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Philosophy Career Portfolio: Social Worker


It is always fulfilling to accomplish one’s goals in life, especially when it comes to career and life. Following a long and often unbridled wave of campus life, the ultimate objective is to secure a vocation that is not only well known but is also revered and aligns with one’s individual career goals. I aspire to become a social worker, a profession that I have admired and loved since my developmental years in elementary school. Despite the contemporary perception that the current job market can appeal to, recruit, and train suitable personnel, I am still of the ideology that all vocations require program-related skills. For instance, social work requires inherent skills in communication, which involves cultural sensitivity, presentation, and defense of a stance, and summarization of results (University of Toronto 2019, 1). Secondly, social workers have to possess critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. Here, social workers have to learn to read analytically, reason rationally, synthesize the ideas, identify paramount issues in problem-solving or decision-making, and weigh the options, as well as pinpoint solutions. Thirdly, social workers have to possess information gathering and research skills and techniques. As a social worker, one has to possess the capability of interpreting data or relationships, and reading and assessing complicated outcomes (University of Toronto 2019, 2). Besides, one has to work autonomously, while simultaneously identifying needs and problems. Finally, the issue of ethics and values is critical to being a good social worker; he or she identifies and elucidates values through reflecting on individual values and morals in a disciplined manner. These are the strengths that I possess, which make me believe I will be a prominent, contemporary social worker in society as I climb to the apex of holding a prestigious seat, probably at the United Nations to work for the entire globe.

Rationale for selecting social work as the vocation of choice

Social workers offer valuable services that can improve the quality of life for the recipients or clients. Through assisting others with issues ranging from adjustment to social interactions and other problems, dedicated social work professionals can influence positive differences all over the globe (Berg-Weger 1). There are various compelling reasons to specialize in social work as a career path. Essentially, it is possible to summarize the drive that influences one to become a social worker into the following: 1) the idea of helping others in society is both noble and likable; 2) advocating for people in disadvantaged positions is an outstanding lifetime accomplishment, and 3) offering mental health services to people who need them is a great service to humanity (Berg-Weger 1). Social work is distinct among the helping vocations because it involves collaborating with and helping the other professions, for example, health, to sow and foster core values, which is due to its wide scope traversing economic and social justice.

Besides, being a social worker practically alludes to attaining a sense of accomplishment. Through working with individuals to solve severe issues within their lives, a social worker can attain a positive impact not only on the clients they serve directly but also on society as a whole (Ambrosino, Heffernan and Shuttlesworth 48). It is possible to gain a sense of pride and achievement after dedicating one’s life to assisting others and in the process, attaining positive outcomes for individuals and communities. As outlined by Forbes Magazine, globally, social work supervisors are ranked seventh in the classification of the most meaningful occupations in the world (7). In other words, social work is one of the most fulfilling, yet functional vocations globally. Hence, it makes sense to venture into the sphere.

Also, as per the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, the projections for social work positions over the next seven years is faster-than-average. More specifically, healthcare social workers are projected to be highly demanded, with an approximately 27 percent rise in employment opportunities from 2012 to 2022 (Bureau of Labor and Statistics 1).   Similarly, in Canada, the overall employment of social workers was projected to rise by around 11 percent between 2018 and 2028, which is a more rapid growth as compared to other vocations (Bureau of Labour Statistics Canada 1).  The employment boom is expected to be driven by increased demand for social services and healthcare, although it will be bound by specialization. The bottom line is that, besides passion, the expected increase of employment opportunities for social workers is an appeal to pursue the vocation.

Finally, a drive to pursue social work is the degree of autonomy it accords an individual. Most social workers tend to function with relative independence when providing services or dealing with clients, regardless of whether they are individuals or families (Berg-Weger 2). For instance, a clinical social worker has the freedom to open his practice, which permits him to enjoy control over his office working hours, the environment of work, and the clients he selects to work with. Even in governmental and educational ranks, social workers tend to enjoy a significant level of flexibility concerning setting their schedules and often spend a considerable proportion of their time meeting and interacting with clients away from the office. The added measure of autonomy gives social work an allure that many cannot neglect, especially if they are mothers or working parents who desire more, flexible time for their obligations. Thus, social work is the ideal career path.

Brief history of social work in Canada

Essentially, social work describes the practice of assisting individuals, groups, families, and communities in improving their collective and individual wellbeing (Drover 1). It helps individuals to enhance their skills and capacity to utilize their resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Practiced social work was instigated in nineteenth-century England and possesses its roots in the economic and social upheaval fashioned by the Industrial Revolution, more specifically, the societal battle to address the ensuing mass urban-based scarceness and its associated challenges. As outlined by Ehrenreich, states struggle to contain the challenges that were brought about by political and economic resolutions, which effectively reflected the social interventions designed to help the individuals and the communities to attain their objectives and the societal expectations for their welfare (15). Social work started as an initiative to address the broader challenges of family violence, unemployment, and poverty, which faced most societies. Currently, social work is related to voluntary assistance and charities to those who are needy, as well as the citizenship freedoms of the welfare nation and public service provision.

In Canada, before 1867, social work meant whatever it did in the United States and Great Britain, which was the relief of those stricken with poverty and was generally believed to be the outcome of weakness of individual character (Drover 1). The belief was illustrated in a London Charity Organization Publication, which stated that, when the head of a household makes no provision before his demise, then part of the responsibility automatically goes to his wife, and it remained doubtable whether the widow should be relieved of the repercussions of charitable aid (Drover 1). In 1881, the Associated Charities, which was a partner group of a movement instigated in England in 1869, came into being in Canada. In contrast with similar organizations, it emphasized on the significance of systematic investigation as opposed to the mere provision of relief. Subsequently, by 1912, the municipal social-service commissions started replacing Associated Charities, which was through the popularization of social casework techniques of investigation, which was by Mary Richmond’s followers (Drover 2). Richmond was one of the pioneers of the American Associated Charities. The University of Toronto established a training package for social workers in 1914, which was then followed by an identical program offered by McGill University (Bakos-Block 31). In the 1920s and 1930s, social work as a profession experienced a slow, yet steady advancement, with the remarkable event of the formation of the Canadian Association of Social Workers (CASW) in 1926. Its members were drawn principally from family and child welfare agencies, settlement homes, and municipal departments.

Consequently, during the Great Depression that lasted most of the 1930s, there were heavy demands on social-work agencies. However, governments remained reluctant to enhance the progress of trained social work professionals in the higher institutes of learning (Bakos-Block 31; Drover 2). During that period, only two new training programs were sanctioned, which were in 1928 at the University of British Columbia and in 1939 at Université de Montréal. Following the end of World War II, social work expanded as a profession, which was catalyzed primarily by the advancement of health care, social security, pensions, disability special services, homes for the aged, and hospital insurance (Drover 2). Typically, the agencies employed social work professionals, and the growth was particularly robust during the 1960s and the 1970’s when the Canadian welfare state started to align its social entitlements with citizenship rights as opposed to charity. Subsequently, the 1996 census reported approximately 85,955 social work and social service personnel, which was a significant rise form the 1941 figure of 1,767 (Drover 2). By 2000, Canada had at least 34 social work schools of higher learning. Several principal reformers helped to develop the social work profession in Canada. For example, there are individuals like J. S. Woodsworth, Charlotte Whitton, the mayor of Ottawa and a child-welfare activist, Georges-Henri Levesque, who established social work in the province of Quebec, and Harry Cassidy, who was a director and writer at the University of Toronto (School of Social Work) (Drover 2). Without their efforts, social work would have been bypassed like other small vocations.

How social work relates to the economy

  Social work and the economy are directly correlated. Overall, the economic status of a state will tend to dictate its social policies (Lombard and Twikirize 1). A strong, growing economy has a positive influence on the majority of workers regardless of the profession. More specifically, Lombard and Twikirize undertook a study where they established that case studies from Uganda and South Africa demonstrate that developmental social work is inclusive of environmental, economic, and social development activities, with social work forming a critical component in enhancing economic and social equality through its dedication to human rights and social justice (1). Even though Uganda does not regulate social work as a professional vocation, it nevertheless applied the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to develop social work frameworks that aligned with the economic structures.

Essentially, social work represents a partner in the world of economic development. In any society, it is the responsibility of the social worker to identify the challenges and the needs of a particular community and establish workable solutions for resolving them (Berg-Weger 3). The social work profession contributes to the economy mostly from the perspective of a welfare state that is obligated to uplift the standard of the wellbeing of community members. Social work professionals can work individually or collectively to help develop health care policies, which can reduce the cost of health across the country (Lombard and Twikirize 12). Social work addresses the complex, multiple transactions regarding individuals and their environments, aiming to enable the people to attain their full potential, deter dysfunction, and enrich their lives. However, in Canada, most of the professional social workers offer government services such as utilities, solutions to personal and group problems, and guiding society. Overall, the profession contributes to the mental, physiological, and general wellbeing of the economy through enhancing lives.

Professional Closure

Witz states that the association between professionalism and gender has been neglected, and that female professional initiatives have been overlooked mostly in the sociology of vocations (675). At first glance, the notion by Witz seems to be factual, since approximately 85 percent of the professional social worker proportion in Canada comprises females (Bureau of Labour Statistics Canada 1). The presumption is that profession is an engendered perception that adopts the form that those successful professional initiatives of class-privileged male agents at particular points in history and societies are the classical cases of profession. However, through comparison, a competing profession such as nursing demonstrates a clear trend towards adoption by males than was the case in the past. While only eight percent of nurses in Canada were male in 2017, the overall trend shows that there is a gradual improvement, which is not necessarily driven by gendered perceptions, but other factors such as greater awareness, occupation competitiveness, and probability of career expansion (Bureau of Labour Statistics Canada 2). 

Besides, there are other factors to consider. For instance, beyond the role of management, experts have questioned the male suitability for social work for rationales ranging from suitability working with children and the male suitability for social work (Berg-Weger 23). Some male practitioners and students report exclusion experiences, while women tend to decline to work alongside them on complicated cases on the unequivocal excuse of gender. For instance, in child abuse cases involving young girls and women, female social workers have a higher probability of being retained as opposed to their male counterparts. Here, the aspect of social work ethics and values comes into perspective. For long, social work has buttressed gender as supporting the traditions of philanthropy, humanism, and traditions of feminism, as well as advocating for the needs and rights of women. The tradition continues transcending to date.

Regulatory bodies for social work in Canada

In Canada, social work represents a profession regulated by provincial law. Specifically, the legislation is referred to as the Social Work and Social Service Work Act, which was ratified in 1998 and is administered by the Ministry of Community and Social Services (McGill School of Social Work 1). Every province possesses its distinct regulatory and organizational body. The organizations, in turn, elect a member to sit on the board of the CASW. The organizations’ regulation falls under the mandate of the Canadian Council of Social Work Regulators, and the CASW has membership to the International Federation of Social Workers.

The Canadian Association of Social Workers. The CASW is tasked with providing professional advancement to its members, offering timely responses to issues considered national, publishing papers and reports on issues pertinent to the profession, promoting social justice and influencing social policy through government and stakeholder relations (Canadian Association of Social Workers 1). Other responsibilities include publishing the Canadian Social Work Journal, offering unparalleled professional insurance initiatives in the country, upholding the CASW guidelines and code of ethics, and representing the state in the caucus of the International Federation of Social Workers. Also, CASW examines the credentials of Canadian social workers trained abroad and recognizers the professional social workers who provide outstanding service across the country. The mission of the regulatory body is to “promote and strengthen the profession of social work in Canada and advance social justice” ( Canadian Association of Social Workers 1).   

The body was established in 1926 to oversee the employment conditions of professional social workers in the country and to create standards of practice for the professionals (Canadian Association of Social Workers 1). Currently, the body comprises nine provincial and territorial collaborative organizations.

Canadian Council of Social Work Regulators (CCSWR). The mission of the CCSWR is “to be the national and international voice on social work regulatory matters in Canada” (Canadian Council of Social Work Regulators 1). The CCSWR has the objectives of demonstrating leadership through working to establish and preserve an effective forum essential for information exchange ( Canadian Council of Social Work Regulators 1). Additionally, the CCSWR is tasked with identifying, considering, and making pronunciations on issues pertinent to the regulation of professional social work. It also responds to issues associated with the regulation or licensure of international and national significance, as well as supporting the advancement of national standards for assessing competence in professional social work practice. Finally, the body also develops different perspectives on the regulation of social work, performs social work initiatives of national interest, and collaborates with relevant state organizations and agencies.

International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW). The IFSW’s mission is “to become a global organization striving for social justice, human rights and social development through the promotion of social work, best practice models and the facilitation of international cooperation” (International Federation of Social Workers 1).

The provincial and territorial regulatory bodies of social works in Canada cover the rest of the provinces and states, offering guidelines for the social work profession and advancements in personal and career growth. While Canada has various provincial and territorial colleges that offer professional social work training, it also has a collective umbrella, which is known as the Canadian Association of School Social Workers & Attendance Counsellors (CASSWAC), which was established in 1982 (Canadian Association of Social Workers 2). The body was established to promote and encourage the advancement of quality school social work, as well as attendance counseling throughout the country. In terms of roles, the body is tasked with:

1. Being a national organization tasked with linking attendance counselors and social workers

2. Holding a national conference every two years across the country to raise pertinent issues that touch on social school work

3. Conveying news and messages of concern of present trends

4. Speaking on national and international matters affiliated with social work

5. Raising awareness of the importance of social work within the school system

In Canada, the provincial and territorial jurisdictions have distinct regulatory bodies that oversight them in a variety of ways. To demonstrate how the provincial regulatory bodies for professional social workers operate in Canada, it is essential to apply a single province as a case study, which is Alberta. The province’s regulatory body mission is, “Together we represent, strengthen and celebrate the social work profession and fulfill the regulatory requirements of the Health Professions Act” (Alberta College of Social Works 1). The Alberta College of Social Workers is the regulatory body for professional social work in the whole of Alberta (McGill School of Social Work 2). Its supervisory obligations can be found in the Health Professions Act that was sanctioned on April 1st, 2003. The HPA possesses requirements for compulsory registration, practicing restricted activities, perpetuating competency activities, and a distinct domain for social workers falling under the clinical field. The ACSW offers control of title, including a widely defined scope of practice. 

Under the Health Professions Act mandated obligations of provincial regulatory bodies, for instance, the ACSW, there are the following:

To offer direction and regulation of the social work professionTo serve and safeguard the interest of the publicTo create, preserve, and implement the standards of registration, standards of practice, and continuing competenceTo create, preserve, and implement an acceptable code of ethicsTo support educational initiatives for the purpose of registration

Also, the ACSW represents the overall social work vocation in the province of Alberta. It augments membership activities that encourage skilled and ethical professional practice like regional and events and annual conferences (Canadian Association of Social Workers 2). Under its control, the body’s members are encouraged to meet around issues of interest like gerontology, private practices, health, and issues touching on children. To counterpart its lawful obligations, the ACSW buttresses for programs, policies, and services that are of public interest. Since its inception, the body has fostered relationships with many external entities that are actively involved in promoting the initiatives of social justice. Akin to other provincial regulatory bodies, the ACSW has a governing Council comprising ten individuals who are elected by the members, as well as four public entities selected by the government for appointment.

Target Audience of professional social workers and the fiduciary relationship

Professional social workers interact with a variety of clients drawn from different backgrounds in society. For instance, they interact with policymakers, children, adults with diverse conditions, and different genders, as well as other assorted demographics like age and economic background (Bakos-Block 16). As such, the social worker needs to act in the best interest of the client. For example, when it comes to the vulnerable members of the community such as abused children, the social worker is obligated to safeguard the interests of those clients at all times and not to subject them to actions that might cause them harm. As per the CASW code of conduct, the social workers are bound by professionalism to observe the dignity and confidentiality of their clients at all times, at least to the degree allowed by the Constitution ( Canadian Association of Social Workers 2).

Besides, the code of ethics requires social workers to inform or warn potential victims in the case that their client poses a potential threat to other people. The duty to warn is safeguarded by the law and is a component of the code of ethics for practicing social work professionals in Canada (Canadian Association of Social Workers 2). However, social workers are restricted from maintaining romantic relationships with existing or previous clients to safeguard integrity. Similarly, social workers should report suspected or confirmed cases of abuse or neglect, especially among vulnerable members of society. The protection goes beyond mere health and social wellbeing. For instance, in November 2018, a newspaper reported that a Canadian social worker called Robert Riley Saunders faced litigation as a component of a class-action suit over allegations that he diverted funds meant for susceptible First Nations Youth to his accounts (Proctor 1). Overall, the social workers deal with virtually all members of society depending on the need at the moment.

Ethical Issues

Social workers face many ethical issues during their practice. Often, they have to make complicated decisions while preserving professional boundaries and resolving the issues (Brill 2; Reamer 164). Ethical issues occur in the spheres of the client, practice environment, other professionals, the society, and the profession itself. In terms of the clients, the fiduciary relationship requires one to perform the level best that optimizes the outcome for the client. However, there might be resultant issues like privacy, confidentiality, conflicts of interest, and respect for professional boundaries. Professionals face a dilemma regarding whether to report various issues under the “duty to warn” doctrine or maintain confidentiality.

Also, colleagues might be a source of ethical concern. As individuals interact with others during practice, they are required to collaborate, yet maintain professional conduct, for example, avoiding sexual relationships (Brill 3). Here, reporting unethical conduct to the CASW could be difficult for colleagues who have created a relationship over a long time. Ethical considerations in practice environments might be complicated during certain times. Some legal and ethical issues in the practice environment might include staying current with the industry changes, dual relationships between subordinates and their supervisors, and upholding ethical billing practices, for example, avoiding the practice of double-billing clients (Brill 4). In society, ethical issues arise because social workers might have conflicting commitments with society’s expectations. Social workers have to enhance public welfare and social justice and avoid activities promoting prejudice or inequality. Here, they are effectively prohibited from demonstrating political actions that could change the situation.       

From a world view, I deem the social vocation as one that requires absolute commitment and not mere ambition to rise to a particular organizational position. The basis of social work is the promotion of social justice, public welfare, and inclusion. Simply possessing a passion in people will not help much devoid of these principal foundations. In the present world, social work has emerged as a critical source of information for policymakers and a pillar for society in terms of satisfying their basic needs that the state might have neglected. Therefore, I see social work as a special profession whose acquisition of knowledge only serves to augment the already innate characteristics that one possesses. Hence, it is essential to cultivate the traits necessary for social work before deciding to take it into practice; it cannot be taught in college in entirety.

Character of the professional

Finally, the professional social worker has to possess certain characteristics that are essential for the vocation (Martin 148). Character explanations of individuals allude to their flaws or possession of distinct failings that are manifested in their actions. Positive attributes that define the overall character traits of the agent are essential for presenting a viable agent of social work. For example, there are positive traits like empathy, setting of boundaries, persuasion, coordination, organization, self-consciousness, active listening, and compassion, which define a good social work agent. 

Appendix 1

Figure 1: CASW’s webpage showing its mission and roles

Source: Adapted from the Canadian Association of Social Workers (1)

Appendix 2

Figure 2: CCSWR’s webpage showing its roles

Adapted from: Canadian Council of Social Work Regulators (1)

Appendix 3

Figure 3: IFSW’s webpage

Adapted from: International Federation of Social Workers (1)

Appendix 4: First Three Pages of the CASW Code of Conduct

Works Cited

“About ACSW.” Alberta College of Social Works, 2019, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

“About IFSW.” International Federation of Social Workers, 2019, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Ambrosino, Rosalie, et al. Empowerment Series: Social Work and Social Welfare. Cengage Learning, 2015.

Bakos-Block, Christine R. “Perspectives on Social Work.” The Journal of the Doctoral Students of the University of Houston Graduate College of Social Work, vol. 9, no. 2, 2013, pp. 1-77.

Berg-Weger, Marla. Social Work and Social Welfare: An Invitation. Routledge, 2013.

Brill, Carol Kopeikin. “Looking at the Social Work Profession through the Eye of the NASW Code of Ethics.” Research on Social Work Practice, 2001, pp. 1-8.

“Canada Social Worker Statistics.” Bureau of Labor and Statistics, 2018, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Drover, Glenn. Social Work. 2013. Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Ehrenreich, John. The Altruistic Imagination: A History of Social Work and Social Policy in the United States. Cornell University, 2014.

Forbes Magazine. No. 7 Most Meaningful Job (tie): Social Work Supervisor, 2019, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Lombard, Antoinette, and Janestic M Twikirize. “Promoting social and economic equality: Social workers’ contribution to social justice and social development in South Africa and Uganda.” International Social Work, 2014,

Martin, Mike W. Meaningful Work: Rethinking Professional Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2000.

McGill School of Social Work. Professional Organizations. McGill School of Social Work 2019.

“Objects of the CCSWR.” Canadian Council of Social Work Regulators, 2017, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Proctor, Jason. Children’s advocate investigating 14 files on social worker’s alleged theft from teens, 18 Nov. CBC News.

Reamer, Frederic G. “The Evolution of Social Work Ethics: Bearing Witness.” Advances in Social Work, Vol. 15, No.1, 2014, pp. 163-181.

“Social Worker in Canada.” Bureau of Labour Statistics Canada, 2018, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

University of Toronto. Careers by Major – Philosophy. 2019. Nov. 05, 2019. < Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

“What We Do.” Canadian Association of Social Workers, 2019, Accessed 5 Nov. 2019.

Witz, Anne. “Patriarchy and Professions: The Gendered Politics of Occupational Closure.” Sociology, vol. 24, no. 4, 1990, pp. 675-690.

Critical Thinking and VUCA in Action writing essay help
Critical Thinking and VUCA in Action

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Critical Thinking and VUCA in Action


Panera Company is a bread-café restaurant that is located in Canada and the United States, with its headquarters in various locations. The company deals with fast-moving goods and offerings such as sandwiches, and other bakery products. The company operates several bakery-cafes that trade in retail form. This paper delves into how Panera solved its problems and how Subway restaurants can solve its problems using critical thinking and VUCA.

Panera Situation

The company was faced with an issue regarding the “mosh pit” problem. As quoted by Ron Shaich, the Chief Executive Officer pertains to the extra-long queues the company had, which affected its customer experience and the overall product (Jargon, 2017). Customers were forced to wait for eight minutes in long lines to place their order, and according to the company, 10% of the requests were wrong. It left the company in a bizarre state forcing them to rethink and remodel its service plan. It took the company six years to come up with a solution. Mobile ordering was implemented to solve this problem, and it lowered the time a customer had to spend in a queue to one minute. Even though the wait time was reduced, there were mistakes made by the staff because online orders became customizable. They solved this problem by making its kitchen display systems simplified.

Rise and fall of Subway

Similarly, Subway restaurant, which is a leading fresh-made sandwich supplier, took a turn in 2014 after the sales reduced. It has been gaining and surpassing other fast-food restaurants for years. The company ran successful campaigns with Jared Fogle, who lost 200 pounds after indulging in Subway’s sandwiches. However, the company suffered a public-relations blow after scandals that surrounded Jared Fogle (Taylor, 2018). People started questioning the quality of services of the company through social media leading to a declining number of customers and sales. The company has been experiencing growing pains, PR issues, and declining sales. As a result, the company has closed hundreds of its stores all over the United States (Taylor, 2018).

Pointedly, the company has been expanding rapidly to become the largest fast food chain worldwide. It is one of the cheapest companies to franchise as compared to other brands such as McDonald’s. The company opened its stores in strategic locations. However, the company did not focus on the location; instead, they concentrated on restaurant count. Consequently, restaurants were opened within blocks of each other, which created competition within the company. It brought conflicts up to the managerial positions, which is one of the factors driving clients away from the chain. This led to the company closing most of its stores within the United States (Taylor, 2018).

Critical thinking

Critical thinking is a vital soft skill that can be used to solve issues regarding Subway restaurant. The ability to utilize information from a comprehensive and impartial perspective offers an opportunity to make informed decisions and get a comprehensive view of the problem. According to Kallet (2014), assessing the company’s future risks is the major component of critical thinking. However, most businesses do not embrace critical thinking as part of their integral approaches to solving problems because they are too busy and focus on daily operations as well as profit growth. Subway restaurants can rebrand themselves and start gaining customers to compete with other counterparts such as McDonald’s. Critical thinking is important in developing a clear comprehension of the problems that need solutions (Kallet, 2014).

The world’s largest brand is being left by consumers seeking health and fresh food, which are being offered by its competitors. The crisis of the firm is linked to many factors. First, there is an internal conflict within the company, which has led many customers to move out (Taylor, 2018). Disputes within the company cause frustrations between the employees, and it affects the brand of the company. It makes turning around difficult. Subway are bracing themselves for more bad news with the closure of more restaurants each year. In as much as the company boasts of its fresh product, customer satisfaction is the most critical aspect in business. Meeting or exceeding the expectations of customers is an essential goal of any organization. Hykon (2017) provides useful insights regarding how happy employees can be an asset to an organization. In other words, Hykon (2017) holds that happy employees can make satisfied customers. In an increased stiff competition environment, the company needs to satisfy its customers.

Moreover, the company is battling with its brand. The company once advertised itself as the best alternative for fresh and healthier products, something that is falling short. Nowadays, people are educated on nutrition matters, food sourcing as well as holistic business models. Supplies are made twice a week, and it is challenging to meet the customers’ demands. By the end of the week, some taste of some products become distorted — for instance, the taste for lettuce changes after a few days.

One of the recommended solutions to end Subway’s problems is rebranding; the brand is tired. It needs to take a step back and reevaluate their customer touchpoints and ensure they bring them to this day’s consumer standards and what they need. Subway have survived turbulent times, and it is what business is all about. According to Xaba (2015), rebranding is an opportunity to win new markets and repositioning. It reduces the intentions of franchises to quit. Besides, they need to realign the market to have the right restaurants situated in the right locations to avoid unnecessary loses. The restaurants need to be remodeled, the introduction of new products and refining the operations. Besides, the company needs to abolish labeling products as ‘natural’ to rekindle loyalty and sales. People perceive Subways’ sandwiches, which are becoming ubiquitous as a popular option, yet they can get a salad that is made from fresh fruits.


As the business world keeps changing, it becomes less predictable, and doing business becomes sophisticated and uncertain. The concept of vision, understanding, courage as well as adaptability (VUCA) has changed how decisions, managing risks, and solving problems are made within organizations. According to George (2017), business leaders are supposed to have the capability to see through problems to have a clear vision of their firms. Subway had a clear vision to become the leading fast-food merchandise, and they had surpassed the McDonalds. The restaurants are efficient to build, and as a result, the restaurant can be opened nearly all parts of the globe. However, focusing on the number of restaurants led to opening restaurants in the same block that promoted competition within the company. With a clear vision, the company can revamp itself to become the leading fast-food restaurant worldwide.

Moreover, understanding the organizations’ capabilities plays a vital role in market positioning. The managerial have pinpointed the problems making the company lag, and a strategy is underway to rebuild the company. For instance, some stores have been closed and moved to strategic locations with good sales.  Other than that, the company leaders have been courageous to highlight the problems affecting the company. A decision was made to cut ties with Jared Fogle despite the high number of sales he influenced (Taylor, 2018). It needs the courage to change the company’s brand and its products because it is what Subway is known to provide. In essence, it will help change the negative perspective of its customers and drive more sales. The criticism that the products are not fresh will be altered because the company will not brand its products as ‘natural’ only. The leadership of Subway needs to be adaptable to save the hailing business. Contingency plans will be rolled out for the company to position itself in the market. The corporate management needs to stop opening many locations to cannibalize sales. Remodeling the business is not an overnight work since it requires substantial planning.


The problem that Panera Bread Company faced was the amount of time it took the customer to make an order. It was solved by introducing mobile ordering that reduced the wait lines from eight minutes to one minute. Even though it was useful, mistakes in orders surfaced since the products were customizable, which confused the staff. The managerial solved it by simplifying the order system, and now the company is boasting an increased sale. Besides, Subway restaurant faced a PR crisis, internal conflicts, and the inability to keep up with trends. After the successful implementation of the recommendations to enhance its brand, it will drive more sales. Innovation is the driving force behind the continuous development business, which the executives are slow to implement.


George, B. (2017). VUCA 2.0: A Strategy for Steady Leadership In An Unsteady World. Retrieved from

Hykon, S. (2017). How happy employees make happy customers. Retrieved from

Jargon, J. (2017, Jun 03). The new lunch: Panera slices lines with mobile. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

Kallet, M. (2014). Think smarter: Critical thinking to improve problem-solving and decision-making skills. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Taylor, K. (2018). People are ditching Subway, and franchisees expect a wave of store closures — here’s what went wrong. Retrieved from

Xaba, T. N. (2015). The effects of corporate rebranding on employee engagement: evidence from the professional services industry of South Africa (Doctoral dissertation).

Most Important Lesson About Effective Management essay help online
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The Most Important Lesson About Effective Management

            The most important lesson is on effective management is proper performance management. Performance management is the practice of engaging personnel in reviewing how they execute their responsibilities and their development. This process integrates information collected by monitoring an employee’s goal achievement, discussions, and feedback. An analysis of the workforce’s strengths, challenges, and determining potential areas of growth can develop skills and talent. It can also identify and eliminate problems while enhancing individual performance. There are different perspectives on performance management, focusing on the employee’s role, the system in place, and the tools to achieve organisational success. Employees require consistent feedback to determine their current performance and areas where they can improve. The management should consider providing such feedback every quarter based on the technical and leadership level.

            Performance management is critical as it facilitates employee recognition and reward. Employees need to feel appreciated and credited for their efforts in the organisation. Creating a meaningful reward system increases staff retention while reducing the turnover rate. It is, however, vital to incorporate these systems with accuracy and transparency in providing feedback to employees. Through progressive performance management, leaders can identify efforts and behaviours warranting praise and reinforcing them within the organisational culture. In turn, the remaining workforce develops a growth mindset to adopt acclaimed behaviour. Managers can also identify exemplary employees, track their progress, and compensate them accordingly. These employees could eventually benefit from promotions or bonuses. Employee engagement is critical in promoting increased productivity and morale in the organisation. Performance management creates a platform where employees can engage in nurturing dialogue in a supportive and trusting atmosphere. The personnel need to be aware of the organisation’s commitment towards their wellbeing and in their career development. This perception increases their involvement with the organisation and their interest in achieving organisational goals.

            Businesses also need to establish effective employee development strategies through performance management. These strategies function to proactively develop the employee by addressing their career and personal needs. Meeting with each worker ensures that the leader understands their requirements concerning the organisational goals. The leader can then determine suitable development plans and opportunities that employees can pursue to improve their proficiency in the workplace. Combining career development objectives and personal objectives help in cultivating talent and creating a positive direction for the employee. Organisations should have an agile platform to allow for flexibility in priorities while creating new development opportunities. This platform would also guarantee that the workers have a clear direction to follow, which leads them towards the best possible outcome for the organisation.

            Performance management facilitates the establishment of a corporate culture designed to achieve the intended vision. Often, organisations set out SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Time-based) goals for each team and the organisation at large. Evaluating employees and mapping out their progress helps them understand their role in the organisation. It also clarifies the long-term and short-term goals that the business entity intends to achieve. Performance management provides insight on goal-setting and the execution of primary tasks to meet the end-goal. Employees feel more encouraged to participate in goal setting autonomously, and they develop a sense of ownership to the organisation.

            Many performance management systems fail in organisations due to various factors. The main issue is ineffective communication. Companies should use transparent and authentic systems when communicating to promote openness and honesty. They should also utilise open-door policies to ensure easy accessibility between employees and their supervisors. Other organisations fail to set out clear and precise goals, resulting in confusion and restructuring the original purpose. Ultimately, employees become frustrated and experience burnout without a clear direction to follow. Managers should set an example by engaging with the performance process and actively incorporating feedback from their assessments. This way, employees would feel more comfortable with their estimates and embrace input positively. It is also critical to correct the right performance data, such as goal achievement and departmental success.

The Most Important Lesson on the Contemporary Business Environment

            The contemporary business environment is highly competitive, with organisations implementing new strategies and tools to gain an advantage. The business climate changes at a fast pace with new concepts in logistics, management, and other organisational aspects. It is therefore essential to adapt accordingly using a wide range of skills and resources at the organisation’s disposal. Typically, companies focus on developing reliable and logical strategies to help them utilize the available tools to facilitate effective decision-making, long-term planning, and overall control in the industry. An important lesson is the significance of creativity and innovation in the contemporary business environment.

            Creativity is the capacity to generate new and unique concepts, whereas innovation is the integration of these concepts within a given setting. Using creative approaches can improve problem-solving, leading to the incorporation of perfect solutions that could provide the organisation with a competitive edge. The management should include all employees in problem-solving to diversify the answers and to improve the decision-making process. Creativity also helps to propel innovation by evaluating the available opportunities and assessing the most effective approach. Incorporating unique strategies is integral in differentiating a brand across the industry, thereby expanding its consumer base an attracting more customers. With increased sales and recognition, the enterprise’s productivity would also increase. Organisations can also use creativity to boost morale in the workplace based on corporate culture. Some organisations focused on providing flexibility through unconventional approaches. In turn, they noticed increased productivity and inventiveness among employees.

            Innovation is critical in meeting the ever-evolving consumer needs and in staying ahead of the competition. Through technical innovation, a company creates new goods and services that address urgent and long-term concerns. It is crucial to consider the current market and the role of the organisation in meeting the market’s demands accordingly. The telecommunication industry is a suitable example of a contemporary business environment where innovation is at the epicentre. Every year, telecommunication companies strive to release new products and services to maintain competitiveness while surpassing the market’s expectations. Innovativeness in this industry resulted in improved communication, and more expansively, enhancements in telemedicine. Technical innovations typically result from research and development (R&D). R&D requires substantial investments in time, finances, and human resources, making it a challenging endeavour for many companies. Process innovation entails creating new approaches to production, distribution, and marketing products and services. Factors to consider in process innovation include efficiency, the market size, and the organisation’s resources. Through administrative innovation, the management could develop better ways of supporting the company’s operations and its reach in the community.

            An essential component of innovation is technology, which is currently the most dominant and beneficial asset in almost all industries. Progressive technological advancements result in product obsolescence, creating a demand for innovative and more efficient products. Managers have an integral responsibility of understanding the emergence of technologies, their development, and their impact on an organisation’s competitiveness. It is also vital to consider how it may influence operational costs and employee morale in the workplace. For example, while technology saves on production costs, many workers worry that it would eventually replace them as organisations would prioritize efficiency over human labour. It is, therefore, the management’s responsibility to establish a balance between technology use and the workforce to boost morale and overall productivity.

            Managers also need to understand the driving forces and patterns of innovation to help them anticipate, manage, and monitor technologies accordingly. For one, there should be a demand for novelty. This demand functions as the driving force that would facilitate the development of essential solutions. Secondly, there should be a convertible theoretical context highlighting the possibility of meeting this need based on the available knowledge and science. The organisation should have the required resources needed to execute the project, including time, finance, space, and skilled labour, among others. An entrepreneurial initiative is also critical in identifying and integrating the essential elements of the project’s success.

Lessons on Personal Strengths and Weaknesses as a Team Member

            Working as part of a team presented a suitable opportunity to understand the different dynamics and the various strengths presented by each team member. The personal strength reflected in this particular team was empathy. Empathy involves awareness and acknowledgement of people’s feelings and thoughts. Necessarily, it entails the ability to view ideas or concepts from a different and objective perspective. Teams comprise of diverse members, each with their values, beliefs, and cultural backgrounds.  As such, it is essential to find common ground that accommodates each individual while reducing the potential for conflict. The student practised empathy by showing respect to all team members, identifying their role in completing the assigned task, and being flexible to new ideas.

            An empathic leader helps in building a strong team guided by loyalty, respect, and equality. In turn, the group becomes more productive and focused on accomplishing the common goal. Empathy also helps in building strong working relationships since team members can trust each other. It is, however, essential to establish professional boundaries within the team to prevent overlaps and manipulation. For example, an empathic team member is understanding in situations when another member cannot complete the assignment due to unforeseen circumstances. However, they develop a suitable solution to ensure consistency in the workflow and equal contribution from each person.

            The three main attributes of empathy include effective communication, honesty, and being considerate. An empathic individual pays attention to others when they speak, focussing on the speaker’s words and avoiding any distractions. The entire goal is to understand the challenges faced by others, acknowledging them, and attempting to provide a suitable resolution. Accomplishing organisational goals is only achievable when people have a safe work environment and when their needs are heard. Achieving this safety requires a level of openness towards others, and understanding that their problems are significantly different. The empathic leader needs to lead by example by promoting a culture of honesty and transparency in team discussions and decisions. Integrating these aspects guarantees the team’s success and fosters positive relationships.

            While empathy is a great strength, it could also be a weakness in some circumstances. Empathic people always aim to help others, even in situations where it may not be the best solution. Others can take advantage of this assistance, thereby enabling irresponsibility or poor performance. Empathy can also lead to compromising one’s integrity to help others or excessive self-sacrifice. More specifically, leaders often find themselves in situations where it is difficult for them to set and maintain professional boundaries by commiserating with their subordinates. For example, a team member could ask for consideration on failing to complete their task as it may impact their grades.

            The main lesson learned from empathising with others is to create strict boundaries and policies within the team dynamic. Team members should understand that their contribution is integral to the group’s overall success. All the same, they should feel free to share any concerns or challenges that might inhibit the successful execution of their roles. However, they should not exploit this opportunity to offload their responsibilities on to others. As an empathic team member, it is vital to avoid extensive emotional investment in other people’s problems. The empathiser should listen and offer recommendations, but keep a distance that can help in maintaining objectivity with the group’s interests at heart. Being assertive is also vital in discerning instances where one has to be empathic or when to overlook the situation. Assertiveness also helps in determining whether the team member has the group’s interests at heart or if they want to abandon their responsibilities. Leaders should focus on creating a balance between empathising with team members without compromising on the team’s best interests.

The Qatar Blockade college application essay help
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The Qatar Blockade

The Qatari blockade commenced in 2017 when four Arabic countries (Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt, and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia- KSA) disrupted diplomatic relations with Qatar, and placed an air, land, and sea blockade on Qatar, asserting that it support terror activities, and that it was very close to Iran. Qatar rubbished the allegations and said there was no concrete justification for the claims. Until today, very little has happened to find a long-lasting solution with the UAE and Qatar still battling at the International Court of Justice because Qatar feels the UAE discriminates against its people racially. Qatari Foreign Minister, Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman, expressed his desire for a united Gulf, but expressed fears due to the relentless blockades during his visit to Saudi Arabia where he accompanied Qatar’s Prime Minister. Qatar is optimistic that even though some of its neighbors still champion for anti-Qatar policies, it will develop its economy and stability that would help it improve relations with other countries.

How it began

The poor relations between the Arabic countries began when hackers posted false information on Qatar’s state news official website on May 2017. The false statement praised Iran for criticizing American foreign policy, and it is these remarks that were broadcasted on several Saudi and UAE-owned TV networks (Habibi). The fake news emerged two days after American President Donald Trump had a meeting with Muslim and Arab leaders in Saudi’s capital, Riyadh (Habibi). The false news prompted the UAE and KSA to block Al Jazeera’s website, which further worsened the relations among the involved countries (Gordon et al.). The governments of Egypt, the UAE, KSA, and Bahrain went ahead to issue statements regarding its worsening relations with the Qatar in less than two weeks since the incident (Habibi). Saudi Arabia started by closing all its borders with Qatar and the four other Arabic states followed. Their main grievance was Qatar breached a 2014 pact with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries that prohibits any form of support for terror acts (Gordon et al). Qatar in its response to the allegations agreed it offered aid to particular Islamist factions such as Muslim Brotherhood, but did not accept offering any assistance to militant groups aligned to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) or al-Qaeda (Habibi). Qatar instead stressed on its support to U.S. on the fight against terrorism, said it is on the forefront in suppressing radicalized groups.

The four Arabic powers, for instance, accused Qatar for entering into a deal with the Shiite and Sunni militants in Syria and Iraq. One of the reasons for entering into the deal was to secure the release of Qatari hostages who had been captured by Shiite radicals while on a hunting spree in Iraq (Al Jazeera). Qatar’s second aim for entering into the agreement was to get both militant groups to Syria to facilitate the distribution of food and other basic requirements, and safeguard the evacuation of civilians held beyond their wish (Al Jazeera). The pact between Qatar and the militant groups seemed to have yielded some positive outcome because about 2011 civilians were released from various Syrian villages where they had stayed for about 15 months. The sum of money Qatar paid to release the hostages is what agitated the UAE and KSA because it is alleged the state paid nearly $720 million to Shia militants and another $200 million to militant groups across Iraq (Al Jazeera). The incident evoked harsh criticism from various groups, including President Trump who called for relentless opposition to nations that support terrorism. The U.S moved further to advocate for policies that do not favor Qatar, and instead switched its contacts to the UAE and the KSA.

The real problem started in 2014 when a diplomatic rift ensued following the removal of diplomats from Qatar by the KSA, Bahrain, and the UAE, arguing that Qatar supported terror and armed groups. The poor relations were the first to occur since the formation of the GCC, with the misunderstanding that caused the withdrawal of ambassadors being among the severest in the recent past (Al Jazeera). The 2014 crisis shook the economic ties in the GCC countries, with some having to transform their political plans (Gordon et al). The tussle with Qatar seemed to have escalated over the years with the diplomatic ties worsening in 2017 when the four countries under the guidance of KSA halted their diplomatic links.


The blockading nations placed some demands on Qatar, which the accused nation had to fulfill within ten days. The leading requirement for KSA, the UAE, Bahrain, and Egypt is Qatar ceases its diplomatic relations with Iran, and also demanded that the country halts its military operations with Turkey (Al Jazeera). The groups also demanded that Qatar shuts down Al Jazeera, lest diplomatic ties will continue to worsen between the countries. The four countries directed Qatar to cut its ties with groups supporting terrorism, and to halt the funding of individuals and sects perceived as terror squads by America and other countries, as well as to stop interfering with the affairs of other countries (Al Jazeera). The UAE and KSA promised to continue blocking Qatari ships and airplanes if the country does not meet the requirements. Meanwhile all Qatari flights to Europe and Africa passed through Iran. KSA also promised to restrict financial transactions using Qatari riyals if the country does not heed to the requirements (Al Jazeera). Even though the Qatari government held that the ban undermined the country’s sovereignty, and that the claims were baseless, it was apparent it lost much following its poor relations with the four Arabic nations.

Despite the blockade and the reduction in oil price, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) reports that Qatar’s economy remains firm. The IMF reports that economic performance in Qatar recorded significant growth in 2018, meaning that the country handled the fall in oil and gas prices witnessed from 2014-2016 and the 2017 diplomatic issues well (Al Jazeera). Qatar according to the IMF witnessed a 2.3% GDP growth in 2018 compared with the 1.7% attained in 2017 (Al Jazeera). The IMF also reports that despite a slight drop in the housing sector the banking sector recorded tremendous expansion as well as the manufacturing sector.

Attempts towards Resolving the Issue

Qatar’s emir, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, said during his address to the Shura Council that the country has adequate plans to overcome the effects of the blockade placed on it by some Arabic states. Sheikh Tamim believes that Qatar’s continued development of its renewable energy and food security while putting more effort to diversify its economy will attract foreign investors (Hickert). Sheikh Tamim thinks that Qatar is always ready to iron out the differences based on the notion of non-interference and mutual respect. Sheikh Tamim while offering his speech said it is the right time for the GCC nations to work as one and develop the region, while mentioning a report by the Qatar National Bank that showed Qatar’s surplus has improved to 6.5% of GDP in the fourth quarter of 2018 (Hickert). The state now focuses on expanding its economy as a way of dealing with the effects of the blockade, and is optimistic the plan would yield the necessary outcome with various areas, including food and agriculture, education, and health already witnessing substantial developments. Sheikh Tamim further said during his address to the Shura Council Qatar has executed national initiatives that promote local production, noting that the past three years have recorded remarkable improvement (Hickert). The government, the emir said, has adequate plans to overcome bureaucratic processes that suppress development and progress, which shall ease access to services to both Qatari and non-Qatari citizens. More importantly, Sheikh Tamim thinks, Qatar is focusing on rebalancing its national budget, and is working to lower public spending while putting a close eye on vital projects.

Foreign Minister Mohammed bin Abdulrahman also reiterated Qatar’s plans to carry on with its endeavors following the revelation by FBI that the remarks posted on the news agency’s website was malicious. The Minister said Qatar focuses on building its relations with other countries, including Iran that was one of the main causes for the blockade (Al Jazeera). Minister Mohammed assured the delegates present at the 2019 Doha Forum that the country has improved its military to offer more security to its people and the country, which should be a compelling factor for other countries to invest (Al Jazeera). The Foreign Minister believes that even as Qatar is ready to reconcile with its neighbors, the blockade by some nations continues to cause injuries among the Qatari people and the region at large. The Minister proceeded to say that many nations would not prevail under such strict measures placed on Qatar by its neighbors (Al Jazeera). The country according to the Minister had to retrieve the $341 billion it had reserved to improve domestic production, form new trading partners, and creates new areas that would build the economy.


The study elaborates how even as the blockade by KSA, the UAE, Egypt, and Bahrain attempted to disrupt Qatar’s relations with its neighbors, the country now employs measures that it believes will help to overcome the diplomatic challenge. Qatar became under pressure when it was alleged following a false remark by hackers that the country supports Iran’s criticism of the U.S. and the foreign policy. The four countries went ahead to cut its ties with Qatar, a move that crippled the country’s external links. Qatar, however, did not appear shaken with the allegations and went ahead to improve its economy by developing various areas. The leaders in Qatar urge foreign investors to take advantage of the economic growth in the country, as well as work hard to expand its ties with other countries. Even though some issues still exist between the warring sides Qatar is open to negotiations and is optimistic it will overcome the issues troubling its socio-economic prosperity. 

Works Cited

Al Jazeera. “Qatar Blockade: Five Things to Know About the Gulf Crisis.” Al Jazeera, Accessed on 12 November, 2019. 

Gordon, Philip, et al. “The Qatar Crisis: Causes, Implications, Risks, and the Need for Compromise.” INSS, 2017. Accessed on 12 November, 2019.  

Habibi, Nader. “Qatar’s Blockade Enters Third Year: Who Are the Winners and Losers?” The Globe Post, June 17, 2019. Accessed on 12 November, 2019. 

Hickert, Leah. “How Qatar Has Fought the Blockade.” Fair Observer, June 12, 2019. Accessed on 12 November, 2019. 

Global Human Resources Management Specialists Outsourcing online essay help
Global Human Resources Management Specialists Outsourcing

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Global Human Resources Management Specialists Outsourcing


The project enlightens on the importance of taking appropriate measures while outsourcing HRM specialists. It should how the increased movements of people from one place to the other due to globalization and the need to attain competitive advantage drive businesses to hire competent and qualified employees who may help the firm achieve its goals and objectives. The report illustrates how firms nowadays strive to outsource HR specialists to achieve diversity, which is increasingly becoming part and parcel of business operations. It appears that groups that employ suitable approaches to outsource its HR specialists increase their level of innovation, and may be in a good chance to solve some of the cultural problems that businesses experience. The study illustrates the importance of training the outsourced employees to equip them with the valuable skills and competence that would make it easy for them to operate locally. More essentially, the study captures the importance of motivating the HR specialists to increase their desire to serve, and to make them more productive. Other companies may acquire vital lessons from the study and incorporate the findings in a way that would help their businesses grow. The companies seeking to outsource HR specialists should look at the benefits and demerits of the processes to avoid eventualities that could have adverse effects on the business operations, and to ensure the incorporation does not yield any unwanted outcome on performance.

Research Findings

The study discovers that more firms are embracing better way of sourcing HRM specialists considering that the practice is becoming increasingly multidimensional and complex. Many firms today strive to embrace the suitable outsourcing practices knowing that the practice could give them competitive advantage over others and because the practice is increasingly becoming popular (Jiang, Frazier & Prater, 2006). More essentially, many groups nowadays embrace effective global HRM outsourcing practices knowing the crucial role such specialists play at the workplace. The research illustrates how effective GHRM outsourcing has several advantages if the process happens well. Even though many companies usually do not have the plan to cut costs while going about the practice, Jiang, Frazier and Prater (2006) discovers that the process could result in increased cost-efficiency. Many corporations do not usually regard cost-reduction as one of the reasons for embracing GHRM outsourcing, but once this occurs the company counts it as an added advantage. It emerges that GHRM outsourcing play crucial roles in developing the corporate culture in multidimensional ways. Groups that outsource qualified and experienced HRM specialists create room for incorporating skillful and innovative individuals who are likely to transform operations (McIvor, 2008). More essentially, outsourcing highly qualified employees could influence the employee experience, which in turn can improve general organizational performance (Totka, 2018). Effective GHRM outsourcing also proves to be beneficial to corporations in the way bringing in qualified personnel could increase competitiveness (Totka, 2018). Business leaders, therefore, should be keen during the outsourcing process, to settle on employees who shall help the firm achieve its goals and objectives.

Business leaders who employ GHRM outsourcing must focus on the drawbacks of the practice as well to avoid any inconveniency that could befall the organization. One of the major limitations associated with GHRM outsourcing is the specialist may lack adequate knowledge and understanding of the unique features of a business culture and values (Troaca & Bodislav, 2012). Even though it is possible to diminish the limitation by forming proper communication between the HR specialists and the firm, it is usually good to be keen while getting HR leaders from other places. Furthermore, GHRM outsourcing could be susceptible to poor communication with regard to the organizational goals and objectives, which could result in wasted time and poor quality (Troaca & Bodislav, 2012). The company should also watch out on how GHRM outsoaring could lower the firm’s control over certain areas, and how the act may affect corporate culture if not applied in the correct manner (Troaca & Bodislav, 2012). Business leaders while seeking to reduce the harm of GHRM outsourcing should explain to the other workers and important stakeholders the purpose of getting such specialists from other places, as well as maintain steady communication with everyone (Patel, 2017). The business leaders in this case need give employees the chance to give their views and opinions, the corporate environment may be no longer conducive for achieving the best results.

GHR outsourcing could have significant effects on the global economy taking into account that it is part of business development. The practice permits the growth of the economy by forming competition among the various sectors, mainly because it offers an opportunity for the formation of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) (Pearlstein, 2012). Also important is the outsourcing practice forms new workplaces because the practice implies the formation of new specializing firms. Nonetheless, it is crucial to understand how GHR outsourcing could affect the economy in certain circumstances to avoid eventualities that may not be beneficial. Outsourcing specialists from other nations because of their affordability or vast skills and experience, for instance, the local workforce may fail to secure fair working opportunities because of the company’s desire for short-term profits (Pearlstein, 2012). The implications might be more serious in situations where the company is committed to achieve long-term advantages and competitiveness. The outcome on the economy, however, may differ from one state to the other, which makes it necessary to assess the implications depending on the country (Pearlstein, 2012). Generally, GHR outsourcing could have both beneficial and harmful repercussions on the economy, depending on the firm’s values, objectives, and operations. 

The research offers other critical findings that could help improve GHR outsourcing in any group seeking to embrace the practice. The organizational leaders learn the essence of familiarizing the outsourced workers with the work culture so that the specialists go about their duties without much disturbance or interference. The business leaders in this case may train the employees about the local practices and operations, especially with regard to communication, and other local deeds and beliefs (Adler, 2007). It is also essential to familiarize the outsourced workers with the local cultural practices taking into account that cultures differ from one place to the other (Adler, 2007). Other than considering the possible merits and demerits of outsourcing HR specialists it is crucial to be conversant with other critical factors such as the employees’ commitment and flexibility, trust, strategic capabilities, and proficiency among other factors (Adler, 2007). It is also crucial to consider the possible opportunities and threats that could influence the outsourcing process.

Evaluation and Implications

The topic of GHRM specialist outsourcing relate with the class content in several ways. One of the ways in which the topic relates to the class content is highlights on the importance of diversity at the place of work. It illustrates how sometimes when the business seeks to achieve better outcome it may be necessary to consider forming a diversified workplace where the workers bring diverse skills and competence depending on their background. The diversity in this case improves the possibility of experiencing more innovation, and could expose the business to new ways of doing things (Green et al., 2012). Further, embracing diversity by outsourcing HRM specialists could inform the local workers about other cultural practices, which are essential in today’s environment where businesses strive to serve customers from different backgrounds (Green et al., 2012). Other than relating to the concept of diversity, the topic has some connection with the idea of globalization that came out in the class content to be a major movement that shape business activities in the contemporary times. Globalization pushes businesses to consider hiring workers from other places to develop a holistic image or view about the company (Majumdar, 2016). Globalization encourages people to move from one region to the other in quest for better living places, jobs, or education, and failing to hire workers who give a wider impression of the company could have detrimental effects on the outcome (Majumdar, 2016). The other way in which the topic relates to the class content is it touches on the importance of hiring competent employees who are able to guide the firm towards the right direction in terms of competitiveness and innovation. It emerges that a company might be forced to outsource a worker in a bid to embrace qualified personnel knowing very well that qualified employees are prerequisite for good performance.

The study offers valuable insight that could be beneficial to other companies and their operations. One of the things that could be helpful to other organizations is the need to develop effective communication among the employees, especially when they come from diverse backgrounds. Equipping the workers with effective communication skills helps to improve team building at the place of work, especially when the communication practices take place effectively and honestly (Adu-Oppong, 2014). More essentially, effective communication helps to boost growth, which is what many businesses want (Adu-Oppong, 2014). Often, good communication helps to eradicate uncertainties and hasten the speed of policy creation to ensure smooth delivery of business projects. It is also suitable to develop proper communication to increase innovation because when workers are afraid of communicating their ideas and thoughts out of fear of being dejected they are more likely to stagnate in their career (Adu-Oppong, 2014). Another insight that could help companies improve their performance is the need to hire qualified personnel even if it means outsourcing them from other places. The group, nevertheless, should ensure that the qualified employees it hires do not create any risks that could affect the company’s performance further. The company, for example, should ensure that the hiring process does not place a heavy financial burden to firm, and does not put the communication processes at the risk of depreciating (Adu-Oppong, 2014). More essentially, businesses learn the importance of embracing diversity and get to understand the essence of hiring workers who come from different places and have skills and competence that differ. Such a scenario would improve outcome and give the firm an inclusive image.

Business leaders should focus on the practices that could be advanced using more appropriate global HRM activities and operations. It is possible to improve motivation among the specialists by embracing suitable motivational approaches that often yield the best outcome among workers. A vital motivational framework that could yield the best outcome is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs that call on business leaders to first meet the workers’ basic needs before helping them meet other requirements that may not be termed as being very essential and urgent (Bruce, 2002). The business leaders may encourage the specialists to work hard in the various areas using the framework proposed by Abraham Maslow in 1943 that requires the fulfillment of physiological needs first before considering other things (Koltko-Rivera, 2006). The physiological requirements in this instance may comprise of the basic human wants such as food, clothing, and shelter, and it is possible to help the specialists meet the needs by paying them well. The leaders can then create conditions the foster the attainment of safety, love/belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs (Bruce, 2002). Other than employing the Maslow hierarchy needs framework, the business leaders may improve performance by embracing other effective motivational approaches such as offering rewards to good performers, praising HRM specialists who show exemplary outcome, and offering enlightening trips (Bruce, 2002). More essentially, it is possible to increase the performance of outsourced HRM specialists by encouraging or creating room for further training, especially on the local cultural practices to equip them with interactive skills. The training may also cover some of the key issues that would help them perform better in their respective assignments. Nonetheless, the HR specialists may not perform as expected if the organizational leaders do not take any measures to improve their outcome.


The study presents vital lessons that could help improve one’s career. It illustrates how organizations seeking to achieve better outcome in their activities may consider outsourcing HR specialists. The initiative could create a scenario the business becomes more innovative and aware about other cultures. Outsourcing HR specialists may benefit the firm in the way the group attains an image that represents of all cultures. The evaluation shows the importance of training the workers to accustom them to the local practices and beliefs, as well as to equip them with communication skills that the locals understand. It emerges that motivating the HR specialists using various methodologies could also help to improve their performance and that of the organization. The revelations from the study could be of great importance to me because of the insight that could help to influence my career. I learn the importance of diversity in improving efficiency in the workforce, and I also get to know the benefits of training workers to equip them with the relevant skills and knowledge. The study further informs me the need to watch out for the possible demerits of outsourcing HR specialists, which may also be beneficial while serving in my career. Leaders in the contemporary times should borrow vital lessons from the report that could help them improve not only their HR-related activities, but also their general outcome. The business leaders, nonetheless, should ensure that they only settle on mechanisms that help the firm attain its desires to remain competitive.


Adler, P. (2007). Making the HR outsourcing decision. Sloan Management Review, 1, 23-29.

Adu-Oppong, A. (2014). Communication in the workplace: Guidelines for improving effectiveness. G.J.C.M.P., 3(5), 208-213.

Bruce, A. (2002). Building a high morale workplace. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.  

Green, K., et al. (2012). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tool. Retrieved from

Jiang, B., Frazier, G. V., & Prater, E. L. (2006). Outsourcing effects on firms operational performance. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 26(12), 1280–1300.

Koltko-Rivera, M. (2006). Rediscovering the later version of Maslow hierarchy of needs: Self transcendence and opportunity for theory, research, and unification. Review of General Psychology, 10(4), 302-307. 

Majumdar, A. (2016). The advantage of globalization. International Journal of Education and Human Development, 2(6), 77.

McIvor, R. (2008). What is the right outsourcing strategy for your process? European Management Journal, 26(1), 24–34.

Patel, D. (2017). The pros and cons of outsourcing. Retrieved from

Pearlstein, S. (2012). Outsourcing: What’s the true impact? Counting jobs is only part of the answer. Retrieved from

Totka, M. (2018). Benefits of HR outsourcing: How even small businesses can provide great HR. Retrieved from


Troaca, A., & Bodislav, A. (2012). Outsourcing. the concept . Theoretical and Applied Economics, 9(6), 51–58.


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Understanding the Case

In March 2015, news spread all over the United States of a teenage girl, Cassandra C., who was forced into chemotherapy despite her decision not to. According to CNN news, Cassandra was forced by the court decision to go through approximately six months of cancer chemotherapy, after she had been diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma.[1]  As stated in her medical reports by medical professionals, she had 85 percent survival chances if she went through chemotherapy, but had two years to live if she did not consider it. After she received the diagnosis, it is said that Cassandra and her mother- Jackie Fortin- did not show up for her follow-up appointments. This raised the concern of the medical experts who then contacted the Connecticut Department of Children and Families on thoughts of medical neglect. The children and family department decided to carry out an investigation after which they requested to put the patient under temporary custody where she was no longer in her mother’s care but that of a relative. She was only given the condition to return home only if she agreed to undergo the recommended treatment.

Cassandra did not approve of chemotherapy but was put through it anyway. According to documents released by the court and as reported by CNN, the patient ran away in November 2015 after having been put in chemotherapy for only two days.[2] She went back to her home and talked to her mother about discontinuing chemotherapy. The mother was opposed to the treatment claiming that Cassandra did not want her body “poisoned” by the entire process. Following the court judgment, Cassandra was returned to the care of the Children and Families Department. She then got a medical admission to Connecticut Children’s Medical Center in Hartford. Despite legal maneuvers to stop medics from the chemotherapy process, the doctors began administering chemotherapy medication through a surgically inserted port on her chest. Doctors claimed that with only two chemotherapy sessions left, Cassandra felt better, and given that the treatment was started early, the side effects were not as adverse as she thought they would be.[3] The mother and her attorney failed in their attempt before Connecticut Supreme Court to present evidence that her daughter was old enough to make medical decisions on her own.  The court ruled out Connecticut State had the right to make the teenager go through the therapy sessions.

Why the Case Is an Ethics Issue and Not a Legal Issue

After reading through the case, I chose it as an ethical issue rather than a legal issue. In as much as there were legal proceedings involved, making an ethical decision or rather acting ethically played the major role in the ultimate decisions to have the teenager undergo chemotherapy. According to a number of bioethics professionals, the court was justified to make such a ruling. When medical experts clarify that a medical choice or treatment has an 80-85 percent chance to cure the condition, with the effects of denying treatment being death, then the highest chance shows that the benefits of the chosen treatment outweigh any other medical alternatives.[4] Getting a few weeks or months in a hospital with forced therapy or medication is just a small price that should be paid for a life with a promised future. The mother’s belief in other types of cancer treatment was irrational as they would risk her daughter’s life. Therefore, it was ethical for the hospital to put Cassandra through chemotherapy rather than work with the 15 percent chance of her dying within the two years window period.

To several patients, alternative therapies may appear attractive. Among the most interesting aspect of lymphoma therapies is the notion that alternative therapies are not as toxic as traditional chemotherapies. This was Cassandra’s argument that she did not want to poison her body. Well, one cannot deny that conventional chemotherapy is toxic and can have significant impacts on patients.[5] However, I believe that evidence-based medicine can cure a condition. The doctors stated that chemotherapy had 80 to 85 percent of curing Cassandra’s disease. I believe that the treatment of any tumors should be founded on evidence collected from several clinical tests designed to show how effective cancer therapies are. If any other treatment showed substantial evidence to treat Cassandra’s cancer, then I would consider it. However, if there is a lack of considerable evidence that the alternative treatment can treat the tumor, then this is a decision that I would leave to the medical experts. In other cases, if the decision to not go through the traditional chemotherapy were made by an adult, then I would say that medics would educate, persuade, and counsel them. Still, if their decision would remain the same, then it would be important to respect their choice. However, when the decision is made by a teenager, then I have to support the Connecticut Supreme Court on their judgment that Cassandra lacked the maturity to decide on alternative therapies.

The court decided that the patient did not have the decisional capacity of choosing not to undergo chemotherapy. Teenagers are wise and can achieve a number of things; however, maturity is not one of those things. Usually, this age group shows risk-taking behaviors if left unsupervised. Adolescents who commit crimes are often given less punitive judgments, given that their age plays a role in determining the responsibility of their actions.[6] This is to say that society generally expects that people who engage in particular activities to have a certain level of maturity to deal with the actions and decisions associated with those activities. According to the Supreme Court, Cassandra was legally a minor. This means that only a guardian or the parent has the legitimate authority to make the decision on her behalf. In this case, the mother defended her daughter’s decision. Courts, however, have the mandate to overrule the decision of a parent if it, in any case, threatens their offspring health or life. If that happens, then the custody is temporarily removed from the parents and assigned to a particular guardian who can make medical decisions for the teenager. Cassandra lacked the maturity level to decide on the type of medication to cure her cancer. If she had failed to receive the necessary therapy, she would probably have died of a potentially treatable condition.

Exploring the Unjustified Ethics of the Case

Some of the ethical decision, as explained in the discussion above, can be justified, while others cannot.  If Casandra’s treatment were a one-time or quick therapy- may be uncomfortable or painful- then it would be justifiable to force treatment on her as it would help more than it would harm her. However, in Cassandra’s case, which involved a long-term treatment through therapy, some unethical decisions were made. For one, the teenager claimed that she went through chest surgery, which would enable easy administration of the drugs.  This is justifiable, the fact that they confined her in bed and forced treatment is not. According to several news sources, the teenager stated that she was strapped to a hospital bed by her ankles and wrists and sedated.[7] This is unethical as there was an easier way of putting her through counseling or using “friendly” doctors to talk to her.  She also added that her phone was taken away, and the hospital phone removed, which for any teenager is worse that vomiting or having nausea.  Her mother was only allowed to visit her but under strict supervision from a child welfare staff. She was also not allowed to talk to her mother on the phone, which was traumatizing to her. The above acts are unethical as the Connecticut Department of Children and Families should have sought better ways to directly deal with the issues.

Personal Thoughts Regarding the Case

I would say that thedecisions made by the Connecticut Department of Children and Families can be ethically justified and unjustified, as explained in the discussion. For one, regrets for not undergoing through the treatment would be evident, although Cassandra explained that she understood the repercussions of refusing chemotherapy. A good example is that of Steve Jobs, Apple’s co-founder, who died in 2011 from a rare pancreatic cancer. According to his biographer, Jobs had regrets for refusing to undergo surgery and herbal treatments that were suggested by medical experts, particularly when his condition worsened.[8] Jobs as an adult had complete control over his body and was able to make an informed decision, and his tragic death was partly as a result of his decision to delay therapy. However, in the case of Cassandra, the Connecticut Supreme Court looked at her best interest. The court and the Department of Children and Families gave her the best opportunity to live through adulthood and live a life free of cancer, and I agree with their decision.

I will, however, emphasize the significance of holding a clear communication. Rather than forcing her through chemotherapy and temporary custody, they should have explained to her and the mother the science behind a modern, alternative, and existing medical cancer treatments. If Cassandra’s medical understanding was improved with sociable medical staff, who showed the quality of life, then it is possible that at the end of that involvement, she would have been more enthusiastic about going through the treatment. For instance, if the involved entities presented the patient with previous successful peer narratives or preferably chemotherapy support groups, maybe she would have seen the hope in the chemotherapy process.

The resolution remains uncertain, although medics state that the process was a success. Cassandra might never acknowledge that she was completely cured of Hodgkin lymphoma. Both Cassandra and the mom may be grateful that the involved parties saved her life and thank them for forcing her into chemotherapy, or they might decide to remain insulted, arguing that her freedom to refuse chemotherapy was violated. Whatever the approach she considers, her decree in the matter may not fully resolve the existing ethical dilemma. Legally, she was still a minor, but that does not ethically justify the callous approach taken by the hospital, the court, and the child welfare agency. Despite that reasonable individuals may agree that the actions considered were for the greater good, the brutality cannot be condoned in placing her in foster care, strapping her in the hospital bed, and sedating her. As Immanuel Kant wrote in his philosophy book; the people who will the end, also have the will to the means. However, those who support the idea to forcefully treat a teenage patient, are ethically bound to provide answers on the methods to be used to achieve the end result.


Goldschmidt, Debra. “Connecticut teen in remission as forced chemo nears end.” CNN Health, (March 11) 2015,

Nalpathanchil Lucy. “Can Connecticut force a teenage girl to undergo chemotherapy?” National Public Radio, 2015. .

Potter, Ned. “Steve Jobs regretted delaying cancer surgery 9 months, biographer says.” ABC World News, 2011 .

Viale, Hallquist. “Refusal of Therapy: When Is It Appropriate?” Journal of Advanced Practitioner in Oncology 6, no. 2 (2015): 96–97.

[1]              Debra Goldschmidt, “Connecticut teen in remission as forced chemo nears end.” CNN Health, (March 11) 2015.

[2]              Goldschmidt, 2015.

[3]              Lucy Nalpathanchil, “Can Connecticut force a teenage girl to undergo chemotherapy?” National Public Radio, 2015.

[4]              Hallquist Viale, “Refusal of Therapy: When Is It Appropriate?” Journal of Advanced Practitioner in Oncology 6, no. 2 (2015): 96.

[5]              Hallquist, 96.

[6]              Hallquist, 97.

[7]              Goldschmidt, “Connecticut teen in remission as forced chemo nears end.” 2015.

[8]              Ned Potter, “Steve Jobs regretted delaying cancer surgery 9 months, biographer says.” ABC World News, 2011.

Discipline Investigation best essay help
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Discipline Investigation


Every profession has independent rules and traditions. Investigating the discourse community is essential to comprehend how it works before venturing into a particular profession. In life, the choices people make translates to their success in the future. In short, destiny is a matter of choice; not a matter of chance. The discourse community I will delve into is graphic design. Graphic designing has proved to be an integral component of internet communication. It is fundamental, especially nowadays, that people have embraced the internet, integrating both the real and virtual world into virtual reality. Graphic design surrounds us, and it is a universal art. I chose this field of study because it fits me in different ways. First, I love the fact that working for myself is optional and also, I like creating things that can withstand time. It is a broad field that one can start up their businesses and become successful. However, before conducting the interview, I expected to find out how the interviewee started this career, as well as the education background backed up with the required skills needed for a successful career as a graphic designer. Another aim was to find out the challenges one is supposed to get prepared in this field. Besides, I expected to understand the requirements for the profession as well as the duties and responsibilities.

Interview Report

Background & Career Path

I had an opportunity to interview a successful businessperson who majored into the graphic design field. He founded his company after working for Studio Six company, graphic design and brand firm that is located in Colorado. He worked for the company for three years intending to save to start up his business in the future. Before graduating, he worked for the company as an intern for three months. His designs were unique and very impressive to clients. At Studio Six, the interviewee had a great deal of experience and had the chance to train fresh graphic designers, especially those with little background in graphic designing. After a lengthy interview with him, the most interesting thing was that graphic design was not his passion; he wanted to be a software developer. After joining college, he was influenced by the work of his friend, whose models were impressive. He started with simple designs and progressed to more complicated designs. While in Studio Six, he won major awards and was promoted to be the project manager, a position he held for one year before quitting to start his company.

The interviewee expounded on the main requirement to get started as a graphic designer. I have always assumed that starting a career in graphic designing was a profession that one joins after schooling and learning the basic rules, but he was prompt to clarify that perception. Besides having a degree in graphic design, one has to work extra hard and late hours in the night to perfect their designing skills. It consumes a lot of time. Pursuing graphic design is a significant investment and the first thing needed is making sure it is the right direction for you. Secondly, learning is a daily thing because one is supposed to keep evolving and improving. New problems need to be solved; it is a non-ending whirlwind of innovations. Throughout one’s working life, they are required to improve their skills and knowledge to satisfy the customers.

Pointedly, graphic design domain is expanding (Dziobczenski et al.) even though automation has taken up some jobs. Graphic design will need human thinking and creativity, something that robots cannot provide for specific brands. Apart from that, businesses cannot live without designs, which makes this profession lucrative. He said that graphic designers work as a team or close with the clients, teaming up to bring the best solution.

The interviewee had a lot of expectations while joining the profession. He expected to have his own office with his name written in big letters on the door after being employed. One of the most surprising realities that frustrated the interviewee in his first job as a graphic designer was the fact that the team did not value his ideas and designs. It is the responsibility of the employer to make the client happy, and they are not willing to risk losing the client as the designer cuts their teeth on their first projects. It is the goal of several businesses to meet or exceed clients’ expectations. According to Hyken, happy customers are crucial to the success of any company.

Further, starting a career in graphic design needs one to stay positive while focusing on the prize. Those portraying lousy attitude are not allowed to prove themselves. The interviewee emphasized on having a positive attitude while interacting with workmates to get positive criticism from veteran graphic designers. This helps one to improve on critical areas as well as to master crucial skills required to produce masterpiece designs.

Roles & Responsibilities

It is a common experience for graphic designers to be self-employed. However, there are those individuals that are employed by the government and private institutions. In this profession, there are a lot of opportunities for grabs, but most graduates prefer becoming freelance graphic designers because the pay is reasonable as compared to being employed. Working with established institutions as a newcomer helps one to improve and adopt certain skills required for professional graphic designing.

Moreover, the interviewee is tasked with meeting his clients to evaluate the scope of the project. Since he is self-employed, he hired four graphic designers that work on the projects as he sources for more projects. In case there is a problem, he helps them to solve it promptly. Also, he incorporates changes recommended by the customer in the final design as well as reviewing the designs before publishing. The key to becoming a successful graphic designer is by practicing professionalism, practical insight, as well as creativity to satisfy the client.

Graphic designers create visual concepts to communicate inspiring ideas or captivate consumers. They find work in several areas such as branding and communication media (Bennet) cited in (Dziobczenski et al.). The interviewee pinpointed some of the jobs available for graphic designers, such as logo designers, flash designer, web designer, photoshop artist and layout artist. Walker posits that graphic designer works with editors, writers, illustrators, photographers and others involved in visual language. Graphic designing is crucial in sales and marketing of products since they work with marketers closely to generate eye-catching advertisements that drive sales. Also, graphic designers get jobs in production industries to create graphics utilized in packaging for different products, while others work on visual designs used on book jackets.

The qualifications required for graphic designers is a bachelors’ degree in graphic design. Creativity is one of the vital skills for graphic designers. It is challenging to develop new and innovative designers if one is not creative into tapping into resources. Secondly, one is supposed to have excellent communication skills to comprehend what the client wants to create a successful product. Computer skill and artistic ability are essential in creating mind-boggling designs.

In this profession, there are challenges. The interviewee stated that global competition is the biggest challenge faced in this job. There are online providers of low cost as well as free templates affecting the market. Also, updating equipment poses a challenge because there is new software being rolled out each day. A graphic designer should be flexible and undergo continuous training to update their skills to be on par with the advancing technology. Besides, they are supposed to keep up with modification in consumer preference. Staying attuned to fast-changing trends with clients of different cultural backgrounds, generation and tech-savvy is vital to avoid being irrelevant in the industry.

Communication Skills

Graphic design technically is visual communication. Ideas are communicated through text and image. Consequently, communication skills can break or make any design project. According to Snell, many of the graphic designers are introverted and enjoy working alone, but communicating with clients is challenging. The interviewee explained that one must possess strong communication skills to improve your performance in this field. Designing is client service, and it requires communication between the client and the service provider (Snell). Without effective communication, there will be difficulties in finalizing the design to meet the client’s standards because they understand their business more than you. The interaction between graphic designers might be in a writing or verbal form.

Pointedly, the interviewee stated that one must possess excellent negotiation and listening skills to convince the client to work with them. Some of the clients do not understand industry jargon, which requires the designer to communicate with them with more straightforward language for effective communication. The client will have a better grasp of what is being done, and one can get more referral clients. Communication can be through phone, face-to-face, e-mail and skype. Besides, communication with other co-workers is through e-mails or phone. However, the interviewee stated that explaining oneself well is an important communication skill since most of the designers say things that confuse the client, and it may affect your performance.


The most interesting thing about the interview and research is the fact that one doesn’t need to have a degree in graphic design to venture into this field. As a graphic designer, one needs to be creative to create the best designs and the ability to use computer software effectively. He suggested that continuous practice and learning is the only way to master graphic design because there are new problems posed each day that should be solved. However, this changed my expectations about the field, to pursue graphic designs to a professional level. The interviewee suggested that one should work in start-up companies first because there is lots of work, and they value teamwork to create the best designs. A self-employment is an option in a graphic design career, and there are many opportunities in the market.

Works Cited

Dziobczenski, Paulo Roberto Nicoletti et al. “Designing Career Paths in Graphic Design: A Document Analysis of Job Advertisements for Graphic Design Positions in Finland”. The Design Journal, vol 21, no. 3, 2018, pp. 349-370.

Hyken, Shep. “How Happy Employees Make Happy Customers”. Forbes.Com, 2017, Accessed 19 November 2019

Snell, Steven. “Designers and Communication Skills: Why and How to Improve”. Vandelay Design, 2016, Accessed 19 November 2019

Walker, Sue. “Research in Graphic Design”. The Design Journal, vol 20, no. 5, 2017, pp. 549-559.


Why did you work for Studio Six Company?Why did you decide to pursue graphic design as a profession?What are the qualifications required for one to a graphic designer?How did you start your business and why?What are the readings and writings need in this career path?  How can one communicate to clients effectively?What are the responsibilities for your job?What are the challenges you face in this job?

argumentative Essay on Gun Control best college essay help
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Argumentative Essay on Gun Control


The discourse on gun control remains controversial eliciting both positive and negative perceptions on legislative measures currently in place to regulate gun ownership. The sensitiveness assigned to this matter is emphasized as it affects a vast portion of the American population. According to statistics, out of 100 people, 120.5 guns are owned within this group totaling to 393,347,000 guns (Spitzer 33). This is the highest number of guns owned globally on a national scale. Furthermore, 20% of the American population owns at least one or more guns. Out of this populous, 35% are men and 12% is comprised of women (Cramer 44). The culture of gun ownership has been propagated by tradition espoused from revolutionary roots and cultural history, the second amendment and frontier expansion. These facets support the necessity of adherence to the legislature citing Americans are entitled to bear and own arms hence this right should not be infringed. Legislators and lobbyists supportive of gun regulation have availed various arguments alluding to the importance of this legislature dealing with heightened crime rates, firearm related suicide and gun violence cases that are increasingly rampant (Cramer 45). Mass shooting being ranked as a top priority in enacting regulatory measures. The opposing argument emphasizing on compliance to second amendment pertaining to gun ownership fails to avail a practical reporting on the effectiveness of self-defense and crime deterrence as outcomes of gun possession. This paper focuses on arguing on the key importance outcomes of gun control and the requisite of its implementation reinforcing protection to the American population.

Reduced Homicide Rates

The relationship between homicide rates and gun ownership is one of the major focus points driving the gun control agenda. With the increase of gun-related homicides, this protocol serves as an important strategy in reducing such cases. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation reports, the early 1980s marked a significant decline in violent crime rates. However over the years, more firearm-related cases particularly homicides have steadily increased. In 1993, the crime rates were lower in comparison to 2000 (Spitzer 25). The figures were decreasing yearly by up to 11% decline. However, 2000 marked a significant increment rising by a 2% increase with a total estimation of 8662 death. 2003 also experienced an upsurge with a reported 9,659 death homicides and a11.2% increase (Spitzer 28). Evaluating numbers in 2004, there was a slight shrinkage of 3.2% with 9,326 homicide deaths reported (Cramer 47). From 2005 onwards, firearm-related homicides have continued to accelerate. From this evaluation, it is evident that an estimated 60% of all reported cases concerning homicides are attributed to firearm ownership. This report negates the position by opponents citing the lack of adequate research in demonstrating a strong correlation between homicides and gun ownership and availability (Spitzer 30). Additionally, it provides supportive backing on the claim that gun control seeks to address the issues of homicides which contribute significantly to higher violent crime rates in the United States.

High Economic Cost to the Society

A further justification that refutes the alleged negatives of firearm regulation by opponents is the economic cost incurred associated with medical services used in treating cases of perpetrated firearm violence (Richards III 167). With the consideration of personal suffering experienced by victims subjected to this form of vehemence and subsequent impact on their families, it is also imperative to assess the financial burden it imposes to the country. Various ways have been identified in highlighting these outcomes. Firstly, the victim requires expensive healthcare services which are either long-term or short-term treatment. They include rehabilitation, therapy, and surgery (Richards III 167). On a yearly basis, the fiscal cost of accessing these treatments is appraised at 2 billion dollars. Secondly, there are hidden costs associated with firearm violence yet to be considered by firearm regulation opponents (Cramer 50). They including law enforcement expenditure, victimization costs, as well as prosecution and detention of offenders. Cumulatively, the United States spends roughly 100 billion dollars in servicing expenses associated with firearm violence (Richards III 167). These monetary resources can be easily redirected to other capital intensive government projects through enactment gun control measures which will in turn decrease gun availability and subsequently reduce the number of gun violence victims seeking medical attention or legal justice.

Violent Crime Rates

Increased firearm circulation is the primary causal factor leading to escalated crime rates and increased reports of gun violence within any given society (Spitzer 34). Studies conducted have provided sufficient proof proving private gun ownership results into greater homicide cases (Cramer 53). This affirmative correlation is the basis of promoting firearm regulation as it confines access to guns by civilians hence imparting a positive effects in terms of crime prevention. Despite the fact that gun ownership has no noteworthy correlation with other violent crimes, it is critical note to homicide rates contribute considerably to the overall quantification of violent crime rates within a community (Cramer 57). With this in mind, firearm proprietorship does add to crime rates hence provoking the prerequisite to control the number of guns owned by civilians.

Another important factor to deliberate on is the central justification rationalizing the connection between criminal gun possession and private ownership. With the increased illegal gun markets, there is an escalated quantity of firearms owned by private entities. The existence of illegal markets, criminals have increased opportunities to access firearm from licensed dealers without essentially procuring from them (Spitzer 44). Further worsening the situation, the unregulated ancillary markets and illegitimate markets make available the right platform for criminals to obtain guns used to perpetuate their criminal act. Lastly, there has been a heightened escalation of firearm robbery. According to statistics, approximately 500,000 firearms are stolen on a yearly (Cramer 56). Therefore, without any regulation, it translates to extensive gun ownership by law abiding citizens who end up having their guns stolen growing the availability of firearms to delinquents. From this elaboration, there is a clear indication criminals can easily access firearms through these loopholes and opportunities created by unregulated gun proprietorship  promoting crime and violence in American communities

Significant Reduction of Crimes Rates in Countries with Restrictive Gun Use Policies

Countries that have placed restrictive firearm control provide an exemplary example on the effectiveness of this regulation within a country (Lott 5). A case study of Australia is vitally central in understanding the relationship between fewer guns and abridged violent crime rates. In comparing the United States with Australia, both states reveal cultural similarities in terms of their frontier mentality and private gun ownership statute (Lott 11). Another similarity is the higher populations in urban areas. Therefore, these countries have comparable structures and should provide a reliable presentation on their relatedness in crime rates and gun ownership. The enactment of gun control in Australia was motivated by the several shootings that occurred in Queens Street, Port Arthur, Strathfield, Hoddle Street and Central Coast massacre. These events led to reconsideration of firearm violence within the country. The National Firearms Program Implementation Act passed in 1996 with the aim of ensuring legalized firearm licensing across all territories and States under the government buy-back program targeted the reacquisition of semi-automatic rifles (LaFollette 16). From this program, the government has effectively managed to re-acquire 650,000 gun causing a significant firearm stock reduction by 20%. Moreover, gun ownership has plummeted significantly to 5% which is a direct representation of 750,000 Australians (LaFollette 18). Within the short time period the legislation has been enacted, Australia has been able to unmistakably decrease gun related homicide and suicide rate.

Other countries that have successfully implemented firearm regulation and have the similar income revenue levels as America includes Netherlands, Canada, and Asia (Kapusta, et al. 254). International studies reveal that in the cited nations, there has been a significant decrease in crime rate due to gun control (Lott 67). Further studies a positive correlation between firearm availability and the degree of criminal violence asserted by perpetrators when conducting criminal activity (Cramer 58). A perfect example is New Zealand, Australia and Canada which had an amplified availability of publicly owned firearms, however, following the institutionalization of firearm regulation, these countries have experienced lower criminal gun use. From this explanation, arguments against gun control are biased on the facts that gun control is ineffective in restricting crime (Cramer 60 ). Additionally, these case studies indicate America can ominously profit from this law as a means of curbing the ever escalated gun related homicide rates and suicide rates as well as other violent crimes

Critical Interpretation of the Second Amendment

The argument against gun control is usually reliant on a restrictive definition of the Second Amendment. According to the Supreme Court ruling by McDonald and Heller, each American citizen has a right to own a firearm (Lott 89). However, from a close assessment of this Act shows that firearm restrictions can be implemented without breaching this statute. Firstly, the amendment is obsolete and outdated in the modern day setting considering the heightened level of public protection offered by highly trained law enforcement agents (LaFollette 20). Therefore, civilians do not necessarily require guns for their own protection. Secondly, a proper definition of the premises in this amendment is intention of protecting the nation’s right by guaranteeing the Militia is shielded from suppression by the Federal Government. The arguments supporting gun control claim individual rights for each citizen to gun ownership is unfounded (Lott 89). The third evaluation outweighs the power of this legislature in limiting gun restriction because the government is still mandated as the primary authority to regulate the use of firearms particularly so if the guns acquisitioned legally are not designed for sporting for hunting purposes.

The government firearm control measure is derived from the difference between derivative rights and fundamental rights which is the basis of this argument. According to LaFollette (25), fundamental rights are described as those granted by an authority and they cannot be breached. An instance of such right is the freedom of speech. On the other hand derivative rights are those availed to a citizen derived from their fundamental rights as espousedby law. For example, people are allowed to engage in activities such as drinking alcohol as it is an elementary right to follow one’s interest (Lott 70). However, the difference is based on the capacity to regulate. According to many supporters of gun control, firearm bearing is a derived right therefore it is permissible for regulation (LaFollette 26). With this mindset, it simply means the government is within its rights to impose control of a gun use without committing any violation. Furthermore, it is important to consider in regulation of derived rights is allowed based on evidence showing positive impacts on the society. With the substantive amount of evidential proof supporting gun control demonstrating various benefits ranging from lowered crime rates, less suicide cases and cost effectiveness in dealing with crime, they validate firearm control.

Self Defense and Gun Ownership

Supporters of gun ownership often present self-defense as a justification, however, research has proven the correlation ship between gun possession and self-defense are often unreliable and very greatly (Lott 65). The ruling by Heller and McDonald in the Supreme Court reiterates on the importance of adhering to the fundamental rights for every American to own a firearm with the intention of self-defense (LaFollette 21). A close analysis on these statistic indicates there is a continued rise of violent crime victims that have used their personal firearm gun for self-defense from criminals. According to the National Crime Victimization survey, self-defense has contributed to 600,000 deaths constituting 1% of the total number of violent crime victims recorded (LaFollette 34). Another study indicated that only 4% of Americans operate their firearm for self-defense with the intent of averting crime based on analysis conducted within a five year span. From this figure, compared to the high number of guns cited at 120 guns amongst 100 Americans, it signifies guns are not commonly used for self-defense as argued by gun ownership supporters.

 A survey compiled by the Florida State University criminology department showed between 1988 and 1993, the reported cases on self-defense totaled to 2.5 million. This survey provide statistics used by opponents to rationalize the importance of gun ownership (LaFollette 50). However, numerous reasons negate the validity of these statistics supporting firearm proprietorship. Firstly, there is limited collection of data on the use of firearm by individual gun owners for self-defense or property (Lott 98). Another issue is the application of numerous methodologies in studying self-defense and the use firearms. This has led to varied conclusions and deductions limiting authenticity of conclusions drawn (LaFollette 64). Thirdly, the criminal justice department often focuses on reporting statistics that are provided or recorded as opposed to the actual number of cases. It is important to note that within the law enforcement industry, criminal activities perpetrated using guns are mostly under-reported because offenders and victims are often reluctant to disclose any information due to fear of arrest or intimidation (LaFollette 67). With the consideration of this issues concerning the authenticity and reliability of statistics derived from research on self-defense gun use, this argument fails in openly provisioning proof to support the claim on gun ownership.


With the increased events of gun related deaths and mass shootings in the USA, most studies have focused on evaluating the effectiveness of gun control as well as the underlying causative factors that endorse crime in order to generate public policies intent on resolving this current vice. Evidently, this is an emotional topic that elicits intense debates from both opponents and proponents of firearm ownership pertaining to the relationship between crime and gun ownership (Kapusta, et al. 256). This discourse supports the importance of gun control as it correlates to crime rate particularly homicides and violent crimes. Basing on this assessment, firearm restrictions are effective in lowering violent crime incidences, reducing the overall cost in Healthcare services provided for violent crime victims and in legislation fees. Also, the implementation of gun control reinforces protection offered to the general public as a fundamental right therefore, the derivative right of gun ownership can be overlooked as the former avails benefits to the society.

Works Cited

Cramer, Clayton E. “Gun Prevalence and Crime Rates: Is There a Relationship?” SSRN Electronic Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, 2016, pp. 45-67.

Kapusta, Nestor D., et al. “Firearm legislation reform in the European Union: impact on firearm availability, firearm suicide and homicide rates in Austria.” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 191, no. 3, 2007, pp. 253-257.

LaFollette, Hugh. In Defense of Gun Control. Oxford UP, 2018.

Lott, John R. The Bias Against Guns: Why Almost Everything You’Ve Heard About Gun Control Is Wrong. Simon & Schuster, 2003.

Richards III, Edward P. “Gun violence—the real costs.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 21, no. 1, 2002, p. 167.

Spitzer, Robert J. The Politics of Gun Control. Paradigm Pub, 2012.

Rejection of Genetically Modified Food Aid, Zambia custom essay help
Rejection of Genetically Modified Food Aid, Zambia

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Rejection of Genetically Modified Food Aid, Zambia

Background Information

Genetically modified (GM) has raised controversies worldwide concerning food security. The development of GM crops commenced in 1996 and has expanded in the past few years (Cui & Shoemaker, 2018). Countries producing GM crops have benefited from the technology by attaining a stable economy, improved food security as well as improved quality of life amongst its population. The increased income is helpful to the resource-poor farmers in the developing countries such as Egypt, South Africa and Burkina Faso (Adenle, 2011). However, in this case, the Zambian government rejected approximately thirty-five thousand tons of genetically modified food aid in 2002. At that time, hunger had struck the country, with roughly three million individuals experienced a lack of food (Lewin, 2007). Consequently, the villagers became anemic, and those living with HIV infection kept on deteriorating as their immunity system collapsed. The government of Zambia has remained firm concerning GM foods even though other African countries still embrace both milled and nonmilled GM food import.

The author designed a set of policies attempting to deal with the variation within the iron triangle and the chronic poverty, identified as the root cause of the need for the exigency for food relief. In essence, the policies were to make sure food aid is utilized effectively, and it is welcomed by the Zambian stakeholders and other southern Africa countries as well as other donor nations. (Lewin, 2007). Policies addressing the food crisis should incorporate ways for using the aid from donor countries efficacious and coherent policy towards GM food relief. Receiving countries are at verge to either accept or reject food aid or import, and they can ask for milled GM imports. Also, the medium to long-term approach needed to establish a sustainable enhanced social and economic well-being. Implementation of these policies will improve the way food aid is allocated and it will prevent cases of GM foods.

Current Situation

The anti-GM campaign in Zambia drew attention to the whole world despite many groups lobbying for the GM foods. Poverty is tied to food aid in Africa because if there were an improved economy and social well-being of its population, food aid would have been a past thing. Consequently, some are in support of the GM food aid, whereas others claim that it should be rejected no matter the circumstance. The author of the case identified that the United States have been faulted for taking advantage of the food relief system to profit a particular group of agribusinesses and shippers. Besides, non-governmental organizations have been blamed for being dependent on food relief. Pointedly, the United States have been campaigning heavily for the acceptance of GM foods within the European Union as well as Southern Africa (Lewin, 2007). After the rejection of the GM food relief by the Zambian government, the countries’ food security state is devastating.

World Food Programme (WFP), and the iron triangle, which comprises three stakeholders, namely; NGOs, shippers and U.S agribusinesses were involved in rescuing Zambia’s hunger strike. It is the leading food donor across the globe, and the United States gives two-thirds of food relief for emergencies. In the U.S., food from farms is donated directly for shipment instead of providing cash, an action that is executed by other donor countries. According to the author, there is increased farming of GM food in the U.S. which translates to its highest food aid contribution (Lewin, 2007). However, WFP has been providing food aid to Zambia before the rejection of 35, 000 tons of food relief in 2002, something that brought a discussion on the possibility of the GM food within their region. Markedly, WFP aims to fight hunger across the globe by providing relief food in case of emergencies and work closely with communities to improve the quality of life. In this case, people in Zambia were in a bad state, and they were forced to survive at all cost. As the leading humanitarian organization, their objective is to end hunger worldwide by making sure there is food security.

Prioritizing Issues

From the case rejection of GM foods in Zambia, several factors led to this problem of food insecurity. First, the country experienced harsh weather conditions that comprised of erratic rainfall as well as extreme drought. It affected the farming practice within the country because the conditions are not favorable. Secondly, the government is infested with corruption leading to mismanagement of food supplies. Large sums of funds are lost to the corruption that keeps disorienting the economy and social development. According to Carnell (2001) cited in Lewin (2007), the auditor’s general showed misapplication of billions each day. If the funds were used for the right course, the problem of food insecurity in Zambia would have been eradicated. Corruption inhibits economic growth of a country, making it lag. Thirdly, Zambia lacks natural resources that can help sustain its population. As a result, it attracts food aid to combat severe hunger conditions. Most developing countries are provided with food aid to sustain their population. Besides, there is distorted trade policies in the country which lowers the country’s economic output. Lastly, the spread of poverty is attributed to widespread HIV/AIDS infection (Lewin, 2007).

However, the core focus of the case study was the set policies that address the inadequacies in tackling chronic poverty in the country as well as imbalance depicted with the iron triangle. No policy prohibits the consumption of GM foods, and WFP receives most of its food donation from U.S. According to Paarlberg (2010), the U.S. have advanced their farming practice with the help of new technologies, and there is no reported risk so far. However, the government rolled out policies to strengthen its stand against GM foods. Apart from banning GM foods, these legislations penalize that who act against the biosafety legislation. Consequently, lobbying for the use of GM foods is ongoing, even though the research by the lobbyist indicated the challenges of the GM crops to the environment. There is no danger posed by GM foods to animals and humans. Moreover, the author did not delve into the cause of poverty which is the major cause of seeking food aid. Poverty-stricken countries encounter food shortages. It is a root issue to be prioritized when developing ways that promote food security in Zambia.

Analyzing Alternatives

In the past, the government tried to curb GM foods to be stepping up its legislation. The legislation aimed to contribute to the safe movement, handling and utilizing the modified microorganisms, for instance, the engineered animals, plants and microbes which traverse borders. Another aim of the protocol was to prevent severe impacts on the sustainable utilization of biodiversity with no effect on World Food Trade. The government understood that when they encourage the propagation of GM foods, they will lose exporting their products to the European Union, which had banned the consumption of GM food. However, before organisms are imported, the protocol allows nations the chance to get more information. It is the right of every country to regulate the utilization of bio-engineered products due to various reasons. Also, these legislations establish a framework that assists undeveloped nations to conserve their biodiversity (Lewin, 2007).

Further, the new protocol to help eradicate GM foods in the country requires the importer to label and document all the shipment. The details of the exporter and the importer must be documented, which helps nations to know what is being received. In short, Zambia and other developing countries have the opportunity to see the background of the food aid as well as imported products. Despite this legislation helping to stop GM foods from entering the country, it does not solve the problem of food security.

Existing literature indicates that GM foods are beneficial and can help fight hunger. A research conducted by Broadbent (2011) suggests that support to GM foods would benefit the economy of the country by changing the policies. Lifting bans on bio-engineered products by developing policies will not be useful; instead, the population will continue suffering. However, if proper protocols are put in place, small scale farmers will not be affected, a common criticism that has been coined by researchers. Adenle (2011) posits that over four decades, African countries were bypassed after the implementation of the Green Revolution. The main reason for the slow acceptance of GM technology is that there are no beneficiaries, such as scientists and farmers, to GM crops. It was propelled by the international influence against GM foods which has led to African nations not adopting GM technology.


In providing solutions to food security and prevention of the use of GM foods, the practical approach to solving the food crisis in Zambia is by allowing the use of bio-engineered products while curbing any risk to the environment or human health (Paaarlberg, 2010). Applying this standard will help improve food production, which leads to sustainable development. However, no evidence has been documented approving that GMOs have posed threats to environmental and human health. Studies have been conducted about GM products on human and environmental health; it was approved for use, but a consensus came out that there is no risk involved with these bio-engineered products (Paarlberg, 2010). GMO products have not interfered with nature, and there was evidence that GMOs have transferred advantages to other crop products such as tolerance. Embracing GM foods in Zambia will solve the problem of food security and the problem with lifting bans.

With embracing GM foods, sceptics need to understand that studies that have been done for more than 15 years after the inception of GM technology have indicated no risk to either human or environmental health. People against GM foods have no proof to lift bans. It is logically impossible to prove that something is absent. Shoemaker & Cui (2018) coin that public perception has brought a considerable impact on adopting the product. The case of Zambia rejecting GM foods, yet its population was struck with hunger brought debate across the world.  However, Lewin (2007) has indicated that people broke into GM food storage units. In Africa, agriculture is the backbone of its economy, and there is a need to improve farming practices. According to Adenle (2011), the solution is embracing GM technology out of which its probable benefits in eradicating hunger and poverty, improving quality of life and food security.

Establishing an Action Plan

For the adoption of the new biotechnology, a coherent strategy such as educating the public, farmers and government institution on the importance of GM foods will help solve these problems. Campaigns to acknowledge GM foods should be flagged so that people can comprehend the benefits involved. The African population is growing at a fast pace and action need to be in place to ensure there is food security to stop depending on food aid. Also, the government can remove the ban on GM foods and develop a strategy that monitors its use in the country to mitigate any risks. Eradicating poverty is through empowerment by use of modern methods of farming to increase production, 60% of its population still depends on agriculture (Paarlberg, 2010).

Implementing the adoption of GM technology is a collective responsibility, both the government, private institutions as well the public. The policies set by the government can affect the success of this recommendation positively or negatively. It is their role to oversee the well-being of its population. African countries are still dependent on foreign aid. Averagely, African nations are four-times as aid-dependent relative to the gross domestic product compared to the developing world (Paarlberg, 2010).

However, implementation of the recommendation can be done immediately to uproot this problem in the country. Chronic poverty has slowed the growth of the country’s economy. Despite the lack of required infrastructure and skilled personnel, it can be outsourced to reduce this menace. It will lead to improved quality of life and a sustainable economy.


The case of rejecting GM food aid in Zambia has helped highlight the reason for rejection. Further, the author pinpoints the force behind the food aid and the major contributors to food aid. The set policies for long-term and short-term strategies to food aid quoted poverty as the primary cause of the food crisis. The U.S is a continuation with the production of GM foods because there is substantial evidence against it. Apart from Zambia, the case also highlighted other African countries that have entirely banned GM foods which were crucial to making a comparison on the impact of the ban. The set policies greatly influence the adoption of GM foods.

Compared to Zambia, in the U.S, GM technology has been embraced wholeheartedly, and it has benefited them. Despite the rejection of GM foods from the U.S, they are still the leading contributor to food aid. There are no cases of food insecurity in the U.S because they have more produce. Also, compared to Europe who have banned GM foods, African countries are dependent on agriculture, and they should make policies independently and avoid outside influence. Besides, a country like South Africa have benefitted from the adoption of GM technology over the past decade (Adenle, 2011). In short, chronic poverty can be resolved by accepting GM foods. Over the past decade, research has indicated that effective use of GM crops that can translate to sustainable development.


Adenle, A. A. (2011). Response to issues on GM agriculture in Africa: Are transgenic crops safe? BMC research notes, 4(1), 388.

Broadbent, E. (2012). Politics of research-based evidence in African policy debates. London: Overseas Development Institute.

Cui, K., & Shoemaker, S. P. (2018). Public perception of genetically-modified (GM) food: a nationwide Chinese consumer study. npj Science of Food, 2(1), 10.

Lewin, A. C. (2007). Zambia and genetically modified food aid (4-4). Case Studies in Food Policy for Developing Countries: Policies for Health, Nutrition, Food Consumption, and Poverty, 1, 183.

Paarlberg, R. (2010). GMO foods and crops: Africa’s choice. New Biotechnology, 27(5), 609-613.

Health Information Privacy college essay help near me
Health Information Privacy

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Health Information Privacy


            Health information privacy is an important aspect to consider in the provision of holistic, patient-centered care. Over the years, technological advancements in healthcare resulted in an increased availability of patient information on various digital platforms. The federal government, in its capacity, incorporated effective policies aimed at regulating the use of patient information and the protection of patient privacy. This move was achieved through the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996), whose primary aim is to guarantee data privacy. The policy also outlines provisions that focus on the protection of medical information at all levels. This law gained prominence in the recent past due to the increased risk of data breaches resulting from ransomware attacks and cyberattacks on health providers and insurers. The purpose of this analysis is to highlight the significance of health information privacy, and the significance of HIPAA in achieving this goal. The targeted level of policy is healthcare systems where most of the health data is stored. The policy analysis aims to determine if the current policies on health information privacy are effective, and recommend potential recommendations to improve their applicability.


            In the recent past, major headlines have highlighted major data breaches and extensive cyberattack incidents resulting in the theft of more than 100 million records. These breaches can be detrimental, often resulting in businesses shutting down, and leaving customers susceptible to identity theft. While any data theft is potentially dangerous, the breach of healthcare information presents more concern for patients. Health information is personal, often containing information that many people would prefer to keep confidential. Additionally, this information could affect insurance coverage or employment opportunities, which is why it is important to maintain confidentiality. Cohen and Mello (2018) also note that health information is long-living, in the sense that the consequences can be irreversible. Medical professionals have also made the point of collecting comprehensive information (medical, financial, and sociodemographic content) that can leave patients very vulnerable. However, it is important for the clinicians to have access to accurate patient data to facilitate effective diagnosis and to make the entire process more efficient.

Existing Policy

            The federal government enforced the HIPAA as a measure towards guaranteeing the privacy of patient information in the clinical setting. The purpose of this policy is to guarantee the provision of healthcare coverage for employees who change or lose employment. It also reduces the administrative healthcare cost through the standardization of how financial and administrative transactions are transmitted. In terms of patient privacy, the policy focuses on combating data abuse and fraudulent activity while ensuring access to health insurance. It also outlines limitations to disclosure and utilization of patient health information. The aim is to protect patient privacy by requiring medical professionals to outline the individuals with access to the disclosed information.


            HIPAA is beneficial to patients as it guarantees privacy regarding patient information and in the decision-making processes involved in healthcare. It also limits discrimination against patients based on their preexisting conditions. Patients also have the opportunity to get involved in their treatment plan by contributing to the development of their medical file. The policy also facilitated the establishment of a subsidiary industry that offers guidance and support to medical professionals on adherence to patient privacy regulation. Medical professionals have a responsibility to ensure security of health data by having a backup, implementing physical security measures, and preventing intrusion by malicious data.


Despite these strengths, the policy increased the time taken for patients to receive care by extending the administrative duties. Healthcare providers incurred significant costs in the migration from paper-based to digital information. While the cost of non-compliance is unknown, healthcare providers are required to pay heavy fines for violations, an aspect that can cause facilities to shut down. Berwick and Gaines (2018) also point out that the process of resolving violations is not transparent, and in some cases, patients are left in the dark on the progress of their cases. Additionally, it makes it difficult for healthcare providers to share patient information which could be integral in the provision of care.

Key Stakeholders

            The primary stakeholders affected by this policy are the patients. Patients require confidentiality in the healthcare setting, and this regulation aims to guarantee them this right. Healthcare providers are also affected as they have to implement effective policies and standards to ensure the security of patient information. It also affects health insurers whose responsibility is to facilitate billing and financing healthcare costs. Government institutions are also impacted as they function to enforce the regulation and to ensure compliance.


Alternative Policies to Achieve Objectives

            A suitable and currently enforced alternative to HIPAA is the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. The HITECT Act was implemented as a motivation for health providers to implement electronic health records and other associated technologies across the country (Halamka & Tripathi, 2017). Under Subtitle D, the act highlights the security and privacy issues of health information transmission. It outlines specific provisions that health organizations should follow to strengthen the implementation of the HIPAA regulations.

HITECH Analysis

            Upon its establishment, HIPAA provided information guidelines regarding the type of data to be released with or without the patient’s authorization. To this extent, HITECH enforced specific notification requirements that were somewhat similar to those of HIPAA. The requirements were based on the various state data breach laws particularly regarding patient identifiable information. Health providers are also required to notify patients upon exposure to a security breach especially if there was no encryption on the data. Under this policy, a security breach was defined as the unauthorized access, disclosure, acquisition, or utilization of patient health information that resulted in the security being compromised. Patients should be notified of any breach within a span of 60 days without any delays. The healthcare provider should also alert the Office for Civil Rights in the Department of Health and Human Services within the same time frame (Mennemeyer, Menachemi, Rahurkar, & Ford, 2016). The implementation of these regulations functioned to complement the efforts of HIPAA, while ensuring patient information protection.


            The goal of the policy was to ensure the implementation of digitization in healthcare without affecting the security of patient information. The act manages to achieve this goal by outlining regulations on how to ensure security. Some of the measures that organizations can implement include data encryption, using two-step verification, physical security measures, and limiting access to patient information. Restricting access to patient information involves ensuring that health professionals have the specific information that enables them to complete their role. For example, the billing department would require medical costs, but they do not necessarily need information on the medical diagnosis. This measure reduced data vulnerabilities while maintaining patient privacy. The enforcement of HITECH achieves this goal to some extent, although there is a need for further improvements.  


            The migration and digitization of health information unlocks several possibilities that were previously impossible. For one, it improves information sharing among healthcare providers as evidenced from reduced friction over the past few years. In its role, the government facilitated this migration through the HITECH Act, which offered incentive payments and fined non-compliance. Healthcare providers could pay up to $1.5 million for violating the HIPAA provisions (Herold, 2016). The Department of Health and Human Services granted more than $25 billion to promote the integration of health information technology (Herold, 2016). However, information on how this money was spent has not been produced. Nevertheless, the transformation was successful due to the collaboration between healthcare providers and the government, an aspect that highlights adaptability and dedication.

Criteria for Selection of Best Policy and Trade-offs

            In selecting the best policy, it is important to consider the option that provides the most benefits for the provider. The option should address the primary concern of information security and outline consequences for potential violation. It should also promote transparency, whereby the patient has clear knowledge of people who have access to their information. Another vital aspect to enforce is the protection of patient rights. While the two acts (HIPAA and HITECH) incorporate measures that guarantee the safety of protected health information, they differ in terms of patient rights. HIPAA does not provide guidelines on notifying the patient about the authorized or unauthorized people with access to their information. HITECH seeks to amend this aspect by giving patients the ability to request for reports on information access. Through these reports, they can learn the people who viewed or accessed their information in addition to the type of authorization.


            Moving forward, it would be integral for the government to consider an integration of aspects of both HIPAA and HITECH to facilitate health information privacy. Each policy presents significant strengths that could be incorporated in the healthcare setting. On one hand, HIPAA outlines and enforces practices aimed at emphasizing and representing the patient’s interests. On the other hand, HITECH holds healthcare providers accountable by outlining regulations on handling and maintaining electronic health records.  The relationship between the two policies requires patients to be notified in case on any data breach, especially if the particular breach affects more than 500 patients (Kiel, Ciamacco, & Steines, 2016). It would also be important to alert the local media in this instance to guarantee that patients are aware of the potential consequences of this breach. Additionally, the State Privacy Officer should be notified in order to determine the most effective approach to mitigate the consequential impacts. In notifying the public, the healthcare provider should also outline the measures being taken to address the breach accordingly. It may be necessary to compensate the affected patients to guarantee that they can access their credit reports. Health providers should ensure that all patient data is encrypted to reduce vulnerability.


            Health information privacy is an important aspect of healthcare provision as it helps to build trust between the patient and the provider. It also functions to protect the patient from fraudulent activities or discrimination. HIPAA and HITECH were designed for different purposes in terms of health insurance and the implementation of health information technology. However, there are several elements of both policies that serve a similar purpose in terms of the protection of identifiable patient health information. Under Title II of HIPAA, the act outlines patient privacy protections, the necessary administrative provisions, and control measures for the disclosure of medical records. HITECH enforced HIPAA’s Privacy and Security Rules regarding electronic health records. It also outlined guidelines and regulation that organizations are required to understand to guarantee their compliance. The ultimate goal was to ensure availability, integrity, and confidentiality of protected health information. These aspects were somewhat confusing for under HIPAA due to its technologically neutral nature. As such, an integration of both regulations under one policy would be the most beneficial approach for the healthcare system. This approach would ensure that health providers adhere to the guidelines of incorporating health information technology without compromising patient privacy and security.


            To guarantee the privacy of health information, it is important to understand the HIPAA and HITECH regulations. Medical professionals have an integral responsibility of maintaining confidentiality and limiting potential data breaches. HIPAA outlines the significance of patient privacy by highlighting the factors that constitute a data breach. However, the Act was implemented in 1996, and there was no anticipation of the challenges presented by technological advancements to data security. HITECH aims to address this challenge by highlighting how digitized data should be handled. It also outlines regulations on ensuring data protection, along with the consequences for noncompliance. In the future, the healthcare system should focus on amending both regulations to ensure that there is more transparency in how the two policies are implemented. Transparency would also enable the patients to understand how their data is used and potential vulnerabilities. This will be instrumental in the development of mitigative measures that will make electronic health records unbreachable.


Berwick, D. M., & Gaines, M. E. (2018). How HIPAA harms care, and how to stop it. Jama, 320(3), 229-230.

Cohen, I. G., & Mello, M. M. (2018). HIPAA and protecting health information in the 21st Century. Jama, 320(3), 231-232.

Halamka, J. D., & Tripathi, M. (2017). The HITECH era in retrospect. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(10), 907-909.

Herold, R. (2016). Do Your Business Associate Security and Privacy Programs Live Up To HIPAA and HITECH Requirements? In Information Security Management Handbook, Sixth Edition, Volume 5 (pp. 167-176). Florida, FL: Auerbach Publications.

Kiel, J. M., Ciamacco, F. A., & Steines, B. T. (2016). Privacy and data security: HIPAA and HITECH. In Healthcare information management systems (pp. 437-449). New York, NY: Springer, Cham.

Mennemeyer, S. T., Menachemi, N., Rahurkar, S., & Ford, E. W. (2016). Impact of the HITECH act on physicians’ adoption of electronic health records. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 23(2), 375-379.

Code of Ethics and Ethical Theory custom essay help
Code of Ethics and Ethical Theory

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Code of Ethics and Ethical Theory

Ethics in important virtue in society, and it tops in every organization as it sets up universal rules regarding what is wrong or right in human behaviors. Whenever ethics is considered, it prompts the concept of morals to come to mind. Nuttall (1997), cited in Tutar et al. (2011), defines ethics as a branch of philosophy focusing on morals. It is the code of conduct regulating human behavior. However, it is one of the most fundamental and influential theories today. It includes all the good and bad things produced by the act. The principle of utility claims that all actions or habits are right so long as it fosters happiness or pleasure, whereas wrong actions or patterns lead to sadness or pain. In all human endeavors, happiness is the most desired (Selvaraj, 2015). Happiness is based on how people are satisfied with life making a significant contribution. However, individuals’ value something when it associates with their joy and pleasure. For instance, knowledge is valued because it helps in solving world problems, and it is interlinked with happiness. Everyone considers being happy than being sad rendering it to be a measured value. This paper evaluates major ethical theories and applying ethical principles in pressing situations.

Utilitarianism can be defined as a moral theory advocating for the promotion of welfare and counting everybody equally. Social welfare or general utility is the sole ethical value. The central idea of utilitarian is morality centrally focused on promoting happiness (Mulgan, 2014). Utilitarianism is a theory of normative ethics determining whether an action is moral or immoral, good or bad. It holds that proper ethical choices should produce the biggest happiness to a considerable number of individuals.

The history of the utilitarian theory is credited to Jeremy Bentham, who is considered the father of utilitarianism (Baujard, 2013) since he came up with the theory which was developed further by John Mill. It was developed in 18th century and in 19th century, it was articulated fully (Baujard, 2013). Bentham discovered that the only intrinsic values around the globe were pain and pleasure and developed the rule of utility (Mulgan, 2014). John Stuart Mill delved into Bentham’s original principle and refined it. He argued that intellectual, cultural as well as spiritual pleasure are more significant than physical pleasures. However, utilitarianism has been criticized for an extended period because it is argued that it is close to impossible to measure and compare happiness. Today, there are two branches of utilitarianism: rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism.

Utilitarian theory is applicable in leadership development since leaders make critical decisions every day, and utilitarianism is focused on making rational and ethical decisions that affect people’s lives. Even though ethical leadership resembles contingency theory and properties theory, it is distinguished by the fact that ethical leadership is bound by moral codes (Tutar et al., 2011). Ethical leadership has variables such as creating values, awareness, and granting responsibility to individuals creating a thriving environment. However, it is dependent on two views; that is, ethical leadership and ethical behaviors, and it is related to what should be done instead of what should not be done because it is normative (Tutar et al., 2011). Ethical leadership is vital nowadays, especially with the fact that informal relations are becoming increasingly significant. Otherwise, it could be challenging to understand the moral values, duties, and obligations, good or evil within an organization. Utilitarianism plays an essential role in leadership development.

According to Letwin et al. (2015), leaders who depict ethics improve the overall outcome for their employees, but the least attention is dedicated to the success of these leaders. The leadership development concept is close to the ethical leadership concept of institutions as well as pragmatic organization. However, many leaders nowadays are out of touch with their staff. Utilitarian theory plays a significant part in developing leaders with an excellent comprehension of moral values. Leaders need to treat others equally. A study conducted by Letwin et al. (2015) shows that supervisors that had a deontological outlook were seen as ethical leaders, whereas utilitarian leaders earned more performance evaluations.

Furthermore, organization leaders should provide a considerable amount of time to make a decision. In short, they must feel that they are being engaged in the change process (Xin et al., 2010). This explains why leadership ethics is critical to becoming successful. Leadership development is the process of creating an environment that will drive forward an organization both spiritually and financially. A leadership that is far from being ethical while making unethical decisions, those decisions harms the organization.

John Stuart Mill was one of the most influential theorists of the nineteenth century. He contributed to many fields, but the most lasting influence was through utilitarianism. However, his former intellectual influence was his father, James Mill and Jeremy Bentham, his godfather. These philosophical radicals believed that human motivation could be comprehended in terms of avoidance of pain as well as the pursuit of pleasure. The foundation of utilitarianism was based on the fact that actions should be measured according to the resulting happiness. The course that results in the most happiness for a large number of individuals was to be followed. However, critics think that utilitarian theory is unrealistic, which forced Mill to defend utilitarianism by claiming that general happiness is best served by every individual that focuses on themselves and those around them (Westacott, 2019).

For example, customers that fly in first-class need to pay higher prices than those people in economy class, but they get a lot of amenities than their counterparts in economy class. However, the reason for putting high prices for business class is to help minimize the airline budget that can be created by creating more space for economy seats.

In conclusion, the most interesting thing is the fact that the central idea of utilitarianism is centered on happiness. Measuring happiness is one of the most challenging aspects in life, a critic that made Mill Stuart expound more on utilitarianism. The principle of utility claims that all actions or habits are right so long as it fosters happiness or pleasure, whereas wrong actions or patterns lead to sadness or pain. Whenever people are faced with moral decisions to make, they should determine the course of action that maximizes happiness. However, leadership ethics and utilitarianism are essential when starting a new career in leadership development. In short, utilitarian theory plays a significant part in developing leaders with an excellent comprehension of moral values. Everyone should respect other people and treat them equally. It might be challenging to practice utilitarianism because individuals have been trained to focus on themselves before others. In most organizations with ethical leaders, the performance outcome of the company is higher than that organization that does not value ethics in its operation. Equality is vital in society to bring happiness.


Baujard, A. (2013). Utilitarianism and Anti-Utilitarianism. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1332, 1-5.

Letwin, C., Wo, D., Folger, R., Rice, D., Taylor, R., Richard, B., & Taylor, S. (2015). The “Right” and the “Good” in Ethical Leadership: Implications for Supervisors’ Performance and Promotability Evaluations. Journal of Business Ethics, 137(4), 743-755.

Mulgan, T. (2014). Understanding utilitarianism (pp. 1-45). London and New York: Routledge.

Selvaraj, J. (2015). Human development and economics of happiness utility enters through back door. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(11), 73-78.

Tutar, H., Altınöz, M., & Çakıroğlu, D. (2011). Is ethical leadership and strategic leadership a dilemma? A descriptive survey. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 24, 1378-1388.

Westacott, E. (2019). What Are the Three Basic Principles of Utilitarianism? Retrieved from

Xin Ding, D., Hu, P.J.H., Verma, R. and Wardell, D.G., 2010. The impact of service system design and flow experience on customer satisfaction in online financial services. Journal of Service Research, 13(1), pp.96-110.


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The Image of Saint Sebastian


Saint Sebastian was an early Christian martyr and saint, who lived in c. AD 256-288. According to history, he was born and raised in Gaul but later went to Rome in c.283, where he joined the army under emperor Carinus. He later became a Captain under Emperor Diocletian.  Traditional belief has it that the saint was persecuted and killed during the reign of a Roman emperor named Diocletian. This was after Diocletian discovered that he was a Christian who had converted many of the soldiers to Christians. The emperor then ordered archers to kill him. Images about his persecution show him tied on a tree or a post and shot with arrows.[1] The archers left him to die, but he was freed and cared for by Irene, who was also a Roman Saint. The story of Sebastian’s care and healing became a significant subject in the 17th Century paintings. In almost all versions of the Christian story, St. Sebastian went to emperor shortly after he recovered to warn Diocletian about his sinful ways, an act that saw him clubbed to death. A pious woman later found Sebastian’s body thrown into a sewer and claimed that she had a vision that the Saint had instructed her to bury his body remains next to the catacombs of Calixtus cemetery entrance, where St. Sebastian Basilica stands today.[2] Sebastian is among the venerated saints in the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic.


The first information about the martyrdom of Saint Sebastian was spoken of by Saint Ambrose (Ambrose of Milan) by the 4th Century in one of his sermons. According to Saint Ambrose, Sebastian was a venerated Saint. Today, he is popular among athletes, while historically, he was seen as a Saint with a distinctive capacity to intervene to guard people against the plague, and devoutness to him greatly increased in times of plague. Sebastian’s faith was discreetly concealed until c.286 when he showed support openly to his friends Marcellian and Mark, who had been sentenced to death as a result of their faith.  The captain who had converted to Christianity started influencing others to follow his religion.[3] After Diocletian found out about his betrayal, he commanded some archers from Mauritania to kill him, but as earlier mentioned, they left him to die.

After his recovery, Saint Sebastian went to confront the emperor about his cruelty and antagonism about Christianity. According to history books, Sebastian stood by a staircase to speak against the emperor, who thought he was dead. Diocletian ordered him to be apprehended and beaten with clubs to death, and his body disposed into a common sewer.[4]

The martyrdom of Saint Sebastian became a popular subject among many Renaissance artists, including Perugino, Andrea Mantegna, Sandro Botticelli, El Greco, and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, among others. The Renaissance art images of St. Sebastian all have a similar connection in that they show his distressing physical torture. Many of the surviving arts show his flesh being torn by archers, “…an ostensibly ravaged body that never displays an idealized beauty.”  [5] As explained by the author, a common disturbing aspect of the Saint’s iconography is that no matter how extensive his injuries seemed, he was always portrayed as alive. Although this type of injury and torture were or are part of every martyr story, it is predominantly noticeable in the Saint’s images that he is consistently depicted as a symbol of the martyrdom process. To explain how striking the iconography is Talvacchia explains that “ Rather than merely exhibiting his attribute of torture, or acting with an extensive narrative, the body of Sebastian is most often displayed to the viewer as having absorbed a rain of arrows, in some instances showing several that penetrate organs.”[6]


Although plagues have been historically documented, none of them is said to be as catastrophic as the bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death that affected Europe in the 14th Century.[7] Even to date, historians remain unsure of the actual origin of the plague that destroyed entire settlements.[8] Several historians point out that the epidemic originated from East Asia and eventually spread all over Europe. Given that Venice was actively participating in transnational trade along the Mediterranean area, it was unavoidable that some of the plague would affect the island, although none could have thought that it would cause massive death.

During the pestilence and plague periods that befall the Roman Empire, a high devoutness to Saint Sebastian emerged.  Sebastian had converted into a Christian after he witnessed the bravery portrayed by Christian martyrs. After his conversion, Sebastian compelled some of his close friends to convert, one of them being a Roman captain who was healed of an outbreak after he forsook his pagan idols. After learning about his conversion and his influence on others, Diocletian then sentenced him to death, hence died as a martyr. Due to his ability to intercede to God, the Roman prefect was cured. This then saw the Saint become commonly connected to the cure of plagues, particularly throughout the cities of the Italian Peninsula. In most villages and cities where medicinal knowledge was strictly limited before the modern and Renaissance eras, caring for sick was the work of religious people from the Catholic Church. The people, mainly from Florence, believed that the plague saint, in this case, Saint Sebastian would safeguard them from plagues. Talvacchia supports this in Chapter 8 of his books, stating, “Then it was divinely revealed that the plague would never cease until an altar was raised in Pavia in honor of St. Sebastian.” [9] In Florence, an altar was constructed to honor the Saint and was seen as the last resort that would stop the Black Death.  Shortly after that, the plague stopped, and a church was built in the city to thank the saint for his intercession.


As stated by Talvacchia, Saint Sebastian’s image served two purposes, which the author refers to as “double life.” [10] The religious purpose of Sebastian’s image was for relief against the plague, while stylistically, the form that the Renaissance artists gave to the body developed into a skill test in demonstrating the human figure as depicted by several artists.  Sebastian was honored as a saint who acted as an agent to release people from illness and physical pain. His images were strikingly embodied to show the beauty of his body under pain and suffering, which in turn encouraged the faithful whose bodies were suffering degradation.

Artists during the Renaissance period became interested in Saint Sebastian’s story because of several reasons. For one, the story offered them a chance to depict a nude image without the fear that it would be considered as indecent by the church. The painters rebelled antique nudity ideals but were, for a long time, forced to have respect to any religious boundaries.  For instance, David Rosand, on one of Sebastian pieces as drawn by Titian, explains how the artist drew nude images of the saint. He says, “that aspect of the Venetian’s art could prove something of an obstacle: too much nature, not enough art… the beauty of the figure is acknowledged despite its unimproved naturalism.” [11]

It is probable that the saint’s age was altered for the some reason. At the time of his execution, he was a mature man. However, the first depictions during the 6th to 11th Centuries showed him as a mature, muscly, bearded, and fully clothed since a captain could not be a young person. However, the 13th Century artists undressed him and made him appear more youthful. The 15th Century Italian painters depicted him as a tender, feminine young man who took after Apollo. [12]

Sebastian’s iconography is quite varied. From time to time, the Saint is depicted as supporting Marcellian and Mark in their belief when they are taken for execution. In other art pieces, he is depicted together with St. Irene, who rescued and nursed his arrow wounds until he was fully recovered. St. Sebastian is also depicted as the protector of plague victims during the Black Death plague era. However, the most popular story was the death of the martyr. In those images, Saint Sebastian is depicted as a nude young man, who is knotted to a column or a tree and cut with several arrows. According to Rosand, the arrows are elements of martyrdom.[13] The beauty in the Saint’s nude body became a major theme in his depictions, with his popularity reaching its peak in the fifteenth century. Almost concurrently with Antonello da Messina, Sebastian’s image entered the drawings by Sandro Botticelli, Antonio Pollaiuolo, and Andrea Mantegna. Later, Paolo Veronese, Titian, and Jusepe Ribera, among others drew the Saint’s image.


Some factors prompted the association between Saint Sebastian and Apollo. One links to the fact that the saint’s body was buried in a location that was initially used as a temple site dedicated to Apollo.[14] The second factor is linked to the assumption that Sebastian reversed the pagan god’s connection to the Black Death plague. This means that Apollo imposed the pestilence, and Sebastian protected Christian believers against it. “The reversal is reflected in St. Sebastian’s formal resemblance to Apollo.” [15] As explained by Talvacchia, arrows were Apollo’s weapons and a sign of his power. As a vehicle to Apollo’s anger, his arrows sent foul plagues among the Greeks. [16] Despite that his arrows have the power to deflect or send a plague, Christian texts have it that “Sebastian’s arrows stand for his suffering and, by extension, the torment of those similarly oppressed.” [17] Considering that the saint was not killed or defeated by the arrows, to Christians, it symbolizes the saint’s capability to prevent a plague.

The third factor is that Sebastian is symbolized as Christ’s imitator, as is represented in the Savior’s likeness. The artists gave Sebastian Apollo’s features. It is important to remember that Albrecht Durer argued in the case of having Christ’s painting put in the church’s service, claiming that, “The pagan people attributed the utmost beauty to their heathen god Abblo. Thus we shall use if for Christ the Lord, who is the most beautiful man.” [18]Given the three factors explained above, one understands that it is not just a mere coincidence that the Christian martyr was often endowed with Apollo features.


Saint Sebastian is the patron saint of archers and athletes. In literature and art, the Saint depicted tied to a tree or a post with arrows. The artistic nature of Sebastian’s image is seen as symbolic of the gifts and virtues of stamina, justice, persistence, strength, and bravery in the face of challenges and hardship. Athletes associate with him due to his great physical strength and endurance in overcoming the arrow attacks inflicted on his body and the ability to oppose the powerful Emperor Diocletian. Christians believe that Sebastian went down because of his faith, and to many Catholics, he reminds them of both Christianity and sport suffering. Today, a number of the athletes carry or wear Sebastian medals, prayer cards, and rosaries and say prayers dedicated to him.

The attitude towards St. Sebastian’s image changed after the 16th Century. The reason is that he was no longer needed by people to intercede against the plague. As the history of the evolution of his image receded, the only aspect left was seduction. Later, receptors of Sebastian’s image modified it and changed its contexts, thus altering its appreciations. “Comments about new cultural uses of Sebastian’s representation could be demeaning rather than perceptive, even in ostensibly authoritative sources.” [19] Today, the Saint is out of style, and nothing is left of him among the non-Christians other than the unavowable and conceding patronage of homosexuals who are seduced by his physical image and his nudity.


As posited by Liepa, Saint Sebastian is the only Christian martyr whose nudity is depicted. The loin clothing barely covers his dignity.[20]  According to sexology experts who have dedicated several research works to Sebastian’s image, such as Igor Kon, the saint’s image is favourite among gays. This implies that the gay groups have acknowledged the saint. Opinions have been created, claiming that the saint was homosexual. His paintings have drawn the attention of the LGBTs or sexual minority groups with evidence supporting this claim. There is, however, no clear evidence showing whether the Saint had any sexual associations to either women or men given that he was a Christian believer. However, a combination of his face showing blissful pain, his strong masculine shirtless figure, and the penetrating arrows in his body has attracted gay artists for many years and is said to have started the overtly gay cult in the nineteenth Century. The martyr’s arms are tied and raised, thus uncovering his body and his armpits for gaze. Some artists make his body appearance relaxed and feminized, and to many, it causes homoerotic imaginations, with some people imagining themselves as his tortures while others put themselves in his feelings and suffering. Gay people see Sebastian as a spectacular advertisement for homoerotic desire and an ideal representation of the tortured private case.

The number of arrows that pierce Saint Sebastian’s body is significant too. If the arrows are too many like in Giovanni’s art, then his body is not seen as too tempting and naked. However, the majority of the 15th Century painters depicted two to five arrows, thus arousing gay’s interest with many declaring their love for the image. The artists did not show his body in much pain but showed him appearing like he was enjoying his powerlessness, hence overlooking the outmoded phallic stereotypes of men being the subjects of a situation. This made it easy for gays to objectify their sadomasochistic desires and feelings. A number of them claimed that Sebastian’s image helped them become conscious of their sexual orientation, particularly in the 20th Century.


Conclusively, the history of Renaissance art maybe differently observed according to trends, styles, and eras, as well as the creativity of specific artists. Artwork may also be created according to certain images based on the way one piece of art is depicted by other artists in differing epochs. Iconographies of Saint Sebastian, are particularly interesting from this perspective. It is clear from the discussion that Saint Sebastian’s image has been presented with completely different meanings. He is a martyr and a Saint among Christin believers, one who safeguards people from plagues, a symbolism of spiritual beauty, as a person who escaped death miraculously, a charming person generally, and an epitome of homosexual love.


Freedman, Luba. “Saint Sebastian in Veneto painting: the’signals’ addressed to’learned’spectators.” (1998).

Marshall, Louise. “Manipulating the Sacred: Image and Plague in Renaissance Italy.” Renaissance Quarterly 47, no. 3 (1994): 485-532.

Rosand, David. “Titian’s Saint Sebastians.” Artibus et historiae (1994): 23-39. DOI: 10.2307/1483471

Talvacchia, Bette. Taking positions: On the erotic in Renaissance culture: Chapter 8 The Double Life of St. Sebastian in Renaissance Art.  Princeton University Press, 1999.

Valentina Liepa. “The Image of Saint Sebastian in Art.” Acta humanitarica universitatis Saulensis. T 8 (2009): 455-462.

[1] Liepa Valentina. “The Image of Saint Sebastian in Art.” Acta humanitarica universitatis Saulensis. T 8 (2009): 455

[2] Liepa, 455.

[3] Bette Talvacchia. Taking positions: On the erotic in Renaissance culture: Chapter 8; The Double Life of St. Sebastian in Renaissance Art (Princeton University Press, 1999), 228.

[4] Talvacchia, 229.

[5] Bette Talvacchia. Taking positions: On the erotic in Renaissance culture: Chapter 8 The Double Life of St. Sebastian in Renaissance Art, 226.

[6] Talvacchia, 226.

[7] Louise Marshall, “Manipulating the Sacred: Image and Plague in Renaissance Italy.” Renaissance Quarterly 47, no. 3 (1994): 486

[8] Liepa Valentina. “The Image of Saint Sebastian in Art.” Acta humanitarica universitatis Saulensis. T 8 (2009): 456

[9] Talvacchia. Taking position, 230.

[10] Talvacchia, 231.

[11] David Rosand, “Titian’s Saint Sebastians.” Artibus et historiae (1994): 23.

[12] Freedman, Luba. “Saint Sebastian in Veneto painting: the’signals’ addressed to’learned’spectators.” (1998), 8.

[13] Rosand,38.

[14] Freedman, Luba. “Saint Sebastian in Veneto painting: the’signals’ addressed to’learned’spectators.” (1998), 8.

[15]  Freedman,10.

[16] Talvacchia, Taking Positions, 233.

[17] Talvacchia, 233.

[18] Freedman,10.

[19] Talvacchia. Taking position, 243.

[20] Valentina Liepa. “The Image of Saint Sebastian in Art”, 461.

Innovation Management essay help
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Individual Assignment – Innovation Management

Companies in the contemporary times strive to achieve competitive advantage through all means, and developing an effective innovation management process is a technique many companies employ to show their ability to perform well. The analysis elaborates how Advanced Global Technologies manages innovation knowing very well that its success depend on how it tries to meet its consumers’ needs. The group employs a number of IM tools to improve its products and services, including brainstorming, prototyping, product lining, product lifecycle, idea management, Project portfolio management, project management, and phase-gate process. AGT emerges as a superior company in IM application in the UAE, but may perform much better by acquiring some insight from the leading technology firms. The group could also advance its IM practices by training its workers, especially those who handle IM operations. AGT is in a good position to improve its IM operations if it puts much effort to advance the various mechanisms it uses mainly by learning from companies that employ superior mechanisms and by equipping its workers with much insight about what IM requires.

Background Information

Organizations, in general, are experiencing a hard time in keeping their momentum of stable business advancement as a direct effect of the various regional markets losing their identity and becoming part of a joint global market. Success no longer chiefly depend on how businesses plan their day-to-day activities in today’s competitive, but rather success depends on how consistently and quickly the firm achieves the customers’ needs (Advanced Global Technologies). Hence, the need for effective solutions that enhance the collaborative ways of operating, is gaining importance across the globe. Enterprises are striving to achieve the needs of the e-commerce supply chain to attain growth in these competitive times. There is a requirement for a flexible strategy for transparent collaborations, by maximizing on the loyalty of customers, workers, partners, and suppliers (Advanced Global Technologies). The desire to manage the requirement with proper use of technology is paramount to corporation success (Advanced Global Technologies). Meeting the modern-day changing requirements require businesses to adopt cost-effective approaches, as well as comprehensively integrated and time-tested business IT solutions. The need calls for the adoption of business technology solutions created by experts who understand the business and its needs very well.

Advanced Global Technologies also called AGT Infotech in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates is an example of a company that strives to offer solutions using a number of technology platforms such as SUN Microsystems, ILID, 3i-Infotech, Microsoft, Oracle, Psion Technologix, and Fujitsu-Siemens among others (Advanced Global Technologies). The company has the capacity to design and deliver vertical solutions to businesses, and more so financial institutions, business houses, contracting firms, industrial firms in manufacturing, as well as in other areas such as distribution and retail, conglomerates, aviation, oil and gas, and telecommunication (Advanced Global Technologies). Advanced Global Technologies understands that the sector is plagued with buyer complaints regarding investment in various products overtime that need costly customization and application, and still cannot meet the required business needs, often resulting in management overheads and bottlenecks (Advanced Global Technologies). ATG acknowledges that the changing technology adds to the gaps that are created over time as businesses do not steadily stay in line with changing developments.

AGT in its attempts to offer innovative ideas and solutions employ the concept of innovation management (IM), which refers to the fusion of change management processes and management of innovation practices. The International Standard Organization categorizes innovation management under ISO 56000 series, and terms the practice as utilizing a set of new tools that permit business leaders and employees or users to work together with a common perception of business goals and processes (Wagner 39). Innovation management allows ATG to react to external and internal opportunities, and use creativity to develop new ideas, products, and processes. Even though innovation management is not exactly like R&D, it incorporates users or employees at every level in adding creatively to the business service or product development and marketing.

The concept of innovation management developed in the 1930s when Joseph Schumpeter (an Austrian economist) identified innovation as a crucial factor in economic development. Schumpeter argued that innovation management helps the business grasp an opportunity and utilize it to form and create new products, services, processes, and ideas using industrious actions (Wagner 40). Using innovation management approaches according to Schumpeter can foster and deploy the creative features of the workforce for the progressive development of the business. Innovation, although not adequate in itself, is a vital prerequisite for the development and survival of businesses (Wagner 40). Often, the major objective of innovation management within the business is to cultivate an effective environment to promote innovation because creating an appropriate environment would help the firm achieve more cooperation (Wagner 40). Achieving successful innovative practices requires support from the senior management because this could offer more clear direction as well as improve innovation practices.

AGT Infotech tries to acquire as much information about IM because it is a vital aspect of its activities. The company understands that practices aimed at innovation management can either be pushed or pulled through the development processes. A pushed IM process according to Verloop (85) is based on newly created or existing technology that the firm can easily access. The primary goal is to find lucrative applications for the technology that already exists, while a pulled IM process focuses on finding areas where buyers’ requirements are not achieved and finding suitable answers to the wants. A business may apply either of the two approaches, but success would depend on whether the firm understands the market requirements as well as the problems that need to be solved (Verloop 86). Business leaders should further understand that innovation is usually a change in technology that outlives a previous act, and that managers need to pay much focus on innovation network that require adequate awareness of the complex nature of innovation to become a leader or sustainable with innovation (Verloop 86). The business is also more likely to achieve better innovation practices through effective collaborations because it is easier to generate new ideas when firms operate in a coordinated way. Collaboration is essential because once a technology goes through significant transformation and produces a successful or impressive outcome it turns out to be an appropriate learning encounter, not only for one company, but for others as well (Wagner 42). Often, big and influential innovations are as a result of interdisciplinary coordination and networking among technological groups, along with fusion of explicit and implicit awareness (Wagner 42). Even though networking is a vital requirement for IM to succeed, network integration is the most essential requirement for better outcome when handling complex innovative processes.

Approaches AGT Infotech uses for IM


AGT Infotech tries to employ various IM tools knowing very well that appropriate management can foster and deploy the suitable capabilities of the workers for continuous growth and development of the company. One of the approaches AGT Infotech uses to achieve innovation management is brainstorming where efforts are put to find suitable solutions for specific problems by collecting a list of ideas contributed by the group members spontaneously. Brainstorming in other words refer to condition where a group of people come together to contribute new solutions and ideas around a specific issue by removing possible obstacles. The people taking part in the brainstorming process usually think more openly and give as many suggestions as possible. A special team notes down all the proposed ideas without any criticism and evaluate the ideas after considerable brainstorming. Alex Osborn created the idea of brainstorming as an IM approach in the late 1930s after realizing the inability by workers to come up with creative ideas for advertisement campaigns. AGT Infotech adheres to the directives by Osborn knowing very well that being keen on the directives would yield the anticipated results (Advanced Global Technologies). The company, for example, follows Osborn’s directives by ensuring that all the members in the brainstorming session have a clear statement of the issue to be addressed before the real brainstorming session commences (Advanced Global Technologies). The company tries to present a problem that the members can understand without much difficulty, and which is narrowed to a single issue. The business believes that adhering to the principles of brainstorming shall help it lower the social constraints among the workforce, especially the team in the workforce, foster the production of ideas, and improve overall creativity of the team (Advanced Global Technologies). The group while employing brainstorming tries to achieve quality outcome, and also tries to withhold any criticism that could affect the production of ideas. More essentially, the team tries to embrace all ideas to get a broad list of recommendations on how to deal with the issue, as well as fuse and improve the ideas the team members generate. So far, the company has witnessed significant improvement by using brainstorming as way of managing innovation.

Product Lining

AGT employs product lining as an IM tool, and the group puts much effort to advance the practice that proves to be informative. The company in this case releases its products and services in a categorical order rather than releasing all of them at once (Advanced Global Technologies). The approach makes it possible for the firm to assess how the consumers welcome the product and uses the information to make possible changes and recommendations (Advanced Global Technologies). The group feels that employing the product biding approach could deter its efforts to understand how buyers perceive the different products and services that enter the market at the same time, thereby making it difficult to make changes in specific products to meet the buyers’ requirements.


AGT Infotech understands the importance of using prototyping as an IM approach. A prototype according to the description by Wagner (44) is a model or sample of a product created to test a process or concept. Prototyping is applicable in several areas, including electronics, design, and software programming among other areas. AGT Infotech uses a prototype to assess a new idea or design to improve correctness by users and the teams analyzing the system. The company views prototyping as a way of offering specifications for a true and functional system and not a theoretical one. Actually, the company perceives prototyping or the process of forming a prototype as the measure between the formalization and assessment of an idea. AGT Infotech in its attempts to achieve the best results through prototyping employs the various aspects of the methodology with the hope of attaining the best outcome. The group, for instance, employs the proof-of-principle prototype, which acts to verify some of the vital functional forms of the desired design, but often does not rely on the approach to understand the functionality of the anticipated product. The company also employs a working prototype that represents almost all of the functionality of the desired product (Advanced Global Technologies). Also crucial to AGT Infotech is the visual prototype, which depicts the appearance and size of the intended design and not the functionality. Usually, the firm would employ a form study prototype, which is a form of visual prototype where the geometric structures of a design are highlighted, with less focus on texture, color, and other features of the final outcome (Advanced Global Technologies). The company, however, understands that using prototypes as a way of managing innovation could offer some compromise from the final design (Advanced Global Technologies). The variation could be due to the differences in materials used as well as due to variation in design. The firm, therefore, tries to be as keen as possible while employing prototyping to avoid any possible shortcomings.

Product Lifecycle

An approach AGT uses to improve its IM is product lifecycle management, which is the process of handling the whole lifecycle of a product since its introduction, through engineering designing and manufacturing, to serving and disposal of produced items. The company while employing product lifecycle management tries to integrate workers, processes, data, and the business systems, and offers information about a product that could help the company improve its operations (Advanced Global Technologies). The technology firm tries to emphasize on the five key areas of product lifecycle management with much emphasis on system engineering, which focuses on attaining all the requirements, chiefly through realizing the buyers’ needs and coordinating the system design processes by indulging all the relevant teams and fields. The group also focuses on product and portfolio management, which concentrates on tracking processes and handling resource allocation (Advanced Global Technologies). The company largely employs portfolio management when tracking the progress of new items and when making decisions when dispatching resources that are deemed as scarce. The UAE-based company prefers product lifecycle management because of the numerous benefits it is likely to gain by employing the method. The firm, for instance, experiences lowered prototyping costs, as well as reduced wastes (Grieves 71). The approach makes it possible to realize maximum prices from the sales, as well as to improve the reliability and quality of the product. Furthermore, AGT prefers product lifecycle management as an approach of IM because it makes it possible to identify potential revenue contributions and sales opportunities very fast, and because the process maximizes collaborations in the supply chain (Grieves71). The other benefits that attract ATG to product lifecycle management, include the ability to save through the re-utilization of original data, the ability to offer contractors with reach to centralized product records, and reduced time to market the products and services.

Ideation – Idea Management

Ideation refers to the creative act of producing and communicating new information, whereby the idea could be perceived as a vital aspect of thought that can be concrete, abstract or visual in nature. It comprises all the phases of a thought cycle beginning from innovation to creation, to materialization or actualization. The process of ideation can be successfully carried out by groups, businesses or individuals, which makes it a vital aspect of design process in practice and educational matters. AGT tries to employ the various methods of ideation that Graham and Bachmann (65) describe as being vital when using the approach to practice innovation management. The firm, for example, employs problem solution, which is the simplest approach of progress where someone tries to identify the problem and comes up with an amicable solution. The other ideation approach AGT uses is derivative idea, which entails using an existing object and transforming it into more useful item or form. The company also employs the symbiotic idea approach that includes forming something by fusing multiple ideas, using various approaches of each to form a whole, and also utilizes the revolutionary ideation style that deviates from the traditional thoughts and forms a new ideology (Advanced Global Technologies). The corporation applies other ideation approaches as a way of using a diversified ideation system. The group uses the computer-assisted identification system that utilizes a computer to expand the chances of numeric search and research, and also employs the target innovation approach that requires the company to conduct much research towards achieving the desired objectives. The technology company understands the power of ideation in managing innovation and is working so hard to employ the various methods of innovation in the most effective manner with the hope of attaining the best results.  

Project Portfolio Management

Project portfolio management (PPM) is an approach that many companies use to manage innovation, and appears to be effective in the way it yields the desired results. PPM refers to the centralized handling of the technologies, methods, and processes utilized by project management officers and project managers to evaluate and collectively handle the ongoing or proposed activities based on many key features. The objectives of AGT in applying PPM are to schedule operations to best attain the firm’s financial and operational objectives and to schedule its operations, while honoring the hardships created by buyers, factors in the external real-world, and strategic goals. AGT considers PPM as being appropriate because it helps to improve performance in various key areas. Skaf (31) writes that PPM offers project and program leaders the capabilities needed to manage resources, time, skills, tasks, and budgets required to accomplish all the related duties. The methodology according to Skaf (31) offers a guideline for risk mitigation and issue resolution. Furthermore, the approach gives a guide for mitigating risks and resolving issues, as well as gives the centralized plan to help plan and schedule teams to recognize the fastest and affordable and most appropriate approaches to deliver programs and projects. AGT employs PPM to improve its pipeline management, which entails measures to ensure enough project proposals are evaluated and generated to establish how particular projects in the business plan can be implemented with specified resources within a particular time (Advanced Global Technologies). The company also uses PPM to improve its financial management practices because with the approach the finance office can advance their preciseness for managing and estimating the financial resources of a single or multiple projects.

Project Management

Project management is an approach that helps AGT to improve its IM practices. Project management refers to the act of starting, planning, implementing, regulating, and closing the operations of a particular group to attain specific goals and achieve the desired results at the specified timeframe (Vidal and Marle 1098). Managing projects allows AGT to specify the time, scope, budget, and quality, and also offers the chance to develop products or projects that meet the clients’ requirements (Advanced Global Technologies). AGT employs project management as a way of improving IM because once it clearly establishes the objectives of its clients it becomes easier to make decisions that would impact on all other people in the program or project. The company while managing its projects with a bid to manage innovation focuses on four critical aspects that are aligned with dynamics or aspects affecting the undertaking (Advanced Global Technologies). AGT ensures that it plans its activities very well, and that it puts much emphasis on the processes, which are the approaches used to govern the project. AGT while managing its projects as a way of improving innovation management focuses on the people working towards the task while seeking to foster communication and collaboration. The group understands that people play influential roles towards achieving the desired outcome or may lead to the downfall of the undertaking (Advanced Global Technologies). More essentially, the group while employing project management as a way of accomplishing IM focuses on the powers that influence the exercise. The company in this case pays adequate attention to the influence the decision-makers have on the project, as well as how the line of authority could influence operations and decision-making (Advanced Global Technologies). The corporation while applying project management as an IM approach employs the concept of benefits realization management to improve the project management styles through a focus on beneficial outcomes the project yields rather than the outputs or products, and then measures the level to which the certain features emerge to help monitor the project. Project management proves to be an effective way of handing IM and the group is increasing its focus on the approach.

Phase-Gate Process

A phase-gate process is a technique in project management in which a project, or a new product or software development is separated into different phases or stages, divided by decision points called gates. A governance board, a steering committee, or a manager makes a decision at each gate regarding what need to happen to ideas or project (Vidal and Marle 1103). AGT while employing the phase-gate process to advance its IM focuses on five vital phases associated with the methodology. The team managing the process in the initial phase (ideation or discovery) decides what projects the firm needs to accomplish, and brainstorming may occur during this stage. The phase-gate process then transits to the scoping phase where the group in charge of the application at AGT evaluates the products or services and the corresponding markets (Advanced Global Technologies). The team at this phase identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the product, and looks at how it is going to meet the consumers’ wants. The group also tries to assess how the product or service will compete in the target markets, and propose any recommendations (Advanced Global Technologies). The practice then transits to the forming the business case and plan phase, which is the final stage of concept development where it is essential for the team to conduct an effective analysis before the development process begins. The third phase is development where the plans from the previous phases are put into action. The team designs and develops the product at this stage, and testing may also take place at this juncture. The team may also test how the consumers are likely to accept or perceive the product at this stage. The final phase when using the phase-gate process is testing and validation for the whole project. The IM team at AGT while working on phase 4 evaluates the manufacturing and production process, the buyers’ experience, and the financial impact of the project (Advanced Global Technologies). The team working on the project then launches the product having satisfied all the necessary stages.

Possible Recommendations

AGT appears to be in the right track in the way it employs various mechanisms to carry out its innovation management practices. The technology firm, however, needs to learn from some of the companies that employ highly sophisticated technology to meet the consumers’ needs. AGT should not forget that success does not really depend on how well the firm plans its activities or operations, but rather on how the products and services meet the purchasers’ requirements (Vidal and Marle 1105). AGT is a pacesetter in technology application in the UAE and a significant portion of the GCC, and leads other companies such as Alpha Byte Computers, Andryan IT Solutions, AL Kendi Computer Systems, and Alan Technology LLC among others. The Sharjah-based company, however, would improve its innovation management practices by acquiring vital lessons from some of the tech giants in the Western nations such as Amazon and Google. AGT, for instance, may learn from Amazon that constantly tries to improve and evolve. Part of the reason that the e-retailer experiences such rapid and constant growth is because of the idea that the company strives to improve its evolution through rapid innovation (Ayers). Amazon has no time to stagnate because it always works to advance its products and services. AGT may learn from Amazon the importance of not being scared to enter new markets and industries because this could offer it the chance to improve its IM (Ayers). Venturing into other sectors would improve AGT’s insight into what needs to happen to achieve efficient and more competitive IM practices. More essentially, Amazon and Google put their consumers first, which give them the desire to develop products and services that meet the consumers’ wants (Ayers). The company may also invest in training its employees to equip them with advanced knowledge on how to carry out innovative management practices. Even though the firm may incur additional expense in training the workers and enlightening them on the various aspects of IM, it will enjoy the long-term benefits it will witness in the long run.


The analysis pays considerable attention to how Advanced Global Technologies in Sharjah tries to handle innovation management using various tools. The company knows very well the benefits it is likely to gain by managing its innovative processes and it is the reason it employs diversified approaches to achieve the best outcome. ATG employs brainstorming as one of the approaches for IM and here it engages various people who come up with opinions on how to improve an idea or a crucial area. The group also relies on prototyping where it develops a model or structure to guide it through completing a particular project or task. The company understands the prototype may not yield the true results, therefore, puts much emphasis on the final product. AGT applies the product lifecycle as a way of managing innovation because the methodology makes it easy to recognize potential revenue contributions and sales opportunities, and because the process improves collaborations in the supply chain. The company also uses the concept of idea management (ideation) where it applies a number of methods such as symbiotic idea, derivative idea, diversified ideation system, product lining, and target innovation among others. The company in its bid to improve its IM practices uses PPM because the approach makes it possible to manage resources, skills, budget, and tasks. AGT further conducts its IM practices by applying effective project management techniques, and makes use of the phase-gate process where a project passes through several approval processes before launching the product. AGT should not shy away from acquiring vital insight from tech giants such as Amazon and Google that employ advanced IM approaches. The corporation should also invest in training the employees to equip them with insight that would help them improve their skills and competence.

Works Cited

Advanced Global Technologies. “AGT”. Advanced Global Technologies, 2019. Accessed on 28 November, 2019.

Ayers, Ryan. “5 things Innovative Companies can Learn from Amazon.” InnovationMangement, December 7, 2017. Accessed on 28 November, 2019.

Graham, Douglas and Bachmann Thomas. Ideation: The Birth and Death of Ideas. John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2004.

Grieves, Michael. Product Lifecycle Management: Driving the Next Generation of Lean Thinking. McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Skaf, Mazen . “Portfolio Management in an Upstream Oil and Gas Organization.” Interfaces, vol. 29, no. 6, 2009, pp. 84-104.

Verloop, Jack. Insight in Innovation: Managing Innovation by Understanding the Laws of Innovation. Elsevier, 2004.

Vidal, Ludovic‐Alexandre and Marle Franck. “Understanding Project Complexity: Implications on Project Management.” Kybernetes, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1094-1110.

Wagner, Stephen. Managing Innovation: The New Competitive Edge for Logistics Service-Providers. Haupt, 2008.  

Merger Between Al Mada and Al Shurooq Architecture Companies college application essay help
Merger Between Al Mada and Al Shurooq Architecture Companies

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Merger Between Al Mada and Al Shurooq Architecture Companies


            Mergers occur when organizations join to form a single entity to increase profitability and guaranteeing long-term sustainability. The two companies involved in this merger include Al Mada Architecture company and Al Shurooq. Al Mada was established in 1970 in Abu Dhabi, and it has gained significant success over the years. Currently, the company has a workforce of 500 employees, and it has 50 branches across the Middle East. Al Shurooq Architecture company was established in 2000 with its current headquarters in Dubai.  The company is relatively smaller than Al Mada, with 300 employees and ten branches internationally. The two organizations are significantly different in terms of corporate culture and the scope of operation. Al Mada incorporates a traditional approach, limiting their services within the Middle East, and it uses an older workforce, with most of its architects being over 50 years old. The company also specializes in designing traditional structures with limited use of technology or advanced designs. Conversely, Al Shurooq has a younger workforce that focuses on developing models for futuristic structures. A majority of its architects graduated from Zaha Hadid School, and they tend to incorporate advanced technology in their designs. 

            A merger between the two companies would be a complicated process based on the prominent differences in corporate culture and structure. This report will outline the potential impacts of the change and mitigative measures to reduce the adverse effects. The most effective leadership approach will be recommended, along with its implementation. It is also necessary for the new corporation to incorporate a new organizational culture that integrates all aspects of diversity. In the report, a suitable change model for the organization will be highlighted, along with how each phase of the model will be achieved. Finally, the strategies for maintaining the change will be discussed in addition to addressing sustainability issues.

Impacts of Change on Stakeholders

            Implementing the proposed change would ultimately impact the organization and its primary stakeholders, including the community, the employees, organizational diversity, and consumers. The impacts of these changes and effective mitigative measures for the negative consequences will be outlined below. 


            The two companies create employment opportunities while maintaining community-based infrastructure, civic associations, and improve community relations. They also pay taxes that go into developing the community while promoting community and economic development. A merger may contribute to a decline in the level of organizational involvement in community-related practices and programs. Upon merging, one company’s headquarters would disappear. This change would impact the level of corporate social responsibility since most of the activities are often coordinated from the headquarters. The surrounding community would lose employment opportunities and other advantages they gained from the company’s presence.

            To address this challenge, organizations should highlight their community-related projects and activities beforehand. They should then develop a suitable strategy on how to continue supporting these projects. It is essential to determine the most significant projects and create a plan for how they would be financed after the merger. However, in the course of the transition, the corporations would be focused on streamlining their internal activities and operations, an aspect that would require significant investments. As such, community projects would have to be placed on hold for a given period before coming up with an effective and long-term solution. The new organization should also work closely with community members to communicate the potential changes and to strategize on the way forward. Effective communication would be integral in preserving the community’s trust and upholding the organization’s responsibilities.


            One of the main expectations of the merger is improved efficiency and productivity. Research by Appelbaum et al. (2017) indicates that in the long term, merged companies benefit from more resources, thereby increasing their output. In many instances, these gains might not extend to the consumers. Each company has different advantages, thus promoting progressiveness and innovativeness in the work environment. Progressive practices within the organization contribute to higher productivity while innovation diversifies the organization’s scope of work. However, it is vital to consider the negative impacts that the merger could have on the employees.

            Mergers are often associated with downsizing, and many employees would be resistant to the new changes if they thought their jobs were on the line. Architects from Al Mada might be concerned about how the organization’s direction would not integrate them into the corporate strategy. Integration issues might also emerge due to different corporate cultures. The management should develop a sustainable approach that focuses on retaining the entire workforce while communicating how the merger would impact daily operations. Employees should understand the potential changes regarding leadership, and they should be assured of employment within the newly-formed entity.

Employee Diversity

            Diversity in the workplace is among the most critical strategic advantages that a company can hold. The merger presents an adequate opportunity for both companies to benefit from diversity by integrating more experienced architects with younger and innovative counterparts. Research by Elstak, Bhatt, Van Riel, Pratt, & Berens (2015) indicates that diversifying the workforce can contribute to the organization’s competitive advantage by providing diverse viewpoints and increasing creativity. Additionally, organizations with progressive practices tend to attract top talent and create a suitable environment for problem-solving. Employee diversity is also important during the change process as the workers can offer different perspectives and develop effective solutions to their problems.

            Pressures from the merger, however, could result in the need for cost containment measures. As such, efforts towards promoting diversity could take a back seat to the overall merger process. There are different challenges that employees might encounter during the transition, and these would take precedence over diversity. Employees would also face problems integrating primarily due to the evident age gap between architects from the two organizations. The management should work towards creating an environment where the personnel feel appreciated and value in opinion and recommendations. A significant challenge resulting from age-difference in organizations is poor communication. Usually, different age groups would feel that there are no similarities between them and find it difficult to communicate effectively. The older employees might also be resistant to the new culture as they are accustomed to a more traditional organizational culture. The organization should focus on providing training for all employees to help them understand the new culture.

Leadership and Management

            A successful merger would require effective leadership from both CEOs. These individuals have a clear comprehension of how their companies operate, and they can share insight into the best way forward. The CEOs should create a change management team comprising of all leaders in different departments. The leaders have a better understanding of their teams, thereby being able to communicate the change process more efficiently. Before initiating the process, the change management team will undergo comprehensive training offered by an external consultant. This training is essential in equipping the team with practical communication skills, conflict-resolution strategies, decision-making skills, and critical thinking skills. These tools are vital in improving communication with the workforce and in anticipating potential challenges that might emerge. The two CEOs should also undergo the same training to give them better insight into the scope of the change and essential aspects to consider.

            The most effective leadership style for the merging corporation is transformational leadership. Tidd and Bessant (2018) define transformational leadership as a management approach that encompasses inspiring, motivating, and encouraging personnel to create and innovate change for the organization’s success. A transformational leader takes into account the importance of change and how it would affect the entire workforce. They also create a positive work environment where employees can share their concerns regarding the change. The leader then tries to address each concern effectively, thereby guaranteeing a smooth transition. In a merger, transformational leadership is instrumental in improving job satisfaction and supervisor-rated performance. It also helps employees to accept and actively participate in ensuring the success of the merger. Vasilaki, Tarba, Ahammad, and Glaister (2016) highlight the importance of transformational leaders in influencing secondary outcomes. From the study, transformational leaders provide goal clarity while providing the necessary support for creativity in the workplace. In turn, the employees feel involved in the organizational processes and are more committed to achieving the overall goal.

            A potential issue of concern would be the need for one CEO after the merger. An assessment of the CEOs’ managerial skills is critical, and it requires critical analysis. It is vital to consider the competencies required for the top position and the strengths presented by each CEO. Lewis (2019) recommends using external tools that focus on the new organization’s values and cross-checking them with each leader’s qualities. Upon assessment, the organization could choose to go in a different direction and select a completely new and qualified CEO. However, the previous leaders should be notified of their current role in the new organization before executing the change process. If a leader is selected, they should take on the part of guiding the integration, thereby eliminating confusion and providing a distinct direction for the personnel to follow.

Organizational Culture

            The success of the merger is highly-dependent on transforming the organizational culture. The first step in preparing the corporate culture would be to create awareness. The management should invest in communicating the anticipated changes across all branches internationally. It should also highlight the new leadership model and how it will be implemented. An internal memo and brochures would be sufficient in explaining the overall goal of the change process and responsibilities of each department. The second step involves learning. Changing the organizational culture is difficult, and it would require the employees undergoing the necessary training to help them get acclimatized with the new measures. The managers should determine their strengths and those of their teams, and incorporate these strengths in the new culture.

            The third step involves practising the recommended changes to the point of becoming a habit. Changing behaviour is a long process that requires persistence and commitment from the management and the personnel. The administration should lead by example and show employees how the change will be implemented and highlighting how their current roles might be affected. Departmental leaders should hold consecutive meetings with employees to gain feedback on what might be working and aspects that would require further transformation. The final step is accountability. Leaders should monitor employees’ progress and reward those who positively embrace the change. Recognizing effort and positive response helps to motivate other employees and give them the inspiration they would require to accept the change. Leaders should be accountable for the change implementation process, and they should oversee its overall management.

Proposed Change Model

            Successful change management requires the use of a practical and comprehensive change model. Lewin’s theory of change is applicable in this merger process as it focuses on modifying personnel behavior for the organization’s benefit. Lewin proposed that the change process encompasses three stages, including unfreezing, change, and refreezing steps (Lewis, 2019). In the unfreezing stage, employees understand that change is inevitable, and they hold strong emotions, including doubt, resistance, and denial. The second step is whereby the change is incorporated. Managers should enforce the change in a short time to emphasize the significance of the change. If the change process takes too long, employees would be inclined to revert to previous behaviors. The refreeze stage involves solidifying the new measures. The management should make proper arrangements on how to monitor the change, its implementation, and its reception in the organization. Failure to enforce the change could result in a relapse, thereby affecting overall productivity.

Achieving Each Phase of the Model

            Change implementation often fails due to poor communication across the entire process. Employees can only make concessions and abandon their old behaviors when they understand why the change is essential. The best way to communicate this urgency is through transparency, honesty, and openness. Employees should know that the organization has their best interests at heart and that they would eventually benefit from the changes. Lewis (2019) points out that organizations need to disclose the unfolding of events while highlighting the essence of transformation. Clear communication plays an essential role in highlighting the overall process and the employees’ part. Consequently, employees would be more receptive, and they can comfortably collaborate with the management.

            During the unfreezing stage, the management will hold frequent departmental meetings in both organizations to determine their concerns and their expectations. Successful change efforts require the leader to communicate the plan and the ultimate vision that the change will achieve. In delivering the vision, the leader should ensure that it is symbolic and that it reflects the importance of all employees in the organization’s future. The leaders will also try to highlight the current ineffective practices and their impact on the organization’s success. Employees should understand that the change is inevitable and that it would affect their current practices. Across each department, the leader should provide a platform where personnel can make enquiries and receive prompt feedback. A potential emergent issue on employee roles would be redundancy. Some employees might be concerned that their positions are redundant in the new organization, which would result in them losing employment (Cameron & Green, 2019). To address this issue, the leader should focus on the organization’s expansion. Merging will expand the organization’s market shares, thereby facilitating future development in other global regions. Employees in redundant roles will, therefore, be relocated to these regions as part of the organization.

            The stage of change would possibly present the most significant challenges for the organization. It is essential to understand the strengths offered by each company and integrate them into the overall process. Al Mada has a stronger brand image due to its longevity in the industry and its larger workforce. Al Shurooq represents innovativeness and the future of the architecture industry across the Middle East. The management should reinforce these strengths in developing the new organization’s vision and in creating its original values. It should also determine potential differences and convert them into advantages that could benefit the merger. Departmental leaders from both companies should meet and develop change management strategies together. This approach is integral in ensuring that they communicate the same message and in aligning their goals. 

            The refreezing stage is vital in helping the organization and its employees to internalize the changes. Employees should incorporate these changes in all their activities and highlight them in their interactions with customers. By acting as the organization’s brand ambassadors, employees would gain more confidence, and they would feel comfortable with the changing environment. the refreezing stage marks the final step of the transition, thereby guaranteeing that all employees are aware of the new working environment. Lewis (2019) notes that in the absence of the refreezing stage, the organization would be stuck in a transition trap. Employees would be unsure of how to execute their roles, and this would inhibit overall productivity. The management should also mark the success of the change process through celebration. Celebrating this success will help employees to find closure and appreciate the organization’s efforts across the transition. It would also motivate them to anticipate the future and work towards achieving the organization’s goal. 

Maintaining Change and Addressing Sustainability Issues

            Maintaining change in a merger requires combined efforts from the management and the entire workforce. The administration should ensure that all employees have a clear vision of how the change will improve organizational processes. It should also focus on popularizing the move by associating it with other successes achieved by both organizations in the past. For example, the leaders could discuss how Al Mada’s traditional architectural approach has helped to maintain the society’s history through artistic designs. They should also highlight Al Shurooq’s success in integrating futuristic designs into the community’s future. Using this approach will help the employees to understand how they can benefit from each other, thereby promoting further collaboration.

            Incorporating a positive reward system is also vital in boosting employee morale. Every activity performed using the new change should be recognized and rewarded. Employees who integrate the change more effectively can receive bonuses or other non-financial benefits, thereby creating behavior that others can emulate. Incorporating a positive reward system across the organization increases productivity as more employees would be focused on gaining recognition and the chance for a promotion. The organization should also provide opportunities for career development based on the employees’ performance. Performance-based rewards create a competitive environment that could be beneficial for the new organization. The change should be part of the organizational culture and structure. Once the change has been incorporated, it is crucial to guarantee its sustainability through the corporate culture.

Rebranding the Company

            The merger will result in the formation of a new company with a positive future ahead. As such, it is vital to consider rebranding the organization to reflect on the original values and the new vision. The proposition, in this case, would be to name the merge company Icon Architectural Designers. The new name would be a reflection of the company’s transformation and its future expansion into becoming a global brand. “Icon” is a memorable word, and it encompasses universality, particularly with the changing times. It would also make market penetration more efficient, especially in new markets across Europe and North America.


            Merging organizations is a delicate process that requires proficiency, commitment, and diligence from the management and the employees. The two companies, Al Mada and Al Shurooq, have established themselves in the architectural industry, and their merger could present a brighter future. The change will potentially affect the workforce, employee diversity, and the surrounding community. The highlighted impacts should be addressed promptly to facilitate a successful transition. Transformational leadership would be the most effective management approach as it enforces and stabilizes change in an organization. This leadership style is vital in inspiring and motivating employees to incorporate the change and see its benefits. Lewin’s theory of change explains three stages that the organization would undergo including unfreezing, change, and refreezing. In each step, the management should focus on the personnel’s concerns and mitigate any challenges that would inhibit a successful transition. Under new leadership, it is vital to integrate the change into the organizational culture to guarantee its sustainability. Rebranding the entity would also reinforce the organization’s transition and highlight its focus on a new and positive future.


Appelbaum, S. H., Cameron, A., Ensink, F., Hazarika, J., Attir, R., Ezzedine, R., & Shekhar, V. (2017). Factors that impact the success of an organizational change: a case study analysis. Industrial and Commercial Training, 49(5), 213-230.

Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2019). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. London, UK: Kogan Page Publishers.

Elstak, M. N., Bhatt, M., Van Riel, C. B., Pratt, M. G., & Berens, G. A. (2015). Organizational identification during a merger: The role of self‐enhancement and uncertainty reduction motives during a major organizational change. Journal of Management Studies, 52(1), 32-62.

Holten, A. L., & Brenner, S. O. (2015). Leadership style and the process of organizational change. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36(1), 2-16.

Lewis, L. (2019). Organizational change: Creating change through strategic communication. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Tidd, J., & Bessant, J. R. (2018). Managing innovation: integrating technological, market and organizational change. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Vasilaki, A., Tarba, S., Ahammad, M. F., & Glaister, A. J. (2016). The moderating role of transformational leadership on HR practices in M&A integration. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 27(20), 2488-2504.

Doing Justice essay help
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Doing Justice

“Doing justice” comprises various activities ranging from advocacy, participating in policymaking, to helping the community. In my capacity, I sought to engage in community improvement by volunteering as a tutor to low-income students between October 2nd to October 4th, 2019. This experience paved the way for a better understanding of society, and factors impacting academic achievement in lower sociodemographic communities. I volunteered as a tutor at the Meadowlands Family Success Center, where I managed to work with several students and other tutors. The center serves families within the Little Ferry and Moonachie areas in New Jersey. Meadowlands is a community-based gathering place where residents receive information, support, and services to reduce isolation while improving family connections. The facility offers various age-relevant programs to all community members, and it provides opportunities for community engagement.

Meadowlands aims to provide comprehensive resources and services to strengthen families and improve connections in the neighborhoods. I learned that the center was established to address the disparities in various community determinants, including education and healthcare. It also offers different forms of training on life skills, economic independence, family goal-setting, and parent education.  It also aims to reduce isolation while helping residents affected by Hurricane Sandy. My role in the center was as a tutor who worked with third-grade students to help them with challenging subjects and to enrich their knowledge. I worked closely with three other tutors in the Homework Helpers in Little Ferry Program. I also interacted with other influential people, who highlighted the significance of the center, its history, and some of its significant achievements. There were several children from low-income families who did not have sufficient resources to supplement their classroom education, and this affected their educational success.

            I would consider this experience as “doing justice” as I helped in reducing the existing academic disparities in the community today. There is an undeniable correlation between low socioeconomic status and education inequalities, an aspect that represents a severe societal failure. Research by GarcĆa and Weiss highlights a disparity in academic performance between students with high socioeconomic status and those from poorer settings (1). These gaps indicate some unmet needs among low-socioeconomic status children and untapped talents. Meadowlands targets to address this gap by providing various resources and mentorship opportunities for this population, thereby promoting equality. The Homework Helpers Program succeeds in pairing low socioeconomic status students (k-12) with college tutors who can offer the tutorship and mentorship they require to excel in school.

            My experience in the Meadowlands Center highlighted that there are different ways of promoting justice in the community in addition to correcting legal wrongs. Achievement of equality and impartiality in society requires focusing on social injustices and rectifying them accordingly. Before this course, I often considered justice to revolve around the judicial system, where most of the influence is impacted through policy reforms. However, being a tutor helped to restructure my thinking. I realized my role in influencing social change using the available platform and by creating awareness in the society. Educational disparities and their impact on society are often undervalued, leaving low socioeconomic students at a disadvantaged position. There is a need for more organizations like the Meadowlands Center, where students can gain more knowledge and skills to improve their quality of life.

            An applicable concept from the course readings in this context is social justice. Hemphill notes that social justice emphasizes equal access to opportunity, health, wealth, justice, and privileges despite the political and socioeconomic circumstances (2). It primarily revolves around establishing value judgments to create an environment where everyone has equal opportunities based on current conditions and historical events. From an economic standpoint, social justice entails the redistribution of wealth and financial opportunities from privileged groups to the minorities (Punzalan & Caswell 9). Over the years, researchers have emphasized the significance of creating more opportunities for underprivileged communities by improving academic performance and incorporating affirmative action. These measures are integral in addressing the underlying social issues and equipping low socioeconomic status students with vital life skills. 

            My tutoring experience is indicative of the significance of enforcing social justice in the community. Despite working at the center for less than a week, I witnessed how economic disparities affect academic performance. I also participated in alleviating these disparities and ultimately promoting social justice to the low-income society. Local communities can improve their situations by actively participating in social development projects aimed at empowering disadvantaged groups. Meadowlands Family Success Center manages to accomplish this role through its diverse projects. It has created an environment where community members can interact and collaborate in the development of innovative and sustainable solutions to underlying social problems. In the long-term, such inspirational programs can be instrumental in influencing policy changes and in achieving social equality in Little Ferry and Moonachie areas. I aspire to continue volunteering as a tutor in the Homework Helpers Program over the next few years, and potentially help the young students to improve their academic performance.

Works Cited

GarcĆa, Emma, and Elaine Weiss. “Education Inequalities at the School Starting Gate: Gaps, Trends, and Strategies to Address Them.” Economic Policy Institute, 2017, Accessed 29 November 2019

Hemphill, B. “Social justice as a moral imperative.” The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, vol. 3, no. 2, 2015, p. 9.

Punzalan, Ricardo L., and Michelle Caswell. “Critical directions for archival approaches to social justice.” The Library Quarterly, vol. 86, no. 1, 2016, pp. 25-42.

First Performance by Kaushiki Chakraborty college essay help
Concert Review

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Concern Review

First Performance by Kaushiki Chakraborty

The first performance is by Kaushiki Chakraborty performed during the 9th annual music festival of 2018. This is singer is an individual classical vocalist who established her singing career after her grooming by Sangeet Research Academy. The singing style evident from her 2 hour performance is Khayal. As she sang, it was easier to identify the aromatic aura of the class Indian classical music. Her charming personality as she interact with her fellow musicians was notable and set the audience at ease.  Her stage presence was impeccable. Her collaborating singers include a tabla and harmonium player. The composition is flawless. With the nature of the song being a Khayal, the listener is able to picture different imagination in their minds caused by the stimulation elicited by this composition to capture the portrayal of feelings.

 As is typical of most Kayal singer, Kaushiki is dependent on Laya style and an Alapi Style. With the combination of these two Styles, the presentation was excellent as it allowed for clarification of each performed line as the song progressed. As a Khayal of singer, Kaushiki demonstrated a great sense of creativeness and vocal mastery. From this presentation, it was easy to denote she is seasoned musician with incessant practice establishing a unique sense of stinging. As she performed, she incorporated extensive improvisation which gave her freedom to explore different melodic structures with similar rhythms. The vocal tone was romantic stretching between two to four Lines all throughout the concert. She utilized the old Punjabi to incorporate lyrical themes in her song which were quite descriptive touching on both humanistic and godly concepts.

 One of the key observance is that the singer did not necessarily enunciate the words. This observation was in line with most Khayal performances because the emphasis is on musical technique as opposed to proper pronunciation of text. In some sections, the singer resulted to using open-ended syllable as a means of elongating melodic passages. This is known as taans, with the musical notes comprising of Sa,Ga,Re, Ma, Dha, Pa, Sa, Ni. It was a solo performance supported by instrument players overshadowing the main performer. Some of the instruments used by Kaushiki and her crew is a harmonium and the Sarangi. In describing the recital, the first section commenced with a slow tempo known as vilambit. Kaushiki sings over a 12 beat ektal while occasionally incorporating tals with 14 beats such as the jhumra. This introduction referred to as bada khayal constituted the larger portion of any Khayal performance including Kaushiki’s recital. The second section the singer transitioned into the madhya. This was performed with a medium speed. The performance is finalized by a Chhota which is considerably brief. The dressing code signified royalty. This thematic clothing is in line with the gharana expectation because Khayal performances were conducted as a royal patronage allocation.

Holistically, the performance is a compilation of short songs with each bandish rendered differently than the previous one. The only similarity observed with each short song performed by Kaushiki in this concert is that the raga and text remain similar throughout. For each composition, it touches on diverse topics full of imagery and symbolism. In addition to this, I was able to identify that itch short song had an anatara and sthayi sections in order to fully capture the raga melodic contours. Kaushiki demonstrated her dexterity of khayal by seamlessly performing both middle and lower octaves in the sthayi section. Additionally, she displays her proficiency in capturing the accession of the Antara which is performed at a higher octave.

Second Performance

The second concert I attended was by Anoushka Shankar. She performed one of her father’s classical masterpieces “Pancham Se Gara”. The setting was quite relaxed. The audience was comfortably seated with their folding chairs and blankets ready to enjoy Anoushka’s performance. She was joined by two men dress in traditional attire. Each had an instruments. The performance began with the delicate notes from the sitar as the audience settled in. Her instrument who was quite extraordinary with the silver metal delicately complementing the dark wood. Performance build slowly with the Sitar incorporating musical depth. The first notable characteristic of the singer is her dexterity in handling the sitar. Progressive listening to the song reveals that it draws heavily from the gara ragga. This is a rare form of raga. The singer performs her own rendition of this genre created a well-structured melodic entity.

Some key features that I noted as I listened to Anoushka perform was the informal and loose melodic sections listening incorporated between longer lines allowing for brilliant phrasing and a graceful is in capturing the three octave played simultaneously. A presentation also borrowed heavily from the Khayal style with distinct variations revealed as the singer performed. In line with the raga genre, the concept of melodic informality was evident throughout the song touching on identifiable but distinct recurring ragas. The singer also integrated zigzag phraseology further capturing the attention of the audience. The two players interacted well with the singer allowing for the easier flow of this classical Indian piece. The instruments used included tanpura and a tablas played simultaneously. The performance was ornamental in the sense where Anoushka performed flashy bends and twists and decorative notes that left the audience awed by ability to play the Native Instrument. There was a direct infusion of Western influence in classical Indian Hindustani music style as performed by Anoushka.

The performance was energizing, deep, accessible and complex. It was a pleasure to hear her perfectly execute the song given her artistry and maturity in the music industry. It was evidently clear her tutelage from her legendary father enabled her to master the intricacies of the traditional Indian music at an early age. She was able to also infuse a sense of fun and humor with her players on stage which intrigued the audience. She was smiling occasionally to her fellow instrument player which created a sense of ease as the audience enjoyed her on stage presence. The band of three greatly enjoyed the performance as well as they transitioned into varied frameworks of the song with each member having an intimate moment to showcase their instrument mastery. From the audience, it was clear the music was uplifting and joyous as each listener was keen on the finality of the performance. The atmosphere was ridden with anticipation. As the music finalizes, the audience was enthralled by the unexpected encore performed by this music maestro. It was a happy ending deserving of a standing ovation. She was able to creatively narrate the story in her song inspired by her late father and the audience was appreciate of her perfect execution.

Securities Regulation online essay help
Securities Regulation

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Securities Regulation

A Canadian Clean Fuel Tech Firm and Ex-CEO Violated the FCPA in China-

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) on September 27, 2019, made the publications that Westport Fuel Systems Inc., which is a Vancouver based clean fuel technology firm and its Chief Executive Officer (CEO) had settled to pay more than 1.4 million U.S dollars to settle their alleged foreign bribery charges. The deceptive charges linked to the Company’s former CEO, Nancy Gougarty coordinating a plan to transfer the Company shares to a third party organization allied with a government official in China (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, 2019). Despite that the tech firm had in its Code of Conduct provisions guiding risk-mitigation, particularly regarding foreign corruption, SEC realized that in its settlement order, the guidelines were not comprehensive enough to apply to the particular type of the transaction that the Company was involved in (Cassin, 2019). Following this settlement, Canadian based companies should review their compliance codes carefully to avoid risking a foreign corruption violation and to guarantee that their provisions are broad enough to apply to every possible business transaction that might pose risks to their daily operations.

Background of the Case

Westport Fuel Systems Inc. is a fuel technology firm based in Canada. Westport is interlisted on the NASDAQ stock market and the Toronto Stock Exchange. Nancy Gougarty served as the Company’s COO from July 2013- July 2016 and as its CEO from July 2016- January 2019 (Cassin, 2019). SEC in Westford’s settlement order alleged that the Company was involved in bribery in 2016. The then CEO bribed a Chinese government official to acquire a cash payment and a sales contract.

The fuel tech Company had been part of a Chinese joint venture, in which the biggest shareholder was a state-owned Chinese business. In March 2013, a Chinese senior government official from the Chinese enterprise suggested that the joint venture needed to carry out an IPO (Initial public offering). The manager of the joint venture made false representations to the tech Company that the Chinese law required Westford to first have some of its shares registered in the joint venture to a private equity fund in China for it to assume the IPO. One of the managers at Westford Fuel Systems Inc., who had taken part in the share transfer negotiations later, found out that the transfer was inspired by a financial interest that the Chinese government official in the private equity (PE) fund. The Westford manager also realized that the official sought a lower valuation for the Company shares, which was an easy way to acquire significant and quick money while claiming that it was necessary as per the Chinese regulations.

The U.S SEC, after receiving the information of Westford’s manager alleged that the CEO did not disclose the information about the shares to the Board. Instead, she made efforts to ensure that the board remained unaware of it by erasing a sentence in one of the draft letters that the manager had prepared for the Board (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, 2019). The sentence would have informed the Board about the Chinese government official’s interest in the private equity fund. Gougarty in the records, books, and public filings also concealed the identity of the Chinese PE fund and deceptively identified a different organization as a signatory to the transaction. The CEO caused the Company’s violations by ignoring its internal accounting controls and deceitfully ratifying a certification regarding the competence of the controls (Cassin, 2019). During the negotiation, the CEO openly signed the share transfer on the Company gaining a long-term sales agreement with the joint venture. Eventually, the Canadian tech firm carried out the share transfer, which was done in exchange for both a separate dividend payment from the joint venture and the sales contract.

The U.S SEC order in the case against Westford Inc. found that the Company was in violation of the records, internal controls, and book provisions of the 1934 Securities Exchange Act, and the CEO was involved in those violations.  The bribery investigation was carried out by the SEC’s FCPA (Foreign Corrupt Practices Act) Unit officials, Mark Yost and Catherine Brilliant, and was overseen by Ansu N. Banerjee. The British Columbia Securities Commission also helped the SEC investigation in conducting the investigation (Cassin, 2019).

The Company, without denying or admitting to the findings of the SEC, agreed to a “cease-and-desist” order. The firm also agreed to pay SEC 2,546,000 US dollars in prejudgment and disgorgement interest. Further, they agreed to pay a civil interest penalty of 1,500,000 US dollars. The Company’s former CEO, on the other hand, agreed to pay a 120,000 US dollar civil penalty (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, 2019). The SEC in determining the acceptance of Westport’s offer took into account corrective acts that the Company considered in regards to its financial compliance programs and its anti-corruption or ethics code.

The Relevant Laws- U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA)

Corruption in the United States poses a tremendous economic and legal risk for entities engaging in business globally, especially in transitioning and developing nations. The SEC and the U.S Department of Justice lead the global fight against cases of corruption by heightening the number of prosecutions, settlements, as well as investigations for violations of the FCPA. Given the high enforcement activity, directors and managers running multinational companies are strictly apprehensive of any compliance efforts. To reduce the risk that foreign bribery poses, corporations must have a better understanding of any of the practices that the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act prohibits as well as any other relevant laws, like the United States guidelines against conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering (Madhany, 2019). Legal advisors and organizational leaders must remain updated on any enforcement trends. Also, company managers should remain mindful of any red flags or situations, which may trigger corrupt practices. With knowledge about the relevant laws that prohibit fraudulent acts, multinational companies investing in foreign countries can then commit to ethical business practices and at the same time, ensure that their compliance programs are competent enough to avoid the downsides of international corruption.

History of the Act

The 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act is a U.S. federal law that is mainly known for its two significant provisions. One of these provisions addresses requirements relating to accounting transparency under the 1934 Security Exchange Act (Koehler, 2016). The other one is concerned with corruption or bribery committed by foreign officials. In 1988 and 1998, the FCPA Act was amended. Since then, there has been ongoing congressional debates on whether the Act’s enforcement discourages organizations in the U.S. from investing in foreign markets.

According to surveys conducted in the mid-1970s by the SEC, more than 400 companies in the U.S. acknowledged making illegal or questionable payment of over 300 million U.S. dollars to foreign political parties, politicians, and government officials (Timmeny, 1982). The investigations revealed that businesses bribed foreign government officials for them to secure their business practices and to guarantee that some functionaries in foreign governments discharged some clerical or ministerial duties.

To respond to the increased corruption cases, the U.S. Congress passed the FCPA Act to bring to a stop the illegal actions of bribing foreign officials and at the same time, reinstate the confidence of the public in relying on the U.S. business systems. Jimmy Carter, in 1977, signed the FCPA act into law (Timmeny, 1982). The Act controlled global anti-corruption implementation since its advent up until 2010, when nations like the U.K. started introducing stronger and broader laws, especially the 2010 U.K. Bribery Act. There have been increased enforcement actions between nations, with every country increasing its efforts to ban corrupt business activities.

Provisions of the Act

The main role that the FCPA serves is that it prohibits businesses and their leaders from manipulating foreign officials with any form of personal rewards or payments. The law applies to American citizens, residents, and nationals acting in continuance of a corrupt practice abroad, any individual with a connection with the U.S and is involved in corrupt practices abroad, and foreign companies involved in trade activities with the U.S, irrespective of whether they are physically present or absent in the country (U.S Securities and Exchange Commission, n.d). The explained requirement is known as the FCPA’s nationality principle. Any person charged with the above practices is likely to face time in prison.

The Act, in situations of foreign legal and natural persons, cover their activities if they were operating in the U.S soil during the time the corrupt behavior occurred. This is what is known as the Act’s protective principle. Additionally, the Act oversees not only those payments made directly to external parties, candidates, and officials, but also any transactions made to other recipients in attempts to bribe foreign candidates, officials, or parties. According to U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (n.d), the payments as per the FCPA guidelines are not limited to financial firms but may encompass anything that is of significant value. The explained rule is what is referred to as the FCPA’s territorial principle. Koehler (2016) states that the Act is subject to continuous congressional and academic debate based on the impacts it has on foreign business. As argued by scholars, the FCPA discourages the investment of U.S companies in international markets, especially nations where bribery, graft, or any other corrupt practices, are rampant. The scholars’ arguments concur with the commonly known insight that businesses involved in mergers and acquisitions in developing markets go through distinctively high levels of corruption and regulatory risks.

The people subject to the Act include issuers. Issuers include any foreign or United States company that has registered a class of securities, or which the law requires to file its reports under the 1934 Securities and Exchange Act. Domestic concerns are also subject to the Act, and this refers to any person who is a U.S resident, national, or citizen, or any other organization under the U.S laws and corporations that have their central location in the U.S.

FCPA Requirements that all Companies should be Aware of

The FCPA anti-bribery provisions make it illegal for any person in the United States, and specific securities issuers, to offer any payment to a foreign official for the aim of retaining or acquiring a business. The law also applies to foreign people or businesses that engage in bribery while in the country. According to Koehler (2016), the Act states that medics at managed or government-owned hospitals are under FCPA considered as foreign officials. International organizations employees such as those of the United Nations are under the FCPA considered as foreign officials.

Given the FCPA Act is concerned with a bribery intention rather than the amount a person or an organization paid. It implies there is no materiality requirement, because giving anything valuable as a bribe, non-cash or cash items, is illegal.

In addition, all firms with listed securities in the U.S must meet the FCPA requirements of meeting their accounting provisions. As posited by Mas (2016), a company’s accounting provisions must follow the FCPA anti-bribery provisions. The provisions also require those businesses to keep records and books that justly and correctly reflect their payments and to implement and uphold an efficient internal accounting control system.

A high number of U.S businesses operating in foreign countries are considering additional measures to minimize their exposure and protect their reputation. These companies are hiring due diligence company services, whose responsibility is to vet third-party mediators and easily recognize any overlooked foreign officials entrenched in otherwise foreign private companies (Mas, 2016). The approach is one aspect of an operative FCPA Compliance Program, which indicates a genuine effort to evade business cases where high-risk organizations or people are concerned.

When it comes to paying foreign officials, the FCPA draws the existing difference grease payment and bribery. A grease payment may be permitted by the law, although it may violate local regulations.

Other Relevant Law: 1934 Securities Exchange Act

The 1934 Securities Exchange Act is a United States federal law that controls the trading of secondary securities like bonds and stocks. The Act was enacted to response mainly to the 1929 stock market crash, which was as a result of a lack of accountability and transparency in the securities market (Mas, 2016). In 1934, the Act established the SEC, thus giving the Commission the responsibility to control the U.S secondary securities market.

The Act is responsible for regulating insider trading and fraud. It prohibits any misrepresentations and fraud linked to securities transactions. PCFA also regulates tender offers, broker registration, and corporate reporting. The law limits the SEC to seek civil penalties like injunctions and fines. The Commission is also responsible for stopping any director or corporate officer from leading a company if involved in bribery or fraud cases (Mas, 2016). The DOJ can file criminal charges against companies that violate the Act. Some of these violations are specific to the transaction of securities like the deliberate failure to file the necessary reports or knowingly making misleading or false transactions or payment statements to auditors. Conspiracy and mail fraud are some of the common crimes for violating the Act.

Significance of the News Story for the Industry

The Westport clean fuel technology company settlement establishes that for any Canadian enterprise that is at risk of foreign bribery violations, any comprehensive prohibition that prohibits the corrupt foreign business payments in a code of ethics is inadequate. The SEC presumes that an organization’s foreign corruption compliance guidelines should also encompass prophylactic policies aimed at minimizing the violation risk. According to Madhany (2019), the SEC states that companies in their FCPA Compliance programs should include provisions that require all its business transactions and payments to be written down. In addition, businesses operating in foreign countries should carry out pre-payment due diligence while at the same time retaining the right to carry out third party auditing and delegating that any business contracts to include anti-bribery clauses. 

It is inadequate for Canadian companies to have the prophylactic provisions limited only to transaction classes that the business thinks are high-risks. Canadian based businesses should guarantee that the requirements for mitigating bribery risks in the FCPA compliance policies are flexible enough and comprehensively worded to include all transaction processes to avoid any risks that may lead to bribery charges (Madhany, 2019). Although the compliance policy provisions should include all business payments with risk, how an enterprise applies them for a specific transaction can be proportional to the foreign corruption risk level presented by the transaction. 

The story should serve as a lesson for any other Canadian based Company involved in a foreign business or joint ventures. Such companies should show commitment to their policy against corruption, and this should be observed by both senior managers and their subordinates. The policy should begin with a tone set from the top leadership hierarchy meaning that company leadership should lead by example. The SEC and the DOJ are both determined to see if companies comply with their FCPA policies. The entities require businesses to have more than just a written compliance program but also an influential ethical culture that backs the active program (Mas, 2016). By observing the ethical principles, senior leaders motivate middle managers to underpin those values. The SEC and DOJ in assessing whether a company acts in compliance with its anti-corruption laws must examine whether the company’s senior management has effectively articulated and communicated the business standards and ensured that they are conscientiously adhered to and distributed throughout the company.

Following the case, Canadian companies have come to understand that an effective compliance program that ensures that corruption or bribery acts do not occur during a transaction is important. The compliance program should have adequate resources to certify that the program is effectively implemented. Lastly, the compliance function must ensure that reports are made to the Audit Committee or the Board of Directors. Overall, the SEC and the DOJ in assessing the compliance code must consider whether the business devoted sufficient resources and stuffing to the FCPA compliance program given the risk profile, structure, as well as the size of the business. 

Over the years, the Code of Conduct has been used by companies to serve as the overall compliance program. SEC acknowledges this fact; however, the Commission states that the policies must be clear. Importantly, the SEC makes it clear that organizations with large employee percentage, which is not fluent in English, should ensure that the Code is translated to their native language to make sure that is well understood. Canadian Companies and any other U.S companies should employ suitable internal controls founded on the risks that the organizations consider for their business model. 

Risk assessment is important for any company that is willing to implement a strong compliance program. The case of Westport Inc. should inspire any other U.S based clean fuel tech firms to assess their risk in all business aspects. When the SEC and the Department of Justice look at an organization’s overall compliance policies, they consider the extent and whether a company addresses and assesses the specific threats that it faces. Businesses during a risk assessment should take into account factors like government involvement levels, prospective business associates, customs exposure, the industry sector, the business prospect, government oversight, as well as immigration laws in carrying out business ventures. 

Canadian clean fuel tech firms and any other U.S companies in the same sector should ensure that their compliance programs have disciplinary measures and incentives administered in case the company violates the FCPA set guidelines and in cases where the compliance program is adhered to. Besides, the U.S Securities and Exchange Commission and the Department of Justice acknowledge that positive incentives lead to compliant behavior. Such incentives can be in the form of promotions and personal assessments, rewards for compliance leadership and ethics, as well as rewards to developing and improving a corporation’s compliance program. 

Westport clean tech Inc., as well as other U.S companies operating in the same industry, have learned from the case that communication of a compliance policy is the key to any anti-bribery compliance program. In assessing that, the SEC and the DOJ must appraise whether a company has considered the necessary measures to make sure that appropriate procedures and policies have been effectively communicated to every individual in the organization, through part-time training as well as accreditation to all directors, managers, workers, and where necessary business partners and agents. Training is important and should be based on the identified risk to ensure that high-risk third party business partners and employees receive the appropriate training. An organization should devote the necessary resources to offer its staff with advice and guidance on how they should comply with the company’s compliance program regularly.  

Anti-Corruption or Anti-Bribery Solutions That Westport Inc. And Other Companies in the Same Industry Should Adopt

Organizations highly focus on their key capabilities, and as a result, they involve a number of third parties to carry out vital business functions.  Businesses lack direct control over the operations of third parties. This is risky as the third parties can expose the company to the reputational and regulatory risk of the FCPA violations.  As outlined in the FCPA regulations, companies are answerable for activities that involve both external and internal connections.  Corporations that engage in international operations or either engage third parties in highly corrupt areas are at high risk of violating the FCPA law. Today, businesses are adopting the anti-corruption and anti-bribery solutions to mitigate the risks and protect themselves against reputational damage and penalties.

One of the solutions is that Westport Inc. should adopt internal investigation and confidential reporting policy. To the industry, a company regulator or maybe an anonymous reporting can be employed to ensure that employees report any FCPA compliance violations or corrupt acts. Moreover, what a company does after a violation has been reported is important. According to the FCPA guidelines, once a corruption or bribery allegation is made, an organization should have in place a dependable, competent, and a well-funded process to enable it to investigate the charges (Bulovsky, 2018). Also, the company should document its response, including any remediation or disciplinary measures considered.

Another anti-bribery solution that Canadian Companies operating in the clean fuel industry should adopt is continuous improvement, which entails periodic review and testing. The FCPA requires companies to ensure that the compliance codes are not just documents but are practically put into use to inevitably reveal any weaknesses in the policy. Therefore, the SEC and the DOJ appraise whether businesses frequently review and improve their compliance programs and ethical Codes and not let them become outdated or dysfunctional.  Both the SEC and the DOJ expect companies to test and review their accounting controls and critically think about any existing risk and weakness areas. According to Bulovsky (2018), businesses should ensure that they periodically test their internal control through targeted audits to easily identify any corrupt practices.

Multinational companies willing to acquire foreign companies must carry out both a post-acquisition integration and pre-acquisition due diligence. In this case, the SEC and the DOJ guidelines spell out that companies before purchasing a company should try and carry out enough compliance due diligence. After the acquiring or merging process is complete, the acquiring firm should also consider employing an FCPA audit. The entity should have all risk employees, and senior management from the purchased company trained and integrated into their compliance policy.


Companies are seeking ways to use to reach consumers in every part of the world.  As they grow and expand cross-border relationships, businesses must adhere to compliance frameworks. Westport Fuel Systems Inc. failed to comply with FCPA policies, and after auditing was done, the Company was found guilty of bribing a Chinese government official. Nancy Gougarty’s actions violated the records, internal controls, as well as the regulations of the 1934 Securities Exchange Act. The legislative environment requires businesses involved in joined ventures to act in compliance with the discussed laws. Today, corruption and bribery are behind the scrutiny of many laws like the U.S Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, UK Bribery Act, and other specific laws set by different host nations. The case of Westport Inc. is a lesson to any Canadian Companies involved in foreign joint ventures. To evade strict penalties, reputation damage, and prison sentences, organizations should employ anti-bribery programs that reflect both international and local laws.  Businesses expanding in developing markets face the high examination of their daily operations as policymakers focus on corruption and bribery cases. It is not easy to remain ahead of corruption issues, given that it takes time to understand the laws of the host nations. In addition, the companies face pressure to compete in the new markets, which can prompt them to bribe government officials.  Corruption can highly increase in cases of unbalanced operations, unfamiliar business settings, regionalization, and unvetted third parties. Companies should, therefore, work hard to follow the set laws to avoid the challenges associated with bribery and corruption cases.


Bulovsky, A. T. (2018). Promoting Predictability in Business: Solutions for Overlapping Liability in International Anti-Corruption Enforcement. Mich. J. Int’l L., 40, 549. Retrieved from

Cassin R. (Sept. 2019). Clean fuel tech firm and ex-CEO violated the FCPA in China. The FCPA Blog. Retrieved from

Koehler, M. (2016). Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Statistics, Theories, Policies, and Beyond. Clev. St. L. Rev., 65, 157. Retrieved from

Madhany O. (2019). Companies Should Review Their Foreign Corruption Compliance Policies After SEC’s Recent Settlement with Canadian Firm. Lexology. Retrieved from

Mas, A. (2016). Does disclosure affect CEO pay setting? Evidence from the passage of the 1934 Securities and Exchange Act. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Retrieved from

Timmeny, W. (1982). An Overview of the FCPA. Syracause J. Int’l L. & Com., 9, 235. Retrieved from

U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (2019). SEC Charges Canadian Clean Fuel Technology Company and Former CEO with FCPA Violations. Retrieved from

U.S Securities and Exchange Commission (n.d). Spotlight on Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved from

Transgender and Self Identity scholarship essay help
Transgender and Self Identity

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Transgender and Self Identity


Transgender people are a big population of persons who do not identify with the gender they attained at birth, and often concerns women and men who feminize or musculinize their bodies with gender-conforming surgeries, or through cross-sex hormone treatment. The study elaborates how even as the number of such people increases in the U.S. and other parts of the world, some experience problems relating with self identity, with the poor intervention approaches making it more difficult to help the affected persons. The discrimination and psychological problems affected individuals experience make it necessary to come up with effective measures that would protect such individuals from harm and help them understand and appreciate their self identity. Unfortunately, the training approaches are not effective enough to equip practitioners with the necessary skills required to help transgendered people who live with a disorder or face relentless discrimination. Politicians must also improve their concern and develop policies that address the real problems rather than setting the terms without executing them. Strengthening and reviewing policies that protect transgender people and make it easier for them to know and accept their self identity and creating awareness on the need to promote equality may help ease the discrimination and psychological problems transgendered individuals experience.

Describing Transgender People

People who identify as transsexual or transgender are usually individuals born with normal female or male anatomies, but feel as if they have taken the inappropriate body form. A person who identifies as transsexual or transgender, for instance, may have male anatomy but feel like a female and seek to change their gender by taking particular hormones, or undergoing realignment surgeries (Herman, 2009). It is vital not to confuse transgender people with individuals who have intersex conditions, which refer to having an anatomy that is not regarded as typically female or male. Most intersex people seek medical condition because parents, or doctors, or they discover something strange about their bodies (Herman, 2009). Contrary, transgendered people experience an internal transformation of gender identity that is unique from most people. Often, people confuse transgender people with those having intersex conditions because people in both groups may sometimes want to choose their identity through external intervention (Herman, 2009). It is also true, even though it is not common, that some intersex people also choose to transform their gender at particular point of their life, some with this condition may identify themselves as transgender.

How Transgender relates to Self Identity

Many transgender people seem to be suffering from the problem of knowing their self-identity, and are the cause of psychological problems to some individuals who feel they were born in the wrong body. Self-identity in this instance refers to the recognition or perception of one’s characteristics as a particular person, particularly with regard to social context (Yarhouse, 2015). Self-identity also called self-concept or self-perspective refers to the beliefs one has about their selves. The concept of self-identity mostly tires to answer the question on how a person perceives his or her self. Self-identity is different from self-awareness and self-esteem that are quite different in their meaning (Yarhouse, 2015). Self-awareness largely refers to the measure to which self-knowledge is consistent, described, and presently applicable to a person’s dispositions and attitudes. Self-esteem, on the other hand, is more evaluative, and is like an opinion. One’s self-identity is composed of the person’s self-schemas, and constantly interacts with self-knowledge, the social self, and self-esteem to create the self as a holistic entity (Yarhouse, 2015). A person’s self-identity encompasses the past, current, and future selves with the future aspect depicting individual’s perceptions of what they might become, what they would want to be, or what they do not want to become in future (Yarhouse, 2015). A major concept in self-identity is the view individuals have about their past and future connects to their view regarding their current experiences. People tend to get into the habit of temporal self-appraisal, which in itself reveals self-identity, usually attempting to achieve positive feeling by shutting down negative feelings (Yarhouse, 2015). It is because of such argument that transgender people would think that the feeling they have about the need to change their gender is correct while their current bodily structure is inappropriate. Such feelings, however, only become stronger when such people have kept the perception for long, and feel that they need change as they move into the future.

Many transgender people battle with the concept of self-identity and while some overcome the thought after attaining their desired bodily structure or gender, some have to put up with the psychological issues that often cause more health problems than anticipated. Moen and Aune (2018) perform a qualitative study to acquire a deeper insight of and more insight into the experiences of transgender women in terms of self-understanding and identity. The surveyors collect data from six adult transgender women in Norway who have narrated their accounts, and utilize a narrative analysis approach to analyze the stories the participants give, which mainly touch on self-understanding, identity, and belonging (Moen & Aune, 2018). The study reveals that whereas the participants exclusively have a sense of belonging and a female identity, not everyone is contended with their state. Moen and Aune (2018) use their findings to illustrate how transgender people have a number of concerns for which they may seek help from psychologists. Other than the normal issues that may drive any individual to seek therapeutic intervention, transgender people, usually seek assistance to understand their gender identities and ways of expression, and to address the intricate rational and social issues that are affected by their feelings.

Furthermore, many transgender people now have to deal with the discrimination they experience in their daily operations, and even America started in the right track during the Obama era to safeguard the population, the Trump’s era seems to be incapable in the way it handles supports legislations that do not really safeguard transgender people from harm. It happens in the U.S. that transgender rights in the U.S. vary depending on the jurisdiction (McQueen, 2015). Birth certificates are often given though the Vital Records Office at the state level, especially where the birth happened. It is at this point that a person is either male or female, and whether or not a person can later change his or her gender is regulated by state law (McQueen, 2015). The federal law, nevertheless, perceives sex as indicated on official documents such as the passport. Usually, the regulations regarding name alterations in the various U.S. jurisdictions are a series of complex state and federal regulations. Different States perceive the issue of transgender in varying ways, with laws and regulations varying according to the measures an individual may have taken to transition to transgender. Nonetheless,  regardless of whether an individual transitioned by hormonal therapy, physiological therapy, or relevant surgery, gender-variant and transgender people are continually discriminated against and (McQueen, 2015). In falling beyond the scope of what the society perceives as normal, particularly when the normal is considered as natural, and therefore correct, transgender people must struggle to form their identity and hence their viability (McQueen, 2015). When one’s identity is not recognized, and when their nature does not fall within the realms of acceptable and possible identities formulated by the society’s dominant discourses, institutions, and norms, then an authentic inner battle for recognition exists.

It is worrying that most of the health insurance plans do not offer any cover on treatment related to gender transition, and many people with this condition are under-insured or lack insurance altogether. Inadequate coverage raises awareness about the inadequate training that most practitioners get before working with transgendered clients, potentially heightening financial harm on patients without offering the right treatment that they require (Miller & Grollman, 2015). Many therapists, seemingly, only get little training on self identity, which makes it hard to help individuals who battle with realizing their true selves (Miller & Grollman, 2015). The introduction of training programs aimed at educating the masses as well as professionals on properly interacting with transgender has illuminated hope on achieving a society free of discrimination both socially and in service delivery for transgender people.

It is crucial to understand that the reasons for seeking psychological services vary depending on the individual. A transgender person who wants medical intervention does not experience problems with their health because of their condition, but the emotional pain of handling stigma and facing transphobia make many people in this condition to seek intervention to improve their wellbeing. An account by a transgender as it comes out in McQueen (2015) shows how most of the transgendered individuals who visit a therapist do not have problems with their state. Most of them seek assistance because they find it hard to hide the truth any longer and because of the shame and guilt they face in their everyday encounters (McQueen, 2015). A significant number of transgendered people who seek therapeutic intervention may need help on mental health due to anxiety or depression generated by the stigma associated to being transgender.  A survey carried out by the Williams Institute in 2011 painted a worrying picture revealing as high as 40% suicide attempts among transgendered people, with the suicidal rate being relatively higher among individuals who were victims some form of discrimination, harassment and physical harm, or sexual assault (McQueen, 2015). It also happens that many transgendered people seeking clinical intervention suffer from autism, especially when diagnosed with gender dysphoric. Studies are however not yet conclusive in establishing a clear biological link between the two, with some attributing it to individuals with autism tending to be less affected by societal disapproval, hence find it easy to openly become transgender McQueen, 2015). Failing to understand why transgender people seek assistance, may affect the adoption of proper strategies and may derail innovation processes that would introduce new and effective intervention mechanisms.

Ongoing efforts to Embrace Transgender People and build their Self Identity

Even as transgender people try to achieve their identity, such people face a lot of discrimination, which requires national leaders to develop proper mechanisms that would protect the group. Fortunately, some nations already show the interest to achieve equality by denouncing transgender as being a gender identity disorder (Luvuno, et al., 2019). Such countries do not support the stand by the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders and that of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases that transgender people may be suffering from a gender identity disorder when they exhibit particular features (Luvuno, et al., 2019). The French government, for instance, ruled out the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in 2010, even though transgender rights groups claimed that nothing happened beyond the announcement (Luvuno, et al., 2019). The Danish government followed suit in 2017 by abolishing gender identity disorders. The U.S. federal government formed the Employment Non-Discrimination Act to safeguard all employees from discrimination based on their gender identity and sexual orientation (Luvuno, et al., 2019). Some cities and states have also started to pass their own legislations in a bid to protect the transgendered people and other members of the LGBTQ group. In 2010, New York signed into law a statute that included transgender persons among other protected groups. Elsewhere in California, Tom Ammiano authored the School Success and Opportunity Act, and took effect on January 2014 as law (Luvuno, et al., 2019). The legislation permits all students to take part in sex-segregated school activities and programs, including competitions and athletics, and to utilize facilities that are consistent with their gender identity, regardless of the gender booked on the student’s records. The Indian government also acknowledges the need to protect transgender people and the Supreme Court of India ruled in 2014 that transgender is part of the recognized genders in the country (Yarhouse, 2015). Justice Radhakrishnan while giving the declaration said that rarely does the Indian society cares or realizes the pain, agony, and trauma which transgendered people experience, and further said that many people do not appreciate the inner feelings and self identity of those who belong to the transgender population, particularly those whose body and mind do not rhyme with their biological sex (Yarhouse, 2015). Enacting the right mechanisms will be the only way to address the many issues that could result in increased discrimination and psychological trauma.

Such countries that advocate for the rights and freedom of the LGBTQ population assert that transgender people may only meet the threshold of gender identity disorder if the condition causes disability or distress. Transgender persons usually suffer ‘gender dysphoria’ out of living in constant fear, eventually resulting in abnornamal social lives and low performance at the workplace (Yarhouse, 2015). Transgender people who do not have any problems with their condition, and who are satisfied with their gender do not suffer from gender identity disorder (Yarhouse, 2015). The countries that do not support the discrimination or seclusion of transgender people are able to overcome their condition through proper transitioning and therapy.

Various groups in the U.S. are developing mechanisms to promote the development and rights of transgender people, and to help them achieve self identity. American Principles Project, which in recent years has paid attention to suppressing clashes over same-sex marriages and abortion rights, is an example of a group that is trying to build self identity among the transgender group through its initiatives (Peters, 2019). The group develops ads that appear on smartphones and computer screens across Kentucky, which mainly call people to embrace transgender people in various ways, including sharing in sporting activities. Even though the group limits its operations to Kentucky at the present time, strategists say the group has much bigger ambitions (Peters, 2019). The group is currently developing a pilot program that will assist President Trump regain presidency come 2020, following its realization that it has a lot of conservative voters who may not be enough to enough to give the President the huge win he requires. The issue played out politically in the case of  the gubernatorial in Kentucky, when the American Principles Project messaged the voters saying  that the Democratic ticket candidate, wants to see girls compete boys in boys’ sport (Peters, 2019). Mr. Bevin who vied under the Republican Party, on the other hand, might have failed to secure the seat due to his conservative views towards the lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Several other groups should come up with such initiatives that help to promote gender identity to diminish the discrimination and psychological pressure these individuals experience.

Most nations, especially in the developed and developing regions, have medical processes that help transgendered people achieve gender identity, and even though technology still transforms to come up with more superior practices, the available mechanisms are significant in helping individuals achieve transition. Patients have the option of choosing from surgical and medical procedures that vary in nature, although not all transgender people will select some of the options (McQueen, 2015). Men, for instance, may choose hormone replacement therapy, which would give the masculine features like beard, fat redistribution, and deepening of voice (McQueen, 2015). Transgender women on the other hand, may undergo hormone replacement therapy giving them feminine body shapes, increased breast size e.t.c. Additionally they may have the excess hair from certain parts of the body, while surgical procedures may help change the voice, genitals, waist, skin, buttocks, and facial appearance giving them a more feminine look (McQueen, 2015). The sex reassignment therapy that serves as an umbrella term for the physical processes and procedures needed for transition continues to evolve due to the growth in technology. The people who undergo such procedures, however, need to understand some of the health risks that they may experience following the realignment process. In the case of men who have not undergone hysterectomy for instance, testosterone intake poses a risk of endometrial cancer (McQueen, 2015).

Even though some initiatives already exist to help transgender people achieve gender identity, some obstacles still make it difficult to address the issues that such a population faces. It happens that clinical training is deficient of the relevant information required to efficiently assist transgender customers, which brews many practitioners who are not well equipped to adequately address the issues transgender people face (Yarhouse, 2015). It is uncertain that many mental healthcare practitioners are not conversant with concepts of transgender disorders and feelings, and those who seek assistance from such professionals hardly receive assistance that would help them overcome any discomfort or identify their selves (Yarhouse, 2015). Practitioners and scholars acknowledge the deficiencies surrounding competency in handling the issues transgender people experience, although the progress to save the situation seems to picking at a slow pace. Other than the lack of adequate skills and competence to address the challenges transgender people experience, the government is slow to create legislations that promote self identity among the highly affected individuals.

Recommendations on how to Strengthen Gender Identity among Transgender People

It emerges that many transgender people fight with accepting their self-identity, and embracing the suitable mechanisms to help such people. So far, experts in self identity have identified various approaches to help people who have internal conflicts about gender identity or experience some discomfort in one gender role, more so if one desires to change (Miller & Grollman, 2015). Experiencing a conflict between societal expectations and one’s gender, or a conflict between one’s gender identity and their body, may lead to one being withdrawn. Nonetheless, ending the psychological issues and discrimination the population experiences would come to a halt through proper interventions and initiatives. A suitable approach would be to improve legislative processes aimed at protecting transgendered people from any form of violation or discrimination (Miller & Grollman, 2015). The American government already tries to create legislations that give transgendered people equal opportunity at the various sectors. Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, for example, prohibits employers with more than 15 workers from discriminating employees on the basis of the sexual orientation (Miller & Grollman, 2015). Some even feel that Title VII also prohibits discrimination based on gender identity or sexual orientation. The Fair Housing Act forbids sex violations by landlords and gives every person the right to rent a house despite their gender identity. Many American states also have legislations that protect the population from any form of segregation and discrimination. The government may improve protection by creating more laws that address the various aspects of safeguarding transsexuals. Alternatively, the government may strengthen the mandate of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, which seeks to ensure that LGBTQ people are safeguarded under Title VII, and handles the complaints put forth by transgendered individuals who have experienced discrimination at the place of work (Miller & Grollman, 2015).

It is important to enlighten transgender people and the society at large about the rights and freedoms of individuals who try to achieve self identity when they cannot fully discern their gender or sexual orientation. The public as well as transgendered people should understand that all people are the same regardless of their sexual orientation, and that it is vital to respect the decisions of others, as long as they do not infringe on the rights and freedoms of other citizens (American Civil Liberties Union, 2019). The target population should know their rights on renting houses as provided for in the Fair Housing Act, and housing providers, including renters and constructors should know that housing that get financial aid from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, or service loans that are insured by the Federal Housing Administration, operate under the guidelines of the Department of Housing and Urban Development’s Equal Access Rule, which prohibits discrimination in its programs on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation (American Civil Liberties Union, 2019). The groups in charge of sensitization exercise should inform transgender individuals that if they believe their rights have been infringed upon, what they can do largely depends on where the discrimination happened, and what the local or state laws say about the situation (American Civil Liberties Union, 2019). The groups trying to advocate for sameness, and which try to help transgender people understand their self identity should be conversant with the provisions of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 that prohibits favoritism on the basis of sex by government (public) schools. Public school leaders should know the requirements of Title IX, which obliges them to give response to harassments based on someone’s appearance or behaviors that do not conform or fall within gender stereotypes. Such people may include girls who wear pants, boys who apply makeup, or learners who are non-binary or transgender (American Civil Liberties Union, 2019). Otherwise, failing to educate the public about the various rights and freedoms of the transgendered people, and how to incorporate them into the society may prolong the segregation and psychological problems they experience in their quest to know and accept their self identity.

All the groups working towards recognizing transgender people and helping such individuals realize their self identity should adhere to ideologies that would help them adhere to measures that improve the wellbeing of the affected population. Non-recognition and inadequate representation of transgender population denies such people equal protection of the law, and leaves them highly vulnerable to sexual assault, violence, harassment, and discrimination at home, by the security forces, and other public settings (Miller & Grollman, 2015). Statistics by Miller and Grollman (2015) reveals how transgender people face sexual assault, including gang rape, molestation, forced oral and anal sex, stripping, and gang raping that are being carried out with impunity. Other than eradicating discrimination and promoting equality in all areas of the society, particularly in the field of education, healthcare, and employment, promoting measures and strategies that incorporate transgendered individuals help them understand their self identity, which is crucial in developing internal or intrinsic motivation.


The study elaborates how some transgender people strive to accept their self-identity, which calls for effective interventions that would help such individuals regain confidence and self-esteem. Transgender people as it comes out in the study were born with a particular sex identity but for one reason or the other they developed the desire to transform their gender. Such individuals usually display behaviors that are as a result of past feelings or encounters, as well as that reflect their future desires. Some regulatory bodies even regard transgender people as suffering from gender identity disorder, although the proclamation still experiences some opposition. The problem is that transgendered people experience significant in knowing their gender identity, which subject many individuals to psychological problems. Furthermore, transgender people also face discrimination in the society that subjects them to more mental problems concerning realizing their self identity.  Even with the challenges the transgendered people experience, much more needs to happen to overcome the deficiencies associated with intervention approaches used to help patients. Practitioners still lack enough insight and training, and the people who seek therapeutic intervention hardly get help that would benefit them. Even though a number of initiatives already exist to help people struggle to realize self identity, including legislations, activist groups, and clinical processes, much more need to happen to wholly embrace transgendered people in the various areas of life. Governments need to put more emphasis on developing effective legislations that safeguard people who have sexual orientations and gender identities that deviate from gender and cultural norms, and create awareness on the importance of promoting equality, regardless of one’s preferences and feelings.


American Civil Liberties Union. (2019). Know your rights: LGBTQ rights. Retrieved from

Herman, J. (2009). Transgender explained for those who are not. New York, NY:  AuthorHouse.

McQueen, P. (2015). Recognising transgender identities: Narratives and politics of the gendered self. Subjectivity, Gender and the Struggle for Recognition, 2, 125-156.

Miller, L., & Grollman, E. (2015). The social costs of gender nonconformity for transgender adults: Implications for discrimination and health. Sociological Forum, 30(3), 809-831.

Moen, V., & Aune, I. (2018). Identity and self-understanding among transgender women in Norway. Nordic Journal of Social Research, 9, 1-21.

Peters, J. (2019). A conservative push to make trans kids and school sports the next battleground in the culture war. Retrieved from

Yarhouse, M. (2015). Understanding gender dysphoria: Navigating transgender issues in a changing culture. Houston: IVP Academic.

Business Ethics essay help online
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Business Ethics


Compliance to business ethics is instrumental for organizational success. It ensures the workforce and management display good conduct in their operations further promoting meaningful work relationships with the clientele boosting the company’s upward mobility. Several advantages are associated with proper business ethics. Firstly, it boosts customer loyalty as the business demonstrates fairness in its operations. This conduct assures the customers they will not experience any unjust dealing with the company such as irrational price hikes on products. The major advantage in this endeavor is establishing a loyal client base, lowering marketing costs and acquisition of new customers. The second advantage is the opportunity to enhance the establishment’s reputation. A track record displaying exceptional ethical conduct allows a corporate to generate positive perceptions within its targeted marketplace. Additionally, through the word of mouth, the company is able to access new customers. However, a reputation citing unethical behavior limits chances of new clients which has been further worsened by the existence of social media which allows fast transmission of both positive and negative feedback on services or products rendered. In addition to the highlighted benefits, positive working environment, avoidance of legal issues as well as top talent retention are expected outcomes. This discourse seeks to analyze work benefit policy as a core business ethic based on the analysis of Google and Facebook as competitive powerhouses in the technology and information system industry.

            Work benefits policy are mandated by the law and reinforced by human resource management to integrate value into work and create a stronger sense of purpose in an organizational setting. Many corporates comply with this legislation as it is beneficial to business operations through the attraction and retention of top talent. Currently, corporates are focusing more CSR as a form of work benefits policy. For instance, Codd contracted Babies with Love, an ethical gift product company to ensure the company demonstrates it is considerate of its employees who are on parental leave through gifting. This action has worked positively in transforming the workers’ perception about the company thus increasing their retention once their leaves are completed. The company also presents the employees with a thank you note embellished with personal touches with the profits further enhancing the company’s interaction with its staff. Facebook and Google have different frameworks aimed at availing varied benefits to its employees, a close analysis on these two entities capture the approaches applied and the effectiveness and dysfunctionality of each depending on their impact of reward management, employee economic security and worker retention.

Healthcare Benefits

Organizations operating ethically offer healthcare benefits variable depending on the type of work category and relationship with the staff. The US economy spends an approximated $3.3 trillion on healthcare as of 2016 which is a 4.3% increment in comparison to 2015 expenditure. With these high costs, organizations demonstrate compliance by offering health care coverage depending on its preferred health plans. Google is compliant in availing healthcare benefits which is one of the strategies it applies in retaining top talent (Finkle 863). Its coverage constitutes of affordable insurance cover, dental plan which covers reconstruction surgery. Additionally, the company covers partial payment for braces and dentures and full coverage on preventative dental care and procedures. Secondly, it offers excellent maternity support program, aimed at supporting its expectant workers. Psychological and nutritional counselling is also available which is inclusive of the employees’ family members. The main benefit associated with this provision is the employees are able to also resolve personal and work related issues (Finkle 865). The services are accessible throughout the week inclusive of family sessions as well. The vision plan and telehealth plans also available importance health care services for the Google’s workforce (Chen 45). For instance, the vision plan caters to eye-related medical problems covering both contact lenses and glasses expenses. On the other hand, Telehealth covers costs incurred during medical examinations, doctor’s consultations as well as other additional services availed through video or phone calls. Lastly, the employees are provided a healthcare spending accounts which is available for team members. The funds directed towards this account is tax free with the remainder carried forward on a yearly basis.

Facebook and Google offer generous benefits in terms of healthcare with parenting employees greatly benefiting from the various provisions. However, both companies approach healthcare from an exhaustive standpoint to ensure absolute maximization of its resources to ensure its workforce is well provided for in order to boost performance and productivity. However Facebook has a slight advantage (Gillett). Firstly, the generous parental leave demonstrates that the company treats its employees fairly and as equal partners generating high loyalty and motivation (Glassdoor). Both men and women are offered 4 months paternity leave whereas in Google women are allocated 18 weeks maternity paid leave while men are assigned 12 weeks (Chen 62). Additionally services such as egg freezing with a $20,000 coverage and $4,000 baby cash for newborns offers Facebook an upper hand as a technology giant justifying its high rating on Glassdoor. In comparison, Google services are slightly lower as new parents receive $500 with an additional childcare center within the workplace (Gillett). In Facebook, parents are able to enjoy their personal engagement in parenthood given the willingness demonstrated by the company to offer financial and psychological assistance in managing the varied obligations that come with this life changing event.

Career Benefits

Google invests heavily on its employee’s career in order to enhance their professional development. Firstly, it integrates mentoring, coaching and onboarding programs allowing for their easier transitioning into the workplace. Varied reimbursement programs are also presented in certifying the employees based on their work performance. The first component is career planning (Finkle 865). The company offers remarkable opportunities in empowering their employees with plans elemental in progressing their careers.  The mentoring and coaching programs collaboratively align with the career plans in order to increase employee productivity and professional growth. In addition, the corporate directs developmental resources which work on widening its employees’ professional and personal horizons. They are also encouraged to engage in learning groups and workshops that train on relevant topics whose mastery contributes to career proliferation (Finkle 870). The third benefit include leadership programs whereby Google avails necessary materials to its leaders in management as well as team members who seek to elevate their positions. This program has been instrumental in achieving professional goals.

In terms of performance management, the recognition programs enable the corporate to recognize and reward top performers which serve as motivation to continually improve their performance and contribution to the company. Additionally, Google prioritizes tuition reimbursement (Chen 63). The corporate places high priority on professional growth through continuous education. Therefore, the tuition reimbursement plan offers the employee fiscal resources that cover their job related certificates and college degrees (Oishi, et al. 160). Lastly, Google Inc. focuses on ensuring its employees are conversant with its mission and vision as well as organizational goals. Therefore, in ensuring the new employees are well integrated, the Onboarding program assists with effective transitioning enhancing the cooperation amongst the employees.

However, in comparison to Facebook, Google is more focused on program integration as opposed to providing adequate room and freedom elemental for career growth. Google is a vast company which more than 64,000 employees, in comparison to Facebook’s 10,000 employees, the financial benefits are spread the resources availed by the programs are spread thin (Gillett). According to a Google employee interviewee, access to the programs are limited to top talent that contribute to innovation (Chen 76). Therefore, there is an evident impediment to career growth. This is different at Facebook which approaches career benefits from an all-inclusive perspective therefore reporting higher job satisfaction levels than Google (Glassdoor). The career opportunities availed through programs target all employees inclusive of subordinate and top talent categories. Additionally, it is also important to note that the hiring processes applied in Facebook are less constrictive as opposed to Google therefore beneficial to employees on a long term basis. At Google, potential employees undergo six weeks interview process prior to recruitment whereas Facebook conducts hiring for one month (Chen 71). With a longer recruitment period, Google is able to identify the brightest and best candidates, however, the downside is engaging these talents in lower level job further increasing its employee turnover. However, with a shorter hiring process, Facebook is able to retain a higher percentage of its workforce.

Financial Benefits

Both companies are invested in improving the overall financial welfare of their employees evident from the benefits offered. The corporates offer the 401k plan. Facebook allows the employees to engage in this plan through its various extensions such as Facebook Miami, WhatsApp, Sinculus Inc., Rhodium Acquisition Sub II Inc. amongst others. Its contributions are at 50% inclusive of a 7% eligibility compensation (Gillett). This reimbursement covers overtime pay, base compensation, performance bonuses and commissions. The only exemption is on Restricted Stock Unit which imposes a $ 280,000 income (Gillett). Within this arrangement, there are also provisions for investment choices that enable the employees to fulfill their retirement goals which can also include investing into Facebook stock (Gillett). In Google, the 401K plan allows only 4% compensation from the salary with the company matching 50% which is slight lower. Similar to Facebook, a variety of investment plans are available. In addition, the employees can utilize the valuable vesting schedule which boosting their returns by 25% on a yearly basis. In terms of salary benefits, Facebook offers a significantly higher salary in comparison to Google (Gillett). According to information collected from Glassdoor, this statement is justified on the basis that a Facebook software engineer earns $126,780 whereas in Google the remuneration for the same position is $126,733. The difference is minimal hence remaining quite competitive.

The financial benefits offered by Google are more exhaustive in comparison to Facebook as they are sectioned into different segment to ensure the employees’ financial stability is secured (Chen 78). In addition to the 401 (K) plan, the company offers adoption assistance reimbursement which seeks to assists its employees in adopting a child. It caters to the adoption fees which is an excellent support system aimed at fostering better relationships with its clients. Additional financial support in parenting needs include daycare flexible spending accounting and childcare discount. Employees contribute directly to a daycare account from their paychecks which is untaxed (Gillett). From these monies, employees cater partially to the daycare costs incurred during their work time. There are also discounts awarded to eligible team members’ further demonstrating inclusivity to its employees who have dependents (Oishi, et al. 167).  Another inclusive benefit is the disability program whereby the financial status of eligible team members remains consistent even during instances where their health is compromised and are unable to fulfill work expectations. Employees with disabilities are able to enjoy from both short and long term coverage.

Works Cited

Chen, Yan. “Google Inc.: A Case Study.” SSRN Electronic Journal, vol. 34, no. 2, 2011, pp. 34-78.

Finkle, Todd A. “Corporate Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Silicon Valley: The Case of Google, Inc.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 36, no. 4, 2011, pp. 863-884.

Gillett, Rachel. “Facebook or Google? Here’s the Difference Between Working at 2 of the Best Employers in America.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 29 Apr. 2016, Accessed 9 Dec. 2019.

Glassdoor. “Facebook Benefits.” Glassdoor, 2019, Accessed 9 Dec. 2019.

Lammenett, Erwin. “Facebook.” Praxiswissen Online-Marketing, 2019, pp. 361-378.

Oishi, Masanari, et al. “Facebook e-Portfolios for Career Education Focused on Japanese Employment Practice: A Case Study.” The Review of Socionetwork Strategies, vol. 11, no. 2, 2017, pp. 159-171.

Governor Newsom and the Death Penalty college essay help online
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Governor Newsom and the Death Penalty

In the CNN article, Governor Newsom makes an important argument regarding the death penalty. He opines that the US executes more people than any other nation in the world and that capital punishment is administered in a manner that violates the tenets of equal justice as prescribed by the Constitution (Newsom 1). He adds that California has the highest number of people sentenced to death and that the majority of them come from minority groups, which indicates racial inequality in the process. At the same time, the penalty is unfair since it is applied based on mental disability as well as financial position. Newsom continues to argue that innocent people have been sentenced to death due to wrongful convictions that were made as a result of false evidence (Newsom 1). Moreover, Governor Newsom believes that the death penalty is too costly for California, yet it does not make the state safer; instead, it risks more innocent lives. For instance, it has cost the state 5 billion US dollars since 1978, an amount that he believes would have been used to improve the judicial system or invest it in measures that mitigate crimes, lower recidivism, as well as assist survivors and victims (Newsom 2). Humans are bound to make mistakes; hence, a wrong decision may put an innocent person to death. Similarly, there is no evidence that capital punishment deters crime. Therefore, Newsom holds that there is no need to implement a flawed system, which discriminates, denies, and delays (Newsom 2). His role is to ensure that the justice system promotes equality in the application of the law and that every measure is taken to improve the safety of communities.

The main points in his arguments are that the death penalty is too expensive (both morally and financially) to implement in the state, it is discriminatory, as well as that it is cruel. He indicates that the state has spent approximately 5 billion US dollars in capital punishment (Newsom 1). The cost of the death penalty can also be looked at in terms of the wrong decisions that the judiciary may make, leading to the wrongful persecutions of innocent Californians. At the same time, he perceives the penalty as a failure because it discriminates against offenders of brown or Black origin, those who cannot afford the costly legal representation, as well as the mentally ill. The Governor also believes that the intentional killing of individuals is wrong: killing fellow Californians is cruel and imposes a moral cost (Newsom 2). In May, this year, New Hampshire repealed its death penalty when law-makers took precedence over the Republican Governor. This made it the twenty-first state in the US to outlaw capital punishment (Watkins 1). Governor Sununu was supporting the death penalty, but the state House voted to override his veto of the bill. This means that New Hampshire would sentence capital offenders to life imprisonment without the likelihood of parole. Moreover, in Delaware, the Supreme Court invalidated the death penalty in 2016. This was during the case of Benjamin Rauf v. Delaware (O’Keefe 1). Governor Jack Markell supported the Court’s decision, saying that after careful consideration, he had realized that the use of a death sentence is a form of flawed justice, which does not even make people safer (O’Keefe 1). He added that those who support the penalty should also consider wrong testimonies given by witnesses, the high number of individuals on death row who have been exonerated, as well as other issues that strongly support the alleviation of the death sentence. 

I agree with Governor Newsom’s action. The death penalty has been a controversial issue in the US: some people support its implementation, while others are against it. His decision to abolish the death penalty in California is a sign of effective leadership regarding this significant human rights matter (HRW 1). With this step, the state supports a trend that is increasingly becoming irresistible in the US. Newsom makes California shun this punitive punishment, joining an excess of twenty other states that have banned the punishment. He has understood the harsh nature of the sentence, its financial and moral costs, as well as its discriminatory nature. For instance, the state has approximately 737 inmates on death row (HRW 1). This figure is two-fold higher than in any other state across the US. This shows the urgency of alleviating the death penalty in the state. Likewise, in this decision, Newsom shows great courage in abolishing the unfair, expensive, and cruel practice of executing inmates (HRW 2). As Alison Parker opines, residents should be excited that the state has stood firm to abolish state-sanctioned killings. This means that the state is on the right track towards upholding their human rights, as well as recognizing the fundamental dignity as well as equal and undeniable rights of all individuals, including those who have committed heinous offenses. It deters torture as well as other types of inhuman, degrading, or cruel punishments (HRW 2). Human rights cannot be attained through the death penalty, a kind of punishment characteristic of finality and cruelty.

Furthermore, here in the US, capital punishment is characteristic of error, racial disparities, as well as arbitrariness. For instance, 164 individuals, including four coming from California, have been set free from death row from 1973 (HRW 2). This was after these people were found to be innocent of the crimes that they were accused of. In February, this year, two inmates from the state were set free after spending three decades behind the bars when appeal courts found significant errors in their trials. This is a clear indication that human error and all humans are prone to error, can cause innocent people to be sentenced to death. This is dangerous considering that such action is final and irreversible (HRW 2). Therefore, getting rid of the death penalty is the ideal solution to such challenges.

Additionally, racial disparities are a significant problem regarding the death penalty. Over the past several decades, researches have revealed steady patterns of racial inequality in the judicial system in the process of imposing capital punishment (HRW 3). Such studies show that African-Americans are highly likely to be given such a penalty than the Whites, more so if the complainant is a White. According to the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, 36% of the 737 inmates on a death row in the state are Blacks, although they comprise below 7% of California’s total population (HRW 3). This reveals the skewed nature in the manner in which the penalty is applied. The only way that such a problem can be alleviated is by repealing the law. Capital offenders should be given life imprisonment. This way, as they serve their sentences, they would be eliminated from the community, and the community would remain safe from their acts.

Works Cited

Newsom, Gavin. “California Governor: Why I put a Freeze on the Death Penalty.” The CNN, 21 March, 2019, Accessed 05 Dec 2019.

O’Keefe, Ed. “Death Penalty Struck Down in Delaware.” The Tribune News Service, 04 Aug, 2019, Accessed 05 Dec 2019.

The Human Rights Watch (HRW). “US: California Suspends death Penalty.” The Human Rights Watch, 12 March, 2019, Accessed 05 Dec 2019.

Watkins, Eli. “New Hampshire Repeals Death Penalty after Lawmakers Override Republican Governor.” The CNN, 30 May, 2019, Accessed 05 Dec 2019.


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How global art institutions impact on local ecologies in New York and Jeddah

The research pays particular attention to how the global art institutions have impacted on local ecologies in New York in the United States and in Jeddah, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s (KSA) capital city. The report utilizes the term global art institutions to refer to the social and cultural agencies that are both instigators of transformation and receivers of change. As such, the report shall pay considerable attention to how global art institutions such as private and public museums, biennials, art schools, and art movements influence ecological relations in New York and Jeddah. The study while trying to analyze how the global art institutions influence the local ecologies, borrows from some of the concepts that are important to the world of art such as globalization and gentrification.

The Influence of Globalization on the Development of Global Art Institutions

Globalization may be attributed to have a significant impact on how people relate with each other, and the environment, as well as on the development of art. Globalization according to the definition by Raikhan et al. (2014) refers to the process of integration and interaction among companies, people, and governments all over the world. Often, people move from one place to the other in quest for business, employment, and learning opportunities, and end up spreading their ideologies while picking up new ones (Raikhan et al. 2014). The growth of the internet in the early 1990s has been attributed to be one of the leading reasons for the concept of globalization because of the increased speed of communication and lessening the distance for the exchange of financial and human capital (Raikhan et al. 2014). Digital platforms a vital enabling function in the art world for the globalization of art on several avenues, including sales, communication, and sales. Regarding production, new forms of digital and global art have been created, which may be termed as born-digital form of art (Raikhan et al., 2014). Globalization and the increased development of technology are crucial advocators for freedom of expression, and the internet helps to create more open platforms for dialogues, and is transforming what can be promoted, initiated, and discussed. Raikhan et al. (2014) predict that KSA will be the core of future cultural and artistic production in the Gulf region because of the emergence of new communication technologies that allow people organize themselves and establish initiatives at the grass root level. Raikhan et al. (2014) maintain that the internet has formed a breathing space to the adverse conservative approaches that are part of the Saudi Arabian community. The internet, in short, has been vital in transforming the global modern art world and is a unique feature that disseminates artistic concepts from one place to the other. 

How the Development of Museums Impact on Local Ecology

Art institutions and museums have long been at the foremost position of representing cultural morals and values, being used as places of instruction for many years now. It is no wonder that in a world that is increasingly interlinked, these same museums and art institutions come to play their functions on global scale, and have increasingly been utilized and applied in International Relations (IR) (McAndrew 2009). Both the New Yorkers and the residents of Jeddah acknowledge the importance of developing museums and art institutions because of the crucial ecological functions these facilities play. The locals and visitors in both cities get to visit the museums and other than getting to see the various artifacts and artworks, they get the chance to interact with each other, and to share some of the issues that affect the society, and the environment (Amirsadeghi 2010). Sometimes, visiting the museums offers a good opportunity to understand certain features of the society, and to know how the past communities related to each other.

The vital ecological roles the private and public museums play is the main reason the government and private investors in New York and Jeddah are focusing on developing more facilities. The establishment of the Museum of Modern Art in 1929 changed the course of preserving art in New York, as well as offered an opportunity for people to understand each other and their environment much better. New York has other major museums such as the Brooklyn Museum, the Jewish Museum of New York, and the Museum of the City of New York among many others (Voorsanger et al. 2010). Some of the museums in Jeddah that attract huge visitors on daily basis, and which offer a suitable environment to present and address ecological concerns include the Saudi Center for Fine Arts, the Atelier Jeddah, Rochan Gallery, and Arabian Wings Gallery among others.

Even though the need to develop museums and other art institutions has gained prominence in New York and Jeddah because of the vital ecological functions such facilities play, the practice of establishing the institutions seem to be a global phenomenon. The UK government, for example, co-sponsored the establishment of the Foundation Art Institutions of the 21st Century(AI21C) in London (Art Institutions of the 21st Century 2019). The foundation that serves as a not-for-profit organization, and which commenced its activities in 2017 with the objective of bridging the gap between private and public art sectors, seeks to identify factors that derail the stability of modern art institutions. The parent group, Montabonel & Partners, aims to contribute to their sustainability in the fast-transforming aesthetic, economic, and political context (Art Institutions of the 21st Century 2019). AI21C in its attempts to enlighten the various groups and individuals about art and the transformations in London conducts networking events, large-scale exhibition programs, symposia, and workshops. The interested parties can even access the publications by AI21C in digital and hard copies, and so far it has several copies that enlighten about changes in art in the factors that influence this area (Art Institutions of the 21st Century 2019). The AI21C though its activities, hopes to nurture the development of knowledge, to add to an understanding of the intricate cultural field, and to encourage much cooperation between the key partners and stakeholders. The institution carries out researches and promotes education to offer art professionals to tools to encourage best operations from both private and public sectors on dealing with current challenges (Art Institutions of the 21st Century 2019). Other than London, the desire to develop museums seems to be a global phenomenon because of the profound ecological functions such facilities present.


The section focuses on the connection between one of the links of the world of art – the biennial – as a vital component in globalization. Biennials as an art developed rapidly in the 1990s, and are perceived to have a crucial purpose in the development of modern art in New York as well as Jeddah. The participants of the 2009 Bergen Biennial did not exhibit any art, instead spent three days reflecting and exploring the history of biennials, their socio-political influences, and effects on curatorial and artistic practices (McAndrew 2009). The present teams agreed that if it can be agreed that for more than a century gallery and museum exhibitions have mainly been the avenues through which most arts become popular, then it is the biennial exhibitions that have arguably since affirmed to be the medium through which most contemporary arts come to be familiarized. The biennials are an intricate interaction between the curators, artists, the financing and governing bodies, and importantly the visitors (McAndrew 2009). Biennials present themselves as more of intellectual platforms with no commercial interests compared to other approaches such as art fairs that mainly seek to generate funds for the artists and organizers (McAndrew 2009). The primary motive of the organizers of such events, as it appears, is to come up with other spaces beyond the traditional institutional system, and beyond the scope of a collecting museum.

Biennials serve vital ecological functions both in New York and Jeddah where such events are not strange. The artists in Jeddah feel that besides being a way of presenting art, biennials give the opportunity for exchanges and can attain new markets and audiences, influence new artistic perceptions, and introduce features that surpass the market’s expectations (Markin 2016). The artists in Jeddah feel that biennials present the opportunity to know the consumers’ expectations and needs, and elaborate on how to meet the wants satisfactorily (Markin 2016). Through the biennials, the artists and interested parties in New York feel that they can reach out and gain awareness about the needs of younger audiences who are increasingly developing strong attachment with artistic impressions, as well as a way of reaching out to other members of the public who may not be in the capacity to visit the conventional art museums and galleries. Today, the curatorial attention in New York and Jeddah has turned away from museums and are now focusing on biennials, which seemingly are taking over what had been the function of the museum (Markin 2016). While the biennial approach is often criticized as largely a marketing avenue both in the cities in the Western and the Arabic countries, it offers an avenue, in New York and Jeddah, for the critical encounter with social and political issues, for which available institutions such as religious groups and the government give no attention and space (Markin 2016). Through the biennials, artists present the plight of the community, the suppressed groups, and the social and environmental injustices in a way that may not be offensive, but calls for quick and effective measures (Markin 2016). Furthermore, people get to interact during such events that occur after every two years in different cities, and during their conversations, they share so much about the socio-economic issues that they encounter, especially when they encounter arts that relate to such issues.

Since the initial biennial in 1895 in Venice, Italy, the number of such exhibitions now exceeds two hundred. The development has resulted in the growth of new generation of artists and art lovers who are forming a globalized and unified art world (Markin 2016). The biennials challenge curators and critics have a global perception while developing their works. Hosting the biennials encourages the locals, the artists, and the national leaders because this puts the city on the global map, and bring global or international exposure to artists from a particular region (Markin 2016). Participating in the events for artists and locals in New York and Jeddah signifies the desire to participate in global activities where people can acquire more insight about dealing with the ecological issues that they face. The Gulf nations started to take part in the Venice Biennale relatively late compared with the Western countries with KSA being the first take part in 2011 followed by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 2015 (Markin 2016). Qatar, however, is yet to secure a position at this crucial event. Other than just offering curators and people the chance to explore the issues that they experience as they relate with each other and the environment, the biennials have reflected on some of the global themes, which further help to understand the impact of such a global institution of art on the local ecology. The event, for instance, addressed ‘Belonging’ as a theme in 2005 and ‘Still Life: Art, Ecology and the Politics of Change’ in 2007 (Markin 2016). The participants can acquire vital insight from such themes that seek to address the issues local communities experience as people interact with another as well as with their ecosystem.

Art Schools

Other than the public and private museums and the biennials that present good avenues to sell the ideas of art, the increased development of art schools offer the opportunity for the residents of New York and Jeddah to deal with ecological issues through art. The government in both cities see the need to promote the establishment of art schools where people can learn about the various artistic styles that meet global expectations, and reflect the audience’s needs. Today, the lack of art schools in a particular region illustrates how far a country has to go to reach a level that is perceived artistically aware and developed (Velthuis 2013). In Jeddah, the University of Jeddah, the King AbdulAziz University College of Art and Design, and the Prince’s Foundation School of Traditional Art are some of the renowned learning institutions where artists and other individuals can acquire vital lessons about the various aspects of art (Porter 2006). The art schools are also rampant in New York, and they play the vital function of enlightening trainees about the various aspects of driving the message more clearly through art. Some of the renowned art institutions in New York include the Copper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, School of Visual Arts, Hunter College, and Columbia University among several others (McAndrew 2009).

Such schools offer people the opportunity to learn how art relate with the society, and how through the artistic presentations it is possible to highlight some of the issues that affect members of the society and their relationship with the environment. Such art schools offer artists and students the chance to know how to improve social representation through art, which is a good avenue to address some of the issues that still affect members of the community (Velthuis 2013). The art schools, for instance, offers an opportunity to present through art how failure to relate with each other in the appropriate manner could lead to conflicts, and how inappropriate relationship with the environment could cause further degradation (Velthuis 2013). The global phenomenon of establishing art schools because of the many advantages such facilities present has encouraged developers and investors in both cities to erect numerous institutions where artists and students can further their skills, competence, and knowledge.

Through the art schools, trainees can acquire helpful insight on how to use patterns and design, geometry, color harmony, ornaments, woodwork, decorative styles and other artistic approaches that help to develop arts that are appealing to the audience, and address some of the ecological issues members of the society face. The Arabic and White artists attending such schools, for example, get to know how to use color to present particular aspects that may be of considerable attention or interest to members of the society, and the same applies to the use of geometry and decorative approaches. The art schools in Jeddah, for example, enlighten artists on the need to come up with arts that advocate for gender equality, which seems to be a problem in the whole of KSA and a significant portion of the Middle East (Porter 2006). The need to develop art schools is not only gaining prominence in New York and Jeddah alone, but also in other cities that pay much attention to artwork.

Art Movements

The arrival of the 20th century was a time of significant changes, mainly in the way in which people started to view civilization as a whole and its primary objectives. The emergence of the World War I, and the unexpected destruction that followed affected the foundation of many cultural beliefs, and also facilitated exploration and experimentation by artists in an attempt to describe exactly what art should be about, and what it should do for a society (Elkins 2002). What followed thereafter was the emergence of artistic movements that worked hard to find their position in the ever transforming world (Elkins 2002). The effects of globalization and some effects of cultural imperialism have caused a scenario whereby other societies embrace artistic styles that are part of a particular art movement. Such movements influence how people present and view art work, and also help to understand how societies address the various ecological issues that they experience such as poor relationship with some groups, or inappropriate interaction with the environment. So much has changed since the times of renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, and the changes have taken many years to actualize (Elkins 2002). The artistic movement of realism, for instance, gave artists the chance to develop arts that present real images and are likely to drive the message with ease. Realism offered the chance to send a message as it is, which offered a good chance to deal with the issues human being experience in their relationship with each other and the physical environment. The emergence of impressionism in the early 1860s further offered the chance for artists to present more real images, which made it easy to drive certain messages to the audience. The post-impressionist era that emerged between 1886 and 1905 as a reaction to the impressionist movement between 1886 and 1905 further changed the artistic presentation because artists would combine symbolic content and abstract elements (Elkins 2002). Other art movements that transformed the nature of art include surrealism, cubism, dada, and suprematism among others.

The artists in New York and Jeddah have not turned a blind eye to the art movements that transformed over the years and offered better avenues for presenting the various themes. Art movements such as impressionist and post-impressionist helped artists in New York and Jeddah to present more real images that are clear in their message, and likely to influence the thinking of the audience. The changing art movements made it easy to present some of the contentious issues such as poverty, environmental degradation, and inequality among other that are part of the everyday experiences. At least, it became easier for the people in New York and Jeddah to come up with appropriate solutions to the issues they experience through the arts that were easier to analyze and understand.


Urban revitalization projects also called gentrification nowadays incorporate art-based industries, and even though such initiatives have varying reactions, it is no doubt many cities are now embracing the approach. Even though gentrification is not an artistic movement or institution, but rather a concept of urban development, it is vital to look at art influences this area, and how the global application of art in urban development impact on the local ecology. Today, it is common to see graffiti along some of the major streets in New York and in Jeddah. The painting of graffiti along some of the major routes in such major cities is an example of gentrification that seeks to add color and beauty to such urban places. Al-Khudair (2019) asserts that the bride of the Red Sea, as Jeddah is popularly known, is amazingly a colorful city, thanks to the idea that the city is home to some of the prolific artists. Al-Khudair (2019) informs that one of the most popular and public approaches the artists in Jeddah are taking to brighten up the city are the escalating amount of the colorful graffiti that can be spotted on walls across the city. One of the artists who contribute towards the existence of such wonderful artwork in the streets of Jeddah is 19-year-old Elias Tashkandi who is still a student and developed passion in graffiti at the age of 8 while he traversed France and saw the incredible artworks in the streets and on the trains (Al-Khudair 2019). Tashkandi who has a passion in calligraffiti that combines art of graffiti and calligraphy says each artist can come up with their own presentation of what they find appropriate, which makes it possible to address the various issues members of the society experience such as improper relationship with each other and environmental degradation among others. 

The use of street art such as graffiti with the aim of beautifying the city is not only applicable in Jeddah, but also in New York where the practice is deeply rooted. It is believed that street art was born in New York City during the 1970s, at a time when the rate of crime and bankruptcy was quite high (Champion 2017). Young kids, especially from Bronx and Brooklyn took advantage of the chaos, and started to bomb buildings and subway cars with graffiti. The act was unlawful and sometimes risky, but it offered a form of art that would spread around the globe, and find its way into the galleries and museums in New York (Champion 2017). Some of the appealing street graffiti in New York include the Bushwick Collective that is situated in Bushwick Brooklyn, the World Trade Mural Project that was initiated on the spot of the 2001 terror attack, the Harlem Street art, and along the Houston Bowery Wall (Champion 2017). Other than the graffiti, murals have been painted on many walls and surfaces in New York, which may be part of the gentrification.

Involving artists in gentrification, however, still experiences some hurdles that must be eradicated to achieve more beautiful and appealing cities. One of the major challenges artists face is identifying a suitable space to spray the art, in addition to securing enough money to finance all requirements. Concerning whether graffiti plays a role in the society and whether it can be used to bring about positive transformation, the artists in New York and Jeddah believe it depends on the perception of the locals (Al-Khudair 2019). The developers of such art think that if people are open to such a style, then it can be utilized in many aspects, especially making beautiful and forming spaces so that individuals can appreciate artwork and widen their view towards art (Al-Khudair 2019). The style of colorful art can also serve a positive function in terms of the message they convey – a message that can be communicated with ease and instantaneous. Even as many people still question the meaning behind graffiti, it brightens up the lives of those who see and love them.


The study elaborates how the various global art institutions have influenced the production of artworks that impact on the ecology of the local communities. The society has numerous issues some of which are as a result of the interaction between human beings and their environment. The development of art and the global institutions in this area have influenced the ecology of the locals in New York and Jeddah in significant ways. Globalization is a major factor that has facilitated the spread and the adoption of common ways of developing, presenting, and preserving art in New York and Jeddah that are some of the largest cities in the Western and Gulf regions respectively. The people in both cities see the need to develop and visit museums, and this helps them to present arts that address the issues people face in their attempt to relate with others as well as with the environment. The emergence and the continued practice of biennials have also impacted on the ecology of the locals in New York and Jeddah is substantial ways. Both the U.S. and KSA have a slot at the Venice Biennial, and their participation in the event that takes place after every two years exposes members of the public as well as artists to new ways of highlighting the ecological concerns through art. The global drive to develop art schools, as well as influential effects of the art movements have also had paramount ecological impact on the locals in New York and Jeddah in the way curators and the audience gain new awareness on how to use art to address the issues people face as they interact with the physical environment. Gentrification today employ art and walking across the streets of Jeddah and New York one is likely to come across walls sprayed with graffiti and murals.

Reference List

Al-Khudair, D 2019, Graffiti artists adding color to the streets of Jeddah. Available from: <

  > [14 December, 2019]

Amirsadeghi, M 2010, Art and patronage: The Middle East, Penguin, London.

Art Institutions of the 21st Century 2019, Art Institutions of the 21st Century. Available from: <

  > [14 December, 2019]

Champion, M 2017, ‘The priest, the prostitute, and the slander on the walls: Shifting perceptions

            towards historic graffiti,’ Peregrinations: Journal of Medieval Art and Architecture, vol.

            6, no. 1, pp. 5-37.

Elkins, J 2002, Stories of art, Routledge, New York.

McAndrew, C 2009, Globalisation and the art market: Emerging economies and the art trade in

            2008, Helvoirt, London.

Markin, P 2016, ‘Global art biennials, the international art world, and the Shanghai biennale,’

            doi: 10.13140/rg.2.1.2725.2883

Porter, V 2006, Word into art: Artists of the Middle East, Cambridge University Press, London.

Raikhan, S, et al. 2014, ‘The interaction of globalization and culture in the modern world,’

            Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 122, pp. 8-12.

Velthuis, O 2013, ‘Globalization of markets for contemporary art, why local ties remain

            dominant in Amsterdam and Berlin’, European Societies, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 290-308.

Voorsanger, C, et al. 2010, Art and the empire city: New York, 1825-1861, The Metropolitan       

            Museum of Art, New York.

Challenges Facing Public Service Organizations college admissions essay help
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Challenges Facing Public Service Organizations

Public service organizations mainly refer to entities owned by the government to manage policy and provide services that are geared towards helping the government achieve specific goals of public governance. The unique nature of the organization differentiates them from corporate institutions in that the main focus of public institutions is service delivery, while corporate institutions also incorporate the objective of making a return on investment (Vestnik, 97). Additionally, the unique nature of public service organizations presents vital challenges, with the main ones being an imbalance between funding and scope of service and the high level of influence of political executives on management. 

Corporate institutions usually define their scope based on the availability of resources. For instance, a company with the intent of increasing its market share through quality service delivery will generally determine the boundaries of the market based on its capacity, especially in terms of funding. However, public institutions do not get to enjoy such luxuries but are instead obliged to provide services to a designated region irrespective of the amount of funding. For instance, a publicly owned health institution will strive towards delivering quality care to its designated population regardless of available resources, including funding. On the contrary, a privately owned institution that will probably restrict admittance of clients to the number of bed spaces that are available (Veggeland, 3). Therefore, managers in public institutions face a highly difficult challenge in terms of balancing between the available funding and other resources and providing quality service delivery. The main reasoning is that for most institutions, the annual budgetary allocations usually are conducted in a political context that is external to the organization. Therefore, although the amount of funding may vary, the target population remains constant. 

The best practice in the market that is effective in improving service delivery while maintaining low operational costs is that of outsourcing. Outsourcing refers to a method where a firm aims towards reducing costs by transferring some of its functions and operations to external companies as opposed to performing them internally. Through outsourcing some of the functions and activities, an organization can concentrate well on its core functions and consequently controlling on costs and at the same time ensuring quality service delivery. Outsourcing is a highly cost-effective approach to the management and provision of services in public institutions (Veggeland, 3). One of the critical points when implementing outsourcing for an organization is the utilization of contingent workers. These are workers that are highly skilled and work on specific tasks on specific timelines.

Additionally, such employees are not necessarily full-time or part-time or employed on a contractual basis. Contingent workers differ from part-time employees in the sense that the latter is called to work on specific projects until their completion. Contingent workers have a high potential of improving cost efficiencies in public service organizations as they meet the desired objectives or complete projects, allowing the agency to avoid maintaining full-time positions. Consequently, contracting contingent workers enables the organization to lower its overall labor expenses. Although the specialists may demand higher pays, such costs are only temporal and incurred when there is a need. 

Implementing a tenacious outsourcing service program offers significant advantages, most of which are based on cost and service delivery efficiencies. The organization can attain increased efficiencies through the implementation of managed service programs in the various departments (Vitezić et al., 22). The approach allows the company to remain compliant with special regulations, including those on labor laws and consequently remaining protected against risks and liabilities. Lack of compliance often results in expensive litigation costs and hefty fines. However, through outsourcing of service programs, the organization can avoid the associated risks and liabilities and consequently gaining considerably through minimal litigation costs and fines. 

Taking the illustration of a public health institution, such an organization does not necessarily have to maintain a team of highly specialized practitioners such as dentists, brain and cardiac surgeons, or even a team of professional psychiatrists. The institutions can only retain a group of staff comprising of nurses and general health doctors based on the daily health needs of the target population. Some of the non-emergency surgeries can then be scheduled strategically to enable the institution to contract the highly skilled specialists and perform the operations in a specific timeline. However, for emergency cases, the institution can then refer the patients to major health institutions that have adequate capacity. Such an approach can enable a local health institution to meet the general health needs of its target population at relatively lower costs. 

The second common challenge faced by public service organizations is based on the undefined relationship between the managers and their political superiors. Although in the ideological sense, public service is a support to operate independently of the political executive, this is not the typical case in most jurisdictions. In reality, public servants are directly influenced by political executives as the latter is mainly in charge of forming and finalizing policy preferences. The high level of influence renders public service managers as mere puppets who are manipulated by the political executives. Such leverage creates significant challenges for effective service delivery, mainly because of the possible conflict of interests between the two parties. As an illustration, public service officers in most of the developing countries tend to be more educated and skilled than their political executives (Setnikar-Cankar, 180). However, it is the latter who ends up not only shaping policy but also influencing its implementation, including the performance of specific activities within the organization such as financial management and human resource management, especially in terms of recruiting and promotion. 

The best practice model to resolving the relationship issue is the adoption of New Public Management (NPM). NPM is an approach to managing public service organizations in the same manner as corporate institutions to improve their operational efficiencies based on the private sector management models. As far as relationships are concerned, the model perceives citizens as customers, while public servants are viewed as managers. The model further attempts to realign the relationship between managers of public institutions and their political superiors through the creation of a parallel relationship between the two. 

The shift is effective in addressing the political and bureaucratic influence in the management and operational decision making within public institutions. The model introduces private enterprise conditions into public institutions while promoting innovation, initiative, and the spirit of entrepreneurship to achieve objectives and goals effectively and efficiently. In the typical sense, the relationship between the managers and political superiors is similar to that of sole proprietorship business where the owner employs a manager but still maintains influence on the routine operations of the company at will. According to the new framework, the management of public institutions takes up the form of corporations where the political executives are analogous to the board of directors while the manager is analogous to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) (Setnikar-Cankar, 181). The parallel relationship between the parties is that the two work together in formatting policy and direction for the entity. The board then sets targets for the CEO, who is now responsible for managing the operations of the organization to meet the aims, goals, and objectives. Consequently, the approach mainly serves to increase the level of managerial and operational autonomy in addition to accountability. In essence, the NPM provides a shift from the traditional public sector style of management where the focus is on procedures to a result-oriented one. 

The NPM model goes ahead to deal with the operational inefficiencies that are associated with bureaucracies, where the decision-making process is influenced by both the management of the public institution and the political executives. Providing the management with a greater level of autonomy and independence creates efficiencies in decision-making where the manager simply seeks consultations when there is a need but makes the final decision. However, such an approach also raises concerns about control. The model resolves the issue through the introduction of a higher level of accountability. The model is based on the democratic theory and places emphasis on the accountability of public officials to citizens, where the former focus on meeting the needs of the citizens as opposed to steering society. The underlying reasoning is that public officials are more likely to become motivated to provide quality services by virtue of remaining committed to public service. 

In essence, the new framework provides the executive body with greater autonomy in contrast to the political sphere. However, it also provides politicians with the power to execute timely and regular evaluations about the efficacy, efficiency, and financial stability of the managerial decisions and actions. Furthermore, management is directly involved in the development of strategic objectives. However, the role of management as far as strategic objectives are concerned, the management only plays a consultation role. The framework, therefore, is geared towards the introduction of a new system that integrates the principles of strategic interaction and function separation. The system also creates a new relationship between administration and politics that requires politicians to acquire the necessary orientation skills, while public officers need to gain managerial skills. The approach and relevant skills are required in avoiding political interference and at the same time, achieve managerial autonomy and accountability.

In conclusion, the two issues that are prevalent in public service institutions are those of access to adequate funding and resources that match the community needs and the political influence on public officers. The mismatch between resources and needs demands the use of outsourcing, where public institutions focus on the functions of their most essential and basic roles and relegating the rest to professional entities. Outsourcing will go a long way in enabling the institutions to enjoy considerable cost savings while ensuring quality service delivery. On the other hand, the use of the NPM model will help in creating a parallel relationship between public officers and political executives. The officers perform the function of managing the institution while the political executives play that of oversight.

Works Cited

Cestnik, Bojan, and Alenka Kern. “Business Process Outsourcing in Public Sector.” Cedem11, vol. 9, no. 5, 2011, pp 95-105.

Schimank, Uwe. “‘new Public Management’ As De-Professionalization: Conceptual Reflections with Some Applications to School Teachers.” Restructuring Welfare Governance: Marketisation, Managerialism and Welfare State Professionalism. vol. 7, no. 3, 2015, pp 183-199.

Setnikar-Cankar, Stanka, and Veronika Petkovšek. “Introducing Changes and Measuring Employee Satisfaction.” Implementation of New Public Management Tools. vol. 10, no. 3, 2015, pp 179-192.

Veggeland, Noralv. “The Politics of Outsourcing in Western Europe.” Current Politics and Economics of Europe, vol. 15, no. 1, 2015, pp 26.1.

Vitezić, Neda, Stanka Setnikar-Cankar, and Suzana Janković. “Innovative Approach to Efficiency Measurement Using the Deabsc Method in the Public Health Service of Croatia”. Innovation governance in the public sector, vol. 14, no. 1, 2017, pp 27-36.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) argumentative essay help
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

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The study elaborates how WIPO serves as an actor and source on matters regarding the applicability of the Nairobi Treaty that seeks to protect the use of the Olympic symbol. The UN agency plays crucial roles in formulating and refining the policy that protects the violation of the five Olympic rings. Other than being an active actor on matters relating to the Treaty, WIPO is a vital source on all information regarding the nature and applicability of the pact. The drafters of the agreement divide it into three Chapters that contain Articles elaborating how State parties should relate with the Treaty. The attempts by WIPO to protect the Olympic symbol pass vital lessons to organizations that seek to strengthen the protection their trademarks enjoy by informing them that failure to secure enough protection could lead to infringement and other loses.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) serves as one of the primary agencies of the United Nations (UN) together with 15 others. Since its formation in 1967, WIPO has continued to promote creative operations, and to safeguard the production of intellectual property across the globe. WIPO that has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland presently has 192 members, and administers at least 25 global treaties (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). Prior to the formation of WIPO by the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization in 1970, the UN Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property protected the producers of intellectual properties from possible harm or infringement (World Intellectual Property Organization). WIPO performs its activities based on Article 3 of the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization, and is dedicated to safeguard intellectual property across the globe. Article 1 that illustrates the pact between the UN and WIPO informs that the latter is in charge of encouraging creative intellectual property and activities and to facilitate the movement of technology connected to industrial property to the developed nations with the motive of improving the economy, as well as cultural and social development, subject to the responsibilities and competence of the UN and its agencies, especially the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), the UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization), and the UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) among other agencies that serve within the UN (World Intellectual Property Organization). More essentially, WIPO is committed to forming a balanced and reachable global intellectual property system that promote and stimulates innovation and creativity, and add to economic growth while protecting the public’s interest. The report pays attention to how WIPO serves as an actor and resource on matter regarding the Nairobi Treaty that seeks to protect the Olympic symbol.

WIPO an Actor and a Source

WIPO served essential roles as an actor and a resource during the adoption of the Nairobi Treaty in 1981. WIPO organized and facilitated the convention in Nairobi, Kenya with the motive of making clear the guidelines that protect the Olympic rings. WIPO served as an actor through the release of a report on Nairobi Treaty on the Protection of the Olympic Symbol adopted at Nairobi on September 26, 1981 that aimed to make clear the provisions of the treaty. Article 1 (Obligation of States) of the pact informs that any signatory to the pact shall be compelled, as provided for in Articles 2 and 3, to invalidate or decline the registration as a trademark and to forbid by effective measures the utilization as a mark or other signs, for commercial reasons, of any symbol or sign comprising of bearing the Olympic symbol, as enshrined in the Charter of the International Olympic Committee, unless permitted by the Committee.

WIPO further serves as an actor and a resource in the Nairobi Treaty in the way it develops regulations to define obligation of states to the rule. Other than its active involvement in creation of Article I that defines the obligation of State parties, the team in charge of drafting and reviewing the policy created Article 2 (Exceptions to the Obligation) and all other 8 Articles to regulate how States, corporations, and individuals relate with the Olympic symbol that comprises of five interconnected rings that are arranged in the order of blue, yellow, black, green, and red from left to right (Seguin & O’Reilly, 2008 and Cassell & Shorter, 2015). WIPO tries to cover as many as aspects as possible regarding the Olympic rings that are protected whether delineated in different colors or in a single color, and organizes the policy in three major chapters. The composers of the Nairobi Treaty in Chapter I include Article 1, Article 2, Article 3 (Suspension of the Obligation). Chapter II that mainly addresses the groupings of states only has Article 4 that elaborates the exception to Chapter I (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). Chapter III has the most Articles that touch on the final clauses. Article 5 stipulates the condition for becoming a party to the Treaty, Article 6 defines entry into force of the pact, Article 7 outlines the conditions for the denunciation of the Treaty, Article 8 offers the conditions for signature and official languages of the agreement, Article 9 focuses on the deposition of the accord, and finally Article 10 elaborates the roles of the Director General in notifying the State parties (Jennings, 2006 and World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). WIPO plays a central role updating the Articles, and has the sole mandate of making alterations following consultations with the affiliates.

WIPO acts as a resource in this case because people may acquire all the information they want concerning the protection of the Olympic rings by logging onto the group’s website, and retrieving all the necessary information regarding the Treaty. Visiting WIPO’s website, for instance, makes readers aware of the 21 signatories to the agreement. The reader gets to learn that countries such as Senegal, Kenya, Hungary, Chile, Argentina, Trinidad and Tobago, Romania, Mexico, Israel, Greece, Poland, Spain, the Soviet Union, and Indonesia among others accepted and signed the Nairobi Treaty on the Protection of the Olympic Symbol (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). WIPO also serves as a resource to the pact because by visiting the agency’s website, people get to understand that following the provisions of Article 5 (1) of the Nairobi Treaty, any signatory of WIPO or member of the International Union for the Protection of Industrial Property in Paris may become an affiliate to the agreement by appending their signature after which they submit their ratification form, or otherwise deposit the approval or acceptance form (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). Still WIPO offers information that informs how based on the provisions of Article 5%2) of the Treaty adopted in Nairobi that any group not member of the Paris Union or WIPO, but is an affiliate of the UN or any of the agencies that has some connection with the UN may become signatory to the Nairobi Treaty by submitting a show of accession (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). The groups seeking to become signatories to the Treaty get to learn by visiting the website that they may submit their instruments of accession, approval, acceptance, or ratification with the Director General of WIPO, thereby getting to eradicate the hiccups that could affect registration.

Other than acquiring so much information on how a country can become a signatory to the Treaty, WIPO serves as a source to the pact reached upon in Nairobi because interested parties can acquire other valuable information from the agency’s website regarding the applicability of policy. States and parties willing to become signatories to the pact, for instance, can learn from WIPO the terms and conditions that would lead to exception for the obligations outlined in Article 1 (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). WIPO informs that the obligation stated in Article 1 shall not apply to any State party in the Treaty with regard to any mark containing or consisting of the Olympic symbol where the mark was enlisted in the state before the date on which the Nairobi Treaty came into effect in respect of the country or during any time during which, in that region, the responsibility availed for in Article 1 is deemed as suspended in Article 3 (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). WIPO also informs that a State party may be excepted from the obligations set in Article 1 if the continued utilization for commercial reasons of any sign or mark, containing or comprising of the Olympic mark, in that region by an organization or person which or who has legally began such use in the said region prior to the time on which the pact entered into force in respect of that place, or during any time during which, in that country, the mandate provided for in Article 1 is deemed as suspended in Article 3 (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). WIPO also acts a source on matters regarding the Nairobi Treaty because through its website and other publications, the public and all stakeholders get to know that no State member to the pact shall have the mandate to forbid the utilization of the Olympic symbol where sign is utilized in mass media for the purposes of informing the public about the Olympic Committee, movement, and its operations.

The many other information States and individuals can get from WIPO further sale the agency as a good source on the information about Nairobi Treaty. The various groups, for instance, may refer to WIPO as a resource on information regarding the denunciation of the pact as stipulated in Article 7 of the Treaty. Interested groups get to learn that any State wishing to denounce the Treaty could do so by forwarding a notification to the Director General (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). The parties seeking to understand the denunciation process also get to learn from WIPO’s website and other publications that the process shall become effective one year after the Director General has gotten the notification. The website also informs about the official languages that may be used to relay the Treaty’s content as enshrined in Chapter III, Article 8 (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019). The interested parties get to know that the pact shall be signed in a one original in the French, Spanish, Russian, and English languages, all texts equally essential. The various groups seeking to learn the details of the Treaty get to know from WIPO’s archives that official texts and publications shall be created by the Director General, after discussions with the interested parties, in the Portuguese, Italian, German, and Arabic languages, and other applicable languages as designated by the Assembly of the Paris Union or the Conference of the Organization (World Intellectual Property Organization, 2019).

Applicability and Relevance to Organizations

The initiatives by WIPO to safeguard trademarks and other intellectual properties come at a time when violations of such products and the possible repercussions receive much global attention. The group seems to understand that from growth of all corporations and organizations, including start-ups, safeguarding the logo or symbol should not be overlooked. The agency tries to create a situation where the owner of the registered trademark or logo will have the sole authority and right to utilize their trademark in activities and operations of their choice (Barney et al., 2002). WIPO through its development of policies such as the Nairobi Treaty seeks to equip owners with tools that prevent violators and competitors from infringing the trademark and benefitting from the reputation that took so much time and energy to develop (Barney et al., 2002). WIPO seems to appreciate that for most organizations, the logo or the name are likely to be the center stage of the registration processes (Brown et al., 2016). It is the reason the group pays much attention to the images and words that are projected or displayed to the public to differentiate the services and goods from those of other operators, and to develop goodwill and organizational recognition.

WIPO is committed to safeguarding the trademark as provided for in the Nairobi Treaty and other regulations knowing very well the benefits and demerits of failing to enforce proper protection mechanisms. The need to protect the group’s assets serves as one of the reasons WIPO is working hard to develop mechanisms that prevent any form of misuse of violation (Brown et al., 2016). Such measures notify third parties or competitors who may try to come up with or register a similar trademark with the objective of causing confusion or using the mark or symbol in connection with their organizational practices.

The study on the attempts by WIPO to protect the Olympic symbol passes vital insight to organizations that seek to safeguard their activities through the existence of a strong trademark that is not exposed to threats or violations. Organizations learn the need to defend the weakening of their mark while going about their operations. Kongolo (2013) writes that when another group or person violates the trademark, the group mainly becomes less distinctive. The more the violated symbol or marks gets established with application and the real owner does not take any measures to stop its spread, the weaker it becomes, and enforcing its protection becomes much difficult (World Trade Organization, 1988). Organizations would not want to present their case as abandonment where they no longer put enough effort to protect the mark or symbol. Organizations that rely on trademarks should know that the marks or symbols are only valid as long as they utilize the mark as a representative (World Trade Organization, 1988). Operators should understand that it is deemed that they have abandoned the trademark when they stop using it, and consequently the protection it enjoys disappears. More importantly, the attempts by WIPO to safeguard the Olympic symbol inform organizations to put more focus on this area because violation could lead to loss of income and reputational damage (World Trade Organization, 1988). Mostly, trademark violation can affect the organization’s bottom line in two significant ways; reduced sales – when the purchasers become confused and the purchase or ascribe to the violator’s products or services when they think they are buying the authentic ones, and disappointment and ultimate withdrawal of patrons when, having the perception they got a given product or service, they are disheartened by the quality of the violator’s product they purchased without their knowledge.   


The study pays considerable attention to the influence of WIPO on the formation and execution of the Nairobi Treaty that was adopted in 1981 with the objecting of protecting the Olympics rings from any violation. The study presents WIPO as an active actor in the policy in the way it commissions a team to draft and review the ten Articles that outline relationship with the Olympic symbol. The agency has the authority to make alterations to the policy after conducting consultations with the State parties, which further illustrates its nature as an important actor. The agency serves a source on the Nairobi Treaty in the way various parties can acquire a lot of information concerning the applicability of the pact that brings together at least 21 State members.


Barney, R., et al. (2002). Selling the five rings: The International Olympic Committee and the

            Rise of Olympic commercialism. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Brown, K., et al. (2016). Power within the Olympic rings? Nationalism, Olympic media

            consumption, and comparative cases in Germany and the USA. doi:


Cassell, O., & Shorter, F. (2015). Inside the five ring circus: Changing global sports and the

            modern Olympics. London: Ollan Cassell LLC.

Jennings, A. (2006). The new lords of the rings: Olympic corruption and how to buy gold

            medals. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Kongolo, T. (2013). African contributions in shaping the worldwide intellectual property system.

            London: Routledge.

Seguin, B., & O’Reilly, N. (2008). The Olympic brand, ambush marketing and clutter.

            International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 4(1-2), 62-84.

World Intellectual Property Organization. (2019). Development Agenda for WIPO. Retrieved


World Trade Organization. (1988). Existence, scope and form of generally internationally

            accepted and applied standards/norms for the protection of intellectual property.

            Retrieved from

Analyzing a Fact Pattern writing essay help
Analyzing a Fact Pattern

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Analyzing a Fact Pattern


Sometimes when businesses and state authorities enter into contractual deals, legal and ethical concerns emerge that could be difficult to address without considering and applying the right intervention approaches. The primary purpose of the study is to consider how ethical issues could affect the nature of contractual relationships, and how such violations could cause legal problems. The report makes use of ethical theories to acquire much insight on the nature of the moral issues that occur in the fact pattern, and to gain more awareness about their effects. The analysis further shows the importance of effective leadership strategies, which entail stakeholder engagement and proper communication. The report holds that through proper leadership approaches and much awareness about ethical guidelines it is possible to achieve good leadership as a public administrator.

Legal and Ethical Issues

The case presents certain legal that require effective attention to arrive at the suitable solutions. An evident legal violation in the fact pattern is the redeveloper is insisting to be exempted from paying tax for up to 30 years, yet it is a constitutional requirement that every citizen and business should remit their tax, and update their status with the revenue authorities. The claim that the developer would use the money for financial purposes does not give her the powers to be exempted from obeying the obligations of all other citizens. Another legal concern in the case is while the business administrator and the Director of Planning and Economic Development contemplate about her need to be exempted from paying tax, the redeveloper buys land surrounding the property in question, but does not enter into a formal agreement with the municipality that is the seller in this scenario.  

The fact pattern develops some ethical issues as well that affect the nature of the contractual relation that the municipality and the redeveloper seek to form. The teams into the deal do not arrange a formal meeting for more than a year to discuss the way forward regarding the project, and this could be perceived as ill motive by either of the parties. It takes so long before the two sides plan for the redevelopment until the residents start to view the site as an eyesore. Another ethical concern in the fact pattern is it becomes apparent that the redeveloper is undercapitalized, which makes it difficult for her to proceed with the redevelopment. It is also disturbing that neither director nor the administrator bothers to act with due diligence. Even after failing to communicate with the redeveloper for at least a year, the municipalities goes ahead to resale the property for $5 million cash, thereby acting in a manner likely to suggest that the administrators are after generating quick revenue regardless of whether the decision would harm others. Even though the higher offer would lower a revenue deficit in the municipal budget, the officials at the local government would be more ethical in their approach if they had consulted the redeveloper prior to reselling of the property and returning the escrow money.

Argument to the Judge and use of Applicable Law

The redeveloper is likely to present a case against the municipality to prevent it from de-designating the redeveloper, and selling the property. Other than finding the $5 million offer to be appropriate and likely to save the municipality from the revenue shortfall it experiences, several other factors push the local authority to make the decision. One of the reasons for the decision by the municipality is the redeveloper is asking to be exempted from paying tax yet this would significantly harm revenue in the locality. It is also worrying that the redeveloper wants to be exempted from paying tax for as long as 30 years, which is far much more than a normal average.

The law and the regulations by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) make clear that whereas some taxpayers argue that they are not obliged to file federal tax returns because the process is voluntary, that is not actually the case. Proponents of the allegation refer to the fact that the Internal Revenue Service informs taxpayers in the Form 1040 instruction manual that the tax system is deliberate (IRS, 2019). Additionally, such proponents often refer to Flora v. United States (1960) for the claim that the U.S.’s taxation system is based upon voluntary evaluation and remittance and not upon any compulsion (IRS, 2019). People should understand that the term voluntary as utilized in the publications by IRS and in Flora v. the U.S., refers to the American’s system of permitting taxpayers initially to determine the precise amount of tax and complete the necessary return, rather than have the state stipulate tax for them for the start. Each person should know that the obligation to file an income tax return is not deliberate, and is clearly elaborated in sections 6011(a), 6012(a), and 6072(a) of the IRS (IRS, 2019). Further, it is good to know that any person who has gotten more than a legally stipulated amount of gross income within a particular tax year is required to file a tax return for that very year. Failure to file the yearly tax return could subject the individual who violates the regulation to criminal and/or civil penalties such as imprisonment and fines or both (IRS, 2019). The Supreme Court ruled in the U.S. v. Tedder (1986) that even though the regulations by the Treasury form a deliberate compliance as the overall approach for collecting income tax, Congress mandated the Secretary of the Treasury to implement the income tax regulations through legally protected collection (IRS, 2019). The claim by the redeveloper that should be exempted from paying tax, therefore, largely pushes the municipality to work with another redeveloper who is even willing to pay a higher amount for the property.

Another reason why the municipality decides to reassign the task is even as the redeveloper claims that the work is doable, she does not seem to put any effort to find out why the municipality is not communicating. Even though she is likely to claim in her suit that a communication from the municipality’s office would give her the permission and the direction to take, and that she would not be able to commence working without the much needed capital, she ought to have shown some interest in proceeding with the work by making constant calls to find out the progress on the other side. Instead, she choose to remain quite not even bothering to find out if her request to be exempted from tax is what restrains the local authority from making any further approvals. Last but not least, the municipality decides to sell the property to another buyer who is willing to pay the real value of the property without having to pay the $5 million in installments as it happens with the redeveloper who files the case. The local administration is experiencing a revenue shortfall in its budget, and the municipality would not want to lose such an opportunity that would get it out of its tribulations without much stress or straining. Thus, the municipality requests the court to consider lifting the order while taking these crucial factors into account.

Theories of Ethics and Morals

As already illustrated in the previous section the case presents several ethical and moral concerns that would be easier to understand by using ethical theories to analyze them. Evaluating the delay to hold a meeting to discuss the way forward from a utilitarian perspective, it emerges that both sides were wrong in their failure to approach the other, and find a suitable plan on how to complete the pending project. The proponents of utilitarianism believe that the choice that brings the best outcome for most of the people is the once that is ethically acceptable (Chonko, n.a). It is apparent that the delay that could be attributed to the failure by the two sides to approach the other and set the guidelines for completing the project will either harm the redeveloper because she would not complete what she had already started, or the municipality because the property would remain undeveloped. It is also clear as already noted in the fact pattern that the prolonged delay affect the local residents who see the place as an eyesore. Using the virtue ethical theory that judges someone by her or his rather than by a particular act that could deviate from their normal conduct (Chonko, n.a) to evaluate the moral issue, it may be perceived that the municipality officials did not act in good faith for keeping quite knowing that their communication was vital in commencing the project. The delay in this case implies that the officers’ morals are questionable, and may be perceived as unethical from this point of view.  

Evaluating the ethical concern where the administrator and the director fails to act in due diligence to ensure the project commences using utilitarianism and virtue ethical theory provide much insight into the moral violation. A utilitarian would view the lack of diligence as demonstrated by the administrator and the director as unethical because whereas they might not feel any immediate pinch, the redeveloper worries a lot as to when she will commence work. The failure to act swiftly by the two local leaders could also be perceived as unethical by the proponents of utilitarianism because members of the community will not be happy with the delays that bar the project from commencing. Using the virtue ethical theory to evaluate the moral concern, it is clear the officers behave in a way that violates the work conduct that each employee should display.

Using the deontology ethical theory offers a wider view of the extent of breach in the ethical concerns in the fact pattern. The deontological ethical theories hold that people should stick to their obligations and roles when having to make decisions in scenarios where ethics are of interest (Chonko, n.a). This implies that someone will follow his or her duties and responsibilities to another person or society because sticking to one’s responsibility is what is deemed ethically precise (Chonko, n.a).Each of the parties to the contract in this case ought to have known that it is their duty to communicate to the other regarding the project to cut the delay that took so long. The two officers who fail act diligently may be termed as acting unethically based on the provision of deontological theories because they do not behave in a manner ascribed by their position.

Evaluation and Proposal of Effective Leadership Strategies

The analysis depicts a scenario where leaders lack effective leadership competence and strategies to the community. The local administrators display poor leadership approaches in the way they make decisions that do not consider the views and desires of all stakeholders, and in the way they display poor communication. Often, the failure to include all stakeholders when making decisions could cause a scenario where the other parties reject the proposals, or even fail to work with the new orders (Crowe Ireland, 2019). The leaders are likely to experience several advantages when they engage all stakeholders in the situation. Engaging the views of others helps to transform stakeholder requirements into the organizational or institutional goals, and offers the basis for proper strategy development (Crowe Ireland, 2019). Identifying the point of agreement or shared vision and motivation helps the parties involved in a case to reach a decision that is not likely to evoke harsh criticism or misunderstanding. Learning to engage all parties when making crucial decisions has other advantages, including the fact that it helps establish collaborative relationships and partnerships that produce value, and also brings people as one to share experience, knowledge, and expertise in coming up with effective solutions to some of the issues that cause discomfort and disgruntlement (Crowe Ireland, 2019). The public administrators would also learn that engaging all parties offers those who are likely to be affected by the results the opportunity to give their views and suggestions. The local administrators in this case learn the importance of informing all parties when making major decision.

The leaders depict poor interactive skills and learn through the study the importance of effective communication. An effective way to address the communication problems would be to familiarize with the major components of communication that must comprise of the sender, the ideas, encoding, communication channels, receiver, decoding, and feedback (Adu-Oppong, 2014). Being conversant with these vital aspects could help improve how the public administrators relay information, especially when failure to communicate well could have far reaching implications. It may also be necessary to learn from various sources the suitable ways of improving communication to avoid scenarios where legal battles or dissatisfaction occur due to failure to relay information at the correct time and in the right way.


The report focuses on how ethical issues could affect contractual relationships as well as the leadership approaches when serving as a public administrator. The officers in the fact pattern fail to maintain proper communication with the redeveloper, which results in prolonged delays. The leaders also fail to engage all stakeholders in the decision regarding the resale of the property, which further pushes the redeveloper to seek legal justice. The findings in the report pass vital lessons to public administrators as well as parties entering into contracts because they get to learn the need to avoid the ethical issues that could lead to legal battles.


Adu-Oppong, A 2014, ‘Communicating in the workplace: Guidelines for improving effectiveness. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 3(5), 208-213.

Chonko, L. (n.a). Ethical theories. Retrieved from

Crowe Ireland. (2019). The importance of stakeholder engagement. Retrieved from

IRS. (2019). Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved from

Transportation Today essay help online free
Transportation Today

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Transportation Today

How Technological Changes have affected Road Transport

Looking at the history of transport, one is likely to realize the technological innovations that have revolutionized the area over the years. Growth in technology has permitted people to move further, explore their territories, and widen their influence over larger and larger scales. Even in the classical era, new tools and innovations such as snowshoes and foot covering expanded the distances people could move (Duc, 2014). As new discoveries and inventions were applied to transport issues, travel time lowered while the ability to transport more and heavier loads increased (Duc, 2014). Innovation and technological discoveries continuers as transport innovators and researchers are working hard to develop new forms to lower costs and improve transport efficiency. So much advancement has occurred in road transport, which is one of the major modes through which people and goods move from one point to the other (Duc, 2014). Often, buses, motorcars, motorcycles, pedestrians, trucks, and bicycles use roads that are recognizable routes of travel, usually covered with concrete, gravel, or asphalt (Duc, 2014). It is apparent that technological transformation has impacted on road transport in significant ways throughout its history.

The initial earth tracks were formed by humans moving goods from one location to the other, and often followed particular traits that were common in areas with relatively high traffic density. Other than people who contributed towards the formation of tracks, donkeys, oxen, and horses became important in forming tracks (Duc, 2014). Animal-pulled wheeled vehicles started to emerge around the 4th and 5th millennium BC, especially around the Ancient Near East, and later spread to India and Europe before entering China (Duc, 2014). The Industrial Revolution paved way for innovators, including John McAdam who designed the initial modern highways, using readily available materials such as stone aggregate and soil (Duc, 2014). The tar-bound roads became rampant in the 20th century, and the forms of transport developed as seasons changed.

The development in technology has had significant influence on road transportation, and today people and goods can move from one location to the other without much inconveniency. Growth in technology improves the safety of road users, which makes this mode of movement increasingly appealing to people. Manufacturers can now produce more efficient airbags, seat belts, child safety seats, brake lights, and brake pads among other components (Gossling, 2017). Many agencies are also able to monitor the movement of road users, thereby increasing efficiency (Gossling, 2017). The agencies, for instance, are able to record using applicable software the average driving speed, statistics on drunken driving, use of seat belts, and other valuable that components that improve efficiency. The development of more effective road lights and the incorporation of more effective features further improve road safety. Today, several companies develop electric cars that offer numerous advantages to users, including the reduction or even elimination of fuel costs, reduced emissions, and reduced cost of maintenance among other gains (Gossling, 2017). Other than the development of electric cars that are more efficient compared with those that use petrol, technological advancement has introduced autonomous cars that increase the chances of navigating the automobile safely (Gossling, 2017). Technology also transforms how pedestrians use roads with modern form of construction allowing space for pedestrian walks, and foot bridges that are constructed using the latest technology to make them appealing as well as long-lasting.

Economic Effects of Regulations and Deregulation on Surface and Air Transportation

Air transport, include the use of carriers that move while suspended on air, as it happens with airplanes, while surface transport cover movement on land. Throughout the first century as a country, the U.S. permitted surface transportation to grow unfettered, in an environment where competition flourishes freely (Bereskin, n.a). The late 1980s, however, witnessed increased competition, and increased violation of market regulations and powers, and this led to the formation of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to serve as the initial countrywide regulatory commission. Before the development of the ICC, the only effort to control the surface transportation business had been at the state level, although the railway sector had challenged most of these legislations. President Grover Cleveland signed into law the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, and through it forbade rate discrimination and traffic pools (Bereskin, n.a). The Great Depression of 1933 coupled with escalated competition pushed the legislators to consider deregulation in the 1950s, and the passage of the 1958 Transportation Act allowed for lessened regulation (Bereskin, n.a). The main results of the deregulation of surface transportation allowed the railway and road systems to compete effectively and as a result the economy started to experience significant growth because goods and people could move from one place to the other with great efficiency and speed (Bereskin, n.a).  Regulation, however, still exists in certain aspect of surface transport, especially on matters concerning safety.

The regulations and deregulations in the air transport had substantial economic effects. Prior to the formation of the Airline Deregulation Act in 1978, the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) was in charge of nearly all aviation activities, including the entry, exit, and the price rate of airline operations, as well as other related operations such as consumer issues, mergers and acquisitions (M&As), and inter-carrier pacts (Smith & Cox, 2010). The economic liberation witnessed in the 1980s in various areas including air travel created the need for deregulation, especially due to the increasing realization that a politically regulated economy has no positive effects on the continuing public desires and interests (Smith & Cox, 2010). Under CAB’s regulation, operating and investment decisions were very much constrained. The rules limiting entry and routes, and regulating price rates as set by CAB implied that airlines were constrained to compete only on frequency, food, quality, and cabin crew (Smith & Cox, 2010). The deregulation efforts, however, created a scenario where the operators competed on various aspects, which had significant effects on the economy. Investors from various parts of the world entered the U.S., and foreign operators established their branches across the country, which improved revenue from tax, which in the long run helped the economy to blossom.

The economic effects of regulation and deregulation on surface and air transport have some similarities and differences based in the way they appear. One of the similarities in the economic effects in both instances is they occur due to increased movement of people from one place to the other. The economic growth due to improved forms of moving from one point to the other implies that developing infrastructure and forming proper policies on transportation could have positive effects on the way the gross domestic product (GDP) competes against other countries. The effects, however, differ in the way they different policies constitute towards their development.

Direct and Indirect Costs and the Advantages and Disadvantages of Airline Deregulation

The previous section paints the picture that airline deregulation is the act of eradicating the government-placed entry and price regulations on airlines affecting the airline firms allowed to serve certain routes. The Airline Deregulation Act (1978) introduced a new set of guidelines that would have both direct and indirect costs, as well as merits and demerits. One of the direct costs of deregulation is the price of base ticket has fallen steadily since the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act. The inflation adjusted in 1983 to determine the dollar yield for airlines has dropped from 12.4% in the late 1970s to 7.8 cents in 1998 (Monk, 2002). Along with the growing U.S. population and the escalating need for workforce mobility, these emergences were some of the influencers for rapid increase in passenger miles moved, expanding from 255 million passenger miles in 1979 to about 752 million miles in 2006 (Monk, 2002). As such, the Airline for America that serves as an airline trade organization and some thinkers assert that deregulation has offered advantages to the average (Monk, 2002). The other direct impact of deregulation in the airline sector is other than competing based on frequency, food, quality, and cabin crew alone, companies could offer quality services based on many other factors. Actually, the primary motive for deregulation was to promote competition between airline firms, resulting in drop of prices (Monk, 2002). As a consequence of the deregulation, obstacles to entry in the airline sector for a potential new firm lowered substantially, resulting in many new operators entering the industry, thus heightening competition.

After the deregulation, quality services could be measured in a number of ways, including the nature of the seating comfort, the amount of miles flown, and the punctuality of services among other services. Increased competition in the airline sector is perceived to be a direct effect of the deregulation because carriers saw the need improve their global presence by entering new markets and introducing better ways of serving customers (Monk, 2002). Some evaluators, nevertheless, feel that the deregulation caused deterioration in the quality of airline services, mainly because of the redesigning of airline routes, misunderstanding with airline workers, price wars, bankruptcies, and sector consolidation (Monk, 2002). Some of the other demerits that followed the deregulation include increased unexpected delays and congestion that have plagued the sector in the recent years. Alfred Kahn who is a deregulation advocate also realized that the unanticipated delays and congestion was also a show a of deregulation achievement because it showed an increase in travelers volume because of fall in the prices of fare (Monk, 2002).

The deregulation in the airline sector is attributed to other indirect effects that were either beneficial or detrimental to operators. The sector witnessed an increase in the number of workers, and experienced unrelenting but less speedy growth throughout the 1990s (Monk, 2002). Consequently, between 2000 and 2008, the same sector shed nearly 100,000 jobs due to increased worker cost among other issues (Monk, 2002). The collapse of some companies that could not put up with the increased scramble for the global market, and the new customer desires are also some of the effects of the deregulation in the airline sector. The collapse of such firms could also be caused by acquisition in the attempt by other operators to widen their scope.

Congestion in Boston City and Possible Recommendations

Growing population and rural-urban migration are attributed to the increasing congestion in urban areas. Congestion in an urban setting could refer to the breakdown in the flow of traffic, reduction in the speed, and the widening in crowding that develops when the road users exceed its capacity (Colak et al., 2016). Many airplanes can also cause traffic in the sky if the airports are already experiencing traffic congestion, and the aircraft cannot land as anticipated (Colak et al., 2016). The problem of congestion is a serious issue for cities in the U.S. and around the globe, and one that is fast worsening. Some of the factors that are perceived as the major trends that have worsened congestion in urban settings in recent years include increased urbanization, improper policies, and inadequate investment in infrastructure, advanced urbanization, and economic growth among other factors (Colak et al., 2016).

Both public and private infrastructure in the U.S. experience increased congestion because of growing need for transportation and rapid urbanization, especially in Boston that is one of the highly congested cities in the country. The public infrastructure in this instance refers to the utilities that are available to everyone and are created by the state or federal government, while private infrastructure refers to those developed by private developers (Dubail, 2019). A 2019 Urban Mobility Report that was released at the Texas A&M University by the Transportation Institute that was based on the readings of traffic recorded after every 15 minutes revealed that drivers in the city of Boston spend approximately 80 hours on traffic every year, thus putting it at the 6th position in terms of congestion and traffic delays (Dubail, 2019). Boston takes the 7th position nationally in terms of excess fuel used per commuter due to congestion, and the 8th in the yearly dollar cost of the congestion to the drivers moving around the metropolitan area. Some of the factors that may be the cause of traffic congestion in Boston is the availability of various modes of transportation. The city has airports such as the Boston Logan International Airport, the Norwood Memorial Airport, and the Laurence Hanscom Field among others. Some of the railway stations in Boston include the South Station Train Terminal the North Station, and the Back Bay, while the bus stations include the South Station Bus Terminal, and the Greyhound among others. Some of the renowned ports in the city are the Port of Boston, the Royal Caribbean Cruise Port, and the Ports American Inc. The cities with the worst traffic according to the report that come before Boston include Los Angeles, San Francisco, Washington DC, New York, and Atlanta (Dubail, 2019). The urban congestion in Boston calls for quick intervention to prevent further complications that could have far reaching implications.

The need to invest in Boston’s transportation infrastructure in an effective and strategic way cannot be overemphasized. As the added hours and costs due to congestion impact on the city’s and national productivity, so do they harm the economic efficiency, quality of life, and competitiveness at the global context (Dubail, 2019). The city planners in their attempt to regulate congestion should encourage people to turn to autonomous vehicle technology, and offer real-time feedback on traffic (Colak et al., 2016).  Embracing other approaches such as car-sharing and replacing automobiles with drones could also help to reduce congestion (Colak et al., 2016). An effective way to know that the intervention approaches yield the expected results would be to monitor the amount of time drivers take on the roads. Decreased durations would imply that the approaches are effective and worsening situations could insinuate that more still need to happen to address the condition that subject people to increases noise and air pollution besides consuming a lot of time.

How Cargo Carrying Capacity Innovations and Security Policies have influenced the U.S. Trucking and Rail Service Sector

Local and federal authorities have developed regulations to define the capacities trains ought to carry to prevent unwanted accidents that could occur due to overloading. Usually, the guidelines on freight capacity would differ from one state to the other, depending on the number of empty or loaded containers or cars in the train (Stover, 2001). Often, a usual freight car would weigh 30 tons, and would carry additional 100 tons for 135 tons per loaded container (Stover, 2001). The formation of the Rail Passenger Service Act in 1970 offered clear guidance on carrying capacity with the legislation stating that a conventional long haul freight can weigh anywhere between 3500 tons to 18,500 tons or even more depending on the number of cars loaded on the train (Stover, 2001). The innovations in train development have influenced movement in this area with developers creating systems to identify overloading, and to allow for additional load, especially in situations that are unavoidable. Such directives and innovative initiatives have lowered the number of accidents that could occur due to excessive loading and ineffective regulation.

The Interstate System provides an avenue for the federal law to regulate the maximum gross weight for trucks and axle loads. The federal regulations require a maximum of 81,000 pounds gross vehicle weight, 21,000 pounds on one axle, and 33,000 pounds in a tandem axle (Federal Highway Administration, 2019). These limits that are set by the Federal Highway Administration that functions under the U.S. Department of Transportation govern the regulations and laws that affect the truck weight and size on portions of the National Highway System that do not fall under the Interstate System (Federal Highway Administration, 2019). Federal standards also exist for the width and length on the National Network, which comprises of the Interstate and some passages created and designated by the state. The federal laws, however, do not give any guidance for the vehicle height limits (Federal Highway Administration, 2019). All states have directives in place to achieve compliance with the federal weight and size requirements, and in some scenarios states have regulations that permit the weights and sizes on highways that do not fall under the Interstate Highway System in excess of the present federal weight and size limit (Federal Highway Administration, 2019). Based on these provisions, developers of trucks have embarked on creating carriers of different shapes and sizes, with most having the desire to achieve as much space as possible. The regulations governing the truck capacity have improved efficiency in the sector because of the ability to prevent accidents that could occur when the trucks are of disproportional size and width and carry loads beyond their capability.

How internal and external Factors result in Unsuccessful Logistic Strategic Plan

Before paying much attention to the topic, it is vital to understand some of the key terms that form part of the analysis. Internal factors as used in this case refer to the inner strengths and weaknesses that an institution or organization displays. Such internal factors can strongly influence how an institution achieves its goals, and they might be perceived as strengths if they yield appropriate impact on the business, but as weaknesses if they produce unfavorable effects (Allison & Kaye, 2005). External factors, on the other hand, refer to the outside factors that could influence an organization or an institution. It is vital to understand how the various external factors can impact the capacity of an institution to attain its objectives. Strategic planning as applied in this instance refers to the establishment’s process of making its strategy clear to all stakeholders, and making decision on sound allocation of resources to achieve the strategy (Allison & Kaye, 2005). It differs from an operational plan that offers a clear view of how a department or team will contribute towards the attainment of the organizational objectives (Allison & Kaye, 2005). Usually, the operational plan defines the daily duties needed for the organization to run.

Several internal and external factors could make a logistic strategic plan to be unsuccessful. A logistic strategic plan would outline how an organization or institution would handle the movement of people and goods from one point to the other, and how the institution plans to handle all aspects. It is always good to develop and nurture mechanisms that would result in a successful logistic strategic plan, otherwise the approach may fail to give the desired outcome. One of the internal factors that could make the logistic strategic plan to be unsuccessful is the leadership approach in the organization (Allison & Kaye, 2005). Usually, leaders who employ democratic and transformational leadership styles achieve the desired outcome in developing the strategic plan as opposed to leaders who use authoritarian and dictatorial techniques. Authoritarian leaders evoke criticism from the subjects who may not cooperate to attain the goals and objectives (Allison & Kaye, 2005). Another internal factor that could derail the development of an effective logistic strategic plan is poor communication among stakeholders (Allison & Kaye, 2005). It is easier to attain the desired results when the team members employ proper communication styles such as assertive approaches that give both parties into a conversation equal chance to present their views. Also crucial is how the leaders motivate the members of staff towards working hard to achieve the organizational strategic goals and objectives. The group is only likely to achieve the desired aspirations if the members of staff get inspiration from the team leader using various possible motivational approaches (Allison & Kaye, 2005). Other than the internal factors that could impact on the attainment of a successful logistic strategic plan, the team leaders as well as the workers must consider how the external factors could affect the attempts to develop an effective strategic plan (Allison & Kaye, 2005). The political regulations, for example, could affect the development of a suitable logistic strategic plan if the laws are not friendly, and put much restriction on the developers of the plan. The logistic strategic plan could also fail if it lacks competitive features that would make it excel in an environment where other organizations also strive to develop their own plans. The leaders, therefore, should be keen on the internal and external factors to avoid any shortfalls that could affected the development initiative.


Allison, M., & Kaye, J. (2005). Strategic planning for nonprofit organizations. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Bereskin, G. (n.a). Regulation, deregulation, and reregulation in the surface transportation industry. Retrieved from

Colak, S., et al. (2016). Understanding congested travel in urban areas. Natural Communication, 7, doi: 10.1038/ncomms10793

Dubail, J. (2019). Here’s how metro Boston ranks nationwide in traffic congestion. Retrieved from

Duc, G. (2014). Transport and mobility history: Between modal competition and coordination (1918 in our days). Neuchatel: Editions Alphil.

 Federal Highway Administration. (2019). Compilation of existing state truck size and weight limit laws. Retrieved from

Gossling, S. (2017). ICT and transportation behavior: A conceptual review. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, doi: 10.1080/15568318.2017.1338318

Monk, D. (2002). The lessons of airline regulation and deregulation: Will we make the same mistakes in space. Journal of Air Law and Commerce, 57(3), 715-753.

Smith, F., & Cox, B. (2010). Airline deregulation. Retrieved from

Stover, J. (2001). The Routledge historical atlas of the American railroads. New York, NY: Routledge.

Gene Patents essay help site:edu
Gene Patents



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Gene Patents

Similar to utility patents, a biological patent offers the patent holder with the right to prohibit others from creating, utilizing, selling, or importing the purported discovery or invention for a given period of time, especially for patents registered after 1998 to twenty years later from the date of filing. Although biological patent may appear to be broad in its sense, the study focuses on gene patent, which is the lawful and exclusive right to a particular sequence of DNA bestowed by the government to a person or organization that claims to own the initially identified the gene. Once issued, the patent holder dictates how the gene can be utilized in both noncommercial and commercial settings, including research, for at least 20 years from the date of the issuance. The study holds that even as the past few years have witnessed significant transformations in the fields of molecular biology and medicine, resulting in the filing of many patent applications, including many other things, the gene sequences and stem cells, the general public does not seem to welcome the idea, and the scientific, economic, and ethical considerations emanating from the disputable patents have hotly been contested from the beginning. It may be essential to embrace a structure that is more rigid on offering gene patents as it happens with the U.S. that forbade the issuance of patents touching on DNA sequences, unless the invention are really innovative and fundamental.

Gene Patentability in the United States

The Supreme Court of the U.S. ruled in the Association for Molecular Pathology versus Myriad Genetics Inc. (2013) that it is not possible to offer patents to human genes in the country because DNA is mainly a by-product of nature. The bench ruled that patents cannot be given because nothing new is formed when discovering a gene; therefore, no new intellectual property exists to offer protection.[1] At least 4200 genes were patented across the U.S. before the 2013 ruling, and the Court’s ruling made the gene patents invalid, and therefore, accessible for commercial testing and research. Some of the historical forms of such patents on isolated substances of nature include vitamin B12, adrenaline, insulin, and other forms of gene patents. The Supreme Court, nevertheless, rules that it is possible to patent a DNA that is manipulated in a lab because such sequences that are manipulated by human do not naturally exist, with the Court giving the example of a complimentary DNA (cDNA) and recombinant DNA. The cDNA that could be termed as a synthetic DNA is emitted from a molecule that acts as the instruction for generating proteins known as messenger RNA.[2] Further adding to the forbidding of gene patentability in the U.S. were the relentless calls by the Association of Molecular Pathology and the American Civil Liberties Union that vehemently opposed the patenting of isolated DNA. One year prior to the Court’s decision in Myriad, the Court had ruled in Mayo Collaborative Services versus Prometheus Laboratories Inc (Mayo) that a mere use of natural phenomena utilizing conventional mechanisms was not qualified for patenting. It is on the basis of these two major rulings that courts still invalidate a number of patents applicable to methods for diagnosing conditions, based on observing genetic features, encompassing approaches for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and for recognizing whether a patent has an ailment-connected variant.

Gene Patentability in Europe

Contrary to the position of the U.S. following the recent decision by the Supreme Court in Myriad, in the EU naturally existing genetic structures, whether of human or other forms, remain eligible for patents. The EU Biotech Directive (98/44 EC) acts as the basis for biotechnological discoveries entailing the patenting of genes and stem cells.[3] The Biotech Directive was adopted in accordance of the widening economic value of genetic and molecular biology engineering technologies, widening the need for harmonization of national states among member states. Nevertheless, the implementation of the Biotech Directive has instigated serious debates in many member states such as France and Germany where the directive was embraced in a more restricted manner which narrows the scope of claim and excludes the product safeguarding of gene sequences.[4] Generally, the provisions of the directive have been spread into the patent regulations governing all member states of the EU. The principles of regulating gene sequences and stem cells are governed by Articles 5 and 6 of the Biotech Directive, and Article 5 clearly puts it that the human body, and the various levels of its formation and development, and the simple identification of one of its core elements, encompassing the sequence of some part of a gene, cannot be termed as patentable discoveries. Article 5 further informs that a component separated from the human body or otherwise emitted by means of a technical act, encompassing the sequence of a gene, may be regarded a patentable invention, even if the element’s structure is similar to that of a naturally occurring component. More essentially, Article 5 stipulates that the industrial application of a sequence of gene must be made open in the application of a patent. Article 6, on the other hand, illustrates that inventions shall be deemed not patentable where their commercial use would be contrary to morality or order, nevertheless, exploitation shall not be perceived so contrary simply because it is forbidden by law or regulations.

Based on the provisions of Article 6(2) (c) of the Biotech Directive and Rule 28 (c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC) Implementing Regulations, European patents cannot be offered to discoveries that utilize human embryos for commercial or industrial purposes.[5] Nevertheless, no further description of the term ‘embryo’ is issued which has created much confusion. Nevertheless, a series of European Court of Justice and European Patent Office (EPO) decisions has created much-required openness.

Gene Patentability in Canada

One of the highly contentious issues in genetics is if researchers should be permitted to patent human genes realized to cause diseases and to commercialize diagnostic tests depending on the mutated forms of DNA. Whereas the courts in countries such as Australia and the U.S. have banned the act of acquiring patents for genes, no regulation forbids scientists and researchers in Canada from securing patents on sections of the human genome and their related products for utilization in patients.[6] Already, various groups in Canada are securing patents for DNA sequences and the sector seems to be reaping huge benefits for the players. Samuel Abraham who served as the Vice President of Research and Design (R&D) at the BC Cancer Agency said during a convention in Vancouver that issuing patents actually promote growth of awareness and offered an example of how its acquisition of a patent on the SARS virus gene in 2003 helped promote R&D in many firms in Canada and beyond.  

Even as the state permits the acquisition of patents on some of the genetic forms that are well defined and established, not all groups in Canada have the same perception, which could imply that the public interest may be different. The Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) commenced a court challenge in 2014 against American company, Transgenomic Inc., which has patents on fives of the forbidden genes.[7] The team from CHEO asserted that human genes should not be open to patents for business or any other functions. The Canadian group feels that acquiring patents on naturally-existing mutations or sequences would inhibit researchers from moving forward with the next generation of testing genes. Even though CHEO opposes the patent by Transgenomic Inc. the patentability of isolated genes remain available as provided for in the Canadian Intellectual Property Office, which ranks isolated genes as a patentable division of invention.[8] Also, in a scenario involving isolated genes of plants and methods of their utilization produce GMOs, the Supreme Court of Canada deemed the patent valid and violated by a person of firm that generated the plants without proper permission. For CHEO and other groups that advocate for the forbidding of patent issuance on matters relating to gene sequence, the move would save not only the government but many individuals and organizations a lot of money that they could otherwise pay to firms such as Transgenomic that feel they can manipulate the natural existing forms to come up with elements that would generate income.

The General Public’s Interest

The controversies over gene patents occur on many levels, pushed by, for instance, the concern over the cost of patented diagnostic tests or medicines, concerns regarding genetically modified foods (GMOs) that come from patented genetically created seeds as well as the rights of the farmers to plant and harvest the seeds of particular plants as witnessed when Monsanto filed a case concerning its patents.[9] The controversies surrounding the patenting of gene insinuates that the public is not satisfied with the push by some individuals and organization to acquire the sole ownership over some genetic compositions. The general public’s dissatisfaction with the patenting of DNA portions is the reason why in the U.S., genetic materials acquired from human beings can only be patented if it has been adequately changed. The suing of the University of California by John Moore in the U.S. is an excellent illustration of how the general public dislikes the idea of gene patenting. Researchers from the university removed cancer cells from Moore in the course of his treatment and after studying the cells for considerable time, the researchers manipulated them to become immortal and acquired patented it.[10] Other than the idea that the patent has helped in researches over a wide scale, the general public’s perception is that the researchers from the university primarily aimed at making financial gain by charging firms through licensing the cell, besides gaining public fame.

The general public’s dissatisfaction with the patenting of genes became evident during the litigations that resulted in the determining of Myriad case, as well as in other scenarios. Starting 2009, the pathologists and other medical practitioners involved in the case felt that the patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes barred patients from second views on their test outcome. The pathologists, for instance, claimed that the patent inhibited them from executing their practice of conducting diagnostic tests on patients’ samples and examining the findings. Another scenario is a series of lawsuits brought forward by the Alzheimer’s Institute of America commencing in 2003 with the last one being in 2013, regarding a gene patent it regulated on Swedish mutation and the mice it inhabited, the mutation necessary for Alzheimer’s.[11] Researchers widely use the mice for studies and to test products that are in the process of development. Two of the suits by AIA are directed to firms that were commenced based on discoveries carried out on universities, and in each of these instances the university along with the firm was sued. Even though all the suits failed after the NIH offered it protection as a state contractor.

Whereas the general public still has some controversy regarding the patenting of isolated genetic components and the way those rights are used, and there are some disagreement surrounding patents on the diagnostic utilization of genes, which happened to be the major issue in the Myriad case, it is hard to find controversies regarding patents on genes that are utilized to produce therapeutic proteins. It is also not common to find controversies touching on the role of gene patents in the chemical sector, for example, in the production of enzymes utilized in consumer items or industrial practices. Some portion of the public in Europe where the laws on patentability are not very strict seem not to support the notion of patentability, and this is evident in the way laboratories in the region are already experiencing considerable constraints in their attempt to perform some gene-related tests. A study by Liddicoat et al. to identify the effects on increased regulation on research groups in the Euro zone and to understand the magnitude of patent-based effects on clinical genetic testing services discovered that many firms were not aware of the patent infringement.[12] Further when asked to list the researches and tests affected by the claims of patent infringement, nine firms (laboratories) responded one to each test, while another four said two tests, and when put together 3 recorded NIPT, 11 FLT3, 1 JAK2, 1 Ig/TCR clone testing, and 1 RAD51C. The lack of authority to carry out certain tests in European laboratories offers adequate proof that not everyone supports the patentability of gene sequence.  

Determining the Preferable Approach

Based on the evaluation of the general public’ interest as well as the approaches various regions adopt concerning the patentability of gene sequence, the approach America takes seems to the most appropriate. Radford believes that patents on DNA should be offered only in exceptional instances. Radford makes reference to a statement by Sandy Thomas who served as the Director of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics who said patenting DNA puts the patent structure in great danger of not realizing its primary objective, which is to encourage innovation for public wellbeing.[13] Failing to adapt to a mechanism that prevents the issuance of gene patents could cause a scenario where diagnostic tests are too costly, and where research is stalled when commercial groups held all powers to the DNA in question. It is vital to support an approach that safeguards the issuance of gene patents because in the last decades, as scientists and researchers unraveled the who genetic structure of hundreds organisms, encompassing that of human, commercial firms started a stampede to the European and U.S. patent offices to claim possession of DNA. The biotech firms alone according to Radford have claimed patents for at least 19,000 forms of human gene sequences of which about 1250 have already been issued.[14] In reaction, publicly-funded survey groups started publishing data on DNA on regular basis, hoping to avert such information infiltrating into commercial hands.

It is vital to consider other ways through which permitting DNA patents could be dangerous. Radford asserts that issuing patents involving genes could adversely harm research and healthcare, thus making it necessary to embrace a more rigid structure. The former Director of Nuffield Council on Bioethics let people know that the council urges patent registration centers across the world to scrutinize ways to ensure the patent structure is fairly, but thoroughly used in the case of DNA sequences.[15] Dr. Thomas wishes to inform people that the council does not overrule the idea of issuing patents on DNA sequences, but advocates for patents that are exceptional, rather than obvious. The stakeholders need to understand that to be patentable, something needs to be useful, inventive, and novel, but since DNA is basically information, the three components are hard to achieve. It is crucial; therefore, that the tests of usefulness and inventiveness should be more rigorously employed, and if proper mechanisms are put into action, they should substantially lower the number of patents given involving DNA sequences. Whereas thinkers such as Martin Bobrow who is a medical genetics professor at Cambridge University feel that it may be necessary to offer patents on crucial forms such as insulin, Sue Mayer who is a member of GeneWatch thinks rather than spending much time trying to interpret the law, patents on DNA should not be issued at all.[16] According to Mayer, halting the issuance of gene patents would offer the widest reach to vital and basis genetic data and halt wholesale privatization of the human genome.


The study pays considerable attention to the patentability of gene sequences in the U.S., Europe, and Canada, and illustrates how despite the varying directives in each region, the general public’s interest does not support the practice. Even as the EU Biotech Directive (98/44 EC) permit the patentability of some gene sequences in Europe, the Supreme Court’s ruling in Myriad termed it unlawful to acquire patents on any form of genes, unless properly identified as a special isolated case. The approach by Canada resembles that of Europe in the way groups and individuals are open to secure patents for DNA sequences. Even though Europe and Canada do not put much restriction on gene patents, significant portions of the members of the public in both regions feel that unregulated access could cause a situation where it is too costly to access genetic information. The study recommends the approach by the U.S. to be most appropriate because the public’s interest seem to prefer a scenario where they can get information on DNA sequences without much restriction and impediment. 


Johnathon Liddicoat et al., ‘Continental Drift” Do European Clinical Genetic Testing Laboratories have a Patent Problem?’ (2019) 27(7) EJHG <> accessed 4 January 2020

Genetic Home Reference, ‘Can Genes be Patented?’ (Genetic Home Reference, 2019) <> accessed 4 January 2020

Paul Cole, ‘Patentability of Genes: A European Union Perspective,’ (2015) 5(5) CSHPM <> accessed 4 January 2020

Sheryl Ubelacker, ‘Status of Gene Patents in Canada Unresolved, Despite Successful Challenge’ (CTV News, 20 March 2016) <> accessed 4 January 2020

Tim Radford, ‘Patenting DNA ‘not in Public Interest’ (The Guardian, 23 July 2002) <> accessed 4 January 2020

[1] Genetic Home Reference, ‘Can Genes be Patented?’ (Genetic Home Reference, 2019) <> accessed 4 January 2020

[2] Ibid.

[3] Paul Cole, ‘Patentability of Genes: A European Union Perspective,’ (2015) 5(5) CSHPM <> accessed 4 January 2020

[4] Ibid.

[5] Paul Cole, ‘Patentability of Genes: A European Union Perspective,’ (2015) 5(5) CSHPM <> accessed 4 January 2020

[6] Sheryl Ubelacker, ‘Status of Gene Patents in Canada Unresolved, Despite Successful Challenge’ (CTV News, 20 March 2016) <> accessed 4 January 2020

[7] Sheryl Ubelacker, ‘Status of Gene Patents in Canada Unresolved, Despite Successful Challenge’ (CTV News, 20 March 2016) <> accessed 4 January 2020

[8] Ibid.

[9] Johnathon Liddicoat et al., ‘Continental Drift” Do European Clinical Genetic Testing Laboratories have a Patent Problem?’ (2019) 27(7) EJHG <> accessed 4 January 2020

[10] Ibid.

[11] Johnathon Liddicoat et al., ‘Continental Drift” Do European Clinical Genetic Testing Laboratories have a Patent Problem?’ (2019) 27(7) EJHG <> accessed 4 January 2020

[12] Ibid.

[13] Tim Radford, ‘Patenting DNA ‘not in Public Interest’ (The Guardian, 23 July 2002) <> accessed 4 January 2020

[14] Ibid.

[15] Tim Radford, ‘Patenting DNA ‘not in Public Interest’ (The Guardian, 23 July 2002) <> accessed 4 January 2020

[16] Ibid.




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Case Study: High Flyers


Business leaders must be in a position to identify loopholes that could affect their operations, and make substantial transformations that put the firm on the right track. The report presents the case of Silvertail Airlines that must change its business plan and strategy to remain competitive. The company’s management needs to consider how it will sell itself as a younger and innovative company, but must come up with a suitable way for settling the older folks who still depend on the firm for their income. An effective approach, the study shows, would be to try employing the appreciative inquiry, where the stakeholders give their opinions on how they want the company to function. The company may also consider downsizing as an approach where it would cut cost in areas that are not very essential. The corporation may also overcome the challenges it experiences by improving its marketing approaches to woo more buyers. The corporation while implementing the change may adhere to the guidance of Lewin’s model of change that requires the implementers to focus on three critical areas. Settling on the most appropriate intervention methods and using the right implementation strategies will give Silvertail a new image that would make it more competitive.

Overview of the Case Study

Initially until 1990 the Singaporean government created regulations that supported a oligopoly structure between Singapore Airlines, and its only leading rival, Silvertail Airlines. The management at both firms was initially satisfied with the setting, and was happy their firm was making significant strides. The Singaporean government introduced deregulation measures in the airline sector in the 1980s that caused some significant transformations. The operators that entered the sector first failed to disrupt the oligopoly, but after the entry of low cost carriers Silvertail started to experience substantial constraints. Silvertail soon changed its Board of Directors that introduced much change, including dismantling and restructuring key areas. The outcome of a meeting between the cabin crew director, Bobbi Stephens and the Recruitment Manager, Sam Milroy, however, did not satisfy the cabin crew and ground crew who turned to industrial actions. The two leaders decided to lower the number of cabin crew per flight, and to assign ground crew tasks to relatively younger employees. The two leaders opted to promote mechanisms that would attract younger travelers, and even considered cutting the comfort offered during flight. Bobbi and Sam settled on restructuring the job description and position description, hoping that this will help to attract younger workers, which is what the company viewed as a way of achieving change.


The Open System Analysis

Using the open system analysis could present more insight into the nature of operations in Silvertail Airlines. It is apparent that changes in the external environment drive Solvertail to introduce the changes that the management hopes will restore normal operations and increase competitiveness. Already, the competition is stiff following the entry of low cost carriers on both the domestic and international market. The new entrants make the competition quite stiff, which requires the company’s leadership to make changes that would ensure the company remains in the game. Other than the escalated competition, the deregulation puts the company at risk of experiencing reduced operations in certain key areas unlike when the government managed operations in the oligopoly. More essentially, the group needs to address the dissatisfaction among its members of staff if it aspires to gain a wider share of the market.

SWOT Analysis

The SWOT analysis may also be significant in understanding the factors surrounding the high flyer case study. The framework requires the business leaders to consider how its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats could influence its decision making (Gurel & Tat 2017). Some of the strengths that could help the company regain its standing is the firm already has a strong brand name, and making some adjustment could rekindle the good reputation the company once enjoyed. A weakness that could derail Silvertail’s attempts to gain a wider share of the market, however, is the inability to put up with the escalated competition emanating from the low cost carriers operating in the domestic and international markets. The weakness is the main reason Silvertail is contemplating altering its business plan. An opportunity the carrier can use to improve its operations is the increased purchasing power among the younger population, which makes it possible to lower the number of old employees at the company and still do well. The threat that could affect the company’s operations is the escalated competition, and the opposition the firm faces from a section of its workers.

Force Field Analysis

More importantly, Kurt Lewin’s force field analysis could be of significant importance in understanding the nature of operations at Silvertail. Field force analysis requires the management to consider the factors that call for change as well as to understand the factors that derail transformation (Swanson & Creed 2014). Some of the factors driving change at Silvertail, include the escalated competition, the high number of old employees, and the fall in share price. The forces against change, on the other hand, are the adamancy by some workers to accept the proposed transformations. The company in this case may have to hold meetings with the employees and inform them how the current structure harms the business and why it is necessary to institute appropriate changes.

Implications of Analyses

The analyses have crucial implications that require much focus from the company’s management to restore operations in the right direction. They reveal how the problems Silvertail experiences are as a result of various external and internal factors that interact together. Njoroge et al. (2016) assert that the external and internal environment exert forces that may have substantial impact on the organizational outcome. The interaction happens in such a way that the external environment offers the company with inputs it change to outputs through internalized processes, and then the outputs are submitted back to the environment (Njoroge et al. 2016). Since firms cannot have full authority over the happenings on the environment, both the external and internal forces serve as source of problems, contingencies, and complications, as well as opportunities that harm the terms on which corporations do business (Dragnic, 2014). The management at Silvertail, therefore, must understand that regardless of the sector in which the company competes, the external and internal environment influences the company as it seeks competitive advantage and the earning beyond average returns. Some of the external factors contributing towards the tribulations Silvertail experiences include the increased competitiveness and adjusted regulated, while the internal factor is the dissatisfaction among older employees. The analyses further illustrate that the company has the strength to overcome the issues it faces, although it must utilize available opportunities to come up with suitable solutions to the weaknesses and threats. Often, companies that become successful in the long run are those that are resilient and come up with innovative ideas when things do not turn out as planned (Calvo & Manzano 2011 and Muslim et al. 2011). Also important is Silvertail will overcome the tribulations it faces if it comes up with effective remedies to the factors driving change, as well as deal with the forces against change that could derail the effort to achieve the desired change. Otherwise, failing to take heed of the revelations of the analyses could subject Silvertail to more complications and adversities.


Silvertail’s management must embrace an intervention mechanism that would help achieve competitiveness and restore its glory. A suitable approach would be to employ the appreciative inquiry method that seeks to include stakeholders in creating business change (Johnston 2008). The group while employing the appreciative inquiry model would be to adhere to the five principles of the framework. The company should consider the constructionist principle, which insinuates that relationships are essential in determining what people do. The principle proposes that people develop the organization they want through the day-to-day interaction (Johnston 2008). The principle would give employees and all other stakeholders to contribute towards creating a work plan that suits Silvertail. The company should also adhere to the principle of simultaneity, which holds that people would introduce change when they realize some weakness or loopholes. The stakeholders at Silvertail would identify the areas that need transformations and give recommendations that would foster necessary changes. The third guideline while using the appreciative inquiry model is the poetic principle, which holds that the daily interaction between people in an organization creates room for change (Delgaldillo et al. 2016). The firm in this case may allow its employees and other stakeholders to share among themselves and devise solutions they think will help the company move beyond its problems. The fourth guideline that could help the company achieve its goals is the anticipatory principle, which insinuates that people could give suggestions that may change the future (Delgaldillo et al. 2016). The company may also get valuable lessons from the positive principle, which posits that social bonding and positive affect yield sustainable change. The firm may use the awareness to allow the stakeholders to interact on various platforms to come up with ideas that could help solve the problem. The approach, however, may not yield the anticipated outcome if the employees give opinions that prioritize their desires while do not benefit the customers who are an essential part of the business.

Another approach the company may use to achieve its desires is downsizing, which entails lowering the operating costs. The management usually considers downsizing options such as closing some subsidiaries or branches, reducing the workforce, and improving efficiency in the various departments (Datta et al. 2010). Silvertail in this case may downsize by lowering the number of old employees if the management thinks they contribute towards the unpleasant performance. The group may also apply downsizing by cutting expenditure in some of the areas that are not very important. Sam and Bobbi during their meeting highlighted the importance of offering three star services rather than spending so much on five star services. The management believes that spending so much to treat the travelers is accustomed with older people who travel with their families yet the company seeks to attract the younger population. Downsizing in the correct manner would result in improved efficiency, lower costs, as well as heighten returns by lowering overhead costs (Kwamboka & Nassiuma 2017). The company’s management, however, should watch out for some of the negative effects of downsizing that could further harm the business. Downsizing, for example, could result in bankruptcy through reduced productivity, and decreased customer satisfaction (Kwamboka & Nassiuma 2017). Losing workers with vast experience and institutional knowledge can harm innovation, and the remaining members of staff may struggle to handle the increased stress and workloads, leaving inadequate time to learn new concepts (Friebel et al. 2016). The leadership at Silvertail, therefore, needs to consider several factors before applying the approach to avoid any adverse effects.

The company may also witness significant improvement in its services by improving its marketing practices after enforcing measures that would give it a new image. The corporation may emulate some of the leading carriers such as Emirates that reach out to its buyers through multiple channels such as social media, the firm’s website, print, and other digital media avenues such as TV and radio adverts (The Emirates Group 2019). Silvertail may become even more innovative to offer discounts to loyal consumers, and offer other rewards to customers who stay with the company for long. The company, for example, may come up with programs such as the customer of the year award or the best stakeholder price to make the group more appealing.

Action Plan

The management at Silvertail while enforcing the proposals may follow Lewin’s model of change that calls on implementers to adhere to three vital steps. The initial step is unfreezing where the team in charge of change management determines what needs to change. The team at this stage may survey the firm to understand its current nature, and ensure that the management offers strong support (Hussain et al. 2016). The second phase is change, which entails communicating to the team members what the change is all about. It is wise to communicate often while describing the benefits of the change (Kotter & Cohen 2002). It is essential at this stage to dispel rumors that could lead to wrong decision-making and involve all parties in the decision-making (Hussain et al. 2016). The final step is refreezing, which entails placing measures that would anchor the transformations into the business culture. The management at this stage should identify the factors that support change, and be aware of the barriers that could derail the achievement of sustainable change (Cummings et al. 2015). The team in charge of change management at this phase should also ensure the plan gets adequate managerial support, and the plan has an effective feedback mechanism (Cummings et al. 2015). It may also be essential to train the employees on various aspects that would make it easier to implement the change.


The study develops a plan for Silvertail that could help it deal with the issues preventing it from achieving its goals and objectives. The company in its efforts to gain a new image may consider gathering the stakeholders’ views through the appreciative inquiry process, downsizing by cutting the number of older employees and reducing spending in areas that are not necessary, and improving marketing techniques. Silvertail would implement the change effectively by using Lewin’s model of change, which requires the implementers to focus on three phases; unfreeze, change, and refreeze.

Reference List

Calvo, J, & Manzano, G 2011, ‘Established business owners’ success: Influencing factors,’ Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 263-286.

Cummings, S, et al. 2015, ‘Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management,’ Human Relations, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 33-60.

Datta, D, et al. 2010, ‘Causes and effects of employee downsizing: A review and synthesis,’ Journal of Management, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 281-348.

Delgaldillo, L, et al. 2016, ‘A case study demonstrating the use of appreciative inquiry in a financial coaching program,’ Family and Consumer Science Research Journal, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 166-178.

Dragnic, D 2014, ‘Impact of internal and external factors on the performance of fast-growing small and medium businesses,’ Management, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 119-159.

Friebel, G, et al. 2016, ‘The effect of announced downsizing on workplace performance: Evidence from a retail chain,’ IZA DP No. 9739.

Gurel, E, & Tat, M 2017, ‘SWOT analysis: A theoretical review,’ The Journal of International Social Research, vol. 10, no. 51, pp. 994-1006.

Hussain, S, et al. 2016, ‘Kurt Lewin’s process model for organizational change: The role of leadership and employee involvement: A critical review,’ Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, pp. 123-127. doi: 10.1016/j.jik.2016.07.002

Johnston, E 2008, ‘Appreciative inquiry: Researching greatness,’ Journal of Leadership Studies, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 76-79.

Kwamboka, N, & Nassiuma, B 2017, ‘Employee downsizing strategies and firm performance: Evidence from the Kenyan context,’ Journal of Human Resource and Leadership, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 58-68.

Kotter J, & Cohen, D 2002, The heart of change: Real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Harvard Business Press, Boston.

Muslim, A, et al. 2011 ‘Determinants of business success (An expository studies),’ International Journal of Human Resource Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98-110.

Njoroge, K, et al. 2016, ‘Does external environment influence organizational Performance? The case of Kenyan state corporations,’ Management and Organizational Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 41-51.

Swanson, D, & Creed, A 2014, ‘Sharpening the focus of force field analysis,’ Journal of Change Management, vol. 14, no, 1, pp. 28-47.

The Emirates Group 2019, Emirates. Available from [3 December 3, 2019]

Attempts by Emirates’ Management to Overcome Cultural Barriers college admissions essay help
Attempts by Emirates’ Management to Overcome Cultural Barriers

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Attempts by Emirates’ Management to Overcome Cultural Barriers

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is in the Middle East, and it borders the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and Oman. Visitors to the seven emirates of the UAE may be in for some culture shock because other than meeting some people from other parts of the world, one would mainly interact with traditionally dressed Gulf Arabs in their abayas and dishdashas (The Emirates Group, 2019). One is also likely to encounter numerous Arabic chatters in coffee shops, hear the sound of mosques at prayer hours, feel the aroma of Arabian shisha, as well as encounter the beautiful yet intricate Arabic writing in most of the places. Islam is largely interlinked with almost every aspect of the UAE society (The Emirates Group, 2019). The people of UAE take the teachings in the Quran very seriously and see it as the word of God that offers guidance on what people ought to do. The people of UAE have their traditional foods and the mode of dress for men and women is distinct (The Emirates Group, 2019). The literature and poetry in the region are influenced by the Arabic culture, same to the music and dance. The influence of the Islamic tradition is so strong that local companies try to align their operations with the cultural requirements. The management of international firms, however, understands the importance of embracing a business culture that reflects the global needs and practices to attract not only customers of Islamic origin but other backgrounds as well.

The effects of cultural diffusion, however, are so strong that multinational corporations must heed to the interaction happening with people from different parts of the world. Cultural diffusion takes place when there is a spread of cultural norms and traits from one environment or society to another (Harutyunyan & Ozak, 2016). Today, it has become a major process and it presently serves a major role across the globe with its application ranging from technology to business operations. Trading with other countries is one way through which cultural diffusion develops, and going to learn in other areas also leads to the fusion of cultures (Harutyunyan & Ozak, 2016). It is also possible to achieve cultural diffusion and integration through tourism when people from a particular region visit other places (Harutyunyan & Ozak, 2016). Today, success in business does not depend on how well an organization plans its day-to-day activities, but rather on how the firm strives to achieve the consumers’ demands. The cultural variations call on business leaders to develop mechanisms that would embrace other cultures, and serve them without any form of segregation or discrimination whatsoever.

An example of a multinational corporation whose management understands the importance of embracing other cultures while doing business is Emirates Airline. Emirates Airline that is based in Garhoud, Dubai, UAE functions as a subsidiary of the Emirates Group, which is managed by the Investment Corporation of Dubai. The airline is one of the largest in the Middle East and the world, and operates more than 3600 flights every week from its main hub at the Dubai International Airport (The Emirates Group, 2019). The carrier serves more than 151 cities in at least 80 nations across six continents while Emirates SkyCargo takes charge of transporting cargo (The Emirates Group, 2019). The group has made significant growth and transformation since its commencement in 1985 and now ranks second in terms of flown freight, and fourth in terms of revenue generation (The Emirates Group, 2019). The management further hopes to gain more competitive advantage by operating a mixed fleet of Boeing and Airbus making it one of the few companies in the airline sector to use all wide-body carriers in its operations.

How Emirates’ Management adapts to International Culture

Despite the heavy influence of the Islamic culture in Dubai, Emirates has overcome the cultural influences to embrace a global approach to business knowing very well that its customers have varying needs and expectations. Over the recent years Emirates has dazzled the global airline sector with its advanced aircraft orders, rapid growth and expansion, and exquisite services. Other than creating more routes in Australia and Europe, the leaders of the Gulf aviation sector, has immensely invested on new flows of passengers, linking Africa with Asia and Latin America through its hub in Dubai (The Emirates Group, 2019). Actually, Boeing’s latest forecast of the market reveals that the markets that Emirates now places much focus on will occupy more than 62% of passenger flows by the beginning of 2030 (The Emirates Group, 2019). The company’s management released in its annual report that the company’s future is created not only in the long-formed routes, but also in areas such as America, India, Africa, and China, where the need for air transport, both cargo and passenger, is widening at a fast rate (The Emirates Group, 2019). The group’s management further affirms that the strategic station in Dubai serves a major role in forming new trade routes by connecting emerging markets to developed ones, such as linking Durban to Moscow, Luanda to Beijing, and Sao Paulo to Hyderabad.

The management at Emirates understands the importance of serving customers from different backgrounds without looking at their differences, and the focus has enabled the form to brand and position itself to newly formed global customer bases. More essentially, the desire to serve customers equally and without much influence from the Islamic culture help the firm to create proper solutions while offering the various services such as dining, entertainment, and others (The Emirates Group, 2019). Emirates Airlines while forming its workforce do not pay attention to hiring employees from the Arabic background alone, but rather tries to hire employees from different cultures. The human force comprises of employees from 130 countries, thereby making it possible to staff the flights with employees who speak a variety of languages such as English, Arabic, and the local languages of the flight’s destination (The Emirates Group, 2019). The group with regard to dining practices does not allow its Islamic background influence its decisions. The team tries to plan the menus in accordance with the individual routes to ensure that travelers enjoy foods of their regional preferences (The Emirates Group, 2019). The company, for example, uses a Japanese chef to prepare a range of Japanese foods while heading towards the Japanese route, and similarly hire an Indian specialist when to serve customers when heading towards India. The firm also embraces a broader way of entertaining passengers as a way of meeting the international requirements and overcoming the constraints of the Islamic culture (The Emirates Group, 2019). The passengers have the freedom to listen to songs or watch programs of their choice while on board, which is enough evidence that the company is committed to serve buyers from all walks of life (The Emirates Group, 2019). The advanced entertainment approaches together with the other initiatives aimed at satisfying consumers’ wants makes Emirates a favorite carrier for many, Muslims and non-Muslims.

Today, achieving the necessary standards is a vital requirement for many businesses and consumers across the globe have almost similar perceptions of what good and quality goods and services entail. Emirates in a bid to meet the international standards adhere to the directives of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) that guide businesses on how to achieve standard measures and quality. The management, for instance, understands that observing the international standards is important for addressing most of the globe’s pressing issues, especially those connected to sustainable development and growth. Many people across the globe, for example, consider quality production and services to be a vital aspect of business operations regardless of their background. The carrier in return tries to comply with the provisions of ISO 9000 family that addresses the various areas of quality management to achieve the best standards. The standards offer tools and guidance for the firm to ensure the services and products consistently meet the buyers’ needs (ISO, 2019). Furthermore, the company adheres to the provisions of ISO 9001 to ensure it constantly improves its quality. The management at Emirates in an attempt to meet the global expectations complies with the provisions of the ISO 14001, which is the international guideline that identifies and specifies requirements for appropriate environmental management system (ISO, 2019). The standard offers a framework that a business can follow, rather than formulating internal environmental performance needs. The management at Emirates further tries to achieve the needs or expectations of the global market by observing ISO 45001 that help the organization improve worker safety, lower workplace risks, and form better and safer working conditions across the globe (ISO, 2019). The management also tries to meet international standards that would make it possible to fit into other cultures by adhering to the requirements of ISO 56002:2019 that provide guidance into the implementation, maintenance, and formation of an innovative management structure for use in large and SMEs (ISO, 2019). The adherence to the ISO provisions is adequate proof that Emirates seeks to overcome its boundaries, and serve in a manner that meet international standards.

How Emirates Adheres to the Islamic Culture

Even though Emirates tries as much as possible to embrace a culture that would be perceived as being global by its buyers and other stakeholders, it is still possible to identify some effects of the Islamic culture on the business operations. First, the group has more Arabic employees than any other cultural group. Being a Gulf-based company, the management trains its crew for a number of Islamic and Arabic cultural practices and beliefs, and these may include being exposed to practices in the mosque, learning how to serve Muslim passengers with veils, and how to serve Arabic meals such as dates and coffee (The Emirates Group, 2019). The influence of the Islamic culture is so strong on Emirates that the management places considerable attention to the holy month of Ramadan when every year during the celebrations the group’s management offers specially created Iftar snack presents close to the evening meal on flights leaving the main hub in Dubai to allow Muslims observing the month break their fasts while on board (The Emirates Group, 2019). It is also possible to witness a scenario where some female workers of Arabian background wearing hijab while at the place of work, which further illustrates how the company cannot prevent all the aspects prescribed by the Islamic community. The Quran defines that women puts on the hijab as a way of expressing modesty, and it become hard for companies and other employers in the public and private sectors to overcome the requirement.

Using the Hofstede’s cultural framework may further help to understand how the company still adheres to particular Islamic practices and beliefs despite the numerous efforts to embrace a global culture. Official state documents acknowledge that men and women have the same chances to advance themselves, yet patriarchy is still evident in social life. Men continue to dominate high positions in the public sphere and in business and women play less influential roles in religious life and politics as these areas are perceived to be male domains. Even though UAE scores 50 in masculinity in Hofstede’s cultural structure meaning that the country can be termed to be neither feminine nor masculine, Emirates offers more powerful position to male workers as it happens with the positions of the CEO, Chief Operating Officer (COO), Divisional Senior Vice President, and Chief Commercial Officer among others. UAE scores 25 in the Hosftede’s cultural framework in the individualism versus collectivism category meaning that the society is highly collectivist (Hofstede Insights, 2019). Contrary to some countries in the Western world such as the U.S. where individualism prevails, people in the UAE, including the workers at Emirates would share many things as they work as a team. More essentially, the UAE score 90 in the power distance category in the Hosftede’s cultural framework, which suggests that people agree power is not distributed equally in the society (Hofstede Insights, 2019). It is the reason why some workers at Emirates occupy higher position while others take less superior positions. The situation results in a situation where the business leaders make influential decisions regarding the company’s operations while the junior officers heed to the directives. The company’s management, however, believes that adhering to such cultural practices and beliefs will not hamper its efforts to perform well in other markets.


The study focuses on how Emirates attempts to overcome the cultural barriers that could deny it the chance to relate with buyers from other backgrounds knowing very that success and competiveness depends on how well the group meets the needs of its different customers. Despite the heavy influence of the Islamic culture in Dubai, Emirates distinguishes itself from other local operators in the way it hires its staff, offers food, and entertains its customers. Furthermore, the company tries to meet the standards of the international market by adhering to the provisions of the International Organization for Standardization that help organizations meet standards that would be acceptable in many global markets. Emirates, however, still has to adhere to some practices as outlined by the Islamic culture. The company offers special instructions to its workers on how to relate and attend to customers of Islamic background, and pays much attention to Islamic festivities such as Ramadan. Emirates Airline also adheres to the Islamic culture in the way it adheres practices and beliefs outlined in Hosftede’s cultural framework.


Harutyunyan, A., & Ozak, O. (2016). Culture, diffusion, and economic development. Working Papers of LICOS – Center for Institution and Economic Performance.

Hofstede Insights. (2019). Compare countries. Retrieved from

ISO. (2019). International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved from

The Emirates Group. (2019). Emirates. Retrieved from

Maize’s Roots Reaction after Damage best college essay help
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Maize’s Roots Reaction after Damage

The ability of the plant roots to reach available water in the soil is vital to the plant’s adaptation in environments with limited water. This is critically essential in species such as maize (corn), millet, and sorghum that are frequently planted in such environments. Recent researches on maize have indicated that changes in the root system architecture and the ability to capture water plays salient roles in plant development (Singh et al. 287). Even as experiments and researches on the effects of different levels of cutting maize’s roots on the opening and closing of the stomata, grain yield, efficiency of water use, and biomass revealed that moderate root cutting could advance the rate at which photosynthesis takes place, improve the biomass above the ground, and water use efficiency (WUE), adverse harm could the ability to achieve maximum output from photosynthesis as well as derail the biomass above the ground (George et al. 5). Even as root cutting could maximize the grain yield, the effect was not essential (George et al. 5). The failure of the maize plant to perform well after severe incision or pruning of the roots make it necessary to understand the reactions taking place in the root after damage. The study holds that cutting or pruning the roots of a maize plant

The roots of a plant play many functions. First, they offer the anchorage required to keep a plant in position. More essentially, roots act as the lifeline of a plant because they absorb nutrients, water, and air from the soil and push them into the leaves where they react with sunlight to emit flavors, energy, and sugars that the plant highly needs (Ryan et al. 555). Biologists have recently learnt that roots emit some compounds that harm the microbes in the soil, doing things like encouraging the plant absorb crucial elements from the soil and protecting it from diseases (Ryan et al. 557). Maize plant belongs to the monocotyledon family, which makes it to develop fibrous roots. The plant, however, would have another set of roots known as stilt roots whose primary role is to offer mechanical support.

Cutting or pruning the roots of a maize plant affect the reactions taking place in the internal structure of maize’s monocot roots. When the root are cut or pruned, the epiblema or the rhizodermis are hurt, which despite being the root’s outermost layer, serve vital functions to support the plant’s growth (BrainKart). The hairs found on the epiblema are unicellular and they absorb mineral salts and water from the soil (BrainKart). Affecting the epiblema also exposes the roots’ inner tissues, which increase the likelihood of damage (BrainKart). Cutting the roots also affect the cortex which is a vital part of a monocot plant. Harming or damaging the cortex that comprises of parenchyma cells that are thin-walled with many intercellular spaces could affect the maize plant’s ability to store starch, which is crucial for the plant’s development (Hochholdinger et al. 364). Damaging the roots further harm the endodermal cells that do not have the casparian strips that prevent water from passing through one endodermal cell to the other (Hochholdinger et al. 364). Affecting the endodermal cells make it hard to achieve transportation functions in the cortex because these cells transport dissolved salts and water from the cortex to the xylem. More importantly, cutting or pruning the maize’s roots without much care could affect the pith that is located at the central position of the root. The plant would exhibit poor growth and development due to inadequate starch grains that are stored within the parenchyma cells inside the pith.

The study passes vital lessons to farmers and other people responsible for planting and tending for maize plant. The study informs the need to take extra care when incising or pruning the roots to avoid causing severe harms that could affect the plant’s ability to sustain itself. Farmers may seek training on how to practice effective pruning to avoid harming the parts of the roots that are essential in promoting growth. Otherwise, farmers will continue to lament about the low returns they get from their maize plantation.


The study examines the effects of incising or pruning the roots of a maize plant by looking at the reactions that take place in this part after damage. It emerges that incision or pruning the roots, however important at certain times, could affect the plant in significant ways. Damaging the roots could tamper with the various parts of the root system that play vital roles in the growth and development of the plant. Such parts include the epiblema that takes in mineral salts and water from the soil, the cortex that store crucial components, and the pith that contains the starch that the plant uses as food. Farmers or people tending to maize farms, therefore, should borrow helpful lessons from the study to avoid harming the plant through excessive incision or pruning of the roots.

Works Cited

BrainKart. “Primary Structure of Monocotyledonous Root – Maize Root.” BrainKart, 2019,—Maize-root_1026/. Accessed on 19 December, 2019.

George, Doug et al. “Water use Efficiency in Maize Production – The Challenge and Improvement Strategies.” 6th Triennial Conference, 2006.

Hochholdinger, Frank et al. “Genetic Dissection of Root Formation in Maize (zea mays) Reveals Root-Type Specific Developmental Programmes.” Annals of Botany, vol. 93, no. 4, 2004, pp. 359-368.

Ryan, Peter et al. “Plant Roots: Understanding Structure and Function in an Ocean of Complexity.” Annals of Botany, vol. 118, no. 4, 2016, pp. 555-559.

Singh, Vijaya et al. “Morphological and architectural development of the root systems in sorghum and maize.” Plant Soil, vol. 333, 2010, pp. 287-299.

Green Marketing and Its Impact on Consumers cheap essay help
Green Marketing and Its Impact on Consumers

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Green Marketing and Its Impact on Consumers


With the growing concern on the deterioration of the environment, more business have developed increasing awareness for the importance of its preservation which has been demonstrated by their utilization of green marketing. This concept is currently applied as a marketing tool and gaining popularity globally (Carrete, Castaño, Felix, Centeno, & González, 2012). The main rationale applied is the emphasis on incorporating green efforts within the business or organization’s framework as a core element of corporate social responsibility and also from a humanistic point of view to enable the future preservation of the environment for the future generation (Moser, 2015). Some of the effective methods applied have include the implementation of greener practices in business operations that are coherently captured in their marketing strategies. According to various environmentalists, the motivation observed in businesses stemming from their integration of green marketing is not only founded on the need to appeal to the green customer but also safeguard the environment considering the increasingly distributing reports presented on a global scale highlighting on the extent of climate change and global warming projecting the immense contribution anthropogenic factors in stimulating this deleterious effects (Moser, 2015). Green marketing presents various benefits to both consumers and the business as long as these efforts are honest and effectively executed. Some of the advantages include expansion of business resources in order to integrate greener products which cater to the needs of consumers who are environmental conscious (Carrete, 2012). This is the primary gain as these target is consistently increasing. Therefore, with the introduction of greener products, companies are able to reach a wider market through surviving the green consumer.

Overview of the Issue

The altruistic intention of green marketing has contributed to the greenwashing currently observed in the marketing platforms both online and in traditional context (Carrete, 2012). With the marketplace becoming more receptive to the Cyberspace, there has been an increased integration of marketing strategies that leverage on environmental awareness of consumers to push non-green products social media platforms such as Instagram allow followers to engage in an advertisement posted in the company’s page in order to learn more about the products they intend to purchase (Carrete, 2012). This has become an easy way to target this customer base through falsely misleading green claims which is an act of green washing. This research seeks to analyses this concept and its relation to green marketing in order to determine the impact on consumers within the social media space.

Literature Summary

For the purpose of this research, relevant academic literature will be evaluated in the highlighted section so as to develop a deeper understanding on the concept of green marketing. The areas will include a close analysis of green marketing, definition and observation of brainwashing, and the incorporation of this concept in social media platforms.

Intricacies of Green Marketing

Green marketing as a concept has been defined by various scholars.  Firstly, it is described as the marketing of environmentally safe products basing on the rationale promoting recycling and reduced waste output.  Within the market environment, going green as advertised relates to the patches of items whose production required the use of less product leading to reduced waste disposal as well as minimal raw materials.  From this explanation, this ideology emphasizes on the need for companies that go green to engage in business practices that are environmentally conscious (Yudelson, 2008). According to studies conducted by environmental leader, an estimated 78% of the experiment unit reiterated on shopping cautiously in order to reduce their carbon print and imposed little to no harm on the environment (Carrete, 2012).  Therefore, with the increase in awareness by the global community on the importance of environment preservation and Conservation, marketing efforts focused on environmental sustainability are easily noticeable by consumers. This deduction has been supported by various studies citing brand improvement is directly influenced by drink products production as well as green marketing across Industries.

Companies that often engage in green marketing are those that seek to integrate green initiatives within the organizational framework or firms that are in the green business. An elaborate example of Enterprises which produce environmentally friendly products is the seventh generation company (Carrete, 2012). Some of the products include natural laundry detergents and sustainable diapers. According to the company’s chief marketing officer, there has been a positive growth increments since the company’s Inception. This is indicative that there is an increasing market for green products with customers seeking to make more environmental conscious purchases (Yudelson, 2008). Multinational companies and corporation she demonstrates active participation in green products development motivated by the increasing demand. As demonstrated by Target, this is a sustainable and achievable and ever that can be incorporated across the supply chain (Yudelson, 2008). This company has introduced sustainable packaging for all its manufactured products further increasing its customer base as more consumers are influenced to purchase is environmentally conscious product.

The concept of green-washing emanates from the increasing environmental awareness observed in global economies (Carrete, 2012). There has been an increasing number of product in various retailers and wholesalers enterprise that are reported as being environmentally friendly therefore marketed as green products.  However, some companies have endeavored to corrupt the goodwill of other businesses by pushing products that are not environmentally conscientious but marketed as such (Yudelson, 2008). This activity goes against corporate social responsibility and has been responsible for the increasing brainwashing observed in consumerism behavior. While it is relevant to engage in green marketing as a show of support to environment preservation, a level of sextet from companies in assuring their consumers that the products marketed are actually produced and distributed considerate of the environmental impact they pose.  Additionally, greenwashing is detrimental as it reduces consumer satisfaction towards a product creating a sense of green myopia (Carrete, 2012). This condition is described as the feeling of perceiving non green products as superior to green products. From the elaboration, it is evidently clear green-washing negatively impacts the proliferation of green marketing as it reduces consumer trust towards green products therefore developing an unwillingness to purchase these items. Are complicating aspects associated with greenwashing is the inability of a consumer to identify advertisements that push non-green products through green marketing.

Research Questions and Objectives

The main aim of this research is to evaluate the overall perception by consumers relating to green marketed products through advertisement. It seeks to analyze whether the perception of honest or dishonest as well as explore the customer responsiveness to the marketing strategies employed in pushing the products in different channels. The overall customer thinking pertaining to the introduction and marketing of green products for various brand is the main motivational factor that contributed to the development of the research question which question: How aware are consumers in identifying advertisement that presenting greenwashing content?

The section of this research concerns the available academic literature on the utilization of the platforms such as social media in driving marketing strategies. Therefore, relating to green marketing, the issue question is on customer responsiveness to marketing tactics aimed at driving environmental friendly products in the market particularly when posts are made on individual brand pages. Thus, the second question is: How is the overall perception of social media green marketing by consumers and is it influential in determine their buying decisions?

            The main intention for many business when engaging in green marketing emanates is to contribute positively in saving the environment from the debilitating effects of global warming and adverse climatic change. However, despite these intentions being altruistic in nature, in some instances, green marketing has been perceived rather harshly by various consumer markets particularly on social media platforms. This apprehension denoted from their responsiveness to green market adverts is attributed to the existence of numerous advertisement available online which flood the online cyberspace. Therefore, with a consumer watching similar advertisements several times a day, it becomes rather difficult to separate honest and credible marketed products from the fake ones. The overall outcome is consumers spending minimal time watching at the advertisement and failing to consider the message relayed or the importance of the product advertised in contributing to environmental conservation.

            This literature provide an outlook on greenwashing as an outcome of extensive green marketing which is a modern-day problem companies and Enterprises are increasingly engaging in this practice to market their products and services. Due to the fact that consumers lack awareness of greenwashing, it has increasingly spread globally crippling the efforts made in preserving the environment through corporate social responsibility manifested through the adoption of Environmental friendly practices. The hypothesis of this study include:

H1: The effects of greenwashing are identifiable and visibly evident in consumers engaged in green washed marketing  as opposed to those watching a non- greenwashed advertisement.

H1b: There is a lower purchase Intent observed in brainwashed marketing advertisement.

H1c: Consumer demonstrate a negative attitude towards brainwashed advertisement.

Social media has become the perfect platform in driving sustainability and related practices across Industries. This is primarily based on the extensive social interaction occurring within these mediums they are for presenting companies with a display area for green marketing and communication to their customers relating to green products. This study focuses on determining the influence imposed by green marketing strategies applied through social media marketing on the customers leading to the second hypothesis.

H2: Green marketing efforts conducted on social media platforms such as Twitter Instagram and Facebook are significantly influential in increasing product purchase intention as opposed to non-green social media marketing gimmicks.

H2b: Positive consumer attitude is observed from consumers who are engaged in an environmentally conscious social media post posted by a brand. The Methodology

Pilot Study

A pilot study will be applied in the calibration of advertisements utilized in the experiments. It will consist of survey participants will be exposed to for advertisement. The first two ads will contain content with exaggeration tantamount to green-washing. The other two will be direct and honest advertisements with sensible environmental claims. Prior to commencing with the experiments, the participants will be subjected to questioning whereby the knowledge ability and environmental concern will be gauged through a series of questions. This step will then be preceded with the participants evaluating the four advertisements. The first question asked for each ad will be on whether the participants feel the elements of the advertisement contain any green-washing concept. The responses recorded will be either yes or no. The participants will then be required to presents a logical explanation for each selection made. The total number expected from the responses is 28. The results will be derived basing on the number of respondents identified honest advertisements and those with green washing elements.

Experimental Design

Following the completion of the pilot study, the question asked will be reformatted and reconfigured in order to increase their suitability required for the next main project. In the main experiment, a total of 3 advertisements will be utilized in order to evaluate the validity of the hypotheses. In addition to this, two social media posts will be incorporated in this evaluation. The first advertisement will contain greenwashed content whereas the second one will incorporate honest claims therefore it will be an honest and environmental conscious ad. The third advertisements will be used for the control group whereby they will be required to determine whether it is a greenwashed or green the content. Pertaining to the social media posts, the same rationale will be applied with the inclusion of either green or non-green elements.  For all the participants, the question asked in the survey will be the same.  However, concerning the social media posts and advertisement presented, they will be rotated with the application of a projected quarter in order to maintain the equal application of data manipulation in equal group sizes. Other social media posts, 38 participants will be questioned. As for the   advertisement, 25 participants will be engaged for each post. In total, there should be 73 control group participants, 72 green wash participants and 73 non-greenwash participants. In the social media posts presentation 110 participants will be engaged for the Green advertisements. Lastly for the green exclusive social media post, 109 participants will be involved in the questioning.


The third portion the study will involve an online survey availed by Qualtrics. The first will involve testing the participant’s environmental awareness level which will require answering to prompt questions. Out of the three advertisement highlighted in the other sections, the participants will be asked to evaluate one. Due to the importance of ensuring the participants are familiar with the concept of greenwashing, a definition will be provided. Subsequently, the participants will be questioned relating to the one advertisement selected.  In testing the first hypothesis H1, the dependent variable selected will be consumer attitude, purchase Intent, and the green wash.  These variables will be analyzed against the non-green-washed and green washed advertisements which are the independent variables.  In order to establish the Skins used for this evaluation, literature Concepts will be applied.  Following the completion of the survey questions, the participants will provide an elaborate explanation on the selections in order to establish whether they are conversant with the green wash concepts. How you will answer the research questions. In evaluating the second hypothesis H2, relating to businesses exerting green marketing efforts in social media platforms in order to influence customer decision-making concerning product purchase, the participants will be randomly selected from two social media platforms that is Twitter and Facebook. One post on Twitter will include green washing elements while the other posted on Facebook will not contain any green elements. The independent variable which is the social media posts and their varied characteristics will be tested against consumer attitude and purchase intent which are the dependent variables for the second hypothesis. In facilitating the survey, the data will be collected from demographic questions answered by the participants.

Sample Collection

      Through a Facebook link, the survey participants will collect the survey questions. This process will ensure the experimental unit is diverse in terms of racial and ethnic background, age, education and gender. The desired sample size prior to the commencement of the study is 75 which will be disintegration into various quotas applicable for each section. The overall collection of data will be from 218 participants which will be derived from each of the divided advertisement of groups and of the social media posts.

Data Analysis

Data collected from the survey will be evaluated by the SPSS. In order to eliminate any unreliable or incomplete responses, data cleaning will be conducted to increase data reliability and validity. To test homogeneity, the Levene test will be applied. Secondly, the one way ANOVA will be applied on the collected data to assess the three advertisements which will either confirm or nullify the first hypothesis. The variables analysed in this test include the purchase intent and consumer attitude to green washing and non-green washing advertisements. The third analytical test is Turkey’s test used in measuring hypothesis 1a. It will also be applied in conducting post hoc analysis on comparative data collected in order to demonstrate significant variations.

 Levene StatisticP ValuePurchase Intent  Attitude  Greenwash Content  


This research is important for marketers who are seeking to integrate green marketing as part of their promotional strategy in both traditional printing and social Media contexts. The findings will be elemental in demonstrating to corporates and businesses that consumers have developed a deeper understanding one greenwashing as a concept applied by companies to falsely market their products. This will be an important implication in encouraging marketers to avoid product falsification aimed at dishonestly attracting the consumer in order to secure sales.  According to research, environmental conscious consumers often use the internet for their shopping purposes. Therefore with this understanding and the H2 variables which include purchase intent and attitude, the outcome of this study will motivate marketers to extensively explore social media platforms as an avenue for green product launches. Additionally, it can also be used as an outlet effective in facilitating marketing material distribution as greens consumers are likely to react positively to social media advertisements that honestly portray grill element. From a business view point, green companies heavily invested in social media will demonstrate a higher purchase Intent as opposed to the competitors.


Carrete, L., Castaño, R., Felix, R., Centeno, E., & González, E. (2012). Green consumer behavior in an emerging economy: confusion, credibility, and compatibility. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 29(7), 470-481. doi:10.1108/07363761211274983

Moser, A. K. (2015). Thinking green, buying green? Drivers of pro-environmental purchasing behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 32(3), 167-175. doi:10.1108/jcm-10-2014-1179

Yudelson, J. (2008). CHALLENGES TO THE FIRM POSED BY GREEN MARKETING DYNAMICS. Marketing Green Building Services, 4(23), 210-225. doi:10.1016/b978-0-7506-8474-3.50018-1

Critical Analysis of a Case Study of Tourism and Destination Sustainability college essay help
Critical Analysis of a Case Study of Tourism and Destination Sustainability

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Critical Analysis of a Case Study of Tourism and Destination Sustainability

Identification of impacts

When evaluating tourism in Australia, it is evident this industry contributes significantly to the Australian community. According to the statistics, tourism generates an approximated $115 million on a daily basis. The industry poses different impacts in Australia.  Firstly, it avails employment opportunities for Australians as well as expatriates (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). As of 2013, the industry’s workforce increased by 11400 with a total of 543, 615 persons operating within this sector. Some of the jobs available include hospitality work, tour guide and recreational activity workers (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). One of the main disadvantages observed in employment creation is that tourism is usually seasonal. This is particularly dependent on the location as well as the tourism activities engaged within the region. It is also important to note that with tourism spreading through the rural areas of Australia there has been more job creation as well as contributing to the development in these locations.

In terms of build capital, tourism has led to the development of businesses such as travel agencies, restaurants, cafes, taverns, club and casinos as well as played an important role in The advancement of water and air transport Industries (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). A downside associated with this development is overcrowding which often results from the overstimulation of local businesses as well as employment provisioning. Locations experiencing overcrowding include Uluru with the launch of more services by flight operators in order to meet tourism demand from both local and foreign tourists.

Relating to natural capital, tourism has motivated local as well as residents to engage in environment conserving practices. This motivation is in form of Resident pride which has increasingly escalated with the expansion of tourism in Australia (Tourism and Transport Forum, 2017). However, it is imperative to Note that with some areas being heavily frequented by tourists, the environmental impact has been advised through the increase of littering. A location which is significantly affected is the Sydney Bondi Beach (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). Crime has also been on the rise. With a higher number of foreign tourists visiting varied parts of Australia, antisocial behavior has become rampant with activities such as illegal drug use as well as crime and alcohol abuse becoming more prevalent in tourist destination locations.

 Pertaining to culture, tourism in Australia has led to the popularization and growth of restaurants dealing in ethnic cuisine. An elaborate example is the Gold Coast where Korean restaurants are more popular (Tourism and Transport Forum, 2017). The upward mobility experienced by different restaurant chains is attributed to ethnic cuisine that allows foreign tourists to access familiar taste when they are far away from their country of origin. From a cultural perspective, tourism has driven the commercialization of traditional ceremonies, craft and sacred sites such as Climbing Uluru. This process has been considered from both a positive and negative angle. The income generated from cultural activities contribute to the overall revenue generated from tourism therefore boosting the Australian economy. However, it has also diminished cultural value as some of the locations are sacred to the indigenous people. This discourse to apply Australian tourism as the case study elaborate in evaluating the impact of this industry on social capitals and the development as well as implementation of policies effective in reinforcing more stability sustainability in this sector.

Analysis of the factors and processes that contribute to these impactsBuilt capital

The transport industry has undergone evolutionary change is attributed to tourism in Australia. This is a primary benefit is in form of build capital. Sydney receives millions of tourists on a yearly basis which has necessitated the government to invest extensively in the transport system as visitors require effective commute option to facilitate to different destinations (NSW Government, 2019). In order to achieve this, various technologies have been applied in developing systems such as the Opal cards available to both tourists and local residents. This particular mechanism introduced by the Minister of Transport, has facilitated easier travel for tourists as they are convenient as well as affordable (NSW Government, 2019).  Additionally, theories are able to reach the popular destination in all regions as well as across Sydney. With the increasing rate of tourism in Australia, the government seeks to introduce more cards in order to expand accessibility throughout the nation father facilitating convenience for tourists (The West Australian, 2018). In addition to this, both retailers in international and domestic Airport terminal has embraced this transport mechanism through encouraging purchase of opal cards to incoming tourists. According to interviewed tourists, opal cards are highly beneficial as they provide discounts such as the 30% of peak, and the three-week travel once the weekly target is met (NSW Government, 2019). This electronic ticketing system is one of the biggest in the world further streamlining Australian transport as the customers are unlimited in terms of travel and they can easily enjoy public transport without any fear of queuing.

Natural capital

On analyzing tourism and its contribution to the nature capital in Australia, this industry has had a minimal effect in motivating the government to prepare for climate change that is projected to have a significant and adverse impact on tourism (Morton, 2018). On a global scale, the tourism industry in Australia is the least prepared in crisis and disaster management specifically structured to manage climate change outcomes. According to a report compiled by an advocacy group, exponential growth observed in the tourism industry, the increased financial resources have not been directed into implementation of measures effective in protecting the natural resources considered as the big tourist attractions in Australia (Morton, 2018).  These features include the wildlife, the beaches, unspoiled natural wilderness, the Great Barrier Reef and National Park that house extensive rainforest. This natural ecosystems are under impending threat of climatic change. Based on the fact that the government is evidently under playing and ignoring this projected risk, tourism is then perceived as the contributing Factor to the endangerment of these features.

A recent event justifying the government’s trivialization on the importance of climate change management measures is ignoring recommendation from climate scientists (Morton, 2018). The conflict between the head of Queensland Association of marine Park tourism operators and Terry Hughes, a climate scientist on the need for research funding necessary in analyzing the increased water temperature harmful to the Reef, provides an Outlook on the non-compliance by the to focus on addressing the climatic change threat threatening to destroy the natural tourist destination locations (Morton, 2018). Tourism is the main causative factor contributing to government negligence or climatic change as more attention is focused on growing the industry while minimizing the risk post to the natural environment and its resources.  For instance, the general assumption is tourists can also engage in other activities such as exploring the country’s cultural heritage by visiting such Sydney Opera House.

Cultural capital

Tourism in Australia has different impact on the cultural capital. The interaction between international visitors and Australian host compounds this effect in areas such as visitor attractions, accommodation, places of trade and so on (Walker, 2018). Given the cultural diversification of the Australian community, it is important to consider that a significant portion of this population is non-English speaking therefore causing a cultural barrier to tourism (Tourism and Transport Forum, 2017). Australia receives two categories of visitors from different parts of the world this is inclusive of overseas Visitors end those from Asian countries which comprised of two-thirds of the entire tourist population. With such a diversified tourist populous, varied cultural backgrounds are likely to crash between Australian hosts and their tourists. According to research, the greater the cultural difference the higher the probability of conflict during tourism and counters as customers often demonstrate their varied expectations motivated by culture as per the service encounters the experience (Tourism and Transport Forum, 2017). For instance. Japanese tourists often expect the host to meet and greet the visitor in order to create a hospitable environment. Additionally, the Japanese culture favors formality with the staff expected to remain respectful and unobtrusive during the process of service delivery (Tourism Research Australia, 2019). An elaborate example of cultural misunderstandings that occur in Australia tourism is between Australians and Americans. Some American tourists often perceive Australian staff as possessing a disrespectful attitude. On the other hand Australian workers forward complaints Americans as condescending and lock the use of polite request such as thank you and please when requesting for a service.

In contributing to the growth of Australian tourism, art experiences derived from Australian culture and its diversity have supported local economies through engaging international visitors with the exquisite uniqueness of Australian culture (Australian Council for the Arts, 2019). According to Tourism Research Australia, art has a great potential in supporting and driving tourism based on the increased engagement it pauses on foreign tourists contributing extensively to the country’s success and well-being. This statement is supported by the statistics collected in 2017 indicating asia comprised of the largest population of tourists travelling to Australia for artwork and Museum visitation (Australian Council for the Arts, 2019). The most popular forms of Culture promoting international arts tourism include galleries and museums which are readily accessible and considered highly engaging for tourists.  According to the 2017 data, out of 10 international visitors, 3 tourists must visit either a gallery or a museum while they are on their tourist venture (Australian Council for the Arts, 2019). From this elaboration, it is evident culture also has a positive impact in driving tourism in the Australian setting.

Human Capital

The tourism industry is accountable for 8% of employment in Australia. The main challenge affecting human capital is the availability of Labor and skilled workers. For instance in the Austrade project conducted in October 2015 there was a deficiency of 150000 workers demonstrating a major gap in terms of skills required in the tourism industry and related businesses (Bailey & Smith, 2017). Currently, human capital is still deficient given the 38004 position in various tourism Enterprises and the industrial sector (Tourism Research Australia, 2019). Distance efficiencies are attributed to skill deficiency and retention difficulties as well as challenges in recruitment. Labor demand are often fulfilled through the commitment of the involved industry in collaboration with the government to establish skills and training development as well as lucrative remuneration arrangements, career paths, career promotion, conducive work environment as well as the availability of temporary and skilled entry level position (Fairley, 2018). These are some of the issues facing the Australian tourism industry necessitating the government to enact action items aimed at alleviating the skill and labor shortage which has created an impediment in the proliferation of this industry. It is elemental to note that this shortage has been mostly observed in regional locations particularly in the hospitality and tourism sectors (Tourism Research Australia, 2019). Also important to note that this shortage has been mostly observed in regional locations particularly in the hospitality and tourism sectors (Bailey & Smith, 2017). Some of the contributing factors motivating this deficiency include the lack of investments in skill and labor development across the country.  Within any given industry, the government is required to allocate necessary funds to facilitate vocational education and training of the Labor workforce in order to open up a fundamental pathway imparting skills and knowledge ability to the ready labor market (Fairley, 2018). This in turn contributes significantly to the availability of workers in both Leisure and business Enterprises within the tourism and further boosting the national economy and reducing the unemployment rate.

Financial capital

Since the global recession which commenced from 2008, various countries have experienced global economic difficulties. However, the tourism industry has been monumental in shielding Australia from this devastating impact. According to a government report tourism and travel comprise of the sectors holding the Australian community economy. This sector employs an estimated 6 million people contributing 3.1% GDP (Ministry of Resources, Energy and Tourism, 2019). Despite, the deteriorating Economic and political stability experienced globally, this sector has prevented Australia from experiencing the adverse effects of recession. It has further reinforced international relations between Australia and China with the latter being the greatest source of tourists (Travel Daily News, 2017). The current escalation of Australian tourism is attributed to the historic free trade agreement between China and Australia therefore becoming an approved destination for both Chinese citizens and tourists (Tourism Research Australia, 2019). In 2016, a million plus tourists were comprised of Chinese Nationals (Ministry of Resources, Energy and Tourism, 2019). This number is expected to experience exponential growth in the coming years as projected by the Australian Bureau of statistics.

The economic stability in Australia has significantly improved due to the capitalization of higher numbers of Chinese visitors (Tourism Research Australia, 2019). Within the employment sector, the level of competence demonstrated by the workforce in terms of availing satisfactory customer service has been enhanced through training programs aimed at gelling the cultural differences evidence between the two countries (Ministry of Resources, Energy and Tourism, 2019). The core objective associated with this activity is in the development of a lucrative Chinese oriented tourism sector. It has been achieved through extensive training of staff as well as encouraging tour operators to integrate measures that ensure visitors are well-received. The government has also contributed in reinforcing the international relationship between Australia and China on the overseas platform in order to ensure the tourism sector remains fortified and robust in supporting the economy.

Policy for Sustainability

Tourism industry in Australia demands for increased productivity, resilience and quality in order to match the other industrial sectors and gain a competitive advantage over other competitor countries (Ministry of Resources, Energy and Tourism, 2019).  Additionally, it is critical in opening up the tourism industry and the ability of its operators to avail services with the consumers’ money (Travel Daily News, 2017). In order to reinforce its competitive advantage, the government’s implementation of this policy will be empowering in terms of increasing innovation, quality and productivity. This policy will focus on three facets. Firstly, it will involve the provision of necessary resources aimed at driving marketing campaigns promoting tourism quality. This will serve as an effective model of raising consumer awareness as well as enabling them to understand the features of high quality accredited operators within the tourism industry. The second facets will focus on availing sufficient assistance to business operating within the tourism boost the profitability and productivity (Ministry of Resources, Energy and Tourism, 2019). This endeavor will be facilitated in conjunction with the Australian government Enterprise connect program (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). The businesses will be allowed access to tourism quality grants based on verified requests indicating the resource allocation will be directed towards improving the tourist services availed to both foreign and domestic tourists. The third component is the introduction of policy tools available to tourism operators in undertaking effective risk planning and business management within this industry (Travel Daily News, 2017). The three highlighted features will be measured in terms of policy performance evaluating increments in tourism sector in terms of its productivity conducted by the TRA. The additional measurements variable will be the increased number of businesses promoted by the Tourist quality model allowing for business accreditation by the TQCA.

In terms of sustainability this policy meet the demand of the Australian tourism industry and the domestic community in various forms. Firstly, delivery of grants to tourism operators,, and government administers, it creates a shared responsibility within the tourism industry driven to word stabilizing the economy while also ensuring the sustainability of tourism activities in different regions within the country. The uptake of tourism quality accreditation requirements by the tourism operators also demonstrates the willingness to work in collaboration with the government in order to support effective tourism administration as well as marketing throughout the Industries framework (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). Small businesses invested in tourism play a significant role in highlighting the key concerns at the grassroots such as environmental pollution and ineffective administration regulations affecting the overall operations (Walker, 2018). With the incorporation of an enterprise connect program, it will allow these SMEs to grow the entrepreneur capacities within the industry further availing the necessary resources required in creating a robust tourism industry devoid of the current challenges faced. Another component of this policy is the development of resilience within the industry through a committee dubbed Resilience working group that aims to integrate a climatic change adoption program engaging all businesses within the tourism industry (Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 2019). This perfect is critically important given the current state of crisis management in Australia pertaining to the protection of tourist destination from the impending endangerment posed by climatic change.

Research is elemental in any industry setting as it evolves pertinent information necessary in enhancing industrial processes, boosting productivity, and contributing immensely to innovation. This policy focusing on building an industry characterized by quality, productivity, and resilience is cognizant of research as a foundational body needed in determining measures necessary in encouraging businesses within the tourism industry to engage and implement services that provide high quality to both domestic and foreign tourists in Australia. In addressing culture capital, this policy meet the demand of tourist cultural needs through the facilitation of meaningful linkages between the Australian government cultural policy and the indigenous culture and Arts with the aim of preserving cultural heritage as a tourist attraction.


Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. (2019). Australian Chamber: 2019-2020 Pre-budget Submission (ABN 85 008 391 795). Retrieved from

Australian Council for the Arts. (2019). International Arts Tourism: Connecting Cultures. Retrieved from Creative Commons Attribution website:

Bailey, G., & Smith, D. (2017, August 7). Growth in tourism a shining light for Australia. Retrieved from

Fairley, G. (2018, September 27). Feeling the impact of cultural tourism beyond the majors. Retrieved from

Ministry of Resources, Energy and Tourism. (2019). Tourism 2020. Retrieved from Australian Government website:

Morton, A. (2018, March 13). Tourism is the Australian industry least prepared for climate change, report says. Retrieved from

NSW Government. (2019). Best ways for visitors to pay. Retrieved from

Tourism and Transport Forum. (2017). 2017-18 FEDERAL BUDGET SUBMISSION. Retrieved from

Tourism Research Australia. (2019). STATE OF THE INDUSTRY 2017–18. Retrieved from Creative Commons Attribution website:

Travel Daily News. (2017, September 26). Impact of tourism on the Australian economy in 2017 and looking forward to 2018. Retrieved from

Walker, P. (2018, May 3). Why the world loves Australia: what’s behind the 50% jump in visitor numbers? Retrieved from

The West Australian. (2018, October 23). Steps to cut the negative effects of travel. Retrieved from

Confucianism college application essay help
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Confucianism is a scheme of life propagated by Confucius in the 6th -5 th century BCE and replicated by the Chinese people for a duration exceeding two millennia. Despite having evolved over time, it still represents the source of ideals, matter of knowledge, and the social standard for Chinese (de Bary, et al 106). Moreover, its influence has spread to other nations such as Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

Despite being classified with the main historical religions, the stark difference between Confucianism and the rest is that it is not a systematized faith. However, it is extended to other nations in East Asia courtesy of the impact of Chinese literate philosophy and has caused a deep effect on political and divine life (de Bary, et al 107). Both the exercise and concept of Confucianism have gained root in the societal, educational, governmental, and family trends of East Asia nations.

Although the characterization of Chinese ancient life and culture as Confucian may be an exaggeration, Confucian moral dogmas have for more than two millennia functioned as the source of motivation, as well as the appeal court for human interface between Sinitic communities, people, and countries (de Bary, et al 107). This paper will seek to explain Confucian moral theory and practice, explain its five constant virtues, as well as analyze the concept of ren. Confucianism has a connection with the concept of ren in that the theory of ren portrays assumptions that are features of Confucian logical anthropology characterized by abundant golly or compassion towards other members of the society.

Five Constant Values of Confucianism

The collection of Wujing (“Five Classics”) represented a solid display of the maturity of the Confucianism custom. The addition of the pre-Confucian transcripts, the Shujing, the Shijing, as well as modern Qin Han content, for instance specific parts of the Liji, proposes that the principal curriculum on which Confucian education is based, be developed using an ecumenical spirit (de Bary, et al 110). The five classics can be translated into five visions: poetic, metaphysical, historical, political, and social.

Yijing (“Classic of Changes”) is expressed in the metaphysical vision and merges divinatory knack with numerological method and moral perspective. Based on this change ideology, the cosmos represents a tremendous revolution caused by the progressive collaboration of yin and yang, the two balancing, as well as contradictory life forces (qi) (de Bary, et al 110). The product of the progressive revolution is the world, which portrays both organismic vitality and harmony. Stimulated by the innovativeness and accord of the cosmos, the model individual must imitate that trend in targeting to recognize the highest value of “union of human and paradise” (tianrenheyi) through constant self-effort.

The Shujing (“Historical Classic”) that encompasses the political vision, presents monarchy in the context of moral footing for a benevolent government. The mythical Three Emperors (Shun, Yao, and Yu) all governed by virtue (de Bary, et al 111). Their wisdom, xiao (filial devotion), and work commitment supported them to develop a political philosophy on the grounds of faith and obligation.  Their model lives taught and inspired individuals to sign a treaty with them for the attainment of social harmony devoid of retribution or intimidation. Even in the dynastic trio (Shang, Xia, and Zhou), ethical authority, as articulated via ceremony, was adequate to retain political direction. The human range, from the undistinguishable crowds to the free-thinking individuals, the graciousness, and the sage-king, developed an animate harmony as an essential part of the great celestial revolution. Ethical influence is a core component of politics. The major role of government is not only to offer food and retain organization, but also to educate. The Shujing that entails the poetic vision, underlines the Confucian assessment of normal human emotions. A lot of verses vocalize feelings and opinions of individuals and societies from all stages of society articulated on a couple of cases. The overall tone is authentic as opposed to serious and suggestive as opposed to animated.

The Liji (“Poetry Classis”) encompasses the social visualization that portrays the society not as a combative scheme characterized by contractual associations, but as a trust community stressing on communication. Four major functional professions encompass the society: the artisan, the scholar, the soldier, and the merchant (de Bary, et al 111). In essence, they form the cooperation. As a causative collaboration member, every individual is indebted to identify other peoples’ existence and to perform for the good of the public. The king has a duty to act in a kingly manner and the duty of the father to act in a fatherly manner. Incase fathers or kings behave contrary to expectations, they should not anticipate their children or ministers to perform in adherence to set rituals. It is in this regard that the Liji composed a chapter with the title “Great Learning” that underscores, “From heaven’s son to the ordinary person, all must deem self-refinement as the basis” (de Bary, et al 111).

The Chunqiu (“Spring and Autumn”) that encompasses the historical vision stresses the implication of shared recollection for mutual self-identification. The Confucian ideology is defined by a critical feature known as historical realization (de Bary, et al 112). Confucius defined himself as a relic lover and a conveyer of its ideals. In this regard, he openly declared that a sense of antiquity is wanted and essential for self-awareness. The stressing on the significance of history by Confucius was some sort of reassumption of the primeval Sinitic knowledge that resuscitating the ancient is the best mode of obtaining the new. Though Chunqiu may not have been written by Confucius, it is highly probable that he applied ethical ruling to political occurrences in China allowed in the 8th to the 5th century BCE era. In that unparalleled process he took up a superhuman part in assessing politics by allocating final historical admiration and culpability to the most dominant and prominent political players of the era. The exercise encouraged the creative style of the magnificent historian Sima Qian, yet it was also extensively used by other drafting hereditary histories in majestic China.

The Concept of Ren

The theory of ren portrays assumptions that are features of Confucian logical anthropology. Historically, Confucianists have perceived every individual not as an ethically independent person, but rather a social being whose distinctiveness emanates from his interface with and behavior within the extensive human community (de Bary, et al 116). A demonstration of ren by any individual should inculcate the model of an ideal human being and inspires others to endeavor to attain the same. Undoubtedly, the phrase is a direct translation of the term human being (ren).

The notion of ren has been construed in various ways, some of them conveyed somewhat in English terminologies for instance “benevolence,” “goodness,” as well as “love.” All these versions, nonetheless, entail two notions: all human beings have the ability to achieve ren, and ren is exhibited when a virtuous individual offers other individuals humanly treatment (de Bary, et al 116).  Confucians linked the humane person with the junzi, or refined gentleman, whose prototypical conduct differentiates them from the trivial individual (xiaoren). It is safe to mention that with the Confucian global outlook, ren is ren: exemplifying the quality of humaneness calls for one to become a morally established human being.

Ren gained theoretical connotation as a result of Confucious (551-479 BCE), a retired bureaucrat turned teacher tutoring young scholars enthusiastic of landing government jobs. Initially, Confucious belonged to the class of shi or nobleman whose status once ranked same as the medieval European knight (de Bary, et al 117). Formerly, the term ren translated to the handsomeness and demeanor of a young honorable soldier until Confucius converted it to mean the honorableness of the junzi who inspires others towards moral action by depicting emulatable actions for instance excellence (de) . Confucious believed that becoming that gentleman was not a matter of ranking highly in the society, having good looks, or being an articulate speaker. On the contrary, it required that an individual personified golly in their interactions with others.

Other Confucian philosophers also had their explanations of ren. For instance, the pioneering theorist Mencius (371-289 BCE), whose approval and impact earned him the title “second sage” of Confucian custom, offered the most persuasive construal (de Bary, et al 117). Mencius believes that ren’s sprout (duan or “beginning”) is characterized by an impulsive emotion of empathy and sympathy inside the heart-and-mind (xin) of humans, which acts as the center of both reasoning and sentimental roles.

Among the main creations of ren’s critique emanated from Mozi (470-391 BCE), an idealist and quasi-effective intellectual who declined what he perceived as the implied pyramid in ren and instead chose “worldwide love” (jianai) (de Bary, et al 118). Regardless of the name’s meaning, jianai did not encompass the transmission of abundant golly or compassion towards everybody. It instead encompassed a bluntly real-world tactic to other human beings by subjecting them to unbiased treatment.


Confucianism is a global outlook, a social moral, an academic custom, a political philosophy, as well as a life system. Confucianism may be comprehended as an all-rounded thought process and lifestyle that encompasses respect to ancestors and a deep spirituality aligned to humans. People living in East Asians may recognize themselves to be Muslims, Shintoists, Christians, Daoists, or Buddhists, nonetheless, they never stop to be Confucians. The five constant values entail the Wujing, the Yijing, the Shujing, the Liji, and the Chunqiu. Confucianism has a connection with the concept of ren in that the theory of ren portrays assumptions that are features of Confucian logical anthropology. Whereas philosophers such as Confucious and Mencius believe that Confucianism required that an individual personified golly in their interactions with others based on societal hierarchy, critics such as Mozi believed in spreading abundant goodness and compassion towards everybody devoid of unbiased treatment.

Works Cited

de Bary, W.T. et al. Sources of Chinese Tradition, Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600. Columbia University Press, 1999.

Leadership and Professional Image essay help site:edu
Leadership and Professional Image

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Leadership and Professional Image

ProposalIdentify the Problem or Issue

            The problem pertains to maintaining a low incidence rate of pressure ulcers and associated infections within the clinical setting.

Explanation of the Issue

      Pressure ulcers are among the leading causes of infection in the healthcare setting, primarily in the long-term care unit. The organization has various policies and guidelines designed to maintain skin integrity and prevent the development of pressure ulcers. The current prevention care bundle outlines vital concepts and procedures that nurses and care providers need to follow to reduce the incidence of bedsores. This care bundle comprises of repositioning, pressure relief, bed elevation, and incontinence care. However, this approach is not comprehensive enough, making it a challenge to reduce the incidence rate of bedsores to improve the overall healthcare quality.


      Failure to adhere to the pressure ulcer prevention care bundle is the primary factor contributing to increased incidence within the facility. The student’s research focused on incorporating evidence-based practice to develop a more sustainable and comprehensive care bundle. To this extent, the investigation was conducted using previous studies and healthcare reports from other countries. Pressure ulcers have garnered significant attention as they compromise the facility’s quality of care and the patient’s standards of living.


      Over the past year, the long-term care facility has experienced a relative increase in the number of pressure ulcer cases. The rise in these cases is problematic as it highlights an underlying issue either in complying with the regulations or in the care bundle. As a nurse, it is obligatory to represent the patients’ needs and to account for  meeting them. The nurse should create an environment that effectively caters to the physical, emotional, spiritual, and social health of the patient. Pressure ulcers are detrimental as it increases the length of patient stay and leaves patients susceptible to developing infections. Additionally, they increase treatment costs and the hospital’s readmission rates. If the patient contracts a drug-resistant infection, the consequences could be fatal. Mervis and Phillips (2019) note that a comprehensive care bundle should consist of diverse components targeting the provision of holistic care. The practices should aim to determine the patient’s susceptibility to pressure ulcers and incorporating effective measures to maintain skin integrity. From an observational perspective, many nurses often overlook specific steps of the care bundle when interacting with patients. For example, the student observed one patient who was not repositioned or turned for more than six hours. The current policy dictates the frequency of turning and repositioning every two hours.

Analysis of the State of the Situation

      According to Boyko, Longaker, and Yang (2018), pressure ulcers are among the leading causes of infection within the long-term care unit. Patients spend most of their time in a fixed position, often depending on nurses for their most uncomplicated basic needs. To maintain sustainable and high-quality care facilities, the organization has enforced specific policies along with allocating critical resources. For one, nurses receive training on how to apply the care bundle. The facility has also installed proper equipment for patient mobility, including rails, to aid in their movements around their rooms. More recently, bedrails were eliminated due to their restrictive nature. Mervis and Phillips (2019) note that bedrails limit a patient’s mobility, making them more dependent on the care provider. When meeting with the patient, the nurse should carefully observe the patient’s skin every day to identify potential sites of infection and their vulnerability. Another critical factor to consider is the length of patient stay. Patients who may have stayed longer have a higher probability of developing pressure ulcers and consequential infection.

Contributing factors

      A primary contributing factor to the increased incidence of pressure ulcers in the facility is the ineffectiveness of the current care bundle. While this procedural approach provides a suitable guideline for the management of patient care, several aspects have been overlooked. For example, the student identified that the nurses did not conduct a nutritional assessment of each patient. Patients were also turned after every six hours, and they could exert significant pressure on vulnerable skin. Another contributing factor was that the nurses were not willing to follow the care bundle. The student observed that, on more than one occasion, the nurses ignored various steps, including skin assessment and repositioning. Many of them considered turning the patient to be sufficient in relieving pressure. They also accounted for the movement of the patient to the washroom as part of repositioning.

Proposed Solution

      The highlighted analysis presents various problems within the workforce and the current prevention protocol. The proposed solution targets to address both issues while reducing the incidence of pressure ulcers. The student would recommend an amendment of the existing prevention care bundle to include skin integrity evaluation, nutritional assessment, and training for nurses. Integrating these factors would help in creating a holistic and comprehensive bundle that would ultimately improve the patients’ standards of living within the clinical setting.

Justification of the Proposed Solution

 As noted, the current prevention protocol is not as effective in mitigating the prevalence of pressure ulcers. The organization, therefore, needs to incorporate new measures to improve the provision of care. The proposed new care bundle aims to integrate new steps into the existing practice with the anticipation of creating a more holistic approach. Upon entry into the facility, the nurses will inspect the patient’s skin integrity to determine their risk of developing pressure ulcers. This assessment will also focus on other contributing factors, including the patient’s nutrition, liquid intake, and catheter use. 

 The frequency of turning and repositioning the patient should also be amended. Currently, patients are turned after every six hours or if they request the nurse. The new protocol will require repositioning after every three hours. Nurses will also be required to make hourly rounding to monitor patients and ensure that they have all their needs. Boyko, Longaker, and Yang (2018) also indicate that hourly rounding has been effective in reducing fall prevalence in facilities when patients try to reposition themselves or to use lavatory services.

      In terms of nutritional assessment, medical professionals will require understanding the patient’s diet and how it could impact their mobility. They also need to document each aspect about the patient to guarantee that other nurses in the facility can easily access patient information. Catheter use also limits patient mobility since many patients feel discomfort when they try to turn or reposition themselves. A clear comprehension of these facts can help the nurse to develop a suitable treatment plan for the patient. In line with these aspects, nurses should receive training every quarter. This training should comprise the activities that they should perform and how to provide adequate care to long-term care patients. It will also enable them to learn and incorporate new research and evidence-based practice in the provision of care.

Recommended Resources

      Several resources could prove useful in implementing this solution. The first resource is the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The organization outlines specific guidelines and tools that healthcare providers can use to assess patients and provide efficient care for the prevention of pressure ulcers. The other resource would be evidence-based practice. There are several studies conducted over the years relating to pressure ulcer prevention. Going through peer-reviewed studies could prove insightful in developing a protocol that best suits the organization’s needs. Finally, the organization must establish a monitoring and evaluation committee charged with the responsibility of upholding the ethics and principles of care provision in the facility.

      Financially, the new protocol would help to reduce healthcare costs by more than $20,000 per patient. According to Mervis and Phillips (2019), treatment for each pressure ulcer could cost from approximately $20,000 to $151,700 per patient. As such, the new protocol could help in reducing these costs significantly.


 The implementation of the new protocol should take approximately three to five months. The first two weeks will be allocated to the evaluation of resources and determining the best way forward. The following two weeks will be used to train nurses on the new protocol. Nurses should be able to execute each task in the new protocol independently.  The management should also ensure that the training does not interfere with daily activities. To this extent, the nurses will be trained in their free time, and the practice should not take more than an hour every day. The monitoring and evaluation team will collect data on the incidence of pressure ulcers and the application of the new protocol every month. This data will be useful in determining if the new care bundle is active. 


      The stakeholders involved in this project include the nurses, organizational leaders, primary physicians, patients, and the educator. The nurses have a central role in implementing the recommended protocol, and as such, their insight is critical in the success of the project. Organizational leaders are responsible for the allocation of resources and overseeing that the personnel have a suitable working environment. It is also essential to involve the primary physicians and other medical staff as they work closely with nurses. As such, training them would help to create synchrony in operations. The educator will be responsible for overseeing how the personnel are taught and identifying if any adjustments should be made to the curriculum.

Engagement of Stakeholders

      For the new protocol to be successful, it is vital that all stakeholders feel actively involved and invested in the final results. Therefore, the student will work to engage them before, during, and after the implementation of the protocol. Before its implementation, the student will communicate with the nurses to highlight how this care bundle would be beneficial to them. Essential aspects to point out include reducing the nurses’ workload and giving them more time to focus on their career and personal development. For the management, the best way to engage them will be to indicate the cost benefits of the protocol. During the implementation process, the student will use statistics and data to show the success or failure of the new protocol. The stakeholders will also be encouraged to actively participate in developing suitable solutions or making adjustments for the success of the project.

Working with Stakeholders 

      The effectiveness of the new care bundle will be dependent on the medical personnel. As such, a multidisciplinary approach will be encouraged in implementing the new strategy. The organizational managers will work with the student to determine the resources required for the project and their acquisition. They will also allocate time for training. The student will also work with the trainer to highlight the most essential aspects and to determine how they will be presented to the nurses. In developing the curriculum, the student will seek the input of all involved personnel to identify areas of concern and how to address them. The nurses will also work closely with the student to acquire feedback on the efficiency of the new protocol and the challenges that they might encounter in their daily activities.


 Implementing the new protocol will begin by an assessment of the existing research and resources by a team of the involved stakeholders. This evaluation will highlight essential aspects to include in the training and how the training will be conducted. Afterward, personnel will undergo the necessary tutoring within two weeks. This will also include the new protocol changes and the evolving role of the nurse. The student will focus on collecting data and feedback regarding the training sessions and how future teachings should be conducted. In its function, the management will focus on availing resources and creating a functional duty roster that guarantees free time for further education. After implementation, the student will monitor compliance with the new policies and areas where nurses might be encountering potential challenges. The student will then work with the nurse leader to determine the most effective solutions and how they can be incorporated in practice.


As a scientist, the role of the nurse is to collect, analyze, and interpret data for presentation. The student collected data on the incidence of pressure ulcers in the facility and explained its implications on the provision of care. This also involved an assessment of existing research on pressure ulcers and using suitable resources to guide the development of the new protocol for the organization.


 The primary role of the detective is investigation. The student executed this role by observing how nurses carried out their responsibilities in the long-term care facility and identifying potential failures. Through this approach, the student noted how the current protocol failed in achieving its intended goal and how nurses overlooked certain aspects. The detective also interacted with nurses and the organizational leaders to determine how potential changes can be incorporated. This provided insight into the development of the new protocol. 

Manager of the Healing Environment

      Nurses have an integral responsibility of providing high-quality and holistic care to their patients. The student aimed to fulfill this role by overseeing how procedures and policies are followed within the organization and factors that might inhibit their incorporation. The nurse also participated in training to ensure that the personnel was aware of their responsibilities and how to execute their roles effectively.


Boyko, T. V., Longaker, M. T., & Yang, G. P. (2018). Review of the current management of pressure ulcers. Advances in wound care, 7(2), 57-67.

Mervis, J. S., & Phillips, T. J. (2019). Pressure ulcers: prevention and management. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Supply Chain Risk Management essay help site:edu
Supply Chain Risk Management

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Table of Content


Describing SCRM…………………………………………………3

Possible Risks in Supply Chain…………………………………..4

Ways of Applying SCRM………………………………………..6

The Four-Step Process……………………………………………6

Other Approaches………………………………………………..8



Supply Chain Risk Management


Companies that run an extensive supply chain need to adopt a supply chain risk management (SCRM) approach that is more than a helpful addition to the firm. The chief purpose of SCRM is to prevent constraints and to offer loss mitigation if risks interfere with the supply chain practices. Business leaders and the teams in charge of the supply chain should first understand the meaning of SCRM and its critical facets before proceeding to understand the risks that could affect operations. Companies should be conversant with the various approaches of managing supply chain risks such as applying a four-phased approach that offers guidance on how to mitigate threats, using the time to recover (TTR) technique, and applying the potential risk treatments. The designs require considerable resources to implement, which makes it necessary to choose the ones the company can execute without much difficulty. Implementing the risk mitigation approaches makes it possible for the company to achieve efficiency in the supply chain process and allows the firm to enjoy a competitive advantage. 

Describing SCRM

SCRM entails implementing strategies to handle both exceptional and everyday risks along the supply chain, depending on continuous risk evaluation to lower vulnerability and encourage continuity. SCRM applies risk management processes and tools and could bring together other partners or could happen at the company level (Ho, 2015). SCRM tries to lower vulnerabilities in the supply chain through a coordinated, holistic approach while including all stakeholders of the supply chain to identify and analyze the risks of weak areas within the supply chain (Ho, 2015). Furthermore, more organizations realize than SCRM forms a strategic competitive advantage and encourages a lively supply chain that functions effectively than ever before (Ho, 2015). The risk management approaches permit the firm to outperform the competitors and improve market share when a common threat surfaces. It is also possible to build a relationship and trust and to lower uncertainty with the firm’s prospects. 

SCRM benefits the supply chain and the business in several considerable ways. The approach ensures deliveries and production function well and prevents profit losses by identifying risks early enough. The method offers a fast ability to react to unexpected scenarios and events and promotes the company’s image (Shahbaz et al., 2017). Applying SCRM provides the chance to protect the corporation’s image, and maintains and boosts buyers’ satisfaction. More fundamentally, SCRM offers essential technology that permits live updates and helps to achieve and surpass rules and regulations regarding safety standards (Shahbaz et al., 2017). SCRM has other benefits that should encourage corporations to employ the strategy, such as maintaining business activities and stimulation of more supply chain best operations (Shahbaz et al., 2017). The advantages of applying SCRM should encourage corporations to use the approach that is increasingly becoming applicable. 

Possible Risks in Supply Chain

Managing or running a supply chain exposes a company to several risks associated with the process. Corporations need to change their ways of managing risks because considering that change is inevitable and risks transform and become more prevalent as times vary (Davarzani et al., 2016). Risks in a supply chain can exist anywhere, which makes it almost unavoidable and inevitable to deal with threats. Inadequate handling of hazards and risks in the supply chain could diminish the brand value, and cause so much loss to the company (Davarzani et al., 2016). Shippers can mitigate the possibility of occurrence and lower their effects. Furthermore, shippers can minimize the likelihood of existence and lower disruptions considerably (Davarzani et al., 2016). Corporations should watch out for risks that could occur due to political and government alterations because significant instability forms could significantly influence global trade. 

Identifying and dealing with the risks is of significant importance in managing the issues that could interfere with the supply chain. The government, for example, may choose to increase taxation for exported or imported commodities as it happens now between the U.S. and China, where the trade war is taking a heavy toll on companies (Jain & Saraswat, 2019; Kashyap & Bothra, 2019). Another factor that could cause considerable harm to the supply chain is economic instability. The declaration of the bankruptcy of Hanjin Shipping, which is the seventh-largest logistics firms in South Korea, for example, prompted a significant drop in international supply chain shipping capacity. Experts estimate that the economic disruption caused the ability to drop by 3%, and nearly $14 billion in cargo was not able to dock (Quang & Hara, 2017). Adverse weather patterns and events present one of the most severe risks to ocean and road freight in the world. Floods and tropical storms can hinder transportation on land and water, which sometimes force transporters to identify and follow alternative routes. Natural and human-made catastrophes may also affect the supply chain, which requires the company to embrace suitable SCRM approaches (Davarzani et al., 2016). Some of the disasters that could disrupt the supply chain include earthquakes, violence, and even disease outbreak, such as the case of the Coronavirus in China. It is also essential to consider other possible risks such as cyber-attacks, data quality and integrity, and supplier inconsistency, among other factors (Davarzani et al., 2016). Identifying and addressing the issues using the appropriate methods allows for secure handling of the problems, and increases the possibilities of achieving successful supply chain practices. 

Ways of Applying SCRM

The Four-Step Process

Corporations need to consider suitable ways of carrying out SCRM to prevent losses that could harm the company’s bottom line. Companies can utilize a combination of structured digital and problem-solving tools to appropriately handle the high-risk areas through four significant steps. The initial phase is to recognize and document the risks (Marija et al., 2015). The team in charge of the process can begin by mapping out and assessing the value chains of all leading products. The operators, in this case, should proceed to evaluate each aspect of the supply chain such as plants, transport routes, warehouses, and suppliers to understand the risks that could affect their functionality (Marija et al., 2015). The officers should proceed to enter the risks on a register and track them keenly daily. The second step would be to formulate a supply-chain risk management structure to achieve a scenario where each risk in the record is evaluated depending on three aspects to develop an integrated risk-management structure (Marija et al., 2015). The three dimensions include the possibility of the risks materializing, the company’s preparedness to handle specific risks, and effects on the company if the uncertainties materialize (Marija et al., 2015). The SRM team, in this case, should design and apply a consistent scoring approach to evaluate all risks to allow for aggregation and prioritizing threats to recognize the value-chain features and high-risk products with the highest failure possibility. 

Addressing the third and fourth aspects of SCRM is equally essential in addressing the risks that could affect the process. Monitoring the risks is necessary, and once the group establishes a risk-management approach, it is vital to proceed with the persistent monitoring of all features. The growth of technology offers companies an excellent opportunity to track the leading indicators of risk (Olveora et al., 2018). Practical monitoring approaches are customized to meet the company’s needs. Hence, while one company could track disruptions in the manufacturing lines to identify quality problems, another may keep update with real-time weather reports to know how climatic conditions could disrupt its activities. It is essential, nevertheless, to have a warning system that offers timely warnings and to follow up significant risks to widen the chances of evading or limiting the effects from their emergence (Olveora et al., 2018). The fourth step would be to enforce proper governance and perform a regular review to eradicate any instance of the recurrence. The intervening team, in this case, can establish a robust governance structure to regularly evaluate the supply chain risks and define intervention processes, advancing the resilience and responsiveness of the supply chain (Olveora et al., 2018). Companies should know that an appropriate supply-chain risk management leadership structure is a functional risk board with personnel representing all aspects of the supply chain. The risk board may get more support from a fundamental risk management body, staffed with experts to offer additional guidance on recognizing and evading risks (Olveora et al., 2018). The board should convene quite often to assess the leading chances in the supply chain and suggest mitigating strategies. The participants will then take over the implementation of intervening actions for their respective operational areas (Olveora et al., 2018). Additionally, the board in many organizations shall make recommendations to advance the resilience and agility of the supply chain, ranging from restructuring the supply chain, working closely with suppliers to improve their practices, and identifying new ways of regulating lead times. The team in charge of implementing the four-phased approach should consider all facets keenly to avoid hiccups that could tamper with proper application and magnify risks.

Other Approaches

Companies can further deal with the risks that may affect the supply chain process by applying different approaches that are equally effective. A suitable method is a time to recover (TTR) that helps a company to understand the time it requires a corporation to restore all of its activities and output following a significant disruption of the supply chain. The leaders should strive to improve the efficiency of the people required for production as well as focus on replenishing the inventory. The document by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (2019) informs that the critical feature of TTR that often receives little attention or is underestimated is the machinery and equipment utilized on the manufacturing plant. It is essential to focus on this area because replacing some equipment could have lead-times that extend more than a year. The risk management team should put so much effort into recovering as fast as possible following a disruption to avoid further harming operations. 

Companies can deal with the risks associated with embracing the potential risk treatment technique that is applicable in many organizations. Once the identification and the assessment processes are through, it may be essential to consider four critical aspects that serve crucial roles in mitigating further risks (Yu et al., 2015). The company may embrace risk avoidance approaches, which entail not engaging in activities that could worsen the risks. The company, for example, may avoid interacting or working with suppliers who are not reliable, or who offer substandard goods as a way of avoiding the possible risks associated with working with such people (Yu et al., 2015). The company may also practice risk avoidance by avoiding some forms of transportation if they present considerable risks. The firm, for example, may avoid transporting goods by road during a flood or by airplane when the weather is not favorable. 

Applying the potential threat treatment approach requires companies to consider other essential components that would help to evade supply chain risks. Using risk reduction may serve vital functions in lowering the severity of the loss or the probability of the damage from emerging (Yu et al., 2015). The organization, for example, may install water sprinklers inside the warehouse to minimize the risk of loss by fire. Growth in technology offers the chance to employ suitable software to reduce risks and helps to break away from the traditional approaches that were less reliable and ineffective (Yu et al., 2015). The company may also mitigate threats by embracing risk-sharing strategies, which entail sharing with other groups or parties the effects of loss from risk. Risk-sharing, also called risk transfer, may include sharing loss between the supplier and the company in case of any breakages or damage during transportation (Yu et al., 2015). Organizations can also mitigate supply chain risks by practicing risk retention, where the company accepts the benefit of gain or loss from a recent risk (Yu et al., 2015). Companies that use the strategy may acquire insurance for some of the valuable assets that facilitate supply chain processes such as trucks, ships, buildings, airplanes, and other costly infrastructure. The body in charge of SCRM should be keen while implementing the potential threat treatment technique to incorporate all essential aspects. 


The study illustrates how embracing proper SCRM approaches help to identify and address some of the s risks that could affect the supply chain process. Companies, while conducting their supply chain operations, should remember that risks can occur from any area, thereby calling for vigilance and preparedness. The SCM leaders should know how political factors, economic downturns, severe weather events, catastrophes, cyber attacks, data quality and integrity, and supplier inconsistency could affect the process. Corporations that desire to improve their SCRM should consider employing a four-phased framework that entails identifying and documenting the risks, creating a supply-chain risk management structure, monitoring the risks, and instituting governance and regular reviews. Companies may also apply the TTR strategy that calls for quick recovery after a significant disruption in the supply chain. Correctly using SCRM is likely to yield many benefits to the company, including gaining the ability to respond to unforeseen scenarios, protecting the company’s image, gaining new insight, and achieving competitive advantage. Implementers should be cautious while applying the various techniques to avoid errors that could prevent the realization of the desired objectives in mitigating risks. 


Davarzani, H., Farahani, R. Z., & Rahmandad, H. (2016). Understanding econo-political risks: impact of sanctions on an automotive supply chain. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 35(11), 1567- 1591.

Ho, W. (2015). Supply chain risk management: A literature review. International Journal of Production Research, 53(16), doi: 10.1080/00207543.2015.1030467

Jain, M., & Saraswat, S. (2019). U.S.-China trade war: Chinese perspective. Management and Economics Research Journal, 5(4), 1-8.

Kashyap, U., & Bothra, N. (2019). Sino-U.S. trade and trade war. Management and Economics Research Journal, 5(1), 1-12.

Marija, M., Ivan, B., & Dusan, R. (2015). Supply chain risk management using software tool historical perspective of risk management. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 12(4), 167-182.

National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2019). Best practices in cyber supply chain risk management. Washington, D.C.: Cisco.

Olveora, U., Espindola, L., & Marins, F. (2018). Analysis of supply chain risk management researchers. Gestao Producao, 25(4), 671-695.

Quang, H., & Hara, Y. (2017). Risks and performance in supply chain: The push effect. International Journal of Production Research, 56(4), 1369-1388.

Shahbaz, M., et al., (2017). What is supply chain risk management? A review. Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, 23(9, 9233-9238.

Yu, Y., Xiong, W., & Cao, Y. (2015). A conceptual model of Supply Chain Risk Mitigation: The role of supply chain integration and organizational risk propensity. Journal of Coastal Research, 73, 95-98.

Professional Development Program Proposal a level english language essay help
Professional Development Program Proposal

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Professional Development Program Proposal

Amazon is already doing well in the global market but stands a chance of generating more revenue by improving on some areas that experience considerable constraints. The company adopts a customer-centered culture as a way of providing its customers with what they require and showing appreciation but still the firm cannot achieve all its aspirations because the level of innovation is not very much progressive, worker dissatisfaction, and the ever-transforming customer wants. Finding suitable solutions to the problems may entail applying the key concepts of EI, forming effective teams, and developing proper reward systems.

Amazon’s management should consider applying motivation as one of the influential building blocks of emotional intelligence (EI) to improve employee performance and job satisfaction. The aspect requires organizational leaders to be self motivated individuals who work relentlessly towards attaining their goals and to exhibit high standards for the nature of their work (Gayathri & Meenakshi, 2013). The leaders can improve their motivation by reevaluating why they are doing their job, particularly at the managerial position. The leaders should determine how they are motivated to lead because the personal assessment can help them see their likelihood to motivate others while dispensing leadership roles. The managers at Amazon can improve their applicability of motivation by being hopeful and finding something positive. Gayathri and Meenakshi (2013) inform that a motivated leader is optimistic, no matter what issues they experience. The leaders should be in such a way that they identify something good about every failure or challenge because even such situations may offer insight that cause long-term effects through proper application and adjustment. Applying motivation will further enhance employee performance and job satisfaction the approach mainly permits the management to realize the firm’s goals (Robescu & Lancu, 2016). Motivated workers can work towards increasing productivity, which allows the company to attain higher levels of output (Gayathri & Meenakshi, 2013). Employees put their best effort in their duties and obligations through motivation, and become gain more satisfaction, which is essential in leading towards a positive growth (Gayathri & Meenakshi, 2013). Additionally, motivation improves employee efficiency by forming a balance between their ability to perform the tasks and the readiness and willingness to carry out the duties. The benefits that come with motivation should encourage the leaders at Amazon to apply the crucial element of EI to overcome the issues that hinder excellent outcome.

The Maslow hierarchy of needs offers a suitable structure for Amazon leaders on how to motivate employees. The approach requires the leadership to first consider facilitating how the workers achieve their physiological needs such as food, shelter, and clothing (Cianci & Gambrel, 2003). The leaders can achieve this level by paying the workers well to enable them acquire these basic requirements. The approach then requires the leader to consider meeting the workers’ safety needs by enforcing mechanisms that make them feel secure and protected against threats or any harm (Cianci & Gambrel, 2003). The organizational leaders in this case employ watchful security personnel as well as install CCTV cameras to monitor activities and possibly any threats. The leaders can then transit towards achieving the workers’ love needs by making them feel part of the institution regardless of their differences. The managers at this level can promote diversity and make everyone feel equal despite their dissimilar cultures, religions, sex, and ideologies (Cianci & Gambrel, 2003). The leaders can also restructure the code of conduct by emphasizing on loving each other. The team in charge of motivation should afterwards strive towards meeting the employees’ esteem needs by building their status and ego. It may be essential to appreciate and recognize workers at this stage, as well as give them the chance to contribute towards decision-making. The last step while applying Maslow hierarchy of needs is to help workers attain their self-actualization desires by offering them the chance to lead and offer guidance, and by offering them the chance to accomplish everything that they can do (Cianci & Gambrel, 2003). Applying the motivational theory will influence the organizational members to work hard to overcome the issues that impede growth.

EI and its core concepts allow individuals to identify their own emotions and those of other people, and to differentiate between various feelings and label them correctly, thereby enhancing the decision-making efficacy of the management body. The management is likely to make sound decisions when they practice self-awareness such that they recognize their emotions and how they influence personal thoughts and behavior. Self-awareness further allows the management to understand their strengths and weaknesses, which is helpful when pronouncing judgment. Self-regulation is one of the major concepts in EI that may enhance decision-making at the company. Self-regulation helps to restrain leaders from making judgments that could harm others, and prevents managers from making emotional or rushed decisions, and forbids causing any form of stereotype (Yuksekbilgili et al. 2015). Leaders who practice self-regulation understand their values, hold their selves accountable, and are calm, which immensely impact on how they make decisions (Yuksekbilgili et al. 2015).  Self-motivated leaders as noted in the previous section make good decisions because they are consistent toward attaining organizational objectives, and value quality. Empathy is another crucial concept in EI that can improve efficacy in decision-making because the leaders consider how the judgment could affect others. Empathetic leaders respond to the employees’ feelings while making decisions, thus increasing the chances of making sound proclamations (Yuksekbilgili et al. 2015). Otherwise, inadequate application of the main concepts of EI could affect the efficacy in making decisions at Amazon, and the problems could become unbearable.

Amazon could overcome the issues it faces by choosing and working with effective teams that know how to drive change and achieve the goals and objectives. The recruiters and the HRM leaders should select workers who communicate well with each other in the way they share their opinions, ideas, and thoughts (Ahiauzu et al., 2010). The team members should focus on the main objectives and the outcomes rather than paying attention to the amount of work assigned to them. Other crucial factors to consider when selecting effective teams are their ability to support each other, and diversity (Ahiauzu et al., 2010). Assigning qualified leaders who are honest and give clear direction further helps to create team dynamics that will help the company overcome its tribulations.

A suitable reward system for Amazon would be to increase the employees’ wages and remuneration because the approach is one of the most effective ways of increasing satisfaction and performance. Offering adequate payment is essential in building team collaboration. The workers are likely to serve as a team that works towards meeting the business goals when they receive payment and bonuses that allow them meet their needs (Assari et al., 2019). The leaders should understand that whereas intrinsic motivation may push some workers to perform their duties well, extrinsic motivation such as offering high remuneration and bonuses acts as the major drive for many employees who serve in anticipation for something in return (Assari et al., 2019). Externally motivating the workers by offering enough payment and bonuses further builds a high level of output, which is essential for Amazon. The team while offering high payment to employees should consider some of the demerits that come with such an approach of motivation such as high possibility of becoming reluctant when the workers feel they generate enough money from their payment (Assari et al., 2019). The organization is also likely to experience financial hurdles without proper planning or when the payment demands surpasses the company’s ability to sustain. A suitable way to implement the high remuneration package would be to formulate a program that brings together the HRM and financial departments to find a suitable way of structuring the motivational approach.

Amazon can deal with low innovation levels and employee dissatisfaction by employing the concepts of EI that require leaders to consider how they perform their duties. The study recognizes the importance of motivating employees to improve performance and satisfaction. The Amazon leaders can apply the Maslow hierarchy of needs model that informs on how to meet the employees’ wants starting from the most basic ones. Leaders while seeking to improve their decision-making approach should practice self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, and empathy that are the main concepts of EI. The company may also overcome the constraints it faces by selecting and working with effective teams, and by embracing a reward system that encourages all workers to put more effort.


Ahiauzu, A., et al. (2010). Marketing in governance: Emotional intelligence leadership for effective corporate governance. Corporate Governance, 10(2), 150-162.

Assari, M., Desa, N., & Subramaniam, L. (2019). Influence of salary, promotion, and recognition toward work motivation among government trade agency employees. International Journal of Business and Management, 14(4), 48-52.

Cianci, R., & Gambrel, A. (2003). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Does it apply in a collectivist culture. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 8(2), 143-161.

Gayathri, N., & Meenakshi, K. (2013). A literature review of emotional intelligence. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Intervention, 2(3), 42-51.

Robescu, O., & Lancu, A. (2016). The effects of motivation on employees performance in organizations. Valahian Journal of Economic Studies, doi: 10.1515/vjes-2016-0006

Yuksekbilgili, Z., Akduman, G., & Hatipoglu, Z. (2015). A research about emotional intelligence on generations. International Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Research and Review, 3(4), 124-133.

Slide Notes on Ethical and Policy Factors of Care Coordination college application essay help
Slide Notes on Ethical and Policy Factors of Care Coordination


   Good morning everyone! I am a nurse at the local clinic, and I came here today to talk about the ethical and policy factors surrounding care coordination in the community. I selected the Salvation Army as the community organization that I would work with primarily because of their significance in providing services for the homeless. The homeless population is relatively high within the community, and it is important to understand the role of the Salvation Army, its values, and its contribution to the overall betterment of the affected population. I will begin this presentation by outlining some aspects of the Salvation Army followed by the ethical and policy factors. I will also highlight the concept of coordination of care. Through this presentation, please feel open to ask questions, and you can also share your input at the end.

Salvation Army

   The Salvation Army is a protestant Christian church established in 1865 in East London, United Kingdom. Through time, the church expanded to become a charitable organization operating in more than 100 countries where it provides disaster relief, homeless shelters, charity shops, and humanitarian aid.

Its core values are:

Compassion: The church reaches out to the community and provides care wherever necessaryRespect: It emphasizes the dignity of all individuals regardless of social differencesIntegrity: The organization prides itself in promoting accountability, trustworthiness, and honesty.Excellence: The Salvation Army strives to be a model that others can emulate by being the best at what they do.

Salvation Army Homeless Services

   The organization caters to the society’s needs through donations and volunteer programs. People can give their donations in form of food, money, clothes, or other basic needs that they can share.

Through its thrift stores, the Salvation Army also sells clothes, with the finances being redirected towards catering for the needy.

Care Coordination

   In care coordination, all medical personnel involved in a patient’s care understand their responsibilities and they work together to share critical clinical information.

They also outline their expectations in the treatment plan, thereby succeeding in providing comprehensive care. According to Faraj and Sayegh (2018), the care providers also collaborate in keeping the patient informed and actively involved in their treatment. This measure ensures efficiency in transitions and referrals.

The primary goal of care coordination is to ensure that the patient’s needs are met through the provision of high-value and high-quality care. This goal is achieved through two main measures: using specialized care coordination activities; and incorporating broad approaches typically designed to improve the delivery of healthcare.

Significance of Healthcare Accessibility

Access to healthcare is the timely and efficient use of health services for the improvement of health outcomes (Winetrobe, Rice, Rhoades, and Milburn, 2016). If every individual had access to holistic, quality healthcare services, there would be a decline in health disparities in addition to more affordable care. Healthcare accessibility is also important as it promotes and maintains positive health through the management and prevention of disease.

It also reduces the prevalence of premature death or unanticipated disability, ultimately achieving equity in healthcare across to the country. The three main components of healthcare access include the timeliness of care, types of health services provided, and insurance coverage.

Factors Inhibiting Access to Healthcare

Homeless people in the community encounter significant challenges regarding access to healthcare. For one, there is a limited number of healthcare facilities around them. Additionally, they cannot afford insurance coverage, an aspect that marginalizes them from receiving the necessary quality care. Wadhera et al. (2019) also notes that the costs of care are significantly high, particularly for a population living below the poverty line. Interactions between care providers and homeless populations is also limited, and the two groups end up stereotyping each other. Many homeless people believe care providers to be hostile and this makes it difficult for them to seek medical attention. On the other hand, care providers may carry the assumption that homeless people may be criminals or beyond help.

Ethical Principles of Healthcare

The principle of beneficence emphasizes taking the best course of action for the patient. In terms of homeless populations, the nurse should focus on conducting a comprehensive patient assessment, identifying the potential risk factors and finding ways of mitigating them.

The principle of autonomy encourages nurses to respect human dignity and the ability of the patient to make their own decision. In this sense, the nurse should avoid making decisions for the patient although they can offer advice on the best course of action.

The principle of justice emphasizes equality in the provision of care. The nurse should not discriminate any patient based on their social factors during care delivery. Homeless populations are often skeptical about visiting care facilities as they feel stigmatized.

The principle of nonmaleficence is the essential core of healthcare which requires medical professionals to “do no harm”. To this extent, nurses should work towards selecting the right course of action without compromising on care based on other external factors such as cost.

Policy Factors in Care Coordination

Care coordination for the homeless is relatively challenging as there are limited policies to this extent. However, the government has succeeded in protecting the rights of homeless people in terms of the Affordable Care Act and the HIPAA. It has also introduced various community programs such as the Continuum of Care Program, which focuses on providing efficient care to the homeless. The program’s man goal is to end homelessness through the support of the community, and allocating funds for efforts towards meeting the needs of this population.


HIPAA has been critical in protecting the rights of homeless people in terms of protecting their personal health information. Healthcare providers have the responsibility of training their personnel on client privacy for all individuals regardless of their status. Under the Privacy Rule, all identifiable health information in the possession of a covered entity is protected. Covered information includes:

The patient’s current, previous, or future mental or physical conditionThe type of care provided to the individual, andThe financial cost of care incurred by the patient.


The PPACA is potentially the most significant policy pertaining to the provision of care to the homeless. The Act advocates for the provision of quality care to all individuals regardless of any discriminatory factors.  It also provides subsidies for people of low socioeconomic status, guaranteeing that they are able to access healthcare.

However, for the homeless, these subsidies might not present a significant change since many of them still would not be able to afford the necessary care.Nevertheless, the ACA seeks to address this challenge. Prior to its introduction, many homeless adults failed to qualify for Medicaid since it only provided coverage for the elderly, the pregnant, or people with disabilities. The ACA saw to the expansion of this coverage to include individuals living below the poverty line.

Healthy People 2020: Social Determinants

The main social determinant affecting the homeless is lack of their basic needs (including food, shelter, and clothing). The Salvation Army works towards mitigating this problem through the provision of homeless shelters, running mobile kitchens, and donating clothes. It is also important to incorporate patient education aimed towards reducing the stigmatization of homeless people and changing the narrative to one that supports positive outcomes.


American Academy of Family Physicians. (n.d.). Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). (2019). Retrieved from

Faraj, S., & Sayegh, K. (2018, July). Shaping the Buildings that Shape Us: The Entanglement of Space and Care Coordination. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2018, No. 1, p. 12991). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management.

Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Access to Health Services. Healthy People 2020. Retrieved from

Healthy People 2020. (n.d.). Social Determinants. (n.d.). Retrieved from

McDermott-Levy, R., Leffers, J., & Mayaka, J. (2018). Ethical principles and guidelines of global health nursing practice. Nursing outlook, 66(5), 473-481.

Salvation Army. (n.d.). Provide Shelter. Salvation Army. Retrieved from:

Wadhera, R. K., Choi, E., Shen, C., Yeh, R. W., & Joynt Maddox, K. E. (2019). Trends, Causes, and Outcomes of Hospitalizations for Homeless Individuals. Medical care, 57(1), 21-27.

Winetrobe, H., Rice, E., Rhoades, H., & Milburn, N. (2016). Health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization among homeless young adults in Venice, CA. Journal of Public Health, 38(1), 147-155.

Ambiguity in the Use of the Pronouns essay help free
Ambiguity in the Use of the Pronouns

Student’s Name:


Institutional Affiliation:

Ambiguity in the Use of the Pronouns

Chapter One: Introduction

A pronoun is defined as a word used as a substitution or a replacement for a noun or another pronoun. The commonly used pronouns are we, I, they, it, he, she, those, these, what, and who [1].  Pronoun makes a writer’s or a reader’s lives easier by enabling them to simplify their sentences while at the same time avoiding repetition.  An example of a repetitive sentence that lacks a pronoun would be “The father told the father’s daughter that the father wanted the father’s daughter to clean the house.” The sentence sounds repetitive and awkward. Here is how using a pronoun can change the sentence, “The father told his daughter that he wanted her to clean the house.”  From the above example, it is clear that the use of a pronoun makes a sentence easier to read and understand.  A pronoun, for example, “she” tends to be a more generic word than the represented noun (for instance, Sarah). As a result, one should ensure that the pronoun they choose maps onto just one noun. This means that they should see to it that every pronoun used has a clear antecedent, which is a key to clear writing. The failure to pair a pronoun with its antecedent can cause trouble in writing, hence leading to a misunderstanding [2]. To understand ambiguity in pronouns, however, it is essential first to understand the concept of ambiguity.


As explained by Athertone [3], ambiguity refers to a type of meaning whereby a resolution, statement, or phrase is inexplicitly clarified, thus making specific explanations believable. Uncertainty is one of the common elements of ambiguity. To simplify the meaning of ambiguity, the author states that it is an aspect of any statement or idea whose projected meaning is hard to resolve using a particular rule or specific steps [3]. The ambi- in ambiguous means two, in this case, two meanings. It is important to note that context plays a role in ambiguity since an idea or a statement can be ambiguous in one context, but clear in another. An example of an ambiguous sentence is, “I rode a white polo horse in blue pajamas”. In this sentence, it is easy to think that the polo horse had worn blue pajamas. The sentence is unambiguous when written, “Wearing pajamas, I rode a white polo horse.” In addition, similar words that hold different meanings can be a source of ambiguity in a sentence, but in this case, the context in which the term is used can resolve the ambiguity. 

Ambiguity in Semantics

Semantics in a language lay emphasis on how meaning is studied. One challenge that linguists face when trying to explain ‘meaning’ is ambiguity. Hoffman, Lambon, and Rogers [4] point out that defining ‘meaning’ gives more than twenty definitions, which reflect the confusion caused by such a basic term, hence ambiguity.

Ambiguity in semantics usually occurs in a language, for example, a word like organ has two English meaning, meaning a musical instrument and a body part. However, a word can also cross language boundaries in a way that two different languages can share that word but with different meanings. An example of a shared word in English and Dutch is “angel.” “Angel” in Dutch means “Sting.” People who speak different languages encounter ambiguity in their communications and across languages as well. According to Beekhuizen, Cui, and Stevenson [5], when words have two or more meanings, then they are referred to as polysemous words. Almost all English words have multiple meanings, implying that nearly all sentences have semantic ambiguity. Semantic ambiguity is resolved using context, although this may not be a solution in all cases. A word like “play” is a polysemy. One can play a game, a guitar, play a role, or play the victim. 

As posited by Haro and Ferré [6], there are semantic concepts and terms which represent the basis of semantics theory like vagueness, entailment, connotation and denotation, utterance, paraphrase, and entailment among others. However, most of these concepts have the least connection with ambiguity. Semantic ambiguity can be understood from two perspectives: sentence ambiguity and word ambiguity. The Netbase Staff [7] argue that ambiguous words in a particular sentence can make it congruently unclear. For example, the word “spring” can have different meanings when used in a sentence based on non-verbal and verbal cues in the context in which it is used. 

Concept of the ambiguity

Ambiguity is, in most cases, compared with vagueness. However, distinct and specific interpretations are allowed in ambiguity, while with vague information, it is hard to achieve any interpretation of the required specificity level. According to The Netbase Staff [7], ambiguity in language processing extends beyond the lexical type, which will further be explained in the types of ambiguity. This implies that ambiguity affects even morphemes, which are smaller units than words. Morphemes tend to show a particular kind of uncertainty in meaning, which is referred to as syncretism. Ambiguity in morphemes happens in cases where more than two morphological elements have a similar form. Other kinds of ambiguity exist, which are made of bigger units, and these are syntactic and semantic ambiguity.

Theorists have found the importance of distinguishing the ambiguity phenomenon from other phenomena such as context-sensitivity, vagueness, and underspecification. Philosophers are interested in understanding ambiguity for a number of reasons, one being that it clarifies the existing differences between natural and formal languages [8]. The second reason is that uncertainty may have a damaging impact on individuals’ capacity to examine the rationality of ideas based on conceivable equivocation.  Third, ambiguity is a significant feature of a person’s interpretative ability and cognitive understanding.  Fourth, it can deliberately heighten one’s interest in artwork by not allowing easy interpretation or categorization. Lastly, ambiguity can weaken the applicability of laws and peoples’ willingness to follow them. Understanding the concept of uncertainty and how it is resolved can provide an insight into both interpretations and thoughts.

Types of Ambiguity

The following are the types of ambiguity-:

Semantic ambiguity

This type of ambiguity happens when sentences have more than just one way of reading them within their contexts [6]. This can occur when some quantifiers appear in the same sentence. For example, “all people have medical covers in Malaysia.” The sentence can be interpreted in two ways- one which is “every person in the country has an individual medical insurance coverage” or “all people have the same medical cover.” 

Structural/Syntactic ambiguity

Syntactic ambiguity is noted when particular words sequences have different grammatical structures but hold different meanings. An example of these words is “a big Toyota factory” to mean both “big (Toyota factory” and (big Toyota) factory. 

Lexical ambiguity

This type of ambiguity is noted when a word contains several meanings. For example, a word like “green” could mean “immature” or “green color.” Lexical ambiguity also occurs when words of diverse origin have similar pronunciation or spelling like “bank” for a building and “bank” for “riverbank”. As Levison [9] notes, homophonous entries are contained in a unit called lexicon. Homophones can be co-spelled but have different syntactic categories or meanings. For example, “duck” is both a noun and a verb. A noun like “bat” has two different meanings and is also a verb that has more than one meaning. 

Lexical ambiguity is easily detectible, particularly if the meanings are very different. However, it can prove difficult if a word has closely related meanings. A simple example of such a word is “in” whose meaning is ambiguous and appears to rotate around containments, which can seem to be different if looked from a more fine-grained point of view. A person can be “in the hospital, in California, or in therapy.” The examples show that “in” is an ambiguous word. 

Pragmatic ambiguity

This type of ambiguity is notable in sentences that have several meanings, given the context in which an individual speaks it. An example of pragmatic ambiguity in a sentence is, “The doctors can treat the patients before they leave.” The word “they” in the sentence could refer to both the doctors and the patients. 

Vagueness is another type of ambiguity that is identified when a phrase in a sentence has one meaning from an analytical perspective but can be interpreted differently when required.  

Language error; This type of ambiguity represents grammatically incorrect constructions. 

One of the challenging issues in accounting for ambiguity in sentences or language is figuring out the objects that people say are ambiguous.  For instance, propositions are not ambiguous, given that their meanings cannot be subjected to more deliberations of meaning. This then leaves a number of prospective objects such as inscriptions, utterances, or sentences or utterances that are relative to a context, among other potential objects.

The differences, as Kurniasari [10] believes, are not inconsequential, meaning that a sentence that is written down can correspond to in several ways of being spoken whereby characteristics like prosody can hinder several meanings being enjoyed by that specific sentence.

An important factor regarding the concept of ambiguity is how people should denote ambiguities. It can be tempting to view this as a factor that can be easily analyzed in several ways. For instance, one may decide to disjunctively represent the meaning of a word like “bank” or may opt to individuate the word as numerous lexical objects that look or sound alike, maybe by using subscripts.  The problem, however, is that disjunctively represented meanings do not uniquely explain ambiguity, and using subscripts just covers the issue of what those subscripts denote.  The problem is more than just a trivial choice or a nuisance and can have severe consequences on how conditional semantics can be pursued.

Chapter Two: Literature Review about the Ambiguity and Especially on the Ambiguity of the Pronouns

Ambiguity, according to Jha [8], has, over the years, been a source of amusement, perplexity, and frustration for poets, linguists, literary critics and theorists, authors, orators, philosophers, lexicographers and any other individual interested in interpreting linguistic signs. The interest of philosophers in the concept highly emanates from concerns based on natural language regulation in formal reasoning. Opinions, which may appear good in regards to their linguistic form, can appear wrong if the phrases or words used are ambiguous. It is important to understand ambiguity and examine how it relates and differs from similar concepts like vagueness, polysemy, and indexicality.

Sometimes, ambiguity may rely on the context meaning a word or an object can be unambiguous in a certain situation and ambiguous in another. For instance, if one considers are short phrase like “Ellah read the letter.” The phrase alone could either refer to a past or present action as the word “read” is pronounced the same way both in the past and present tenses. Yet, if the sentence is changed to “Ellah read the letter last year,” then that clears the ambiguity in the sentence and places the time of the action in the past tense.

Ambiguity in grammar is experienced on a day-to-day basis, whether in conversations or ordinary language or when watching news or comedies [10]. Below are some examples of ambiguous sentences, which have more than two meanings or interpretations. Often, sentences are written in a way that they end up having pronouns that could have more than one different antecedent.

An example of an ambiguous sentence is, “Sarah asked Lucy if she had seen her brother.” In this example, the pronoun “her” does not clearly tell whether it was Lucy’s or Sarah’s brother. The ambiguity in the sentence would be resolved if it was written Sarah specifies if it was her brother or Lucy’s brother she was looking for. 

Another ambiguous sentence is, “Leah and Olivia visited the mall after she cleaned her room.” The problem with this sentence is that it has many antecedents, and it is not clear the one that matches a specific pronoun. It is ambiguous if “she” refers to Leah or Olivia. To resolve the ambiguity in this sentence and make it clear who “she” refers to, one should replace the pronoun “she’ with the lady’s name being referred to. The sentence could be reworded to read “Leahand Olivia visited the mall after Olivia cleaned her room.”

Note the following example of how unclear the use of pronouns might refer to two or more antecedents, leaving readers unsure of the meaning that the writer intended to pass. “Sarah told her aunt that her skirt had a stain in it.” In this sentence, it is not clear whether it is Sarah’s skirt that is stained or her aunt’s.  The sentence might get a reader confused. According to Ezzati and Farahian [11], the rule of the thumb states that the pronoun should refer to the closest antecedent, which in the above sentence is the word “aunt.” Suppose the writer meant that Sarah’s skirt is stained, then one might consider rewriting the sentence. If revised, the sentence should read; Sarah told her aunt, “My skirt has a stain in it.”  Or, in case the writer means the opposite, then the sentence can be rewritten to read; Sarah told her aunt, “Your skirt has a stain in it.”

Another sentence would be, “Leah did not believe that she had been selected class captain by her roommates who lacked much self-confidence.” The sentence is ambiguous as it leaves the reader questioning whether Leah was shocked that her roommates all chose her as class captain because she herself lacked self-confidence or whether Leah was amazed that her roommates chose her as a class captain, although they lack much self-confidence. The resolution, in this case, is that such types of pronouns refer to the closest pronoun or noun. A way in which the problem can be solved is to move the “who” clause closer to its modifier. The sentence can be rewritten with Leah in this manner; “Leah, who lacked much self-confidence, did not believe that she had been selected as a class captain by her roommates.” Or if the writer wants to create an emphasis that the roommates are the ones that lack self-confidence, then the sentence could be written as follows, “Leah did not believe she had been selected as class captain by her roommates since they lacked much self-confidence.”

Although sometimes the pattern used to write a sentence is the same, the purposes that the sentence constituents perform are not the same. An example of an ambiguous sentence that belongs in this category is “they served her the cat biscuits.” The sentence can be reworded in two ways “Her cat was served the biscuits” or “She was served the cat biscuits.” The ambiguity in the sentence can be explained in this manner. In the first sentence, the pronoun “her” is considered a constituent that is carrying out the indirect object’s function, while the cat’s biscuits, which is the noun phrase is performing the function of the direct object. 

Other than the suggested solution given in each case or sentence scenario, there is a specific way proposed by linguists in which ambiguity in sentences can be resolved [18]. Linguists recommend on the use of diagrams known as trees, which effortlessly embody word groupings with sentences. An example is shown in the diagram below:

To understand what was stated in the sentence cases that the pronoun should refer to the closest antecedent, it is clear from the tree that “these” is the pronoun that closely relates to the dogs, while “those” relates closely to the cats. The abbreviations in the above tree stand for the different groups or types of words. “S” stands for sentence, “P” for pronoun or preposition, “VP” for noun phrase, “V” for the verb, “C” for conjunction, “N” for a noun, “PP” stands for a prepositional phrase and “NP” for noun phrase.

In ambiguity, linguistic units such as sentences, phrases, lexical units, or clauses can have two different meanings or can serve more than one function. The possibility of ambiguity in syntactic and linguistic units happens as a result of the basis that the number of ideas that the two units should cover are high. Lexical units should have more than one meaning for them to carry out the syntactic roles in a limitless number of sentences. This is the same for clauses and phrases. 

In as much as ambiguity in grammar writing is concerned, two alternatives exist and which should be used to deal with ambiguity. The first one is to write a sentence in a way that limits the capacity of its interpretations to only one meaning. The second one is to write a sentence in a way that can have more than one meaning, but a reader can understand it based on the context. Note that the second option offers an ambiguous solution. However, it must fulfill two conditions: syntactic and semantic.  An example of a sentence is “she touched the boy with cold arms.”  The semantic content of the PP “with cold arms” refers to both the NP “the boy” and the V-for verb, “touched.”  The same PP is both a modifier for the NP “the boy” and the verb “touched.” In trying to understand syntactic ambiguity in sentences, MacGregor et al. [20] explain that while ambiguity is a natural and a normal phenomenon, it is seen as an uncertainty, an enemy, or a grammatical disorder that can lead to more harm than good.

Ambiguity in Pronouns

A pronoun is defined as a word that is used in place of a noun. Pronouns are used in grammatical writing to avoid the repetition of the same nouns in a sentence. The common types of pronouns as aforementioned are I, we, us, me, he, she, mine, and us. However, there are several types of pronouns, which are subjective, objective, reflexive, intensive, relative, indefinite, interrogative, demonstrative, and possessive pronouns.

Subjective pronouns are words that perform the action of a verb. These pronouns include I, we, they, you, she, he, and it [12]. Objective pronouns, as defined by Yao [12] acts receive the verb’s action. They include us, them, him, her, me, you, and it.  Demonstrative pronouns are those that point out a noun. These include those, that, this, and these. Possessive pronouns tell the person who owns something. They are yours, ours, his, hers, its, mine, and theirs. Interrogative pronouns are used in questions to help question about something. These pronouns include whom, who, which, and compound words that end with “ever” like whomever, whoever, whichever , and whatever. Although interrogative pronouns may appear like interrogative adjectives, however, they are differently used in a sentence and act as pronouns.

The other type of pronouns is indefinite pronouns, which mean a general thing or a person. Some of these indefinite pronouns are few, both, all, many, somebody, nothing, everyone, some, neither, any, none, each, and several. Other pronoun type are relative pronouns which are used in a sentence to introduce a sentence part or a clause, describing a noun [12]. They include whom, who, which, and that. Intensive pronouns is another type that emphasizes their antecedent. They are yourselves, himself, herself, themselves, itself, ourselves, and myself. The last type of pronouns are reflexive pronouns, which refer back to a sentence subject. Such pronouns include ourselves, himself, herself, itself, yourselves, themselves, and myself. 

Readers experience many pronoun errors in writing. Some of these common errors and which show ambiguity in the sentences include the use of pronouns without an antecedent [13]. An example of a sentence that lacks an antecedent is, “Even though Leila is very rich, she does not make good use of it.” The sentence is ambiguous because it lacks an antecedent, which in this case is “wealth or money.”  The second error encountered in the use of pronouns is matching pronouns to their antecedent in gender and number [13].  An example of such a sentence is “pick the unused pieces, and save it for the next student.” The ambiguity in the sentence is seen where the antecedent “it” is used to refer to the “unused pieces,” which is plural. The third error is the use of objective or nominative pronoun case when using a possessive antecedent. An example of a sentence is “the lawyer called the client’s office, but he failed to answer.” The ambiguity, in this case, is seen where “he” is referring to the client, but has been used only in the possessive case.

In other cases, a sentence can be written in a way that they end up with pronouns that have more than two antecedents [19]. It is crucial for a writer to revise their writing to revise such ambiguous cases. An example of an unclear sentence is, “Linda told Lillian that her classmate is stubborn.” In this sentence, it is not easy to tell whether it is Linda’s or Lillian’s classmate being talked about. Linda could be telling Lillian that Linda’s classmate is stubborn, or she could be telling Lillian that her classmate is stubborn. The sentence can be revised to remove the ambiguity. Linda told Lillian, “Your classmate is stubborn.”

Another case where the use of pronouns can be ambiguous is when there are introductory aspects in a sentence. An example of such a sentence is, “ When I hit my leg on the glass window, I broke it.” In this case, it is impossible to tell whether it is the leg or the window that broke. A revised version would be, “ I broke my leg when I hit into the glass window.”

Writers should, however, note that the rules that govern the ambiguity in pronouns are lenient compared to the guidelines. Ambiguity in pronouns should not be the first decision point for rejecting an option but should come after the modifiers, subject-verb agreements, parallelism, and tense have been taken care of.  According to King et al. [14], one should understand that not every sentence containing two nouns before a pronoun falls under ambiguity errors in the use of pronouns. Suppose there is a pronoun agreement with those two nouns in gender and number, whereby the nouns are antecedents of the pronoun, then there may be ambiguity. However, in several cases, logic dictates the noun that performs the action, hence it is reasonably clear the noun that the pronoun denotes.

Pronoun Ambiguity In Semantic With Examples

Pronouns are among the sources of ambiguity in sentences. This means that a pronoun’s antecedent is not easily determined by the use of semantic information only, but a combination of contextual, semantic, and syntactic information [9].  Pronouns consist of most one-word terms, whose semantic contents are limited to basic factors like people, gender, or numbers.  Usually, such factors do not contribute to the at-issue or assertive utterance content.  In several cases, the given factors in bound pronouns semantics may be ignored. For example, “Only I brought my fruits”- in bound reading, the sentence would read: no other person other than me brought the fruits. In this sentence, the features) number, gender, and person) have been ignored. In the sentence, the variable “my” is not limited to the speaker.

Pronoun ambiguity in semantic occurs when a sentence, phrase, or word that is taken out of context is interpreted in more than one manner. An example in a sentence is “We saw her car,” the words “her car” can be interpreted to mean either i) to the individual’s car (the noun “car” is modified by “her” which is the possessive pronoun or ii) to a movement the person made (the verb “car,” the objective pronoun here is “her,” which an object “saw”-the verb in the sentence.

Another sentence example is “I saw Theresa and Karen sited on the gazebo; she was watching the stars.”  In this sentence, the pronoun “she” is ambiguous because its identity is not clearly defined, given both the antecedents “Theresa” and “Karen” are possible subjects of co-reference.  In this case, there are two possibilities in the way a reader can opt to resolve the issue of semantic ambiguity in the pronoun.  One, maybe one single antecedent, is directly acknowledged as a coreferent, irrespective of the linguistic challenges [15]. For example, an individual could immediately assign the pronoun “she” to “Theresa” because she is the first antecedent.  Another alternative would be for both “Theresa” and “Karen” to be activated equally, and the selection of the candidate to be assigned the pronoun to wait until a later stage, where there will be more contextual evidence.

The previous perspective accentuates an instant processing of the pronoun based on the readily available semantic cues [16]. In the given sentence, the prompt is the order in which the antecedents appear. The latter outlook considers the role that delayed contextual factors play in determining where the pronoun will be placed.

Semantic ambiguity in pronouns could also occur when a sentence has two or more distinct meanings as a result of its structure. This is caused by a modifying expression like a prepositional statement whose application is ambiguous [9].  An example of a sentence is, “she sipped the juice on the bed.” One of the meanings is “ she sipped the juice that was on the bed,” as opposed to the one that was in the kitchen. Another meaning is, she was sleeping on the bed while she sipped the juice.

Steinach [17] suggests that a way in which interpretations about pronoun ambiguity in semantics can be understood would be to isolate the antecedents for a no or yes recognition after the sentence is read. Differential accuracy or speeds acknowledgment should reveal different activation levels based on those antecedents and how they are related to the pronoun.  The coreferent identified by the reader is closely linked to the pronoun, and therefore, reading it would mean a reactivation of its representation [16].  Such action allows recognition as evaluated by both accuracy and speed, particularly when the coreferent is presented later as a probe, compared to an antecedent that is not identified.  An example of a sentence to explain this ambiguity is “Rose and Joy went to the market” with “Rose” being the most critical name, as it would recur as the test probe.  Recognizing the critical name, in this case, “Rose” after reading the entire statement is faster when the second clause contains a gender-appropriate pronoun ( that is, the critical pronoun; for instance, “ …and she bought a yellow dress.” Reading the non-critical name is slower in this case. To better understand the ambiguity in pronouns, it is important to note that such a facilitatory impact is specific to the identification of the first or critical name analysis. Therefore, noting the idea that the understanding of the pronoun reboots only the semantic illustration of its distinctive coreferent [18]. The use of this method demonstrates that the processing of ambiguous pronouns in semantic does not lead to instant understanding of specific coreferents, hence resolving the issue of ambiguity can be delayed for later contextual cues.


Pronouns are important words that help in simplifying sentences by avoiding repetition and using shorter words. However, the failure to pair pronouns with their antecedents can lead to ambiguity in analytical writing. This does not mean that they should not be used in sentences or writing but implies that one should be able to recognize and fix any pronouns, which show ambiguity.  Phrases, sentences, and words become unclear when they represent more than one meaning. From the discussion, it is evident that ambiguity is a complex issue, which, if not resolved, can create a misunderstanding.  In understanding ambiguity in sentences, semantics, as well as the syntax, play a similar role. The two are also useful in helping disambiguate unclear phrases, sentences, or statements. The paper aimed at understanding the concept of ambiguity and how it occurs in pronouns.  The document outlined the ways in which ambiguity in pronouns and grammatical writing can be resolved. This was done by giving examples of ambiguous sentences and how each can be rewritten or reworded to avoid ambiguity. Conclusively, ambiguity is a vital feature of language, which is found in words, sentences, and phrases, especially in cases where there is more than one represented meaning.


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[3] C. Athertone, The Stoics on Ambiguity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020, p. 343.

[4] P. Hoffman, M. Lambon Ralph and T. Rogers, “Semantic diversity: A measure of semantic ambiguity based on variability in the contextual usage of words”, Behavior Research Methods, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 718-730, 2012. Available: 10.3758/s13428-012-0278-x.

[5] B. Beekhuizen, C. Xuan Cui and S. Stevenson, “Representing lexical ambiguity in prototype models of lexical semantics”, University of Toronto. Available: [Accessed: 18- Feb- 2020].

[6] Haro and P. Ferré, “Semantic Ambiguity: Do Multiple Meanings Inhibit or Facilitate Word Recognition?”, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 679-698, 2017. Available: 10.1007/s10936-017-9554-3.

[7] Netbase Staff, “Why Understanding Ambiguity in Natural Language Processing Is A Game Changer – NetBase”, NetBase, 2020. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 18- Feb- 2020].

[8] S. Jha, “Exploring Ambiguous Structures In English”, Global Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-4, 2017. Available: 10.24105/gjiss.6.3.1701

[9] M. Levison, The semantic representation of natural language. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013.

[10] M. Kurniasari, “Tolerating Structural Ambiguity In Grammar Learning”, International Journal of Indonesian Education and Teaching, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 85-94, 2017. Available: 10.24071/ijiet.2017.010108.

[11] M. Ezzati and M. Farahian, “Exploring the Tolerance of Ambiguity and Grammar Achievement of Advanced EFL Learners”, Journal for the Study of English Linguistics, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 1, 2016. Available: 10.5296/jsel.v4i2.9919.

[12]  Y. Yao, “Research on Translation of English Pronouns”, Weinan Normal University, Shaanxi, Weinan, 714099, China, 2018. Available: [Accessed: 18- Feb- 2020].

[13] E. Sagi and L. Rips, “Identity, Causality, and Pronoun Ambiguity”, Topics in Cognitive Science, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 663-680, 2014. Available: 10.1111/tops.12105.

[14] King, S. Dipper, A. Frank, J. Kuhn and J. Maxwell III, “Ambiguity Management in Grammar Writing”, Research on Language and Computation, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 259-280, 2004. Available: 10.1023/b:rolc.0000016784.26446.98.

[15] S. Lago, A. Namyst, L. Jäger and E. Lau, “Antecedent access mechanisms in pronoun processing: evidence from the N400”, Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 641-661, 2019. Available: 10.1080/23273798.2019.1566561.

[16] B. De Cock and B. Kluge, “On the referential ambiguity of personal pronouns and its pragmatic consequences”, Pragmatics. Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association (IPrA), vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 351-360, 2016. Available: 10.1075/prag.26.3.01dec.

[17] M. Steinbach, Middle voice: a comparative study in the syntax-semantics interface of German. Amsterdam: Philadelphia : J. Benjamins, 2002, p. 4.

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[19] D. Covino, CliffsNotes Verbal Review for Standardized Tests. New York: Wiley, 2012.

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Analyze some of the Primary Features of the Old System of American Politics best college essay help
Analyze some of the Primary Features of the Old System of American Politics

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Analyze some of the Primary Features of the Old System of American Politics


One is likely to identify some differences by comparing the old and new systems of American politics. The old system was not massive as it appears now; often spent a lot of time debating issues, and usually dealt with so many problems. The evident inefficiencies in the old system of American politics indicate that the country’s political processes have come a long way to be what it appears today. 

One of the original features of the old system of American politics is the structure had a small agenda. Wilson et al. (2016) write that though many people voted, and usually participated in mass political events and torchlight parades, political leadership took a professional turn in the way the leadership cycle was not large enough, and access to it was not as easy. Furthermore, the activists who participated in social movements were generally locked out, and only a few main issues were discussed at any given time (Wilson et al., 2016). Another factor illustrating the smallness of the old political system is members of Congress worked with a small staff if necessary and interacted with his or her fellows on a personal basis. Members of Congress also deferred to the prestige of the Senate and House leaders and sought to be part of some influential coalition such as the Southern bloc, the labor bloc, and the farm bloc that intervened in many issues.

Often when a person suggested adding a new matter to the public agenda, a significant contest usually followed over whether it was proper for the federal government to any action on the subject. A leading issue in these debates often emanated over whether it was correct for the federal government to take any measures at all on the issue (Amer, 2008). A prominent theme in these debates was whether states should enjoy exclusive rights. Further, the policy debates focused on domestic matters except during instances when the nation showed interest in gaining colonies or during wartime. Members of Congress mostly saw the internal issues regarding their effects on local constituents (Amer, 2008). The Presidency, on the other hand, was quite small and somewhat personal, and only a rudimentary White House staff was in charge of internal operations.  

For the state to embrace bold actions under the old system, the country often had to be under a severe crisis. War usually propagated such turmoil, and so the federal government during the Civil War and the World Wars I and II gained more authority to recruit military personnel, regulate industrial production, control the passing of information to members of the public, and restrained the limits of personal liberty (Wilson et al., 2016). Each occurring crisis left the state’s bureaucracy quite more extensive than it appeared before, but when the problems came to an end, the practice of extraordinary authority came to a halt (Wilson et al., 2016). Once more, the issue of political matters became smaller, and legislators wondered whether it was right for the state to allow new policies such as industrial regulation or civil rights.


The analysis presents the core features of the old system of American politics. It illustrates how the old system had a small agenda, and legislators interacted with their colleagues on a personal basis. The study further shows how the system debated so much on issues that came to the floor of the Senate and the House, and how the government dealt with one crisis after the other.


Amer, M. (2008). Secret sessions of congress: A brief historical overview. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service.

Wilson, J., Dilulio, J., & Bose, M. (2016). American government institutions and politics. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

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