, public statement denouncing the use of psychological principles in marketing to children. Launch an ongoing campaign to investigate the use of psychological research in marketing to children, publish an evaluation of the ethics of such use, and promote strategies to protect children against commercial exploitation by psychologists and others using psychological principles. * “The information psychologists are giving to advertisers is being used to increase profits rather than help children,” says Kenner, who helped collect signatures for the letter. “The whole enterprise of advertising is about creating insecure people who believe they need to buy things to be happy.

I don’t think most psychologists would believe that’s a good thing. There’s an inherent conflict of interest. ” * Advertisers’ efforts seem to work. According to marketing expert James U. McNeal, PhD, author of “The Kids Market: Myths and Realities” (Paramount Market Publishing, 1999), children under 12 already spend a whopping $28 billion a year. Teen-agers spend $100 billion. Children also influence another $249 billion spent by their parents

Health Is Wealth melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th edition, health means no illness or injury; the ability to cope with everyday activities; and a good mental and physical condition. The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and does not only consist of the absence of diseases and infirmities. On the other hand, wealth is defined as abundance of valuable possession. Having said that, what I mean when I say health is wealth is our state of complete physical, mental and social well-being is our most abundant and valuable possession.

Health is wealth simply because a healthy life is life in all its abundance, joy and fullness. Without health, life would be full of anxiety and fear towards diseases and injuries. With health on our side, life automatically seems to be full of happiness and laughter, and this will actually promote optimism in one’s mind-set. According to research, when one often thinks about diseases and injuries all the time, those calamities will keep coming back to haunt the person.

The best way is to concentrate on being healthy and avoid unhealthy activities. With health and optimism, we tend to see life in the best way possible. Furthermore if we strive for health, there will be others who you will follow, who will be inspired by you to have that mutual objective which is a healthy life. Through this way, you can have many more acquaintances and friends, with more friends, obviously our life would be happier and healthier. Anything that promotes health will almost always start and end with joy.

Imagine a car with a tank full of fuel, the indicator will show that it is full, same goes to our stomach, when we have eaten, we will feel full too. However, the thing that differs from a car and our stomachs is that the fuel in the car, when not used, can be stored for future use. For our stomach, when we store ‘fuel’ in it and do not use it, it will eventually turn to fats and that means trouble. Our health determines HOW we live, how LONG we live and that we even LIVE at all. In conclusion, Health is Wealth. Thank you.

Life and Work of Subhas Chandra Bose essay help websites: essay help websites

Towards a revival of the Bose legacy Madhuri Bose “Rose early but found Prabha still suffering. A son was born at midday… ” reads a brief entry in Janakinath’s diary dated 23 January 1897. The newborn, the ninth child of Janakinath Bose and Prabhabati Devi was named Subhas Janakinath was then practicing law in Cuttack, in the state of Orissa. He headed a large extended family, in which, Subhas was to later recall in his autobiography An Indian Pilgrim, he felt “like a thoroughly insignificant being.

My parents awed me to a degree”. It is now 111 years since the birth of Subhas Chandra Bose, and sixty-three years since his last known journey out of South East Asia, reportedly to the Soviet Union, in mid-August 1945. On 23 January every year Subhas’ birth anniversary is celebrated across India. Speeches extolling Bose’s charisma and personality, his unique contributions towards Indian independence continue to be made, and stirring national songs continue to be sung in his honour.

On that day, in addition to institutionally sponsored events, spontaneous remembrance ceremonies organized by neighbourhood and citizens’ groups also take place. This is a unique feature associated only with Subhas’ birth anniversary which reflects the depth of people’s veneration for him after more than half a century of his disappearance. This, in a sense, is a fitting tribute to a man who dedicated his life to liberating India from British colonial rule, and had a vision to make Free India one of the leading nations in the world.

But. 23 January will pass and Bose will again be relegated to the pages of history. Though deified by many, his ideology and mission are forgotten, or are not even known by the younger generations of Indians. From his entry into the Indian political movement in the early 1920s, throughout his prison years and bouts of serious illnesses, Subhas had developed his thoughts on social, political and economic issues which then formed the basis of his ideology.

His famous address as the President of the 51sl Session of the Indian National Congress at Haripura in 1938 contains the crux of his political and economic thinking and plans. Is it widely known that it was in Haripura that Subhas launched the very first Planning Commission for India? In all his key addresses in India and abroad, in articles published in various journals, Subhas articulated his vision for Free India. In his view the most important problems to be addressed in independent India were that of poverty, unemployment and illiteracy, challenges which have still not been met today fter sixty years of independence. Together with the celebratory functions, a more fitting tribute to Subhas’ memory will be to effectively propagate his vision and ideology which will in turn promote a better understanding of the history and politics of India, and also inspire the present generation of Indians to shape India on the basis of the high moral values and principles that Subhas stood for and practised all his life.

Subhas’ works should be part of school and university curricula. Research institutes, including the Netaji Institute for Asian Studies (Kolkata) should actively encourage and support national and international scholars to reassess Subhas’ role in the Indian independence movement, and also his contemporary relevance. A deeper study of his works will show that many of his social and economic plans still remain valid under present day conditions.

In the current Indian situation where there is a bankruptcy of leadership, ideas, commitment and action, Subhas’ message, through his writings, speeches and commentaries may help to resurrect the failing morale of those who are working to bring positive change in this country. Above all, Subhas’ life-long emphasis on the importance of communal harmony and unity among peoples, irrespective of birth, caste, creed and religion, has not only remained relevant, in fact it has even gained a sense of urgency.

In a world torn by ethnic, tribal, religious and regional conflicts, Bose’s unqualified rejection of bigotry of any kind from the very outset of his entry into the Indian political scene, and his repeated call for unity among all the peoples of India, famously reflected in the motto of his Indian National Army – Unity, Faith and Sacrifice, can help to create the only secure foundation of contemporary India.

Conscious of the grave danger that communalism posed to a country such as India, where people of many faiths were inextricably mixed together over centuries, Subhas had again and again warned against the virus of religious bigotry entering the fabric of politics. In referring to what should be the attitude towards religion and caste, Subhas had declared “… the Government of Free India must have an absolutely neutral and impartial attitude toward all religions and leave it to the choice of every individual to profess or follow a particular religious faith” (The Fundamental Problems of India, address at Tokyo University, November 1944).

Subhas’ legacy will be better served if he is brought alive through his works. However, there is another reality. During the time of the British Raj, Subhas as their Enemy No 1 was blacked out and his book The Indian Struggle banned in India. This is understandable and could have been expected from a colonial power determined to hold on to India and ready to suppress any threat to their rule.

It is therefore particularly ironic that after the government of free India came to power, a systematic attempt was made by forces in the new administration to reduce Subhas to merely a Bengal hero, who though deemed idealistic was seen to be misled, and had made the terrible mistake of finally discarding Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent way to independence. It is only because Subhas had entered the minds and hearts of the Indian people, and of the peoples of Asia, that all attempts at diminishing his stature and role in Indian and global politics have not fully succeeded.

The role of the first government of independent India under Prime Minister Nehru in this process of suppression and distortion cannot be ignored nor denied. Historians have noted that Nehru had always perceived Subhas as his main rival, and his own statements bear evidence to that fact. Subhas himself had once written that “nobody has done more harm to me personally and to our cause in this crisis than Pandit Nehru (letter to his nephew Amiya Nath Bose, 17 April 1939).

As more evidence begins to emerge it will be possible to make an objective and proper assessment of the role and personalities of our leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru, Patel and others. When in August 1945 Subhas disappeared, his beloved elder brother Sarat Chandra Bose was in prison. Sarat and Subhas had shared an extraordinary relationship as brothers. Their close personal and emotional bond was enriched and deepened by their shared social and political ideology and goals. After Sarat was released in September 1945, he immediately resumed his campaign for a free and united India.

He also decided to acquire the Bose ancestral house on Elgin Road in Calcutta to establish an institution for the study and propagation of Subhas’ ideology. Soon after, in 1946, Sarat inaugurated ‘Netaji Bhawan’ at their ancestral house and laid the foundations for a Netaji museum and research centre in the name of his brother, who was by then popularly known as Netaji (our leader). It was Sarat’s wish that the Bose house should also be used for public and charitable purposes. The Azad Hind Ambulance Service which he set up provided much needed medical and social services in the city, especially during the dark days of communal trife. These were tumultuous times for Bengal and India as a whole. A new alternative was beginning to emerge in Bengal’s political firmament. Sarat Bose was seen to carry the torch forward. He became the undisputed leader of the Congress Party in West Bengal. He was then elected leader of the Congress Party in the Central Legislative Assembly and became the Leader of the Opposition. Sarat’s membership of the Interim Government was, however, short-lived. He left the Interim Cabinet and the Congress Party refusing to agree to the partition of India on communal lines.

Within a few short years a greater tragedy was to strike. On 20 February 1950, the very morning Sarat was to make an urgent appeal to the people of the two Bengals to reunite, he suddenly passed away in an attempt to keep alive the Bose legacy and to give it concrete shape, the close followers of the Bose Brothers, supported by Sarat’s family, set up The Sarat Bose Academy at Netaji Bhawan in 1952. It gathered within its fold eminent historians, lawyers, journalists and other committed voluntary workers. It also attracted interested persons from overseas.

The Academy launched an ambitious programme to develop Netaji Bhawan as a centre of excellence for research and exchange on both national and international affairs. It also aimed to function as a centre for the promotion of arts, music and languages, while continuing to provide other public services. It was to be the main archive for the works of Sarat and Subhas and for all types of documents and records related to them. The major objective of collecting key documents as well as photos and films on the life and activities of Subhas Chandra Bose began in earnest.

Amiya Nath Bose, General Secretary of the Sarat Bose Academy, who took up his father Sarat’s mantle, engaged himself fully in this task. He collected a substantial amount of materials, including primary documents, newspaper clippings, journals, films and other source materials on Netaji’s activities both in India and abroad. All of these materials were deposited at the Netaji Museum and archives to be made available “… to students and scholars for the study of and research about the life and work of Netaji … “.

The Sarat Bose Academy began publication of Subhas and Sarat’s works, and set up a comprehensive photographic exhibition portraying the life and work of the Bose Brothers. By the late 1950s, significant progress had been made in the collection of materials for the Netaji Museum and its archives, and it was concluded that it would be appropriate to create a separate body ‘to undertake a systematic study of Netaji’s life and mission’. This led ultimately to the creation of the Netaji Research Bureau in 1957 under the chairmanship of the well-known journalist Satya Ranjan Bakshi and Sisir Kumar Bose (a son of Sarat Bose) as General Secretary.

Thus, Netaji Bhawan, with its three main organs, namely, the Sarat Bose Academy, the Netaji Research Bureau and the Azad Hind Ambulance Service, was designed to act as the lead institution to uphold and promote the Bose Brothers’ legacy, and to work towards realising their cherished goals. However, here again the forces bent upon destroying the Bose legacy went to work. Gradually the Netaji Research Bureau came under the direct influence of the Nehru dynasty dominated Central Government. The Sarat Bose Academy moved out of Netaji Bhawan. Netaji Research Bureau became the only organ to remain under the directorship of Sisir Bose.

Since its inception until now, over a period of fifty years, the Netaji Research Bureau has accomplished one of its basic goals and has published, in twelve volumes, almost all of the writings, speeches, letters of Subhas, the bulk of which was originally collected under the auspices of The Sarat Bose Academy. Reportedly Netaji Research Bureau has obtained substantial funding from the Central Government to carry out its work. But judged against its own objectives, and what was envisaged by its founders, the work of Netaji Research Bureau may be said to have been limited.

Netaji’s own works are not widely available, and conditions of access to the archives at Netaji Bhawan are obscure. Was there a price to pay for support from those who have an interest in keeping the Bose Brother’s legacy in check? In view of the current realities of India today, those who believe in Subhas’ ideology and its relevance in contemporary India, must take the initiative to revive, disseminate and act on the basis of that ideology. Such initiatives are already being taken by certain civil society and media groups both in India and abroad.

This year a major website is being launched by a voluntary group called MissionNetaji which will be an online archive for all of Subhas’ works, a data base of bibliographies and of scholars. It will also contain photographs and audio-visual materials. The overall objective is to provide access to relevant materials to all those who wish to study the life, activities and ideology of Subhas, and also to those who wish to define their actions in terms of Bose’s vision of India and the world. The author is the daughter of Amiya Nath Bose. Ms Bose is an international human rights specialist and is currently based in New York.

Based on an article published in Asian Studies, the journal of the Netaji Institute for Asian Studies, Kolkata. Subhas Chandra Bose and India’s Struggle for Independence By Andrew Montgomery When one thinks of the Indian independence movement in the 1930s and early 1940s, two figures most readily come to mind: Mahatma Gandhi, the immensely popular and “saintly” frail pacifist, and his highly respected, Fabian Socialist acolyte, Jawaharlal Nehru. Less familiar to Westerners is Subhas Chandra Bose, a man of comparable stature who admired Gandhi but despaired at his aims and methods, and who became a bitter rival of Nehru.

Bose played a very active and prominent role in India’s political life during most of the 1930s. For example, he was twice (1938 and 1939) elected President of the Indian National Congress, the country’s most important political force for freedom from the Raj, or British rule. While his memory is still held in high esteem in India, in the West Bose is much less revered, largely because of his wartime collaboration with the Axis powers. Both before and during the Second World War, Bose worked tirelessly to secure German and Japanese support in freeing his beloved homeland of foreign rule.

During the final two years of the war, Bose — with considerable Japanese backing — led the forces of the Indian National Army into battle against the British. Ideology of Fusion As early as 1930 — in his inaugural speech as mayor of Calcutta — the fervent young Bose first expressed his support for a fusion of socialism and fascism: / 1 “… I would say we have here in this policy and program a synthesis of what modern Europe calls Socialism and Fascism. We have here the justice, the equality, the love, which is the basis of Socialism, and combined with that we have the efficiency and the discipline of Fascism as it stands in Europe today. In years that followed, the brilliant, eclectic Bengali would occasionally modify this radical doctrine, but would never abandon it entirely. For example, in late 1944 — almost a decade-and-a-half later — in a speech to students at Tokyo University, he asserted that India must have a political system “of an authoritarian character. . . To repeat once again, our philosophy should be a synthesis between National Socialism and Communism. ” / 2 In the wake of the crushing defeat in 1945 of Hitler and Mussolini, “fascism” has arguably been the most despised of all political ideologies.

Postwar western society recognizes no fascist heroics, and even considers “fascist” traits — particularly the authoritarian, charismatic, personal style of leadership, and the positive evaluation of violence and the willingness to use it for political purposes — to be decidedly unpalatable. In India, though, Bose is regarded as a national hero, in spite of his repeated praise (as will be shown) for autocratic leadership and authoritarian government, and admiration for the European fascist regimes with which he allied himself.

Like the leaders he admired in Italy and Germany, Bose was (and still is) popularly known as Netaji, or “revered leader. ” “His name,” explains Mihir Bose (no relation), one of Subhas’ many biographers, “is given [in India] to parks, roads, buildings, sports stadiums, artificial lakes; his statues stand in place of those of discarded British heroes and his photograph adorns thousands of calendars and millions of pan (betel-nut) shops. ” It is always the same portrait, continues the writer: Bose in his Indian National Army uniform, “exhorting his countrymen forward to one last glorious struggle. / 3 No less a figure than Gandhi paid tribute to Bose’s remarkable courage and devotion. Six months after his death in an airplane crash on August 18, 1945, Gandhi declared: “The hypnotism of the Indian National Army has cast its spell upon us. Netaji’s name is one to conjure with. His patriotism is second to none. . . His bravery shines through all his actions. He aimed high and failed. But who has not failed. ” / 4  On another occasion Gandhi eulogized: “Netaji will remain immortal for all time to come for his service to India. / 5 Many of Bose’s admirers have been inclined to downplay or even ignore the fascist elements in his ideology, and even to pretend they never existed. For example, the text of Bose’s inaugural speech as mayor of Calcutta, cited above, was reprinted in a laudatory 1970 “Netaji Birthday Supplement” of the Calcutta Municipal Gazette, but with all references to fascism, including his support for a synthesis of fascism and socialism, carefully deleted. / 6  Several admiring biographers have found it easier to ignore the fascist elements in his ideology than to explain them.

Their subjective accounts do not even inform the reader that Bose spoke positively about some features of fascism, or else, in an attempt to remove from their hero any possible taint, they qualify his remarks in ways that he himself did not. / 7 ‘Fascist’? During his lifetime, Bose was frequently denounced as a fascist or even a Nazi, particularly in the wake of the radical, revolutionary (as opposed to reformist) views he expressed in radio addresses broadcast to India from National Socialist Germany and, later, from quasi-fascist Japan. 8  For example, The Statesman, a highly influential Calcutta periodical, charged in November 1941: “Mr. Bose’s views are those of the Nazis, and he makes no secret of it,” / 9  while the BBC, Britain’s worldwide radio voice, frequently accused him of “Fascism” and “Nazism. ” / 10 Additionally, historians and writers who do not admire Bose readily point up his “fascist” views. A. M. Nair, a historian who has written favorably of Indian revolutionary Rash Behari Bose (who had sought Japan’s help during and after the First World War), found nothing to praise about Subhas Chandra Bose.

After all, wrote Nair, he was clearly a fascist. / 11 Recognized Leadership Bose, a patriot of almost fanatical zeal, first joined the Indian national movement in 1921, working under C. R. Das, whom he idolized. He was jailed for six months in 1921-1922 because of his po-litical activities. Immediately upon his release, the 25-year-old Bose organized (and presided over) the All-Bengal Young Men’s Conference. As a result of his remarkable leadership abilities and ambition, he advanced quickly through nationalist ranks.

He was soon elected General Secretary of the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee (BPCC). In 1924, at the age of 27, Bose was elected the Chief Executive Officer of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation, which effectively put him in charge of the second-largest city in the British empire. As a result of his close ties with nationalist terrorists, in late 1924 he was detained by British authorities and held, without trial, for three years in prison. In 1928, the 31-year-old Bose was elected president of the BPCC, and, at the Calcutta meeting of the Congress party held that

December, he came to national prominence by pressing (unsuccessfully) for the adoption by his provincial committee of an independence resolution. By 1930 Bose had formulated the broad strategy that he believed India must follow to throw off the yoke of British imperialism and assume its rightful place as a leader in Asia. During his years in Mandalay prison and another short term of imprisonment in Alipore jail in 1930, he read many works on political theory, including Francesco Nitti’s Bolshevism, Fascism and Democracy and Ivanoe Bonomi’s From Socialism to Fascism. 12  It is clear that these works on fascism influenced him, and caused an immediate modification of his long-held socialist views: as noted above, in his inaugural speech as mayor of Calcutta, given a day after his release from Alipore jail, he revealed his support for a seemingly contradictory ideological synthesis of socialism and fascism. Until his death 15 years later, Bose would continue publicly to praise certain aspects of fascism and express his hope for a synthesis of that ideology and socialism.

His detailed comments on the matter in his book The Indian Struggle: 1920-1934, which was first published in 1935, accurately represent the views he held throughout most of his career. As such, the most important of them, along with Bose’s own actions, will be analyzed here in some detail. Program Outlined Contending that the Indian National Congress was somewhat “out of date,” and suffered from a lack of unity and strong leadership, Bose predicted in The Indian Struggle that out of a “Left-Wing revolt there will ultimately emerge a new full-fledged party with a clear ideology, program and plan of action. / 13  The program and plan of action of this new party would, wrote Bose, follow this basic outline: / 14 “1. The party will stand for the interests of the masses, that is, of the peasants, workers, etc. , and not for the vested interests, that is, the landlords, capitalists and money-lending classes. “2. It will stand for the complete political and economic liberation of the Indian people. “3. It will stand for a Federal Government for India as the ultimate goal, but will believe in a strong Central Government with dictatorial powers for some years to come, in order to put India on her feet. “4.

It will believe in a sound system of state-planning for the reorganization of the agricultural and industrial life of the country. “5. It will seek to build up a new social structure on the basis of the village communities of the past, that were ruled by the village “Panch” and will strive to break down the existing social barriers like caste. “6. It will seek to establish a new monetary and credit system in the light of the theories and the experiments that have been and are current in the modern world. “7. It will seek to abolish landlordism and introduce a uniform land-tenure system for the whole of India. 8. It will not stand for a democracy in the Mid-Victorian sense of the term, but will believe in government by a strong party bound together by military discipline, as the only means of holding India together and preventing a chaos, when Indians are free and are thrown entirely on their own resources. “9. It will not restrict itself to a campaign inside India but will resort to international propaganda also, in order to strengthen India’s case for liberty, and will attempt to utilize the existing international organizations. “10.

It will endeavor to unite all the radical organizations under a national executive so that whenever any action is taken, there will be simultaneous activity on many fronts. ” Synthesis Bose went on to note that Nehru had said in 1933: “I dislike Fascism intensely and indeed I do not think it is anything more than a crude and brutal effort of the present capitalist order to preserve itself at any cost. ” There is no middle road between Fascism and Communism, said Nehru, so one “had to choose between the two and I choose the Communist ideal.   / 15 To this Bose responded: / 16 “The view expressed here is, according to the writer, fundamentally wrong. . . One is inclined to hold that the next phase in world- history will produce a synthesis between Communism and Fascism. And will it be a surprise if that synthesis in produced in India?… In spite of the antithesis between Communism and Fascism, there are certain traits in common. Both Communism and Fascism believe in the supremacy of the State over the individual. Both denounce parliamentary democracy. Both believe in party rule.

Both believe in the dictatorship of the party and in the ruthless suppression of all dissenting minorities. Both believe in a planned industrial reorganization of the country. These common traits will form the basis of the new synthesis. That synthesis is called by the writer “Samyavada” — an Indian word, which means literally “the doctrine of synthesis or equality. ” It will be India’s task to work out this synthesis. ” Before taking a closer look at these remarkable words, four points need to be made. First, Bose’s fascist model was almost certainly Mussolini’s Italy, not Hitler’s Germany.

In 1934 Bose made the first of several visits to Fascist Italy and found both the regime and its leader very agreeable. On that occasion he had a cordial (first) meeting with Mussolini — “a man who really counts in the politics of modern Europe. ” / 17  After The Indian Struggle appeared in print in 1935, Bose made a special stop in Rome personally to present a copy to the Duce. / 18 Second, the book was completed a full year before the commencement of the Italian invasion of Ethiopia (Abyssinia), in October 1935.

While Bose would, by the time he completed his book, have known about such violent incidents as “The Night of the Long Knives” — the SS killing of dozens of SA men on June 30, 1934 — he had no real reason to consider the European fascist regimes unusually violent, murderous or bellicose. “I should like to point out that when I was writing the book,” he later explained, / 19 “Fascism had not started on its imperialistic expedition, and it appeared to me merely an aggressive form of nationalism . . . What I really meant was that we in India wanted our national freedom, and having won it, we wanted to move in the direction of Socialism.

This is what I meant when I referred to a “synthesis between Communism and Fascism. ” Perhaps the expression I used was not a happy one. ” Third, despite Bose’s claim to represent the political left, and that a party supporting a fusion of fascism and socialism would be ushered in by a “Left-Wing revolt,” the ideology he expounded might more appropriately be regarded as right wing. Bose’s ideology was radical and contained socialist elements — such as the desire to abolish the traditional class structure and create a society of equal opportunity, and the claim to represent the peasants and workers.

To that extent it can be considered left wing. It is worth noting that Hitler’s “right wing” political movement — the National Socialist German Workers’ Party — shared many of Bose’s “socialist” goals. / 20   Nehru, a committed socialist, challenged Bose’s characterization of himself and his followers as left wing: “It seems to me that many of the so-called Leftists are more Right than the so-called Rightists. Strong language and a capacity to attack the old Congress leadership is not a test of Leftism in politics. / 21 Lastly, it should be noted that Bose was willing to tone down his more radical political beliefs on those occasions when he considered it advantageous or necessary to do so. For example, in his February 1938 inaugural speech as President of the Indian National Congress, Bose — probably in a sincere attempt to placate the Gandhian faction — made statements that appear to represent almost an about face from the political views he had expounded in The Indian Struggle. In a future independent India, he said, / 22 “the party itself will have a democratic basis, unlike, for instance, the Nazi party which is based on the “leader principle. The existence of more than one party and the democratic basis of the Congress party will prevent the future Indian State becoming a totalitarian one. Further, the democratic basis of the party will ensure that leaders are not thrust upon the people from above, but are elected from below. ” It is possible that these statements reflect a temporary change of mind, but it is more likely that they reflect Bose’s efforts during this period to gain further political respectability, to prove that he was more than just a radical and revolutionary Bengali.

By doing so he apparently hoped to win wider acceptance of the policies he wanted to implement in his year as Congress President: policies which were not especially radical or revolutionary. / 23  According to Nirad Chaudhuri, his former personal secretary, Bose tried very hard during this period to seek agreement with the Gandhian faction over the direction the Congress party should move, and even “showed something like tender filial piety towards Gandhi,” of whom he had been very critical in The Indian Struggle. 24  It is against this political background that Bose’s statements to the Congress party meeting in February 1938 should be seen. A year later he successfully recontested the presidential election, but two months afterwards was forced to resign because of his inability to resolve his differences with Gandhi and the Gandhian faction. Probably believing that his earlier suspicions of democracy had been proven correct, and feeling that there was now no use in trying to win the favor or approval of more conservative elements in the Congress party, Bose once again proclaimed his belief in the efficacy of uthoritarian government and a synthesis of fascism and socialism. Many similar examples can be cited to show how Bose outwardly (but probably not inwardly) modified his views to suit changing political contexts. A Life for India Throughout his political career, India’s liberation from British rule remained Bose’s foremost political goal; indeed, it was a lifelong obsession. As he explained in his most important work, The Indian Struggle, the political party he envisioned “will stand for the complete political and economic liberation of the Indian people. Speaking of Bose a few days after his death in August 1945, Jawaharlal Nehru said: / 25 “In the struggle for the cause of India’s independence he has given his life and has escaped all those troubles which brave soldiers like him have to face in the end. He was not only brave but had deep love for freedom. He believed, rightly or wrongly, that whatever he did was for the independence of India… Although I personally did not agree with him in many respects, and he left us and formed the Forward Bloc, nobody can doubt his sincerity.

He struggled throughout his life for the independence of India, in his own way. ” Along with his abiding love for his country, Bose held an equally passionate hatred of the imperial power that ruled it: Great Britain. In a radio address broadcast from Berlin on March 1, 1943, he exclaimed that Britain’s demise was near, and predicted that it would be ” India’s privilege to end that Satanic empire. ” / 26  The fundamental principle of his foreign policy, Bose declared in a May 1945 speech in Bangkok, is that ” Britain’s enemy is India’s friend. / 27  Although these two speeches are from his final years, they express views he had held since before his April 1921 resignation from the Indian Civil Service. / 28  It was this principle of making friends with Britain’s enemies in the hope that they would assist him in liberating India that brought him in 1941 to Germany and then, in 1943, to Japan. Violence or Non-Violence? Bose envisaged that “the complete political and economic liberation of the Indian people” would inevitably require the use of force.

Just before resigning from the Indian Civil Service, he discussed with Dilip Kumar Roy, his closest friend, the subject of anti-British terrorism. “I admit is it regrettable,” he said, “even ugly if you will, though it also has a terrible beauty of its own. But maybe that beauty does not unveil her face except for her devotees. ” / 29 Violence was not new to Bose, even at that early stage of his career. In 1916 he had been expelled from Presidency College in Calcutta for his part in the violent assault on Professor Edward Oaten, who had allegedly insulted Indian students. 30  Moreover, although he occasionally claimed to “detest” violence, / 31  and criticized isolated acts of terrorism (which he considered ineffective and counterproductive), / 32  he was never really committed to Gandhi’s policy of non-violence. / 33  He regarded the Gandhi-supported civil disobedience campaign as an effective means of paralyzing the administration, but regarded it as inadequate unless accompanied by a movement aimed at total revolution and prepared, if necessary, to use violence. / 34  Militarism

Related to Bose’s willingness to use violence to gain political objective was his belief — expressed in The Indian Struggle, for example — that a government by a strong party should be “bound together by military discipline. ” Indeed Bose was infatuated with military discipline, and later commented that his basic training in the University Unit of the India Defence Force (for which he volunteered in 1917, while a student at Scottish Church College in Calcutta) “gave me something which I needed or which I lacked.

The feeling of strength and of self-confidence grew still further. ” / 35 Bose was able to give much grander expression to his “militarism” when, in 1930, he volunteered to form a guard of honor during the ceremonial functions at the Calcutta session of the Congress party. Such guards of honor were not uncommon, but the one Bose formed and commanded was unlike anything previously seen. More than 2,000 volunteers were given military training and organized into battalions. About half wore uniforms, with specially designed steel-chain epaulettes for the officers.

Bose, in full dress uniform (peaked cap, standing collar, ornamental breast cords, and jodhpurs) even carried a Field Marshal’s baton when he reviewed his “troops. ” Photographs taken at the conference show him looking entirely out of place in a sea of khadi (traditional Indian clothing). Gandhi and several other champions of Non-violence (Ahimsa) were uncomfortable with this display. / 36 The Indian National Army A high point in Bose’s “military career” came in July 1943 in Singapore. At a mass meeting there on July 4, Rash Behari Bose (no relation) handed over to him the leadership of the Indian Independence League.

The next day, Subhas Bose reviewed for the first time the soldiers of the Indian National Army (INA), which then comprised 13,000 men. In his address to the troops, which is a good example of his speaking style, he cited George Washington and Giuseppi Garibaldi as examples of men who led armies that won independence for their respective countries. Bose went on: / 37 “Soldiers of India’s army of liberation!… “Every Indian must feel proud that this Army — his own Army — has been organized entirely under Indian leadership and that, when the historic moment arrives, under Indian leadership it will go to battle… Comrades! You have voluntarily accepted a mission that is the noblest that the human mind can conceive of. For the fulfillment of such a mission, no sacrifice is too great, not even the sacrifice of one’s life… “… Today is the proudest day of my life. For an enslaved people, there can be no greater pride, no higher honor, than to be the first soldier in the army of liberation. But this honor carries with it a corresponding responsibility, and I am deeply conscious of it. I assure you that I shall be with you in darkness and in sunshine, in sorrow and in joy, in suffering and in victory.

For the present, I can offer you nothing except hunger, thirst, privation, forced marches and death. But if you follow me in life and in death, as I am confident you will, I shall lead you to victory and freedom. It does not matter who among us will live to see India free. It is enough that India shall be free, and that we shall give our all to make her free. “May God now bless our Army and grant us victory in the coming fight! ” This “Free India Army” (“Azad Hind Fauj”) would not only “emancipate India from the British yoke,” he told the soldiers, but would, under his command, become the standing national army of the liberated nation.

Choreography for Impact As his staging at the 1930 Calcutta session of the Congress party suggest, Bose understood early on the importance of political choreography and the aesthetics of mass meetings. After his visits to Fascist Italy and National Socialist Germany, he was even more mindful of the importance for any successful broad-based political movement of mass meetings, marches, visual symbols, and ceremonial or liturgical rituals. For example, at the 51st session of the Congress party at Haripura in 1938, Bose made sure that his entrance as the new Congress President would be spectacular.

Escorted by 51 girls in saffron saris (the number corresponding with the number of the Congress session), he was seated in an ancient chariot drawn by 51 white bullocks, and taken on a two hour procession through 51 specially-constructed gates, accompanied by 51 brass bands. / 38  Political choreography of this type — although not to this extreme degree — was very evident at all mass rallies (which sometimes attracted crowds numbering as many as 200,000) of the Forward Bloc party that Bose formed in 1939.

Carefully chosen symbols, slogans and songs, coupled with a flood of written propaganda, were used in an unsuccessful attempt to make the Forward Bloc into a mass party. / 39 Even during the last years of the war, when he was in southeast Asia heading the Provisional Government of Free India and the INA, he continued to choreograph carefully all of his rallies, meetings and ceremonies, in order to maximize their impact. He also realized that his own role in this choreography was central.

Even in the hottest tropical weather, for instance, he wore an imposing military uniform, including forage cap, khaki tunic and jodhpurs, and shiny, knee-length black boots. Moreover, whenever he travelled “he demanded all the rights and privileges of a head of state. On his road travels in Malaya, for example, he insisted on a full ceremonial escort; Japanese military jeeps mounted with sub-machine guns, a fleet of cars, and motorcycle outriders. / 40  Historian Mihir Bose argues persuasively that such carefully planned actions were manifestations not of megalomania, but rather of Subhas Bose’s effort to create a sense of unity transcending class, caste and origin among the large and diverse populations of Indians in Southeast Asia, to increase their political awareness, to arouse and inspire both them and his INA troops, and to show the world that he regarded himself as a political leader of substance and importance. / 41 This naturally raises the question of Bose’s leadership style. In the passage from The Indian Struggle quoted above at ength, he expressed his belief in what he called “the dictatorship of the party” (the party being the governing body of a free India), but he did not specify the precise nature of the party’s leadership, or whether it, too, would be dictatorial. Most importantly, he did not state whether he saw himself as the party leader, or comment directly on what role he intended for himself in a free India. Nonetheless, clues about these details can be gleaned from other sections of The Indian Struggle and from the speeches and statements Bose made at various times throughout his career. Determined Leadership

Bose clearly admired strong, vigorous, military-type leaders, and in The Indian Struggle he listed several whom he particularly respected. These included Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin and even a former British governor of Bengal, Sir Stanley Jackson. / 42  Nowhere in this book is there any criticism of these individuals (three of them dictators) for having too much power, yet another man is chastised for this: Mahatma Gandhi. Bose admired Gandhi for many things, not least his ability to “exploit the mass psychology of the people, just as Lenin did the same thing in Russia, Mussolini in Italy and Hitler in Germany. / 43  But he accused Gandhi of accepting too much power and responsibility, of becoming a “Dictator for the whole country” who issued “decrees” to the Congress. / 44 According to Bose, Gandhi was a brilliant and gifted man, but, unlike Mussolini, Hitler and the others mentioned, a very ineffectual leader. Gandhi had failed to liberate India because of his frequent indecision and constant willingness to compromise with the Raj (something Bose said he would never do). 45 It is clear that Bose — who believed from his youth that he was destined for greatness / 46 — saw himself as a “strong” leader in the mold of those named above. “I ask those who have any doubts or suspicions in their minds to rely on me,” he told the Indian Independence League Conference in Singapore on July 4, 1943. He continued: / 47 “I shall always be loyal to India alone. I will never deceive my motherland. I will live and die for India . . . The British could not bring me to submission by inflicting hardships on me.

British statesmen could neither induce me nor deceive me. There is no one who can divert me from the right path. ” Bose was decisive, aggressive and ambitious, and even as a university student, these features of his personality attracted many devoted followers. Dilip Kumar Roy, his companion during his days as a student at Cambridge, referred to him as “strength-inspiring,” and the absolute leader of the Indian student population. / 48 Bose’s militarism, ambition and leadership traits do not necessarily indicate (contrary to popular opinion) that he was a leader in the fascist mold.

If they did, one would have to consider all personalities with similar traits — Winston Churchill, for example — as “fascist. ” In this regard, it is worth noting that during his many years as head of various councils, committees and offices, and during 15-month tenure as President of the Indian National Congress (February 1938 to May 1939), Bose never acted in an undemocratic manner, nor did he claim powers or responsibilities to which he was not constitutionally or customarily entitled.

Neither did he attempt in any way to foster a cult of his own personality (as, it could be argued, Gandhi did). However, after he assumed control of the INA in July-August 1943, Bose’s leadership style underwent a transformation. First, he allowed a cult of his personality to flourish among the two million or so Indians living in southeast Asia. Prayers were regularly said on his behalf, and his birthday celebrations were — like Gandhi’s in India — major festivals. / 49 He was invincible, according to one Indian myth from this period, and could not be harmed by bombs or bullets. 50  An image of Bose that stressed his strength of character, military prowess, and willingness to sacrifice for a free India was intentionally promoted in propaganda broadcasts and printed material. With his approval, the title Netaji (“Revered Leader”) was added to his name in all articles about him appearing in the newspapers of the Indian Independence League; even his staff officers were permitted to address him with this title. / 51  By the end of the war, few Indians in south Asia still referred to him by name; he was always respectfully called Netaji. 52 Authoritarian Rule Second, in contrast to his statement at the 1938 Haripura session of the Congress party (quoted above) — that leaders would be elected from below — Bose proclaimed, on October 21, 1943, the formation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind (“Free India”). While retaining his post as Supreme Commander of the Indian National Army, he announced that he was naming himself Head of State, Prime Minister, and Minister for War and Foreign Affairs. 53  (The most important of these positions — Head of State — he anticipated retaining in a free India. ) These appointments involved no democratic process or voting of any kind. Further, the authority he exercised in these posts was dictatorial and often very harsh. He demanded total obedience and loyalty from the Indians in south Asia, and any who opposed him, his army or government faced imprisonment, torture, or even execution. / 54 Additionally, if wealthy Indians did not contribute sufficient funds to Bose’s efforts, they risked confiscation of their property.

Bose’s threats were taken very seriously, and had the desired effect: funds did pour in. / 55  His INA troops were obliged to swear an oath of loyalty to both the Provisional Government and to him personally. He ordered the summary execution of all INA deserters, and also prepared (but was never able to implement) law codes for the entire population of India. These laws, which stipulated the death penalty for a range of offenses, were to come into force when the INA, together with the Japanese Army, entered India to fight against the British. 56 With regard to his leadership style during this 1943-1945 period, in fairness to Bose is should be pointed out that the entire world was then engulfed in a horrendous war, and political and military leaders everywhere, on all sides, adapted extraordinarily authoritarian and repressive measures. Some of the measures and policies adapted by the wartime government of the United States, for instance, were as oppressive and as severe as any planned or implemented by Bose. 57 A New India Bose clearly anticipated that the British would be driven out of India in an armed struggle (under his leadership), / 58  and that a social and political revolution would begin the moment the Indian people saw British rule under attack in India itself. / 59  This revolution, he believed, would bring an end to the old caste system and traditional social hierarchy, which would be replaced by an egalitarian, casteless and classless society based on socialist models.

This process would require very careful guidance, with a firm hand, to prevent anarchy and chaos. / 60 Bose had, in fact, held these beliefs since the early 1930s, as Mrs. Kitty Kurti, a close German friend of Bose, revealed in her anecdotal memoir. At a June 1933 meeting attended by Kurti, Bose explained that: / 61 “Besides a plan of action which will lead up to the conquest of power, we shall require a program for the new state when it comes into existence in India. Nothing can be left to chance.

The group of men and women who will assume the leadership of the fight with Great Britain will also have to take up the task of controlling, guiding and developing the new state and, through the state, the entire Indian people. If our leaders are not trained for post-war leadership also there is every possibility that after the conquest of power a period of chaos will set in and incidents similar to those for the French Revolution of the 18th century may be repeated in India . . . The generals of the war-time period in India will have to carry through the whole program of post-war reforms in order to justify to their countrymen the hopes and aspirations that they will have to rouse during the fight. The task of these leaders will not be over till a new generation of men and women are educated and trained after the establishment of the new state and this new generation are able to take complete charge of their country’s affairs. This explains what Bose meant in The Indian Struggle when he wrote (as quoted above) of the need for a strong, single-party government, “bound together by military discipline” with “dictatorial powers for some years to come, in order to put India on her feet. ” Only an very strong government, strict discipline, and dictatorial rule would, according to Bose, prevent the anticipated revolution from falling into chaos and anarchy. That is why the government would not — “in the first years after liberation” — “stand for a democracy in the Mid-Victorian sense of the term. It would use whatever military force was necessary to maintain law and order, and would not relinquish authority or re-establish more regular forms of government until it felt confident that “the work of post-war social reconstruction” had been completed and “a new generation of men and women in India, fully trained and equipped for the battle of life” had emerged. / 62 Bose clearly anticipated that authoritarian rule would not last beyond the period when social reconstruction was completed, and law and order were established — when India was “on its feet,” as he often wrote.

As he frequently stated, Bose aimed for nothing less than the formation of “a new India and a happy India on the basis of the eternal principles of liberty, democracy and socialism. ” / 63  He rejected Communism (at least as it was practiced in the Soviet Union) principally because of its internationalism, and because he believed that the theoretical ideal found in the writings of Marx could not be applied, without modification, to India.

Still, he maintained socialist views throughout his adult life, and, on very many occasions, expressed his hope for an egalitarian (especially classless and casteless) industrialized society in which the state would control the basic means of production. / 64 He was opposed to liberalism, believing that greater emphasis should be placed on social goals than on the needs or desires of individuals. Individual wishes, he reasoned, must be subordinated to the needs of the state, especially during the struggle for independence and the period of reconstruction immediately following liberation.

Nonetheless, having himself been imprisoned eleven times and sent into exile three times, he was fully committed to upholding the rights of minority intellectual, religious, cultural and racial groups. He hoped for an “all-round freedom for the Indian people — that is, for social, economic and political freedom,” and would, he said “wage a relentless war against bondage of every kind till the people can become really free. ” / 65 It could be argued that he was not as committed to the principle of democracy as he was to socialism and freedom (as he defined it).

While he extoled democracy on numerous occasions, at other times his words suggest a belief that other parties would have a place, in a free India, only as long as they were “working towards the same end, in whole or in part,” as his governing party. / 65  Political pluralism did not appeal to him at all. He seems to have envisioned a free India that was more authoritarian than democratic. His own actions as head of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind illustrate a lack of regard for the democratic process. Mass Mobilization

Bose was, nonetheless, a consistent advocate of total mobilization: the mustering of national resources on a scale normally associated with military-like action. Realizing that manpower was easily India’s greatest resource (and arguably the only one available to the independence movement), he proclaimed that all Indians — male and female, urban and rural, rich and poor — should actively participate in the fight for freedom. From his earliest days in politics to his death in 1945, he sought to rouse the great Indian masses, and involve them directly in the political struggle.

Their support for representatives at the provincial or national levels was not enough; they must themselves rise up and win independence. During the 1930s, however, his political position was never strong enough to call for other resources than manpower, nor was India — under British control — able to offer other resources. Additionally, total mobilization during peace-time, without an impending war or revolution in the awareness of the masses, had never been achieved (not even by the Nazis) and, arguably, never could be achieved. Bose, an astute man, no doubt realized this.

With the formation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, he was at last in a position to appeal directly for total mobilization to the mass of Indians — at least in Southeast Asia, and, less directly to those in India itself. Along with his call for mass mobilization, he demanded that all available resources be provided for the cause of freedom. For example, he told a mass meeting in Singapore in July 9, 1943: / 67 “Friends! You will now realize that the time has come for the three million Indians living in East Asia to mobilize all their available resources, including money and man-power.

Half-hearted measures will not do. I want Total Mobilization and nothing less, for we have been told repeatedly, even by our enemies, that this is a total war… Out of this total mobilization I expect at least three hundred thousand soldiers and three crores of dollars [$30,000,000]. I want also a unit of brave women to form a death-defying regiment who will wield the sword which the brave Rani of Jhansi wielded… ” Of course, Bose demanded not only the total mobilization of Indian resources in south Asia, but of Indian resources everywhere. 68  He called for mass mobilization not only in support of his army, but also for his dynamic new government, the various branches of which required financing and manpower. Women’s Equality As can be seen from the passage quoted above, Bose called on both men and women for total support. Unlike the German National Socialists and the Italian Fascists, who stressed the masculine in almost all spheres of social and political activity, Bose believed that women were the equals of men, and should therefore be likewise prepared to fight and sacrifice for India’s liberation.

Throughout the 1920s and 1930s he had campaigned in India to bring women more fully into the life of the nation. / 69  After his return to Asia in 1943, he called on women to serve as soldiers in the Indian National Army — at the time a most radical view. “When I express my confidence that you are today prepared to fight and suffer for the sake of your motherland,” he told the women’s section of the Independence League in July 1943, / 70 “I do not mean only to cajole you with empty words. I know the capabilities of our womanhood well.

I can, therefore, say with certainty that there is no task which our women cannot undertake and no sacrifice and suffering which our women cannot undergo… To those who say that it will not be proper for our women to carry guns, my only request is that they look into the pages of our history. What brave deeds the Rani of Jhansi performed during the First War of Independence in 1857… Indians — both common people and members of the British Indian army — who are on the border areas of India, will, on seeing you march with guns on your shoulders, voluntarily come forward to receive the guns from you and carry on the struggle started by you. A women’s regiment was formed in 1943, and came to number about 1,000 women. It was named, appropriately, the “Rani of Jhansi Regiment,” after a heroine of the Indian rebellion of 1857-58 against British rule. While those less suited to combat duties were employed as nurses and in other support roles, the majority were trained as soldiers. When the INA attacked British forces from Burma in east India in mid-1944, the women of the Jhansi Regiment fought alongside the men, suffering equally heavy casualties.

When the army was forced to withdraw, the women were given no privileges. Along with the men, they marched for more than a thousand kilometers. / 71 Commitment to Youth Lastly, Bose was also deeply committed to the youth movement, a devotion that featured prominently in his political ideology. Convinced that young people were by nature idealistic, restless and open to new ideas / 72  — such his own radical and militant outlook — Bose accordingly devoted a great deal of time and effort to the new Youth Leagues that were formed in a number of provinces during the 1920s.

Throughout his career he presided over far more youth conferences than any other all-India political figure, and his speeches to younger people he steadfastly urged a spirit of activism that contrasted sharply with the passivism preached by Gandhi and many of the older politicians. “One of the most hopeful signs of the time,” he claimed at the 1928 Maharashtra Provincial Conference, / 73 “is the awakening among the youth of this country. . . Friends! I would implore you to assist in the awakening of youth and in the organization of the youth movement.

Self-conscious youth will not only act, but will also dream; will not only destroy, but will also build. It will succeed where even you may fail; it will create for you a new India — and a free India — out of the failures, trials and experiences of the past. ” India’s liberation would be achieved not by Gandhi and the leading politicians of his generation, whose conservative, reformist policies bred passivity and inactivity. It would, Bose believed, be achieved only through the efforts and sacrifices of the militant, revolutionary and politically-conscious younger generation. Economic Views

In contrast to the copious record of Bose’s political ideology and actions, much less is available about other important elements of his outlook, such as his economic views and policies. For example, while he condemned capitalism and extoled socialism in the pages of The Indian Struggle, Bose was very vague about just what monetary or credit systems he foresaw in a free India. They would be set up, he simply wrote, “in the light of the theories and the experiments that have been and are current in the modern world. ” Throughout his career he never wrote or said anything more specific about such matters.

He appears to have had no precise ideas about political economy, save that economics was not important in itself but must be subordinated to national political considerations. Any discussion here of what economic systems he favored, and when and how he intended to implement them, would thus be merely speculative. Unique Political Ideology While Bose’s political ideology can reasonably be described as essentially “fascistic,” two qualifying points need to be made here. First, his ideology and actions were not the result of any extreme neurotic or pathological psychosocial impulses.

He was not a megalomaniac, nor did he display any of the pathological traits often attributed (rightly or wrongly) to fascist leaders, such as hostile aggression, obsessive hatred or delusions. Moreover, while he was an ardent patriot and nationalist, Bose’s nationalism was cultural, not racialist. Second, his radical political ideology was shaped by a consuming frustration with the unsuccessful efforts of others to gain independence for India. His “fascist” outlook did not come from a drive for personal power or social elevation.

While he was ambitious, and clearly enjoyed the devotion of his followers, his obsession was not adulation or power, but rather freedom for his beloved Motherland — a goal for which he was willing to suffer and sacrifice, even at the cost of his life. Bose was favorably impressed with the discipline and organizational strength of fascism as early as 1930, when he first expressed support for a synthesis of fascism and socialism. During his stays in Europe during the 1930s, he was deeply moved by the dynamism of the two major “fascist” powers, Italy and Germany.

After observing these regimes first-hand, he developed a political ideology of his own that, he was convinced, could bring about the liberation of India and the total reconstruction of Indian society along vaguely authoritarian-socialist lines. Bose’s lack of success in his life-long effort to liberate India from alien rule was certainly not due to any lack of effort. From 1921, when he became the first Indian to resign formally from the Indian Civil Service, until his death in 1945 as leader of an Indian government in exile, Subhas Chandra Bose struggled ceaselessly to achieve freedom and prosperity for his beloved homeland.

The Mystery Begins… Bose suddenly disappeared in the beginning of 1941 and it was not until many days that authorities realized Bose was not inside the house they were guarding! He traveled by foot, car and train and resurfaced in Kabul (now in Afghanistan), only to disappear once again. In November 1941, his broadcast from German radio sent shock waves among the British and electrified the Indian masses who realized that their leader was working on a master plan to free their motherland. It also gave fresh confidence to the revolutionaries in India who were challenging the British in many ways.

The Axis powers (mainly Germany) assured Bose military and other help to fight the British. Japan by this time had grown into another strong world power, occupying key colonies of Dutch, French, and British colonies in Asia. Bose had struck alliance with Germany and Japan. He rightly felt that his presence in the East would help his countrymen in freedom struggle and second phase of his saga began. It is told that he was last seen on land near Keil canal in Germany, in the beginning of 1943. A most hazardous journey was undertaken by him under water, covering thousands of miles,  crossing enemy territories.

He was in the Atlantic, the Middle East, Madagascar and the Indian ocean. Battles were being fought over land, in the air and there were mines in the sea. At one stage he traveled 400 miles in a rubber dinghy to reach a Japanese submarine, which took him to Tokyo. He was warmly received  in Japan and was declared the head of the Indian army, which consisted of  about 40,000 soldiers from Singapore and other eastern regions. Bose called it the Indian National Army (INA) and a government by the name “Azad Hind Government”  was declared on the 21st of October 1943.

INA freed the Andaman and Nicobar islands from the British, and were renamed as Swaraj and Shaheed islands. The Government started functioning. Early Success and Tragic End Bose wanted to free India from the Eastern front. He had taken care that Japanese interference was not present from any angle. Army leadership, administration and communications were managed only by Indians. Subhash Brigade, Azad Brigade and Gandhi Brigade were formed. INA marched through Burma and occupied Coxtown on the Indian Border. A touching scene ensued when the solders entered their ‘free’ motherland.

Some lay down and kissed, some placed pieces of  mother earth on their heads, others wept. They were now inside of India and were determined to drive out the British! Delhi Chalo (Let’s march to Delhi) was the war cry. The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki changed the history of mankind. Japan had to surrender. Bose was in Singapore at that time and decided to go to Tokyo for his next course of action. Unfortunately, the plane he boarded crashed near Taipei and he died in the hospital of severe burns. He was just 48.

The Indian people were so much enamored of Bose’s oratory and leadership qualities, fealressness and mysterious adventures, that he had

Sanskrit write essay help: write essay help

This reference guide evolved naturally out of our studies of Ayurveda and deepening interest in the original language of this sacred science. It was compiled with the loving intent of helping to make the ancient language of Sanskrit more accessible to students and practitioners of Ayurveda. This reference contains the terms used in the primary textbooks utilized by the California College of Ayurveda plus terms drawn from a variety of other sources.

The language of Sanskrit is vast, and this guide represents only a starting point for one’s studies. It is the intention of the authors to provide updated versions as a continuing reference. Om Namaste Marisa Laursen: marisa@shantihealth. com Rob Talbert: rob@jivaka. com A abadha abhyanga abhyaiga That which produces constant discomfort. Ayurvedic massage; specifically, the application of herbal oils to the body and its subsequent absorption into the body. abhyantara krimi abhyantara snehana abhysyandis Advaita Vedanta Advaita Vedanta abhyaitara snehana Herbs which block the channel of rasavaha srota, causing congestion.

One of the three systems of thought in Vedanda philosophy popularized by Shankara. It teaches that the manifest creation, the soul, and God are identical. This non-dualist form argues that we are the whole and that parts are simply illusion. agni Fire; the force residing within the body that creates digestion; responsible for the transformation of one substance into another; metabolism. Agni is contained within pitta. agnidosa agnisadana aham brahmasmi ahamkara ahara rasa ajna ajna chakra ahamkara ahara rasa ajia ajia chakra faulty agni Herbs which reduce appetite.

I am Brahma (in Vedanta philosophy) Sense of self or separateness; loosely translated as ego The elemental form, or essence, of food (the quality of the food as opposed to the food itself). Command The sixth chakra, located in the region commonly called the “third eye” between the eyebrows. The “command station” of the body and mind. Contains the qualities of subtle ether. akasha akruti aksepaka alochaka pitta ama alochaka pitta ama akasha akruti Ether; the idea of connectedness or space; the space that exists between all things.

The volume and tension of the pulse Convulsions. Subdosha of pitta. Digests light/visual impressions. On higher level, related to perception. Resides in eyes (pupils). Toxic residue that is left behind as a by-product of poor digestion. Internal parasites. Internal oleation. 1 ama vata amadosha amasaya amavataghana amavatham ambu ambuvaha srota ama vata amahaya Rheumatoid arthritis (vata carrying ama into the joints). The vitiation of poorly digested food. Stomach Anti-rheumatic herbs. Anti-rheumatic herbs.

Water The channel that carries water; also called the udakavaha srota; the water metabolism system of the body, consisting of all the metabolic functions that regulate retention and elimination (those functions residing outside of the urinary system including the production of ADH by the pituitary gland, insulin by the pancreas, and the desire for water contained within the palate); it originates in the kloman (pancreas) and the palate. amla amrit anada anagni sveda anada Sour Sacred nectar; the highest form of ojas; the source of immortality and eternal bliss. Also called soma. liss, absolute joy Non-direct fire fomentation; therapeutic actions that do not require a formal source of heat, including exercise, wearing heavy clothing, wrapping a patient in blankets, exposure to the sun, and fasting. anahagna anahata chakra ananda anandagni anahata chakra ananda anandagni Laxative The fourth chakra, located at the center of the chest. Contains the qualities of the air element. Bliss The agni that metabolizes ether, which in this context is pure joy. Faulty metabolism causes diseases that are spiritual in nature such as unhappiness, dissatisfaction and a feeling of separation from God. nandamaya kosha anandamaya kosha The bliss sheath; it makes up the majority of the causal body; contains the anandagni, which is responsible for metabolizing ether. ananta An atypical migraine headache (atypical due to the pattern of pain). Ananta is the name of the serpent upon which Lord Vishnu rests; in pictures of the great God, the serpent rises up from the back of Lord Vishnu’s head; so does a headache of this type. 2 anga angamarda-prashamana anna annagni Root meaning “limb, portion”, as in Ashtanga Yoga Anti-rheumatic, analgesic herbs. Food The agni which metabolizes food.

The annagni consists of the jathagni, the dhatu agnis and the bhuta agnis and is responsible for metabolizing the earth element and converting it into the building blocks of the body. Faulty metabolism causes physical disease. annakitta annamaya kosha The remains of food in the large intestine. The food sheath or food body; our physical body which is built from the food we eat. The dominant element within its structure is the earth element. Contains the annagni which is responsible for metabolizing the earth element. annapurna annavaha srota annapurna ” One who gives nourishment”, The Goddess of Food.

The channel that carries food; originates in the stomach; the first half of the digestive channel (from the mouth to the end of the small intestine). antaragni Internal fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called jatharagni (digestive fire) and antaragni (internal fire). antarayama antarmukhi yoni vyapat anubandha anuloma anulomana-vilomana anupana anupasaya anupasaya anuvasana basti apana vayu apara ojas apana vayu See dhanusthambha. Severe vaginal pain that is supposedly due to engaging in sex after a heavy meal and/or unusual sexual position.

That which transmigrates from one body to the next (the subtlest aspect of who we are; our soul). Mild laxative, carminative. Alternate nostril breathing. The medium used to carry herbs into the body. Examples include water, milk, honey, alcohol, ghee, and sesame oil. See upasaya. Discomfort; also called asatmya. Tonifying basti. Subdosha of vata. Downward and outward moving air. Responsible for elimination of waste. Resides in the colon. One of the two types of ojas (the other being para ojas). Dwells in the vessels next to the heart, and when diminished, affects the immune system, resulting in illness. apas apasmara apatanaka apatantraka ardhavabhedaka ardita apas Water; the idea of flow and liquidity. Epilepsy. See dhanusthambha. See dhanusthambha. Pain in half the head. Hemifacial paralysis or facial palsy, a condition caused by injury to cranial nerve VII. It has the appearance of a stroke and may be caused by gross trauma such as a head injury or minor trauma such as sleeping on an uncomfortrable pillow. Also called ekayama. The term can also mean tetanus. arishta arka arocaka nidana artava artavaha srota arinhoha arocaka nidana artava artavaha srota

Medicated wine made with a decoction. Water extract prepared from distillation. Diagnosis of anorexia (loss of appetite) Egg The channel that carries menstrual fluid and ovum; consists of the fallopian tubes, uterus and vaginal canal; originates in the ovaries and uterus (the female reproductive system). artavajanana artha aruci asana asara Asatmya asava artavajanana Herbs which promote ovulation/menses. Prosperity anorexia asana Posture, the third limb of Yoga. Refers to yoga postures. Non-useful components of metabolism. Discomfort; also called anupasaya. asava

Medicated wine made with freshly pressed herbal juice. A popular example is Kumari Asava, which is useful for reproductive and digestive complaints and liver tonification. ashaya ashoa Ashtanga Hridayam ashaya Vessel The number eight (8). Example: Ashoanga Yoga (the eight limbs of yoga). Ashtanga Hridayam (Anoaiga Hadayam) One of the three most important books in Classical Ayurveda (the other two are the Caraka Samhita and the Sushruta Samhita). Written by Vagbhat in the 7th century AD, Vagbhat may be the same author who wrote Ashtanga Samgraha (although this is uncertain; there may be two Vagbhats). Ashtanga Samgraha Ashtanga Samgraha One of the three supplemental (or “lesser”) classical Ayurveda books (the other two are the Madhava Nidanam and the Sarangadhara Saahita). Written by Vagbhat in the 7th century AD, this may be the same author who wrote Ashtanga Hridayam (although this is uncertain; there may be two Vagbats). Ashtanga Yoga ashtapana ashya asmari asmari bheda asthi asthi agni Ashtanga Yoga (Anoaiga Yoga) ashoa acmare “Eight limbed yoga”, The term refers spcifically to Raja – Yoga which contains eight limbs or steps. See Raja Yoga. Corrective enema.

Prefix meaning eight; e. g. ashtanga means eight limbed Urinary stones. Lithotrope. Bone A dhatu agni; helps build asthi (bone); the health of this agni determines the health of asthi. Resides in the purisha dhara kala, the membrane that precedes asthi. asthi dhatu asthi dhatu One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of bones, nails, teeth, hair. Composed of air and earth; provides framework. Psychological function is to “stand tall”, attain stature. asthi saushiryam asthila asthivaha srota Osteoporosis Prostrate gland; also called paurusha granthi.

The channel that carries posaka medas or unstable medas prior to becoming asthi dhatu; originates in the fatty tissues of the hips and buttocks; carrier of vata (bone porosity) and kapha (bone element) doshas. atanka aticarana yoni vyapat atisara atma vichara atman atulygotriya atyagni atyagni audbhida atman atesara That which makes life miserable. Swelling and pain in the vagina caused by excess intercourse (physical irritation). Diarrhea The process of dispelling of illusion In Sankhya philosophy, the aspect of god that resides within each of us; our spirit or soul. Embrology. High agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too high.

Also called tikshnagni. Hyperactive agni. Salt from the earth 5 aum avabahu avagha sveda see Om Paralysis. A treatment in which a person reclines in a bathtub filled with hot water and herbal decoctions. Oils may be added as well. avalambaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Protects lungs and respiratory tissues. Related to attachment and holding on to things and to weight gain. Located in chest (heart and lungs). avaleha avila Ayurveda B baddhodara bahaya krimi bahirayama bala balya basti avila Ayurveda Sweet candy, jam or jelly. Cloudy Knowledge of life; ayus (life) and veda (knowledge). Intestinal obstruction. External parasites.

See dhanusthambha. The strength or force of the pulse. Herbs which increase strength and are tonifying. Basti literally means bladder, and in Ayurveda the term is used to mean enema (a bladder was traditionally used as the device that holds the liquid used in enemas). Enemas fall in two categories, either purifying (niruha basti) or tonifying (anuvasana basti). basti shodan bayha snehana bhagat bhasma Herbs which cleanse the bladder. External oleation Native healer. An oxide prepared by purifying a substance, usually a metal, then cooking it until it becomes an ash. These are more expensive and powerful than herbs.

Most are not allowed in the USA. Not considered a traditional part of Ayurvedic medicine. bhayaja bhedana bhedaniya bhrajaka pitta bhritya bhuta bhuta bhrajaka pitta Fear Mild purgative, laxative. Mild purgative, laxative. Subdosha of pitta. Digests touch, temperature, pressure, pain. Resides in skin. The term for a parent, child caretaker or guide. element, “that which manifests as matter” 6 bhuta agnis bhutonmada bija mantra bhuta agnis The elemental agnis; there are five, one for each element (akashagni, vayagni, tejagni, jalagni, and prithviagni). Possession by evil spirits. beja mantra A seed mantra; the essence of all other mantras.

Thus, of all mantras, they have the most power. The ancient people of India described chakras as having the shape of a lotus flower. At the center of the lotus is a primary energy that is symbolized by a letter in the Sanskrit alphabet. Chanted, this is called a bija mantra. Chanting a bija mantra increases the rotation of the chakra or the frequency of prana moving through the chakra and enhances and heightens its functions. bodhaka kapha Subdosha of kapha. Moistens mouth; saliva. Protects mouth from heat of food and roughness of food and chewing. Responsible for aesthetic taste. Located in mouth. rahaman brahmacharya brihat panchamula Brihat Treya brahmacharya The combination of unmanifested pure potential and pure consciousness that exists prior to creation Sexual restraint The five great roots; part of the dashmool formula used for niruha basti. The three most important books in Classical Ayurveda. Consists of the Caraka Saahita, Sushruta Saahita, and the Ashtanga Hridayam. brimhana brimhana chikitsa buddhi buddhi smruti prada C Caraka Samhita Caraka Saahita Make heavy; increases fat and muscle tone; tonifying pancha karma treatment. Tonification therapy, the purpose of which is to increase the internal strength of the patient.

Intellect Herbs which benefit the intellect and memory. Considered the greatest of all the classical texts on Ayurveda. Written by Caraka, it contains the teachings of the sage Agnivesa, who was one of the six students of the great sage Atreya. It is Agnivesa’s teachings which makes up the bulk of what is known about classical Ayurveda. Caraka was himself a great physician. 7 catur The number four (4). Example: caturtha (“fourth”; in Vedanta, a technical term referring to the transcendental Self beyond the three states of waking, dreaming and sleep). hakra Part of the subtle nervous system (the nadis are another part). There are seven charkas, and these chakras serve as an energetic template of the nerve plexuses that function in the physical body. Chakras have the potential to generate two qualities of energy; ordinary subtle energy and a heightened subtle energy. chakradhara chakshushva chaksu chala chardi chardi-nigrahana chedana chidrodara An oil treatment in which oil is poured over the chakras. Herbs that benefit the eyes, promote vision. Eyes. Mobile Herbs that induce vomiting.

Anti-emetic herbs (reduce vomiting) Herbs that scrape away ama; also an expectorant. A condition of perforation of the intestine resulting in abdominal swelling. Usually caused by the intake of sharp objects, wood, sand, bone or nails. Also called ksatodara. chikitsa chinamsuka chikitsa Treatment Piamater (The delicate and highly vascular membrane immediately investing the brain and spinal cord). chinna chit churna (choorna) cikitsa citta cula D daha-prashamana dahashamaka dakodara churea (curea) cikitsa Cheyne stokes respiration which occurs in terminal states of illness; a type of breathing that occurs near death.

Consciousness absolute; the ocean within which we all are connected. Powdered herb; usually a powdered formula of herbs see chikitsa Consciousness Colic pain Herbs that are refrigerants; cooling to the body. Herbs which alleviate burning sensations. See udakodara. 8 dandaka A condition in which there is gross stiffness of the body; vata and kapha invade all channels and tissues of the body; considered incurable. darshana dasha dashadauhrda dana- Philosophy; observation; looking for signs and symptoms of disease by observation The number ten (10). Example: dashmula (the ten roots formula). refix meaning 10, e. g. the herbal compound danamula (dashamula) “ten roots” The heart-to-heart connection between a mother and her embryo whereby the embryo is able to communicate its desires to the mother through the channels which carry nutrients; in this way the heart of the mother and the heart of the fetus are connected. Also called a Bi-cardiac state. deha-samshodanas desa dhamini dhamini dhamini dhammillaka dhanustambha dhanusthambha Herbs that induce vomiting. Habitat Artery See nadi. Arteries. Cerebellum. Tetanus. Another term sometimes used for tetanus is ardita.

Sometimes means tetanus, sometimes refers to a type of convulsion. Also called apatantraka or apatanaka. There are two kinds; antarayama, where the body bends forward and bahirayama, where the body bends backward. dhara dharana dhari dharma dhatu dhatu agni dhatu srotas dhara dharaea To pour or flow concentration, the sixth limb of Yoga. The mental contemplation and retention of information into memory. That aspect of life that keeps the body from decaying God-given purpose dhatu dhatu agni dhatu srotas Tissue Tissue agnis; there are seven, one for each of the major tissues of the body.

Channels through which the dhatus move as they are being formed; there are seven in all, and each leads to a kala (membrane). dhuma dhyana dhuma dhyana smoke inhalation therapy Meditation, the seventh limb of Yoga. Endurance 9 dinacharya dipana (deepana) dosha depana donha Rejuvenation of the mind; daily practices. Digestive stimulant, the action of kindling agni Three main forces which govern the body (vata, pitta and kapha); literally means faulty or to cause harm, although they only do so when they are functioning abnormally. When functioning normally, they maintain the good health of the body and guide all of the normal bodily functions raksha drava dravya dravya guna draknha Medicated wine; a fermented decoction or infusion. Liquid Substance; matter The qualities of a substance. The term is used synonymously with pharmacology, although the principles of dravya guna are the foundation for all sensory treatments, the basic knowledge necessary for treating all imbalances in the body. dravyagunashastra The branch of knowledge that deals with the dravyas (drugs as well as diet) that help in the maintenance of health and alleviation of diseases in the purush (human body), which is a concomitance of panchamahabhootas and atma (the soul or the consciousness).

It also deals with the properties, actions, dose, time of administration and various preparations of these dravyas. Food items, like drugs, are also considered in these dravyas. dugdha dhara durgandhyanashana dvi E eka Milk as the base (instead of oil) in shirodhara. Deodorant. The number two (2). Example: dvipada sirasana (two feet to head yoga pose). Prefix one, the singular reality or transcendental Self beyond the multiplicity experienced by the unenlightened ego-bound individual. The number one (1). Example: ekamula (one root theory). ekamula ekamula Literally means “one root”.

A herbal therapy technique where only one herb is given to the client (“putting all your eggs in one basket”). Haritaki(Terminalia chebula) and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) are often canditates for this technique. ekayama See ardita. 10 ela F flatus G galaugha gandha gandusha garbhada garbharoga garbhashayya sankochaka gati ela Cardamom Excessive accumulation of gas in the intestines. Pharyngitis, laryngitis. Smell; odor The practice of gargling with medicated oil to strengthen the gums and voice. Herbs which increase fertility. Diseases of the uterus. Herbs which stimulate labor.

The movement of the pulse; a description of its movement based on comparing it to the movements of different animals. ghana ghee Pill; powder of a dried liquid. The clarified oil of butter. It is sattvic and has the unique prabhava of raising agni without aggravating pitta. It’s easy to digest, benefits all three doshas, and carries into the body whatever it is mixed with. ghrita grahani grahi grishma guhyaroga gulma gulma guna gunas guru guti (gutika) H hadaya halimaka hamsa gati guoi greshma A perparation of ghee (clarified butter) in which herbs are infused or boiled into the ghee. . Small intestine disease. 2. Ulcers. Anti-diarrhea, binds stool. The summer season Diseases of the female reproductive system. Tumor, lump or diverticulosis. Abdominal tumor Quality or properties. Three basic qualities of nature; tamas, rajas, sattva. Teacher; one who removes the darkness of ignorance; one through whom one finds a channel to God; heavy. Tablet or pill. Mind Hepatitis C or malignant jaundice The quality of the pulse is likened to the movement of a swan; the primary description of a kapha pulse. 11 hara haram haridra haridra meha hasta hasti meha haridra suffix) Reduces as in vata hara, pitta hara, and kapha hara. Pacifies Turmeric A type of prameha in which the urine is pungent and yelloworange. Upper extremity. Vata-type diabetes insipidus; a type of prameha in which the urine is passed continuously, without force, and is mixed with lasika (lymph). hemanta hidhma or hikka hikkanigrahaka hima hrdroga hrdya hrid roga hridaya hridaya dhara kala I ida nadi eda nadi hadroga hrdayam hidhma or hikka The winter season Hiccups Reduces hiccups. Cold infusion (aka shita kashaya). Heart disease. Heart. Heart disease. Herbs which aid the heart. ridaya dhara kala The pericardium and endocardium (the membrane which surrounds the heart). The nadi that runs from the base of the spine (the muladhara chakra) to the left nostril . It is also called the “lunar nadi”, as it is associated with the water element. Its energy is cool, and increased movement within it increases the “watery” emotions such as love, attachment, and deep feeling. ikshu iksu meha Indra J jala neti jalodara jatghni yoni vyapat jatharagni jatharagni Sugar cane Type 2 diabetes; the urine is very sweet like sugar, typical of kapha-type diabetes mellitus.

An ancient Vedic deity; cosmic prana See neti See udakodara. This is a condition where each baby a woman tries to bear dies at birth or shortly thereafter. The digestive fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called kayagni (bodily fire) and antaragni (internal fire). 12 jatismara jentaka sveda Sattvic individuals who can recollect the events of past lives. A special hut, built according to specific instructions, with a clay oven inside in which special herbs are burned. A well-oiled patient lies down on a bench in the hut for 20 minutes. ihva jiva jivaniya jivanmukta jivatman jivita jnana jnanendriya jvara jwara jwaraghna jwarahara jyotish K kala kala meha kalashanja kalka kalpa kama kamala kampa vata kampana kampavata kanda kandughna kanthya kama kamala kampa vata kala kala meha jiana jianendriya jevanmukta jevatman jeva Tongue. Individual consciousness; sould; a reflection of the Divine. Restorative, vitalizer. Liberated soul The lower aspect of the soul, connected to the physical plane, according to Memamsa philosophy. That which keeps us alive Knowledge or wisdom. In Sankhya philosophy, the five sense faculties (hearing, touch, vision, taste, smell).

That which torments. Fever Reduces fever. Reduces fever. Vedic astrology. 1) Membrane 2) Time 3) Black A type of prameha in which the urine is like black ink. Chorea; other terms include ardita and tandava. Herbal paste. World cycle, world age Pleasure (as a goal, it means the pursuit of pleasure and ecstasy, the primary goal of the senses). Jaundice or hepatitis A. Parkinson’s disease; also called vepathu. Tremors. Tremors due to vata; often the term used for Parkinson’s disease. Prolapsed uterus. Anti-pruritic. Demulcent, aids the throat. 13 kapalabhati

A fairly aggressive form of pranayama involving forcibly expelling air from the lungs as the diaphragm and abdominal muscles contract. kapha The force behind the structure and stability of the body; the elements are water and earth; its qualities are heavy, cold, moist, static, smooth and soft; its root is in the upper stomach. Also a term for mucous. kaphaja krimi karaia karam karma karmendriya karna purana karnini yoni vyapat karsana kasa kasa roga kasahara kasa-svasahara kashaya (kashayam) kathina kathinya katti basti katu kayagni kathinya kashaya kasa kasa roga Parasites in the digestive tract.

Also called purishaja krimi. Method of processing; one of the eight factors determining the utility of food. Aggravates 1) The force that binds the soul to the cycle of life and death. 2) The action of a substance. In Sankhya philosophy, the five faculties of action (speech, grasping, walking, procreation, elimination). The practice of placing oil drops in the ear. Decreased or absent menses. Cleansing Cough Bronchitis Reduces cough. Expectorant, aids breathing and cough. Astringent taste or decoction. Hard The consistency of the blood vessel wall. The application of an oil pool to the back. Pungent taste.

Bodily fire; the digestive fire; the most important of all the agnis. Also called jatharagni (digestive fire) and antaragni (internal fire). keshya kha khara khavaigunya kha khara khavaigunya Promotes healthy hair. Space Rough A weak or defective space within a tissue or organ where a pathological condition is likely to begin; a potential site of relocation. khya To realize. 14 kitchari, kitcheree kledaka kapha klesha kichare A meal of basmati rice cooked with split yellow mung dal ( 3 : 1 : 0. 25 water:rice:dal). Part of samsarjana karma. Subdosha of kapha. Protects lining of stomach against acids.

Located in stomach. The five affliction of humanity (ignorance, egoism, attachment, hatred, clinging to life), according to Vedanta philosophy. kloman (kloma) komar bhritya komar, kumar kopana kosha koca Pancreas Pedriatic Ayurveda; that part of Ayurveda which deals with child rearing, childhood illness and their treatment. A title by which a child is addressed. (suffix) Increases, as in vata kopana, pitta kopana, and kapha kopana. Sheath or layer; energetic fields of vibration that correspond to the five elements in their subtle form which are physical manifestations of creation.

There are 5 koshas, and each is a layer of our existence; they are annamaya kosha, pranamaya kosha, manomaya kosha, vijnanamaya kosha, and anandamaya kosha. There are two additional layers, “Sat” and “Chit” which are not physical. krimi krimighna krimija-siratapa kami Parasites Anthelmintic, antiparasitic. A type of headache which is due to a parasitic infection which arises due to an overindulgence in unhealthy foods and improper food combining. ksara meha ksataja ksatodara ksaya kshara kshaya kshira ksudra A type of prameha in which the urine is like alkali (strongly basic and caustic such that there is burning).

Cough due to chest injury. See chidrodara. Consumption; tissue depletion; to diminish; wasting of the body associated with tuberculosis. Alkali, alkaline extract. Decreased dosha. Plant exudate or resin. Heavy breathing. 15 kumbhi sveda A treatment in which a bowl is placed in the ground and filled with a decoction of herbs. The herbs are heated with hot iron balls. A patient sits on a chair or lies in a bed over the bowl. There are openings in the bed or chair to allow heat to penetrate into the body. kundalini energy kundaline energy An energetic template of physical sexual energy.

At its heightened level, though, it is not sexual but is the force that activates the chakras and causes them to function on a higher level, thereby altering perception and experience. Kundalini moves through the central nadi called the sushumna nadi, upon which the charkas are often stated to be “strung like lotuses”. kushtagna kwatha (kwath) L laghu laghu panchamula laghu treya kwatha Herb which eliminates skin disease. Decoction (made by boiling the hard parts of herbs). Light laghu paichamula The five lesser roots; part of the dashmool formula used for niruha basti.

The three supplemental (or “lesser”) Classical Ayurveda books, consisting of the Ashtanga Samgraha, Madhava Nidanam and the Sarangadhara Saahita. lagnu (lagu) laksana lala meha langhana langhana chikitsa lavaia lavana lekhana lepa lingum lohama lohitaksya M laighana chikitsa Light A type of prameha in which there is slimy urine with threads like saliva. Make light; reduces bulk; purifying pancha karma treatment. Reduction therapy, the purpose of which is to either decrease the quantity of a dhatu or purify a dhatu. Salt Salty. Herbs which reduce fatty tissue and support weight loss. Body paste; used for strains, sprains and arthritis.

Penis; also called medra. Iron, as used in a bhasma made of iron. A condition resulting in ammenorrhea accompanied by burning and emaciation. 16 madakaraka madakari madhava nidanam Herbs which create sleep. Narcotic herbs. One of the three supplemental (or “lesser”) classical books on Ayurveda (the other two are the Ashtanga Samgraha and the Sarangadhara Saahita). Written by Madhavakara, it is considered the major text on pathology and the diagnosis of disease. madhu madhu (madhura or mathura) madhu meha madhumeha mahaMahad mahan mahasneha mahat mahavaha srota mahavaha srota mahan maha-

Honey Sweet taste. Vata-type diabetes mellitus (type 1); a type of prameha in which urine resembles honey and is sweet. Diabetes insipidus; juvenile diabetes; glycosuria. great Intelligence; the cosmic aspect of the intellect which also contains the individual intellect (Buddhi, ego). “The great dyspnea” (difficulaty breathing); also occurs in terminal illness. A medicated oil consisting of the four fats ghee, sesame oil, muscle fat and bone marrow. All the cosmic laws that make up the intelligence of the universe according to Sankhya philosophy.

The Great Channel, consisting of the annavaha srota and the purishavaha srota (the entirety of the digestive channel from mouth to anus). mahayoni vyapat Similar to vatiki yoni vyapat, this is a type of vaginal pain specifically described to be due to a prolapse of the uterus and vaginal muscles. majja agni majja agni A dhatu agni; helps build majja; the health of this agni determines the health of majja. Resides in the majja dhara kala, the membrane that precedes majja. majja dhara kala majja dhara kala The membrane that holds bone marrow and the majja agni. 17 majja dhatu majja dhatu

One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of the nervous system and anything that fills an empty space within the body, such as the brain, spinal cord, bone marrow. Also includes the sclera of the eyes. Composed of water and earth. Psychological function is fullness, completeness, peacefulness, calm, anxiety, depression, grief. majja meha majjavaha srota majjavaha srota A type of prameha in which the urine is mixed with marrow. The channel that carries posaka asthi or unstable asthi prior to becoming majja dhatu; originates in the bones and joints of the body and supplies the nerves and bone marrow; primary carrier of vata dosha. ala mala stambhana mamsa mamsa dhara kala mamsa dhatu mamsa Waste Herbs that stop the flow of waste (urine, feces, blood). Muscle mamsa dhara kala The membrane that holds mamsa (muscle) and the mamsagni. mamsa dhatu One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of muscles, ligaments and skin. Composed mainly of earth and some water and fire. Psychologically, provides courage, fortitude, selfconfidence. mamsa sarpi mamsagni mamsagni Medicated meat soup. A dhatu agni; helps build mamsa; the health of this agni determines the health of mamsa. Resides in the mamsa dhara kala, the membrane that precedes mamsa. amsavaha srota mamsavaha srota The channel that carries posaka rakta or the unstable rakta prior to becoming mamsa dhatu; according to Caraka Saahita it originates in the ligaments and skin (the upadhatu of mamsa dhatu); according to Sushruta Saahita it originates in the nerves, serum and capillaries; a carrier of kapha dosha. managni The agni which is responsible for the metabolism of fire, which in this context takes the form of sensory impressions; it is constantly metabolizing the energies coming from our environment into our bodies and our mind. Faulty metabolism causes mental disease. 8 manas manasika manda The limited mind projected by ahamkara. Faculty of cognition and action. Conditions which originate in the mind. 1)slow, dull 2) A meal of drinking only the lukewarm water in which white basmati rice is boiled ( 16:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma. mandagni manduka gati manipura chakra manduka gati manipura chakra Low agni; when the strength of the digestive fire is too low. The feel of the pulse is likened to the movement of a frog; the primary description of the pitta pulse. The third chakra, located in the region of the solar plexus just above the umbilicus.

Its related tissues are the liver, spleen, pancreas and small intestine. Contains the qualities of the fire element. manjista meha manobuddhivaha srota manomaya kosha manovaha srota A type of prameha in which the urine smells foul and is slightly red like manjista. Channel of understanding. The mind sheath; the primary astral body. It contains the managni, which is responsible for metabolizing fire. The channel that carries thought; refers to the entire mind, so it is the carrier of feelings and emotions as well. Has no physical location; resides within the mind, yet it is subtler.

It is the channel through which the body is created; it can be seen as the channel that exists between the physical body and the astral body and through which astral impressions move. According to Caraka Saahita, these are the channels that connect the mind to the senses, which has led some authors to include the brain as a part of manovaha srota. mantha mantra (mantram) A mixture of flour, sugar, and ghee. A sacred syllable or sequence of syllables (sometimes a name, a word, or a phrase) that is used in meditation, often assigned by one’s guru, and believed to tune one into the Divine.

One of the most well known is the sacred sound Om (or Aum). marica Black pepper 19 marma Points on the body where veins, arteries, tendon bone and flesh meet. Also it can be where vata, pitta, kapha, sattva, rajas and tamas meets. There are 108 marma points in our body. These points can be used to heal or to harm. They are strong energy centers and are somewhat similar to acupuncture points. Massaging these points helps to remove energy and toxic blocks from the body, also improving the function of internal organs. mastiska, matulungua mastulunga avarnana kala medagni Brain and cerebrum.

Meninges. A dhatu agni; helps build medas (fat); the health of this agni determines the health of medas. Resides in the medo dhara kala, the membrane that precedes medas. medas medas dhatu medas dhatu Fat; the fatty tissues of the body. One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of fat (composed primarily of water). Lubricates tissues of body through oiliness. Psychological function is the ability to love and receive love. medhya medhya rasayana medo dhara kala medohara medovaha srota medo dhara kala Herbs which promote intellect. Herbs which are rejuvenatives for the mind.

The membrane that holds fat and the medagni. Reduces blood lipids. The channel that carries posaka mamsa or unstable mamsa prior to becoming medas dhatu; originates in the kidneys and adipose tissues of the body; carier of kapha dosha. medra Mimamsa Memamsa Penis; also called lingum. One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Jaimini. It can be seen as the ritualistic path of Vedic knowledge. moksha mridu mrudu mudhagarbham mudra mudra Liberation of the soul from the cycle of life and death; the goal of our higher nature. Soft.

Soft Malposition of the baby in utero. A gesture or arrangement of the fingers used in meditation for communication between body, mind and consciousness. 20 mukka paka mula muladhara chakra mula Ulcer Root creates the foundation for a person’s psycho-spiritual development. Contains the qualities of the earth element. muladhara chakra The first, or root, chakra. Located at the base of the spine, it mutra mutra jathara mutraghata mutragranthi mutra-jnana mutrakacchra mutrakrichra mutraksaya mutrala mutrasada mutra-samgrahaniya mutrashaya mutrashukra mutratita mutratsanga mutravaha srota mutra

Urine. The habitual holding of urine which causes vata to move upwards causing severe pain and distention. mutraghata mutragranthi mutra-jnana mutrakacchra mutrakrichra mutrala mutrasamgrahaniya mutrashaya Urinary retention syndromes. A tumor occurring inside the bladder which produces symptoms similar to a urinary stone. Herbs which increase urine formation. Dysuria or painful urinination. Dysuria, difficulty passing urine. Diminished urine in the aged, debilitated, and dehydrated. Diuretic. Thick, non-unctuous (non-sticky) urine. Urinary astringent; reduces urination. The urinary bladder.

The mixing of urine and semen in those who engage in sexual intercourse whle having the urge to urinate. Mild pain in the bladder due to the holding of urine. Residual urine left in the bladder, urethra, or penis causing the penis to feel heavy. mutravaha srota The channel that carries urine; consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra; according to the Sushruta Saahita, it originates in the bladder and penis, although it is commonly understood to originate in the bladder and urethra; carries water (kapha) out of the body. mutra-virechaniva mutra-vishodana N mutra-virechaniva Strong diuretic, urinary purgative. utra-vishodana Urinary antiseptic. 21 nadi nadi Part of the subtle nervous sytem (charkas are another part). nadis are subtle nerve channels; an energetic template of the nerves through which prana (subtle energies) flow. These channels permeate the entire subtle body. The mind is the sum total of all the nadis. Classical yogic texts state that there are 72,000 nadis. Nadi bears different meanings in different texts; it is commonly translated to mean nerve, but can also mean subtle channels or channels in general. Other terms used synomously with nadi include dhamini, sira and srota. adi dhatu nadi pariksha nadi svedana nadi pariksha nadi svedana Some texts refer to the brain, spinal cord and nerves as a separate dhatu. Pulse diagnosis. A special type of steam therapy in which steam is applied through a hose connected to a pressure cooker while the patient is either lying on a massage table or sitting in an upright positon. nadi vijnanam nadi vijianam The reading of the pulse; used to detect existing or potential states of health and disease in a person’s body, mind or spirit. nasa nashta rakta nasya Nose. Amenorrhea (lack of bleeding) Nasal drops; clears nasal passages and sinuses.

Alleviates all the doshas from the neck up, maximizes absorption of prana, treats diseases of the head, sinuses and nasal passages. nava The number nine (9). Example: nava karna dravya (the nine causative factors of the universe in the Vasisheshika school of philosophy). nela neti netra basti netrahita nidana nidanam nidrajnana nela Blue Cleansing of the nose with warm salty water using a special neti pot. The application of an oil pool over the eyes. Herbs which aid the eyes. Cause; similar to Western term etiology; understanding the causitive factors of a condition. Diagnosis Hypnotic 22 idrakara nila meha nirama niruha basti nirvana nisarika niyama Nyaya Nyaya nirvana Herbal sedatives; brings on sleep. A type of prameha in which the urine is blue. Without ama Purifying basti. State of pure existence; no-mind state Arachnoid membrane. Observances, the second limb of Yoga One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by Gautama. It means arugment or analyiss. It outlines four methods of arriving at the truth (pramanas) which are direct perception, inference, analogy and testimony. O odona ojas A meal of plain basmati rice ( 2:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma.

The subtle immune system; the essence that gives the tissues and the mind strength and endurance; the force that keeps the tissues healthy. Composed primarily of earth and water (qualities similar to kapha). Produced from the essence of shukra. When strong, no disease can affect the body. The energetic template of kapha. Om (aum) The primal sound; the sound or vibration from which the entire universe emanates. According to the Vedas, “om” is the most sacred of all words. Used by Hindu yogis to represent the vibration which pervades the entire universe; the same sound as the one heard internally as a result of practicing yoga.

P pachaka pitta pachaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Most important fire. Converts food to the form that can be absorbed; the fire of digestion. Regulates body temperature. Resides in the small intestines and lower half of stomach (the home of pitta). pachanas pada padadaha padaharsa Herbs which digest ama. Lower extremity. The sensation of burning in the toes. The sensation of pins-and-needles in the feet due to a vata and kapha disturbance. 23 padma gati paica paka pakvashaya shula pancha paka The pulse of enlightenment, felt under the kapha finger. The number five (5). Example: paica karma (the five actions). refix meaning five, e. g. paicha karma pakvashaya shula The five sense organs paicha Also called Shodhana. Strong reduction therapy; the single most powerful healing therapy utilized in Ayurveda. Used only on strong patients; eliminates ama and excess doshas, then rebuilds internal strength (ojas). There are three components to the process; purva karma, pradhana karma, and prashat krama. pancha jnanendriya paicha jianendriya The five potentials for action (potential organs for motor experience); the five associated organs are the anus, penis, feet, hands and mouth; other texts state the five sense organs. pancha karma aicha karma Five primary preparations of herbs including swarasa (fresh juices), phanta (hot infusions), hima (cold infusions), kwatha (decoctions) and kalka (moist bolus or paste). pancha karmendriyas pancha karmendryani pancha kasayas pancha maha bhutus pantha papma para para ojas paicha karmendryani paicha kasayas paicha maha bhutus Five motor organs. The five great elements: ether, air, fire, water & earth. Digestion Colic Passage That which is born from sinful acts. beyond One of the two types of ojas (the other being apara ojas). This is the superior type; it dwells in the heart, and is the container of life itself.

Any diminishment in volume would result in instantaneous death. paramatman paravak parinama paripluta The higher aspect of the soul, connected to purusha, according to Memamsa philosophy. The speech of eternal wisdom. Transformation and decay due to time and motion. A condition in which the vagina becomes swollen and painful, with a yellow or blue discharge. 24 pariseka sveda A shower of medicated decoctions used after an oil massage. The decoction is poured through a hose or a can with many small holes above the patient’s head. pashat krama Patanjali pattiki yoni vyapat Pataijali Rejuvenation; see rasayana.

Name of the celebrated sage who created The Yoga Sutras. This is a condition of burning and ulceration in the wall of the vagina. This is most likely a vaginal infection that has become systemic resulting in fever. Herpes simplex is a form of pattiki yoni vyapat. paurusha granthi payu peya phanta picchila pinda sveda pingala nadi pingala nadi peya phaeoa Prostrate gland; also called asthila. Rectum. A meal of drinking thin rice liquid ( 8:1 water:rice). Part of samsarjana karma. Hot infusion. Oily, sticky. The local application of a pinda or bolus (small round mass) which is warm.

The nadi that begins at the base of the spine within the muladhara chakra and ends at the right nostril. It is also called the “solar nadi” and is associated with the fire element. Its energy is warm, and stimulation of this nadi increases the fire of the intellect increasing reason, perception, and discrimination. pista meha pitta pitta A type of prameha in which the urine is thick like corn flour and white in color. The force in the body that is responsible for digestion and metabolism; its elements are fire along with a small amount of water; its principal quality is heat, although it is also light, slightly oily, unstable and sharp. itta dhara kala pittaka pittodara pizzichilli pitta dhara kala The membrane that holds pitta and the raktagni. An oil treatment in which oil is poured onto the body through a hose and massaged into the body. This is the heaviest oil treatment and therefore the most nourishing. pliha pliodara posaka dhatu pleha posaka dhatu Spleen Splenic (pleha) enlargement. The unstable portion of ahara rasa 25 posya dhatu prabhava posya dhatu prabhava (prabhav) The stable portion of ahara rasa Special action of a substance, an action not easily explained by its qualities; gives substances unique healing capabilities.

Leukorrhea; a white discharge from the vagina. Herbs which aid menstrual and vaginal disorders. The five classical actions of pancha karma (vamana, virechana, basti, nasya and rakta mokshana). Herbs that promote conception, reduce miscarriage. Intellectual blasphemy; the failure of the intellect; crimes against wisdom Pain following intercourse in the back, calves, and thighs ocurring in girls too young for intercourse. pradara pradarahara pradhan karma prajashatapana prajnaparadha prakarana yoni vyapat prakriti prakruti prakaiti Pure potential for matter (unmanifested potential); the soul’s guna (sattva, rajas or tamas) in its seed form.

The inherent ideal balance of the three doshas within an individual; this is determined at conception and does not change throughout a person’s lifetime. pramanas pramanas Literally means “proof”. The four methods of arriving at truth as outlined in the Nyaya philosophy; these include direct perception, inference, analogy and testimony. pramanthi prameha Herbs that remove excess doshas at a cellular level; considered a prabhava of some herbs. Polyuria (excessive urinary volume) and diabetes. There are 20 types of prameha. Not all types of prameha are diabetes, but diabetes is a type of prameha. ramehaghna prana prana Herbs that reduce blood sugar. 1) Life-force energy 2) One of the subdoshas of vata 3) Breath 4) One of the energies controlling the functioning of the subtle body (the other two are tejas and ojas); the energetic template of vata responsible for circulation within the subtle energy field and for the movement of the subtle body through the subtle universe. prana vaha srota prana vaha srota Respiratory system. 26 prana vayu prana vayu Subdosha of vata; inward moving air. Original or primary vayu because life force energy (prana) must first come into the body.

Associated with movement of thought and intake of emotions. Resides in the brain and moves downward into the chest. pranagni pranagni The agni which metabolizes water (water is the container that prana is held within when it is confined to the body). Faulty metabolism disturbs the prana and causes physical and mental disease. pranamaya kosha pranamaya kosha The breath sheath; the bridge between the physical body (annamaya kosha) and the astral body (manomaya kosha). It contains the pranagni, which is responsible for metabolizing water. pranavaha srota pranavaha srota

The channel that carries prana; usually refers to the respiratory system (nasal passages, sinuses, bronchi and lungs); also relates to the colon which, through the process of digestion, also extracts and absorbs a large amount of prana; originates in the heart. pranayama pranayama Culivation of breath, the fourth limb of Yoga. Breathing practices such as alternate nostril breathing, lunar pranayama, solar pranayama, kapalbhati. prasada praschat krama prastara sveda The useful components of metabolism. Rasayana; rejuvenation following pancha karma. A special bed in which a patient lies after oleation.

The bed is made with warming grains and leaves combined with spices and herbs. pratyahara pratysyaya pravahikahara prevepana prithvi puja purisha dhara kala purishaja krimi pratyahara pratycyaya Withdrawl of the senses, the fifth limb of Yoga Common cold Herbs which manage dysentery. Excessive shaking. prithve puja Earth; the idea of solidity and mobility Ritualistic meditation, done with devotion and affection; a Hindu ritual worship designed to concentrate on God. purisha dhara kala The membrane that holds feces and bone; it is where asthiagni resides; it is where vata is metabolized. See kaphaja krimi. 27 purishavaha srota

The channel that carries feces; consists of the large intestine and rectum, which together make up the excretory system and is the second half of the mahavaha srota; the home of vata dosha. Purusha purva karma purva karma Pure potential for consciousness (unmanifested potential); God. Preparatory techniques for pancha karma; brings ama and any excess doshas present in the body back to their sites of origin in the digestive tract so that they can be removed by the procedures of pradhan karma. purva rupa Q R Raja – Yoga purvarupa Early signs and symptoms of a condition; in Western terminology this is called the prodrome. Raja – Yoga The royal yoga”, one of the four most important yogic paths towards union with God; its system is presented by Pataijali as described in the Yoga-Sutra. The path contins the following eight steps: yama (restraint), niyama (observance), asana (posture), praeayama(cultivation of breath), pratyahara (sense withdrawal), dharaea (concentration), dhyana(meditation), samadhi (integration) rajah rajas Menstruation Action, turbulence, distraction; one of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, rajas is the state of mind dominated by lots of activity, which distracts people from their true nature as spirit. ajata rajayaksmadi rajoni vriti, rajonivrit rakta rakta bhrisaranas rakta capa vriddhi rakta dhatu rakta dhatu rajayaknma Silver, as used in a bhasma made of silver. Tuberculosis. Also called rogarat, sosa, or ksaya. Menopause. Blood Emmenagogue (promotes menstruation). Hypertension (high blood pressure). One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of blood/ red blood cells. Also involves blood vessels, liver and spleen. Contains the fire element; invigorates tissues and the mind. rakta meha rakta mokshana A type of prameha in which the urine is blood red. Bloodletting.

The purpose is to remove toxic blood from the body and stimulate new blood formation. 28 rakta pradhara rakta prasadana rakta rodaka rakta samgrahaka rakta shodaka rakta shodana rakta stambhana rakta stambhana rakta vardhana raktagni Abnormal menstrual bleeding. Blood purifying, alterative herbs. Hemostatic herbs (astringent herbs that stop bleeding). Hemostatic herbs (astringent herbs that stop bleeding). Blood purifying, alterative herbs. Blood purifying, alterative herbs. Hemostats; astringent herbs that stop bleeding. Hemostat (stops the flow of blood). Herbs that increase blood, aid anemia.

A dhatu agni; helps build rakta; the health of this agni determines the health of rakta. Resides in pitta dhara kala, the membrane that precedes rakta. raktaja krimi raktasthivi sanniat raktasthivi sanniat raktavaha srota Systemic parasites that travel through the blood. Pneumonia Pneumonia The channel that carries posaka rasa (the unstable portion of rasa prior to becoming rakta). Also called rudhira or that which carriers the red blood cells and hemoglobin; often used synonymously with blood vessels; originates in the liver and spleen; primary carrier of pitta dosha. ranjaka pitta rasa (rasam) aijaka pitta Subdosha of pitta. Imparts color. Resides in liver, gall bladder, spleen, blood. 1) Taste; 2) bodily fluid; “the juice of life”; plasma (the watery component of blood). It can also mean sap, mercury or vitality. In the subtle body, rasa is the substance that provides satisfaction. rasa dhatu rasa dhatu One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of all bodily fluids (plasma, lymph, chyle, breast milk, menses). In the subtle body, provides a sense of satisfaction. rasa shastra rasa vidya rasagni Medicinal use of metals The application of alchemy toward healing.

A dhatu agni; helps build rasa; the health of this agni determines the health of rasa. Resides in the sleshma dhara kala, the membrane that precedes rasa. rasavaha srota rasavaha srota The channel through which ahara rasa flows; originates in the heart and blood vessels and includes lymphatic vessels; primary carrier of kapha dosha. rasavahini Capillary 29 rasayana rasayana Rejuvenative tonic; nourishes all dhatus and builds ojas. A specialized form of tonification that follows purification such as pancha karma; a special term meaning “that which promotes longevity by preventing aging and by making the body young again”.

Also called pashat krama. rasayani rasi rechana rishi rochana roga rogarat roma kupa roma sanjanana roma-satana roopana ruchya rudhira ruksha (ruksham) rukshana rupa rutu rutu S sadhaka pitta sadhaka pitta rupa ruksha roma kupa Lymphatic Quantity Strong purgative. A seer; an enlightened Vedic sage. Herbs which stimulate appetite or a flavoring agent. Pain; that which gives rise to pain or disease. The terms tapa and shula are also used synonymously for pain. That which overpowers. Sweat glands; one of the openings of the ambu vaha srotas Herbs that promote hair growth. Depilatories.

Vulnerary (firms tissues and organs) Herbs that stimulate taste. See rakatavaha srota. Rough quality, dry. Roughening. Signs and symptoms; clinical manifestation of disease; sight The seasons of the year. Season or time of the month. Subdosha of pitta. Digests and makes sense of sensory input; burns illusions away from truth. Fire of sadhaka pitta gives off light and heat; heat provides passion, courage, anger and the light provides wisdom and clarity. Resides in the mind, brain. sadhana The process of making action sacred (for example, food sadhana is the action of making the consumption of food sacred). adhyasadhyata Prognosis. 30 sahasra padma chakra The seventh chakra, located at the crown of the head (also called the crown chakra). It’s meaning is “thousand petaled lotus”. Contains causal ether, the subtlest ether of all, the ether of the ocean of consciousness itself. saindhava sakara sama sama prakruti samadhi samagni samana vayu samana vayu samadhi Rock salt Urinary gravel (pieces of stone passing through the urine that may cause mild pain and blocked flow). 1. With ama 2. Balanced. The ideal, tridoshic, balanced prakruti. A balanced state of body, mind and consciousness. ntegration, the eight limb of Yoga. Absorption and pure awareness; a balanced state of supreme intelligence. Normal (balanced) agni Subdosha of vata; moves from periphery to center. Balancing air. Carries sensory impressions to the brain, venous blood to the heart, nutrients and oxygen into the bloodstream. Governs absorption. In the mind, balances and stabilizes the other vayus. Resides in small intestine; it’s the “air that stokes the fire”. samanya samjna-stapana samjnavaha srota samprapti samsarjana karma samskaras samprapti Purvarupa which disappear at the onset of the actual disease. Resuscitative.

Channel of consciousness. Pathogenisis of disease; the disease process from its earliest causal stages until complete manifestation. Graduated re-administration of diet; rekindling of agni. Usually used after pradhan karma (the five actions) of PK. Generated by karma, they set the stage for our life, giving us our tendencies and creating our basic reactions to the world; they lie deep within our personality and affect our deepest belief systems. samudra samyoga san sanair meha Sea salt Combination, as in food combining. Truth A type of prameha in which the urine passes slowly with little effort. 1 sandha yoni vyapat In the ancient texts it was observed that some women, as they grew to maturity, did not like men. The condition was considered incurable, and could be an observation made of lesbian women. sandhaniya sandhi vata sandra sandra meha sangya sthapana sankhaka Sankhya Sankhya sandhi vata Healing. Osteoarthritis Dense A type of prameha in which the urine is thick when kept overnight, with no sugar present. Herbs that restore consciousness. Temporal headache. One of the six orthodox doctrines of philosophy (shad darshan) of Hinduism, founded by the sage Kapila.

As a dualistic philosophy, it teaches that the univers arises throught the union of prakriti and purusha. Literally means “enumeration”. sannipatika (sannipata) sannipatika yoni vyapat Tri-dosha (all three doshas are involved) This condition, which is the result of all three doshas becoming vitiated, results in menorrhagia (painful menstruation); leads to infertility. sannipatikodara santosh sapta sara sarangadhara saahita sara Contentment; the cultivation of satisfaction. The number seven (7). Example: sapta dhatus (the seven tissues).

Healthy essence One of the three supplemental (or “lesser”) classical books on Ayurveda (the other two are the Ashtanga Samgraha and the Madhava Nidanam). Written by Sarangadhara sometime between 1200-1500 AD, it is famous for its reference to pulse diagnosis and is the first to bring mention to this art. sarkara sarpa gati sarva sarvaroga nidanam carkara Urinary gravel (pieces of stone passing through the urine that may cause mild pain and blocked flow). The feel of the pulse is likened to the movement of a cobra; the main description of the vata pulse. eneral The general understanding or diagnosis of pain or disease. 32 sat sat-chit-ananda sat-chit-ananda All-encompassing, absolute truth; it is what exists beyond the illusion of creation. Where the distant edge of the anandamaya kosha (the subtlest aspect of human creation) blends with the final two layers of existence (sat and chit), these three layers make up the threefold reality of Purusha itself. Sat-chit-ananda is literally absolute existence-pure consciousness-perfect bliss (on lower levels, in the subtle body, this corresponds to prana-tejas-ojas, and in the physical body, to vata-pitta-kapha). atmya satsang sattva Comfort; see upasaya. The company of the wise; the support of others on our journey. Clarity, purity. One of the three gunas, or basic qualities of nature. Applied to the mind, sattva is the state of mind that is clear, pure, absent of any distraction, turbulence, ignorance; a transcendent state of mind immersed in the perfection of creation. satva Sun-dried paste prepared from a cold infusion which is set in the sun until all the water has evaporated and the concentrated herbs become solid. shabdha shad shad Shad Darshan shamana (samana) shamana chikitsa shamana chikitsa

Sound prefix meaning six, e. g. shad darshan The number six (6). Example: shad darsana (the six philosophical systems). The six philosophies of life: Sankhya, Nyaya, Vasisheshika, Memamsa, Yoga and Vedanta Make balanced; palliation therapy (tonifying while purifying); pacifies doshas without expelling them. Palliation therapy; a mild reduction therapy which is generally performed on a patient who is not strong enough for pancha karma procedures. Its overall effect is that of a gentle cleanse. shankhaka shanti sharada sharbata

A type of headache precipitated by a pitta-provoking lifestyle and low ojas. Peace of mind; the cultivation of bliss. The autumn season. Syrup 33 shastra sheeta (seetha) sheetali shirah shula shiro shiro shiro roga shiro tapa shirobasti shirodhara shishira shita kashaya shita purva jvara shita virya shitali shlakshna shlesma shodana shodhana shodhana chikitsa shonitasthapana shoolahara shotha shothaghna shothahara (sothahara) shramsanas (sramsanas) shuddhi shukra shukra agni sheta purva jvara shita verya shetale chirobasti chirodhara chiro sheta

Science Cold A form of pranayama. Headache; also called shiro roga or shiro tapa. head Head. Headache; also called shirah shula or shiro tapa. Headache; also called shiro roga or shirah shula. A head oil application where oil is held on top of the head for some time. Warm oil poured onto the forehead. Medicated oil applied to the shaved head. The application of warm medicated oil to the forehead over the sixth chakra. The late winter season. Cold infusion (aka hima). 1) Cooling virya. 2) A type of pranayama that is cooling to the system; inhalation is through a curled tongue.

Slimy, smooth. To hug Purifying. Make go away; reducing; includes main practices of P. K. shodhana chikitsa See pancha karma. Hemostat; promotes clotting. Pain-relieving herb. Swelling in both feet. Herbs that reduce swelling; anti-inflammatory. Herbs that reduce swelling; anti-inflammatory. Laxatives; expel feces prior to complete digestion. Pure Reproductive tissue; the most refined of the seven dhatus, containing the essence of all other dhatus. A dhatu agni; helps build shukra; the health of this agni determines the health of shukra.

Resides in the shukra dhara kala, the membrane that precedes shukra. 34 shukra dhara kala shukra dhatu shukra dhara kala The membrane that holds semen and creative potential. Contains that shukra agni. shukra dhatu One of the seven “dhatus” or tissues; consists of reproductive tissue, sperm, semen, prostrate fluids, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, ovum, ovaries. Composed of highly refined water; contains the essence of all other dhatus. Psychologically, the ability to sustain creativity (sexually and creative projects). shukrala shukra-shodana shukrasmari shukravaha srota cukracmari

A Sanskrit term for an herb that increases sperm count, a category of herb specific to Ayurveda. Purifies the semen. Seminal types of asmari (urinary stones). The channel that carries posaka majja or unstable majja dhatu prior to becoming shukra dhatu; according to the Caraka Saahita it originates in the testes and pudendum, according to the Sushruta Saahita it originates in the testes and breasts, and according to David Frawley it originates in the testes and uterus; the path that sperm travels from the testes until ejaculated by the penis; carrier of kapha dhatu. hukravridhikara shula shula prasamana shunya siddha dugdha siddha ghrita siddha taila siddhas sikita meha sira sirakampa sirasakta, siroroga sirsa jala sisa sita Herbs which increase sperm count. Pain; the terms roga and tapa are also used synonymously for pain. Intestinal antispasmodic. The number zero (0). Example: shunyata, the emptiness or void; a central notion of Buddhism. Medicated milk. Medicated ghee Medicated oil Mystical powers A type of prameha in which the urine contains sand-like particles. Vein; head. Also see nadi. Head tremor. Head disease. Cerebrospinal fluid.

Lead, as used in a bhasma made of lead. Cold 35 sita meha slaishmika yoni vyapat sleshaka kapha sleshma sleshma dhara kala smriti sneha snehana snigdha so-hum sokaja soma soma roga sonita sthapaha sosa spandin sparsha sramahara srota so-hum A type of prameha in which the urine is sweet and very cold. Itching in the vagina accompanied by the discharge of pale, slimy blood (mucous mixed with blood). Subdosha of kapha. Provides lubrication in joints, allows for “fluid” motion, provides joint stability. Located in joints. Mucous or phlegm; synonymous with kapha.

The membrane that holds kapha and the rasagni. Loss of memory. medicated ghee and oil 1) Oleation or fat; the term for oil therapy 2) Love Unctuous, oily. A mantra used in harmony with inhalation and expiration to enter into meditation; “I am that”. Grief See amrit. Endometriosis Hemostat That which causes drying up and loss of tissue Quivering. Touch Energy compensator, stimulant. Channels in the body; some are gross and some are subtle. In some texts, srota is used synonymously with nadi. The ears are also called srota. srotamsi stambhana stanya vaha srota

Bodily channels; plural for “srotas” (bodily systems or channels). Obstruction; restrains or stops flow; astringent. The channel that carries breast milk; consists of the lactation ducts within the breast, but has its origins in the wall of the uterus (so there is a direct connection between the breasts and the uterus and both should be treated when there is a problem with milk production). stanya-jnana stanya-shodana sthira sthula sucimuki yoni v

A Streetcar Named Desire essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Discuss how the dramatic representation of a character influences your approval/disapproval. Dramatic representation causes, us, the audience to either act in approval or disapproval against a specific character. These dramatic representations are the basic building blocks of a character, and create an even deeper meaning then the one displayed. The dramatic play, A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams, is a perfect example of simple dramatic devices that form a deep and meaningful character.

A Streetcar Named Desire, set in the late 1940s of New Orleans’ old quarter, depicts the conflict between a fading aristocratic woman of Old America, Blanche DuBois, and the working-class alpha male of New America, Stanley Kowalski. The author, Tennessee Williams, sought refuge in writing, as it was an escape from his reality, in the period of his childhood. These are found to be evident in his work.

Williams has displayed his character construction skills and is seen clearly, as he has constructed Blanche to take on a role that I disapprove of, which is evident in her disrespectful attitude, and is seen by the use of her actions and dialogue. Williams has also constructed Harold Mitchell (Mitch), who I approve because of his sincerity and sensitivity to others, which has been shown in the use of dialogue. Blanche has been constructed with the use of the technique of dialogue, and is seen to be uneducated and disrespectful, which are some of the attitudes I do not value.

Blanche is seen ‘flirting’ with Stanley, who is the groom of her sister Stella Kowalski, without any concern that he is her sister’s husband. Blanche admitted this disrespectful act to her sister as she shamelessly exclaims “Yes – I was flirting with your husband, Stella! ” Williams has constructed Blanche as such an ignorant and shameful character, as to even admit to Stella, as there is emphasis given in the stage directions, which describes Blanche talking in an excited tone (seen by the exclamation mark).

This has made me strongly dislike Blanche as her respect for others is so little, or none at all. Through Blanche’s actions, she has been seen to possess such desperation for money and men. Blanche is depicted as such a money hungry person, because she is financially challenged, and will do anything to acquire as much as possible. She had also been even acquainted with a wealthy man, who was married, stating “Honey, would I be here if the man weren’t married? ” Williams shows how Blanche would rather marry a man for money, with the way she tries to ‘flirt’ and ‘seduce’ them.

She also does not value the issue of love as well. “Sometimes – there’s God – so quickly! ” She is seen taking the opportunity of a lonely man for her own benefit. This is seen as a prostitute-like to me, and I strongly disapprove of this act. In contrast to this, Mitch has been constructed as a man who values his own family highly, as it is seen in his dialogue. He has shown that he respects and loves his mother more then a simple poker game, as he mentions he is always ‘wondering how she is’. This is evident when he talks about his mother as she tells him “… o go out, so I go out, but I don’t enjoy it. All the while I keep wondering how she is. ” Williams has constructed Mitch to carry high values for his ‘sick mother’, and can not stop caring about her. His love for his mother is also clear when he states “I gotta sick mother. She don’t go to sleep until I come in at night”. I strongly approve of Mitch, as he has a lot of respect towards his mother, a value I can relate to well. The use of dialogue for Mitch has shown him as a sensitive and aware character.

Mitch ‘shows’ of his wisdom during the poker night, as he is seen as the most caring and knowledgeable man during that night. His higher intelligence is compared to the other men as he states “Poker shouldn’t be played in a house with women. ” Williams has not only used Mitch as a way of being contrasted to the other men, but made him stand out clearly as a very considerate person. I have clearly approved of such a man who has high morals and sensitivity for others. This can be seen during his act of comforting Blanche by telling her “You need somebody.

And I need somebody, too. ” This has shown him to understand the situation Blanche is in, and ask her if she wants to be together. The many uses of dramatic representations have ultimately made me, approve or disapprove the characters by contrasting and comparing with other characters and my own values and attitudes. This gives the text, A Streetcar Named Desire, to be interpreted through our values and attitudes. By thoroughly investigating on dramatic techniques, I have concluded with a character that I disapprove and another I approve.

The character of Blanche DuBois, has truly made me dislike her greatly as she acts and talks in disrespectful ways. I value people that take respect their own body and respect other people. She can be seen not respecting her sister’s own husband, because of how she views men on their monetary value, rather then their love or affection. This is why I am seen approving of Mitch, as he is seen as a man with high value and attitudes, and is not shy of showing them. He can be seen valuing his own ‘sick mother’ with great pride, and he is considerate to the women at the poker scene.

I value these highly, as I have grown up to respect the elder and view everyone being equal. This contrast has given me time to reflect on my own values and attitudes, and compare them to those in the drama play. My values and attitudes are mine alone, and no one is forced to accept them, as I have had to compare these characters through my own interpretation. Williams has created such a brilliant piece of drama that can be interpreted in so many ways, which leave me in awe.

Save Paper admission essay help: admission essay help

Use Computers whenever possible. If you can, e-mail your paper on the geography of Botswana rather than print it out. If you have a laptop, take notes with it, rather than with a notebook. Ads by Google Contact Center Monitoring Download free DMG Contact Center Analytics white paper. www. solutions. nice. com/analytics 2Use Paper Notebooks Wisely. Buy and use recycled paper whenever possible. If you have paper you don’t need anymore, take it to a recycling center. Use both sides of notebook paper. Avoid leaving white space as much as you can.

Don’t do silly things with paper, like passing notes, making planes, eating it to show off in front of your classmates, throwing it in your classmates’ heads and so on. Not only is it wasting paper, such behavior can get you in trouble with school staff. Art teachers can guide you on how to re-use paper creatively, and to arise awareness. Re-Use used computer paper: take the paper in the recycling bin next to the printer, align the paper so all the blank sides are one direction, 3-hole punch it, and you just re-used a lot of paper that would be wasted. You can also offer it to teachers for scratch paper). 3Write small, (but legible) so the paper will last longer. 4Get Students Involved. Student environmental clubs are very popular, and can help make the school community more ecology-savvy. Calculate how much paper is thrown out and recycled every day. (The janitor can help you find this out). Educate students on ways to conserve and reuse paper: posters, “Tip of the Day” in the daily bulletin, whatever works.

Recycle clean but used paper into scratch paper for teachers (all you need is time and some paper cutters). 5Get Teachers and Staff Involved. Adults at school are interested in saving paper, too. Work with them in finding ways to save paper wherever possible. Find out how to reduce paper waste in the cafeteria. Lobby for hand dryers instead of paper towels. Post reminder “These Come From Trees” stickers on napkin and paper towel dispensers, and photocopiers to help remind people to reduce unnecessary use and save paper.

Help the art teachers sort paper to re-use. 6Get Businesses to Donate Paper. Workplaces often have reams of paper goods that are not used, such as outdated letterhead paper, envelopes of the wrong size, and outdated signs. Ask local businesses, the workplaces of parents, and the like, to donate these paper goods to your school to be reused. (And in many cases, it’s tax-deductable! ) 7Use Page Flipping Catalogs. Every year, millions of tons of trees are cut down to make the industry’s billions of catalogs. It is high time we switch to page flipping

Shoe Making Process academic essay help: academic essay help

Shoe Making- How Shoes are Made Footwear can be defined as garments that are worn on the feet. There main purpose is protecting one’s feet. Of late, footwear has become an important component of fashion accessories. Although, their basic purpose remains that of protection, adornment or defining style statement has become their additional and a significant function. There are many types of footwear- shoes, boots, sandals, slippers etc. They are further categorized into many more types. Shoes and Shoe making

Shoes are further divided into many categories such as athletic shoes also known as sneakers, galoshes, high heels, Stiletto heels, kitten heels, lace-up shoes, high-Tops, loafers, Mary Janes, platform shoes, school shoes and many others. Shoemaking can be considered a traditional handicraft profession. However, now it has been largely taken over by industrial manufacture of footwear. A variety of materials are used for making shoes- leather fabrics, plastic, rubber, fabrics, wood, jute fabrics, and metal. More than 200 operations are required for making a pair of shoes.

However, with the development of modern machines, a pair of shoes can be made in very less time as each step in its manufacturing is generally performed by a separate footwear making machine. Parts of a Shoe A shoe consists of sole, insole, outsole, midsole, heel, and vamp (upper). They are the basic parts of a shoe that are mostly included in all types off shoes. Other parts of a shoe are lining, tongue, quarter, welt and backstay. These parts are included as per the design of the shoes. Sole: The exterior bottom part of a shoe is the sole.

Insole: The interior bottom of a shoe, which sits directly beneath the foot, is its insole. They can be removable and replaceable too. In some of the shoes, extra insoles are often added for comfort, health or other reasons, such as to control the shape, moisture, or smell of the shoe. Outsole: It is that layer of the shoe that is in direct contact with the ground. These can be made of various materials like leather, natural or synthetic rubber etc. Often the heel of the sole is made from rubber for durability and traction and the front is made of leather for style.

Special purpose shoes often have refined modifications, for example, athletic cleats have spikes embedded in the outsole to grip the ground, dance shoes have much softer or harder soles. Midsole: The layer that lies between the outsole and the insole for shock absorption, is the midsole. Some special shoes, like running shoes have other materials for shock absorption, that usually lie beneath the heel where one puts the most pressure down. Materials used for midsoles depend on the shoe manufacturers. Some shoes can be made even without a midsole. Heel: The rear part at the bottom of a shoe is the heel.

It supports the heels of the feet. Heels of a shoe are often made from the same material as the sole of the shoe. It can be high for fashion purpose or for making a person look taller. They are also flat for comfort and practical use. Vamp, or upper: The upper part of a shoe that helps in holding the shoe onto the foot is the vamp or simply called the upper. This part is often embellished or given different styles to make shoes attractive. Shoe Making Process A footwear company has mainly four departments in which a progressive route is followed for producing finished shoes.

These are- Clicking or Cutting Department, Closing or Machining Department, Lasting & Making Department, Finishing Department and the Shoe Room. Clicking or Cutting Department In this department, the top part of the shoe or the “upper” is made. The clicking operative is given skins of leather, mostly cow leather but not restricted to this type of leather. Using metal strip knives, the worker cuts out pieces of various shapes that will take the form of “uppers”. This operation needs a high level of skill as the expensive leather has to be wasted at the minimum level possible.

Leather may also have various defects on the surface such as barbed wire scratches which needs to be avoided, so that they are not used for the uppers. Closing or Machining Department Here the component pieces are sewn together by highly skilled machinists so as to produce the completed upper. The work is divided in stages. In early stages, the pieces are sewn together on the flat machine. In the later stages, when the upper is no longer flat and has become three-dimensional, the machine called post machine is used.

The sewing surface of the machine is elevated on a post to enable the operative to sew the three dimensional upper. Various edge treatments are also done onto the leather for giving an attractive look to the finished upper. At this stage only, the eyelets are also inserted in order to accommodate the laces in the finished shoes. Lasting & Making Department The completed uppers are molded into a shape of foot with the help of a “Last”. Last is a plastic shape that simulates the foot shape. It is later removed from the finished shoe to be used further in making other shoes.

Firstly, an insole to the bottom of the last is attached. It is only a temporary attachment. Sometimes, mostly when welted shoes are manufactured, the insole has a rib attached to its under edge. The upper is stretched and molded over the last and attached to the insole rib. After the procedure completes, a “lasted shoe” is obtained. Now, the welt- a strip of leather or plastic- is sewn onto the shoe through the rib. The upper and all the surplus material is trimmed off the seam. The sole is then attached to the welt and both are stitched together.

The heel is then attached which completes the “making” of the shoe. That was the process for heeled shoes. When a flat shoe is in the making, there are considerably fewer operations. The insoles in this case is flat and when the uppers are ‘lasted’, they are glued down to the surface of the inner side of the insole. The part of the upper, that is glued down, is then roughed with a wire brush to take off the smooth finish of the leather. This is done because rough surface absorbs glue to give a stronger bond. The oles are usually cut, finished and prepared as a separate component so that when they are glued to the lasted upper, the result is a complete and finished shoe. Soles can also be pre-molded as a separate component out of various synthetic materials and again glued to the lasted upper to complete the shoe. Finishing Department and the Shoe Room The finishing of a shoe depends on the material used for making it. If made of leather, the sole edge and heel are trimmed and buffed to give a smooth finish. To give them an attractive finish and to ensure that the edge is waterproof, they are stained, polished and waxed.

The bottom of the sole is often lightly buffed, stained and polished and different types of patterns are marked on the surface to give it a craft finished look. A “finished shoe” has now been made. For shoe room operation, an internal sock is fitted into shoe which can be of any length- full, half or quarter. They usually have the manufacturers details or a brand name wherever applicable. Depending on the materials used for the uppers, they are then cleaned, polished and sprayed. Laces and any tags that might have to be attached to the shoes, such as shoe care instructions, are also attached. The shoes, at last, get packaged in boxes.

Sales Presentation Example essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Sales Presentation Our product is known as Sharon’s Lollies (lollipops). We have a variety of different lollipops all with their own multitude of flavors. Our prospecting methods are cold calling, direct mail, & using our business website. Sharon’s Lollies is the only lollipop manufacturing/distributing company in American Samoa. It is fairly new and very promising. This sales call is an initial sales call to try and start multiple business relationships with different retailers and wholesalers who are interested in selling lollipops. Customer Profile And Planning Sheet: 1. Shalhout & Sons Retail P. O.

Box 4761 Pago Pago, AS 96799 www. shalhoutretail. com Business Type: Retail Buyer: Mr. Said Shalhout (Owner) 2. TMC Wholesale P. O. Box 20545 Pago Pago, AS 96799 www. tmzws. com Business Type: Wholesale Buyer: Mr. Ele Kaulia (Owner) The objective of our company’s sale call is to establish a business relationship with a few retail and wholesale companies in American Samoa. Our objective is to sell our company’s product to local retail/wholesale companies to promote local businesses. Our method for our sales presentation is a small conference between our company representative and the projected customers.

This way all projected customers can ask questions and input together. There is no local competition for our business. The only major competition that our company would have is major companies such as Tootsie Pops & Blow Pops which both are very popular and favored on island. Although both companies are highly favored on island, Sharon’s Lollies has an advantage. Since Sharon’s Lollies is located on island costs for shipping & handling are non-existent. Buying lollipops from our company is much cheaper than from companies off-island.

Our approach is to contact random wholesale/retail businesses and inform them of our product and its benefits. Then we will set up plans to negotiate business. Marketing Plan Our research shows that lollipops are very popular in the island of American Samoa. People both young and old buy them every day. The major age group for consumers is the younger generation (ages 5-17). Since lollipops are now commonly sold at almost every store, school shop, & random fundraiser, children are able to buy however many lollipops they want, whenever they want.

With lollipops in such a great demand thanks to the many children of American Samoa, retail & wholesale stores find themselves wasting so much money by buying lollipops from name brand companies in the states that have high prices plus shipping and handling. Unfortunately, American Samoa never had a local lollipop manufacturing/distributing company until now. Now with Sharon’s Lollies retail/wholesale stores will not be pestered by shipping costs and can help support our country’s economy during such a financially complicated time. Economics Our target market is retail/wholesale stores.

The current demand that our customer has is that they need a cheaper way to buy multitudes of lollipops to re-sell to kids seventeen and younger. Our company’s potential growth depends on the participation of other companies in a business-like manner with our company. Our company has great potential and will most likely be very prosperous seeing that it will be the only Lollipop manufacturer on the island. There are a few barriers that face our company before we completely enter our new company in the business. Seeing how we are distributers our production cost will be very high.

The problem with that is that we might lose money. It will take a while before anybody eats our candy do to the fact that it isn’t a brand name on the lollipop. Our future workers must all first learn the skills and train since our company is new and technology constantly changes. Technology would affect this lollipop making process. It would most likely make things much easier than it was before. Shipping costs is now a worry of the past. Our plan to overcome these obstacles is to first advertise properly and constantly so people will know and want to try “Sharon’s Lollies. The change of technology should benefit my company since it will help in making the sell a go! Our only problem is if the US goes into an even further financial slump we could be broke. Product Lollipops are basically and most importantly just hard candies with a small stick in it. The tightly wrapped white paper stick is a handle, and the hard candy lollipops are either sucked or bitten apart until eaten. Lollipops can come in all different sorts of shapes, colors, and sizes. From the “Tootsie Pops” to the “Dum Dum” lollipops, there are so many different types of lollipops.

Even though lollipops come in different sizes and each lollipop seems different from the others, the lollipop is basically made by corn syrup, sugar, flavorings and water. Features and Benefits Sharon’s Lollies have a random assortment of lollipops. They have regular flavored lollipops (flavors include cherry, watermelon, grape, blueberry, green apple, etc. ). Another type of lollipop manufactured/distributed by our company is the “Gummy Pop”, a lollipop with a piece of gum in the center of it, in a variety of flavors (such as, cherry, watermelon, etc. . We also have “Choco Pops” and “Rocket Launchers”. “Choco Pops” are basically self-explanatory, a lollipop with a chocolate center (this lollipop also has multiple flavors such as raspberry, orange, etc. ). “Rocket Launchers” are Lollipops that are not circular but long and twisted to resemble a small little firecracker of some sort. Rocket Launchers are only one flavor and that is wild cherry. A few after-sale services that our company provides is that delivery will of course be free seeing how we are the only distributor on our island.

We also have a 100% money back guarantee if our customers are not satisfied with the products supplied to them. Customers Our target customers are retail stores and wholesales. Our customers are basically the ones who supply major grocery stores and super markets with food items and more. All of these businesses are located within American Samoa and are of small size. We here at Sharon’s Lollies give nothing but the best quality lollipops and are always ahead in technology for our company. As of the moment our prices are set but negotiable. We will discuss prices later on in our presentation.

Competition Our only competition is major companies that are off-island such as Tootsie Pops and Charms Blow Pops. Both companies are located in the states far away from the island of American Samoa. They most likely will compete against our small company for American Samoa’s business/ Our company has two advantages though. Being that we are already located on the island, no expensive shipping costs will have to be made and potential customers will save money. Secondly, we pride ourselves in provided top-quality lollipops for our customers. Table 1: Competitive Analysis

FACTORMeStrengthWeaknessCompetitor ACompetitor BImportance to Customer ProductsVariety of LollipopsXTootsie Pops (brand name)Blow Pops (brand name)3 Price$17 a box of lollipops (no shipping costs)XExpensive with and w/out shipping costsExpensive with and w/out shipping costs1 QualityTop QualityXMass-made, occasional defectsMass-made, occasional defects3 SelectionVariety of Lollipops availableXOnly tootsie pop, then a assortment of chocolatesOnly blow pops2 ServiceWe try to establish a relationship w/customersXTop Priority is that customers get their products.

Top Priority is that customers get their products. 5 ReliabilityCompletely reliable or your money backXVery ReliableAlso reliable5 ExpertiseContinuous researching is always being doneXPros at the lollipop businessPros at the lollipop business3 Company ReputationNot well knownXWell known brand nameWell known brand name1 LocationOn the islandXIn the USIn the US2 Sales MethodCold-calling and ConferencesXContacted by customersContacted by customers1 AdvertisingTV, NewspaperXTV, Internet, Magazines, etc. TV, Internet, Magazines, etc. 1

Our company’s competitive advantages are that we strive to make top quality lollipops. Any defected ones will be tossed. We also are located on island which is more convenient for our potential customers. We offer a 100% money back guarantee if the customer is not satisfied and we always try to maintain a professional business relationship with each and every customer. Our competitive disadvantages are that our company being fairly new is not well known. We most likely will be bought out by major US companies for a while until we become a bit better known.

Lastly, we are still fairly new to the business so there are most likely a few things that the major companies might know that we don’t. Nonetheless, we continuously do market researching every day to better familiarize ourselves with our products. Niche & Strategy Our niche is the manufacturing and distribution of assortments of lollipops. We pride ourselves in providing nothing but top-quality lollipops or your money back. We also take pride in the fact that we are the first lollipop manufacturer/distributor on island. We plan on conferencing with random retail and wholesale owners to sell our products too.

Our strategy is to cold-call major retail and wholesale owners on island and set up conferences with them to discuss further business relationships. We also have a business website for potential customers to check out & send flyers and information packs via direct mail. Promotion We have a multitude of ways to promote our products. We have a business website that all interested customers are free to check out. We also placed ads in the newspapers and on TV. Flyers and information packets about our company were and can still be sent if wanted via direct mail or email.

We will do this monthly so that our company definitely will get recognized. Lastly, the best type of advertisement is that of your friends. We have many promoters out there along with a network of friends who help spread the word about Sharon’s Lollies. We want our customers to see us as a professional business who strives for top quality and the ability to save our fellow island businesses a few bucks. We only plan on spending $350 a month on this. Pricing Our pricing is determined simply by comparing products with competition and viewing how much they charge and from there we make a reasonable price on our products.

For example, a box of Charms Blow Pops would probably cost somewhere around $15 not including tax and shipping costs. After adding both the tax and shipping cost, those blow pops will probably come up to say $25 for that one box. Our company’s “Gummy Pops” are of much better quality and a box of them would probably cost $17 because there is no tax or shipping costs to be bothered with. So our company always finds a way to get profit but remain cheaper. In American Samoa, a lot of decisions are made on the price of an item.

If the businesses on-island find a brand item that costs a lot, they most likely won’t get it if they can find a less known one that is cheaper. Proposed Location Our company’s warehouse and manufacturing plant will all be located in the village of big business, Tafuna. This location is very good since majority of our customers pass through here every day on random business affairs or just to get home. Our company would be properly situated in one of the bigger lands which resides close to shops that wholesales actually supply to. Parking is reasonable and it’s not too out of the way.

It probably is what our customers are expecting to see & hopefully want. Our competition is located in the states and it is better left at that because if they were to station down here it would hurt business. Distribution Channels Our products are sold to random retail and wholesale companies in American Samoa. FeatureAdvantageBenefit Variety of lollipopsMore chance at salesMore money for both us and customer Manufactured on islandNo shipping costs or taxBoth companies save money 100% money back guaranteeIf customer isn’t satisfied they can get their money backTrust is established between both parties

SELL Sequence for each FAB: 1. We sell a variety of lollipops [feature]. This gives both our company and yours a chance at more sales [advantage]. That means that we both would be making more money [benefit]. Does that sound good? [trial closed] 2. Our lollipops are manufactured on island [feature]. That means you don’t have to pay any tax or shipping costs [advantage]. So, that means both your company and ours saves money [benefit]. Do you like that? [trial closed] 3. We give a 100% money back guarantee if you aren’t satisfied with our product [feature].

With that you can get all your money back and have no losses [advantage]. That establishes a good trust relationship with both companies [benefit]. Wouldn’t you like that? [trial closed] Select and write three closes indicating three different closing techniques. Closing 1. Well Mr. Shalhout would you like use to deliver this week or the next? Closing 2. Yes, well thanks for your time Mr. Kaulia. We will have your order in as soon as possible. Closing 3. Thank you for your time and support. So our company will have your order in by tomorrow, Mr. Shalhout.

Indian Accounting Standards medical school essay help: medical school essay help

The paradigm shift in the economic environment in India during last few years has led to increasing attention being devoted to accounting standards as a means towards ensuring potent and transparent financial reporting by corporate. Further, cross-border raising of huge amount of capital has also generated considerable interest in the generally accepted accounting principles in advanced countries such as USA.

Initiatives taken by International Organisation Securities Commission (IOSCO) towards propagating International Accounting Standards (IASs)/ International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs), issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), as the uniform language of business to protect the interests of international investors have brought into focus the IASs/ IFRSs.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, being a premier accounting body in the country, took upon itself the leadership role by establishing Accounting Standards Board, more than twenty five years ago, to fall in line with the international and national expectations. Today, accounting standards in India have come a long way. Presented hereinafter are some salient features of the accounting standard-setting endeavours in India. Rationale of Accounting Standards

Accounting Standards are formulated with a view to harmonise different accounting policies and practices in use in a country. The objective of Accounting Standards is, therefore, to reduce the accounting alternatives in the preparation of financial statements within the bounds of rationality, thereby ensuring comparability of financial statements of different enterprises with a view to provide meaningful information to various users of financial statements to enable them to make informed economic decisions.

The Companies Act, 1956, as well as many other statutes in India require that the financial statements of an enterprise should give a true and fair view of its financial position and working results. This requirement is implicit even in the absence of a specific statutory provision to this effect. The Accounting Standards are issued with a view to describe the accounting principles and the methods of applying these principles in the preparation and presentation of financial statements so that they give a true and fair view.

The Accounting Standards not only prescribe appropriate accounting treatment of complex business transactions but also foster greater transparency and market discipline. Accounting Standards also helps the regulatory agencies in benchmarking the accounting accuracy. International Harmonisation of Accounting Standards Recognising the need for international harmonisation of accounting standards, in 1973, the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) was established.

It may be mentioned here that the IASC has been reconstituted as the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The objectives of IASC included promotion of the International Accounting Standards for worldwide acceptance and observance so that the accounting standards in different countries are harmonised. In recent years, need for international harmonisation of Accounting Standards followed in different countries has grown considerably as the cross-border transfers of capital are becoming increasingly common. 2

Accounting Standards-setting in India The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI) being a member body of the IASC, constituted the Accounting Standards Board (ASB) on 21st April, 1977, with a view to harmonise the diverse accounting policies and practices in use in India. After the avowed adoption of liberalisation and globalisation as the corner stones of Indian economic policies in early ‘90s, and the growing concern about the need of effective corporate governance of late, the Accounting Standards have increasingly assumed importance.

While formulating accounting standards, the ASB takes into consideration the applicable laws, customs, usages and business environment prevailing in the country. The ASB also gives due consideration to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs)/ International Accounting Standards (IASs) issued by IASB and tries to integrate them, to the extent possible, in the light of conditions and practices prevailing in India.

Khajuraho write my essay help: write my essay help

Once a great chandela capital, Khajuraho is now a quiet village. The town of exotic temples, Khajuraho is one of India’s major honeymoon attractions. They are India’s unique gift to the world, representing a melody to life,which encompasses all emotions ranging from love, to joy. Life, in every form and mood, has been captured in stone, testifying not only to the craftsman’s artistry but also to the extraordinary breadth of vision of the Chandela kings. What to see The architecture of the temples are unique, being very different from the temple prototype of their period.

The erotic carvings of temples, make it a must-see. Originally there were 85 temples, but many were destroyed by the British. Today, only 22 are in fair condition. Temples Khajuraho temple complex site is one the most popular places both foreign and Indian tourists. Temples of Khajuraho hold the attention of a visitor with their sculptural art, which is so exquisite and intricate, that one cannot even dream of cloning it now. The artist’s creative instincts have beautifully captured various facets and moods of life in stone.

The temples at Khajuraho are divided into three broad groups: •The Western Group It is the largest, compact and centrally located group in Khajuraho, includes some of the most prominent monuments, built by the Chandela rulers. The Lakshmana Temple, the Matangesvara Temple and the Varaha Temple form one complex and the Visvanatha and Nandi temples are not far from this complex. •The Eastern Group It comprises of five detached sub-groups in and around the present village of Khajuraho.

The eastern group of monuments, situated in close proximity to the Khajuraho village, includes three Brahmanical temples known as Brahma, Vamana and Javari and three Jain temples, the Ghantai, Adinath and Parsvanath. •The Southern Group It is the most distant one comprising of two main monuments near and across the Khudarnala. The southern group of monuments comprises the Duladeo and the Chaturbhuja temples. The Duladeo is about a kilometre south of the Khajuraho village and half a mile southwest of the Jain group of temples.

The Chaturbhuja Temple is a mile further south and is close to the Khajuraho airport. Dance Festival Visitors are also drawn to a dance festival, celebrated in March, which attracts some of the best classical dancers in the country – the floodlit temples provide a spectacular backdrop during the event. In a setting where the earthly and the divine create perfect harmony, it is a spectacular event that celebrates the pure magic of the rich classical dance traditions of India.

First Farms Corporation high school essay help: high school essay help

I. Point of View This group takes the point of view of Mr. Ricardo Sarmiento, Vice President for Finance of First Farms Corporation (FFC for brevity). Mr. Sarmiento will present to the Board the financial performance and financial position of the company from 1993 to 1995. In the process, he will also make recommendations as to the feasibility of the proposed expansion. II. Case Context In 1995, FFC raised P1. 1 billion from its initial public offering.

P500 million of the proceeds was used as working capital (livestock inventories and raw materials), P476 million went to expansion of operations and acquisition of properties while P69 million was used to pay part of the corporation’s long term debt. In the face of tight competition, consolidated sales for the year still amounted to P5. 7 billion which is 44% higher than the previous year. P3. 508 billion or 62% of revenue was from chicken sales hence, taking over leadership in the business from Marigold Foods Inc.

Moreover, FFC has outpaced the industry growth on chicken sales volume which is largely attributed to the company’s increased contract growing base. Net income was also up 89% amounting to P280 million despite the increasing costs of production. During the year, FFC launched a new line of extruded aquaculture feeds. It also entered the fast food business thru California Chicken and Gulliver’s Chicken restaurants. Management is proposing for construction of three dressing plants and four new feed mills for the following year (1996) as they believed that sales and profits were held back in 1995 partly by constraints in production capacity.

It is expected to be financed by short term notes if approved. It must be noted, that the Industry is bracing for the entry of imported frozen chicken in 1998, when trade barriers in the Philippines are lowered. III. Problem Definition Why is there a deficit amounting to P719 million in operating cash flow in 1995? Why does Return on Equity gone down? Given the financial position and performance of the company, is it feasible for FFC to construct more dressing plants and feed mills? If so, should they use short- term notes to finance the expansion? IV. Framework

A breakdown of Cash Flow from Operating Activities will be used in analyzing the deficit mentioned in the previous sections. Ratio analysis (specifically the liquidity, efficiency, leverage and profitability ratios) and the Du Pont Technique will be used to assess the possible reasons for the decrease in ROE and the feasibility of expansion. V. Analysis ILLUSTRATION 1: BREAKDOWN OF CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES CASH FLOW FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES (P’000)19941995 Net Income148,216280,256 Adjustments98,23080,668 Changes in Operating Assets and Liabilities:

Trade Receivable(112,420) (180,893) Others(32,527) (212,761) Inventories(118,029) (803,317) Due from affiliated companies17,661(17,650) Deferred income tax (2,037) Prepaid Expenses(25,198) (85,602) Accounts Payable & Accrued Expense26,746 163,746 Acceptances Payable109,205 (3,859) Dividends payable9,236 Income tax payable(3,428)61,956 Due to affiliated companies(2,057)10 Net Changes in Operating Assets and Liabilities(130,811)(1,080,407) Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities115,635* (719,483)* *Minor discrepancy in computations because of approximations.

Illustration 1 shows that the deficit in the operating cash flow was caused by increase in all the current assets of the company and largely because of bloated inventories. Looking at year 1994, changes in inventories in 1995 was more than 6 times larger. Investment in other current assets was also noticeably augmented in 1995. From a positive P115. 6 M to a negative P719. 5 M operating cash flow, we can see how aggressive the company was in spending for current assets in general in 1995. ILLUSTRATION 2: RATIO ANALYSIS RATIOFORMULA1993199419951993-1994 Trend1994-1995 Trend LIQUIDITY

Current ratioCA/CL0. 9990. 9971. 353v^ Quick Asset ratio(Cash+Trade Receivables)/CL0. 2910. 3320. 401^^ LEVERAGE Debt ratioTL/TA0. 6250. 6450. 536^v Debt- Equity ratioTL/SE1. 6841. 8511. 163^v EFFICIENCY Total Asset TurnoverSales/TA1. 7191. 9961. 458^v Receivables TurnoverSales/Trade Receivable15. 98613. 49111. 985vv Day’s Receivables360/ RTOR22. 52026. 68430. 038^^ Inventory TurnoverCost of Sales*/Inventories4. 5595. 1313. 482^v Day’s Inventory360/ITOR78. 97270. 168103. 397v^ Payable TurnoverCost of Sales*/AP**7. 8329. 8239. 880^^ Day’s Payable360/PTOR45. 96536. 65036. 438vv PROFITABILITY

Return on EquityNI/SE0. 1370. 2140. 156^v Return on AssetsNI+[Int. Expense*(1-tax rate)]/TA0. 0880. 1100. 078^v Operating Profit MarginOperating Income/Sales0. 0790. 0890. 078^v Net Profit MarginNI/Sales0. 0300. 0370. 049^^ *Includes operating expenses **Includes accrued expenses ILLUSTRATION 3: DU PONT TECHNIQUE YearNet Income/ SalesSales/ AssetsAssets/EquityROE ProfitabilityEfficiencyLeverage 19930. 0301. 7192. 6950. 137 19940. 0371. 9962. 8670. 214 19950. 0491. 4582. 1680. 156 Based on Illustration 3, it is observed that in 1995, efficiency and leverage decreased causing the ROE to plunge to 15. % from 21%. Decrease in efficiency was mainly due to low inventory turnover and low receivable turnover (see Illustration 2) while decline in leverage may be accounted to the substantial increase in stockholders’ equity brought about by the IPO proceeds. The company’s profitability in 1994 was excellent, for this reason it was easy for FFC to raise equity in 1995. However, the management decision to boost inventory has adversely affected its efficiency for the year. Contrary to what management believes, the sales and profits were not held back in 1995 due to production capacity.

If this was the case, inventories should have a lower figure and higher inventory turnover. In fact, there was a lot of inventory that was not disposed that it held back the sales and consequently profits. Stocking up large inventories is not advisable for FFC as most are perishable and entails cost like warehouse space, feed consumption and utilities (see Table 1 of Case for Inventories details). Expansion of the contract growing base may have been too much too soon. Notice also that receivables turnover decline even more (see Illustration 2).

It now takes 1 month for the company to collect from its creditors. It is alarming because though sales grew by 44% in 1995, trade receivables have increased further by 62% (see FFC’s Consolidated Balance Sheet). It seems that the company is very generous with its credit policy which affected adversely its operating cash flow. If the company continues to expand by constructing new dressing plants and feed mills, it may seriously affect the company’s efficiency and liquidity if sales remain unchanged given tight competition especially with the entry of imported frozen chicken.

Net income may also be affected considerably as it brings about expenses like maintenance, employees salary etc. Should the company expand and use short- term notes to finance the expansion, it will significantly affect the cash balance even more upon payment of the debt. VI. Decision FFC was too aggressive in keeping inventories resulting to lower ROE and cash flow from operations. The management may have overlooked the abnormally high inventories and focused mainly on the remarkable performance (sales) of the company. It is recommended that the company postpone its plan to increase production capacity until inventory turnover improves.

As soon as the company becomes more efficient, FFC may opt to revamp existing dressing plants and feed mills by installing a more advance technology to increase production capacity. It is also advised that long-term liabilities be used in expanding production capacity instead of short- term notes to make a leeway in building funds for payment. VII. Justifications •Inventory turnover and receivables turnover declined resulting to lower asset turnover. •It is too optimistic for the company to expect that sales will continue to increase in the next five years especially with the anticipated entry of imports. Construction of dressing plants and feed mills may increase asset but may decline further efficiency of the company if growth in sales is insignificant. •Using short- term notes to finance expansion may result to a negative cash flow. VIII. Implementation To initially improve inventory turnover, FFC can lower its price to get a higher market share so it can also dispose its excess inventories. The company may also give sales discounts to increase receivable turnover. Doing these may decrease profit margin but will actually have a better impact since risk of spoil of inventories and default in payments will be lessened.

Energy for Performance in Touch Football my essay help uk: my essay help uk

This term in year 11 senior physical education we have been learning the use of the three energy systems and how they are used in the game of touch football and how they function together. To understand the energy systems, our class went through a number of fitness tests. The Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) stores in the muscle and lasts for approximately 2 seconds and the resynthesis of ATP from Creatine Phosphate (CP) will continue until CP stores are used up, which is approximately 4-6 seconds. This gives us around 5-10 seconds of ATP.

The use of ATP in touch football is high intensity, it would be used in a 50m sprint or a pass in touch. Once the Creatine Phosphate stores have worn out, the body resorts to stored glucose for ATP. The breakdown of glucose or glycogen in anaerobic conditions results in the production of lactic acid. The build up of ions is the restrictive issue causing fatigue in runs of 300m – 800m. The lactic acid system is most affective around 30seconds to 2-3 mins. In touch football the use of the lactic acid system may be used when wrucking the ball, as it is a constant sprint with little or no rest.

The aerobic energy system utilizes protein, fats and carbohydrates (glycogen) for resynthesising ATP. The aerobic system is most effective at 5 mins onward. This energy system can be developed with various intensity runs. The types of runs are, Continuous runs – long slow runs at 50-70% of highest heart rate. This places demands on muscular and liver glycogen. The normal response by the system is to enhance muscle and liver glycogen storage capacities. This run would be the warm up run that we take of the oval before getting into the game.

Extensive runs – continuous runs at 60-80% of maximum heart rate. This places demands on the system to cope with lactic acid production. Running at this level helps the removal and turnover of lactic acid and the body’s ability to tolerate the larger levels of lactic acid. The example for this run would be wrucking the ball at a high intensity work rate. Intensive runs – continuous runs at 80-90% of maximum heart rate. Lactic levels become high as these runs boarder on speed endurance. Intensive training is good for the development of anaerobic energy systems.

The example of this run would be defending at a high intensity. The interrelationship between the energy systems are that they are all used in a game of touch football. The use of ATP when sprinting a short distance, the use of lactic acid when wrucking the ball, and the use of the different types of intensity runs. ! In touch football I either play in the middle because I have good ball and communication skills and ready to take responsibility for wrucking the ball down the field in attack.

As a centre player I have ability to go forward with good acceleration, be aerobically fit, have knowledge of wrucking patterns, leadership qualities, quick reaction skills, a high work rate and the ability to maintain pressure. I also have a good strength and average muscular endurance. I also play in the wing and I’m generally the main scorer with sustained speed, good anticipation, good support skills, good finisher, good defender, good evasive skills, involvement, good hands and knowledge of the wing defence policy I believe that my level of proficiency in touch football is above average.

I have superior hand eye coordination because of all the sports I have played over a number of years which is an advantage for me touch football skills. My fitness level is average, touch football is a continuous sport where you just keep going whereas I’m use to short explosive breaks. I believe my energy systems have coped a lot better than I thought they would. I feel as if my cardio could improve because after a full game of touch football I feel slightly tired, as fatigue sets in after 10+ minutes of play.

Scam english essay help online: english essay help online

The Ketan Parekh Scam The Crash that Shook the Nation The 176-point1 Sensex2 crash on March 1, 2001 came as a major shock for the Government of India, the stock markets and the investors alike. More so, as the Union budget tabled a day earlier had been acclaimed for its growth initiatives and had prompted a 177-point increase in the Sensex. This sudden crash in the stock markets prompted the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) to launch immediate investigations into the volatility of stock markets. SEBI also decided to inspect the books of several brokers who were suspected of triggering the crash.

Meanwhile, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) ordered some banks to furnish data related to their capital market exposure. This was after media reports appeared regarding a private sector bank3 having exceeded its prudential norms of capital exposure, thereby contributing to the stock market volatility. The panic run on the bourses continued and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) President Anand Rathi’s (Rathi) resignation added to the downfall. Rathi had to resign following allegations that he had used some privileged information, which contributed to the crash.

The scam shook the investor’s confidence in the overall functioning of the stock markets. By the end of March 2001, at least eight people were reported to have committed suicide and hundreds of investors were driven to the brink of bankruptcy. 1 A change of Re. 1 in the price of a share when one speaks of a share rising or falling by so many points. In stock market indices, however, a point is one unit of the composite weighted average on market capitalization of rupee values. 2 A stock market index indicating weighted average of 30 scripts, also known as the BSE Sensitive Index.

The daily closing figure of this index broadly reflects the performance of the capital markets. 3 It was alleged that Global Trust Bank exceeded its Capital market exposure. The scam opened up the debate over banks funding capital market operations and lending funds against collateral security. It also raised questions about the validity of dual control of co-operative banks4. (Analysts pointed out that RBI was inspecting the accounts once in two years, which created ample scope for violation of rules. ) The first arrest in the scam was of the noted bull5, Ketan Parekh (KP), on March 30, 2001, by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).

Soon, reports abounded as to how KP had single handedly caused one of the biggest scams in the history of Indian financial markets. He was charged with defrauding Bank of India (BoI) of about $30 million among other charges. KP’s arrest was followed by yet another panic run on the bourses and the Sensex fell by 147 points. By this time, the scam had become the ‘talk of the nation,’ with intensive media coverage and unprecedented public outcry. The Man Who Triggered the Crash KP was a chartered accountant by profession and used to manage a family business, NH Securities started by his father.

Known for maintaining a low profile, KP’s only dubious claim to fame was in 1992, when he was accused in the stock exchange scam6. He was known as the ‘Bombay Bull’ and had connections with 4 Co-operative banks are under the dual control of RBI and the Registrar of Co-operative Societies. The RBI regulates banking functions while the registrar looks after the managerial and administrative functions. 5 An investor who expects share prices to go up and hence buys them. 6 When the interest rates were freed in mid-1989, it made the price of both bonds and money more volatile, and increased the link between the securities and money markets.

With price volatility and increased volumes, securities broking became a profitable activity. The rising volumes were funded by banks through bank receipts (BR is a document issued by a bank acknowledging that it has sold certain government securities to a party and received payment). The scam came to light when RBI asked the SBI to show the bank receipts, and it was found that Rs 6. 22 billion not been reconciled and was untraceable. The money involved in the scam was eventually ascertained to be well over Rs 30 billion. ovie stars, politicians and even leading international entrepreneurs like Australian media tycoon Kerry Packer, who partnered KP in KPV Ventures, a $250 million venture capital fund that invested mainly in new economy companies. Over the years, KP built a network of companies, mainly in Mumbai, involved in stock market operations. The rise of ICE (Information, Communications, and Entertainment) stocks all over the world in early 1999 led to a rise of the Indian stock markets as well. The dotcom boom7 contributed to the Bull Run8 led by an upward trend in the NASDAQ9.

The companies in which KP held stakes included Amitabh Bachchan Corporation Limited (ABCL), Mukta Arts, Tips and Pritish Nandy Communications. He also had stakes in HFCL, Global Telesystems (Global), Zee Telefilms, Crest Communications, and PentaMedia Graphics KP selected these companies for investment with help from his research team, which listed high growth companies with a small capital base. According to media reports, KP took advantage of low liquidity in these stocks, which eventually came to be known as the ‘K-10’ stocks. The shares were held through KP’s company, Triumph International. In July 1999, he held around 1. million shares in Global. KP controlled around 16% of Global’s floating stock, 25% of Aftek Infosys, and 15% each in Zee and HFCL. The buoyant stock markets from January to July 1999 helped the K-10 stocks increase in value substantially 7 The e-commerce revolution had led to a massive upsurge in the value of technology stocks across the globe, especially Internet ventures. This came to be known as the dotcom boom. 8 A bull run is an uptrend in the stock markets caused by the rise in the price of shares, sustained by buying pressure of actual investors or news of favorable economic growth, decontrol and political developments. The National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System (NASDAQ) is a US-based stock exchange, which comprises largely of technology stocks. Started in 1971, NASDAQ is the first screen-based, floor less trading system and the second largest stock market in the US. (Refer Exhibit I for BSE Index movements). HFCL soared by 57% while Global increased by 200%. As a result, brokers and fund managers started investing heavily in K-10 stocks. Mutual funds like Alliance Capital, ICICI Prudential Fund and UTI also invested in K-10 stocks, and saw their net asset value soaring.

By January 2000, K-10 stocks regularly featured in the top five traded stocks in the exchanges (Refer Exhibit II for the price movements of K-10 stocks). HFCL’s traded volumes shot up from 80,000 to 1,047,000 shares. Global’s total traded value in the Sensex was Rs 51. 8 billion10. As such huge amounts of money were being pumped into the markets, it became tough for KP to control the movements of the scrips. Also, it was reported that the volumes got too big for him to handle. Analysts and regulators wondered how KP had managed to buy such large stakes. The Factors that Helped the Man

According to market sources, though KP was a successful broker, he did not have the money to buy large stakes. According to a report11, 12 lakh shares of Global in July 1999 would have cost KP around Rs 200 million. The stake in Aftek Infosys would have cost him Rs 50 million, while the Zee and HFCL stakes would have cost Rs 250 million each. Analysts claimed that KP borrowed from various companies and banks for this purpose. His financing methods were fairly simple. He bought shares when they were trading at low prices and saw the prices go up in the bull market while continuously trading.

When the price was high enough, he 10 11 In September 2002, Rs 48 equalled 1 US $. Businessworld, 16 April, 2001. pledged the shares with banks as collateral for funds. He also borrowed from companies like HFCL. This could not have been possible out without the involvement of banks. A small Ahmedabad-based bank, Madhavapura Mercantile Cooperative Bank (MMCB) was KP’s main ally in the scam. KP and his associates started tapping the MMCB for funds in early 2000. In December 2000, when KP faced liquidity problems in settlements he used MMCB in two different ways.

First was the pay order12 route, wherein KP issued cheques drawn on BoI to MMCB, against which MMCB issued pay orders. The pay orders were discounted at BoI. It was alleged that MMCB issued funds to KP without proper collateral security and even crossed its capital market exposure limits. As per a RBI inspection report, MMCB’s loans to stock markets were around Rs 10 billion of which over Rs 8 billion were lent to KP and his firms. The second route was borrowing from a MMCB branch at Mandvi (Mumbai), where different companies owned by KP and his associates had accounts.

KP used around 16 such accounts, either directly or through other broker firms, to obtain funds. Apart from direct borrowings by KP-owned finance companies, a few brokers were also believed to have taken loans on his behalf. It was alleged that Madhur Capital, a company run by Vinit Parikh, the son of MMCB Chairman Ramesh Parikh, had acted on behalf of KP to borrow funds. KP reportedly used his BoI accounts to discount 248 pay orders worth about Rs 24 billion between January and March 2001. BoI’s losses eventually amounted to well above Rs 1. billion. 12 A bank issues a pay order after it is clear that the customer’s account has sufficient funds. The MMCB pay order issue hit several public sector banks very hard. These included big names such as the State Bank of India, Bank of India and the Punjab National Bank, all of whom lost huge amounts in the scam. It was also alleged that Global Trust Bank (GTB) issued loans to KP and its exposure to the capital markets was above the prescribed limits. According to media reports, KP and his associates held around 4-10% stake in the bank.

There were also allegations that KP, with the support of GTB’s former CMD Ramesh Gelli, rigged the prices of the GTB scrip for a favorable swap ratio13 before its proposed merger with UTI Bank. KP’s modus operandi of raising funds by offering shares as collateral security to the banks worked well as long as the share prices were rising, but it reversed when the markets started crashing in March 2000. The crash, which was led by a fall in the NASDAQ, saw the K-10 stocks also declining. KP was asked to either pledge more shares as collateral or return some of the borrowed money.

In either case, it put pressure on his financials. By April 2000, mutual funds substantially reduced their exposure in the K-10 stocks. In the next two months, while the Sensex declined by 23% and the NASDAQ by 35. 9%, the K-10 stocks declined by an alarming 67%. However, with improvements in the global technology stock markets, the K-10 stocks began picking up again in May 2000. HFCL nearly doubled from Rs 790 to Rs 1,353 by July 2000, while Global shot up to Rs 1,153. Aftek Infosys was also trading at above Rs 1000.

In December 2000, the NASDAQ crashed again and technology stocks took the hardest beating ever in the US. Led by doubts regarding the future of technology stocks, prices started falling across the globe and mutual funds and brokers began 13 The merger was later cancelled. selling them. KP began to have liquidity problems and lost a lot of money during that period. It was alleged that ‘bear hammering’ of KP’s stocks eventually led to payment problems in the markets. The Calcutta Stock Exchange’s (CSE) payment crisis was one of the biggest setbacks for KP.

The CSE was critical for KP’s operation due to three reasons. One, the lack of regulations and surveillance on the bourse allowed a highly illegal and volatile badla business (Refer Exhibit III). Two, the exchange had the third-highest volumes in the country after NSE and BSE. Three, CSE helped KP to cover his operations from his rivals in Mumbai. Brokers at CSE used to buy shares at KP’s behest. Though officially the scrips were in the brokers’ names, unofficially KP held them. KP used to cover any losses that occurred due to price shortfall of the scrips and paid a 2. 5% weekly interest to the brokers.

By February 2001, the scrips held by KP’s brokers at CSE were reduced to an estimated Rs 6-7 billion from their initial worth of Rs 12 billion. The situation worsened as KP’s badla payments of Rs 5-6 billion were not honored on time for the settlement and about 70 CSE brokers, including the top three brokers of the CSE (Dinesh Singhania, Sanjay Khemani and Ashok Podar) defaulted on their payments. By mid-March, the value of stocks held by CSE brokers went down further to around Rs 2. 5-3 billion. The CSE brokers started pressurizing KP for payments. KP again turned to MMCB to get loans.

The outflow of funds from MMCB had increased considerably from January 2001. Also, while the earlier loans to KP were against proper collateral and with adequate documentation, it was alleged that this time KP was allowed to borrow without any security. By now, SEBI was implementing several measures to control the damage. An additional 10% deposit margin was imposed on outstanding net sales in the stock markets. Also, the limit for application of the additional volatility margins was lowered from 80% to 60%. To revive the markets, SEBI imposed restriction on short sales14 and ordered that the sale of shares had to be followed by deliveries.

It suspended all the broker member directors of BSE’s governing board. SEBI also banned trading by all stock exchange presidents, vice-presidents and treasurers. A historical decision to ban the badla system in the country was taken, effective from July 2001, and a rolling settlement system for 200 Group A shares 15 was introduced on the BSE. The System that Bred these Factors The small investors who lost their life’s savings felt that all parties in the functioning of the market were responsible for the scams. They opined that the broker-banker-promoter nexus, which was deemed to have the cceptance of the SEBI itself, was the main reason for the scams in the Indian stock markets. SEBI’s measures were widely criticized as being reactive rather than proactive. The market regulator was blamed for being lax in handling the issue of unusual price movement and tremendous volatility in certain shares over an 18-month period prior to February 2001. Analysts also opined that SEBI’s market intelligence was 14 Selling of shares without physically possessing them. Usually the speculator promises to deliver the shares in future anticipating a fall in prices.

If the price falls, he buys the shares at the lower rate, and makes a profit on the difference. If prices rise, he buys the shares at the higher price, and sustains a loss. 15 Group A shares are otherwise known as specified shares. These companies have the best fundamentals and growth prospects. The trading interest in these shares is high and certain exchanges also offer the carry-forward facility, which enables speculative trading of these shares. Because of the high trading volumes, the spreads are low and it is possible to easily enter and exit from these shares. ery poor. Media reports commented that KP’s arrest was also not due to the SEBI’s timely action but the result of complaints by BoI. A market watcher said16 “When prices moved up, SEBI watched these as ‘normal’ market movements. It ignored the large positions built up by some operators. Worse, it asked no questions at all. It had to investigate these things, not as a regulatory body, but as deep-probing agency that could coordinate with other agencies. Who will bear the loss its inefficiency has caused? An equally crucial question was raised by media regarding SEBI’s ignorance of the existence of an unofficial market at the CSE. Interestingly enough, there were reports that the arrest was motivated by the government’s efforts to diffuse the Tehelka controversy17. Many exchanges were not happy with the decision of banning the badla system as they felt it would rig the liquidity in the market. Analysts who opposed the ban argued that the ban on badla without a suitable alternative for all the scrips, which were being moved to rolling settlement, would rig the volatility in the markets.

They argued that the lack of finances for all players in the market would enable the few persons who were able to get funds from the banking system – including cooperative banks or promoters – to have an undue influence on the markets. 16 17 Business India, April 16-29, 2001. In March 2001, a website, Tehelka. com exposed an alleged corruption racket in defense deals. Many leading politicians, bureaucrats and army personnel were caught on camera indulging in unethical practices. It led to a huge uproar in the media and public, eventually threatening the government’s stability.

It was alleged that KP’s arrest was a ploy by vested interests to divert the nation’s attention off the Tehelka controversy. The People that the System Duped KP was released on bail in May 2001. The duped investors could do nothing knowing that the legal proceedings would drag on, perhaps for years. Observers opined that in spite of the corrective measures that were implemented, the KP scam had set back the Indian economy by at least a year. Reacting to the scam, all KP had to say was, “I made mistakes. ” It was widely believed that more than a fraud, KP was an example of the rot that was within the Indian financial and regulatory systems.

Analysts commented that if the regulatory authorities had been alert, the huge erosion in values could have been avoided or at least controlled. After all, Rs 2000 billion is definitely not a small amount – even for a whole nation. Questions for Discussion 1. Study the developments that led to the Ketan Parekh scam and comment on SEBI’s actions after the scam was unearthed. 2. Comment on SEBI’s decision to ban badla. What effect would this move have on the stock markets? 3. The Ketan Parekh scam was an example of the inherently weak financial and regulatory set up in India. Discuss the above statement, giving reasons to justify your stand.

A Victim, Hero or a Criminal? high school essay help: high school essay help

A victim, hero or a criminal? Good Afternoon fellow students and Mrs. Nielsen. The topic that we will be debating this afternoon is: Ben Hall was a decent, innocent young man who suffered continual harassment by the police for no reason at all. He was driven into crime by the harshness of the authorities. Therefore making him an outlaw hero. A hero is defined as a person who, in the opinion of others, has heroic qualities or has performed a heroic act and is regarded as a model or ideal.

Today I will be talking about Ben hall’s life and what makes him a hero. Ben Hall is different from the other bushrangers. One of the victims of the holdup described him as “a quiet, good-looking young fellow, rather tall, frank-looking face. ” He was not a heartless, cruel, malicious person who is involved in or devoted to wickedness. (Bradley:2007). Ben Hall was praised by everyone in the district as a fine, hard-working, dedicated and honest stockman. He was known variously as ‘Bold Ben Hall’, ‘Gentleman Bushranger’ for his avoidance of bloodshed and daring raids, many on which were planned to ridicule the police.

Ben Hall was quoted saying ‘I’m not a criminal. I’ve been driven to this life, I was held for a month in gaol, an innocent man. Mr Norton, it’s your mob that have driven me to it”. The bitterness of losing his wife and son to an ex policeman who called himself Ben’s mate, being jailed for nothing, his house burnt down by an arsonist his cattle stolen didn’t make him like the law very much. This made him very bitter and he gradually drifted into a life of crime, from a successful grazer to an infamous bushranger. Hall would never harm a woman.

If a woman screamed during a robbery he often stopped and left rather than force her to be quiet There were plenty of sympathisers who offered them safe hiding places, this shows that they respected and appreciated what Ben Hall did for them. He would never rob a poor man and always left his victims with travelling money unlike some other bushrangers. He never attempted or threatened to kill the people he robbed or the police who hunted him. Even though he could have taken revenge on the police, he never did, even up to the day he died.

These are some reasons why Ben Hall was a hero because he stood up for the rights of the people and was a kind caring young fellow. Rebuttal I disagree with Annabel saying that Ben Hall was a selfish, greedy man who only wanted more money. Ben Hall was a poor man’s hero because he stole from the rich and gave to the poor. He was seen as a ‘Robin Hood’ figure to the people who would steal from the rich and redistribute the money to his supporters, family, friends and the poor. The gang angered and frightened the rich people.

The poor settlers laughed and cheered. As a majority of the population could relate to this, Ben was elevated to hero status. He did hold up the townspeople in the Robinson Hotel for 3 days but treated the people well. He always treated them with drinks, meals, music and a party like atmosphere. Hall humiliated the only policeman of the town by making him march up and down along the Hotel’s veranda. Once the party was over they gave the townspeople expense money and left without taking any money with them.

This was to show their honesty and respect to the people and to make public the gang’s power and to ridicule the police. The holdup was not to frighten or harm the townsfolk but to demonstrate his hatred to the police, which the hostages agreed with. This shows that he was a warm hearted young man and As you can see Ben Hall was a hero. He is looked upon in a heroic way for fighting the justice system and showing courage, strength and ability to resist laws through making his own lifestyle, with separate beliefs, attitudes and values.

He was a friend of the poor, kind to women and children, and an enemy of the rich. He was forced into crime by the harsh harassments of the authorities. He said to have died bravely against the more powerful forces of the law. He has grown to be an admired infamous figure for the way he stood up to authority and his larrikin ways. Ben Hall may have gave Australia more than they stole. (Baldwin:2005) He was a clever larrikin, a man of imagination and courage. In the end, Ben Hall may have given Australia, more than they ever stole.

School Prefect college essay help free: college essay help free

Prefectorial System Mayflower Preparatory School practices a system of democracy in electing prefects in the school. Students vying to be prefects must be in form two and must be nominated by their colleagues. The electoral committee made up of the assistant headmaster and three other teachers vet the nominated candidates. Successful aspirants are given four days to campaign in all classes and also present their manifesto to the student body on the fifth day. Sample Manifesto written by Kobina Kwegyir-Aggrey when vying for the post of Senior boys Prefect Mr.

Electoral Commissioner, Honorable Proprietor and Headmaster, distinguished staff members, co-aspirants, fellow students, ladies and gentlemen, I greet you all It has been observed by me in recent times, that there are many problems, which arise day in day out. I do not wish to make this entire problem known, because they give me an ill-feeling when I mention them. Nevertheless, for the sake of my manifesto, I am going to give an instance of a situation as an example.

Comfortably seated lady and gentlemen, Imagine yourself being a teacher, you have just given an exercise which you were marking, or you are busily compiling your examination results. As you continue your task, one boy runs up to you and says “Sir, this boy has hit me with a ball” The lad is expecting you to leave your work and go and administer justice to his said trouble maker. If you were to be that teacher, what will your reaction towards the issue be? I do not suppose you would leave your work to attend to that issue; such problems should be left into the hands of the prefects.

One of such prefects who play a major role in the school is the boys’ prefect. This is the reason why I want to take up this responsibility demanding position. Ladies and gentlemen, the voting is in your hands and it is your own decision. I am appealing to you all to vote for Kobina- Kwegyir Aggrey as your boys’ prefect, so that when this school gets a change of a lifetime, with the blare of a trumpet, we can all say that something has happened out of the blues.

Once again, listen to the cry of your humble servant Kobina Ebo. K Aggrey, vying for the post of the high office of the senior prefect of this humble institution. Now to my dear juniors who have been in a state of melancholy for so long a time due to ill-treatments and injustice meted out to them by others in the crack of a whip, crackling of wood and creak of a hinge, put on broad smiles, for the days of your doom are over Vote for

Busumburu Kobina Kwegyir Aggrey for your vote is your power which will catapult me into unleashing my fabulous policies, which will drive the whole populace of the land of great Mayflower through a transitional state of positive change. Vote for Kobina, for I am a think tank and above all an established academician who will rise, defend and protect the sovereignty and integrity of the good people of Mayflower. Vote and vote wisely, for your vote is your power. Thank you all.

A Perspective melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Learning English is crucial for every individual in this globalization era because it has been regarded as an international language and becomes an essential means of communication. Many people eager to learn English just not for the sake of pleasure or knowing the language, but it also serve as the platform to success because it holds the key to get assess to the technological, scientific, commercial world, pharmaceutical and medical.

Realizing the importance and benefits of mastering English nowadays, Malaysia is moving forward by implementing policies which are believed are able to improve the reputation of English and at the same time, enhancing students’ proficiency of the language. One of the steps taken by Malaysia is through the implementation of PPSMI. PPSMI is learning and teaching science and mathematics in English and it is the outcome of a policy decision made by the Government of Malaysia as the result from the Minister’s Council Meeting held on 19 July 2002.

In 2003, this dramatic shift is implemented in the national education system and it was carried out in stages beginning with the 2003 schooling session. The pioneers were all Year 1 students for Primary Schools and Form 1 and Lower 6 students for Secondary Schools. The full implementation of PPSMI was in 2007 for Secondary Schools and 2008 for Primary Schools. However, after six years of implementation, in 2010, Ministry has decided to abolish the implementation on PPSMI in 2014 following outcry from several quarters who were unhappy with the policy.

Believing the importance and benefits of using mother tongue as the best medium of instruction of teaching, I chose to review an article entitled “PPSMI Should Continue”. It is chosen because some quarters express their opinions and forefront arguments on why PPSMI should continuously being implemented in school and in opposition side, I will forefront solid arguments and prove that abolishing PPSMI is a wise decision. Discussion This could be considered as an ‘ancient’ issue, yet the debates are still oing on because each individual possesses different ideas for the policy. When I read the title of the article, I expect to find solid arguments on why these quarters want PPSMI to be continued, yet to no avail. Their arguments are weak and were more on personal beliefs. The main issue emphasized in the article is the procession done by the citizens who disagree with the implementation of PPSMI. My arguments to show that PPSMI should not continue will be presented in six categories. Language and Education

Language is defined as “a form of communication-whether spoken, written, or signed- that is based on a system of symbols” (Santrok, 2008). The importance of language is proved in Genie case, a feral child who spent nearly all of the first thirteen years of her life locked inside a bedroom strapped to a potty chair. She was beaten by her father with a large stick if she vocalized and he forbade anyone in the house to speak to her. By the age of 13, she was almost entirely mute, commanding a vocabulary of about 20 words and a few short phrases.

She was discovered at the age of 13 when her mother left her husband and took Genie with her. Later on, she “became the focus of an investigation to provide evidence supporting the theory that humans have a critical age threshold for language acquisition” (Wikipedia). After the rescue, attempts were made to make her speak and socialize and her demeanor shifted considerably, and she became social with adults she was familiar with. Obviously, it is undeniable that language serves as a crucial tool in one’s life and plays a major role in character building.

In a paper entitled “The Use of Vernacular Languages in Education” (1953), it appointed out that “it is axiomatic that the best medium for teaching a child is his mother tongue. Psychologically, it is the system of meaningful signs that in his mind works automatically for expression and understand. Sociologically, it is a means of identification among the members of the community to which he belongs. Educationally, he learns more quickly through it than through an unfamiliar linguistic medium”. Simply put, it is easier for learners to grasp the information if the teaching is in their respective mother tongue.

According to Russell Ackoff (1989), in his ‘The Cognitive Hierarchy’ theory, he mentioned that “the learning process that begins with data will evolve into the details of information. Information is then processed into knowledge and then it grew into an understanding”. My point here is how the students could achieve the understanding level if they even cannot absorb and digest the data conveyed by the teachers due to language barrier? My three months experience as a practical teacher in an urban school, SMK Tun Tijah, serves as an eye opener and reveals the criticality of English proficiency among the students.

Some of them did not even understand the simple instructions such as “Please read the passage carefully”. If that is the case, how are they going to understand Science and Mathematics in English? I had the opportunity to meet with a Chinese student who is excellent in Mathematics when he was in primary school and by that time, the medium of study for him is Chinese. However, he often fails his Mathematics papers when he is in secondary school. The main reason is he does not understand English. Answering to Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye, yes, this could be one of the threats if PPSMI is continued in the school system.

Plus, is it wrong to use students respective mother tongue as the medium of instructions? Japan, Korea, France and Germany teach Science and Mathematics in their own respective language and yet aren’t they competitive on the world stage? Examinations Official results for Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) for 2007 showed an increase, especially for the subjects of Science and Mathematics. According to the Acting Director of the Department of Education in Johor, Ramlan Sariman, subjects Biology approvals increased by 4. 87%, Mathematics Extension 6. 81%, Physics 8. 6%, Mathematical 1:04% and Science Extension 4:29% , thus proving that the language barrier in the medium is not success in secondary education (Wikipedia). However, please bear in mind with the fact that “the exact grading scale used every year has never been made public “(Wikipedia). To simplify, only “respective people” know how the grading is done for the respective examination. One of my lecturers told me a story about her friend who works as a teacher. She is teaching in a primary school and she confessed that most of the students in her school have low commands of English.

Majority of them scored B and C for the Science and Mathematics subjects in the tests prepared by the school. However, when the result of UPSR was announced, most of the students received good score and shockingly some students who usually obtained C for the tests, received A for these subjects. Apparently, what does it show to you? Do the students really deserve to obtain the good results for their efforts or there is a hidden agenda done by the ministry of Education in order to prove the effectiveness of PPSMI to the public?

Another issue is whether the Examination Syndicate ready to take the venture as the examinations paper are offered in both languages. The questions addressed are; Are there enough officers who are competent in English to undertake the preparations of such examinations? Are there enough Bilingual markers to take the task since the candidates are given the options since they are given a range of option to answer either in Bahasa Melayu or English or both languages? Resources

In the national budget for 2003, the Prime Minister announced that RM 5 billion would be allocated between 2002 – 2008, for the implementation of PPSMI. A laptop would be given to every teacher from national schools who are teaching Science, Mathematics and English subject, and all Standard One, Form One and Lower Six classes will be equipped with a LCD projector, a screen and a trolley with speakers and an UPS system. A launching grant of RM5000 to RM15000 will be given to each school to acquire additional materials. However, issues of maintenance and security have not been adequately addressed.

Undoubtedly, the maintenance will cost a lot of money and could be a burden to the schools. The other great concern is security. There are a number of schools, which do not have a 24 hour security system in place. Hence, the schools have to ensure that there is a better security system in place in schools as more expensive equipment comes in. Again, to provide schools with better security system will cost money too. The other issue is the necessity of equipping schools with all these hardware. Acquiring hardware is easy, however acquiring suitable software is not that easy.

Institutions sometimes make the mistake of acquiring hardware without making adequate provision for acquiring software. As the result, the hardware is left, unused and obviously, the money spent for all of this, is wasted. Equity and Access Equity and access is one of the issues that need to be addressed. As the policy to teach Science, Mathematics and technology related courses in English reaches the Upper Secondary level, there will be inequality with regards to the number of subjects that will be taught in English between the Humanities and Science streams.

Arts students will have two subjects taught in English whereas Science stream students will be taught at least five subjects in English. This will create a language divide between those who from the Arts and the Sciences and employability will be less for those who have had less exposure to English. In terms of access, students from the upper and middle class families are in better position since they are better resourced and have better family environments to take advantage of this shift in policy.

Compared to rural schools, urban schools have greater access to monetary sources that could help complement the school budget in acquiring materials and extra support. There is also greater likelihood of finding a greater number of teachers who are competent in English in urban schools than in rural schools and students in urban areas have greater exposure to the use of the English than their counterparts in rural areas. Directly, these inequalities will affect the performance of implementation of PPSMI and at the same time, creating the massive injustice between urban and rural schools.

National Education Philosophy states that “Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manners, so as to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such …….. the nation at large”. Are we able to produce these individuals when the equity and access received by urban and rural areas students are different? Findings of the Studies

Many studies have been done to investigate and evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of PPSMI. Most of the findings concluded that PPSMI should be terminated and the system returns the instruction before the policy was introduced in 2003. In another study done by the National Alliance, it shows that (i) PPSMI rise to multiple losses to the students, especially the 75 percent of students who belong to the category (performance) and low average in the three affected subjects and (ii) PPSMI has and will kill the enthusiasm and motivation of pupils to study Science and Mathematics.

The finding from a study done by Tan Yao Sua shows that the students’ general attitudes and achievement motivations towards learning of Science and Mathematics in English do not indicate that the policy has achieved its objective. Ebata (2005) stated that “Motivation is vital in learning and it makes learners positive about their own learning”. Hussin, Maarof and D’ Cruz (2001) stated that six factors influence motivation in language learning are attitudes, beliefs about self, goals, involvement, environmental support, and personal attributes.

Unfortunately, most students (especially in rural areas) confessed that their motivation to learn these subjects decline and as the consequence, students are not able to show their full potential due to language barrier and this indirectly, will effect the students’ performances in the future. Throughout the six years of implementation of PPSMI, RM4 billion public-expenditures has been spent by the government and apparently, all the efforts and money spent are to no avail. Training of teachers Due to the implementation of PPSMI, Science and Mathematics teachers are sent to attend courses to prepare themselves for the new policy.

The importance of training are in term of productivity, team spirit, organization culture, organization climate, quality, healthy work environment, healthy and safety, morale, profitability, optimum utilization of human resources, development of human resources and development of skills of employees (Naukrihub, 2004). They are not only being introduced to the new and effective teaching pedagogy for teaching Science and Mathematics in English, but are also given English courses in order to allow them to familiarize themselves with the language. Logically, some of the English teachers do mistakes for the anguage and need to attend courses to improve themselves, and now we are giving training for teachers who mostly do not have English background in their certificates to do multiple tasks – teaching English and their respective subject? Unlike any professions which start at 8 am and finish at 5 pm, most of the teachers’ time are spent preparing for the teaching aids, conducting good lesson plans and evaluating them, focusing on the students’ learning needs, marking students’ books, and now we want to burden them by ‘forcing’ them to attend all of these courses?

A research done by UPSI students shows that “Over 80% of the students stated that teacher of Mathematics and Science use a mixture of English And Bahasa Malaysia to teach the two subjects and students achievement in these two subjects are low, especially on items that require students to read the instructions in English and problems solving”.

The finding of the study confirmed the often-heard anecdotal evidence that one of the key problems is that teachers are finding it difficult to teach in English and consequently students are having a hard time understanding these lessons that are conducted by teachers who themselves are not proficient in the language. As a result, it exposes a fundamental flaw in the implementation of the policy. How do you expect the students to answer exam questions in English when it is not entirely taught in English in the first place?

Do you think students can master English in this classroom atmosphere? Conclusion The content of the article has failed to present the solid evidence on why PPSMI policy should continue in our education system. I have presented my arguments and strongly believe, the decision done by the Ministry of Education to abolish PPSMI is definitely a wise move and should not be argued by any quarters. There is no use to create a new policy because what we really need is improvements on the existing education system.

If our students are given a sound foundation in the English language itself with proper instruction given to grammar, vocabulary and syntax during English lessons, they will have few problems understanding Science and Mathematics reference books and journals in English at universities. They don’t need to be taught Mathematics and Science in English to read reference books in English later on but what they really need is to be proficient in English, which clearly this policy has failed to achieve.

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In exploring racism in the Paris suburbs, this film has a direct contrast with more typical French films, such as Amelie(2001) which presents a far more romantic and idyllic vision of French life. The beginning of La ‘Haine’ shows the beating of a Parisian in comparison to the beginning of Malcolm X which in the beginning, shows the beating of Rodney King and these two have a direct comparison as they both represent inequality as those people being beaten up had done no crime or malignant deed to deserve the beatings. La Haine” has such a huge impact as the film remakes how the riots in the outskirts of Paris were created and how the three adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds, where Vinz is Jewish, Said is Arab and Hubert is African, cope with ongoing riots. The director(Mathieu Kassovitz) inspiration was the riots of LA and the riots in Paris and how the riots had similar effects. Post industrial revolution, the main situation in France at this time was that people were succumbed into creating riots due to a police beating a person off-duty which happened in Les Banlieues.

Les Banlieues also had a policy of ensuring that not one culture or ethnic group was over represented in Les Banlieues which intended to prevent a power struggle of independence. Les Banlieues are mainly in the outskirts of the city and are teeming with high drug use, social fragmentation, racial conflict, suburban decay, violence, crime, delinquency and even civil disorder in comparison to the “ghettos” in LA . In Les Banlieues, riots started to occur and multiple violent acts were committed against property and people These environments gradually became more public and developed strong opinions about life in Les Banlieues.

This environment reinforces the adolescent’s need to construct a masculine identity as Les Banlieues is a dangerous, threatening society to live in so this reinforces the need for a masculine identity because the adolescents feel that they have succeed in certain situations that requires physical strength and fitness and also tend to express themselves verbally and physically. This is shown after the beginning when Vinz has a banter with Said. Kassovitz develops the identities of Vinz, Said and Hubert in certain scenes.

In the scene where Vinz finds a policeman’s gun, his normal persona changes as Vinz vows to kill every policeman if the trio’s friend,Abdel, dies. This depicts his masculinity as Vinz is subtly pressured to act masculine due to Abdel being in hospital and if Vinz appears to look or become weak then it will appear to Said and Hubert that Vinz is more feminine if Vinz expresses his emotions. This will also, as a whole, ruin Vinz’s self-esteem. Another scene where there is another development of Vinz’s identity is the scene where the trio confronts an off-duty cop.

Vinz seemingly “plays” with the cop with the gun in his hand, suggesting that they should kill the cop. This shows another development in Vinz’s masculine identity as Vinz is was challenged by Hubert that he won’t kill a cop and this threatens his identity and therefore plans to prove to the trio. The effect of this is to show how men’s masculinity are constructed in harsh conditions and how this affects their personality to become more reckless. “La Haine”, as a story, is more symbolic than realistic.

Motifs are repeated throughout the film, such as in the beginning the phrase “What is important is not how you fall but how you land”.. In “La Haine” there are American influences such as near the beginning of the film, it shows footage of the beating of a Parisian person and the Parisian riots and how it affected people which was in juxtaposition to The Beating of Rodney King which lead to the riots in LA. Kassovitz does this to reinforce the message of social inequality and its effects.

Also how lower class people are disadvantaged more than upper class people due to economic issues. Phrases are shown throughout the film poster integrated into several shots such as ‘The world is yours’ which shows the hypocrisy of the phrase with in relation to scenes such as as in contrast to the footage of the beating of a Parisian. Also another link would be the ‘Taxi Driver’ impersonation where Vinz talks to himself in front of his bathroom mirror. The film also is in monochromatic black and white which implies how good and bad correspond together.

Violence is depicted in the film mainly near the end when an off-duty police ambushes Vinz and accidentally shoots him dead and then Hubert points a gun at the policeman, intent on killing the policeman. This is important as this shows the reality of life, how valuable life is and how easy it is to take away life. In a summary,“La Haine” is an outstanding film which portrays society in different locations and different perspectives of how people are recognised due to masculinity and social status and how people adapt to harsh surroundings.

Fdi in Indian Retail Sector homework essay help: homework essay help

What is FDI Foreign direct investment (FDI) in its classic form is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory in another country. It is the establishment of an enterprise by a foreigner. Its definition can be extended to include investments made to acquire lasting interest in enterprises operating outside of the economy of the investor. What is Retailing Retailing is a distribution channel function where one organization buys products from supplying firms or manufactures the product themselves, and then sells these directly to consumers. A retailer is a reseller (i. . , obtains product from one party in order to sell to another) from which a consumer purchases products. Indian Retail Sector Indian retail industry is the largest industry in India, with an employment of around 8% and contributing to over 10% of the country’s GDP. According to this year’s Global Retail Development Index, India is positioned as the leading destination for retail investment. There are about 300 new malls, 1,500 supermarkets and 325 departmental stores being built in the cities very soon. The Indian retail sector is now worth about $250bn (? 140bn) a year, but it is heavily underdeveloped.

Well over 95% of the market is made up of small, uncomputerised family-run stores. Now there are finally signs that the Indian government is dropping its traditionally protectionist stance and opening up its retail market to greater overseas investment. Recently it eased restrictions on foreign investment, allowing overseas retailers to own 51% of outlets as long as they sell only single-brand goods. A shopping revolution is ushering in India where, a large population between 20-34 age groups in the urban regions is boosting demand by 11. 1 percent in 2004-05 to an Rs 23,308 purchasing power.

This has resulted in huge international retail investment and a more liberal FDI. Evolution of Indian Retail The era of Indian retail began with weekly markets and village fairs, which catered to the daily necessities of villagers. Village fairs were larger in size with a wide variety of goods sold from food, clothing, cosmetics and small consumer durables. Then came the emergence of Kirana stores and mom-and-pop stores. These stores used to cater to the local people. This was followed by the era of government supported rural retail and many indigenous franchise stores came up with the help of Khadi & Village Industries Commission.

The KVIC has a countrywide chain of 7000 plus stores in India. The Modern era has a host of small and large formats with exclusive outlets showcasing a complete range of products. The department stores and shopping malls targeting to provide a complete destination experience for all segments of the society. The hyper and super markets are consistently trying to provide the customer with the 3 V’s (Value, Variety and Volume). Classification of Indian Retail Sector The Indian retail sector is broadly classified into the organized sector (modern retailers) and the un-organized sector (traditional retailers).

The organized sector refers to licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc and primarily consist of Hypermarkets, Supermarkets, Multi Brand Outlets, Department Stores, Malls and Discount Stores. The un-organized sector on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of low-cost retailing requiring limited investment such as hand cart and pavement vendors, mobile vendors, the local kirana shops and local village fairs and melas. Categories of the Retail Sector The Indian retail sector is extremely fragmented, with over 12 million outlets across all sectors.

These are typically small family owned over-the-counter stores with an average size of 100 square feet. Organised retail is mostly developed in segments such as clothing (14% organised), watches (40%) and footwear (25%). The major players in these sectors have set up labelled stores in order to differentiate their brands. However, some of the largest segments such as food (1% organised retail) and jewellery (2%) are barely organised, thus contributing to the low overall average. Fastest growing retail segment Watches and jewellery – 18% Furniture and fixtures – 27% Clothing – 55% Durables – 18%

Food and grocery – 91%Pharmacy – 27% (Source: India’s Retail Survey 2005, KPMG) Estimated Growth in 4 largest segments (US $ mn): 20022007CAGR* (%) Food • Chain stores • Single large stores391 326 651624 1462 16233% 35% 20% Clothing • Manufacturer retailers • Chain stores • Single large stores1075 293 315 4672266 590 852 824 16% 15% 22% 12% Consumer durables • Manufacturer retailers • Chain stores • Single large stores 359 141 98 120 822 284 298 24018% 15% 25% 15% Books & Music • Chain stores • Single large stores 97 54 43 310 22 10826% 30 20% Source: Economic Times Retail Knowledge Series Compound annual growth rate Changing Indian Consumer Over the years, as a result of the increasing literacy in the country, exposure to the west, satellite television, foreign magazines and newspapers, there is a significant increase of consumer awareness among the Indians. Today more and more consumers are selective on the quality of the products/services. This awareness has made the Indian consumers seek more and more reliable sources for purchases such as organized retail chains that have a corporate background and where the accountability is more pronounced.

The consumer also seeks to purchase from a place where his/her feedback is more valued. Indian consumers are now more aware and discerning, and are knowledgeable about technology, products and the market and are beginning to demand benefits beyond just availability of a range of products that came from ‘trusted’ manufacturers. Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is growing and branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, Cosmetics, Shoes, Watches, Beverages, Food and even Jewellery, are slowly becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban Indian consumer.

Shopping in India has witnessed a revolution with the change in the consumer buying behaviour and the whole format of shopping also altering. Industry of retail in India which has become modern and can be seen from the fact that there are multi- stored malls, huge shopping centres, and sprawling complexes which offer food, shopping, and entertainment all under the same roof. India’s Top Retailers Pantaloon Retail (India) It is headquartered in Mumbai with 450 stores across the country employing more than 18,000 people. It can boast of launching the first hypermarket Big Bazaar in India in 2001.

An all-India retail space of 5 million sq. ft. which is expected to reach 30 mn by 2010. It is not only the largest retailer in India with a turnover of over Rs. 20 billion but is present across most retail segments – Food & grocery (Big bazaar, Food bazaar), Home solutions (Hometown, furniture bazaar, collection-i), consumer electronics (e-zone), shoes (shoe factory), Books: music & gifts (Depot), Health & Beauty care services (Star, Sitara and Health village in the pipeline), e-tailing (Futurbazaar. com), entertainment (Bowling co. ) K Raheja Group

They forayed into retail with Shopper’s Stop, India’s first departmental store in 2001. It is the only retailer from India to become a member of the prestigious Intercontinental Group of Departmental Stores (IGDS). They have signed a 50:50 joint venture with the Nuance Group for Airport Retailing. Shoppers Stop has 7, 52, 00 sq ft of retail space with a turnover of Rs 6. 75 billion. The group has announced plans to establish a network of 55 hypermarkets across India with sales expected to cross the US$100 million mark by 2010. Lifestyle

Growing from one store in Bahrain in 1973, the NRI-led Landmark Group today operates over 5 million sq ft in the Middle East and India. The group’s first Lifestyle store in India opened in Chennai in 1999. Now it has 325,000 sq ft in Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Gurgaon and Mumbai. Its first hypermarket, branded as ‘Max’, is expected to open soon. Reliance Retail Mukesh Ambani’s 15,000-people Reliance Retail has opened 250 convenience stores, branded as ‘Fresh’, across the southern states. It is now planning to launch 30 such outlets in Mumbai.

Reliance Retail plans to invest Rs 25,000 crore on hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialty stores in the next four years. The first hypermarket will be up in Ahmadabad by the end of July. Aditya Birla Retail The company, which will operate under the brand ‘More’, has selected two formats — hypermarkets and supermarkets — for its initial foray. The first store has opened in Pune. Last January, the company acquired Trinethra Super Retail, which has given it more than 5,00,000 sq ft and a strong presence in the South. The Birla’s outlay for the business over the next three years is Rs 9,000 crore.

Anticipated Growth of Indian Retail Sector India has been topping the AT Kearney’s annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) for three consecutive years, thus presenting itself as an attractive market for retail investment. The Indian retail market is the fifth largest retail destination globally. According to leading industry estimates, the Indian retail is estimated to grow from the US$ 412 billion in 2008 to US$ 483 billion by 2010 and $860 billion by 2018. In the same manner; modern retail, presently accounting for 4 per cent of the total market, is likely to increase its share to 25 per cent by 2018.

The future outlook of the Indian retail market appears to be bright, with Euro monitor expecting the Indian Retail market to grow in value terms by a total of 39. 6 per cent between 2006 and 2011, averaging growth of almost 7 per cent a year. BMI (Business Monitor International) is anticipating the strongest growth in India’s hypermarket sector, with sales set to grow by an explosive 1025% to reach US$1. 35bn in 2011. Supermarket sales will increase by 119. 1%, discount stores by 242. 9% and convenience stores by 134. 1%. Reasons for Growth

This anticipated growth of the Indian retail sector is owing to the following factors, which include favourable demographics, rising consumer incomes, real estate developments, availability of better sourcing options – both from within India and overseas – and changing lifestyle. The retail sector in India is highly fragmented and unorganised and two thirds of the sector’s output coming from this area which require minimal rental costs, cheap labour and negligible overheads and taxes, these factors of the unorganized retail sector is reasons for growth of the entire retail sector.

India is witnessing a change in the age and income profiles of its over 1 billion population, which is likely to fuel accelerated consumption in the years to come. Besides, the gradual disintegration of the traditional Indian joint family system has led to nuclearisation of families, which in turn has led to enhanced demand. More Indian households are getting added to the consuming class with the growth in income levels. This large base of households with growing disposable income is expected to drive demand for organised retail.

In addition increase in the number of international brands available in the Indian market, economic implications of the government, increasing urbanization, credit availability, improvement in the infrastructure, increasing investments in technology and real estate building a world class shopping environment for the consumers, falling real estate prices, increase in expenditure for luxury items have all reasons for growth of the sector. FDI in Indian Retail Sector FDI in India are approved through two routes: ?Automatic approval by RBI Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) recommendation’s of FDI FDI in India was initiated in 1992, streamlining of the procedures and substantial liberalization has been done since 1995. India at present allows 100% FDI in the wholesale cash-and-carry business (operating on a basis of cash payment for goods that are taken away by the purchaser) and 51% FDI in single-brand retailing. No foreign equity, however, is permitted in multi-brand retailing these companies are only allowed to give logistical support to domestic multi-brand retail companies.

As FDI’s influence on the Indian retail sector sets in, the total size of the retail trade is expected to grow extensively in the coming years and the consumer segments patronizing the big malls will create frenzy for organized retailing predicting a growth of 25-30 per cent per annum over the next decade. Indian retail chains would get integrated with global supply chains since FDI will bring in technology, quality standards and marketing thereby, leading to new economic opportunities and creating more employment generation. FDI over the years in the Indian retail sector has seen an impressive growth.

In 2007-08, India’s FDI touched US$ 25 billion, up 56 per cent against US$ 15. 7 billion in 2006-07. In 2005-06, the growth was even sharper at 184 per cent, up from US$ 5. 5 billion in 2004-05. Projections say that the country will attract US$ 35 billion in FDI in 2008-09 (as per data released by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry). Investment in Indian Retail Sector *2008-09 projected figures; Figures in US $ billion International Retailers in India International retail brands like Wal-Mart, GAP, JC Penney and Target have doubled their sourcing operations from India.

Since quotas were dismantled early last year, new entrants like Steve & Barry’s are cashing in on the cost advantage and setting up their entire operations in India. Put together, Wal-Mart, JC Penney, GAP and Target account for 50% of the apparel outsourced from India in ’05. While Target, the US-based value retail chain is looking to triple its business from India to $300m from $120m in ’03, GAP is looking to touch about $650m, from $500m last year. Wal-Mart already outsources over $1bn worth of supplies from India. These companies are now rationalising their vendor bases and limiting their sourcing from fewer countries like India and China.

India is specialising in value-added products unlike China which produces larger volumes. American retail chain Steve & Barry’s University Sportswear has made India its procurement hub since ’01 through its affiliate company 4004 Incorporated. They supply about 20m units annually to the company, and are able to cut costs by 40-60%. Mast Industries, which procures for the $2bn Limited Brands which includes Victoria’s Secret, The Limited, Express and Bath & Body Works among others, does $40m worth of business from India. It is looking to double its business in the next year. French Connection, UK (FCUK) is also sourcing 30m worth of apparel from India, which accounts for 35% of its business. A number of these retail chains are already eyeing the Indian market, and once they are allowed it would help them to further increase their sourcing from India. Benefits of Foreign Direct Investment in the Indian Retail Sector Gradual opening up of the retail segment for FDI will work to the advantage to government, consumers and existing retailers in the following manner. ?Generate huge employment for the semi-skilled as well as illiterate population, which will ultimately increase the per capita income and increased tax paying population. Indirect employment generation channel by training and employing people in the transportation and distribution sectors such as drivers, mechanics etc. ?Increased investment in technology in the form of cold storage chains, food processing sector as well as better operations in production cycle and distribution will decrease the wastage to a considerable mount. ?Traditional retailers can use this situation in their favour by taking franchisees of the mega players of this industry. ?The indirect benefits like better roads, online marketing, expansion of telecom sector etc. ill give a ‘big push’ to other sectors like agriculture, small and medium size enterprises. ?The consumer gains from the wide variety of choices and a more diversified basket of prices available under one roof. ?The huge tax revenue generated from these retail giants will gradually wipe out the ugly looking fiscal and revenue deficits. ?The transaction in foreign currencies by these MNCs will create a balance in exchange rate and will bring in stable funds in the economy as opposed to FIIs. ?Gains would flow from higher exports when the global chains are allowed in other sectors such as readymade garments.

As for monopolistic pricing practices, the best safeguard would be in permitting all global chains to set up shops. The competition among them (as has happened in the automobile industry) would ensure better prices for consumers and suppliers alike. Role of government in the Indian Retail Sector Despite the benefits received by the government from the retail sector, which is illustrated by the below figure, The government has no plans to change the present policy on foreign direct investment in retail, as it seeks to afeguard small retailers from adverse impact of growing organised retail. Policy makers say retail is the second largest employer after agriculture and the government does not want to antagonise the labour-intensive sector, particularly at a time when the economy is facing a slowdown. Concerns Regarding FDI ?Foreign Players would displace the unorganized retailers because of their superior financial strengths. ?The entry of large global retailers such as Wal-Mart would kill local shops and millions of jobs. The global retailers would collude and exercise monopolistic power and promote cartels to raise prices and reduce the prices received by the suppliers where by both the consumers and the suppliers would lose, while the profit margins of such retail chains would go up. ?Induce unfair trade practices like predatory pricing, in the absence of proper regulatory guidelines. ?Give rise to cut throat competition rather than promoting incremental business. It would lead to lopsided growth in cities, causing discontent and social tension elsewhere. Increase in real estate prices and marginalize domestic entrepreneurs. Most competitive spot in Indian Retailing The most competitive spot in present retailing is definitely the food and mobile communication. There is a huge competition in both of these. As the modern retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centres, multiplex- malls and huge commercial complexes offer shopping, food and entertainment all under one roof, the concept of shopping has changed in terms of new trends and consumer buying behaviour, lead to a revolution in retail sector or shopping in India.

The market players continuously come up with the offer of lowest possible price to drive sales and to survive in the cut throat competition. Some of the major players in food retailing are- Reliance Fresh, Kishore Biyani’s Food Bazaar, Aditya Birla Groups, Piramyd’s Tru Mart, ITC’s Choupal, Subhiksha and many more. The major players in the newly discovered and rapidly growing mobile retailing based on advanced retailing formats include- Vodafone – Essar’s Mobile Store, Bharti telecom, Spice Telecom’s Hot Spot, Future Groups M- Bazaar, Reliance Info comm.

Subhiksha Mobile, Tata Indicom and many more. Why India as a FDI Destination The trends that are driving the growth of the retail sector in India are ? Low share of organized retailing ?Falling real estate prices ?Increase in disposable income and customer aspiration ?Increase in expenditure for luxury items Other credible factor in the prospects of the retail sector in India is the increase in the young working population.

In India, hefty pay packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along with increasing working-women population and emerging opportunities in the services sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of the organized retail sector in India. Future Steps of FDI in Indian Retail Sector India has emerged as the most attractive destination for global retailers amongst emerging markets. The government is now set to initiate a second wave of reforms in the segment by liberalizing investment norms further.

This will not only favour the retail sector develop in terms of design concept, construction quality and providing modern amenities but will also help in creating a consumer-friendly environment. Retail industry in India is at the crossroads but the future of the consumer markets is promising as the market is growing, government policies are becoming more favourable and emerging technologies are facilitating operations in India. And this upsurge in the retail industry has made India a promising destination for retail investors and at the same time has impelled investments in the real estate sector.

As foreign investors cautiously test the Indian Markets for investments in the retail sector, local companies and joint ventures are expected to be more advantageously positioned than the purely foreign ones in the evolving India’s organized retailing industry. CASE STUDY: BHARTI-WALMART DEAL India’s Bharti group and Wal-Mart, the world’s largest retailer, opened their first cash-and-carry joint venture store on an investment of $7 million. They also plan to open at least 15 outlets across the country in the next three years. The stores will be run under the brand name of Best

Price Modern Wholesale. It will offer an assortment of around 6,000 items, including food and non-food items, at competitive wholesale prices. Over 90 per cent of the goods will be sourced locally, helping keep down costs. This deal will provide employment for 5,000 people. They are planning to establish ventures in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. In addition, Bharti Enterprises’ 100% subsidiary Bharti Retail, that will own and manage the retail stores, has entered into a franchise agreement with Wal-Mart which will provide technical support to Bharti Retail.

Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited will bring modern supply chain and back-end logistics expertise to India, bringing Wal-Mart’s global best practices in such areas as just-in-time inventory, retail information systems, cold chain infrastructure, GPS for truck and trailer tracking, and fuel management systems. This deal is a paradigm to say that India is alluring the top foreign brands to invest in the retail sector and is turning out to be a hot spot for retail investment. Conclusion: The retail industry in India has a very bright future prospect. It is expected to enrich the Indian economy and employment generation.

Investing in organised retail sector in India is a beneficial scheme for an investor. The Retail industry is going to be the next boom industry after IT. Indian retail chains would get integrated with global supply chains since FDI will bring in technology, quality standards and marketing thereby, leading to new economic opportunities and creating more employment generation.

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To contribute to the growth of India’s international business by disseminating knowledge about international business and trade by: • Imparting requisite knowledge to prospective managers of international business. • Assisting business organizations involved in exports / imports / foreign trade through specific studies and consultancy reports. • Adopting best practices in imparting education in international business through its own as well as through partner institutions and organizations across the globe.

Objectives • To mould students and learners into globally competent managers in international business, with the requisite knowledge, skills and exposure to match the requirements of the industry. • To impart education in theory and practice of international business, so as to develop the capabilities of students in decision-making in today’s complex international business environment. To organise and conduct research and thereby expand the knowledge domain. • To impart knowledge to exporters, importers and regulators through training and research. • To assist the government and regulators in policy formulation and modification. Our Founder Late Sri Raja Bankatlal Gopikishan Badruka (1905-1966) BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 2 2 pages –3 11/9/2009 12:17:59 PM

Over the last 60 years, the Badruka Educational Society has grown from strength to strength, setting up various educational institutions covering a wide spectrum of learning at graduate and postgraduate levels: • Badruka College of Commerce • Badruka College Post-Graduate Centre • Bankatlal Badruka College for Information Technology • Badruka Institute of Foreign Trade • Badruka Institute of Foreign Education • Badruka Institute of Professional Studies • Badruka Junior College for Girls • Bansilal Badruka School of Music and Dance • Ramdayal Ghasiram Badruka Technical Institute • Laxmi Nivas Badruka Vidyarthi Gruh.

Over 70,000 students have had the privilege of passing out of the portals of the Society’s institutions, enriching the Indian nation in academics, fine arts, management, IT, commerce, politics and business. On the foreign education front, the Badruka Institute of Foreign Education (BIFE) had earlier been conducting the MBA program of Edinburgh Business School, Heriott Watt University, UK. Hony Secretary Sri Hari Prasad G Badruka keeps exploring new programs of value to students in various domains.

BIFT has already tied up with Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and efforts are on to tie up with the Hague University, Netherlands for a faculty and student exchange program. Similar tie-ups with other renowned foreign universities / institutions in UK, Europe & USA are also being considered. Study visits to a few foreign countries are already being organized by Badruka Institute of Foreign Trade (BIFT), which owes its genesis to Sri Badruka’s vision of India empowered by managers who are competent to handle large, globally spread businesses in an environment where national boundaries have indeed vanished.

Serving the society through value-based education Sri Hari Prasad G Badruka, the Chairman & Honorary Secretary of the Society, is a dedicated educationist, visionary and philanthropist with a commitment to excellence. He has played a major role in the development of the Society through his dedication and involvement in the administration of the Society for nearly four decades. Sri Badruka has always believed that students must undergo education which not only helps them to further their careers but also fosters strong value systems in them. BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 3 1/9/2009 12:18:05 PM Aimed at preparing qualified professionals in the challenging field of international business, BIFT was established in 2001, under an MoU with Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, which is internationally renowned and is ranked amongst the top 10 B-schools in India. IIFT has been extending academic and faculty support to BIFT. BIFT is situated in Hyderabad, which has recorded phenomenal growth with large enterprises being established in the IT / Pharmaceutical / Biotech / FMCG / Retail / Financial Services sectors. The five-storeyed BIFT building has a built-up area of over 60,000 sq. t. The students enjoy well-equipped, air-conditioned lecture halls, PCs with broadband internet connectivity, Wi-Fi enabled campus, LCD projectors, audio systems, e-journals under EBSCO, electronic databases of industries / companies through CMIE’s Prowess & India Trades, Kompass Trade Directory, Trade Wizard Software, etc. The cutting-edge curriculum of MPIB comprises all subjects of the MBA program of a standard B-school and in addition, 15 more subjects that equip students in International Finance, International Marketing Trade, Global Logistics, International HRM, etc.

BIFT has tied up with Nanyang Technological University of Singapore, where BIFT students undertake shortterm specialization courses in International Finance, International Marketing or Port Management. BIFT is also exploring tie-ups for short-term value-added courses to be taken up in some reputed B-schools in the UK, Europe and USA. To offer new vocational opportunities, BIFT has introduced two-year Masters Programs in Healthcare Management, Infrastructure Management and Pharma-Biotech Management, under an MoU with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University.

It is in the process of introducing a 4-6 months internship in ‘Shipping and Port Management’ in association with Westport, Malaysia. Other new introductions include an Entrepreneurship and Family Business Program, as well as industry-focused weekend lectures (with APITCO). The growing number of students enrolled from all parts of India in the recent batches is indicative of the rapidly increasing popularity of MPIB. At BIFT, a unique trilogy of students, faculty and learning resources produces some of the best minds in the country.

Consequently, our students today hold key and enviable managerial positions across several reputed organizations in India and abroad. The teaching method and learning pedagogy at BIFT include lectures, case studies, seminars, group discussions, business games, role plays, simulation exercises, structured and unstructured group work, as well as industry visits and port visits to foreign countries like Singapore, Malaysia, etc. Commencing this academic year, BIFT has switched over to the semester system of instruction (from the earlier trimester system), to enable students to get more time for industry interaction.

Masters Program in International Business Cutting-edge curriculum for global business BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 4 4 pages –5 11/9/2009 12:18:13 PM From the Director Changing Trends in Management Education… Pioneering Sectoral Vocations. Established in 2001, BIFT has carved out a niche for itself over the last eight years in the International Business education arena, with overwhelming acceptance in the Trade and Industry. That over 600 BIFTians are occupying coveted positions in business organizations both in India and abroad, is a standing testimony of the Industry’s acceptance of our pedagogy and content.

It is heartening to note that the ill effects of the global economic slowdown, resulting out of speculative greed in the financial markets, are slowly tapering off. As per both IMF and World Bank, the Indian and Chinese economics are on the up-swing and it is expected that in the next 6-10 months, the global markets would emerge stronger. This is a welcome sign for all business management students. The corporates are looking for innovative, unpretentious young minds with focus on learning and handson experience to steer the engines of growth in the emerging areas.

To be successful in the global markets, the students need to acquire powers of critical thinking and moral reasoning coupled with knowledge on contemporary business issues and multi-cultural focus. The corporates prefer sectoral enthusiasts who have a flair for niche business areas and are ready to hone their skills in diversified segments with an open mind focused on ‘learning’ rather than ‘earning’. In the above context, BIFT would be providing increased exposure in areas like International Product / Brand Management; Acquisitions & Mergers and Business Valuations; Port Operations & Management; Banking, Finance, Insurance, etc.

BIFT has also introduced Masters courses in emerging areas like Infrastructure Management, PharmaBiotech Management and Health Care Management, under MOU with JNTU-Hyderabad, for better sectoral vocations. Nurturing entrepreneurs who would transform into ‘job providers’ rather than ‘job seekers’ is also the need of the hour. As the real India lives in rural areas, the students need to be social entrepreneurs with focus on areas like Microfinance, NGO Management, etc.

Lastly but not the least, based on experiences gained from the global mortgage derivatives debacle, which the Indian financial system has withstood, we need to evolve our own ‘Indian Approach to Corporate Management’ with strong foundations in Ethics and Values, merging the best of both East and West. We invite our respected corporates to partner with us in this ‘Yagna’ of Corporate Social Responsibility ‘Innovation – Intuition – Inspiration’ is the Mantra for Success. From the Director’s Desk Prof GS Rao BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 5 11/9/2009 12:18:18 PM From the Academic Coordinator

The Badruka Educational Society was established with the objective of inculcating academic excellence and lasting ethical values in the students. BIFT values learning as a way of life and promotes the habit of critical thinking and intellectual curiosity. We offer students access to cutting-edge learning experience, facilities and materials, to a faculty that vigorously pursues research and scholarship and to an academic guidance that is sensitive to their interest, needs and abilities. This is more than an academic exercise, for which we are employing good management practices.

Our curriculum focuses on skills a manager would require to operate in an environment marked by diversity. Business at global level gets more competitive, considering that policies differ from country to country, turbulent currency values and varying consumer behavior. So a manager who works in this set-up requires a special set of skills, which our International Business curriculum aims at imparting. Further, our institute lays a great deal of emphasis on regularly exposing our students to the corporate world, which in turn helps us to chalk out an innovative academic strategy and keep abreast of trends abroad.

As a result of this, our students become more articulate, confident and ready for the industry when the time comes. We welcome all the prospective employers of our MPIB students to look at these international leaders in the making, recruit them in good positions, groom them in the organization and in turn benefit from their youthful energy and specialized knowledge. The Placement Process The students of BIFT have come from various educational backgrounds. They have been groomed with soft skill training and classroom trainings to face the final placement process.

But, education of the future leaders will be incomplete without the exposure to working in an organization. The placement process covers Pre-Placement Talk and Final Placement. Pre-Placement Talk The Pre-Placement Talk offers the corporate and students an opportunity to interact and get to know the organization better. Organizations make important presentations to the students about the organizations and career growths in which student concerns like job responsibilities, remuneration package, ladder of growth, cross-functional exposure are answered.

Final Placement The industry participates in final placement process to utilize intellectual capital of BIFT. The real proof of the quality and effectiveness of any institution lies in the acceptance of its graduates in the industry. The placement of the 2007-09 graduating batch proves the rigorous two-year MPIB program at BIFT. The Institute has an impressive and consistent placement record. With best wishes, Rakesh Chander Sharma The BIFT Placement Team L to R: Mr Ravi Kumar, Mr PR Venkat Sai, Ms Preeti, Ms Jhansi BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 6 6 pages –7 11/9/2009 12:18:23 PM

From Head – Institutional Development Today, people perceive and measure excellence in higher education pertaining to the development and achievement of an institution as the number of students placed and their overall pay packages. There seems to be a need for thorough introspection here… Education, in its broadest sense, is an act that has an effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense education is a process by which society transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another through educational institutions.

The true values of education are to develop people of quality and character and to create an awareness of social responsibilities. An educational institution has to shoulder multiple aspects to ensure its progress by creating a competitive yet nurturing service attitude in individuals. At Badruka Educational Society, we aim not only to equip our students with the necessary skills needed but also focus on providing this service at an affordable cost, without any discrimination or gender preference.

The overall development of our students is of utmost importance to all of us working here. We help them develop various skill sets including understanding the employer’s need. A centralized Placements and Grooming Division has been set up for this purpose. To bridge the gap built over the years, we have developed a grooming program based on valuable inputs from our faculty, recruiters, alumni and past experience. Also, activity-based training is imparted for personality development.

Blood donation camps and service at orphanages is a part of understanding various aspects of life. Our students conduct and participate in management festivals, conferences and seminars. Industrial visits and guest lectures by eminent personalities are a regular feature here. We ensure that the students undergo various levels of learning and unlearning so that their Intelligence, Emotional and Spiritual Quotient is equally developed to be successful and satisfied in life. We strive constantly to ensure that every Badrukan is an ‘inner’ as well as an ‘outer’ winner.

Poonam R Saraf From Manager – Placements Welcome to the gallery of portraits of some of the best potential managers available. Over the years Badruka Institute of Foreign Trade (BIFT) has become a prime choice of the recruiters across the country. BIFT was rated by a Business India survey in the ‘A+ category’ in 2007 and in the ‘A category’ in 2008. BIFT students receive the best of inputs from academicians, professional soft skill trainers like TIME Institute, Badruka’s in-house Grooming Division, as well as from practicing managers.

Their training stint in Nanyang Technological University at Singapore, port visits to Malaysia and faculty / students exchange program with Hague University (Netherlands) enrich the students with international exposure. In addition to the standard MBA curriculum, 14 additional subjects are taught with dual specialization in International Marketing, Finance and HR, with Trade being common to all the students. Our endeavour is not only to create smart analytical ‘left-brained’ students but also those with soft-skills, inclined towards the ‘right-brain’ and who readily work across global cultures.

We can proudly say that the earlier recruiters have been quite satisfied with the quality of the BIFTians picked up by them, as is being reflected in their feedback, and also the fact that they have been visiting our campus again and again. We promise to provide you quality students to suit your requirements aptly. We look forward to your continued support, and invite you to visit our campus and see for yourself the great potential that is waiting to be tapped in each of our bright students. PR Venkat Sai BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 7 11/9/2009 12:18:28 PM

Core Mentors BIFT faculty members take the students beyond the typical classroom atmosphere, and provide continuous individual guidance to the students to mould them into competent professionals who can confidently take on the challenges of the highly competitive corporates which have acquired global dimensions with their business spanning several countries in the world. Dr Aswani Kumar M. Sc. , MBA, Ph. D. Prof J R Kumar B. Com, FICWA Mr Rakesh Chander Sharma BE (Chem), PGDEE, Advanced Diploma in French, Diploma in Scientific and Technical Translation (French)

Professor Expertise in: General Management and Marketing Expertise in: General Management Strategic and Unit Level Indirect Taxation Cost Accounting Academic Coordinator Expertise in: Consultancy related to chemical industries, environmental / energy-related issues. Mr M Durga Prasad M. Com. , M. Phil. (Finance) (Ph. D. ) Ms Mehnaaz Siddiqui BA, MBA (HR & Marketing) (Ph. D. ) Mr KC Mohanty M. Sc, MBA (Marketing), ITM (FIEO) (Ph. D. ) Assistant Professor Expertise in: Management Accounting, Financial Management, Management of Financial Services.

Authored two books and presented articles at national seminars. Assistant Professor Expertise in: HRM, Marketing, International Business Assistant Professor Expertise in: International Marketing, International Trade Operations, WTO, Agri Business, Commodity Trading, Export & Import Management Mr Deepak M. Sc. (Statistics) Prof G Surender Reddy M. Tech. (Ind. Mgt) IIT-Madras, LLB, PGDIPR, PGDPEM (OU), CAIIB Lt Col (Retd) AV Anand MIE (Mech), MBA, PGHRM, PG Equipment Management, (Ph. D. ) Assistant Professor Expertise in: Statistics and Operations Research, Research Methodology

Expertise in: Development Banking, Corporate Consulting, Management Teaching, Entrepreneurship Development and Mentoring Coordinator – Evaluation Expertise in: HR, Administration and Leadership Mr Prayaga Ramakrishna Head, Center for Indian Management Studies (CIMS) Mr Unnikrishnan Kurup M. A. (Economics), M. A. (Sociology), M. Phil, (Ph. D. ) Mr Syed Muzammiluddin B. Com (Computers), BCJ, MBA, (Ph. D. ) Associate Professor Expertise in: Educational Consultant and Professor in Economics, Principal under Kerala University in Kerala. Assistant Professor Expertise in: Marketing, Soft Skills BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. ndd 8 8 pages –9 11/9/2009 12:18:32 PM Tie-ups with Foreign Institutions BIFT has tied up with the Nanyang Technological University for BIFT students to undergo a short-term course in Marketing / Finance / IT etc, commencing from the batch of 2008-10 students. Also, we are in dialogue with a few other international institutions in UK, Netherlands and Spain, and for enabling desirous students to pursue short-term study modules in Marketing, Finance, Trading, Information Technology and other domains which will provide them ample value addition and also help them secure international placements.

BIFT is now study center of the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA), UK for certificate and diploma courses. BIFT’s integrated approach towards management education combines the regular set of all MBA-level management subjects with the international business-related curriculum is drawn from IIFT’s rigorous and knowledge-packed syllabus, as well as BIFT’s own additional inputs based on industry demand. The delivery of inputs by qualified in-house faculty is reinforced with that of eminent faculty from IIMs, IIFT and a few foreign universities.

Foreign languages such as French and Spanish are being taught. In addition, Japanese, Chinese, Mandarin languages are also being offered to BIFT students this year onwards. The students are evaluated on the basis of assignments, presentations, group discussions, quizzes, role-plays and class tests. Considerable stress is laid on discipline, cultural values and personality development. Students make weekly group presentations on top business stories of the week based on their daily browsing of business newspapers and journals in the library.

The students’ skills are honed to make them emerge as knowledge-endowed global business managers of tomorrow, whose quest for knowledge will never cease. BIFT believes that knowledge is the willow that winners wield. Towards this belief, BIFT has set as its goal the transformation of its students, which will make their dreams come true. Mr Rael Escobar (an MBA student from Hague University, Netherlands) under student exchange program in dialogue with BIFT Director and faculty members Mr Patrick Sim (Senior Business Development Executive, NTU-Singapore) discussing details of a new module in Port Management with BIFT officials

Ms Tam Kam Peng (Head – Alliances & Learning Partnership) and Ms Aarti Porwal (Chief Representative – CIMA, UK) with BIFT Director Prof GS Rao and Prof JR Kumar Mr Jeff Carter (Dean, Canadian College, Vancouver) in conversation with BIFT Director and faculty members for Student Exchange Program BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 9 11/9/2009 12:18:39 PM Conducive Learning Ambience Library and e-Journals The BIFT library has a collection of over 10,000 books and subscribes to 40 national / international journals and magazines.

As many as 1100 e-journals through EBSCO and databases like CMIE’s India Trades and Prowess, and Trade Wizard Software have been provided to the students. Valuable data is also available in the form of trade directories, country / product research reports, project reports, trade publications, video-library, CDs and software packages of various kinds, etc. Library Session in Progress Computer Lab The Institute has a state-of-the-art Computer Centre with a Local Area Network comprising a Server, 80 Pentium Nodes and Internet access through a dedicated broadband link, electronic databases, etc.

WiFi Connectivity in Campus WiFi connectivity is provided for facilitating students, faculty and visiting guest faculty in BIFT premises. Computer Laboratory Laptops for Students Students are provided with laptops to enable them to not only access and browse databases but also store study material, data, and carry out analyses of data, presentations through slide shows, etc. Seminar Hall and Classrooms Air-conditioned classrooms. and a seminar hall-cum-auditorium equipped with contemporary teaching equipment such as an LCD projector, overhead projector, TV and VCR, broadband internet connection, audio system, etc. re available. Students in Classroom Cafeteria Serving hygienic and tasty snacks, the cozy cafeteria on the college campus also provides a useful platform for informal exchange of ideas / information between students of various batches and disciplines, as well as with the faculty. Students enjoying snacks in Cafeteria BIFT Placement Brochure (08-10) FINAL. indd 10 10 pages –11 11/9/2009 12:18:54 PM Visiting / Guest Faculty A number of guest / visiting faculty from reputed institutions in India and abroad are invited to conduct lectures on curriculum topics.

Study visits constitute an important aspect of the course curriculum, providing the students practical exposure to the dynamics of the industry / corporate business. Interactive sessions with corporate managers are arranged during the visits. Students are sent every year on study visits to Port of Singapore Authority (PSA), the world’s busiest port, Jurong Port (Singapore), as well as to Northport and Westport, Port Klang, Malaysia. During these visits they meet senior executives of various multinational companies and obtain valuable insights into the dynamics of global trade / international business, global logistics, international marketing and international finance, etc.

Consumer Behavior Through Observation grad school essay help: grad school essay help

Products category on which the observation was undertaken: Perfumes and Two-wheelers Observations about Consumer Buying Behavior Product: Perfume We visited Westside (perfume and deodorant section) and Reliance All-time outlet. The buyers were mainly within the 20-40 age group, male as well as female in nearly equal proportion. As per our inference, there were buyers who were buying it for their own use while some intended it to be used as a gift.

The former category of buyers were usually more discerning, and spent a lot of time evaluating various brands across multiple price categories. The buyers in the latter category were less discerning and the purchase decision was made faster and the concern was largely in adhering to a particular price band rather than any particular quality of the product. In both categories, buyers did not seem to have much information about the various products and brands available.

Buyers were however particular about the olfactory qualities of the product and described the same in their own words like “Hard Hitting”, “Fresh” etc. In some cases the buyer was accompanied by one or more friends or family members; however the presence of friends or family did not seem to influence the purchase decision significantly. The shopping was more impulsive than planned, as most buyers appeared undecided about what brand or type of perfume to buy. Sometimes buyers tried a lot of product across multiple, often posh, categories and settled on a cheaper product, like a deodorant.

This leads us to infer that a lot of the purchases were impulsive. The buyers generally looked across multiple brands and price bands before deciding on a final purchase; we did not find any buyer having fixed choices. The two most important factors that the consumers seemed to be interested in were the olfactory quality and the price; the former being a more important deciding factor. Only in a one particular case did the buyer show a knowledge of brands and was interested in particular brands.

Most consumers were not very critical about brands and usually arrived at a buying decision by comparing multiple brands by sampling various alternatives and often seeking views from the sales person or anyone accompanying the buyer. In cases where the buyer did not spend too much time in sampling the product, we infer that the purchase was probably meant as a gift. In a few cases the buyer did not seem to make any distinction between a perfume and a deodorant and treated them as substitutes. On an average the buyer spent 10-15 minutes on the purchase.

The role of the sales person seemed critical as the sales person played a significant role in educating the buyer about various brands and their particular qualities. Besides, the sales person needed to quickly understand the requirement of the buyer and present product based on his/her understanding. Also since the olfactory quality of the product plays a major role in the purchase, a sales person who can understand the verbal description of the buyer and provide appropriate products is essential.

Phuket Beach Resort my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Case Report : Phuket Beach Hotel Executive Summary Phuket Beach Hotel has space located on second floor of the main building which was underutilized. Planet Karaoke pub was expanding in Thailand and looking for a venue in patong beach area for setting up another outlet. Planet Karaoke Pub found unused space of the hotel most suitable for their new venture.

Beach Karaoke pub project does not considered salary as excess man power is available but if we considered cost of staff salary, Beach Karaoke pub becomes less attractive. There are many factors that cannot be quantified but they need to be addressed for the evaluation of the projects including Security issues. Additional security guards can be hired to maintain law and order but the costs of extra security is not provided for analysis. Recommendation Wanida should suggest an investment recommendation in favor of the Planet Karaoke Club (PKC) project. Reference : On-line segments Text Book – Financial management (Theory & Practices) Phuket Beach Hotel report

Thane District essay help 123: essay help 123

The Upavan Lake is located at the foot-hills of Yeoor hills and is a scenic spot. It is flanked by the Yeoor hills on one side and the tall Neelkanth Heights on one side. It is a common spot for people to hang out and refresh themselves. Other lakes include : • Masunda Lake • Kachrali Lake (near parmartha niketan) • Makhmali Lake • Ambe Ghonsali Lake • Siddheshwar Lake • Jail Lake • Wagle Lake • Upvan Lake • Yashasvi Nagar Lake • Kausa Lake • Kharegaon Lake • Raila Devi Lake • Balkum Lake • Rewale Lake • Bramhala-Kolbad Lake [edit] Demographics and culture

In 1825, when the British explored their newly annexed territories in Bassein, they discovered that Thane was inhabited primarily by Roman Catholics, both natives and Portuguese, and that the latter was virtually from the former, both with regards to skin color and custom. The indigenous Catholics were converts from the Bhandari (musicians) and Koli (fishermen) classes. [2] To this day, some of the upper class East Indian Catholic families in the Khatri ward of Thana speak Portuguese. [3] At present, Thane has a predominantly Maharashtrian culture although, like its neighbouring city Mumbai, it has a cosmopolitan culture as well.

Because of the huge residential boom, the city has witnessed a large number of immigrants from the neighbouring city of Mumbai as well as from other pockets of state and country. The face of the city, now a days becoming increasingly cosmopolitan. Beside Marathi, sizeable populations of North Indians, South Indians, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Marwari and other people from different regions live in Thane, mainly because of its proximity to Mumbai. Thane is bordered by the Yeoor Hills on one side and is dotted with numerous beautiful lakes, which are a cause of cooler weather than that of Mumbai.

Festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Navratri and Durga Puja are celebrated with great zest in the city. As in Mumbai, Thane offers high rewards amounting to 1 million rupees (US$ 25,000) for winners of Dahi Handi sport during the Gokulashtami festival. Since 2005 the Dahi Handi festival has been on a much larger scale; there is competition between various clubs to host the biggest of Dahi Handis. The biggest ones are Open House, Panchpakhdi; Jambli Naka; Tembhi Naka; Vartak Nagar; all of these now have TV coverage will almost all major news channels beaming the day’s proceedings to the whole nation.

Gadkari Rangayatan [edit] Transport Main article: Transportation in Thane TMT NEW BUS Thane was the terminus for the first ever passenger train in India. On 16 April 1853, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Bori Bunder (Now renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus), Mumbai and Thane. [4] Covering a distance of 34 kilometres (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives, Sahib, Sindh and Sultan. Thane is well connected with neighbouring suburbs through Central Railways’s sub-urban railway network. There are 4 railway stations in Thane city limit.

Thane station is part of the Central Railway division of Indian railways, and is about 34 km away from the Mumbai city station. The other 3 stations are Kalwa, Mumbra, Diva which are also the suburbs of Thane. Thane has gained new importance as a railway link to Navi Mumbai due to the Thane-Vashi/Nerul and Thane -Panvel local train line. Since Feb2010 new fast trains have started between Thane Panvel- Stopping at KoparKahirane,Neral,Belapur. This line runs many trains between Thane and Vashi, the principal node of Navi Mumbai, passing through Airoli, Ghansoli, Koparkhairane, Turbhe and Sanpada.

Almost all trains going to Konkan railway from Mumbai have stops at Thane. Thane Municipal Transport (TMT), Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport ~ BEST, Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport ~ NMMT,Kalyan Dombivli Municipal Transport ~ KDMT, Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Transport ~ MBMT and MSRTC (State Transport) corporations provide public bus service to the city. Autorickshaw on Meter is available to travel within City along with Taxies Normal as well as A/c. A light rail network covering 42 km has been proposed in three phases.

In the first phase, consultants have suggested connectivity between Balkum and Kolshet via Naupada. It will be 16. 05 km long with 14. 65 km elevated, and only 1. 4 km on the surface, and 11 stations in all. [5] “The public transport on newly developed Ghodbunder road area is not satisfactory at the moment and needs lot of improvement . The newly constructed SATIS (Station area transport improvement system. )has however given good results” (May 2010). Thane: The city of Thane is situated on the western banks of Thane creek with Parsik hills on the east and Yeour hills on the west.

The creek not only provides a natural protection to the place but has also facilitated transport of big and small ships since ancient times Thane is located to the North of Mumbai The Temperatures range from 25 degrees C to 37 degrees C Tourist spots in Thane District Jawhar / Jawhar hill station Tansa Lake Vasai Fort Bassain Beach Dahanu Borid Beach Malshej Ghat Hill Station PLACES OF INTEREST Tourist Attractions – Lakes and Hills | Essel World | Water Kingdom | Matheran | Bassein (Vasai) | Nishiland | Tansa wildlife sanctuary | Lonavla and Khandala | Kashi Mira | Jawhar Palace Lakes and Hills

Thane the city of Lakes has around 30 lakes. The most beautiful of them is the Masunda Talao, also known as Talao Pali. The lake offers boating and water scooter facilities. Some of the other popular lakes are Upvan Lake, Kacharali Talao, Makhamali Talao, Siddheshwar Talao, Bramhala Talao, Ghosale Talao, Railadevi Talao etc. Yeoor Hills or Mama Bhanja Hills is a hill station of Thanaites. This naturally beautiful and pollution free area attracts lot of people. There is also a Math there. Essel World This amusement park is located at Gorai, at a distance from the hub of the city.

The main attractions here are the 34 rides that comprise of roller coasters, rainbows, bumping cars. The complex houses many cafeterias and restaurants. Nearest Railway Stations: Malad or Borivali, from where the journey must be made by road and sea (Ferry). Also approachable by road via Bhayandar on Western Express Highway. Open: 1100 to 1900 (off season) 1000 to 2000 (April-June & October-December). Water Kingdom is just next to Essel World and claims to have the largest wave pool in Asia. It has water slides and swimming pools for kids as well as elders.

Matheran Matheran, 70 kms from Thane, is a hill station of natural beauty and pollution free environment. It is situated 750m up in the Sahyadri Ranges of the Western Ghats. Matheran is a 11 km hike by road from Neral and accessible from the foothills by a toy train. There are fine views from the top. Best season is November-February and April-June. Nishiland is an amusement park located on the Mumbai – Poona Highway and is an hour and a half’s drive from Thane. This is a water park, best during summers when one often needs to chill off.

There are water slides, wave pools and splashes with lodging and food facilities. Bassein (Vasai) Bassein or Vasai was an ancient Portuguese settlement located about 48-km to the north of Mumbai, near the Thane creek. The Bassein Fort was constructed in 1532 by Bahadur Shah, Sultan of Gujarat. You can see ruins of the Fort and the Cathedral of St. Joseph and the Churches of St Antony and St. Paul. The city walls are still intact. There are also decorative gateways inscribed with coats of arms and Portuguese graves dating back to 1558. Tansa wildlife sanctuary

This sanctuary is located 90km from Mumbai in Thane district. The sanctuary with an area of about 320sq. kms has around 54 species of animals and 200 species of birds in the sanctuary. Major wild animals are Panther, Barking deer, Mouse deer, Hyena, Wild boar etc. Tansa Lake flows through the sanctuary. Best time to visit is November -May. Lonavla and Khandala Lonavla and Khandala are two hill resorts 5kms apart at an altitude of around 600m in the western ghats. Khandala is a quite village overlooking a picturesque ravine and surrounded by wet season waterfalls.

Located 106km from Mumbai, on the Mumbai-Pune railway line, Lonavla is a good base to visit the Karla and Bhaja caves and also the Rajmachi, Lohagen and Visapur Forts nearby. Karla and Bhaja are rock-cut-caves which are among the oldest and finest examples of Hinayana Buddhists rock temple art in India. The Walwan Dam at Lonavla was built in 1915 to supply hydroelectric power to Mumbai’s textile mills. Best time to visit is during the monsoon. Kashi Mira Kashi and Mira are two villages in Thane Taluka located close to each other.

The surroundings of the two villages abound in natural beauty and scenery. Just after leaving the check-post at Dahisar is an open surface with the backdrop of hills with zigzag paths leading up the hills. And it is this flushy background that has given these two villages the name “Kashimira”. Jawhar Palace It is called the “Mahabaleshwar of Thane District”, when compared in beauty and climate. And places to see are the majestic Dadara Kopra Falls, Jai Vilas, the palace of the tribal kings, the Hanuman and Sunset Points and the enthralling Shirpamal, where Shivaji chose to camp on his way to Surat.

Jawhar also offers you the unique opportunity to expose and enlighten yourself with the tribal way of life especially with the Warli paintings. About Thane Tourism Thane is an industrial town situated on the western banks of Thane creek that was frequented by ships since ancient times. It has been a hub of economic activity since medieval times due to its location. Thane, which means ‘station’ in Marathi was also known as Sthanaka, the capital of the Shilahara kings. Many travellers, including Venetian explorer Marco Polo, described the bustling trade at its well-developed port, and the cultural diversity of its people.

Historically Thane has been ruled by the Portuguese, Marathas and the British. The first railway train in India ran from Bombay VT to Thane in 1853. The city is bounded by the Parsik hills and Yeour hills on the east and west. It lies north of Mumbai and northwest of Maharashtra state. The region features all types of landforms, from the Jawahar Mokhade plateau to the Sahyadri ranges, and coastal plains and river basins. Sightseeing Highlights: There are many beautiful lakes around the city. Yeur Hills is an ideal getaway from the city rush.

Titwala (45 km) is pilgrim centre with Maha Ganesh Temple and Temple of Shri Vithoba. The 11th bout the place Thane is called as the city of lakes as it constitutes 30 lakes. It was an important Portuguese trading center until the Marathas captured it in 1739. The original name of Thane was ‘Sristhanaka’ i. e. the residence of Lord Ganesha. It is located to the north of Mumbai; the city is surrounded by hills and lakes. It has several historical buildings, including forts and several churches. Now it is a booming industrial hub with growth in trade, transport and construction activities.

Religious Spots Ganeshpuri This is a small town near Bhivandi, about 40 km from Thane which is the residence of Swami Nityananda Maharaj. An ancient temple is also there with four tanks called kundas. The kundas are some 800 years old. It is more famous for its hot water springs. Historical Monuments Bassein (Vasai) Bassein or Vasai was an ancient Portuguese settlement located just 48-km to the north of Mumbai, near the Thane creek. The Fort of Bassein was constructed in 1532 by Bahadur Shah, Sultan of Gujarat. The ruins of the Fort still exist.

You can visit to the Cathedral of St. Joseph and the Churches of St Antony and St. Paul. The city walls are still intact. There are also decorative gateways inscribed with coats of arms and Portuguese graves dating back to 1558. Lakes The most famous lake of the city is the Masunda Talao, also known as Talao Pali. The lake offers boating and water scooter facilities to the tourists. Some other popular lakes in and around the city are Upvan Lake, Kacharali Talao, Makhamali Talao, Siddheshwar Talao, Bramhala Talao, Ghosale Talao, Railadevi Talao etc. Other Attractions

Jawhar Palace The climatic condition of this place is so marvelous that it is some time called as the “Mahabaleshwar of Thane”. The places of worth visiting are majestic Dadara Kopra Falls, Jai Vilas and the palace of the tribal kings. Jawhar also offers some unique moments to share time with the lives of tribal people. Tansa wild life sanctuary This wild life sanctuary is situated in the Thane district about 90 kms from Mumbai. It is a home to 54 species of animals and 200 species of birds. The total area covered by the lake sanctuary is about 217 sq. ms. Major animal species include panthers, sambars, cheetal barking deers, wild boar, jackal, common langur and bonnet macaque. You can best visit the place during November to May. How to reach The city is close to Mumbai; hence transport is not a problem for it. You can reach the city by roads, rails or by air. The nearest airport is at Mumbai. Thane is an important railway station of the state. The three national highways passing through the city are Mumbai-Agra Highway, Mumbai-Banglore Highway, Mumbai-Ahmadabad Highway.

Defining the Concept of Productivity a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

In attempt to quantify employee productivity, the authors propose two models to represent this combination: (1) the additive model, which considers productivity to be the sum of efficiency and effectiveness and (2) the multiplicative model which considers productivity to be the product of these two. To compare the two models, an example of a grocery clerk is used. Productivity levels of the grocery clerk are determined using additive and multiplicative models for 5 different cases of varying levels of efficiency and effectiveness.

Comparison suggests that multiplicative model is a better way to define productivity in measurable terms, as it overcomes the limitations in the additive model. Introduction Organizations strive to maximize productivity. One way they can do this is to seek out and maintain high performing employees. Another option is to reward individuals for higher levels of productivity and punish those with low. For example, supervisors at General Electric Company rank order their employees by their level of performance each year and fire those who fall in the bottom 10% (GE, 2001).

In order to make appropriate appraisal decisions, it is essential that we know how to accurately assess employee productivity. The Additive Model In the additive model, productivity is defined as the sum of efficiency and effectiveness indices. The additive model follows the commutative and associative laws of addition. A multiplying factor of 100/2 is used so the final productivity index is scaled to 100. Both the efficiency index and effectiveness indices are ratios.

The effectiveness index can assume a value from 0 to 1 in this equation, whereas the efficiency index can assume a value of greater than 1 for employees performing faster than the set norms. This can be depicted by the following equation: Productivity Index (PI) = [Efficiency (? ) + Effectiveness Index (EI)]*100 / 2 Additive model: PI = [45 / 50 + 0 /100] * 100/2 = 45 Multiplicative model: PI = 45 / 50 * 0 /100 * 100 = 0 Case 5: Very low efficiency and high effectiveness Case 5 represents a scenario that is the opposite of case 4.

The grocery clerk here demonstrates a high level of effectiveness by scanning all the items correctly (100% accuracy), but a very low level of efficiency by only scanning 5 items in 10 minutes. Additive model: PI = [5 / 50 + 100 /100] * 100/2 = 55 Multiplicative model: PI = 5 / 50 * 100 /100 * 100 = 10 Limitations of the multiplicative model 1. Quantifying effectiveness and efficiency for all jobs may not be possible especially for managerial jobs. 2. The model assumes that the equipment, machinery and resources required to perform the given task are available to the employee and are working properly.

This may not be always true, particularly when there are multiple workers sharing the resources. 3. Since efficiency cannot be zero (it might take on infinitesimally small values though, as even starting the work will have some value) the pane 1 in the figure can never be completely opaque. Defining Productivity, Efficiency, and Effectiveness Pritchard (1992) defined organizational productivity as “how well a system uses its resources to achieve its goals” (p. 455). Building on this definition, Payne (2000) defined individual productivity as “how well an individual uses available resources to achieve his/her goals” (p. ). Pritchard further defined productivity as a combination of efficiency (quality of resource use) and effectiveness (achievement of goals). Traditionally, efficiency is defined as the ratio of output over input. It has also been defined it as the “skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort” (Hyperdictionary, 2003). Effectiveness, on the other hand, is the evaluation of the results of the performance (Campbell, 1990). Efficiency and effectiveness might also be thought of as “doing things right” and “doing the right things,” respectively.

The Multiplicative Model In the multiplicative model, productivity is defined as a product of efficiency and effectiveness indices. The multiplicative model also follows the associative and commutative laws. A multiplicative factor of 100 is used so the final productivity index is scaled to 100. The efficiency and effectiveness indices can assume values similar to those in the additive model. This can be depicted by the following equation: Productivity Index (PI) = Efficiency (? ) * Effectiveness Index (EI) * 100

Comparing the models Both models are very straightforward and very easy to compute. They are equally accurate and flawless in representing the first three cases and permitting comparisons between them. However, for all 5 cases, the additive model overestimates productivity. Also, in case 4, when effectiveness is zero, the productivity index equals 45 using the additive model. This suggests that it is possible to be somewhat productive even when one is not at all effective. This is inconsistent with our previous conceptual arguments.

The multiplicative model handles these extreme circumstances more accurately and is therefore a better model than the additive one. A pictorial depiction of this model is shown below: Factors affecting Productivity Factors affecting Efficiency 1. Speed of work which is a function of dispositional preferences and motivation. 2. Knowledge of different ways (methods) to get the job done. 3. Access to different aides/ tools for doing the job Factors affecting Effectiveness 1. Goal clarity 2. Task priority

Productivity as a Combination of Efficiency and Effectiveness If productivity is a combination of efficiency and effectiveness, this implies that demonstrating one but not the other is either partially productive or not productive at all. This depends on how efficiency and effectiveness are combined. This can be done one of the two ways: (1) by adding them together (the additive model) or (2) by multiplying them together (the multiplicative model). We argue that some level of each component is necessary for any level of productivity and if either one is zero, productivity is zero.

Cases with different levels of efficiency and effectiveness Case 1: High efficiency and high effectiveness Case 1 with high efficiency and effectiveness can be represented as the grocery clerk scanning 45 items in 10 minutes, as compared to the standard of 50 items per 10 minutes, and on an average scans 90% of the items correctly. Additive model: PI = [45 / 50 + 90 /100]* 100/2 = 90 Multiplicative model: PI = 45 / 50 * 90 /100 * 100 = 81 Case 2: Low efficiency and high effectiveness Case 2 describes a scenario of low efficiency and high effectiveness.

This would be a case where the grocery clerk scans only 25 items in 10 minutes, but with the same level of effectiveness, 90% accuracy. Additive model: PI =[25 / 50 + 90 /100] * 100/2 = 70 Multiplicative model: PI = 25 / 50 * 90 /100 *100 = 45 Case 3: High efficiency and low effectiveness Case 3 describes a scenario of high efficiency and low effectiveness. The grocery clerk demonstrates a high level of efficiency by scanning 45 items in 10 minutes, but lower level of effectiveness, a 50% accuracy rate.

Additive model: PI =[45 / 50 + 50 /100] * 100/2 = 70 Multiplicative model: PI = 45 / 50 * 50 /100 * 100 = 45 Case 4: High efficiency and zero effectiveness Case 4 represents a scenario that is extreme. The grocery clerk here demonstrates a high level of efficiency by scanning 45 items in 10 minutes but a zero level of effectiveness by scanning all the items incorrectly. Discussion • The multiplicative model overcomes the limitations of the additive model. The multiplicative model is more robust but at the same time sensitive enough to the extreme values efficiency and effectiveness can take on.

It is a more realistic and objective way to calculate productivity. The multiplicative model can be used by supervisors to calculate each employee’s level of productivity. It provides for a common index to make comparisons and a final number to base personnel decisions like raises, promotions, and termination. Returning to example mentioned earlier of the worker manufacturing defective goods at a speed greater than the standard norms, it can be argued that efficiency itself is a function of effectiveness.

This argument is based on the fact that if a significant amount of time is lost in rectifying defects; overall efficiency is reduced. However, this applies only to those items for which rectification is possible. Secondly the process of rectification can be considered a job activity in and of itself and will have a level of efficiency and effectiveness of its own. These models assume that work can be quantified in into efficiency and effectiveness indices. This may be difficult in white collar jobs. In this case, the job activities can be broken into elements that are quantifiable, which can be assessed with the multiplicative model.

Future research might explore an adaptive productivity index to accommodate other model limitations. Example A primary task for a grocery clerk is to scan products quickly and accurately. We propose that the efficiency criterion for this task is the ratio of time taken by the grocery clerk to scan products to the standard time set by industry norms to scan that number of products (a slight deviation from the traditional definition of efficiency). The effectiveness criterion here is the ratio of number of products accurately scanned to the total number of the products scanned.

Thus a productive grocery clerk is an employee who scans a high number of the products with no errors. • Effort Efficiency Pane Effectiveness Pane Productivity Screen • In this model, the light bulb represents the total effort expended on the job by the employee. On the job, pane 1 is the efficiency pane, which is a rectangular glass pane. The pane becomes increasingly darker as the efficiency (? ) decreases. That is for 100% efficiency the pane is completely transparent and for 0 % efficiency the pane is completely opaque.

The second pane, pane 2, is the effectiveness pane. The effectiveness pane is similar to the efficiency pane; it is completely transparent when an employee achieves maximum effectiveness and the opacity of the pane increases as effectiveness decreases. The last screen used to denote productivity is an opaque screen. The observed productivity demonstrated by the employee on the job is represented by the final amount of light falling on screen or in simple words the brightness of the Screen. To get any amount of productivity, effectiveness cannot be zero.

In other words to have any light falling on the Screen, pane 2 cannot be completely opaque. Here the best employees, are the “brightest. ” Assumptions of Models 1. Work is readily available and remains available. 2. Resources required to perform the task are available to the employee. 3. The equipment and machinery required to perform the given task are available to the employee and are working properly. 4. The employee has the knowledge of at least one method for performing the task. 5. The output of the work done can be quantified in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency. • •

Visual Merchandising in Line with Apparel, Book essay help: essay help

Observation Study Recommendation Visual Merchandising: Overview Visual Merchandising (VM) is the art of presentation, which puts the merchandise in focus and in perspective too. It educates the customers, creates desire and finally augments the selling process. This is a nascent stage for the Indian retail industry; therefore a professional program on Visual Merchandising will go a long way in addressing this gap.

The success of the program will be reflected in the better presentations, displays, indoor and outdoor communication about the stores. Visual Merchandising achieves the following: • Educates the customers about the products and services offered creatively and effectively. • Enables a successful selling process, from browsing to buying. • Establishes a creative medium to present merchandise in a lifelike 3-D environment, thus creating a strong impact and recall value. • Sets the context of the merchandise. • Establishes the linkage between fashions, product design and marketing by keeping the focus on the product. Draws the attention of the customers and help them match their needs with the visually merchandised product. VISUAL MERCHANDISING IN INDIA As the concept of large retail stores gains ground in India, the practice and concept of VM is likely to grow. In the western countries VM receives highest priority in commercialization of product. As seasons change, the merchandise collections / planograms too change in a retail store. When such changes take place the store too undergoes a transformation in decor and visual presentation to appeal to the consumers while announcing new arrivals in merchandise collection.

This phenomenon of transformation of visual presentations and displays of merchandise accompanied by relevant thematic props is still very new in India. VM and Displays have a storyboard effect communicating innovatively to the customer besides being a ‘Silent salesman for a retail store’. Objectives The main Objective is to identify the visual merchandise that plays around among different retailing – Apparel, Book, & Shoe. ?Importance of Visual Merchandising ?Visual Merchandising ?Designing a store ?Store layouts ?Store floor space for merchandise & department Merchandise Presentation technique ?Atmospherics Rationale Visual merchandising plays a very important role in marketing the product without any sales staff support. It enhances in the rationale behind buying any product. In today’s day & time, almost all retailers give quality products at affordable prices. Visual Merchandising is the way we can differentiate between the products and create an image which matches to that of the value proposition of the store. It also helps in guiding the buying process of customer which has become a major concern for retailers around the globe.

Benefits ?The retailers will have a clear picture how to play around with visual merchandising in lieu of the Customer buying behaviour ? New entrants will be able to define the visual merchandize according to their plan ? It would benefit me by learning the various aspects of visual merchandising, hence enhancing my enhancing my knowledge on the same. Visual Merchandising – Current Scenario/ Component Today’s successful retailers make the most profitable use of every square foot of space in the store and in the warehouse.

Since this space is so costly, one must take a strategic approach to its use. Floor patterns, location of merchandise, levels of inventory and appropriate displays are all key factors in the proper use of space. Misuse of space can be as detrimental to your success as poor buying or careless hiring. It is very important for every store to create a suitable atmosphere and appealing presentations in order to trigger the consumer’s buying decision. In a world where we can find identical merchandise in more than one store, layout and presentation become key differentiating factors.

Create Your Store for Your Target Customer You can have the most unique, creative and different store on the planet, but if doesn’t conform to what your customers want and expect, then it is of no value. Retail has always been, and will always be, about the consumer. Your entire store concept must be built around your target customer. Succeed at satisfying this shopper and you win the game. Build and design a store that looks beautiful but doesn’t fit the marketplace and the only people who will be happy are the architect and contractors. Take a Strategic Approach

Unfortunately, the days of running a traditional “Ma and Pa” operation, lacking any real business sophistication, are long gone. A haphazard approach to store layout generates less than desired results. You must squeeze every ounce of potential out of your store to make it a winner. How you present your store is a very strategic part of your business. In order to position every item in its proper location, you must have a far more detailed plan than the usual “It was the only place left available, so that’s where it ended up! ” Give your best-selling merchandise the most favourable display areas in your store.

There’s no point in making the job of selling products any more difficult than it needs to be. Consider these suggestions for positioning your departments: 1) High margin/High Sales: If you have a winner, it can afford the “high rent” district in your store. Put it in your best selling spaces. These are your “hot zones”. 2) Demand Merchandise: Customers make a point of coming to your store to get this merchandise, and they will hunt for it. Put it in less valuable spaces and make them walk by your more impulse-related items. 3) Impulse Items: These are the unplanned purchases customers make on a shopping trip.

Items with high impulse success get great locations in the store. The cash desk area is a prime location for these products. 4) Related Merchandise: Even though it may be in separate departments, place products near each other if they are coordinating or complementary items. This will make them more visible to the customer and make shopping easier. Cross merchandising works. 5) Seasonal Stock: Some stores designate an area of the floor for merchandise that is on hand for only a short time. This creates an efficient changeover of that area when a new season arrives. In most stores, seasonal stock requires high visibility. ) Department size: In order to help customers find them, smaller departments typically get better positions in the store than larger departments. 7) New Departments: If you’re testing a new department or line of merchandise, give it the best chance possible to succeed by placing it in a prime selling area. Keep in mind, though, that within a short period of time it will need to earn the right to maintain a position in your “hot zones”. Plan-o-grams A plan-o-gram is nothing more than a picture of how various fixtures, shelves and walls will present your merchandise.

It is a relatively simple concept, but a very powerful one because it takes into consideration what is known about the psychology of consumer buying habits. Creating a plan-o-gram forces the retailer to carefully evaluate which products go where and how many will be displayed. By forcing yourself to plan the presentation of each department, you will become a more successful and proactive retailer. Check out the sample plan-o-gram on the next page. Be Original Boredom. Sameness. Mediocrity. That pretty much summarizes most retail store designs today. There is a lack of innovation.

Too many retailers look at a store chain that is successful, and then try to “knock off” its look. Whatever happened to being an individual? You must give the customer as many reasons as possible to shop in your store. One of the key attractions is your store layout and presentation. If you look the same, or worse, than the competition, then the customer becomes less attracted to your store. Sameness (that’s when retailers look and act alike) is a curse for most stores. If you can’t be better than the competition, you might as well go work for them. Address The Senses

Emotional responses can be triggered in customers that cause them to relax, energize, reminisce, and (hopefully) buy something. Music is an essential element in any store. It helps accentuate and build your atmosphere. It can also add texture to the environment. Customers tend to stay longer in environments with appropriate music … and if they stay longer, they typically buy more. A relaxed and fun work place will also increase the productivity and morale levels of your employees. Housekeeping Standards Your store’s housekeeping must be impeccable. When we say impeccable, we mean flawless.

A dirty store says you don’t care. It says you’ve lost interest and you probably don’t treat the merchandise with respect, either. It’s tough enough to win over customers without adding to the difficulty by presenting a less than spotless store. Create a daily and weekly checklist of every housekeeping duty that must be completed. Assign these duties to various individuals and hold them accountable for getting them done. Polish the chrome. Dust the shelves. Clean the lights. Get rid of the tape on the windows. Remove the clutter behind the cash counter. Tidy up the back room.

Chase those dust bunnies away. Vacuum daily. No smudges. No grease. No dust. No grime. Store Windows Your storefront windows are an ideal opportunity to attract customers’ attention and drag them into your store. Windows should be used for these main purposes: ? Sales promotion ?Image-building ?Seasonal changes ?New arrivals ?High demand items Successful store windows are changed frequently! In a downtown area, potential customers pass by your store at least two or three times a week. Ask yourself “If my windows didn’t attract them into the store this week, what makes me believe they will next week? This frequent number of “pass by’s” means that you must change your windows as often as every week. Determine how many times your windows are seen by potential customers and rotate them to match that frequency. You must constantly present a fresh and exciting face. As a minimum, windows should be changed once per month. Just do it! Creative Displays While individual creativity and artistic flair play a major role in merchandise displays, here are some main principles that you should consider: ? Good displays tell a story or have a theme. ?Keep displays simple.

Don’t include too many items. ?Try portraying your products in use. ?Focus on impulse items. ?Use proper lighting and props. ?Use well-stocked power walls/displays to show best sellers. ?Show complementary/coordinating items together. ?Integrate your advertising into your displays. ?Use motion to attract attention. ?Focus on best sellers/hot items. ?Unless you’re a pro, keep it simple. Signage Too often, retailers spend big money on external advertising campaigns involving flyers, handouts, advertising campaigns involving flyers, handouts, coupons, newspapers and other media … hen overlook the impact of in-store communication and presentations. As much as 80% of all sales are generated at point of purchase by signage, displays and events within the store. This far outweighs any other type of promotional or marketing event. Signage is the “silent salesperson” for the retailer and must reflect your image. Handwritten signs are essentially taboo. Professionalism is everything in your store, and the same holds true with your signage. There are four different types of signs: 1) Promotional signs: For off-price events or specials. 2) Location signs: For direction to specific departments. ) Institutional signs: For store policies, charitable events. 4) Informational signs: For product related features/ benefits/prices. Consider the following ideas when designing your next signage campaign: ? Make your signs short and sweet. You have three seconds to tell the customer what you want them to know. ?Create a consistent look. Colour, size, type, style, and layout should be consistent. ?Use feature/benefit/price signs. ?Only post positive signs about your policies. If it’s negative, either change it or don’t post it. ?Say “Save $10”, instead of “10% off”.

It’s usually much more powerful. Lifestyle Retail Lifestyle is one of the mentions worthy chain of retail companies operating in the Indian economy, originally branded under the Lifestyle International of Dubai. The most famous of theLifestyle Retailing Business Division is the Wills Lifestyle, a new range of specialty stores. Lifestyle : Overview Lifestyle in India was first founded in the year 1999, under the initiative of the retail chain of company, Lifestyle International. The first lifestyle store was introduced in Chennai. In the year 2004, the turnover of the retail store was Rs 240 crore.

There are Lifestyle stores in different parts of the country, both in the bigger metros like Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata,Hyderabad and also in the smaller towns. The Lifestyle India is originally a part of theLandmark Group based in Dubai in middle east. It has a flourishing business out there with earning a revenue of nearly $600 million in the year 2004. however, the success of Lifestyle in India is not only a mere reflection of their track records in the middle east, but the secret is that Lifestyle has understood the Indian market and changed their business model accordingly.

The features of Lifestyle India : The features of the retail store Lifestyle in India is different from the original Lifestyle store in the middle east where there are five separate stores for separate products like clothings, kids wear, household appliances and furniture, footwear, and health and beauty products. However, in Lifestyle India, one can find every core categories of Lifestyle under the same one roof. With the growing purchasing power of the Indians, the Indian consumers are being able to afford more and more variety of products, making the Lifestyle an epitome of success in the Indian retail sector.

Clarity of Thought: The display is very clear and tells that the main merchandise on display are apparels and accessories for teenagers and women. Creativity: The entire display gives a very homely touch and is very attractive. The mannequins used are lying in relax mood and signifies smooth environment and life. Along with the smoothness, the mannequins also show elegance and trendy. Effectiveness: The colours being used are bright. The display gives an aesthetic touch and a homely environment. The display speaks for the comfort and enjoyed by the customer. Crossword Book Store

Crossword was founded in 1992 by Mr. R. Sriram and Ms. Anita along with a team from Indian Book House Limited. Crossword – Brand Name When one does crossword puzzle, it adds to learning experience. The name Crossword was therefore chosen to reflect the dual characteristics of fun and learning experience at Crossword stores Products and Services Crossword addresses a wider audience than existing stores with its unique product mix. There is a wide variety of books for old and the young generation. It also stacks up magazines, CD- ROMs, Music, Stationery and Toys.

Services like Dial-a-Book, Fax-a-Book and Email-a-Book enable customer to shop from their work place and home. Facilities like Crossword Gift Voucher, the friendly ‘Return, exchange and Refund policy, the Cafes within the store and the unique store experience make it easy and enjoyable for customer to shop at crossword. Over 1, 00,000 loyal customers are rewarded through the ‘Crossword Book Reward Program’ with points, discounts, promotional offers etc. ‘ewords’ – a monthly newsletter with the review of books, news about in-store events and best seller lists is mailed to customer.

Positioning Crossword, positioned as a lifestyle book store, has been able to change this by designing large, spacious and well laid stores with bright cheerful interior that encourage people to stay and browse. Simple innovations like methodical classifications, clear signage, a dedicated enquiry/order desk, electronic POS/ Inventory control system and attractive display creates an enjoyable activity to buy a book. A welcoming cafe, seating arrangement and rest room help to ensure that customers are able to browse in comfort for several hours without having to leave.

Core Dimensions 1)Location 2)Merchandise Assortment Planning 3)Assortment plan & Product line 4)Pricing strategies 5)Communication via promotion mix Shoe Mart Feet in Fashion Shoe Mart, the concept took shape when it started its operations in March 1990 in Dubai, UAE. Since its inception, Shoe Mart has grown from a single shoe store to one of the largest ‘footwear and accessories’ retail chains in the GCC region, comprising 97 stores spread across UAE, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Jordan, Oman, Kuwait and Spain.

Today it is a household name in footwear and accessories offering a range of branded and value-for-money goods for a diverse audience, all under one roof. Keeping in line with the changing trends in the footwear business, Shoe Mart today retails a great collection of fashionable and comfortable footwear – formal, casual and sport shoes, from over 30 countries around the globe; thereby satisfying customer needs. Shoe Mart offers an extensive range of footwear from value-for-money shoes to leading international brands like Puma, Bata (Italy), Barbie, Clarks, Ecco, Filanto, Hush Puppies, Imac, Lee Cooper, and Reebok.

One can also find accessories such as belts, jewellery cases, handbags, luggage bags, purses, school bags, and an array of shoe care products, socks, suitcases and wallets, all under one roof. In addition to this, Shoe Mart also has individual concept stores for famous international brands such as Bata (Italy), Ecco, and Pablosky, and Kurt Geiger. Store Design Shoe Mart stores boast a display format that sets footwear retail benchmark internationally. As a result, Shoe Mart stores attract high footfall. With ready to trained staff, every little element contributes towards a pleasant shopping experience. Spacious interiors and display formats that are aligned with international standards ? Every store features ‘ Focus’ and ‘Highlight’ points ? Specific design enhancements for European markets ?Flexible layouts including multiple ‘ shop-in-shop’ concept for larger stores ShoeMart – Visual Merchandising Ladies Section The store has got three main sections –Men’s, women’s, Kids section. Its basically dressing the store in such a way that it looks fresh every time customer comes. Kids Section The colorful section of the store is the KIDS section.

The store also has the School shoes for children as well all the latest collection of sandals chappals and closed shoes. Sports Section Sports section is at the end of the store which is visible as you enter the store. Men’s Section Men’s section is the back bone of the store where ShoeMart have the biggest range available for everyone. Men’s hawai and sandal plus men’s canvas shoe are also available. Stock Arrangement The stock room are divided into two parts one on the Ground floor which is about 1000 sqft and the other in the basement which is the bigger of the two.

First floor they have Fast moving articles of both men and women, and in basement they have the entire stock of rest other articles. They are arranged as per the category and its maintained by the salespersons who are given the respected categories Visual Merchandising – Observation Study A successful retailing business requires that a distinct and consistent image be created in the customer’s mind that permeates all the product and service offering. Visual merchandising can help create that positive customer image that leads to successful sales.

It not only communicates the store’s image but also reinforces the stores advertising efforts and encourages impulse buying by the customers. Visual merchandising is a major factor often overlooked in the success or failure of a retail store. It is second only to effective customer relations. Visual merchandising can be defined as everything the customer sees, both exterior and interior, that creates a positive image of a business and result in attention, interest, desire and action on the part of the customer. A story can be told that communicates to prospective customer what the store is all about.

It includes the dramatic presentation of merchandise as well as other important, subtle failures that create the store’s overall atmosphere. Eighty percent our impressions are created by sight; that is why one picture is worth a thousand words. Each customer has a mental image of a store and its merchandise. A store should have an inviting appearance that makes the customer feel comfortable and yet eager to buy. Some businesses maintain a minimum staff to reduce costs, which mean it, is even more important for the merchandise to sell itself.

Greater effort must be spent on merchandise displays that make it easier for the customer to find and purchase the items they want or need. The basic objective for visual merchandising is an desire to attract customer to a place of business in order to sell the merchandise. Visual merchandising is offered to the customer through exterior and interior presentation. Each should be coordinated with the other using the store’s overall theme. Creating and maintaining a store’s visual merchandising plan, however, is not a simple task. It is necessary to continually determine what the customer sees.

This evaluation from the customer’s perspective should start on the exterior and work completely through the interior of the store. Exterior presentation The quality of a store front is a major determinant for a customer, particularly a new customer and should not be underestimated. The exterior appearance of one store, a block of businesses or a cluster, silently announces what customers can expect inside. Good exterior visual merchandising attracts attention, creates interest and invites the customer into business. The exterior presentation can offer a conservative, progressive, and lavish or discount image to the customer.

PICTURE..! How a store visually welcomes customers has a lot to do with whether or not they enter the store. Although good prices and positive word-of-mouth advertising is important, it is hard to overcome the negative image of a poor store exterior. When examining a store’s exterior, consider the following questions: ? How do customers locate the business? ?Are the sidewalks clean, safe and accessible? ?Are the exterior sign clean, fresh and readable? ?Does the store front need cleaning, painting or touch-up? ?Are the outside entrances clean and accessible? ?Are the windows clean, bright and inviting? Are the windows display presentation materials such as tape, pins and packaging materials removed? ?Are the window displays frequently changed? ?Do the window displays carry a theme? Exterior Signs A sign is a silent salesperson, and a part of a shopper’s first impression of a store. In less than 10 seconds the sign must attract attention, tell who the business is and what it has to sell. An effective sing will communicate what type of business is being conducted. Off- premise signs provide information and direction, especially for travellers and new residents.

Signs can also help effectively communicate a poor location. The lettering should be large enough to read from 200 feet, which is the distance required to stop a car travelling 40 miles per hour. Signs with 8-inches letters can be read from a distance up to 250 feet. A sign’s design conveys a great deal about the business inside. A stark design and limited materials may suggest discount prices and no frills. Elegant and expensive sign materials may suggest luxury goods and services. Signs may also be used to target a specific market such as youth, women, senior citizens, singles etc.

Where many signs complete for customers attention, design and logo become even more important. They should be unique, noticeable and readable. When preparing a sign to draw customer attention, consider size, shape materials, lettering, height, placement and structure. For example, among several rectangular signs in close proximity to one another, construct an oval or circular sign that will stand out. Also consider a sign’s relationship with its surroundings. A sign may look good on an individual store front, but very unattractive when viewed in conjunction with other buildings in the street.

Simple, brief, well designed, well lettered and easy to read sign will convey a feeling of welcome. Design graphics appropriate for the nature of the business, and create a message that is clear and simple. Focus on one or two key words to describe the business. A clean, clear message will have more impact. Signs with unlit or missing light bulbs, flaking or faded paint, or cracked and peeling backgrounds can hurt the overall store image. A shabby sign implies a lack of concern with the business image. Signs should be well maintained, and painted every three years or sooner f they weather or fade.

A store sign is its signature. It is personal, original and continuously recognizable to the public. It should create an image that is consistently carried throughout the remainder of the store and its business actions. Marquees This special type of signs is used to display the name of a store. An effective marquee must stand out from other business to attract attention. A marquee on some other building is a permanent canopy projecting over an entrance that provides protection from the elements. It can be used to announce a change in seasons, a special event or a promotion.

The top of the permanent canopy (marquee) provides an opportunity to showcase seasonal displays or special promotional banners. Banners Banners are used increasingly as an inexpensive but colourful, eye-catching means of promotion. A new and interesting appearance can be offered by changing the banners frequently. Consumers will think exciting changes are taking place, and can be drawn into the store. Banners can be hung from flagpoles, projected form the building or hung lat against the exterior. To provide continuity, the same banner design, reduced in size and scale, can be hung from marquee and displayed inside the store.

However, do not overuse banners because shoppers will stop noticing them. With each new banner, select a different size, shape and colour form those previously used. Consistency is an important aspect of retailing used to maintain a businesses’ image and identification. The design concept used on the banner will be more effective if an attempt is made to carry the colours and graphics throughout the store, and on promotional materials and newspaper ads. Awnings Colour and appeal can be added to store’s exterior with the use of awnings.

They provide the customer with protection from weather and makes viewing the window display more pleasant as it reduces heat, cuts down on glare and reflection and prevents fading of the merchandise from exposure to the sun. However, an awning in poor condition may harm by distracting from the store image. Many businesses are updating their storefronts with new back-lit awning system. Other names for this may include electric awnings, interior lit canopy signs, and back-lit conventional awnings. The modern-looking awnings are used on new as well as older building and are usually bright and attractive, especially at night.

A variety of styles exists such as concaves, convex, long dome, square and coop style. Most are interior lit with an egg crate type bottom that allows light to shine through and will not allow bird, etc to enter into it. The illuminated awning fabric is a translucent vinyl that comes in wide variety of colours. The store name is incorporated into it with a translucent film, sign and awning companies can assist in selecting and installing the right style, colour and design of awning that would be appropriate for the building. Walks and Entries

Approximately, 75 percent f first time customers remember store’s entrance, which provides the first and last view of the store’s interior. Picture walking up to the expanse of wall whose flat surface is pierced only by a plain glass door, as opposed to the protective feeling offered by walking under a porch or canopy. A properly designed canopy or porch not only protects the customer in bad weather, but can add to the aesthetics of the building. When adding an entryway, be sure it is designed to blend or be consistent with the architecture of the building.

Cluttered entryway causes shoppers to indefinitely postpone entering a store, while an attractive, well designed entrances inviting to the customer. Entrances that allow shoppers to come into a store without being aware of their entering, is also becoming popular. An example is a V- shaped window display that funnels window shopping traffic into the store. Landscaping Landscaping should lead the customer’s eye to focal point using colour and texture to provide contrast and harmony. The focal point is the business sign.

Landscaping can also screen undesirable sights such as garbage, power transformers and refrigeration equipment. The essence of good landscaping is simplicity; simple landscape designs that are easy to maintain. For example, uninterrupted expanses of grass are easier to maintain that areas cut up by several small beds of flowers and shrubs. Planters, slower boxes and plants used in front of a store add to the general appearance, regardless of what type of merchandise is being sold. Plants enhance the overall look of the store, and also add to the store’s positive reputation in terms of beautifying the community.

Planters placed below and in front of as display window actually strengthen the display by adding greater depth to the setting. Real plants and flowers are recommended over artificial plants. Because of location and other factors many businesses may be limited in the amount of landscaping that can be done. Window Display Special emphasis should be placed on store’s window displays because they are the information link to the potential customer. Window display can be as important as advertising. As many as one in every four sales could be the result of a good window display.

Window display should attract attention, create interest and invite people into the store to purchase goods. There is less than 11 seconds to accomplish this, as that is the average amount of time an individual will spend looking at a window display. E careful not to crowd too much into the window as the customer might miss out certain message. It is important to frequently change the window displays in small town, customers pass by less frequently. Properly lighted window display can help sell specific products or ideas that promote a store’s image.

Window lights or ideas that promote enough to overcome the reflections from outside objects, such as parked cars and buildings. At night, additional lights on overhead marquees and projecting cornices can make the window area look larger. Closed back windows require a high level of general illuminations. Massed window displays are often lighted with overhead fluorescents which are supplemented by closely spaced clear incandescent lamps. Use miniature portable spotlights to accent small display areas, price cards and specific items in a massed display. Compact footlights help relieve shadow near the bottom of vertical displays.

Window display is more successful when a dominate theme is carried throughout the display regardless of whether the featured products are fashion-oriented, institutional or promotional in nature. Suggested window treatments that have proven successful include: ? A single object against seamless paper ?Merchandise displayed as it would be utilized in a realistic setting. ?A theatrical setting using fantasy and drama ?Straight merchandise glamorised with props ?Animation such as in holiday windows that draws clouds of shoppers. ?The use of sculptures, painting or art objects for a touch of glass ?

Media tie-in, with current area activities, films, starts or bestselling books. Window display should be in harmony with the entire surroundings; a whole is being created rather than a fragment. When planning a window display consider the building facade, a street people and their perceptions, colour harmony, lighting and viewing angles. Interior Presentation Selling space is the most important part is a store and therefore, efforts to utilize each square foot will help to maximize sales. One proven way to do this is through interior display that effectively show merchandise to the customer.

When planning interior displays, remember that the theme and image presented on the exterior must be carried throughout the interior of the store to provide consistency for the customer. The purpose of interior display is to develop desire for the merchandise, show what is available, and encourage both impulse and planned buying. Three major goals of a store should be to motivate the customer to spend money, project the image of the store and keep expenses to a minimum. Promotion and advertising dollars are less effective or even wasted efforts are not made within the store to effectively merchandise the products.

Well designed displays and in store promotions are essentials for a consistent theme and to help the customer find advertised items. Although the percentage of in-store purchase decision may vary by type of store and product, this is a critical selling point. Display Design An effective way of attracting customer to a store by having good displays, both exterior and interior. A customer will be attracted to a display within three to eight seconds; that is the time customer spends to determine interest in a product. This is why it is critical to have a properly designed display. Every display should be planned and have a theme.

Good design makes a visual presentation come together. Good design makes a visual presentation come together. This means the design attracts attention in away that strengthens the store image, as well as introducing merchandise to the customer. Place sale or promotional goods in front of the store for short periods of time only. If the sale or promotions lasts for several weeks, move the merchandise to the rear of the store. Interested customers to will search out a bargain, introduce the customer to new, exciting and creative merchandise with a display at the front of the store. Used in display

To execute a display that will sell merchandise, it is necessary to have a working knowledge of the principle of design. Balance: Balance involves the equilibrium and weight of element between two sides of display. Balance is based in theory of equals. Essentials ?Is colours are too bright, they will overwhelm pastels ?If several small objects are exciting than the large objects, they will overpower the large items. ?A large expanse of empty space will call attention to a single object placed within it. ?If an item is placed at an angle or to one side, the space on either side of that peice becomes important. Is an object is centered, empty space loses importance because its hsape s predictable and therefore has less recognition as its own element. ?A pleasant distribution of weight using merchandise of similar value wil provides importance to both sides. Emphasis Emphasis is the point of initial eye contact. From this spot all other eye movement flow. Emphasis is therefore the formulation of a focal point, with all else in the displays. This can be by virtue of the focal point’s size, colour or position. The merchandise is the focal point in a majority of displays. Essential of Emphasis A display need to emphasis a theme or mood. Themes may also depicts seasons, anniversaries, celebrations, holidays and other special store events. All elements in a display must then reinforce one another and emphasis the mood created. ?An isolated item can be emphasized when surrounded by clack space ? Shiny surface emphasize and enlarge objects ?Dull surface absorb light and help to deemphasize an area. ?Colour is a powerful medium for creating emphasizes small amounts of advancing colour, bright intensities, extreme tints or shades contrasts in the right places will provide striking accents. Unusual textures highlight an area ?Emphasize is diminished with receding variations such as thin, fuzzy lines, nondescript shapes; regular spacing; even light absorption; cool hues, dull intensities, medium tints or shades. Dull opaque textures; and small, all over or no pattern. Proportion Proportion is the ratio of the parts to the whole display. It is comparative relationship of distances, size, amounts, degree or parts. Each item may look normal when isolated, but if it is inconsistent in area or dimension with neighbouring items, it seems out of proportion. Essentials of Proportion Do not use all large objects, because there is nothing to break the monotony and sameness of that large feeling ? Adding an odd number of smaller, related items to large pieces create more interest and balance. ?Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relation to others. ?Proportion and contrast are important elements of good display. Drastically changing the proportion and the colour and texture can work wonders in attracting attention to display. Harmony Harmony is coordinating umbrella principles that can cver and incorporates every other principle. Harmony is agreement in feeling and consistency in mood; i. . , the feeling that all parts of display relate to each other and to the whole display. Without harmony the observer is uncomfortable and will not be enticed to purchase the merchandise. Functional harmony: It deals with how something works physically, which means it must be realistic and must work. Structural Harmony: It means correctly fitting together all the pieces; merchandise should not be out of place in the display. Decorative Harmony: It includes the parts of a display that are included only in decorative purposes. If an atmosphere of spring is being developed, butterflies or flowers maybe used as the props.

These items are attractive and add to the theme. Colour Colour contributes significantly to people’s impression of a display as well as store overall appearance. Colour in a display can catch the eye and make people pause and look. The colour combination of the ceiling, walls floor covering and the overall decor can affect the atmosphere of a store. Changing the colour scheme can change the people’s attitude and perception of a store and can increase or decrease the business. Reddanger, stop, negative, excitement, hot Dark Blue stable, calming, trustworthy, mature Greengrowth, positive, organic, go, comforting

Whitepure, clean, honest Blackserious, heavy, death Grayintegrity, neutral, cool, mature Brownwholesome, organic, unpretentious Yellowemotional, positive, caution Goldconservative, stable, elegant Orangeemotional, positive, organised Purpleyouthful, contemporary, royal Pinkyouthful, feminine, warm Pastelsyouthful, soft, feminine, sensitive Metallicelegant, lasting, wealthy Essentials of Colours ? Consider intensity, value and contrast when developing colour schemes. ?Match the colour scheme to the merchandise on display ?Associate the value if the merchandise displayed to the selection of colours in the display ?

Lights tints are pleasing to the eye. ?Dark shades appear to bring the background to the fore, shortening the perceived windown space. ?Colour contrast are welcome, but are dangerous. ?More than two principle colours can be grouped proportionately in one display. Greater effort must be made, however, to achieve harmony. Pastels go well together. Certain colour combinations work because they have been traditionally accepted. New colour combinations have to be carefully thought out to avoid shock or offence through an inappropriate use of familiar colour. Lighting Lighting is essential in calling attention to merchandise in as display.

A shopper’s eye is drawn automatically to the brightest item or area. Lighting treatment may used to draw attention to part of a display area, a specific tem in the display or to coordinate parts of the total display area. Lighting can also be used to direct shopper through the store, attracting them to various displays along the way. Primary Lighting: primary lighting is the overall level of illumination of the store using fluorescent light sources. Inside the store, primary lighting is that which fills the selling floor from overhead lighting fixtures and provides the bare essentials of the store illuminations.

Secondary Lighting: accent or secondary lightning provides illumination for designated display areas. Flat shadow less; overall lighting can create a tiresome selling floor. Accent lighting provides change from light to dark or highlight to shadow, to prevent this boredom. Atmosphere Lighting: atmosphere lightning is used to play light against shadow to create distinctive effect on specific displays. Generally this category includes the use of colours filters, pinpoints spotlight and black lighting to create dramatic reflects. Essentials for Lighting Increase display light when visual details are important ? Create a buying mood by using various amounts of light or manipulating light and shadow ? Save the brightest lights for the merchandise and avoid anything that detracts from the merchandise. ?Provide contrast to the natural light in the window display. ?Highlights women wear, especially bright, cheerful colours and patterns by using natural fluorescents. ?Heighten the appeal of men wear by using a cool blend of fluorescent and incandescent lighting, with fluorescent predominating. Add brilliant highlights to jewellery, gold, silver and cut glass by using concentrated beams of high-brightness, incandescent sources. ?Hide or disguise the electrical wires. Props A prop is something used with a product in a display that clarifies the function of the merchandise being sold or the story being told. Props are integral part of the display. A display prop may be something that is not for sale, such as floor coverings, wall treatments, backgrounds, mannequins, shelves and steps. Props may also be merchandised that is for sale, but it is not the theme merchandise.

When using saleable merchandise as a prop, be sure it is appropriate for the theme of the display and in sufficient quantity to meet an increase in demand arising from the display. Fixture Type Straight Rack: Long pipe suspended with supports to the floor or attached to the wall Gondolas: Large base with a vertical spine or wall fitted with sockets or notches into which a variety of shelves, peg hooks, bins, baskets and other hardware can be inserted. Four way Fixture: Two crossbars that sit perpendicular to each other on a pedestal Rounders: Round shaped pipe to hang the merchandise.

Wall Fixtures To make the store’s wall merchandisable, wall usually covered with a skin that is fitted with vertical columns of notches similar to those on a gondola, into which a variety of hardware can be inserted. Merchandising Display Planning Shelving: Flexible, easy to maintain Hanging Pegging: Small rods inserted in gondolas or wall Systems: can be labour intensive to display/maintain but gives neat and orderly appearance. Folding: For softlines can be folded and stacked on shelves or tables – creates high fashion image.

Stacking: Large hardlines can be stacked in shelves, base decks of gondolas or flats – easy to maintain and gives image of high volume and low price. Dumping: large quantities of small merchandise can be dumped into baskets or bins- highly effective for softline or hardlines – create high volume, low cost image. Interior Signage: Signage is a critical part of interior display and point-of –purchase promotion. Store signage that communicates a sales message to the customer can make up for lack of sales personnel. A good point-of-purchase sign, properly placed, acts as as person without wages.

Essentials of Interior Signage ?Special attention should be given to sign and show card margin. ?The focal point of a sign should appear near the optical centre of the sign. ?Try to maintain as much white space a possible around the copy. ?Use action adjectives or adverbs only to describe a hidden feature that will benefit the customer. ?Use key words that attract shoppers: you, money, save, new, easy, love, discover, results, health, proven, free and guarantee. However, these words should not be overused. ?Avoid overkill or clutter. Keep it simple. Do not use signs when the merchandise can tell the story. Use exact price information rather than percentage discounts; it is easier for the customer to compute. ?Check daily to be sure they are current and not left over from a previous sale or promotional event. ?Print information on both sides for signs in holders, so customer approaching from different directions can read the signs. ?Use the same style print and colour for interior signs to add a cohesive appearance to the store. ?Appeal to as many customers as possible, do not limit the audience. ?Feature national name brand items that have wide customer acceptance ? Stimulating buying by asking for the sale

Merchandising and Fixture Display Recommendation Goods can be effectively displayed on a variety of fixture such as gondolas, tables, cubes, mannequins, waterfall and other racks, display cases, and manufacturer point of purchase display. A fixture should not only complement the merchandise, but also the atmosphere created in the store. Each fixture should present the merchandise to the public and thereby act as a silent salesperson. One of the most common fixtures in the stores is gondolas, moveable shelving approachable from all sides used in self service retail store to display merchandise.

They can be lined up in rows as in grocery, hardware and drug store or used singly to create an island. End caps are the units at the end of the aisles. End caps are important selling locations and should be used for high profit impulse or seasonal merchandising. Related merchandise should be grouped together at the end caps and gondolas sites. Customer generally look to the centre of the gondola first and then to either the right or left. Additional high profit impulse items should be placed in centre of gondola sides and other related merchandise to either left or right. Larger more expensive merchandise should be placed to the right.

The high turnover, high profits items should also be placed at the eye level. If possible, remove a sample from the container to allow the customer handle and feel the item. Old merchandise should be cleaned and pulled forward as new merchandise is added to the back. Use a starter gap in which at least one item is missing, so the customer will not feel like they are messing up a neat display. Restock the display before it gets down to last item so the customer will not get the impression that something is wrong with the item. As merchandise beings to have broken with the item.

As merchandise begins to have broken sizes or assortments, the remaining items should be moved to the bottom shelves of the gondolas. An acceptable means of arranging merchandise on a gondola is by colour. People think of colours in a rainbow pattern and are comfortable with that presentation. The usual order of arrange and present colours are as follows: 1. Start with neutral colours: off white, creamy, ivory, beige, tan and brown 2. Proceed with warm colours: yellow, gold, orange. Peach, rust, pink, red, cerise, lavender and violet. 3. Finish with cool colours: blue, green, gray and black.

Group merchandise by colour as previously mentioned, as well as from smallest to largest and from left to right. When a variety of styles are shown each style should be grouped separately by colour. The power of Music Stores environment provide customers with the informational clues about the uniqueness of the merchandise and service quality and assist in shaping consumer attitude and perceptions about the global store image. Store image and mood can be changed dramatically by the introduction of music. Music establishes the mood; helps motivate the subconscious and can create a lasting impression on existing and potential customer.

Specifically programmed music can play a role in the total shopping experience and can be an important tool in creating a memorable identity for specific retail brands. If the music was specifically designed to fit a particular demographics and psychographic, then the customer tended to relax and stayed longer in the store. The Power of Scent Te use of scents in the stores has become a rather touchy issue, and one that requires that each retailer be attuned to the needs of their target market. Department stores traditionally sampled perfumes at the entrance to increase sales of those products.

Grocery stores owners know that the smell of fresh bread will entice hungry shoppers to buy. However, many customers’ finds strongly scented products not only unappealing, but also can cause allergic reactions that make it nearly impossible to shop in certain stores. A pleasing scent can create a wonderful ambience and add to the customer’s shopping experience, particularly if it is a sample of one of the products a firm is selling. Recommendation ? The store should work on increase on advertising and promotion program so that more number of customer attract towards it ?

ShoeMart needs to improve itself in the field of improvement of music. The music should be standardised across all stores ? Lifestyle is lacking behind in containing the national brands. It should contain the more national brands to attract customers. ?Lifestyle should work on other facilities like trial room, carry bags etc. ?Convey theme more clearly. Convey the theme through window display focal point should b in the middle with more light focus on more high point should be created group items to make related item buying easy place merchandise in the way that range of style is visible.

People Engage in Conflict for Personal Reasons. homework essay help: homework essay help

It is inevitable for one to avoid conflicts when it affects them personally. It is ordinary for one to conform to betrayal, deceit, false accusations and many other various ways in an attempt to fulfil their desires and objectivity. Although people may engage in conflict for personal reasons, some do not engage in conflict deliberately but were instead drawn in because of the conflict occurring between others.

With this, people who are trapped in the middle must force themselves to take a side or form a judgement in order to benefit themselves or the people around them and hence engaging in conflict for their personal reasons. When one’s personal beliefs or values are threatened, it is ordinary that one may resort to preserve their personal beliefs or values by resorting to the use of power. Power can be in a form of using personal might or the use of the combination of power from the community or government bodies.

This could be seen in Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible which highlights the use of power of the government which is represented by Danforth as the head of the court. The quote by Danforth stating that he would “… hang ten thousand that dared to rise against the law… ” is an example which accentuates the importance of preserving the order of the court and also the resolution of the statutes. The harsh statement made by him also exemplifies the extent of the use of his power in order to fulfil his personal reason to achieve the community to conform to the court of law and also obeying authority.

The power of personal might could also be exemplified in the character Reverend Hale who at the end of the play believes that “ God damns a liar less than he that throws his life away for pride”. Although he may be a Reverend and is obliged to believe in the values of honesty, he compromised this by believing that one may lie in order for his or her own survival. Self interest or desire are one of the many personal reasons that people engage in conflict for.

One of the biggest motivating factor in perpetuating conflict is the desire to be more powerful financially and socially. In order for one to be powerful, one must take advantage to assert power in dominating many key potential assets such as land, resources and other wealth generating areas. Most of the time it involves conflicts between many parties. The Blood Diamond which refers to a diamond mined in a war zone is one of many examples that could be used to support the engagement of conflict between parties.

In The Crucible, the character Thomas Putnam who is seen as a greedy man who uses his daughter to accuse people whose property he covets is also depicted as using the accusations of witchcraft which were based on greed and selfish desires. Although most people engage in conflict for personal reasons, some are trapped in between. This could be seen everywhere in the news at present and an example of one would be the war between the US and Iraq which resulted in many innocent deaths, mainly civilians who are trapped in between.

Similarly, this could be seen in the character Mary Warren who is being pulled from both sides, Abigail Williams and John Proctor. As innocent as a child she is, she had to make an ultimate decision in order to save her life after being framed by Abigail Williams that she is indeed a witch when she sided with John Proctor. Therefore, she resorted to switch sides to Abigail Williams in a quick attempt to cleave to her own life and instead framing John Proctor as “… the Devil’s man”.

Despite the fact that she conformed to betrayal and lies in the court of law, she had to take a stand in the conflict and choose the winning side in order to save herself. Therefore, there are many reasons why people mainly engage in conflict to fulfill their own personal desires and preserving their beliefs and values in the community. Also, a large minority might also not be directly involved in the conflict between the other parties but were drawn in helplessly and in order to save themselves or the people around them, they have to take a stand.

Comparison Between Mahathir and Najib aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Comparison between Mahathir and Najib in Foreign Policies Dr. Mahathir In re-prioritising his foreign policy after coming to power in 1981, Dr Mahathir wanted to maintain close relations with the Muslim world. As such has accorded the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC) a high priority in Malaysia’s foreign policy. His efforts were rewarded when in October 2003, Malaysia was given the Chairmanship of OIC. We cannot deny the facts, Mahathir did achieve something.

He came at the right time when the economy was doing well. One of his first steps was also to release political detainees at that time. Dr Mahathir wanted to enhance Malaysia’s role in international affairs through an assertive and active foreign policy, summed up as a foreign policy of active internationalism. He has been successful in putting Malaysia on the world map. This could be seen in the growing recognition accorded to Malaysia by several international organisations by the latter half of the 1980s.

He re-prioritised the country’s foreign policy and positioned the Islamic world and OIC as second only after the ASEAN region. I think is a good indication that many person wish for a return to the good old days of Mahathir dominance. Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak Since his coming to power, Dato Seri Najib has visited many countries, including Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore, China and France. If at all “country visits” can be of indication as to the priorities of foreign policy, then Dato’Najib’s would be towards the East Asian region, especially ASEAN and China.

I think he’s just as bad as Dollah in that he only cares about…. well, think about the spirit of the saying “wine, women and song. ” I could be wrong, but he strikes me as a man of great greed and personal excesses. He’s not a bloodthirsty guy or particularly iron fisted but I suspect that if push comes to shove, he will have absolutely no hesitance to engage in illicit and inhumane tactics to protect his position and interests.

The Importance of Business Continuity best essay help: best essay help

Telecommunications Infrastructure Introduction Be prepared. By implementing a Disaster Recovery or Business Continuity Plan, the telecommunications infrastructure gives redundant access that gives local authorities and businesses the ability to allow minimal downtime and continuous operation in the face of disaster. Telecommunications is very vital to the disaster recovery process. The arrival of a disaster situation requires prompt notification and mobilization of key management and recovery personnel who are often at different locations.

Coordination among key officials of government agencies usually transpires over the telecommunications networks; helping to guarantee a more coordinated and measured response (Houck, 2004). Because of the complexities of recovering a telecommunications network, it is important to have a prior plan in place that ensures you are protected when a disaster occurs. When beginning the planning process for a response in the event of a disaster, it is necessary to have an understanding of the organization’s critical business functions. What is a Disaster? In a disaster, telecommunications infrastructure failures can occur through a variety of ways.

Researching into communications failures during large urban disasters in the past fifteen years reveals three main categories of causes: Physical destruction of network components, disruption in supporting network infrastructure, and network congestion (Moss & Townsend, 2005). More often than not, disasters happen on smaller scales, often hundreds of times more than the larger ones. Smaller disasters, such as building fires, burst pipes that flood offices, server crashes that result in corrupted data, extended power outages, and severe winter storms arise more than big disasters.

Critical business processes fail for hours, days, and possibly weeks by one of these small events, serving up a fatal blow to time-critical, service-oriented businesses (Gregory, 2008). The most common cause of telecommunications failures in recent disasters has been physical destruction of network infrastructure. Due to the time and financial necessity needed to repair or replace systems, service disruptions caused by physical destruction tend to be more distressing and last longer than those caused by disconnection or congestion.

Even though they can be less common than outages caused by physical damage, outages caused by disruption in supporting infrastructure tend to be far more widespread and damaging to response and recovery efforts. To ensure their proper operation, telecommunications networks rely upon many other local and regional technical systems. Typically, these supporting infrastructures often date from an earlier period of time and lack resilience to physical damage (Moss & Townsend, 2005).

Another major cause of telecommunications failure during a disaster is network congestion or overload. Disasters generate the intense need for human communication, to coordinate response activities, to convey news and information, and as a panic reaction to a crisis. It is a known fact that major disasters are the most intense creators of telecommunications traffic, and the resulting surge of demand can bring down even the most well managed networks. With networks under this stress, calls are blocked and messages are lost (Moss & Townsend, 2005).

In a journal written by members of the technical staff of Bell Labs and Lucent Technologies, Houck (2004, p. 1) explains, “Critical national infrastructures for power, finance, transportation, and other basic resources rely on information and telecommunications networks (voice, data, Internet) to provide services and conduct business. While these networks tend to be highly reliable, disasters may lead to extended outages requiring days/weeks to repair. ” Having a Disaster Recovery Plan In order to address the needs to improve the communications facilities of oth the government and emergency response community, we must remember the main requirements of that community, such as the ability to communicate within the local, state, and federal government emergency response community and officials (police, fire, rescue, local government, hospitals), the ability to receive broadcasts (radio and television) in order to stay informed, the ability to communicate with the local population (via Internet, radio and television), and to be able to communicate with private companies that will be required to provide equipment and services during an emergency (Taylor, 2002).

Taylor (2002, p. 1) has pointed out that over the years these (communications) systems have become increasingly sophisticated and useful. However, no system is invulnerable to catastrophic failure or the stress of widespread response to disasters such as occurred on September 11, 2001. The tragic events of that day have led to a renewed interest in analyzing the existing emergency and local government response mechanisms and evaluating what measures can be taken to provide additional safeguards and backup communications in the event of future disasters.

In future situations, as on September 11, 2001, the communications networks can themselves suffer damage, resulting in reduced or unavailable service, and the networks can be overloaded as both government and disaster personnel and the average citizen seek to stay informed and communicate with family members. The loss of infrastructure that is the foundation for the transport of information (voice and data signals) from one location to another can suppress businesses. You should have a disaster recovery plan in place before such a catastrophe occurs.

Moreover, even though a business may assume their plan is sound, bringing back a crashed network will never be a simple endeavor (Knisley, 1995). The Disaster Recovery Plan A disaster recovery plan (DRP) is an outline created by the principals of a company, or those they choose to hire, to detail how a business will deal with any potential disaster that may occur. Because a true disaster is typically unforeseen, it is best for the company to have a disaster recovery plan in place prior to a disaster occurring within the company.

The disaster recovery plan will outline the steps to take to ensure that the customers will be taken care of in a timely manner and return the business to operation as quickly as possible. While creating a disaster recovery plan, companies can often find improvements of certain processes and IT systems to make them more versatile. Severe business interruption would be the result of a disaster, small or large, before you had the DR plan in place. However, in many cases, they turn out to be just a minor event after one enacted the plan (Gregory, 2008). According to Gregory (2008, p. 97), an established authority on IT technology and security, “The disaster recovery planning procedures are especially important because people who are not the foremost experts on the systems that support critical business processes may have to read and follow those procedures. Those people have to rebuild critical systems in a short period of time so those systems can support critical processes. In addition, the people performing those processes probably are not subject matter experts at the business process level. The business’s survival depends on the paperwork being right. You do not get any second chances. When writing and developing a disaster recovery plan, there are certain activities that must be addressed before actually assembling the plan. Some of the points to address are documenting vital applications and vital data sets, forming disaster recovery teams, developing administrative procedures, maintain hardware, software, telecommunications, and configuration documentation records, as well as creating a record of all vendor information and more (Hiatt, 2000). When addressing the infrastructure of a business, some questions to ask in the event of a disaster may include: What cables are still viable?

Will rerouting lines acquire connectivity? Can integral segments be remapped? There are several system design concepts involved in setting up a disaster plan for the IT infrastructure, such as creating a redundant network with satellite or wireless connectivity, alternate service facilities, and backup power. Also needed in a successful plan are accurate record keeping, network security, and network testing. A few example methods for infrastructure recovery and restoration of services are satellite and wireless networks. Satellite communications are widely used in many different ways that relate to disaster and emergency communications.

Satellite communications can play a significant role in the preparation of emergency communications, specifically, as backup to critical infrastructure that can be damaged or inundated in disaster situations. Implementing mobile or fixed satellite systems to complement other telecommunications infrastructure is necessary for local governments, police, fire, and emergency organizations (Taylor, 2002). Until recently, most organizations considered wireless technology to be an alternate work style, not a key player of their IT strategy.

Nevertheless, wireless technology has matured and there are a number of systems and technologies available that make wireless a reliable solution, for both day-to-day use and emergency backup. For many companies whose facilities not destroyed, but were inaccessible for days or even weeks, wireless access offered the only way to recover critical data from stranded servers and maintain basic business functions. The resilience of wireless networks, together with the dominance of mobile devices, positions wireless technology to play an integral role in the emergency response plan of most organizations.

For any plan to be viable, it must be properly tested. A company should determine whether a business could fully resume operations after a disaster by having a written and tested disaster recovery program. A solid DR program is actually a collection of specific action plans such as: a disaster avoidance plan to reduce or limit risks, a emergency response plan to ensure rapid response to small incidents, a recovery plan to direct the firm in resuming primary business functions, and a business continuity plan to fully restore all business activities to their normal operations (Hiatt, 2000).

Conclusion There are many types of businesses that could benefit from having a disaster recovery plan, but many business owners either believe that a disaster recovery plan is not necessary or they put off creating, implementing, and testing a plan for so long that a disaster strikes and disrupts their business before they have a plan put into place. Hiatt (2000, p. 55) notes that, “Even the best avoidance plan cannot prevent every disaster. When a serious incident occurs, a company must have an emergency response plan.

The focuses of this plan should be the personnel and tasks necessary to immediately mitigate damage to people and company assets. After ensuring the human safety for employees, visitors, and the public, the plan should also address public relations and advertising strategies to let your clients know that you are still in business, and where they can reach you. ” Business leaders are becoming more and more aware of the complexities and interdependencies surrounding today’s telecommunication networks, and that telecomm is one of the most critical infrastructure components of any corporation.

Four Basic Funtions of Management in Business Management english essay help online: english essay help online

Every organization, regardless of size, has developed and implemented its own management concepts in order for it to run smoothly and accomplish the vision, goal, and objective, the company has set forth. The basic functions of management can be broken down into four different areas, allowing the organization to handle the strategic, tactical, and operational decisions (Sanjau, 2007).

The four functions of management are essential to building strong teams and stronger organization. Common to all managers, the four functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Pakhare, 2007). A good manager is able to accomplish all four functions both effectively and efficiently (Bateman & Snell, 2009). At Triumph, planning is the foundation in which all management decisions regarding the company will be based upon. The management teams will utilize the planning function to assess the status of the company today, as well as in the upcoming future.

Once the management team has an agreed upon plan, and the company’s mission has been established, the team must determine how the desired results will be achieved. The next objective is to establish a goal and the strategies to achieve the goals set forth. After setting the goal the next step the management team will accomplish is to create a time line to complete the objective. The organizing function for the team at Triumph is to formulate the activities, which will include the accounting department, sales department and supply chain involved in helping reach the goal that has been set forth.

Once all the different departments are set, it is up to the management team to departmentalize the process and create smaller groups to achieve the goals and objectives. Once the departments create their own teams a clear organizational structure is drawn and all employees are made aware of whom they are accountable too to help reach the goal of the company. Once the departmental teams are in place, the management team can help direct, communicate, motivate and assist the staff in meeting the company’s goals and objectives.

At Triumph the management team will have open discussion with departmental teams to create and build positive working environment. In this process the employees feel as though they are part of the decision making and will ultimately help the company reach the desired goals and objectives. The final stage of the four functions of management is to control or establish the performance standard of the company’s objective (Bateman & Snell, 2009). In this stage management keeps a close watch to make sure that all teams are on track to complete the goals and objectives that have been set forth and within the timeline.

If at this point, it appears that one of the team’s seems to be off track then management will step in and help guide or make any necessary changes. The managers at Triumph know that ignoring any of the four functions can result in the failure of the company. Without using the planning stage first to make sure that all objectives are met and then organizing the plan and leading or motivating the team will result in not obtaining the objective or goal of the company.

Managers at Triumph know that the final stage of creating an effective and productive team, one must control the budget, departments and cost efficiency of the work implemented to achieve the objectives. According to Barnes (2008), “if one can master the four management functions of planning, organizing, leading, and coordinating of resources, their opportunities are endless”

Classical Societies ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

There is a tremendous amount of artwork from classical societies that still inspires artists and art enthusiasts today. Art can reveal an extensive amount of information regarding the culture of the society from which it was created. To analyze artwork in relation to the culture of the society, the artwork must be studied in a variety of ways.

The artwork that will be examined will be the Parthenon from the Classical Greece period, the Nike of Samothrace from the Hellenistic Greece period, the Capitoline She-Wolf from the Etruscan Civilization, a Roman Patrician with Busts of His Ancestors from the Roman Republic, and Pantheon from the Roman Empire civilization. The Parthenon is a perfect example of the Doric style of architecture from the Classical Greek period. The Parthenon was built 448-432 BCE and it was made of marble.

It is a temple dedicated to the Goddess Athena. The Greeks believed she helped them to conquer the Persian Empire during the Persian Wars. The Parthenon symbolized wealth and power to the Athenians. Tax money was used to pay for the building and it was also used as a state treasury that held tax money the Dalian League collected. This society was proud of its cultural and political achievements and they formed the first Democracy. They saw themselves as rising to the levels of their Gods.

Perfection was important to the culture and is depicted through the unprecedented precision, the imposing dimensions, mathematical skills, and the visual illusions created in the design of this temple. The citizens of the Classical Greek period were proud of their cultural identity and were conscious of the historic magnitude of their ideas and thought all their achievements would alter history of all civilized men. A magnificent sculpture from the Hellenistic Greece civilization is the Nike of Samothrace also known as the Winged Victory ca. 00-190 BCE. This sculpture portrays the Goddess Nike and is carved out of marble and stands eight-feet tall. The Goddess Nike represented the personification of victory to the Hellenistic culture, which reveals the importance of religion and the Gods to this society. This sculpture also indicates the people believed they were safe. This sculpture expresses an image of victory captured for eternity. This piece of Art shows how skilled the Hellenistic sculptors were. The sculptors of this time began to express the emotions of the ociety in their artwork, even when the emotion was negative. Because the sculpture is realistic and naturalistic, it shows how cultural views had changed from the previous period and how the freedom to express and show human feelings was incorporated into the art. The way the artist bends and contorts different parts of the body and different types of stances the models depicting shows the inner thoughts and attitudes of the people. This sculpture shows movement in the way the dress is blown against her body by her rapid movement.

The Etruscan civilization’s most prominent and well known piece of art is the bronze sculpture Capitoline She-Wolf, ca. 500 BCE. This artwork represents the myth of the baby twins (Romulus and Remus), who were the legendary founders of the city of Rome. The bronze sculpture became the symbol for Rome, and reveals the civilization had a strong belief in myths. The twins were added to the sculpture during the Renaissance. The wolf is from Etruscan time. There is not very much known about the Etruscan culture because so little of their art work had survived.

Most of the artwork that did survive was largely based on religion and funerary customs. The art themes of the Etruscan period seemed to be based on gestures instead of events from history. Greek ark seems to have influenced the Etruscan artists. Which, would lead to the assumption, Etruscan people may have adopted some of the customs and traditions from the societies of Greece. A Roman Patrician with Busts of His Ancestors is a remarkable example of sculpture from the Roman Republic period. The sculpture was made out of marble in the last century BCE.

This art reveals the magnitude of importance this society attached to family and lineage. The wealth and expansion of the Roman Republic led to the creation of new social classes. Their art was meant to show power and influence. They created realistic art, and typically focused on certain places, specific times, and political people used for propaganda and included ideological messages. They placed great importance on the realistic image of the body and especially the face. The Pantheon 118-125 BCE is an outstanding example of many advances in architecture produced from the Roman Empire.

The Pantheon is a circular temple dedicated to the 12 major Gods. The dome was made of concrete and had an opening at the top called an oculus. The oculus lets sunlight in, and it would hit all 12 Gods as the sun set form east to west. This design is still popular today. The craftsmanship of the architects and their attention to every detail shows the society placed great value on knowledge and improving on the skills they had already acquired. Art was used to proclaim an important person’s power.

The origin of Christianity began in the Roman Empire out of Judaism and influences from Greek philosophy. Classical societies, particularly Classical Greece, Hellenistic Greece, Etruscan civilization, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire produced outstanding artwork that continues to marvel civilizations today. Such works as the Parthenon, the Nike of Samothrace, the Capitoline She-Wolf, a Roman Patrician with Busts of His Ancestors, and the Pantheon, are prominent reflections of that time and act as visible marks of the grandeur of past classical civilization.

Artwork from past civilizations not only teaches the present society about the cultures and traditions from history, it may inspire artists today to improve on the skills from past artists and create masterpieces that reflect the cultures of today.

The L’Oreal Group computer science essay help: computer science essay help

The L’Oreal Group is the world’s largest cosmetics and beauty company. [3] With its registered office in Paris and head office in the Paris. L’Oreal’s famous advertising slogan is “Because I’m worth it”. In mid 2000s this was replaced by “Because you’re worth it”. In late 2009 the slogan was changed again to “Because we’re worth it” following motivation analysis and work into consumer psychology of Dr. Maxim Titorenko. The shift to “we” was made to create stronger consumer involvement in L’Oreal philosophy and lifestyle and provide more consumer satisfaction with L’Oreal products.

L’Oreal also owns a Hair and Body products line for kids called L’Oreal Kids, the slogan for which is “Because we’re worth it too”. L’Oreal purchased Synthelabo in 1973 to pursue its ambitions in the pharmaceutical field. Synthelabo merged with Sanofi in 1999 to become Sanofi-Synthelabo. Sanofi-Synthelabo merged with Aventis in 2004 to become Sanofi-Aventis. HISTORY In 1907, Eugene Schueller, a young French chemist, developed a hair dye formula called Aureole. Schueller formulated and manufactured his own products, which he then sold to Parisian hairdressers.

In 1909, Schueller registered his company, the Societe Francaise de Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux (“Safe Hair Dye Company of France” literally “French Society for Inoffensive Hair Dyes”), the original L’Oreal. Schueller demonstrates his capacity for new ideas by creating his first hair dye formulae under the name Oreal, using a blend of harmless chemical compounds. The dyes are an outstanding breakthrough at the time, providing a subtle range of colours in contrast to other methods on the market, which use henna or mineral salts but produce a bright, somewhat artificial look.

With the war finally over, a new age begins. Around the world, women are working, earning money, growing more concerned about their appearance and seeking ways to prevent grey hairs from revealing their age. Oreal hair dyes are a great success, even beyond the borders of France, breaking new ground in Italy in 1910, Austria in 1911 and the Netherlands in 1913, even reaching as far afield as the United States, Canada, the UK and Brazil. The guiding principles of the company, which eventually became L’Oreal, were research and innovation in the field of beauty. In 1920, the small company employed three chemists.

By 1950, the research teams were 100 strong; that number reached 1,000 by 1984 and is nearly 2,000 today. A talented Jack-of-all-trades, Eugene Schueller continues to turn his hand to a host of endeavours, making celluloid, varnish and plastics (even setting up a company in Russia! ). His successes in industry only serve to strengthen his belief that research and innovation form the cornerstone of growth and success. Schueller continues to innovate in the beauty industry, unveiling L’Oreal d’Or, a groundbreaking hair-lightening product creating golden tints and lending an even more natural look to blond hair.

L’Oreal has five worldwide research and development centers: two in France: Aulnay and Chevilly; one in the U. S. : Clark, New Jersey; one in Japan: Kawasaki, Kanagawa Prefecture; and in 2005, one was established in Shanghai , China . A future facility in the US will be in Berkeley Heights, New Jersey. Shampoo — taken from the Hindi word “champo”, meaning massage or to knead — has yet to become an everyday product. Not surprising given that shampoos made by hair stylists, using black soap boiled in water mixed with soda crystals, hold little appeal among consumers.

L’Oreal finally gives those in the industry a real shampoo without soap (fatty alcohol sulphates) that is considerably gentler on the hair and sold in 1L bottles. Known as “Dopal”, the product range is still sold today as “Dop”. On 4th April 1939, the Societe des Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux officially changes its name to L’Oreal, with premises at 14 Rue Royale in Paris, still the company’s head office today. After three years’ market research in the USA, the world’s largest cosmetics market, L’Oreal decides to cross the Atlantic. COSmetics for hAIR”, shortened to COSMAIR, becomes the exclusive representative for L’Oreal hair products in the United States, marking a major international milestone in company growth MILESTONE Laboratoires Garnier have been successfully marketing various hair products since the 1920s: Garnier plant-based lotion, Moelle Garnier energy-boost shampoos with natural extracts, Moelle Color hair colourant and so on. The purchase of Garnier in 1965 enables L’Oreal to acquire a portfolio of complementary haircare products with an organic positioning – a different approach to haircare.

On 17 March 2006 L’Oreal purchased cosmetics company The Body Shop for ? 652 million. Concentrating on hair colour, skin care, sun protection, make-up, perfumes and hair care, the company is active in the dermatological and pharmaceutical fields and is the top nanotechnology patent-holder in the United States. In 1961, L’Oreal buys Cadoricin and acquires a controlling stake in LaSCAD to gain a foothold in the huge market for “mass-market” cosmetics sold in department stores, variety stores, supermarkets and general stores, as well as through stalls and other outlets.

The move marks L’Oreal’s initial entry into mass-market retail. L’Oreal is a listed company, but the founder’s daughter Liliane Bettencourt and the Swiss food company Nestle each control over a quarter of the shares and voting rights. In recognition of its spectacular yet sound development, the L’Oreal Group is listed on the Paris Stock Exchange in 1963 which gives it access to new financial resources. The Group’s market capitalisation has increased more than 750 times since 1967.

L’Oreal obtains the Ralph Lauren licence, and continues the fabulous saga of Polo fragrances for men, created in 1978. The acquisition anchors L’Oreal’s position in the Luxury Products market in the United States and in luxury men’s fragrances. With an eye to expanding its fragrance business, L’Oreal collaborated with cutting-edge designers. It teams up with Paloma Picasso, fashion and jewellery designer, daughter of a symbolic figure and a charismatic spokeswoman of the 80s. L’Oreal puts its energy behind a brand new distribution network: mail-order catalogues.

Teaming up with Les 3 Suisses, one of Europe’s leading mail-order companies, the Group launches a catalogue of beauty products, known as Club des Createurs de Beaute (Club of Beauty Creators). In 2008, L’Oreal becomes the sole owner of CCB. PARIS and NORTH BRUNSWICK, N. J. , Jan. 14 /PRNewswire/ — L’OREAL and Hurel Corporation (“Hurel”) today jointly announced that they have achieved the initial milestone of a research and development collaboration to create a new and transformational in vitro test for potential allergic reactions to substances that could come into contact with the skin.

The new device, named “Allergy Test on a Chip™,” is intended to comprise a technological substitute for the animal test known as the local lymph node assay (“LLNA”). L’Oreal got its start in the hair-color business, but the company soon branched out into other cleansing and beauty products. L’Oreal currently markets over 500 brands and many thousands of individual products in all sectors of the beauty business: hair color, permanents, hair styling, body and skin care, cleansers, makeup and fragrances. L’Oreal is a French based cosmetics company.

It is principally engaged in the production and marketing of make-up, perfume and fragrances, haircare, styling and skin care products. It offers cosmetic products to individual and professional customers. Through Galderma, the company is also engaged into dermatology. The company operates in over 130 countries through 25 international brands. It operates in East and Western Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia and Africa and Orient Pacific. The Group’s principal activities are the development, manufacture and marketing of cosmetics and dermatological products.

The Group operates in Cosmetics, The Body Shop and Dermatology segment. Cosmetic segment includes consumer products, professional products, luxury products and active cosmetics. The Body Shop segment offers a broad range cosmetic products and toilet of natural inspiration. Dermatology products are manufactured via Galderma, a joint venture with Nestle SA. Some of their brands include Garnier, Redken, Maybelline, Kerastase, Matrix, PuroOlogy and Softsheen Carson, Lancome and YSL Beaute. The Group mainly operates in Western Europe and North America.

In 2008, the Group acquired Canan, Columbia Beauty Supply and Yves Saint Laurent Beaute. In 1973 Gemey, a make-up brand specialising in foundations and face powders, has been present in France since 1923. Cult products include Fluid Make-up, the first fluid foundation in a tube, and Derniere Touche, the first compact powder. With the acquisition of Gemey, L’Oreal gains a significant position in the volume retailing make-up market in its country of origin. In 1976, L’Oreal buys out the mascara brand Ricils and attaches it to Gemey to expand its offer in all make-up segments.

In 1974 The agreement, which adds to the stability of the Group’s shareholders, is also conducive to L’Oreal’s international development in certain markets, particularly Japan, the future bridgehead of L’Oreal’s expansion in Asia. Artcurial, a contemporary art centre established by L’Oreal in 1975, launches a new concept: issuing so-called “multiples” in collaboration with the artists. The centre approaches some big names in the art world, including Sonia Delaunay, Man Ray, Armand, Berrocal and the Lalannes. They all design sculptures, ceramics and jewellery produced as limited editions.

All want their designs to have everyday relevance and be affordable to a large public. In 1997 L’Oreal sells Artcurial to focus once more on the beauty sector. In 1981 establioshment of laboratories GALDERMA. The result of a 50/50 association between Nestle and L’Oreal, Galderma (whose slogan is “Committed to the future of dermatology”) is devoted to the worldwide development and marketing of world-renowned dermatological remedies effective against skin, hair and nail complaints (acne, psoriasis, onychomycosis, rosacea,etc. ).

Incompetence of Existing Government Contributed Greatly t college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

The incompetence of the Provisional Government (PG) and the Guomindang (GMD) made a considerable contribution to the outbreak of revolution in Russia (Oct 1917) and China (1949). Both the PG and GMD were relatively new forms of government placed in power to resolve longstanding issues such as low standards of living and significant needs for reform. As a result, Russia had removed its Tsarist system in February earlier that year and China also expelled its dynastic system to become a Republic in 1911.

However, Economic mismanagement and a nonexistent progression in reform made control by these governments questionable as their lack of action resurrected a desire for revolution for a second time. The shortcomings of the PG and GMD were intensified as working and living conditions continued to deteriorate and unpopular decisions were made regarding the government’s actions in WWI (Russia) and WWII (China).

Mounting discontent made way for revolutionary groups such as the Bolsheviks and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) as they were able to take advantage of government incompetence, fuelling support for their respective party. Economic mismanagement resulting from the PG and GMD’s incompetence contributed to the outbreak of revolution as its negative effects became more evident to the masses. In Russia, the PG faced issues such as hyperinflation, as it chose to continue its involvement in WWI after taking power.

By 1917 national debt was at $50 million roubles and price levels had risen between 100 and 200 percent. (Handout 1 – Key Reforms in Russia) Compounding this issue, wages generally decreased by 50 percent, resulting in workers having no choice but to work 18-hour days in order to live, but even then they could, “barely [buy] a week’s bed and bread. ” Consequently, discontent for the government was seen through strikes such as the July Days strike and the Baku Oil workers strike in September 1917.

Similarly, in the lead up to revolution in 1949, China’s economy was being mismanaged as it faced similar issues such as supporting the finances required for its war effort against Japan. The Chinese government reprinted money in order to cover debt and salary expenses. Over 80 percent of the GMD’s budget went to the war effort, resulting in the issuing of new notes totalling 374,762,200 Chinese dollars in 1948 alone. (Lynch) As a result, between 1938 and 1948 the price index in China had increased from 176 to 287,700,000. Lynch) Much like in Russia, inflation led to increased poverty amongst the masses as the cost of living increased while wages decreased. These conditions disillusioned the governments middle class support base as many turned to the CCP, “not out of love for the Communists, but because they were indifferent to the GMD. ” The economic mismanagement of both governments’ due to their incompetence resulted in a significant loss in support by the social classes that were most supportive of their regime, in turn this increased overall discontent towards the PG and GMD dramatically, as many began to seek change.

The inability for both the PG and GMD to introduce effective reforms due to their incompetence resulted in an increased level of discontent, thus contributing to the outbreak of revolution. During the PG’s control people saw little change from the ousted Tsarist regime as many of the members of the PG focused on keeping power. Landlords were continuing to charge excessively high rents and excessive taxing schemes were introduced to increase government revenue. In Russia, peasants made up 80-85% (Lynch) of the population so their support was vital in maintaining a well established system of government.

Despite this, the peasant classes were abused rather than harnessed as living and working conditions for peasants were unbearable with peasants facing mass whippings by authorities to “squeeze further [redemption] payments. ” (Handout 2 – Problems and issues in Modern History – Russian Revolution) The resulting discontent for the PG was seen when during June and July 1917 three-fifths of rural pastures were seized by peasants whom were fed up from no action being taken on land reform.

Furthermore, other changes sought by Russians promised under the PG were not met such as food and supply shortages. In China, the situation was quite similar, after gaining power the primary goal of the government changed to maintaining it and “the comfortable and profitable positions that came with it. ” (Grasso & Corrin) Land reform was also disregarded by the government in China, many new taxes were introduced such as kettle tax, grain transport tax, roof tax and road maintenance tax (Lynch).

Furthermore, the same struggles for food were seen in China as some resorted to “eating the bark from trees. ” Chinese peasants were also terrorised under ruthless warlords such as Zhang Zongzhang, whom “took a pathological delight in terrorising the population. ” (Lynch) This was compounded in China by the fact that the GMD dissolved workers unions such as the Chinese League for the protection of Civil Rights and disallowed the formation of workers unions unless they were heavily controlled by the government, having the effect of creating mounting discontent towards the GMD.

Despite these similarities the GMD went further than the PG by resorting to taking out loans in order to finance their party rather than industrial and economic growth. For that reason, “China remained [even more] hopelessly backward compared with modern industrial powers. ” (Grasso & Corrin) Together discontent with government generated among the peasants, workers and eventually, the merchants and landlords in both Russia and China. Essentially, lacking reform in land and to improve conditions due to incompetence allowed discontent to mount to levels required for an outbreak of revolution.

It’s evident the PG and GMD’s incompetence in approaching WWI and WWII was a significant feature in causing the outbreak of revolution as it had the effect of making their position of power questionable by creating discontent. At first Kerensky in Russia benefited from the patriotism of the people at the beginning of February as most were in high spirits to continue the war, even the returned Bolshevik Joseph Stalin, wrote in the Bolshevik newspaper ‘Pravda’ “the war will continue… the free people will stand firmly at their posts, will reply bullet for bullet and shell for shell. Despite this the Bolsheviks soon “withdrew their support for the war [while] the Provisional Government never did. ” (Handout 1 – Key Reforms in Russia) Similarly, Chiang Kai-shek also saw the benefits of patriotism that resulted as a reaction to the Japanese invasion but later this was not the case as his inaction resulted in discontent from the masses. Both countries situations differed as in Russia as the primary effects of the war were not evident as it was far out on its western boarders and people were only seeing a lack of food and supplies.

While, in China the Japanese invasion was spreading and main cities and Nanjing (China’s capital) and Shanghai (China’s financial and industrial centre) were being taken, making the issue of war far more real in China than it was in Russia. For that reason the inaction of the GMD and Chiang’s plan to “sell space to buy time,” (Lynch) combined with the communists contrasting views to retaliate triggered a turn in the peoples support from residing in the government to an external revolutionary group.

In both Russia and China two revolutionary groups, the Bolsheviks and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) were able to harness the discontent generated by the affects of their government’s incompetence and therefore show its contribution to the outbreak of revolution. Both these groups were able to harness discontent which built and evolved from poor living conditions created by the incompetence of the PG and GMD.

As discontent built through the government’s inability to address issues both groups were able to broaden their support and army base as from 1937 to 1945 the CCP was able to increase its influence and control in China from 1. 5 million to 90 million and increase its ‘Red Army’ from 80,000 to 900,000. (Lynch) These two communist groups however had a few fundamental differences which separate themselves from the other.

Vladimir Lenin, the leader of the Bolshevik party focused on a union based revolution in cities by gaining the support of discontent workers, while Mao Zedong thought to gain the support of those whom made up the majority (over 80%) of the population, the discontented and abused peasants in rural China. These fundamental differences set both parties apart as their support base was aimed at different classes of society, but despite this both were similar in the sense they were believed to be the real protectors of their country.

This is seen in Russia’s strange incident, the Kornilov Revolt where ultimately the Provisional government was discredited and a rightwing coup by Kornilov was averted due to “the credit [of]… the Bolsheviks. ” (Handout 2 – Problems and issues in Modern History – Russian Revolution) Similarly in China, patriotism was seen in the kidnapping of Chiang by the CCP in order to create a second United Front for the benefit of the people in order to have a greater defence towards the Japanese, resulting in the CCP being revealed as the “true combatants against the Japanese. (Lynch) The incompetence of existing governments alone does not cause the outbreak of revolutions, but it does allow pre-existing issues to deteriorate and result in a loss of support from the classes. There were the pre-existing issues within Russian and Chinese society prior to revolution such as poor economic health and standards of living. The incompetence of these governments to address specific issues such as inflation and land reform, cause an increased sense of disillusionment and discontent among the people.

Furthermore, by both countries making unpopular decisions on their war effort and the presence of revolutionary groups such as the Bolsheviks and the Chinese Communist Party, this discontent could be harnessed, as these revolutionary groups offered revolution by their party as the only true solution. Despite the Bolsheviks and the Chinese Communist Party having contrasting views in some areas, they both stood for what the people began to demand, ‘change. This desire generated from successions of failures and problems due to the incompetence of the PG and GMD. The revolution by the Bolsheviks was quick and only 7 months in the making, contrasting the CCP’s slow and ‘sweeping’ ideology rich revolution over a period of 20 years. The common feature was desire for change allowed both these revolutions to take place, regardless of support for the revolutionary party’s ideology, the desire for change fuelled by the discontent generated from the inaction and incompetence of government.

In both cases, incompetence prevented these governments from resolving the issues they were put in place to attend and for that reason disillusioned those that supported it, causing the people to believe the only resolution was the utbreak of revolution.

Patient Safety cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Patient safety is such an essential part of our health care system and it helps describe quality health care. Keeping the patients safe is a challenging issue because errors and mistakes can and do happen every day. Error occurs “when a process does not proceed the way that it was intended by its designers and managers” (McLaughlin & Kaluzny 2006). According to the Institute of Medicine, medical error resulted in as many as 98,000 preventable deaths per year.

Someone has to ensure methods are taken to help reduce the possibility that errors occur, but who is responsible for taking these proper measurers? Is it society, patients themselves, physicians, nurses, nursing professors, administrators, researchers, physicians, or professional associations? Consequence, all of these entities are responsible for making sure the patient has the safest environment possible. This is a nationwide and worldwide problem that will never be completely resolved because there is always a chance that medical errors happen. Patient safety is a sensitive concept to both understand and measure.

What does it mean to be safe? a system where no errors occur, or a system in which patient harm as a consequence of error is minimized? Measurement of patient safety is difficult, due to our inability to define patient harm, and an inappropriate focus on individual error. Particular issues involves distinguishing safety from quality, the negative connotations of error, the poor relation of error with patient harm, and the emotion that surrounds preventable patient harm. Patient safety measurement has been the misuse of reported clinical incident data as a measure of patient safety performance.

According to France, Greevy, Liu,  Burgess, Dittus,  Weinger, & Speroff in their article Measuring and Comparing Safety Climate in Intensive Care Units, “To measure safety climate in intensive care units (ICU) owned by a large for-profit integrated health delivery systems; identify specific provider, ICU, and hospital factors that influence safety climate; and improve the reporting of safety climate data for comparison and benchmarking. We administered the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to clinicians, staff, and administrators in 110 ICUs from 61 hospitals.

A total of 1502 surveys (43% response) from physicians, nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, mangers, and other ancillary providers” The responses of this questionnaire help the hospital decision making to improve patient safety. Clinicians, researches and administrators implementing quality improvement programs are encouraged to take more comprehensive view of the environment, procedures and processes, practitioners associate with care delivery, and the interactions of those factors with the patient population served. (McLaughlin & Kaluzny 2006) describe that “challenges in implementing and reporting patient safety practices reflect issues around the decision to adopt, prioritization of select practices, and methodological difficulties encountered in the identification process. ” Event monitoring systems have the purpose to recognize important events based on clinical rules. Clinical triggers are flags to clinicians to point out the possibility for error.

An adverse event is a unfavorable medical change that happens after beginning the study that may or may not be in relationship to or caused by study drug treatments. A medical event is a clinically important change in physical and mental health status. Any medical event that causes clinically relevant interference with functioning, for example, headache that causes school absence or causes clinically important activity restriction. Is also any event that requires medical attention, for example a URI with visit to a doctor.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is one of the tools use to understand system failures and recognize opportunities to improve patient safety. Recently, quality improvement analysts in health care have used this tool to understand system failures and to point out opportunities to enhance patient safety. FMEA is one of the methods recommended by Food and Drug Administration, explain McLaughlin & Kaluzny (2006). It can also be consistently applied for continues quality improvement in care process from planning through performance monitoring.

FMEA structured objectives includes, a team of clinical experts involved in a high-risk process, identify a trained facilitator, meeting to discuss a care process in detail, scoring risk items on the care process and applying the indicated results. This systems permit user to organize causes in order to offer the best priority to the intervention and the highest chance of risk reduction. According to McLaughlin & Kaluzny (2006) “FEMA clearly describe and prioritize failures in such a care process and identify root causes. FEMA tools permits to organize root causes in order to give the best priority to the intervention opportunities with the highest chance of risk reduction. The Agency for Health Care and Quality (AHCQ) formed a tool to use in quality monitoring and surveillance activities by health care decision makers. McLaughlin & Kaluzny (2006) affirm that the QI are organized in the following three groups: * Prevention Quality Indicators (PQIs), ambulatory care sensitive conditions that evidence suggest may have been avoided through high quality outpatient care. Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQI), reflect quality of care inside hospitals and include mortality for medical condition and surgical procedures and volume of procedures for which there is evidence that a higher volume is associated with lower mortality. * Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), focus on surgical complications and other events reflective of hospital quality of care. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s (AHRQ) Quality Indicators (QIs) represent quality measures that make use of a hospital’s available administrative data.

The Patient Safety Indicators show the quality of inpatient care and also focus on preventable complications events. The Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs) are a set of measures that screen for adverse events that patients experience as a result of exposure to the health care system. These events are usually amenable to prevention by changes at the system or provider level. PSIs are defined on two levels: the provider level and the area level. Provider level indicators provide a measure of the potentially preventable complication for patients who received their initial care and the complication of care within the same hospitalization.

Provider level indicators include only those cases where a secondary diagnosis code flags a potentially preventable. Health care organizations can reduce patient injuries by improving the environment for safety? from implementing technical changes, such as electronic medical record systems, to improving staff awareness of patient safety risks. Clinical process interventions also have strong evidence for reducing the risk of adverse events related to a patient’s exposure to hospital care. PSIs can be used to better prioritize and evaluate local and national initiatives.

Some potential actions include the following: * Review and synthesize the evidence base and best practices from scientific literature. * Work with the multiple disciplines and departments involved in care of surgical patients to redesign care based on best practices with an emphasis on coordination and collaboration. * Evaluate information technology solutions. * Implement performance measurements for improvement and accountability. * Incorporate monitoring of performance measurements in the departmental and senior leadership meetings and include in the Board quality improvement reports.

A hospital association recognizes its member hospitals’ need for information that can help them evaluate the quality of care they provide. There is significant interest in assessing, monitoring, and improving the safety of inpatient care. After learning about the AHRQ PSIs, the association decides to apply the indicators to the discharge abstract data submitted by individual hospitals. For each hospital, the association develops a report with graphic presentation of the risk adjusted data to show how the hospital performs on each indicator compared to its peer group, the State as a whole, and other comparable States.

National and regional averages from the AHRQ Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) database are also provided as additional external benchmarks. Three years of trend data are included to allow the hospital to examine any changing patterns in its performance. One member hospital, upon receiving the report, convenes an internal work group comprised of clinicians and quality improvement professionals to review the information and identify potential areas for improvement.

The hospital leadership is committed to performance excellence and providing a culture supportive of systems evaluation and redesign. To begin their evaluation, they apply the AHRQ software to their internal administrative data to distinguish those patients who experienced the complication or adverse event from those who did not. The PSIs provide a perspective on patient safety events using hospital administrative data, which are available and relatively inexpensive to use, and include the following 27 measures.

Mental Process Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

The mental process is the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents; “the process of thinking”, the cognitive operation of remembering (Farlex, 2008). The mental mindset includes four styles of creative intelligence: Intuitive, Innovative, Imaginative and Inspirational. This paper will compare and contrast the four styles of creative intelligence and their influences on organizational decision making, include examples of how mental models/mind sets might limit the decision making process and explain how these models influence my decision making in the workplace.

Intuitive Everyone is born with intuitive intelligence which is those moments of insight when we see a situation clearly and know exactly what to do; doing something without knowing or those gut feelings. Clear and immediate access to intuition is like having a personal satellite navigation system to help through the numerous choices and demands that persons face day to day. Today, intuition is being touted by management consultants as essential. In a study of 13,000 business executives by Harvard researcher Jagdish Parikh, the executives credited 80 percent of their business success to relying on their intuition (Ammon-Wexler, 2007).

Also, research conducted by Ashley Fields, a senior advisor to Shell Oil, concluded that among Fortune 500 companies, “intuitive information processing strategies are most often found at the highest levels of an organization. ” (Ammon-Wexler, 2007). Intuition can often lead to powerful creative, personal and relationship insights and breakthroughs. Compared to being innovative, having intuition can enhance the ability to rearrange the old into new when working for an organization. In contrast seeing the situation clearly and knowing exactly what to do can go against the process of rearranging the old into the new.

For example being an elementary school teacher. A teacher knows what to do as a type of daily routine; however, the workload would have to shift should the teacher have to rearrange the old into something new. It would require a new concept of doing things when it comes to the children and their assignments. Intuitive compared to being imaginative can work hand in hand. Knowing what to do naturally and being imaginative at the same time and also benefit for the better. In contrast, just as being innovative, the workload could shift just a little because of having to rearrange due to the imaginative process.

Intuition can be a teacher’s inspiration to come to work every day. The teacher is inspired to do what comes naturally as a career. In contrast; however, a teacher could be inspired to move on to other opportunities according to how involved the teacher is his or her career. Innovative Innovation is the making of the new or the rearranging of the old in a new (Maynard, 2008). The key words are making new or rearranging. The product or process has already been created from scratch and has worked reasonably well.

When the product or process is changed to work better or fulfill a different need, the process is innovating on what already exists. In a declining market, an inventive mindset is the key to recharging mature markets and introducing new products. Unless a company pursues product innovation, the company will decline. I University of Illinois study shows that leaders in an industry garner 50 percent of sales from products introduced within the past five years, versus just 11 percent for companies in the bottom third (Matises, 2001). An innovative mindset is a valuable asset for the future growth of any company.

It is the solution for satisfaction regarding new product development, product revitalization and business planning. Managers will either embrace the idea that virtually all consumer product categories possess areas of opportunity for growth, or they will allow the market mindset to accelerate business decline (Matises, 2001). Being innovative compared to being imaginative can go hand in hand. A person can be imaginative and inspirational while rearranging the old into something new; however in contrast again, it could cause for a new concept, which would be a change in lesson planning for an elementary school teacher.

Imaginative Imaginative can be defined as artistic, dreamy, and poetic (WikiHow, 2008). Anyone being imaginative can enjoy life at all events. Innovation involves developing the imaginative mindset. It involves clearing the mind of preconceptions, value judgments and expectations (Halls, 2006). In order for an employee to be imaginative, he or she must be inquisitive, ask questions and learn something new ever minute. It is good to be a good listener as well putting themselves in different situations narrated by different people.

Being imaginative can increase the ability to fulfill any goal or desires by using affirmation techniques. There are no boundaries to imagination, only a limit to the amount of experiences that feed it. In order to be imaginative, people have to position themselves to be imaginative. Be daring, be different, be impractical, be anything that will assert integrity of purpose and imaginative vision against the play-it-safers, the creatures of the commonplace, the slaves of the ordinary (Beaton, 2008). Inspirational Inspirational is being inspired to do something.

In the workplace, management problems disappear when employees are truly inspired and motivated to do their best, when they remember why they came in to work in the first place. When it comes to building and sustaining passion in the workplace, it is helpful to have a recipe that includes vision, inspiration, momentum, excellence, camaraderie, control and pride (Favre, 2003). 1. Vision – what are employees work for or toward. What are employees trying to achieve? Nothing is more stupefying than simply showing up for work every day and going through the motions. . Inspiration – Is it worth the employee’s effort and time. Employees seek to know that they are contributing something of value and importance, that coworkers need him or her and that he or she help others to improve their lives. 3. Momentum – employees want there to be a goal out there, but also want to see that the goal is getting closer and that they are not simply running on an endless treadmill. Employees want to feel as though their careers are moving forward. 4. Excellence – employees like to measure themselves both as individuals and as an organization.

Employees want to belong to something that is generally recognized and rewarded. 5. Camaraderie – fun, excitement, friendship, hardships and rewards shared with others. Teamwork. 6. Control – employees desire a level of control over their lives and environment and want to see that their input and advice is wanted and sometimes used. 7. Pride – employees want to be associated with something seen as good and virtuous. It is good for friends and family to know that each employee does is important and that the company is held in high esteem (Favre, 2003).

I work for the State of Florida Department of Revenue Child Support Enforcement where I am an administrative secretary. I process DNA appointments whether the custodial parent or non-custodial parent showed for testing or did not show for testing. I also process birth certificates whether they need to be amended or modified according to each particular case, which is normally requested by the caseworker. I also pull court orders as needed and keep spreadsheets of different stats on a monthly base. The most commonly used mental model/mind set that guides my decision-making would be intuitive.

Everything comes naturally for me when handed certain types of documents. For example, if a caseworker hands me a signed DH432 form, this means that the non-custodial parent (usually the father or the gentleman that will take full responsibility of the child) has signed a form agreeing to take full responsibility as the father of the child without taking a paternity test. My office is divided up into different processes and each employee’s position is a process. There is no room for being imaginative or innovative as these decisions are made by higher commands out of Tallahassee.

However, for caseworkers, it would be beneficial to be inspirational as they see custodial parents who are coming into our office seeking support for themselves and their children.

Pdf of Unison Pest Analysis essay help app: essay help app

Voluntary sector: the part of the economy which is made up of for example charities and non-profit making organisations. Private sector: the part of the economy owned and run by individuals not by the government. Public sector: the part of the economy owned by government or its agents. Representation: to speak, act or present officially for another person. The voluntary sector UNISON members are employed in Schools, colleges and universities Gas, electricity and water companies Transport

Job roles they represent in the public sector include, for example: • librarians • Human Resources, IT and finance workers • teaching assistants and early years nursery staff • secretaries • cleaners, caretakers and school meals supervisors • care workers, social workers and nurses. UNISON campaigns on a variety of issues relevant to its members. Currently, it is running the Migrant Workers Participation Project. This campaign focuses on the issues faced by migrant workers in the UK. Migrant workers are employees who have moved from overseas to the UK to find work.

They form an important and growing part of the workforce in both the private sector and public sector. These workers are at particular risk of being exploited in the workplace. This may be due to lack of knowledge of their rights, their limited command of the English language and the fact that they are often reluctant to complain about their treatment by employers. They may also be exploited because of racist attitudes. UNISON believes that the best way of preventing exploitation is through trade union representation in the workplace.

One of the objectives of the current UNISON campaign is to increase the number of migrant workers who are part of the union. When making decisions, a business needs to take account of internal and external factors: • Internal factors are ones that are within its control. Examples include how many staff the business employs, the number of machines it uses and how much money owners choose to invest in the business. • External factors are those that are outside of its control. These may be direct or indirect influences. Direct influences include suppliers, customers and competitors.

Indirect influences include legislation, the economy or technology. These external influences are summarised by the mnemonic PEST. This stands for Political, Economic, Social and Technological influences. 157 UNISON looks at a range of issues to assess the external factors it needs to take account of when considering the needs of its members. UNISON considered these factors when setting its aims and objectives for protecting the rights of migrant workers. An understanding of many external factors helped it to decide which strategies and tactics were best for achieving these objectives. www. thetimes100. o. uk Political Factors GLOSSARY Aims: the general end purposes towards which an organisation focuses its activities. Objectives: the end purposes that an organisation or individual seeks to achieve. Strategies: long term plans used to achieve an organisation’s aims and objectives. Tactics: the short-term actions taken to achieve specific goals. Political factors: changes arising from government initiatives or public opinion. Employment legislation: the set of laws which cover the relationship between firms and their employees; for example, laws on discrimination, recruitment and dismissal.

Lobbying: attempting to win over the support of politicians and the government in favour of a change in the law/policy. Minimum wage: lowest permitted wage set by Parliament and designed to provide employees with an acceptable standard of living. Working time directive: a European Union law that defines the maximum number of hours a person should work without regular genuine breaks. Legal aid: Subsidised support covering all or part of legal and advice fees, available to those on limited incomes. Economic Factors Social Factors Technological Factors Political factors

Political factors include government policies, legislation and foreign influences, particularly from the European Union (EU). Several political factors surround the issue of immigration. Legislation on immigration comes both from the UK government and from the EU. For example, workers from all EU countries, except Romania and Bulgaria, have the right to live and work in the UK. Since the expansion of the EU in 2004, around 700,000 Polish workers have registered to work in the UK, boosting the UK workforce, enabling the economy to expand. Immigration is an emotive issue, which often generates sensational headlines in tabloid newspapers.

These include allegations that migrant workers ‘take’ British jobs or that they ‘undercut’ pay levels, working for less than British workers. The data available does not support these allegations. UNISON believes that if migrant workers are part of a trade union membership and can benefit from properly negotiated pay rates, this type of misinformation will not arise. As part of its campaign, UNISON aims to dispel the negative views on migration. Migrant workers play an extremely important role in providing many needed services. This provision would not be possible without migrant workers.

Government statistics prove that the overall effects of net migration into the UK have been positive for UK businesses and the economy. ‘Migrants make a net contribution to the exchequer when tax receipts are compared with expenditure. This net contribution is higher for migrants than for other groups. The gap between the net contribution of migrants and that of the wider population has in fact grown over recent years. (Learning & Skills Council report, 2007) In areas of high migrant populations, there are greater pressures due to, for example, insufficient housing and health provision.

The migrant workers population is not evenly spread across the UK – the majority of migrants are in London and the South East, according to government statistics. In addition, because of the short-term nature of much of the work, the pattern of migrant workers is not easy to track. Government and local authorities need to be able to invest in services sufficiently quickly to meet the demand. It is important to understand that the same pressures on services would occur if large numbers of UK workers suddenly moved to an area. One of the most important political factors in UNISON’s external environment is employment legislation.

UNISON aims to ensure that these laws meet the needs of workers by lobbying the government when it feels the law needs changing. In a recent report, the Trade Union Congress (TUC) found that many employers were ignoring employment law. Some companies were not paying their workers the minimum wage, while others forced workers to work longer than legally permitted under the working time directive. It can be very difficult for migrant workers to get legal advice when they have problems at work. This is partly due to language barriers. Many also fear losing their jobs if they complain.

Like other low-paid workers, they rely on legal advice, paid for by the government through legal aid. Reduced funding for legal aid and for immigration advice in particular has resulted in fewer solicitors taking on legal aid cases. Many migrant workers seeking help have been turned away. As a result, UNISON has put in place legal advice and information services to help migrant workers understand their rights. 158 Economic factors Most migrants come to the UK from countries that are less economically developed. They can earn a better wage in the UK than in their home country.

For example, the average monthly salary in the UK in 2007 was almost ? 2,500 whereas in Poland it was ? 500. This difference in wages allows the migrants to enjoy an improved standard of living. The migrant workers are also able to send money back to their families who remain in their home countries. However, as well as the economic benefits migrant workers receive themselves, they are also an important part of the UK economy, both in public and private sectors. According to government figures, the working output of new migration adds 0. 5% to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 2006, this was equivalent to adding an extra ? billion to the economy. One of the reasons why migration improves the economy is that it increases the size of the total labour market. Migrant workers to the UK replenish a decreasing workforce. In 2006, 400,000 people left the UK and 590,000 people arrived, 157,000 of these came to study. Migrant workers fill several areas of the labour market where there are skills shortages or they do jobs that people in the UK do not want to do because the working conditions may be poor or wages low. Often migrant workers are ‘deskilled’ because they take work in different industries at a lower skill level than the one for which they are qualified.

These industries include agriculture, hospitality and food packing. Many business leaders express the view that migrant workers often have a more positive work ethic than domestic workers. Employing workers who not only have the necessary skills but who are also keen to work allows many businesses to achieve a competitive advantage. UNISON recognises the benefits to the economy that migrants bring. It has worked hard to ensure that workers receive fair pay and valid career opportunities to keep attracting migrant workers to the UK. www. thetimes100. co. uk

GLOSSARY Gross Domestic Product: the total of the value of a country’s output over the course of a year. Different from gross national product which includes net income from abroad. Labour market: the available pool of workers within a country or region. Work ethic: an employee’s attitude towards the work they do. Competitive advantage: a strategic element that enables an organisation to compete more effectively than its rivals. Social factors: trends in society including demographic and cultural changes. Skills: specific abilities, attributes and techniques.

Welfare: the range of benefits and support available from the government, such as housing, unemployment and child support benefits. Social factors A number of social factors have increased the flow of workers into the UK. Many migrants moved to the UK to improve their standard of living. Social factors in the UK also contribute to the demand for migrant workers in the UK. The UK has an ageing population. Without immigration, the labour force would be shrinking. As a result, there is a smaller labour force supporting the growing population of retired workers.

This is forecast to get worse over the next 20 years. There are also specific vocational areas where the UK has a skills shortage. For example, 16% of all care workers are migrant workers. These workers are skilled workers who have trained in their home nations. Without them, the range of care provision would be less. Many social issues may affect migrant workers whilst they are in the UK. For example, UNISON is aware that many migrant workers have difficulty communicating in English. This creates problems with understanding important documents such as contracts of employment, company rules and notices.

Migrant workers are often unaware of their rights in the workplace. The language barrier also affects migrants outside the workplace. It causes difficulties in shops, accessing housing and education and understanding the welfare system. Not being able to understand cultural issues such as behaviour and customs is another big factor. Together these problems make many migrant workers feel socially excluded from English-speaking co-workers. UNISON has helped many migrant workers overcome these issues in different ways: • It produces workers’ rights leaflets in 11 different languages. It also works with community groups like the ONNS (Overseas Network of Nurses in Scotland). These groups provide advice and social communities for overseas workers. • UNISON has provided information on welfare and tax so workers can understand what they need to pay and any benefits they can receive. • Recently it has developed a dedicated migrant workers’ section on its website where key information is available in a range of languages. • It is also running ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) courses to help migrant members learn English. 159 www. thetimes100. co. uk

GLOSSARY Bargaining agenda: series of issues that are itemised when trade union representatives talk with employers. Automation: the use of robots, computers and machines to complete jobs instead of workers. International aid: the financial assistance developed countries give to developing countries. As part of UNISON’s bargaining agenda, it is seeking to make employers aware of the issues that are important to migrant workers. For example, it wants employers to print health and safety rules in other languages and to provide migrant workers with a welcome pack that gives information about local services and sources of information.

It also aims to persuade employers to provide paid time off and pay course costs for workers attending language courses. Because migrant workers are better able to identify the bargaining issues that are important to them, UNISON believes it is important for them to be members and actively involved in the union. Technological factors Changes in technology, including a rise in automation in the workplace and the development of the internet, have transformed the way in which many businesses work: • Automation of production processes in factories means less-skilled workers are needed. The internet has opened up a need for information processing in purchasing and data management areas, for example, in online shopping. Many migrant graduates have come to fill these more specialised vacancies. • The biggest technological factor affecting migration has been the increased availability and reduced cost of transport. Over 75% of migrants fly into the UK, most using budget airlines. • Advances in online money transfers enable migrant workers to send money home easily and securely. This makes them more willing to migrate.

A United Nations statistic shows that migrant workers send home over twice the amount given in international aid to developing countries. • Improvements in telecommunications have made it easier for potential migrants to discover what job opportunities are available. Through online chat rooms, they gain information and advice from other migrants from their own country and can keep in contact with friends and family in their home countries. UNISON’s website is an important means of communicating with members. For example, it has welfare pages providing migrants with information about the benefits they can receive.

The site provides access to leaflets in a range of different languages. These give advice on their rights at work and information about health and safety. This greatly improves the livelihood and work experience of UNISON members. Conclusion The Times Newspaper Limited and ©MBA Publishing Ltd 2009. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure accuracy of information, neither the publisher nor the client can be held responsible for errors of omission or commission. UNISON aims to improve the working lives of migrant workers by increasing their level of trade union representation.

PEST analysis is a useful tool for analysing the external environment surrounding migrant workers. It also helps to identify and understand the reasons why migrants come to the UK and the issues they face. UNISON has worked hard to raise awareness of the economic benefits migrant workers bring to the UK economy. UNISON greatly supports migrant workers. It has provided them with a range of advice and assistance. This has made it easier for them to settle in the workplace. UNISON has an ongoing role in persuading employers and the government to implement policies to benefit migrant workers.

This has enabled the UK economy to benefit from the increasing number of workers migrating here. Migrants provide an increasingly skilled workforce necessary to maintain the growing number of services demanded by the UK’s growing economy. Questions 1. Explain the purpose and benefits of PEST analysis. 2. Outline the factors that could lead to exploitation of migrant workers. 3. Analyse the factors which have led to increased immigration to the UK in recent years. www. unison. org. uk 4. Evaluate the extent to which the UK economy benefits from migrant labour.

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