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Practical exercise melbourne essay help

In this practical exercise you will be using biuret reagent. Why is biuret reagent used in this practical? The biuret reagent is used to assess the concentration of the protein because peptide bonds occur with the same frequency per amino acid in the peptide. The intensity of the colour, and therefore the absorption, is directly proportional to the protein concentration. Q 2. What is the experimental reason for constructing a standard curve?

Multiple samples with known properties can be measured and graphed, which then enables the same properties to be determined for the unknown samples, in this case the concentration, by interpolating the graph which depicts the relationship between the absorbance and concentration. Q 3. Based on the above information (in the prac manual) and your own thinking, which plant do you hypothesize will have more rubisco, one raised in the sun or one raised in shade? It is hypothesised that the sun raised silverbeet plant will have more rubisco than the shaded silverbeet plant.

Should the line connect all the data points or should it be a line of best fit? Why? (2 sentences) A line of best fit as it will give an accurate representation of the relationship between absorbance and concentration between the different samples. The more samples used, the closer the results would be to the line of best fit. Q 5. Is it possible to determine the protein concentration of a solution from the standard curve if the measured absorbance is off the scale of the y-axis, i. e. higher than the highest y-value on the standard curve? Give your reasons.

 It’s not possible to determine the protein concentration because the data gathered from the standard solutions is in a certain range (specific scale). Therefore the relationship between absorbance and concentration cannot be determined for anything outside of this range. Q 6. Describe two ways in which you would modify the experimental procedure to determine the protein concentration of this solution? Give full details of the two experimental procedures. (2 and 4 sentences) One way in which the experimental procedure could be modified is diluting the sample.

This involves decreasing the volume of BSA Protein solution and increasing the buffer volume by the same amount. As a result the absorbance would be lower and fit on the graph. Another way may be to extend the curve by increasing the concentration of the BSA Protein solution which would provide a greater range. Q 7. Do your results support your hypothesis regarding these tissue samples? (2-3 sentences) The hypothesis regarding the tissue samples was supported. The absorbance of the sun raised silverbeet plant was found to be 0. 801, which was greater than the shaded silverbeet plant with an absorbance of 0.

One possible reason for the results not supporting your experimental hypothesis is experimental error. List three examples of possible sources of error that may have occurred in your work in this practical class. (2-3 sentences) A possible error may be adding inaccurate amounts of buffer between samples, causing them to dilute either excessively or insufficiently, resulting in an inaccurate standard curve. Another error could be leaving the sample solutions for over 25 minutes, which could cause the protein to start degrading.

Not zeroing the spectrophotometer or cleaning the tube properly can affect the absorbance value. Q 9. Even if your results do support the experimental hypothesis, give three major possible explanations for a negative result (i. e. biological reasons – not experimental errors). (4-5 sentences) Biological errors involve using different parts the plant, such as a stem or leaf and one may have a higher or lower absorbance than the other. Another reason may be that different aged samples were used, such as a baby plant which may have a higher absorbance compared to an aging plant.

Furthermore, the sun raised silverbeet plant could have had excessive exposure to the sun and was beginning to die, causing a lower absorbance. Q10. What is the single major design problem in this experiment in drawing conclusions about different concentrations of rubisco in response to different growth light conditions? (2 sentences) Rubisco is not the only protein in the plant as it makes up 80% of the total protein in plant leaves. This means that there is 20% of other existing proteins that may have contributed to the results.

Yue Yuen essay help app: essay help app

Yue Yuen Industrial (Holdings) Ltd. : Site Selection 1) How should the site selection factors listed in the case study be weighed? Are there any further factors which should be added to the list? (1) Site Selection factors – Labour costs of the host country – Population and demographics of the host country – Host country’s physical infrastructure – Presence of suppliers- GDP and economic stability foreign investment .

Exchange rate volatility – Size of the local market – Desirability of the host country – Presence of other labour-intensive manufacturing in the area – Presence of other footwear manufacturers in the region – Amount of foreign investment in the country – Labour laws of the host country (2) Additional factors Financial institution. The risk of pandemics Shortage of essential basics such as clean water and electricity Labour’s education and technical skill level

The host country’s supportive benefits such as tax benefits, preferential interest rates and more flexible infrastructure regulations The host country’s political stability and security . 2) What could be potential production sites for the company in addition to the four locations mentioned in the case study? (1) Guangdong produced 44% of the industry’s exports, Fujian 23% and Zhejiang 15% as majorities of China’s casual and athletic footwear. (2) Sichuan and Jiangsu and Shanghai are also big business in footwear production.

Which site should the company select for its new manufacturing operations, and why? (1) The company’s selection should be Vietnam (2) The reason why Vietnam should be selected as below The government’s supports such as a combination of tax benefits Low labour cost and highly young workforce Convenient geographical location Dynamic economy and rising domestic consumption Political and economic stability Vietnam was Nike’s second largest producer.

Marketing Corona in Japan “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

How aligned are Modelo’s, EBI’s and NS’s short and long-term interests ? In recent times, the market changes affected the short and long-term interest of Modelo, Export Brands International and Nippon Spirits. It was clear that the big picture was extremely difficult to see from the same united perspective as in the past, thus making the Japanese Corona business quite uncertain.

Corona had a success of almost one decade in the Japanese market also due to the clear and structured partnership between Modelo, Export Brands International and Nippon Spirits. It was very simple as Modelo produced the beer, Export Brands International coordinated delivery and developed the Japanese marketing strategy, and Nippon Spirits distributed and implemented marketing tactics. The pressure of globalization pushed Modelo to consolidate marketing communications throughout the Asia-Pacific region.

In fact the entry of Corona to Japan wanted to be a bridge towards an incursion into other Asian markets that until the end happened with success. This was an objective as it was known that Japanese were Asian trendsetters, and their example will be followed by other countries in the region. But the above Modelo decision affected Export Brands International and Nippon Spirits, as both lost some of their functions and autonomy. Instead Modelo became more involved, deciding to restructure operations, and to develop a more standardized brand image while reaping economies of scale.

It was clear that the short and long term interest of the 3 partners was not aligned in the same direction, and somehow the benefits for each party involved were different. Much more, because the market was evolving, important changes took place as for example a trend to switch back to more affordable domestic brands, particularly lower priced. This phenomenon was due to the world recession that also was present in Japan, and affected the purchasing power. To react to this trend, Modelo could think to other options instead of the direct export of the Corona beer.

I can refer here at a possible move that Modelo could implement, meaning setting up its own local production facility. This move can contribute to : a lower cost (making Corona more affordable) , a perceived local brand image (making Corona almost a local beer) and a more easy distribution in the Asia-Pacific region. In conclusion, also the last exposed idea, can become a fact and contribute to a divergent short and long-term interests between the three partners on the Japanese market for Corona business. 2. What dangers does EBI potentially face ?

As stated in the previous answer, the dangers that Export Brands International can potentially face on the Japanese market are significant and can become real threats. First of all, Modelo can think to increase the foothold in Japan by setting up a own local production facility that will capitalize on the company’s extensive brewing and beer marketing experience, reduce transport and importation costs, and provide nearly total control. Also a second option will represent a danger for Export Brands International, if Modelo will decide to enter into a joint venture with a local brewer and license Corona production and distribution.

This 2 options can be feasible as, like I said, in the last years, Japanese customers were really affected by the recession, and the foreign and genuine nature become not so much important for customers. Secondly, connected or not necessary with the above point, Modelo can be tempted to conduct delivery and marketing in Japan, after a lot of years of indirect presence in the market. The period connected with Japan, created the know-how for logistic and regulatory issues, and most important familiarity with market’s cultural nuances. This can happen as during the times, Modelo focused on Corona brand building which now is at maturity.

Let’s say that the situation will continue like it is now, none of the 2 mentioned dangers happening, other thing can become a real “pain” for Export Brands International: I am referring here at the fact that consumers are increasingly shifting away from mass-produced beers towards high quality, classier, and locally produced craft micro brews. Or the fact that Japanese consumers will be tempted to buy affordable domestic brands due to the economic downturn. As because Corona is the top seller in the Export Brands International portfolio, their revenues and profitability will be seriously affected.

Not to say the fact that right now, Corona is not the only Mexican beer present in the Japanese market, now being under direct attack by a series of other Mexican beer that have high marketing budgets. To maintain the position, Export Brands International is forced to pump heavily in the investment marketing budget , much more than the others as Corona must change and reinvent itself. Export Brands International must come with something new trying once again to differentiate as in the beginnings, now being a lot harder.

The situation can even explode for Export Brands International, as large beers conglomerates with tremendous power, are targeting the same segment and are creating similar beers. We have the real example of Anheuser-Busch new Bud Light Lime which was selling extremely well in the United States attacking Corona position and following the traces of the last one. And as the candy on the cake, the corporate landscape is continuously changing: Export Brands International can be caught in a high level game, where different corporation with different interest are playing at a global scale.

I can think at the fact that Anheuser-Busch has now 50% of Modelo, and after buying everything they will be forced in some markets to sell out most probably first Corona division in order not to have a dominant position (like happened recently in United States). 3. How can EBI consolidate its Corona business ? Export Brands International can consolidate Corona business in Japan by having a new approach towards the other two partners : Modelo and Nippon Spirits. The partnership that was on place from almost ten years ago, must be up-graded as the situation is not still the same.

Export Brands International must build over the foundation that represented the Corona’s success in Japan that was partly attributable to the clear and structures partnership between the three companies. Practically Modelo produced the beer, Export Brands International coordinated delivery and developed the Japanese marketing strategy, and Nippon Spirits distributed and implemented marketing tactics. After open discussion between all three parties, Export Brands International must understand everybody objectives, trying to think how to fulfil the desire of each one and connect it to the major purpose.

Knowing that Modelo new interest is in the Asia-Pacific region, maybe Export Brands International can represents their interests and consolidate their marketing communications in this area. Much more they can extend the initial reason that they were selected in the first instance by Modelo : they covered all aspects of exporting in-house, from shipping and finance to sales and marketing, making it a convenient one-stop solution in Japan.

The same characteristics can be valid as a large scale in the Asia-Pacific region, and be perceived as real value added and minimal risk for Modelo. Much more, Export Brands International can become in the desired region a specialist in food and beverage exports, being familiar with the delicate logistical and regulatory issues, and exploiting the exporting experience they have in Asia which meant familiarity with all markets cultural nuances and networks (it is well known that most of Asian countries are largely operating on personal relationships).

Going furthermore, Export Brands International should explore the possibility to enter a joint venture agreement with an Asian local brewer that in a more advanced step will gave the possibility to propose to Modelo an option to give the license of Corona for production and distribution. In this way Export Brands International can keep, even gain, more control that in the actual situation and also having a higher turnover and gross margin.

Not even counting that the business structure can be proposed to other clients that are present in the Export Brands International portfolio in the region. And because Nippon Spirits is an important chain in the business, Export Brands International can push them towards a regional development. I am referring here that Export Brands International can help them becoming a regional liquor wholesaler.

What Nippon Spirits have to achieve will be to create a regional marketing system, to upgrade the network of connections, to cover the Asia-Pacific region with sales offices in key countries and cities and to bring in the portfolio an impressive number of clients like in Japan : convenience stores, supermarkets, liquor stores, discount stores, departments stores, bars and restaurants, all ready to sell the product. 4. What alternatives does EBI have ?

Export Brands International has alternatives as they have a series of unique competencies: a speciality in food and beverage exports, familiarity with the delicate logistical and regulatory issues, long experience exporting in Japan which meant familiarity with market’s cultural nuances, an established Japanese network and a long-term focus on international brand building. Much more it is very important that Export Brands International is a United States reliable company, specialised in full service export management.

Export Brands International is a company that can cover all aspects of exporting in-house, from shipping and finance to sales and marketing, making it a convenient one-stop solution. Taking into account the above, and as I said previously, Export Brands International can try to develop the actual partnership that they have with Modelo and Nippon Spirits. They can exploit even more the actual situation by adapting the cooperation to the market change.

Export Brands International can even become a top regional player in the Asia-Pacific region and still working with Modelo and Nippon Spirits in a more advance partnership that will suppose higher objective than only just management of exports in Japan. Much more, in such a 3 partnership, it can be an advantage for the others, that Export Brands International to become also a local producer and to set up a facility in the area. As I said before, maybe to agree on a joint-venture in Japan, as they have a solid reputation and a powerful brand.

If Export Brands International will anticipate that one of the other 2 partners, or even both, will want to split, they will have to prepare alternatives accordingly. In the situation that Modelo intend to consolidate the marketing communications throughout the Asia-Pacific region, this action affecting Export Brands International functions and autonomy, they might think also to a complete separation, trying to represent the interest of other beer producers in Japan.

It is knew that the marketing was evolving, with shifts in consumer trends (top-end consumers were more attracted towards higher quality, classier and not so much mass-produced beers and bottom end consumers wanted more affordable products as they were affected by world recession). Connected with the fact that the market was attractive for different beer producer, Export Brands International can really influence the increase of competition in this segment.

In the situation that Nippon Spirits, affected by the decision of Modelo, will leave the partnership, Export Brands International can think also to extend the service portfolio in Japan by becoming a specialty liquor wholesaler in Japan. Export Brands International can set the objective of becoming a top importer/distributor, by handling even different brands of beer.

Export Brands International can focus on establish a successful beer marketing system, a broad network of connections, national coverage with sales office in key cities around the country, and numerous clients : convenience stores, supermarkets, liquor shops, discount stores, department stores, bars and restaurants. This alternative can be validate in case of continuing the partnership with Modelo but even if the Mexicans will step also back from the partnership. In conclusion, Export Brands International can have alternatives to the change. I tried to present shortly only some scenarios as considered by me the most relevant and feasible.

A Strong Dictatorship is Better than a Weak Democracy instant essay help: instant essay help

This house would rather have a strong dictatorship than a weak democracy Pros of having a dictatorship include: No elections, imagine not having to deal with all the political rhetoric, you already have your leader for life. Difference in opinions is ubiquitous and inevitable, and arises on every topic. For every opinion one man may have, there will always be another man opposing him (look at this debate, for example) and this may not always end well, maybe even resulting in potential Civil Wars. With a dictator, you have one ruler, one voice, a united voice.

The economy could be more controlled and sustained by a dictatorship, as the economy would be run by the state. Though a small minority of the population suffers from violence from the dictator, the vast majority of the population will exist in a nearly crime free society in large part because the smallest infraction of the law (or even the the perceived infraction) is dealt with severe punishments. The Soviet Union had very little street crime, and the Russian mafia was never grew to the size of the Italian-American mafia, or the plethora of other American criminal organizations because of the brutality of the Soviet regime.

Saddam Hussein’s regime provided free health care, access to affordable higher education, enviable for the region transportation systems, and other benefits. The Chinese government provides has better roads, railways, airports, ports, manufacturing facilities, than neighboring democratic India. The dictatorial nature of theChinese government and unquestioned decisions has benefits of massive infrastructure improvements. The Chinese building several hydro-electric dams, and moved several million people, which wouldn’t have been able accomplished in a country with personal rights to property, or the power to self determine their own existence.

Taxes are usually low, because income is not an issue. Free-market-oriented economists since Milton Friedman have strongly criticized the efficiency of democracy. They base this on the argument that voters are irrational, among other things. Their criticism towards democracy is that voters are highly uninformed about many political issues, especially relating to economics, and have a strong bias about the few issues on which they are fairly knowledgeable. The masses are not adequately educated to be able to foresee the betterment of the community they belong to, and therefore are unable to cast a vote to that effect.

But given the right to vote, an uneducated man would certainly cast a vote which will more likely be wrong as effected by the personality charisma of the candidate or some other superficial reasons. An ordinary voter may also be lured into casting a vote on the basis of financial help or some other petty promises. Chicago economist Donald Wittman has written numerous works attempting to counter these common views of his colleagues. He argues democracy is efficient based on the premise of rational voters, competitive elections, and relatively low political transactions costs.

Economist Bryan Caplan argues, while Wittman makes strong arguments for the latter two points, he cannot overcome the insurmountable evidence in favor of voter irrationality. It still remains the Achilles heel of democratic government. The problem is not mere lack of information; it is that voters badly interpret and judge the information they do have. Unfortunately, according to Caplan, the problem lies in the fact that the relative cost of learning about a particular issue is very high compared to the cost of not knowing that information.

This really becomes an issue when those ignorant people vote, which they will do because of the good feeling it gives them. [1] Other economists, such as Meltzer and Richard, have added that as industrial activity in a democracy increases, so too do the people’s demands for welfare. However, because of the median voter theorem, only a few people actually make the decisions in the country, and many may be unhappy with those decisions. In this way, they argue, democracies are inefficient. This could result in a wealth disparity in such a country, or even racial discrimination.

Fierlbeck (1998) points out that such a result is not necessarily due to a failing in the democratic process, but rather, “because democracy is too responsive to the desires of a large middle class increasingly willing to disregard the muted voices of economically marginalized groups within its own borders. “[3]The criticism remains that the will of the democratic majority may not always be in the best interest of all citizens within the country or beneficial to the future of the country itself. Furthermore, some have argued that voters may not be educated enough to exercise their democratic right.

A population with low intellect may not be capable of making beneficial decisions. They argue that the lack of rationality or even education is being taken advantage of by politicians, that compete more in the way of public relations and tactics, than in ideology. One such argument is that the benefits of a specialised society may be compromised by democracy. As ordinary citizens are encouraged to take part in the political life of the country, they have the power to directly influence the outcome of government policies through the democratic procedures of voting, campaigning and the use of press.

The result is that government policies may be more influenced by non-specialist opinions and thereby the effectiveness compromised, especially if a policy is very technically sophisticated and/or the general public inadequately informed. For example, there is no guarantee that those who campaign about the government’s economic policies are themselves professional economists or academically competent in this particular discipline, regardless of whether they were well-educated. Essentially this means that a democratic government may not be providing the most good for the most amount of people.

Additionally, some political scientists question the notion that democracy is an “uncontested good. “[7] If we base our critique on the definition of democracy as governance based on the will of the majority, there can be some foreseeable consequences to this form of rule. For example, Fierlbeck (1998: 12) points out that the middle class majority in a country may decide to redistribute wealth and resources into the hands of those that they feel are most capable of investing or increasing them.

Machiavelli put forth the idea that democracies will tend to cater to the whims of the people, who then follow false ideas to entertain themselves, squander their reserves, and do not deal with potential threats to their rule until it is too late to oppose them. He put forth a cyclical theory of government where monarchies always decay into aristocracies, that then decay into democracies, which decay into anarchy, then tyranny, then monarchy. An Example is the timeline of France before, during, and after the French Revolution until the last Bourbon Monarch.

More recently, democracy is criticised for not offering enough political stability. As governments are frequently elected on and off, there tend to be frequent changes in the policies of democratic countries both domestically and internationally. Even if a political party maintains power, vociferous, headline grabbing protests and harsh criticism from the mass media are often enough to force sudden, unexpected political change. Frequent policy changes with regard to business and immigration are likely to deter investment and so hinder economic growth.

For this reason, many people have put forward the idea that democracy is undesirable for a developing country in which economic growth and the reduction of poverty are top priority. [9] However, Downs argued that the political market works much the same way as the economic market, and that there could potentially be an equilibrium in the system because of democratic process. However, he eventually argued that imperfect knowledge in politicians and voters prevented the reaching of that equilibrium.

The constitutions of many countries have parts of them that restrict the nature of the types of laws that legislatures can pass. A fundamental idea behind some of these restrictions, is that the majority of a population and its elected legislature can often be the source of minority persecutions, such as with racial discrimination. Some countries throughout the world have judiciaries where judges can serve for long periods of time, and often serve under appointed posts. This is often balanced, however, by the fact that some trials are decided by juries.

While many, like Wittman, have argued that democracies work much the same way as the free market and that there is competition among parties to prevent oppression by the majority, others have argued that there is actually very little competition among political parties in democracies due to the high cost associated with campaigning. Some Right-Libertarians criticize democracy because they claim it is impractical or immoral. [13] The criticism for impracticality is essentially that in order to be logically consistent people would need to vote on all action, and that this would lead to the extermination of the human species.

Others criticize democracy for being immoral on the grounds that it coercively involves people, i. e. it violates voluntarism Some thinkers believe democracy will result in the people’s distrust and disrespect of governments or religious sanctity. The distrust and disrespect pervades to all parts of society whenever and wherever there is seniority and juniority, for example between a parent and a child, a teacher and a student. This in turn is suggested to be the cause of frequent divorces, teenage crimes,vandalism, hooliganism and low education attainment in Western societies, all of which are lower in Asian societies.

Even a democracy can become corrupt. This is a simple form of appealing to the short term interests of the voters. This tactic has been known to be heavily used in north and north-east region of Thailand. Another form is commonly called Pork barrel where local areas or political sectors are given special benefits but whose costs are spread among all taxpayers. Mere elections are just one aspect of the democratic process. Other tenets of democracy, like relative equality and freedom, are frequently absent in ostensibly democratic countries.

Moreover, in many countries, democratic participation is less than 50% at times, and it can be argued that election of individual(s) instead of ideas disrupts democracy. Rebuttals: If people say that a “nearly crime free society in large part because the smallest infraction of the law (or even the the perceived infraction) is dealt with severe punishments” implies that the dictatorship is ruled by fear and people live in fear, oppose it by pointing out that Chinese philosopher Han Fao believed in strict punishment to rule, believing that it is key to a good society.

Are we to contradict the teachings of an Ancient Chinese thinker whose words have inspired for so many thousands of years? And it’s not like this punishment is for the innocent, or done in spite. It is done to teach a lesson, one hard to learn. Wrongdoers cannot go unpunished. If people say that with democracy people find freedom, point out that freedom and democracy are different. In words attributed to Scottish historian Alexander Tytler: ‘A democracy cannot exist as a permanent form of government. It can only exist until a majority of voters discover that they can vote themselves largess out of the public treasury.

Democracy evolves into kleptocracy. A majority bullying a minority is just as bad as a dictator, communist or otherwise, doing so. Democracy is two coyotes and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. ” There is a difference between democracy and freedom. Freedom is not measured by the ability to vote. It is measured by the breadth of those things on which we do not vote. If people say to look at dictators like Stalin or Hitler, say that we are discussing good, strong dictatorships, like that of Napoleon.

He built roads and hospitals, helped repay France’s loans, established city sanitation projects and beautification projects, made new, fair laws, made a Central bank for the good of the people, commissioned many beautiful artworks, as well as insisted on freedom. So no, freedom is not limited to democracy. If people say that Dictatorships are situations where your entire life depends on the opinion and oppression of one man, say that a strong dictatorship has advisers that advise the dictator on what the people want and what the people hate. A dictator with a wicked mind like Stalin was not a strong dictator.

Strong dictators are not defined by how many people they kill. A strong dictator is defined by how well he can control the country, economy, world status, etc. Also a strong dictator looks after his people because the people are his country and with no people there will not be a country. If people say that people prefer to have democracies where they can make decisions, say that it wasn’t just leaders who were driving these changes. In one study by the Program on International Policy Attitudes, only 16 percent of Russians said it was “very important” that their nation be governed democratically.

The regular Afrobarometer survey of the African continent has found declining levels of support for democracy in many key countries. And in Guatemala, Paraguay, Colombia, Peru, Honduras, and Nicaragua, either a minority or only a small majority of people think democracy is preferable to any other type of government. Even in East Asia, one of the most democratic regions of the world, polls show rising dissatisfaction with democracy. In fact, several countries in the region have developed what Yu-tzung Chang, Yunhan Zhu, and Chong-min Park, who studied data from the regular Asian Barometer surveys, have termed “authoritarian nostalgia.

If they say that democracy cannot achieve much or help, mention that India still continues to be plagued by the same old problems of poverty, economic inequality, illiteracy, population, widespread corruption and so on. It is perhaps the time of an able, strong-minded, powerful dictator to take hold of the country and cleanse the entire system… A benevolent visionary, who can lead by example and get the things done with speed and perfection. Terms *A Job Safety Analysis: one of the risk assessment tools used to identify and control workplace hazards.

A JSA is a second tier risk assessment with the aim of preventing personal injury to a person, or their colleagues ** Referendum: a general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision. *** Voluntarism: the word voluntary action means action based on free will, which in turn means action which is performed free from certain constraints. The constraint of (government) coercion is often considered in this context, where it remains the question what constitutes coercion.

Not all dictatorships are composed of men whose first priorities are their own power. I would like to make a well-known example of the famous dictator Napoleon. His reign brought France out of dark times, and although people could argue that his priority was to conquer the world, we cannot deny that he did many good things for France, from building banks to commissioning art to making fair laws. The people were always a priority of his. Then I’d like to make a more recent example of Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew who is arguably a dictator.

His views on education have done wonders for the country, and his ideas for bonds guarantee many, many Singaporeans access to great education such as that found in Harvard, Yale, Princeton, etc. These types of good dictators still exist. Second, democracies may not always be what they seem. In Ecuador, elected President Rafael Correa, who has displayed a strong authoritarian streak, recently won legislation that would grant him expansive new powers. And, in Russia, Vladimir Putin used the power he won in elections to essentially dismantle the country’s democracy.

In terms of economic sense, we can look at US, the land of liberty. In 2013, their budget deficit has reached 600 billion. In 2009, it is 1. 4 trillion. With such a high budget deficit, it has caused economic recession not only to itself but to countries closely related to them. This is mainly due to democracy since politicians are unwilling to increase the tax rate since they might lose votes to opposition parties. As such, tax revnue is lesser than government expenditure, resulting in an increasing budget deficit. When we cross refer to China, we can see that the case is totally different.

With no opposition party and no democracy, Chinese government is able to make effective decisions on tax rates and economic policies; hence we can see the rise of China as a power house, which is expected to overtake America in 2015. A strong dictatorship can protect its people and offer them comfort in their life. Another way strong dictatorship is better than a weak democracy is people under strong dictatorship don’t have to worry about rising prices. Under strong dictatorships people also don’t have to worry about having health insurance because the government looks after them.

In the history of this world you can see that a strong dictatorship leads countries to strong nations. For example under communism Russia went up to a status of a world power. Also during communism people had comfort in their lives and even the lower class had money to live, buy food, and even own a car. In Russia minimum wage got you a house, food, and even a car. With a strong dictatorship you can have world security, and international relations. A strong dictatorship can provide security for a lot of people. Last but not least it would be the problem of the efficiency. Democracy is never as efficient as dictatorship.

Think about it in this way, if many people all have the right to vote on what they want it would never be as efficient as a single ruler deciding on the country’s behalf. With a capable leader, strong dictatorship has an advantage over weak democracy in a sense that the dictator can make decisions efficiently. Whereas in the case of weak democracy while different opposition parties and ruling parties have different opinions on certain policies, resulting in a scenario where a decision is unable to be made, resulting to a loss of many possible opportunities. Difference in opinions is ubiquitous and inevitable, and arises on every topic.

For every opinion one man may have, there will always be another man opposing him (look at this debate, for example) and this may not always end well, maybe even resulting in potential Civil Wars. With a dictator, you have one ruler, one voice, a united voice. The economy could be more controlled and sustained by a dictatorship, as the economy would be run by the state. Dictatorships usually involve better law enforcement, so the vast majority of the population will exist in a nearly crime free society in large part because the smallest infraction of the law (or even the the perceived infraction) is dealt with severe punishments.

The Soviet Union had very little street crime, and the Russian mafia was never grew to the size of the Italian-American mafia, or the plethora of other American criminal organizations because of the brutality of the Soviet regime. Saddam Hussein’s regime provided free health care, access to affordable higher education, enviable for the region transportation systems, and other benefits. The Chinese government provides has better roads, railways, airports, ports, manufacturing facilities, than neighboring democratic India. More recently, democracy is also criticised for not offering enough political stability.

As governments are frequently elected on and off, there tend to be frequent changes in the policies of democratic countries both domestically and internationally. Another problem is that the people who vote in democracies may not always have a clear perspective of the figures or policies of the issues they’re voting on. For example, the United Kingdom public thinks that 31% of the population is immigrants, when the official figures are 13%. 29% of people living in UK think they spend more on JSA (Job Safety Analysis) than pensions, when in fact they spend ?

Furthermore, some have argued that voters may not be educated enough to exercise their democratic right. A population with low intellect may not be capable of making beneficial decisions. They argue that the lack of rationality or even education is being taken advantage of by politicians that compete more in the way of public relations and tactics, rather than in ideology. One of the best ways to measure the impact of the government system a state implements is comparing it as opposed to similar states who took different choices.

One of this comparisons can be made between is between India and China, both countries are comparable in the time they have been a state, since India gained its independence in 1947 and the People’s Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949, and also in that they are populous, by 1951 India had a population of 361,090,000 and China had a population of 563,000,000. However, while India chose democracy, China chose a dictatorship of some sorts. If we look at both countries today, we see that China is doing great economically, whereas in India, the economy isn’t. All in all, it is evident that dictatorship is not necessarily evil, corrupt.

Refugee blues cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Refugee blues In this poem, the author have used a ballad form. This poem is lyrical which means it is a lyrics to a song. The poem have two rhyming lines of each stanza with the third line which got repetition and this develops the theme. The title ‘refugee blues’ holds an emotional intensity, shows the critical of society which the people who doesn’t belong to that country. In the first stanza, the word ‘souls’ shows that it is something holy and valuable and they should be treated all the same like everyone else. The word ‘my dear’ shows that they are married.

However, we don’t know whether the wife or the husband is talking. In the third stanza, the sentence ‘ in the village churchyard these grows an old yew’ contrasts with the sentence ‘old passports cant do that, my dear, old passports cant do that’ as the tree could go through the nature’s cycle while once the passport is lost, it can never be recovered. In the forth stanza, the sentence ‘if you’ve got no passport you’re officially dead’ shows fear, humiliation and threat. In the sixth stanza, the sentence ‘if we let them in, they will steal our daily bread’ the word daily bread allusions to the prayer ‘Our Father’ .

The sentence ‘he was talking to me , my dear’ shows intimate and close. Meanwhile, in the ninth and tenth stanza, the refugee highlights the ridiculous of the situation that they are in by contrasting it with the freedom of the fish swimming in the ocean and the birds singing in the trees. ‘they had no politicians’ and ‘they weren’t the human race’ This poem is a good example of the role poets and their works can play in social change. Auden not only makes readers aware of the refugee plight, but also requires us empathize with understandings.

Birmingham international airport ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

Operations management is concerned with the design, planning, control and improvement of an organization’s resources and processes to produce goods or services for customers. Whether it is the provision of airport services, greetings cards, plastic buckets or holidays, operations managers will have been involved in the design, creation and delivery of those products or service each part of the airport – terminals, baggage handling services, aero plane servicing and catering, for example – has been carefully designed to fulfill not only its current role, but also with the possible demands of the next year and even the next 10 years in mind. Birmingham International Airport; is one of the busiest airport in the United Kingdom.

Around 20 flight arrive at and depart from the Eurohub Terminal. Airport Personnel oversea a wide range of complex operations, including flights, passengers, terminals, airfield, facilities, staff, equipment, security and ground transportation. Across the runway and acres of tarmac, at the site of the original airport, the overnight freight operation is just beginning to wake up with the arrival of staff and the preparations for the first aircraft from Europe or the United States. Some of the 7000 staff from the 150 organizations based at Birmingham International Airport (BIA) sees to the needs of their customers.

Identify some of the micro operations to be found at the airport. For each one : a) Identify the transforming and transformed resources. b) State which is the predominant transformed resource. c) Describe the output of each micro operation and say who you think its customers are. Answer: In this case study we have found some of the micro operations which have been applied in the Birmingham International Airport. These are as follows- Baggage Handling, Ticketing, Fuel Loading, Aircraft Cleaning, Building Maintenance etc. a) transforming and transformed resources –

Transformed resources Transforming resources Bag Baggage Handler Ticket Ticketing Clerk Fuel Fuel Handler Plane Cleaner Building Maintenance Worker b) The predominant transformed resource is the plan. In Operation management plan is the most predominant transformed resource because by proper planning or by imposing proper plan BIA’s Operation Director Richard Heard make the BIA airport is one of the most profitable and organized airport in the world. c) The output of each micro operation and the customers and their outputs are as below – Micro Operation

Output of Micro Operation Customer Output of Customer Baggage Handling Reach Destination Passenger Passenger Happy Ticketing Correct Ticket Information Passenger Passenger Satisfaction Fuel Loading Full the Plane Tank With Fuel Airlines Staff Safety Journey Aircraft Cleaning Clean Plane Passenger and Airlines Staff Clean Surrounding Building Maintenance Nice and Solid Building Users of That Particular Building Safe to be Use Question No. -2: Summarize the job of the operation director. What are the main issues/problems he faces in managing the airport?

Answer: Operation Director is responsible for supervising the operation of the establishments, to ensure that the highest standards are achieved and maintained in accordance with quality assurance policies and that all legal specifications are adhered to in line with the Health and Safety Policy. The Director of Operations reports to the Chief Operating Officer. In the absence of the Director of Operations, the Chief is designated to exercise authority on behalf of the Director of Operations. Operations director also involve in set up the decision to be taken for long term. Another key task is operational planning.

Richard Heard works as an Operation Director in BIA. The main problems he faces in managing the airport through decision making. He has to make a proper decision for coordinating and setting the safety and customer service standards for everyone. For this he need to decide who is going to get the air bridges, who is going to get certain stands, who is going to have their passengers bused to the terminal at peak times, and so on. Operational planning is about making the operation as efficient as possible by working out how they can best allocate their infrastructure to the airlines.

Question No. -4: Discuss the relationship between the day-to-day tasks and the long-term issues and explain how Richard manages to oversee both at the same time? Answer: Day-to-day jobs or activity is that one’s anyone does every day as a normal part of your life, your job etc. For example-The manager is responsible for the day-to-day running of the hotel. Besides, long-term issues mean any bond issue which having a maturity for long period like 13 months or more. For example-long-term investment etc. There is a relationship between day-to-day tasks and long-term issues.

Day-to-day task is involved in long-term issues, because if regular basis of work does not do properly it creates a long-term issue. In an airport management has to maintain the day-to-day activities. For maintaining long-term issues day-to-day task should be done properly. From this case study we see that the Operation Director Richard manages to oversee both day-to-day tasks and long-term issues at the same time. They have appointed terminal managers whose duty is to look after the day-to-day operational problems and they cover the airport 24 hours a day of the week with one senior manager who oversees each shift.

The terminal major also deal with the major incidents like bomb threats, thus everyone will be saved and knows what is happening. As an operation director Richard maintains all of these activities for keeping the reputation of the airport for a long time. BIA’s mission is to be the best regional airport in Europe and for this they need to improve everything they do. They also create an impact on the local economy by encouraging inward investment and export. Introduction: Managing the airport is the job of operations director. Managing the airport here means, ensuring the smooth operations occur in and also outside the airport.

Other than that is, the operations director must oversee his workers work. He must ensure that all of his workers done their work successfully. Ensuring smooth day to day operations also one of the operations director job. Operations director also involve in set up the decision to be taken for long term. The operations director job is about coordination and setting the safety and customer service standards for everyone to adhere to. Another key task is operational planning. Operational planning is about making the operation as efficient as possible by working out how to allocate the best infrastructure to the airlines.

Understand how schools are organised in terms of roles and responsibilities college essay help online free: college essay help online free

Understand how schools are organised in terms of roles and responsibilities. 2. 1 Explain the strategic purpose of:- School governors – School governors are responsible for the running of the school. They are made up of people with close links to the school. These will include a parent governor, a staff governor, a Local Authority governor, a local community governor that will be part of the community. They will have meetings to discuss, decide and set target on aims and objections regarding the school. They will discuss and adopt new policies.

They will work closely with the Head Teacher and Senior Management, although they may not be present within the school on a day to day basis. Senior management team – The senior management team will be made up more experienced staff who will work closely with the head teacher. They will meet regularly to discuss issues concerning the school and it’s running, and implement what is discuss. This will be fed back to teachers and other members of staff. Other statutory roles e. g. SENCO – It is a statutory requirement that certain members of staff are present within in a school.

In primary schools there will be a Foundation Stage Manager and a SENCO. The Foundation Stage Manager will oversee and ensure that the Early Years Foundation Stage (which is made up to Reception and Nursery classes) is being implemented as stated in the Early Years Foundation Stage document. The SENCO will ensure that any special educational needs pupils are identified, the appropriate action is being taken, Individual Education Plans will be put in place then monitored, reviewed and progress recorded.

The SENCO will liaise with parents and other practitioners involved. Teachers – Teachers are responsible for planning, preparing and usually delivering the National Curriculum to their pupils. They must assess their pupils by assessing them. Often teachers will have another area they are responsible for. Each subject must have a person who represents it, often they may be responsible for two or three subjects. They will feedback changes or developments within their subject at staff meetings, monitor teaching and provide support to other teachers.

Support staff roles – Support staff have many different roles within the school and play an important part in the running of a school. Teaching assistants work alongside the teacher, assisting with planning, preparing, supporting learning. This can be as part of a group of children or on a one to one basis. They will feedback any problems that may arise and generally support the teacher. Other support staff may include caretakers, office staff, lunchtime supervisors, catering staff, learning mentor and parent support workers. 2.

Explain the roles of external professionals who may work with a school e. g. educational psychologist. A school will have various external professionals who will work with a school. They all have a very important role to play especially with Special Educational Needs pupils. These may include:- Speech and language therapist – they will work with pupils who have difficulties with speech, language and communication. They will usually come into the school from an outside location and offer support to the child, parents and teacher.

Educational psychologist – they work with the SENCO by observing and assessing pupils who may have additional needs. The educational psychologist is allocated through the local Special Educational Needs department. Educational Welfare Officer – the role of the EWO is to work alongside the school to monitor absence and provide support if there are issues with absence. They are usually based within the Local Authorities and visit the school.

A specialist teacher will support a pupil that may have behaviour support, autism related needs such as social and communication or may not speak English as a first language. School Improvement Partner – The SIP will have previous experience of school leadership. They will support the head teacher by coming into the school for a few days a year and advising how the school can be developed. Physiotherapists/occupational therapists – They will often work with pupils outside of school, but may come into school to support pupil progress.

Psychology Reflective college essay help near me: college essay help near me

After having various lessons, I would like to have a deeper evaluation of the chapter “Behavior in Social and Cultural Context” especially the concept of attributions . It is known that there are two types of attributions which are internal attributions and external attributions that we generally use to explain our own or other’s behaviors. Internal factors concern a person’s traits while external factors concern the external environment. In addition, I am actually shocked by the fact that there is a fundamental attribution error when we are explaining others’ behaviors.

There is a real-life example that I would like to share. Last Monday, I was stuck in a traffic jam for half an hour on Nathan Road. I had a lesson at 8:30 am in Core A and I reached the pedestrian bridge at 8:25 am, so I was rushing to the classroom. At that moment, a scene annoyed me most and stopped my way to school. A boy who was around six years old was too energetic. He dashed and rushed around on the footbridge that disturbed others’ way. He also guffawed and touched or played with anything and everything he saw. Suddenly, he paced around and glared at his mum.

“Don’t walk like a stupid pig! Do you know how to walk? I have been waiting for you for so long! ”He shouted at his mum. At that moment, I was very angry and strongly believed that the boy was so naughty and disrespectful that he showed his emotions with no restraint and did whatever he likes without regard for consequences. Based on the above case, the correspondence bias leads me to explain the boy’s behavior by ignoring the influence of situation on behavior. For example, actually he is a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, so he cannot be patient and always dash around.

However, we tend to emphasize the dispositional attribution that the boy is so naughty and disrespectful. Apparently, we tend to overestimate internal factors and underestimate external factors when explaining others’ behavior. After understanding the concept of fundamental attribution error, I have an enquiry related to it. Is there an error too when we explain our own behaviors? In order to find out the answer of it, I do some researches on it. Afterwards, I found out that the concept of actor-observer bias which is proposed by E. E. Jones and R.E. Nisbett in 1971 gives a clearer picture on the error of explaining our own and others’ behaviors. It states that we as an actor are more likely to attribute our own actions to the particular situation than to a generalization about our personality while the reverse asymmetry held for people being an observer and explaining others’ behaviors. Nevertheless, I have doubts about both the fundamental attribution error and the actor-observer bias. In my opinion, I think that both of the ideas only firmly established when describing negative events.

For instance, on the one hand, as an actor, when we get bad result on an exam, we usually attribute the reason to the difficult exam (situational). On the other hand, as an observer, when our friends get bad academic result, we usually attribute the reason to his or her lazy character (dispositional). If the event is positive, the reverse error occurs. With the same example but with the condition that both we and our friends get high marks in the exam, we will attribute the reason to hard-working (dispositional) and easy exam (situational) to explain behaviors respectively.

Malle (2006) agrees that a reverse asymmetry held for positive events after conducting a mental-analysis. He states that the discrepancy may indicate a self-serving pattern in attribution that we attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors. Therefore, I believe that we are explaining others’ by using both the self-serving bias and fundamental attribution error. Overall, the lessons build up my foundation for the psychological concepts and theories and we need to explore the psychological world by ourselves in order to find out more details, conflicts about and relationships between different ideas.

For instance, in order to finish this reflective journal, I used Google scholar to search about the actor-observer bias and the criticisms about it that I did not learn on the book and in lessons. By experiencing the searching process, I have deeper understanding on it and it strongly impresses on my memory. The process also enhances my analysis skill, to determine which sources are useful and which sources are not related to my topic. Therefore, I enjoy the process of exploring the psychological knowledge by ourselves.

Sustainability of tourism in Bhutan get essay help: get essay help

Bhutan’s tourism industry began in 1974. It was introduced with the primary objective of generating revenue, especially foreign exchange; publicising the country’s unique culture and traditions to the outside world, and to contribute to the country’s socio-economic development1. Since then the number of tourists visiting Bhutan has increased from just 287 in 1974 to over 2,850 in 1992 and over 7,000 in 1999. By the late 1980’s tourism contributed over US$2 million in revenues to the royal government.

In 1989, the royal government raised the tourist tariff. That year only 1,480 tourists visited Bhutan but the government still earned US$1. 95 million through tourism. By 1992 tourist revenues contributed as much as US$3. 3 million and accounted for as much as 15-20% of the total of Bhutan’s exported goods and services. The royal government has always been aware that an unrestricted flow of tourists can have negative impacts on Bhutan’s pristine environment and its rich and unique culture.

The government, therefore, adopted a policy of “high value-low volume” tourism, controlling the type and quantity of tourism right from the start. Until 1991 the Bhutan Tourism Corporation (BTC), a quasi-autonomous and self-financing body, implemented the government’s tourism policy. All tourists, up to that time came as guests of BTC, which in turn operated the tour organisation, transport services and nearly all the hotels and accommodation facilities.

The primary responsibilities of the Department of Tourism include ensuring compliance by travel agents with the tourism policy of the royal government, including the regulation of the number and segments of foreign tourists; fixation of rates for trekking, expeditions, and cultural tours; receiving of tourist payments and processing of tourist visas; issuing and ensuring compliance with guidelines and regulations related to tourism activities; ensuring conservation of culture, tradition, environment and protection against ravages of pollution and exposure from tourism activities; and developing new opportunities for generating growth and foreign exchange through protective tourism, and to undertake research and development in such areas.

Currently the minimum daily tariff set by the Department of Tourism for both cultural tours and treks is US$200 for the high season and US$165 for the low season2. There is no quota or limit on the number of tourists allowed to visit Bhutan. Rather the volume of tourists coming to Bhutan has been limited by the capacity constraints of tourism infrastructure due to the pronounced seasonality of tourism in the country. March/April and October/November are the top tourist seasons as the weather is best for 85 Journal of Bhutan Studies trekking and cultural festivals are taking place in different parts of the country. So far the royal government’s overall objective of maximising foreign exchange earnings while minimising adverse cultural and environmental impacts of tourism seems to have paid off.

The tourism industry has made significant contributions to the socio-economic development of the country, especially after the privatisation of the industry in 1991. A high level of profits is available to tour operators and an increasing number of Bhutanese entrepreneurs are investing in the tourism sector. Bhutanese have also found employment as guides, cooks, transport operators, and hotel and restaurant owners. Tourism contributes significantly to rural incomes through earnings from tourist transport and portage. Tourism has also provided the impetus for the development of the service sector, including hotels, restaurants, transportation and communication.

Another visible impact of tourism has been the promotion of the indigenous cottage industry and the setting up of handicraft shops in Thimphu and other frequently visited areas. Bhutan’s main tourism attractions are its traditional culture and way of life, its religious festivals, historic monuments and its pristine environment. Bhutan has received much international acclaim for its cautious approach to development that places a high priority on conserving the nation’s natural and cultural heritage. Protecting nature and culture is part of the Bhutanese value system and is an important aspect of the traditional way of life in Bhutan, and the tourism policy reflects these concerns. The policy of imposing a high tariff has succeeded in making tourism in Bhutan an exclusive and distinctive experience.

However, with the increase in the number of tourists coming to Bhutan every year there is a need to monitor and evaluate the environmental and cultural impacts of tourism and offer measures to reduce any adverse impacts. World tourism is evolving as well as growing and tourists increasingly want to engage in recreational or sporting activities, learn more about local cultures or develop special interests. Among these special interests is the natural environment resulting in what is commonly termed “eco-tourism”. This offers new opportunities and challenges for Bhutan. 86 Sustainability of Tourism Bhutan is keen to develop its tourism industry in a way that is socially, economically and environmentally sustainable.

It should be recognized that tourism in Bhutan has been sustainable so far due to the sound environmental and cultural policies of the royal government which has considerable authority over setting policy direction. The future sustainability of tourism will, however, depend on greater participation from the tourism industry. The tourism industry must realise that our environment and culture are the basic resources on which it thrives and grows. It must recognize its responsibility for conservation and sustainable natural resource management by committing to and working within principles and guidelines to achieve sustainable tourism development.

The sustainable development of tourism will require partnership and cooperation within the tourism industry, and between the industry, government, tourists and people. Local input and involvement are also important for the long-term sustainability of tourism in Bhutan. If local residents and communities are part of tourist operations and receive benefits from tourism, then the goals of the local communities, tourism operators, and the government can be met. Environmental and Cultural Impacts of Tourism Although tourism in Bhutan is referred to as a model for other fragile mountain areas where there is much concern over the society’s traditional heritage, there has emerged a number of pressing tourism-related environmental and cultural problems in the last few years.

Among the problems currently encountered are3: The destruction of vegetation through the cutting of slow-growing trees for firewood. This is particularly more pronounced in Bhutan’s high alpine regions through which most of the trekking routes are located. The local people in these areas rely on wood for fuel and tourism adds more pressure on the forests. Erosion of delicate vegetation is another visible problem associated with tourism in Bhutan. Although tourism activities are not solely responsible for erosion in the high mountain areas, the use of horses and yaks during treks have a significant impact.

Also local residents tend to increase the size 87 Journal of Bhutan Studies of their domestic herds for transport contracts with the tourism industry, which in turn adds to the limited carrying capacity of fragile mountain ecosystems. The creation of garbage trails from the indiscriminate disposal of nonbiodegradable waste is another visible environmental problem associated with the tourism industry. It has been pointed out that tourism is promoting changes from sustainable farming and cropping patterns to other more profitable and less sustainable livelihoods to meet the needs of affluent tourists. Some people also argue that interactions with tourists have led to the erosion of Bhutanese culture and value systems. Several steps have been taken by the royal government to address these problems. The Department of Tourism has banned the use of firewood on treks.

Tour operators now use liquid petroleum gas or kerosene. The Department also levies a fine of Ngultrum 5,000 on operators who continue to use firewood on treks and for littering. Although the fine is not very substantial, operators might not get trekking permits for the next season if they are charged with two violations in a particular season. The Department has also constructed permanent campsites, rest houses and toilet facilities along the more popular trek routes. The Department of Tourism has conducted several training courses for guides and has instituted a system of licensing cultural and trekking guides. All guides employed by any tour operator in Bhutan have to be licensed.

This ensures that all guides have basic training in trekking and mountaineering techniques and are briefed on all aspects of tourism in Bhutan with special emphasis on the environmental and cultural issues. Problems that Affect the Future Sustainablity of Bhutan’s Tourism There are other problems associated with tourism in Bhutan that might affect the sustainability of the industry in the long run if they are not addressed now. These include: Seasonality : Tourist arrivals in Bhutan are subject to pronounced seasonality. March/April and October/November are the top months as the weather is ideal for trekking and religious and cultural festivals are taking place all over the country. January/February and June/July are the months.

Sustainability of Tourism with the lowest activity as the weather is too cold or rainy for trekking and there are hardly any significant cultural events taking place. The seasonal nature of tourism leads to a highly inequitable distribution of visitors throughout the year adding pressure on the limited infrastructure during the peak seasons. As a result there is a severe shortage of facilities during the peak seasons and private operators resort to makeshift arrangements that may not meet the desired quality of service.. As such tourism is mostly limited to the western valleys of Paro, Thimphu, Punakha, Wangdiphodrang, and the central valleys of Trongsa and Bumthang.

Insufficient Product Diversification: Tourism in Bhutan is so far mostly limited to cultural tourists, sightseers and trekkers. In 1999, out of a total of 7,158 tourists there were 6,328 cultural tourists and 830 trekkers. Although Bhutan has vast potential for other forms of tourism and special interests 89 Journal of Bhutan Studies such as sports tourism, adventure tourism and nature tourism, the process of product diversification is just beginning. The Department of Tourism lacks both Weak Institutional Base: manpower and finance to manage and monitor the tourism industry effectively. There is a lack of qualified manpower, particularly at the management and entrepreneurial levels.

There are no formal hotel and tourism training institutes in the country. Most companies have problems in attracting and keeping adequately trained employees at all levels. Involvement of the Local Community: The government and local communities are now beginning to argue that local communities need to be more involved in the business and should receive more benefits from tourism. Local community involvement is currently limited to providing tourism transport and portage. Lack of Substantive Tourism Research Base: Proper research, surveys, feedback, statistics, data collection and processing and research related to tourism development are needed for making sound policy decisions in the future.

Deterioration in Pricing Integrity: Although the government’s policy allows a high margin of profitability to tourism operators, increasing competition has brought about undesirable results. This has led to a break down in pricing integrity. Operators are resorting to discounts and rebates to foreign operators in order to snatch business away from competitors. This practice not only has a direct impact on the royal government’s policy of high value – low volume tourism but also leads to deterioration in the quality of services provided. 90 Sustainability of Tourism Sustainable Tourism in Bhutan4 A few countries including Bhutan have demonstrated that tourism is not ugly. Bhutan is perhaps the best example where controlled tourism has been effective in ensuring the sustainability of the industry in the long run.

It has contributed significantly to foreign exchange earnings and government revenues, to income and employment generation and to regional development to a certain extent. It has created opportunities for the development of locally owned and operated private sector enterprises. Tourism has been an important mechanism for publicising the country’s culture and traditions to the outside world, and interactions with tourists have contributed to a sense of national identity, making Bhutanese proud of their country’s unique culture and environment. Tourism has further enhanced the need to conserve the country’s natural and cultural assets. Bhutan’s tourism potential is considerable with comparative advantages in many areas to ensure economic growth and diversification.

Cultural tourism, eco-tourism and adventure/sports tourism (rafting, canoeing, climbing) which are based on the country’s natural beauty, biodiversity and unique and distinct culture offer numerous opportunities for further development of the industry. The tourism industry can also generate jobs at a time when unemployment is becoming a problem with limited job opportunities in the government and private sector. Bhutan has a clearly established framework for the development of tourism. It has clear tourism policies, excellent tourism resources, a developing and expanding private sector, qualified and experienced personnel, established marketing channels and contacts. In short, the initial phase of setting up the tourism sector, of privatising the industry, and of establishing Bhutan as an exclusive, distinctive destination has been achieved.

The future development of tourism should now involve a process of refinement whereby attempts are made by the industry itself to mitigate any negative environmental and cultural impacts; explore and develop the numerous niche markets, such as eco-tourism, that offer significant growth potential and are consistent with the other development objectives of the royal government; and increase the participation of local communities in tourism activities. 91 Journal of Bhutan Studies The future development of tourism should still be guided by the concept of high-value tourism and should include a well-defined and effective policy on sustainable tourism. Such a policy should continue to advocate caution and control instead of aggressive tourism development, and be inclusive rather than sector-based. The policy should also promote value consciousness and heritage conservation. Bhutan has considerable tourism resources today because of the cautious approach adopted by the government.

This approach should be applied to policies regarding the future development of the industry to ensure that tourism development is consistent with the royal government’s goals of environmental and cultural preservation. A cautious and controlled policy will also allow periodic monitoring and review to ensure that the country’s tourism develops sustainably, avoiding the negative impacts of tourism. As tourism is a wideranging social and economic activity that is multi-sectoral by nature, such a policy should include inter-ministerial committees to facilitate coordination between different ministries, agencies, and the industry.

Bhutan’s traditional way of life and culture, its religion and its pristine environment have always been the main tourist attractions. A sustainable tourism policy should ensure that these values are promoted amongst visitors and that our cultural and natural heritage is preserved. The following are a few issues that need to be addressed urgently to ensure that tourism in Bhutan remains sustainable. Organizational Development: The future sustainability of tourism will depend largely on the effective functioning of the Department of Tourism and the industry association (Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators). To this end there is an urgent need to strengthen the capacity of the Department and establish an effective co-ordination and organization of the private sector.

Product Development: The addition of facilities and services which will improve and enrich the tourism product, lead to greater visitor satisfaction, contribute positively in terms of environmental, economic and sociocultural impacts will further help to reduce the seasonal nature of tourism and also spread tourism activities and benefits to other regions of the country. There is also a need for the development of more niche, high-value special interest market segments – e. g. Photography, zoology, ornithology, 92 Sustainability of Tourism botany, white water rafting. Related to product development there is a need for more emphasis on a classification system for tourism facilities and specification of minimum standards.

Marketing Strategies: The collection and processing of more complete market information, and improved analysis of characteristics of market behaviour is another basic requirement for developing future policies and plans. Also the development of new products and attractions requires effective joint marketing initiatives that combine public and private resources. Human Resource Development: The development of human resources, not only within the Department of Tourism, but also within individual private operators and other bodies is a must for the success of future programs. With careful planning and management of the industry and the appropriate inputs, the tourism industry in Bhutan could well surpass its economic expectations without eroding the cultural and environment of the country.

To this end several initiatives have already been undertaken to a) build up the resources to finance development of the industry b) involve all relevant partners in drafting future policies related to tourism; and c) form an industry association that will take steps to promote, encourage and assist in the development of tourism in Bhutan. The Tourism Development Fund The Tourism Development Fund was set up by the Department of Tourism in 1999 to fund tourism development in the country. The Department collects US$10 per visitor from tour operators and it is intended that this fund will be available for the maintenance of tourism infrastructure, joint marketing programmes, and development of new tourism products (ecotourism and adventure sports such as white-water rafting and kayaking).

The fund has also been utilised to set up the office of the Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators (ABTO). The Tourism Development Committee 93 Journal of Bhutan Studies Tourism is not a sector in itself but a wide-ranging social and economic activity that is multi-sectoral by nature. As such, it poses problems of coordination between a variety of different government ministries and agencies. For this reason special inter-ministerial committees or councils are necessary to provide the necessary degree of co-ordination useful to ensure that tourism development plans take into consideration the concerns and sensitivities of all the sectors involved.

In Bhutan the Tourism Development Committee was established with the following functions: a) to act as the apex body to oversee all matters related to tourism development in the kingdom of Bhutan; b) to provide advice and guidance to the Department of Tourism in carrying out its functions; c) to approve all plans and programs drawn up by the Department of Tourism in consultation with the Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators (ABTO) and other relevant organizations on an annual basis; d) to approve the annual budget for the development of plans and programmes to be allocated out of the Tourism Development Fund (TDF); and e) to act as a medium between the government and the private sector and facilitate effective and expeditious resolutions of issues emerging from time to time.

The Committee consists of 12 members from government agencies as well as the private sector. It is hoped that the wide representation on the Committee will ensure that issues related to the cultural and natural integrity are addressed at this committee during the development of future plans and policies. The Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators (ABTO) The Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators (ABTO) was formed in December 1999 with the overall objective of bringing together all the private sector interests involved in the tourism industry. One of the objectives of ABTO is to establish a channel for closer and more effective collaboration between the tourism industry and the Department of Tourism.

ABTO is also the first step that the industry has taken to create a mechanism for self-control and self-regulation. Ecotourism 94 Sustainability of Tourism The royal government has realized that it is now time to think strategically about the need for and the impact of future development of tourism in Bhutan. There is a need to monitor and review the impacts of current policies and to develop further guidelines to ensure that the industry grows in a sustainable manner. Numerous policy documents of the royal government, including Bhutan 20205 and The Middle Path- Bhutan’s National Environmental Strategy6- have recognized the need to promote ecotourism as a way to achieve sustainable tourism development in the country.

There is considerable scope for ecotourism in Bhutan as it offers significant growth potential and is consistent with the other development objectives of the royal government while enhancing the cultural integrity of local people. The country’s rich biological resources that includes over 165 species of animals and more than 770 species of birds offer vast opportunities for ecotourism. Also within Bhutan’s borders there are over 60% of the endemic species of the eastern Himalayan region. Bhutan’s rich floral wealth also includes more than 50 species of rhododendrons and over 300 species of medicinal plants that are used in traditional herbal medicine.

Such a rich natural environment coupled with the royal government’s conservation policy are what make Bhutan a prime destination for ecotourism. Ecotourism is considered the fastest growing market in the tourism industry today and with Bhutan’s enviable resources, it should explore ways of developing this market. Bhutan must, however, be careful and aware that not all forms of ecotourism are well designed. As in other sectors of tourism, lack of planning and foresight even in well-meaning ecotourism projects can cause serious negative impacts. It may lead to the exploitation, and destruction of ecologically fragile areas where tourists might not have been allowed if not for ecotourism.

Proper management is needed to reduce the adverse impacts on environment and culture from other forms of tourism. Developing this niche market will require a national strategy to balance nature-oriented tourism, foreign exchange earnings, and protection of the natural resources such as protected areas. Therefore, it is imperative that the government and the industry define ecotourism in the Bhutanese context, addressing both tourism policy and the potential for specific nature-related tourism products. Such an exercise will help determine the nature of ecotourism development in Bhutan.

Ecotourism must be compatible with 95 Journal of Bhutan Studies effective conservation and operate within the area’s natural capacity, for the regeneration and future productivity of natural resources. Ecotourism must minimise ecological footprints and give proper consideration to local cultures and local people in the areas they visit, and ensure that these people have an equitable share in the economic benefits of tourism. Ecotourism must be undertaken in Bhutan very carefully so that it is a positive force for conservation and environmental protection that also provides a unique opportunity for raising awareness and enhancing support for conservation. Therefore, if Bhutan is to explore its ecotourism potential, the following investments will have to be implemented7. Marketing and Marketing Survey

The first stage in developing the nation’s ecotourism industry will be to conduct basic market research to determine the types of infrastructure, information, trips, and accommodations that will attract potential tourists. With proper and active marketing of the uniqueness of Bhutan as a tourist destination, it is likely that tourists might be willing to pay more than the current minimum tariff to experience Bhutan’s biodiversity and culture. However, it must be recognized that the promotion of opportunities must go hand in hand with the development of more information about biodiversity, training of guides, and development of infrastructure.

The royal government and the tourism industry must undertake a marketing survey to better understand the potential for this type of tourism in Bhutan and to identify specific areas where Bhutan has a comparative advantage. Training and Capacity Building A weakness in Bhutan’s present tourism is the lack of well-trained and knowledgeable guides, especially for specialist tours like bird watching, photography and flora tourism. A formal system of training and accreditation will help the country provide the high standards expected by specialist tourists. Ecotourism requires trained guides who have knowledge of specific parks and other sites and who are able to identify the biodiversity of the region.

The Biodiversity Action Plan of Bhutan points out that many local residents in Bhutan’s parks have considerable expertise of the local biodiversity and that the prospects of using them as guides should be explored in order to increase employment opportunities for them. 96 Sustainability of Tourism The Biodiversity Action Plan also proposes that Bhutan encourage natural history tours with organisations that can supply their own guides with some knowledge of the region and pair those visiting guides with local people who could enhance their own knowledge. In the long-term strategies will have to be developed to build up this important human resource that is a vital component of ecotourism. Information

Although much has been written about Bhutan’s rich biodiversity and pristine environment, there is a genuine lack of interpretive materials that can be used by interested visitors to Bhutan and school children, particularly field guides and biodiversity tour guides. For ecotourism to be a success the royal government and the tourism industry needs to invest in the development of basic scientific information on the country’s biodiversity. Infrastructure Promoting ecotourism in Bhutan will require the development of appropriate infrastructure. Although this type of tourism traditionally requires fewer infrastructures than other forms of tourism, many countries have built elaborate facilities within protected areas in the name of ecotourism. Such developments have given ecotourism a bad name with protestors calling it “eco-terrorism” instead.

The development of ecotourism in Bhutan should be limited to development of trails and access routes, and basic interpretative facilities like visitor centers. It is recommended that the development of infrastructure for ecotourism in protected areas undergo an Environmental Impact Assessment to ensure the suitability of the project and to prevent costly environmental degradation. 97 Journal of Bhutan Studies The Role of the Government The role of the government is important to ensure that the low-impact scale of ecotourism is not exceeded and that proper planning is undertaken before ecotourism initiatives are implemented. Strong government controls are also necessary to ensure that tourism practices by the private sector are environmentally and culturally sustainable.

In most countries, ecotourism has either failed or not lived up to expectations as it has been promoted without an overall strategy, effective protected areas management plans, and without consultation or inclusion of local communities. Therefore, the government must adopt a national ecotourism strategy to improve the environmental and cultural success of ecotourism. Such a strategy should aim to co-ordinate government and private efforts to achieve positive economic, environmental, social, and cultural impacts of tourism. Excessive or unmanaged visitation adversely affects ecotourism sites, both ecologically and culturally. Also the ecological and cultural value of the sites diminishes if visitation is not managed properly. Limitations on visitors must be imposed in order to maintain the ecological and cultural integrity of a ecotourism site.

The Biodiversity Action Plan for Bhutan advocates that the most derisible approach to control visitor number is to maintain the existing fee charged by the royal government, while setting limits to the total number of tourists visiting the country and allocating tradable rights to the existing tour operators. The document argues that operators would thus have to pay the government the current $70 per visitor per day fee, but then would be free to charge what the market would bear. Using this approach, the government would also seek to direct visitors to other parts of the country or to other seasons of the year through either regional quotas or limits in hotel construction in the more busy regions of the country. 98 Sustainability of Tourism Current Status of Ecotourism in Bhutan.

Several workshops on ecotourism have been conducted by the Royal Society for the Protection of Nature (RSPN), the World Wildlife Fund, and the Nature Conservation Division (NCD) of the Ministry of Agriculture. An Ecotourism Management Plan for the Jigme Dorji National Park was drafted in 1998. Also the Integrated Community Development Programmes (ICDP) that are being implemented in several areas have made attempts to get local communities more involved in managing tourism within their own communities. Such community-based tourism is being encouraged in Laya and Soe within the Jigme Dorji National Park. The RSPN has drafted an Ecotourism Management Plan for Phobjikha valley which has been declared a conservation area for the endangered Black-Necked Cranes.

The ecotourism management plan for Phobjikha aims to integrate the conservation of the winter habitat of the Cranes and development of the Phobjikha valley by providing the local community with ecologically sustainable income opportunities to boost the local economy. The programme aims to promote the development of alternative energy, eco-tourism, conservation and education programs, Black-Necked Crane research, and monitoring and development of infrastructure for ecotourism. As such the Phobjikha programme is the first real attempt at developing ecotourism in Bhutan. The prime objective of the RSPN is the conservation of the winter habitat of the Black-Necked Cranes.

The society hopes to achieve this by promoting ecotourism in the area. The society works closely with the International Crane Foundation (ICF), based in Wisconsin, USA, which organises tours for its members to Phobjikha every winter. The International Crane Foundation pays US$100 per person over and above the regular tourist tariff to the RSPN to support its work. The RSPN gives 50% of such earnings to the Phobjikha Area Development Committee, a local community organisation. The Bhutanese tour operator also pays RSPN 10% of its earnings from any group that comes through the ICF. The RSPN uses the money to maintain the basic infrastructure in the area.

So far, the RSPN has built a photography hide from which to observe the cranes and also developed footpaths to improve access in the area. It is also building a 99 Journal of Bhutan Studies visitor’s centre and is educating tourists and other visitors on the need for conservation in the Phobjikha valley. Although critics are of the opinion that promotion of ecotourism in Phobjikha attracts more tourists and thereby cause more disturbances to the cranes, the RSPN program with some refinement can be a good model for ecotourism in other areas as it: a) offers a source of financing for development or maintenance of an important natural site; b) promotes local economic development; and c) provides needed foreign exchange and national benefits.

This is the first such project in Bhutan that endeavours to promote partnership between an international organisation, a local tour operator, an NGO and the local community. More active commitment and involvement of the tourism industry and the participation of local communities in tourism activities, including the sharing of financial benefits, are important ingredients for the future success of ecotourism in Bhutan. The government must continue to play the lead role in policy and programme co-ordination, which are developed in partnership with the tourism industry and local communities. One of the most quoted benefits of ecotourism is that its success rates are much higher if it is conducted as a partnership between the government, the tourism industry and local communities.

Bhutan has immense potential as an ecotourism destination and it must explore ways in which this form of tourism can be implemented effectively in partnership with the private sector and local communities. 100 Sustainability of Tourism Conclusion Bhutan is in a very fortunate position in terms of tourism. While tourism resources are being destroyed elsewhere, Bhutan’s assets in the form of its natural environment and culture are well preserved. The international community has lauded the country’s policy of giving the highest priority to environmental and cultural preservation. This has further increased the profile of Bhutan as a prime tourist destination.

The tourism industry has created a wide range of opportunities for Bhutanese who have begun to grasp economic opportunities offered by the industry. Tourism has also been a self-financing mechanism for promoting the country’s environment and facilitating an awareness and understanding of the uniqueness of this country. Tourism has resulted in some adverse impacts but the government has recognised the need to address them. Tourism has also promoted Bhutanese culture by creating employment opportunities for traditional musicians and dancers and encouraged the resurgence of local festivals in different parts of the country. Although the government still maintains control over the industry, it has become much more diverse and complex since it was privatized in 1991.

The private sector is being more involved in not only monitoring itself but also in developing future tourism policies. Tourism bodies like the Tourism Development Committee and the Association of Bhutanese Tour Operators have been established to foster partnership between relevant sectors involved in the industry and within the industry itself. Both the organisations are still in their formative stages but have crucial roles to play in determining the future sustainability of tourism in Bhutan. Ecotourism offers a way of achieving the benefits of tourism in a way that is consistent with the country’s development philosophy. Adventure sports: rafting and kayaking is another form of tourism that is being promoted in Bhutan.

Bhutan has a comparative advantage in this area as it is endowed with free-flowing and challenging rivers. Opening up rivers around the country for white-water rafting and kayaking will bring tourism to parts of the country that are otherwise not visited and help distribute tourism benefits to these areas as well. Other innovative schemes8 such as providing meditation centres in national parks, replicating traditional and religious festivals so that the real ones are not corrupted, and sponsoring exhibitions 101 Journal of Bhutan Studies of traditional ethnic minority cultures with the aim of returning a fair share of tourism revenues to these communities, offer avenues for sustainable tourism.

A Tourism Master Plan is under preparation and once completed will provide a guide to the future development of the industry. However, there should be extensive consultation between various stakeholders before the document is formally approved and implemented. So far the government’s policy of “high value-low volume” tourism has been successful in regulating the growth of the industry and maintaining the number of visitors at an acceptable level. To ensure that our valuable tourism resources are developed in a cautious manner the government must continue to regulate tourism through its pricing policy. It is also time for the government to think of a well-defined and effective policy on sustainable tourism, especially ecotourism.

Only the government can provide the strategic planning base for tourism and ensure that valuable and fragile habitats are identified, that baseline monitoring is carried out, and that the overall needs and implications of tourism are assessed. For major developments, environmental impact assessments should be carried out. The tourism industry also has a fundamental role in maintaining the sustainability of tourism in Bhutan. Individual firms can take the lead role by showing how self-regulation can work in practice, by taking voluntary action to reduce pollution, by initiating and abiding by the Codes of Best Practices, and by educating clients. The tourism industry association must continue to develop and adopt such codes of conduct and good practice, and provide members with the information to implement them.

The industry association must also develop mechanisms for effective selfregulation and introduce sound environmental practices. Lastly, local involvement and input are essential for the long-term economic and environmental sustainability of tourism in Bhutan. If local communities are involved and have a stake in tourism activities, it will be in their interests to ensure that tourism is sustainable. Furthermore, partnership between the government, the private sector, and the local people can open up a wide range of opportunities that make good economic sense and benefit all the partners. Tourism will be sustainable only if 102 Sustainability of Tourism

Tourism planners and operators give due consideration to the carrying capacity of our natural resources, recognise that people and communities, customs and lifestyles contribute to the tourism experience and, therefore, accept that these people should also get some of the benefits from tourism. Notes 1 Edward, Inskipp “Sustainable Tourism development in the Maldives and Bhutan,” UNEP industry and Environment, vol 15, no. 3-4, July-December 1992. P. 34. 2 These prices include services for land transport, accommodation, food, sightseeing, guides and cultural programs. 3 National Environment Commission, Royal Government of Bhutan: The Middle Path-National Environmental Strategy for Bhutan. 1998. “Tourism and Its Effects on the Culture and the Environment” p. 52 4

Sustainable tourism in the context of this paper means that tourism continues to generate revenue, especially foreign exchange; publicize the country’s unique culture and traditions to the outside world; and play an active role in the country’s socio-economic development in a manner that is consistent with the royal government’s policies aimed at sustainable development. Sustainable tourism therefore means that the growth of the industry will place emphasis on the preservation of the country’s culture, environment and traditional lifestyle.

Global village college essay help online free: college essay help online free

America was a time of challenging authority and established conventions. It was into this era that a Professor of Media studies at Toronto University rose to media personality status. Marshall Mcluhan is famous for introducing society to catchy aphorisms such as “the medium is the message”. Although his theories have always been contested, they were popular at the time and are currently enjoying a revival.

One such theory is his vision of the “Global Village” which I will discuss in this essay. To understand the term, a comprehension of some of his other ideas is necessary. Mcluhan was influenced by Harold Adams Innis who suggested that each medium of communication had a time “bias” which affected the stability of society. In short, he saw that “time biased” media such as stone carving would endure time and lead to a stable society. “Space biased” media, such as papyrus, could easily be revised and lead to an unstable culture (Meyrowitz 1985:17).

Mcluhan went beyond this to suggest that different media have “sensory bias” (Postman went beyond this to argue that the medium contains an “ideological bias”). Mcluhan saw each new media invention as an extension of some human faculty. In The Medium is the Massage he notes, “All new media are extensions of some human faculty” (Mcluhan and Fiore 1967:26). The book illustrates some examples; the wheel of the foot, the book of the eye, clothing of the skin and electronic circuitry of the central nervous system. In terms of the “global village” the last extension is the most important.

He saw us as breaking our ties with a local society and, through our new electronic extensions, connecting globally to a new world of total involvement. “We now live in a Global Village…a simultaneous happening” (Mcluhan & Fiore 1967:63). He refers to the village as a global community, existing with a level of connection associated with small rural settlings. We can see evidence for this in terms of what is sometimes termed an “always on” culture. News travels instantaneously across the globe, 1 in 6 people own a mobile phone (Guardian 2002) and the Internet smashes old barriers of communication.

However, the Internet was in its infancy when Mcluhan used the term, which was first used in response to radio. There is some debate over the origin of the term “global village”. Eric Mcluhan writes that James Joyce reffered to a similar phrase, as did Wyndham Lewis. His opinion is that his father was probably already developing the concept and found it referenced in Lewis’ work afterwards. Mcluhan’s view of the “Global Village” was positive. He saw it championing greater social involvement and wrote, “In an electronic information environment, minority groups can no longer be ignored”

This is a technological determinist attitude as it holds the medium as the single key to their involvement. Mcluhan also notes, “there is absolutely no inevitability as long as there is a willingness to contemplate what is happening” (Mcluhan and Fiore 1967:25). This is rather at odds with some of Mcluhan’s other material. He often makes poetically powerful statements about our helplessness in the face of technology (“All media work us over completely” (Mcluhan & Fiore 1967:26)). Digital TV offers increasing interactivity with Internet functions such as e-mail and online banking available next to greater entertainment choices.

It is being put to an alternative use in sheltered housing by allowing residents in difficulty to contact the manager; an example of how new technology is including minority groups. However, with the advent of digital TV the Government has come under pressure to sell the broadcasting spectrum that analogue occupies and is planning to do so before 2010. The effects of this look set to create a greater divide than the one it healed. 50% of homes currently have digital TV but a third of homes are unable to receive digital TV at all.

A report by the Department of Trade and Industry found that 6% of the population are likely to object to the switch-off based on the cost of upgrading and the belief that we watch too much TV (The Observer, 2004). If the analogue signal were to be switched off, those who couldn’t (or wouldn’t) receive digital TV would have no access to TV. The gap between rich and poor would accelerate and a greater social divide would exist. Technological Determinists refer to a “technological revolution” and since the invention of this term there has been concern for those left outside.

The issue is more complex than Mcluhan presents it and subject to factors beyond that of just the medium. In Mcluhan’s time the Internet was far from the widespread facility it is today. He died in 1980, but only 5 years later the system to which the phrase “online community” is most pertinent was operational. Internet forums allow a number of people across the globe to converse in real time. The Internet seems to provide the most convincing argument for the “global village”. With broadband most actions are instant, allowing the user to converse, transfer money, view information and order products regardless of geography.

Mcluhan’s idea of electronic circuitry extending the nervous system is easier to comprehend when you consider someone sitting down at a computer. The physical action of typing becomes the cause, but the effect is realised in an electronic global network. Meyrowitz notes how “At one time, parents had the ability to discipline a child by sending the child to his or her room-a form of ex-communication from social interaction” (Meyrowitz 1985:Preface). This is no longer the case. The Internet offers the possibility of extending our central nervous system across the globe.

It is intrinsic in today’s society and much has been written over its social effects. Wellman and Gulia remark, “those on either side of this debate assert that the Internet will create either wonderful new forms of community or will destroy communication altogether” (Wellman: “The Networked Community”). The reality is unlikely to be as clear as this (although Mcluhan’s “global village” would suggest that it is). Meyrowitz has argued that new media blur the boundaries between public and private behaviour (Meyrowitz 1985:93-114).

The same headline in a newspaper and read by a newsreader are two different messages. Print media does not invite the same depth of character analysis that TV does. The public broadcast begins to merge a private situation and invites a personal reading of the presenter. The personal homepage is an explicit example of the blurring between public and private boundaries. People from all walks of life are making available to the connected world their presentation of themselves. Cheung notes how it can be emancipatory as it allows you to rehearse your presentation (Cheung 2000).

Unlike face-to-face communication you can refine your presentation until you are content. Mcluhan envisaged the “global village” as creating a greater level of social involvement and to some extent we can see this happening with the personal homepage. Individuals are reaching out to a global mass audience to say, “this is me”. Grosswiler notes that Mcluhan “would have agreed with the idea that electronic media increase the desire for closeness and intimacy in the Global Village” (Grosswiler 1998:118).

However there is a problem in defining what we mean by “closeness and intimacy”. A personal webpage is more personal than the BBC homepage but not as personal as face-to-face communication. Mcluhan would argue that the “closeness and intimacy” on the personal webpage is the only type that exists as we live in the “global village”. For Mcluhan there was no other village and intimacy could be with anyone, anywhere. There is a tendency by those who consider the Internet in a technologically determinist way to view it in isolation.

The Internet is for most people not the totality of their social interaction, although it is becoming increasing possible to live your life without human contact. It is possible to order almost everything you could need using the Internet, yet town centres still exist. I may talk to friends online but the majority of communication with them will be face-to-face. Mcluhan is often accused of exaggerating his conclusions and this is evident. While the personal webpage is popular it doesn’t provide a substantial system of interaction.

It also clear that while a minority of people make friends online, face-to-face interactions comprise the majority. Mcluhan’s famous aphorism “the medium is the message,” represents the belief that the medium itself has social impact of which the masses are usually considered to be unaware. If the power of the media is so great, how is it that determinists such as Mcluhan can stand outside of it to comment? Furthermore Mcluhan thought that as soon as we are aware of something as environment, a greater process must be in effect (Mcluhan, Eric).

However, Mcluhan was considered knowledgeable enough to sit on a board set up to examine “the totality of communications problems in modern society” (McBride cited in Briggs and Burke 2002:258-260). The outcome of this report would have made interesting reading but unfortunately political conditions halted proceedings. Maybe I would be discussing a different concept if the report had gone ahead. Mcluhan once remarked that the one thing a fish is not aware of is water. The water determines everything the fish does yet the fish is blissfully unaware.

The point is that we are the fish and technology our water. However this doesn’t prove the argument, it simply explains it. At first glance the phrase appears clever yet contains no empirical evidence and is typical of Mcluhan’s inventive and persuasive useful of language. Mcluhan’s global village is perceived as optimistic. Yet a Marxist interpretation offered by Ang notes that “the making of the “global village” can be rewritten as the transformation, or domestication, of the non-Western Other in the name of capitalist modernity” (Ang 1996:150-180 cited in Grosswiler 1998:142).

While the idea of the spread of communication remains constant, it is seen to destroy individual non-western cultures to make way for capitalist exploitation. The sociologist Tom Nairn argues that while Mcluhan’s “global village” could be reality, it is prevented from being so by the social forms of capitalism” (Nairn 1968:150 cited in Grosswiler 1998:34). He is not denying that it is achievable, but notes, “The potential of electric media is, in fact, in contradiction with a great deal of the actual social world”. He accuses Mcluhan of creating myths and ignoring the contradictions of his theory.

The graphic below compare the distribution of Internet routers and the global population. (Soon-Hyung Yook, Hawoong Jeong, and Albert-Laszlo Barabasi at http://www. cybergeography. org/atlas/geographic. html) It is obvious from the map that the majority of the world is not connected. According to this the “global village” is made up of a minority of the worlds population. This is a model far from creating greater social involvement and has the potential to create a global divide between the connected and the unconnected.

In my introduction I cited a statistic claiming that 1 in 6 people own a mobile phone in support of the “global village” concept. As with Mcluhan’s aphorisms this initially seems persuasive but closer inspection reveals the truth. The statistic suggests proportionality. As Briggs and Burke explain, “While there were 600 million telephones in the world in 1982, half the world’s population lived in countries which together had fewer than ten million”. Again this undermines the “global village” vision and adds empirical weight to Nairn’s criticism that the potential of the media is in contradiction with reality.

As with the Internet, the “global village” is presented here as almost exclusively existing between developed western countries. Mcluhan’s vision dictated that minorities couldn’t fail to be incorporated, yet they have been excluded by virtue of being unconnected. Furthermore the Marxist view upholds that where third-world nations are included, it is only as means of stripping them of identity for capitalist ends. These points considered, it seems that Mcluhan’s vision is not a reality. Much of the world is unconnected and I need cite no evidence that it has not led to world peace.

However, it should be noted that Africa is currently leading the way in the realms of mobile phone ownership. It has become the first continent in which the number of mobile phone users exceeds that of landline subscribers. A report “has estimated that there will be 60 million people using mobile phones by the end of the year – more than double the 27 million who have a landline” and mobile phone ownership is growing at an annual rate of 65%, double the global average (Guardian, May 2004).

It seems that we may be fast heading toward a “global village”. However even with Africa’s growth in mobile phone ownership, this still only brings the total to 6% of the population (Guardian, May 2004) and Internet access is considerably lower. While it may be true that a virtual village has been created, it is far from the all-inclusive global vision that Mcluhan prophesised.

The Morals in Macbeth essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Macbeth (1606) is a morality play that warns its audiences, past and present, about the destruction that follows when ambition goes beyond moral constraints. To fully understand the extent to which Macbeth is a morality play, it is essential to give consideration to the context of the time during which the playwright penned the drama. Theatre was a major social event that not only brought society together but also taught the audience, regardless of their social class, how to behave in order for society to maintain its moral order.

Shakespeare used the beliefs and current events of Renaissance England; the existence of witches, the Divine Right of Kings, a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy, and The Gowrie Conspiracy and The Gunpowder Plot regicide attempts; to warn the audience of the psychological turmoil associated with allowing oneself to be lured into immoral acts. Equally important in determining the moral integrity of Macbeth is establishing what defines a morality play.

Morality plays were a form of medieval drama that flourished in Europe during the 16th century and the early 17th century, when Macbeth was performed. Moral plays were dramatised allegories, where characters were personifications of different qualities or vices and justice was served at the end of the play. Through the use of dramatic conventions, language and structural devices and the close examination of Macbeth’s psychological deterioration in the play, Shakespeare exemplifies to Jacobean audiences the penalties of immoral crimes.

To build on this, the playwright reminds his contemporary audiences about the unpredictable nature of witches and the supernatural and the dire consequences of involving yourself with them. Furthermore, the drama highlights the negative repercussions of regicide and an illegitimate leader’s rule of a country, through Macbeth’s usurping of the Scottish crown and the resulting degeneration of the Scottish kingdom.

Shakespeare’s play Macbeth fulfils all the characteristics of morality plays from the early 17th century and its status as a notable morality play has been heightened by how Shakespeare’s highly progressive and provocative messages about life and moral values are still relevant to contemporary audiences over 500 years later and thus, the play can be considered one of the greatest morality tales ever written. Shakespeare proposes that immoral actions we commit to achieve our ambitions and desires won’t result in success and happiness but, rather, will cause disastrous consequences.

This notion occurs frequently throughout the play, with the first example arising very early in Scene 2 of Act One. The Thane of Cawdor, the ‘most disloyal traitor’ (1, 2, 59) Macdonwald, has joined the Norwegian forces fighting against Scotland. After committing this act of treason, the Thane of Cawdor is executed and his titles are given to Macbeth in recognition of his heroic efforts. The fact that Macbeth receives the traitor’s honours foreshadows that the new Thane of Cawdor, Macbeth, will follow the same fate and betray the King.

Shakespeare wanted his audiences to become more morally-informed people so by placing this scene at the beginning of the play, the Bard immediately establishes that murder and treachery, above all against the King, are morally corrupt and will only cause dire consequences for the perpetrator. After encountering the three Weird Sisters in the following scene, who prophecise that he will become King of Scotland, Macbeth resolves that ‘chance may crown me/Without my stir’ (1, 3, 157-158). However, he allows his ‘dearest love’ (1, 5, 63) to manipulate him into taking King Duncan’s life.

Moreover, Shakespeare shows his contemporary audience the eternal effects of committing murder when Macbeth speaks to an imaginary Duncan, warning him not to hear the bell for ‘it is a knell/That summons thee to heaven or to hell’ (2, 1, 71-72). Shakespeare employs the technique of apostrophe here as Macbeth addresses the absent Duncan as if he were present. During this speech, Macbeth realises that his actions will damn him and he will go to hell and the use of the rhyming couplet adds a sense of finality, accentuating that the deed is irreversible.

Shakespeare’s mentioning of the eternal damnation of Macbeth as a result of committing regicide would have heightened the Jacobean audiences’ adherence to the play’s morals. The playwright gives full access to Macbeth’s tortured mind as he descends into madness. In the scene succeeding the murder, Macbeth recalls the deed in a frenzied state and claims that he heard a voice say, ‘Sleep no more! /Macbeth does murder sleep’ (2, 2, 43-44). The word ‘sleep’ is then mentioned six more times in the space of eight lines as Shakespeare stresses that Macbeth is no longer innocent and so cannot sleep.

His dispatching of Duncan has literally murdered any chance of easy sleep for Macbeth, due to the immense guilt that he will suffer. Even after Macbeth is crowned as King, Lady Macbeth admits that ‘Nought’s had, all’s spent,/Where our desire is got without content. ’ Lady Macbeth and her husband have exhausted all their resources and achieved everything they wanted, but still are not satisfied. Shakespeare uses this rhyming couplet to underscore that no personal peace or contentment can be achieved by killing another.

Lady Macbeth then goes as far as to say that ‘’Tis safer to be that which we destroy/Than by destruction dwell in doubtful joy’ (3, 2, 8-9). In other words, it’s better to be dead than tormented by guilt because you have killed someone. Macbeth enters and expresses the full extent of his anxious and guilty conscience when he confesses that, ‘O, full of scorpions is my mind, dear wife! ’ (3, 4, 42). This torturous metaphor highlights the distress that seems to be burrowing further and further into the depths of Macbeth’s mind.

The audience cannot help but empathise with Macbeth and his struggle with his issues of conscience, whilst still recognising that he is governed by some semblance of right and wrong, despite the poor choices he has made. Equally important in demonstrating the deterioration associated with committing immoral deeds is the rapid demise of Lady Macbeth following Duncan’s death. After Duncan’s assassination, Lady Macbeth is the one who takes control and attempts to calm Macbeth with her misguided philosophy that ‘A little water clears us of this deed. How easy is it then!

However, this lack of remorse soon fades and as Macbeth isolates himself with his newly attained Kingship, Lady Macbeth becomes overrun with guilt. A doctor is summoned by Lady Macbeth’s attendant to observe her nightly ritual and he describes her sleep-walking as ‘A great perturbation in nature, to receive at once the/benefit of sleep and do the effects of watching! ’ (5, 1, 8-9), highlighting the unnaturalness of Lady Macbeth’s actions. She then tries to remove imaginary blood from her hands, evidence of her role in Duncan’s death.

The doctor concludes that ‘Unnatural deeds/Do breed unnatural troubles’ (5, 1, 63-64). Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s appalling immoral crimes can be seen as unnatural deeds which bring about numerous disastrous consequences, both for them and in the natural world. Through the repetition of the word ‘unnatural,’ the playwright directly reinforces to audiences, then and now, the immorality of Duncan’s assassination and murder as a whole and the inherent suffering associated with committing immoral deeds.

In the end, suicide seems like the only option for Lady Macbeth to escape the trap she has caused for herself through her deplorable actions. The inclusion of a main female character by Shakespeare is very effective as it adds an element of universality to the play’s morals; without the downfall of an ambitious female character, the messages of the drama, would not, arguably, be as applicable to female audience members. The playwright uses the decline of Macbeth and his wife, two of the central characters in the play, following their regicide to repeatedly warn his contemporary and future audiences about the dangers of committing immoral deeds and their devastating consequences.

To build on the idea that unnatural deeds breed unnatural troubles, Shakespeare presents witchcraft and the supernatural as dangerous forces and highlights that involving yourself with them will only lead to your downfall. The role of the witches in Macbeth’s decline should not be underestimated. Although the Weyward Sisters do not directly advise Macbeth to commit regicide, they tempt him into the deed with their prophecies, which promise that he ‘shalt be King hereafter! ’ (1, 3, 53). By planting this seed in Macbeth’s mind, the Weird Sisters effectively guide him onto the path to his own destruction.

Shakespeare relates witchcraft to the devil, as many Jacobean people believed that the devil followed this same pattern of temptation, and thus accentuates the extent of their evil intentions. The plotting of Macbeth’s downfall by the supernatural forces is stressed in Scene 5 of Act Three when Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft, reprimands the three witches for approaching Macbeth without her. Hecate plans to destroy Macbeth by filling him with over confidence and using apparitions to ‘draw him onto his confusion’ (3, 5, 29). Just two scenes later, Macbeth visits the Weird Sisters, who are chanting the line, ‘Double, double toil and trouble.

Shakespeare stresses the witches’ intent: to cause trouble for all the mortals around them. The Wayward Sisters succeed in confusing Macbeth in their equivocations; to ‘Beware the Thane of Fife’ (4, 1, 79) but then that ‘none of woman born/Shall harm Macbeth’ (4, 1, 88-89) and ‘Macbeth shall never vanquished be, until/Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill/Shall come against him’ (4, 1, 101-103). These half-truths that seemingly promise success for Macbeth cause him to become arrogant and complacent in his role as King, which essentially leads to his downfall.

Throughout the play, it is evident that Macbeth’s good conscience fights a losing battle against the evil spirits for control of his soul, one of the characteristics of 17th century morality plays. Macbeth becomes so confused about what is moral and immoral that he succumbs to the pressures of his wife and his own ambition and Shakespeare suggests that this moral confusion stems from the witches’ toxic influence, emphasising the unnatural consequences associated with involving yourself in witchcraft and the supernatural.

In addition, Shakespeare dramatises the complex nature of Kingship through the disparities between the rule of King Duncan and Macbeth to reinforce that the wellbeing of a nation is dependent on the moral compass of its leader. During the medieval and Renaissance periods, it was believed that the health of a country depended on the goodness and moral legitimacy of its leader: political order led to natural order. King Duncan is always referred to as a great King: he is generous, benevolent and humble and as a result, Scotland flourishes under his rule.

Shakespeare highlights Duncan’s generosity and good nature when he promises to all his ‘Sons, kinsmen, thanes’ (1, 4, 42) that ‘signs of nobleness, like stars, shall shine/On all deservers’ (1, 4, 48-49). Macbeth is already plotting to overthrow the King at this point and only a few lines later, he speaks to himself the telling words, ‘Stars! Hide your fires! /Let not light see my black and deep desires’ (1, 4, 58-59).

On the literal level, Shakespeare juxtaposes the good-hearted personality and morals of Duncan with the ruthlessness of Macbeth and metaphorically, the playwright associates King Duncan with light, goodness and above all, transparency in his rule. Macbeth, in contrast, craves darkness to hide his sinister thoughts and actions, foreshadowing his corrupt reign. Shakespeare’s characterisation of Duncan as being well-respected by his people and treating all of his royal subjects so well heightens the enormity and tragedy of his murder.

Shakespeare uses Duncan’s death and the resulting chaos to propose the occurrences and damage to the order of the English royal Kingdom that would occur if King James I was killed, who was widely considered a great King. On the other hand, Macbeth is so ruthless and violent in his role as King of Scotland that by the end, ‘Those he commands move only in command,/Nothing in love’ (5, 2, 22-23). Shakespeare uses the idea of Karma, that all of your actions will have equal repercussions, to highlight that leaders who are ruthless and treat their people and country badly will suffer the terrible consequence of being hated and eventually betrayed.

Macbeth is constantly referred to as a tyrant and his death is not seen as unnatural but is celebrated. At the end of the play, after Macduff slays Macbeth, ‘The usurper’s cursed head’ (5, 8, 66) is removed and held high in triumph. This notion that Macbeth is cursed relates back to his thoughts being greatly influenced by the witches and their role in his downfall. At the conclusion of the play, the audience sees the torment and emptiness of Macbeth’s life and turns with relief to the justice and order re-established by Malcolm, the rightful heir to the throne.

The differences in the reign of Duncan and Macbeth and the effects both rulers have on the political and natural world stress the importance of moral leadership for a nation and society to thrive. In conclusion, Macbeth is to a great extent a morality tale, with Macbeth allegorically representing the vice of ambitious greed, a constant fight between good and evil and justice being served at the play’s conclusion with the rightful heir, Malcolm, being restored to the Scottish Kingdom.

Furthermore, Macbeth’s classification as a noteworthy morality drama has been intensified by how its timeless and universal lessons about the importance of being a loyal and moral citizen are still valid in the 21st century. Shakespeare underscores for his audiences that immoral crimes will always have negative repercussions, supernatural forces are dangerous and cannot be trusted and the political and social wellbeing of a country relies on the morality of its leader.

I believe that Macbeth is one of the best morality plays ever written, which is verified by how relevant its messages still are today. We continue to see modern leadership being morally corrupted by excessive hunger for power; business men and woman, politicians, religious leaders and sports people. Macbeth, the morality play, continues to challenge its audiences to consider whether our morality, both personally and as a whole society, has evolved since Shakespeare penned the drama five centuries ago.

Understand why effective communication is important in the work setting assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Identify the different reasons people communicate. In order to indentify the reasons that people communicate it is important to understand what is meant by communication. According to the Oxford dictionary the definition is ” The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium” We exchange information with each other in order to establish and develop relationships. Through communication we can give and receive instructions, advice or warnings. We can share experiences, ideas and knowledge and learn from each other.

Communication is a channel to express feelings and emotions, our requirements and needs. Even before they can speak, babies and young children use communication to alert their carer to their wants, needs, and feelings. E. g. crying to alert someone that their nappy is dirty, putting their arms out to signal that they want to be picked up, or pointing at something that they would like. Good communication is a key requirement of my job as I interact with children and their parents/carers and other members of staff on a daily basis.

In communicating and sharing with other members of staff we can ensure a continuity of care for the children and develop best working practices. In exchanging information with parents we can ensure that the needs of the children are met and we are kept informed of any changes in their home life. If a child has been unwell and brings in medicine to preschool, it is of upmost importance that details on medicine dosage are communicated effectively as incorrect administering of this could have serious consequences.

Regular staff meetings allow a communication exchange where ideas about activities and displays can be discussed, important information about policies and procedures for the setting can be shared, and the needs particular children can be reviewed. We are constantly communicating both verbally and non verbally. We exchange information through spoken word, email, text message, letters, drawings, songs and music. We also have to remember that we also communicate via our body language, eye contact, facial expressions and gestures so it is not just a case of what we say but how we say it.

Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting. Good communication is essential within an Early years setting as our job relies on day to day contact with a diverse range people. These include work colleagues, parents, children and other professional agencies. Good communication allows these diverse groups to develop positive relationships where they can work together effectively and efficiently.

Poor communication has a negative impact on working relationships and can lead to misunderstandings, mistrust, low morale and can lead to feelings of anxiety, alienation or isolation and high staff turnover. In extreme circumstances it could even lead to anger and conflict. In order for me to develop within my role, it is key that there is effective communication between my manager, key workers and me. Positive relationships at work will allow me to share and gain information, support a child’s learning and work effectively as part of a team.

As an example, When asked to lead an activity with the children, having clear instructions communicated to me before I begin allows me to feel confident and equipped to run with it. Having the opportunity to express any concerns not only helps me to learn, but is an important part of a two way communication process. It is important to have good communication in place with parents so that a positive relationship is maintained and parents have confidence that their child is being well looked after.

When working with young children there is lot of information that needs to be exchanged between the parent/carer and their key worker. Information is routinely exchanged about how the child is feeling, their current likes and dislikes, updates on their development and changes in routine. At my setting there are lots of ways that we communicate with parents. A weekly email is sent out to which contains important information such as key dates when events are happening, details on parents consultation evenings, ways that parents can support their children, and the focus areas of the week.

Each child has a communication book and this is a valuable way to ensure that any pertinent information about the child is recorded. This could be the parents writing in the book to advise that they will be on holiday next week or the child’s key worker writing a note about a key observation that happened with that child that day. Good communication between the Early Years Practitioner and a child is key to developing a positive relationship and ensuring that the child is happy and settled and making the most from their preschool experience.

Showing an interest in the child helps to build their confidence, and understanding their likes and dislikes helps us to support them with their development and learning. The settling in period is a key time that can affect a child’s experience of school. Being friendly and welcoming and engaging them in activities that they are interested in will have a positive impact on them adjusting to preschool In some circumstances, the practioner may need to work with outside agencies from professional backgrounds such as social work, health & education.

Effective communication with these agencies to work together to achieve targets that will benefit the child. This communication may be on a more formal basis, and is important that information shared is accurate, clear, concise and non-judgmental. We must remember that communication is a two-way process; it is not just about sending the right message, but ensuring that this message is being correctly received and understood by the other person. There can be barriers to effective communication so it is important that we are aware of our differences and other constraints such as time pressures.

We need to be aware of individuals needs, wishes, values, culture and their belief system. Therefore a key skill in effective communication is being able to adapt to the needs of other people – eg speaking slowly and clearly to someone where English is not their first language and avoiding long words and jargon in non professional situations. Whether we mean to or not, we give messages to other people by the way we say things so we need to be conscious of the tone of our voice, our facial expression and our body language.

For example turning your back to someone can be rude so in order to build good relationships we need to be aware how we position ourselves. In conclusion, developing good communication skills is a key factor to be a good practioner in an early years setting. At work we come into contact with a broad spectrum of people from young children to professional agencies so we need to be able to adapt our communication style to suit the level of the individual we are engaging with.

Accident Report Sample essay help free: essay help free

How to Write a Good Accident or Incident Report An incident report needs to include all the essential information about the accident or near-miss. The report-writing process begins with fact finding and ends with recommendations for preventing future accidents. You may use a special incident reporting form, and it might be quite extensive. But writing any incident report involves four basic steps, and those are the focus of today’s post. 1. Find the Facts To prepare for writing an accident report, you have to gather and record all the facts. For example: · Date, time, and specific location of incident.

Names, job titles, and department of employees involved and immediate supervisor(s) · Names and accounts of witnesses · Events leading up to incident · Exactly what employee was doing at the moment of the accident · Environmental conditions (e. g. slippery floor, inadequate lighting, noise, etc. ) · Circumstances (including tasks, equipment, tools, materials, PPE, etc. ) · Specific injuries (including part(s) of body injured and nature and extent of injuries) · Type of treatment for injuries · Damage to equipment, materials, etc. 2. Determine the Sequence

Based on the facts, you should be able to determine the sequence of events. In your report, describe this sequence in detail, including: · Events leading up to the incident. Was the employee walking, running, bending over, squatting, climbing, lifting operating machinery, pushing a broom, turning a valve, using a tool, handling hazardous materials, etc.? · Events involved in the incident. Was the employee struck by an object or caught in/on/between objects? Did the worker fall on the same level or from a height? Did the employee inhale hazardous vapors or get splashed with a hazardous chemical?

Events immediately following the incident. What did the employee do: Grab a knee? Start limping? Hold his/her arm? Complain about back pain? Put a hand over a bleeding wound? Also describe how other co-workers responded. Did they call for help, administer first aid, shut down equipment, move the victim, etc.? The incident should be described on the report in sufficient detail that any reader can clearly picture what happened. You might consider creating a diagram to show, in a simple and visually effective manner, the sequence of events related to the incident and include this in your incident report.

You might also wish to include photos of the accident scene, which may help readers follow the sequence of events. 3. Analyze Your report should include an in-depth analysis of the causes of the accident. Causes include: · Primary cause (e. g. , a spill on the floor that caused a slip and fall) · Secondary causes (e. g. , employee not wearing appropriate work shoes or carrying a stack of material that blocked vision) · Other contributing factors (e. g. , burned out light bulb in the area). 4. Recommend

Recommendations for corrective action might include immediate corrective action as well as long-term corrective actions such as: · Employee training on safe work practices · Preventive maintenance activities that keep equipment in good operating condition · Evaluation of job procedures with a recommendation for changes · Conducting a job hazard analysis to evaluate the task for any other hazards and then train employees on these hazards · Engineering changes that make the task safer or administrative changes that might include changing the way the task is performed.

Robin Hood professional essay help: professional essay help

A person who comes up with the certain idea to run the business or one who make efforts to gain the profit to the company is the CEO (Chief Executive Officer). Here, Robin Hood plays a role of a CEO. CEO is not the only person who runs the organisation but, there are members get hired who supports to achieve the goals and objectives or vision and mission of the organisation.

In this scenario Robin Hood had four main persons who were supporting him by handling various departments such as Finance, HR, Purchasing and the intelligence and they’re a lot of employee who supports him in his business but he was lacking to manage them. With the help from the following chart bifurcation of the members are as follows: Robin Hood (CEO) VISION AND MISSION

A person does anything to achieve something in the same manner an organisation that runs the business for a specific target for which they putting their efforts to achieve something which is known as Vision and to achieve the vision at the end of the specific period or one who achieve the goal or objective at the end of the visionary period is known as Mission. For any organisation Vision plays a most important role and mission works simultaneously. Vision of the organisation changes after a certain period depends upon the situation of the market or of the organisation.

Vision can be explained and defined in many ways. But, according to Benson Peter and Lansdell Sally vision is to achieve the certain targeted goal and objective in specific years to compete with the market. It is very important that for every person who is in the organisation including the top management of the company should work on the same and specific vision not for his/her personal benefit. Mission can also define and explained in many ways.

But, According to Catlin-legutko, and Cinnamon mission is nothing but the final goal or objective achieved by the organisation in such a way that after achieving it everyone should be benefited such as shareholders, investors, employees of the organisation, etc. ROBIN HOOD’S VISION AND MISSION As Robin knew that he has to start thinking of the survival in the business so he started to change in his own behaviour and strategy. His vision and mission was to come over the merchants or the rivals whom so ever comes between in his business so that he can still survive in the market and for his throne.

He was starting taking care of his employees and tries to make the people to join him and support him for his organisation. For which he introduce the tactics to steal from the rich and give it poor. But by doing this he would land up with much more enemies. People will stop trusting him and reputation in the market and even in the eyes of the people would be as a thief, that was not so much easy but, he made his efforts by using more different skills and techniques. Robin introduces the method of freight forwarding in which he acted as a middle man, so that his reputation in the market remains consistent.

He also became the banker purchasing the goods from them and selling at higher price by the way of tax. He also thought of killing the competitor but that was not so easy for him to do it. It is human behaviour that when they start losing their vision and mission can’t be stable, they thing and utilise different techniques. In short mind flickers with different ideas does not remain constant, the same thing happened with the Robin Hood he thought of different ideas to survive or to exist in the market. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT

For any organisation to achieve the vision or mission the CEO must know the market condition and about the competitors internally and externally so that a company should know where it stands and matches up with the market condition or else they have to work out internally to achieve their specific goal. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH & WEAKNESS OF THE ROBIN HOOD ORGANISATION The main strength of the Robin that he had big vision. For which even he had a lot of manpower and can recruit or introduce and even attract people because of his brand image and can use then more into his business.

More manpower there will be efficient and motivated sales force. Looking at the manpower and the market condition of the business he can easily scare the competitors. As he had many manpower but he was not able to manage & utilise them properly. He was lacking to give them the basic needs such as food. Even he was facing the competition fear from the merchants. OPPORTUNITY & THREAT OF THE ROBIN HOOD ORGANISATION Robin main strength was his manpower. With that he can expand his existing business or enter into new business in different places and sector.

Opportunity to start carrying the employee their needs and create a carrying image so that they shouldn’t leave him. As every coin has two sides, his manpower was his biggest threat, threat of losing them. Competitors or the rivals can take the benefit of the market because they have the other resources which Robin does not have. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES According to Bromiley Philip strategic objective means that focusing on the larger consumer in the market or facilitating them by providing best of quality product without much more spending on the product.

A company should improvise on their product design, productivity or on the production process and the development in the employee so that they can achieve their goal. As in the context with the Robin Hood organisation, he is facing lot of trouble in the business because there were many pot holes which need to sealed by efficient long term strategic planning which could help him at least to cover up with his need which are basic and this will help him to build a relationship with his employees. With this positive behaviour he will also get the support from the employees and he will get his work done as well.

If he wants to be successful and want to make his business profitable he has to depend upon the employee. I would suggest following strategic objectives to Mr. Robin Hood they are as follows: As he is the king seats on the throne he must be having lot of land, use that land for cultivation of your own food grains, own animals for farming, fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, building employee houses, etc facilitate them with everything so that they & you get dependent on each other. If the crop grows more than the expectation after giving to your entire employee so you can export and earn more money.

This will increase in your profit, market rate, your goodwill you will increase by every side of bit. Their will even increase in the economy rate. It will take time for the above things at least you can start escort services to the employee till the place where they can find their basic needs. Increase your business by purchasing the land of the other area utilising to your own expansion of business. You can also expand by giving freight forwarding services to the company. Giving your manpower on causality basis to the other firm which will help you to build up a business relationship.

You can implement new technique in archery and training should be given. This will help Robin Hood not only in the expansion of his business but also build a good & strong relationship with in the organisation and sustain balance in the market. MICHAEL PORTER’S GENERIC STRATEGY MODELS Generic strategies means that a company adopts develop and implement a new business strategy to compete in the market with the competitor. Porter recommends this strategy to the bases of the generic strategy which will be the advantage for competitive gains. There are three types of generic strategic according to the Porter:

Each type is explained in detail as below: Low Cost According to the Porter Model Company implement the strategy of decreasing the price of the commodity so that consumer can buy their product at a cheaper rate compare to the others company commodity. Consumer feels that same product is been sold at the cheaper rate in comparison to other but, they does not know that this is all business strategy. Company reduces the quality of the product so that their manufacturing cost get reduce and can sell the same product at a cheaper rate to compete in the market with the another company.

They use this tactics to become the leader in the market of that certain product selling at the cheapest rate by decreasing the quality of the product. Differentiation Porter explains in this strategy that a company produces the product with the new idea, concept, features and attractive structure which never introduces in the market. The job of the marketing manager is tougher in this because the manager has to do a lot of proper detailed research in terms of quality, quantity and the price which they need to do business in the larger market. Basically a company as to introduce a dynamic or a unique product which has been never ever implemented in the market.

And should be implemented in such a way that they should satisfy the consumer needs and cover the entire large market. Focus Porter describes a special importance of the consumer to the firm. Wherein a firm concentrate and make attraction on a group or on a certain area people with their best of the quality of goods they have produced. Quality of the product plays a very important role in this context. In short, they grap the attention of the consumer by diverting them from the competitor product by giving them a special attention and importance of them in the company.

It is very much important for any organisation to satisfy, facilitate and provide best of goods & services to them, so that can compete with the other organisation in the market. It takes lot of efforts by the people to use best of their skills and techniques to come with a dynamic product which can replace the competitor products but not the need of the consumers. In the case of Robin Hood the appropriate strategy for them could be the differentiation strategy because this will help him to know the customer’s needs and wants personally. This will help them to increase and change their brand image in the market.

His company could be unique if he produces the unique product which replace with the competitor product but not the taste and value in the customer eyes. This will help him to create a goodwill and fame in the market and also profit will increase. Once goodwill is established than his brand name could be enough to increase the business and by this he can expand his business more by investing in the different areas such as freight forwarding. Farming, retail banking and much more. This will also help by creating a strong and trust relationship with the employee. This will create a good strength.

In the case of Robin Hood he needs to adopt and make changes in his business strategy which he will responsible towards his employee and most importantly towards his consumers. This will help him to increase and create goodwill in the eyes of the people and in the market which will help him to compete with the competitor. Need to have a new and fix vision and mission. Vision and mission which he will adopt should be in such a way that he would rise up with his financial way and become stable in the market. This will help him to come up with his weakness as well & can increase his strength. By creating a ethical business which will help him to create a trust in the eyes of the investors which will him to compete with rivals like Sheriff.

Neutrality and Racism buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

As children we’re taught to never fight back when a classmate steals a beloved smack time treat or retaliate when they take our cubby. And as we continue to grow older, we’re constantly reminded to turn the other cheek when someone is spiteful towards us- after all, forgiveness and love is considered to be of utmost importance according to the word of God. However, while remaining neutral to situations may avoid conflict and confrontation, it also leaves us undecided and apathetic towards any remote yearn for change.

By not demanding change, we are allowing unacceptable behavior to continue. With historical events such as the civil rights movement and current events such as bullying, neutrality sets a limit on human capability for improvement and understanding. Change is spearheaded by a shift in mindset rather than staying neutral to the norm. And in order to change someone’s mindset, we must be wholly determined ourselves. From the famous words of Martin Luther King’s, ‘I have a dream’ speech, we can feel his burning desire to inspire the American people.

Although King refused to remain neutral to the treatment towards people of color, he always advocated nonviolent protests. Through pleas of judging someone on their character rather than their skin tone, he urged America to end lynching, grant everyone full, equal, and promised rights, and grant well deserved tolerance of race. If King and other activists such as Malcolm X and Rosa Parks chose to remain neutral to their maltreatment, the United States very well may have been stuck in the same 1950’s mentality for years to come.

These African American leading figures prove the point being made- identifying and finding solutions are necessary to move forward. Staying neutral, in essence, means we are condoning the inappropriate behavior or actions being done. Currently in the 21st century, technology is becoming a vital role in our everyday lives. However, with new ways of technology and outbursts of social media, a new trend has been created- cyber bullying.

Granted the security of a monitor and the comfort of an office chair, millions of online users are using the internet as an outlet to bully others. When we are online and see this type of behavior, often found in forms of curse words or appearance ‘jokes’, we are often following the bystander effect and staying ‘neutral’ to these acts of hatred. By being a bystander, we are not taking the initiative to stop this bullying, therefor not instilling a need for change.

Thankfully, organizations such as ‘stopit’ and ‘endbullying’ have taken it upon themselves to find solutions to this ongoing and severe problem. Bullying online leads to thousands of suicides, specifically in teenagers. Staying neutral to this situation may mean one life wasted; and by trying to end bullying may mean hundred of lives saved. Looking from history to modern day issues, remaining neutral is almost never an effective route. By remaining neutral we limit our capability to really understand and accept others. Awareness and being proactive is key to an improved world.

The Importance of Humanities essay help 123: essay help 123

The Importance of Humanities The study of humanities can best be described as the manner in which people from different parts of the world as well as different segments in time, interpret and document the human experience. Humanity courses can cover anything from philosophy and literature to art and music, basically any aspect that helps paint a vivid picture of a culture. These courses are definitely needed in education to help students understand the world better, give insight on where their ancestors came from and also to assist them in developing their own beliefs as human beings.

Knowledge of these documents as a whole grants us a moment to feel a connection between our past, ourselves and our generation. Through humanity courses we learn about the different attitudes of other cultures which can be seen as extremely beneficial in today’s constantly changing society. America has been referred to as a “giant melting pot,” where cultures all over have been blended and placed all in the same place. So it is very rare that you will go days without hearing another individual speak a different language from your own or see religious practices that seem weird to us.

In fact, because our country is so diverse, most jobs will hire you if you can speak another language as opposed to just being able to speak English. The study of humanities allows us to become more knowledgeable about cultures all over the world. There will come a point in our lives’ (if we haven’t experienced it already) that we will have to work with different cultures, whether it’s a co-worker, a client or just one of our peers in school and understanding a culture will definitely make that process much easier to deal with.

It is easy for us to find new people and cultures weird if we aren’t aware of the world around us. People, who are more acquainted with other cultures and customs, usually are more well-rounded and fearless in traveling to various places beyond the United States borders, which is important in today’s global economy. Not only does Humanities give us a better understanding of the world around us, but it also provides us information on whom we are as people. It’s kind of like a history course, excluding all the dates and battles, but rather focusing more so on how things come together, sort of like a puzzle.

Humanities trace the development of architecture from as early as the middle ages to modern age with skyscrapers made out of steel. This course also provides us with familiarity of different religions, how they started, and where their future might be. It even examines the history of education and how the schools and first universities came to be. Knowing aspects like the ones I stated above can only benefit us by giving us a taste of our past and helping to predict what our future might hold. Lastly, the study of humanities guides us in establishing our own beliefs as people.

Like me, most people come to college with pre-existing beliefs, not because they actually believe them, but because they have adopted those beliefs from their family members and peers. Most students practice the same religion and hold the same political views as their care-takers upon arriving to college. Once in college and attending courses such as Humanities, many of those same beliefs you once believed in are now put into question and you’ll begin to wonder if you really even believe those beliefs or if it was just inherited.

After taking a Humanities course you will most likely develop your own beliefs and have an understanding as to why you believe what you believe. As a result, it is obvious that it is important to study Humanities. Humanities gives people a sense of where they derived from and a feeling of belonging, no matter what their background may have been. It blends us all together like a bunch of different fruits made into a smoothie and allows us to grow as individuals and improve our society. If humanities were not put into effect, our civilization would be at a standstill.

A Place I Would Like to Visit college essay help near me: college essay help near me

There are a lot of wonderful places I wish to visit. One of the places where I would like to visit is Hollywood. I always wanted to see how the films are made, meet famous actors and actresses and just have a good time. Hollywood is famous for making films there. I like to watch movies and I spend a great amount of my free time watching new and also old films, especially the Hollywood films. While watching the films I like, I always want to know how the director managed to made such wonderful and awesome films, what technologies he or she used, and how the actors performed dangerous stunts.

Hollywood seems to be the best place to satisfy my interests in making films. Many famous American actors and actresses have houses in Hollywood. Therefore if I visit this place I will probably have an opportunity to meet them take autographs and even have a talk with them asking them questions. Thus, visiting Los Angeles I will have numerous opportunities of meeting famous figures in cinema industry. Moreover, Los Angeles, where Hollywood is one of the beautiful places in the world. It has a lot of beaches and as it is always hot there, you can spend your time swimming and sunbathing.

Hollywood is one of the interesting site s in my dream list. A Place I Would Like to Visit “Hollywood” There are a lot of wonderful places I wish to visit. One of the places where I would like to visit is Hollywood. I always wanted to see how the films are made, meet famous actors and actresses and just have a good time. Hollywood is famous for making films there. I like to watch movies and I spend a great amount of my free time watching new and also old films, especially the Hollywood films.

While watching the films I like, I always want to know how the director managed to made such wonderful and awesome films, what technologies he or she used, and how the actors performed dangerous stunts. Hollywood seems to be the best place to satisfy my interests in making films. Many famous American actors and actresses have houses in Hollywood. Therefore if I visit this place I will probably have an opportunity to meet them take autographs and even have a talk with them asking them questions. Thus, visiting Los Angeles I will have numerous opportunities of meeting famous figures in cinema industry.

Moreover, Los Angeles, where Hollywood is one of the beautiful places in the world. It has a lot of beaches and as it is always hot there, you can spend your time swimming and sunbathing. Hollywood is one of the interesting site s in my dream list. A Place I Would Like to Visit “Hollywood” There are a lot of wonderful places I wish to visit. One of the places where I would like to visit is Hollywood. I always wanted to see how the films are made, meet famous actors and actresses and just have a good time. Hollywood is famous for making films there.

I like to watch movies and I spend a great amount of my free time watching new and also old films, especially the Hollywood films. While watching the films I like, I always want to know how the director managed to made such wonderful and awesome films, what technologies he or she used, and how the actors performed dangerous stunts. Hollywood seems to be the best place to satisfy my interests in making films. Many famous American actors and actresses have houses in Hollywood. Therefore if I visit this place I will probably have an opportunity to meet them take autographs and even have a talk with them asking them questions.

Thus, visiting Los Angeles I will have numerous opportunities of meeting famous figures in cinema industry. Moreover, Los Angeles, where Hollywood is one of the beautiful places in the world. It has a lot of beaches and as it is always hot there, you can spend your time swimming and sunbathing. Hollywood is one of the interesting site s in my dream list. A Place I Would Like to Visit “Hollywood” There are a lot of wonderful places I wish to visit. One of the places where I would like to visit is Hollywood.

I always wanted to see how the films are made, meet famous actors and actresses and just have a good time. Hollywood is famous for making films there. I like to watch movies and I spend a great amount of my free time watching new and also old films, especially the Hollywood films. While watching the films I like, I always want to know how the director managed to made such wonderful and awesome films, what technologies he or she used, and how the actors performed dangerous stunts. Hollywood seems to be the best place to satisfy my interests in making films.

Many famous American actors and actresses have houses in Hollywood. Therefore if I visit this place I will probably have an opportunity to meet them take autographs and even have a talk with them asking them questions. Thus, visiting Los Angeles I will have numerous opportunities of meeting famous figures in cinema industry. Moreover, Los Angeles, where Hollywood is one of the beautiful places in the world. It has a lot of beaches and as it is always hot there, you can spend your time swimming and sunbathing. Hollywood is one of the interesting site s in my dream list.

Grocery Retail Industry homework essay help: homework essay help

The first Tesco shop opened in Edgware, North London in 1929; although the creator of Tesco was a man called Jack Cohen who sold the first own-brand product in 1924, this product was ‘Tesco Tea’. Now 82 years on Tesco currently operates in 14 countries across the globe. The name Tesco comes from TE Stockwell who was a shared partner of the tea firm which created the tea Jack Cohen sold. Therefore taking the initials ‘TES’ from Stockwell’s name and the first 2 initials of Cohen’s surname ‘CO’ this then creates ‘Tesco’. By using marketing theories and strategies I am going to analyse Tesco as an organisation.

Tesco’s current market The retail industry is a very competitive industry due to customers not always being loyal but being persuaded by price, quality and range of products. In order to gain customer loyalty Tesco’s must ensure they keep costs down and offer a wide range of products. As previously mentioned Tesco’s have stores in 14 countries, the shops are built where there are high demands and where communities allow buildings to be constructed. Location of Tesco shops Figure 1 – World map of where.

Analysis Pest Analysis Using the PEST analysis (Political, Economic, Social and Technological) this will show how Tesco works within the grocery retail industry. P – Tesco works close within the local communities of their stores. A quote taken from the corporate responsibility section of the website states; “We want to be a good neighbour in all the communities in which we operate” This means that within local communities they make a long term difference and showing interest in activities around the community.

By doing so this gains customer loyalty. A national political issue is the increasing rates of unemployment, due to Tesco still growing more jobs become available as a result reducing the rate of unemployment. Expand on more issues. E – Due to Tesco being a large retailer selling named branded products as well as home branded products there are able to appeal to all types of markets. As Tesco is just one of the major retailers with competition such as Asda and Morrisons, as well as the current recession, Tesco are required to be very competitive with their prices.

Socially there has been an increase in fitness and healthy eating therefore products such as fruit/vegetables/smoothies etc should be on the increase but due to the financial issue at the moment customers buy pre-prepared products or frozen meals for convenience and cost. T – Tesco offers an online service in order for customers to purchase grocery shopping online via the internet which they can then get delivered. An example of a technological factor in store would be the introduction of self service checkouts which entitles a customer to scan and pay for their own shopping.

Internal SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses Home branded products Capacity of staff Online services Worldwide company Opportunities Threats Play area Other supermarket chains Hair and beauty salons in store Tesco food platters Figure 2 – SWOT Analysis table Strengths Home brand products – By Tesco selling home branded products they are able to make a bigger profit on products. Branded products are purchased from the producer and it is then up to Tesco to sell these on for a profit as well as keeping costs down. Any amount of profit made on a home branded product is completely profited by Tesco.

Online Services – Tesco operates online and due to the internet being a massive part of economy today this is a massive strength. Tesco also offers other services such as ‘Tesco direct’ which is a catalogue shop where products can be ordered online and either collected in store or can be delivered. Worldwide Company – Tesco is known all over the world which increases acknowledgement of the store. Customers tend to trust shops with they are familiar with. Opportunities Tesco food platters – Tesco’s could offer a service of creating food platters to be delivered. This would be very successful within businesses who order buffets regularly.

This could include creating different ranges of buffet which vary in price and then delivering. Sainsbury’s offer a similar service called ‘Instore party platter service’ although their buffets are to be collected in store whereas if Tesco deliver the buffets then this is an advantage above the competition. Weaknesses Capacity of Staff – Within the UK stores there are 293,676 members of staff working in Tesco Stores (figure correct as of 10/1/12 according to Tesco Plc. com). Due to the mass amount of staff employed by Tesco as an organisation the personal relationships which can be found in a small organisation aren’t likely to be present.

Employees may feel like ‘just a number’ within the organisation therefore rubbing off a negative attitude onto customers. Threats Other supermarket chains – Retail is a competitive business and there are several popular supermarket chains. One of Tesco’s biggest competitors is Asda, Asda has the guarantee of ‘If we’re not 10% cheaper on your comparable grocery shopping we’ll give you the difference. Guaranteed. ’ This puts the pressure on Tesco to offer deals to keep their current customers and to gain potential new ones.

Tesco also have smaller stores called ‘Tesco Extra’ which are more for convenience shopping and in smaller areas of town. Asda have now started building convenience stores named ‘Asda Supermarket’ therefore not only are Asda a competitor with the larger stores but also with the smaller stores too. Micro-environment Analysis Porters Five Forces Figure 3 – Porter’s five forces 1. Existing competitors – Tesco’s main competitors are Sainsbury, Asda and Morrisons as they are all large supermarkets. Tesco offer an online service in order for customers to order their shopping online and for it to be delivered.

This is a service that Asda also offers although Morrisons hasn’t yet developed online. If these organisations have the same strategic ideas then this increases the level of competition. “Operating in a mature, flat market where growth is difficult and consumers are increasingly demanding and sophisticated, large chains such as Tesco are accruing large amounts of consumer information that can be used to communicate with the consumer” Ritz (2005) Relating to exit barrier it is difficult for an organisation such as Tesco known as a grocery retailer to move into non-food areas although they offer a range of different services within retail.

In order to respond to customer behaviour Tesco is left as having to reduce its prices to the lowest possible amount. 2. Bargaining power of customers – This is very high as it’s the customers who profit the company. If a price is too high then customers may go to another large supermarket for the same product or an alternative. This may also apply if a product is out of stock. Also within a large supermarket like Tesco there are many different bands or products which leave the customer in a lower ratio than products.

Threat of new entrants – It is very difficult to enter into the large Supermarket chain as it’s a limited business. Also Tesco is already set up with it’s suppliers with lower prices making it hard for a new business to find cheaper suppliers. A new business would require starting out small in order to build customer loyalty, also they would have limited stock of brands or less products yet bought as a higher price. 4. Bargaining power of suppliers –

Within a small organisation a supplier would have a lot of power and demand that there products are bought at a set price, this leaves small retailers at a disadvantage as they need to make a profit on items. Whereas with large Supermarkets they can determine what price they will pay for a product, if a supplier disagrees they are automatically reducing the product market. 5. Substitute products – In the larger stores there are many like-for-like products including own brands within Tesco which can reduce sales of products. “General substitution is able to reduce demand for a particular product, as there is a threat of consumers switching to the alternatives” Porter M.

Therefore larger supermarkets like Tesco have opened their stores but to a smaller scale which offers customers many of the same popular products but a limited range. Segmentation, Targeting, Positioning (STP) Consumer Segmentation Tesco have a great advantage of finding out customer data using the Tesco Clubcard scheme. When a customer registers for a Clubcard they must fill in their basic information in order to enter the scheme. When a customer uses their Clubcard during a transaction then Tesco is able to see what the customer has purchased.

After a while when a customer has made several transactions then Tesco are able to collect data about that customer and compare to see which items are commonly purchased and what brand/type of items. By doing so Tesco is able to determine the lifestyle of that particular customer and create a profile. Once this has been done then Tesco are able to provide each individual customer with the appropriate promotions and special offers so that customers can relate good prices for the products they regularly buy to Tesco, therefore staying loyal.

An example of this would be if a customer bought items such as ‘Quorn’ or ‘vegetarian sausages’ then they wouldn’t expect to receive meat discount vouchers from Tesco Clubcard. Targeting Tesco targets all types of markets. Price bands – dependant upon where the store is situated – upper class, middle class, lower class will depend upon a price band. Price band 1 being the cheapest, price band 4 being the more expensive. Eg if store located in Westcliffe, would be price band 1 to keep the lower class people shopping.

If store located in an upmarket neighbourhood, would be price band 4 to take more money off the upper class people for same products. Dependant upon store size will depend upon price bands also, because a larger store will have a bigger buying in margin ( where tesco will get discount off a product for buying more in bulk) where as a smaller convenience store will have a smaller buying in margin so will not be able to give the customer a discount like the bigger stores. Positioning In 1997 Tesco were known as a large retailer within the grocery retail market.

They then developed the marketing strategy of becoming “as strong in non-food as in food”. 15 years on from when this challenge was set Tesco now deal in services such as; Tesco Direct F&F – Tesco Clothing range Tesco Fuel Tesco Bank Tesco Mobile Tesco Opticians Tesco Entertainment Tesco Direct – This service provides customers with a catalogue which contains Tesco’s range of Electrical appliances, home furnishings, toys and many other products. Once selected these products can either be delivered or arrange to be collected from a local direct desk. This sort of service competes with that of Argos who is also a direct catalogue retailer.

Tesco Clothing F&F range – This is a difficult market for Tesco to enter into with a high entry barrier. The clothing retailer market is a very competitive business as you have the expensive designer shops ranging right down to the basic value for money clothing. Tesco tend to focus there clothing range on school clothes for children as this is something that appeals to parents. Parents aren’t prepared to spend lots of money on clothes which have to sustain a lot of wear and tear. In august 2011 Tesco promoted a back to school offer of a ? 15 bundle which includes trousers, skirt or a pinafore, a coat and a 3 pack of shirts or polo shirts.

Inventec Corporation my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

Despite its growth and size, why is Inventec not very profitable? It can be concluded into 3 main factors : 1. Rivalry existed In the existing ODM industry, there are lots of competitors such as Quanta, Mitac and Compal. Because of the fierce competition, there is increase difficulty for completing differentiation. Moreover, client companies tend to limit ODM use to highly commoditized products commoditized products. There is also inherent risk associated with the need of frequent technology innovation.

Low switching costs also weaken the competitive advantage of Inventec since most of the PCs use Intel microprocessors. Moving to China was no longer consider as an advantage for Inventec since other rivalries will have the same cost structure. 2. New entrants threat Taiwan government did not impose high legal barriers to limit firm to invest in China. Consequently, major ODMS choose to open plants in China and new companies easily enter into the industries which increase the supply of quality goods. 3. Increasing bargaining power Inventec has a high bargaining power due to the limited list of customers.

This disadvantage greatly weaken the ability to switch customers and negotiation power. Inventec has to accept client’s aggressive pricing strategies with a low profit margin or else facing client switching their business to competitors in a short period of time. Q2 What are the drivers of the average profitability of the ODM industry? The average profitability of the ODM industry is low which only ranging from 1% to 6%. The main reason for this is mainly driven by customer bargain power and high competition. In order to lead the industry, companies need to lower their cost.

Consequently, it reduce the reliance on a single partnership as there are 5 leading ODM and client negotiating strength become high. Moreover, china no longer consider as a low cost area which make firms difficult to find way to lower the costs. Q3 What are key factors that a company like Inventec needs to manage above average profits in this industry ? In order maintain the profit, the company should shift their production and production software from hardware production to software development and IT consulting and IT system integration services. For example, Inventec consider its software capability by be a major differentiation.

Corporation should also comply with customer requirement by using specialized personnel. Quality assurance and low operating cost is also important. The firm can achieved through using cost leadership and differentiation which enhance its bargaining power. Q4 Why is the Indian software industry, on average, so much more profitable than the Chinese ODM industry? First, India does not rely on cheap operating cost to survive but more focusing on custom application development and maintenance. This help them to create differentiated products which were specialized and high-end. Moreover, India also get many world- class engineers and technicians.

The Indian firms are competing through R& D rather price war since the industry has a very high growth rate of 30% Q5 What strategic advice will you give Inventec to improve its profitability? I will advise Inventec to move their company resources and expertise to a more software based market. For example, Inventec can start to offer software design with hardware manufacturing since it can help to add more value to OEMS. Hence, Inventec can enjoy high price premium and strong bargaining power. This kind of vertical integration can save a large amount of transaction and labor cost.

Business for the Glory of God Book review essay help writer: essay help writer

This is my book review of Business for the Glory of God which we started the first week of this course. I have briefly articulated the author’s, Wayne Grudem, main positions and themes and then interact with them. That is, I have chosen two main points that I agree with and two main points in which I do not agree. My thoughts have been supported with well-reasoned arguments and additional supportive data derived from outside sources. Summary Durring my first week of Business Law I was asked to read this book.

In Business for the Glory of God Wayne Grudem attempts an apologetic for businesses. According to Wayne Grudem Business, is constantly in a bout with good and bad practices and good Christians are apprehensive and fearful that by being involved in business they are somehow falling short due to their relationship with other businesses. Wayne Grudem then gives a theological explenation and reasoning for several points related to areas of business. Grudem argues that business is neither evil nor even morally neutral but inherently good and created by God.

There are 11 main areas of business that Grudem scrutinizes; ownership, productivity, employment, commercial transactions, profit, money, inequality of possessions, competition, borrowing and lending, attitudes of heart, and effect on world poverty. The book is ended with a review of the effects of ownership, productivity, employment, commercial transactions, profit, money, inequality of possessions, competition, and borrowing and lending on the attitueds of the heart and the effects on world poverty. It is in these last chapters where the reader is most able to see how a business can be fundamentally good.

Each chapter starts with a phrase: “(Ownership, Productivity, Employment, Commercial transactions, Profit, Money, Inequality of possessions, Competition, Borrowing and lending) is fundamentally good and provides many opportunities for glorifying God but also many temptations to sin” and finishes with a sentence such as, “But the distortions of something good must not cause us to think the thing itself is evil. (Ownership, Productivity, Employment, Commercial transactions, Profit, Money, Inequality of possessions, Competition, Borrowing and lending) is fundamentally good and pleasing to God” Discussion

Grudem does a good job of briefly spelling out his reasoning as to why business is good and momentarily bringing to light some of the vulnerabilities of business including materialism, greed, and. “While extreme wealth and extreme poverty are both considered ‘bad things’ there’s no way of drawing a line, no attempt at working out how some inequality is good but too much inequality is bad”(Bolton, 2014) thus I feel the weakest arguments by far are his argument that inequality of possessions is the way God intended things to be, that this is a good thing that gives glory to God.

Additionally, there is no acknowledgement that in the countries that have best excelled in profit making and generally attainment of possessions and money to become rich are also the countries with the maximum inequality between social classes. The next weak chapter is Grudem’s finishing remarks on world poverty. Many people agree with the foundation that “trade is better than aid”but there is a gullibility about his words that are distressing.

Grudem implies that the main reason poor countries are poor is due to the establishment of pitiable governance, enormously ineffective system of government all of which is true but it’s not the whole story. There is however, no reference to unjust trade practices by wealthy countries or nations, no mention of corruption in under developed countries, or crimes such as slavery or undemocratic practices. These types of practices are easily seen in today’s world. Korea is a prime example.

In the country’s most recent election the world news stated “The North Korean leader Kim Jong-un has been unanimously re-elected to the country’s parliament after every single eligible person in his constituency turned out to vote – with only his name on the ballot paper. ” “Rather than being a democratic choice between candidates, elections in North Korea superficially provide the people with the chance to approve the politicians pre-selected by the leading party. Each ballot has a single named listed with the option to pick “yes” or “no”.

” This type of business practice is evident even in many of our own institutions. I feel that the picture Grudem paints is visualized as black and white and suggests the fault for being poor is with the poor which is not always the case. Finally, the book seems pointed at battling people who think business is essentially evil and believe that business is a elaborate scheme of the devil. After my reading I am still struggling to decifer who these agents of the devil are? Liberals, communists?

Grudem does not say, which really marks this argument as a “straw man arguments. ” Additionally, there is a poignant gullibility about it, that we, as the customers, set the price for the goods and chattels we pay – or we simply would stop buying them. Through the reading it seems that Grudem believes that despite food riots around the world and rising fears about energy costs at home his rules and beliefes on these subjects still apply. After reading Business for the Glory of God I do however, agree with many of the points that Wayne Grudem has made.

He confesses very early in the book that glorifying God is something that many people feel only belongs in church and definitely not in the business world. He specifically throw-out that inkling because one can glorify God “not only in the sanctuary but in the boardroom as well. The ways of worship may change, but the meaning and motives do not. ”(Bolton, 2014) He and I are both under the understanding that the whole purpose of man is to bring glory to God. Grudem outlines how business can provide an avenue for that exact obligation.

“God has called certain people to be business leaders and with this call, to do business well. As Colossians 3:23-24 states, “Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. You are serving the Lord Christ” (2007). ” When reading the book, it is clear that business can be and in many cases are morally good but that it can, like anything handled outside the rules that God has given us, lead to sin and wrongdoing.

Grudem sets the standard promptly in the beginning early chapters by stating in the book one “will find that in every aspect of business there are multiple layers of opportunities to give glory to God, as well as multiple temptations to sin”. The book promotes the idea that honest business can bring glory to God. The chapter on borrowing and lending also carefully counters the position of some well-meaning Christians whose moralities forbid accumulating any debt, which include a home mortgage and other.

Romans 13:8 (“owe no one anything”), taken in context, does not prohibit all borrowing. It does however teach us that we should pay what we owe at the correct time. Getting a 30-year mortgage for a house is perfectly coincides with Romans 13:8 provided we dependably make our scheduled payments. This being said, borrowing can be imprudent as stated in Proverbs 22:7, “the borrower is the slave of the lender”, for example, when someone borrows too much and cannot repay. Additionally Psalms.

Furthermore, “microloans” are creating an astounding impact the poor in several countries. In the last chapter, Grudem states that “the only long-term solution to world poverty is business. ” I could not agree more. Every country I have been to or visited that is bringing itself out of poverty has at least one mutual characteristic. This is a simple method for getting a small loan and starting a business. Unfortunately, many countries, especially communist countries impose excessive regulations on people wanting to create a business.

This is slowing and sometimes halting economic growth. Some evil governments confiscate wealth creating huge gaps between economic classes and creating a poor economy. It is obivious that the long-term solution to world poverty is business, In conclusion, while it is virtuous to be in business, and it is good to prepare those who are called to business, this short book is unbalanced by taking complicated issues and making them black and white.

This being said it is obivious that all Grudem needs to say is not being said in this short 87 pages, but as Grudem says“If attitudes toward business change in the ways I have described, then who could resist being a God-pleasing subduer of the earth who uses materials from God’s good creation and works with the God-given gift of money to earn morally good profits, and shows love to his neighbors by giving them jobs and by producing material goods that overcome world poverty, goods that enable people to glorify God for his goodness, that sustain just and fair differences in possessions, and that encourage morally good and beneficial competition? What a great career that would be! What a great activity for governments to favor and encourage! What a solution to world poverty! What a great way to give glory to God! ”

How Cleanliness and sense of beauty can influence the life of an individual best essay help: best essay help

How Cleanliness and sense of beauty can influence the life of an individual Cleanliness is a great virtue. It is the habit of keeping the body and all our things free from dirt. It is said that without a clean body one cannot have a pure mind. Cleanliness is a religious duty. On the other hand, Beauty is pleasure regarded as the quality of a thing. It is an affection of the soul, a consciousness of joy and security, a pang, a dream, a pure pleasure. The sense of beauty is its realization.

When our senses and imagination find what they crave, when the world so shapes itself or so moulds the mind that the correspondence between them is perfect, then perception is pleasure, and existence needs no apology. Beauty is a pledge of the possible conformity between the soul and nature, and consequently a ground of faith in the supremacy of the good. Cleanliness has taught me self-discipline. The high value attached to cleanliness is expressed by the proverb which says that “cleanliness is next to godliness and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals such as health and beauty.

In the Qur’an, Allah commends those who are accustomed to cleanliness: “Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean. ” Muhammad once said “cleanliness is half of the faith”. I also associate cleanliness with beauty. It is difficult to keep things clean and in order in today’s frenetic world. It takes effort and effort takes self-discipline, but when I walk around my home or wear clean and neat clothes I feel better about myself. It gives me a sense of order and I think it says something about me to people I meet or who come to my home.

Beauty makes life bearable and I find it everywhere. My life has not been a cheerful one. The thing that has made it endurable has been the beauty I have found; the beauty in music has been life sustaining, and in spite of all the dirt and sorrow in the world, you can still find beauty if you have the eyes to see it. It has kept me alive. Personal cleanliness is very much a matter of personal choice. There are certain social standards that most of us prefer to measure up to, but small habits are those most likely to affect health.

Keeping the hands clean probably does more to promote our own health and prevent spreading disease to others than all the other types of personal cleanliness put together. Children can be directed toward the clean hands habit with effective results from an early age. Similarly, we need to keep clean our school, street. We should be highly aware of the cleanliness all the time. We shouldn’t throw anything in the street. In turn, it should be put in the dust bin. This way, we can help to keep our city clean. Human awareness of natural beauty stimulates the formation of environmental ethics.

The experience of beauty creates and sustains relationships. Natural beauty is an aspect of that which holds things together, supporting life and individuation. Beauty joins experience to ethics. We experience beauty intuitively: it is an affecting experience which motivates thought and action. The experience of beauty gives us a stake in the existence of the beautiful. Ecology can explore the relationships of natural beauty scientifically: it may be a science of the beauty of the Earth. The beauty of the world is necessary to its survival.

Beauty is manifest in the interplay of interdependence with individuality, yielding diversity. The most beautiful relationships are those which recognize diversity, support individuality, and empathetically span the distinctions between beings. The sense of beauty is not a luxury, but a distinctive human vocation. The sense of beauty can be intellectual as well as sensory. We speak of the beauty of an idea. A beautiful idea may be a fresh insight reaching from a known desire toward the attainment of that desire-an idea which promises to solve a problem or to overcome an obstacle.

A beautiful idea may communicate the essence of a complex or mysterious relationship: the law of gravity, a theorem in geometry, a psychological insight, a prophetic moral statement. In my journey to understand my creative urge to express it, I found how important it is for a person to have a developed creative sense to live a beautiful, harmonious, rich life and be a finer person. I have realized that visual sense doesn’t confine itself to beauty in material things like clothes, painting, furniture or jewellery. It also means being sensitive to people, surroundings and nature. “Let beauty be your constant ideal”

The beauty of the soul The beauty of sentiments The beauty of thought The beauty of the action The beauty in the work So that nothing comes out of your hand which is not an expression of pure and harmonious beauty. Cleanliness and sense of beauty therefore seems to be the clearest manifestation of perfection, and the best evidence of its possibility. If perfection is, as it should be, the ultimate justification of being, we may understand the ground of the moral dignity of beauty. Beauty is a pledge of the possible conformity between the soul and nature, and consequently a ground of faith in the supremacy of the good.

Social Networking best college essay help: best college essay help

Social networking services serves as a big platform to create social relationships. People who have common interest idea, activities, backgrounds and real-life connections connect with each other through social networking sites or services. It connects people from one end to another end of the world very easily with internet connections. With improvement in technology in mobile phones through introduction o androids and smart phones, social networking services and used widely by all age group people.

This was made much easier for people who do not have a desktop or a laptop. Pocket internet services, available in different package based on time period, memory and data usage, given by the service providers helps peoples for a budgetary internet usage. Students using social networking sites have negative impact. The student’s motivational level reduces due to the use of these social networking sites. They rely on the virtual environment instead of gaining practical knowledge from the real world.

This puts them in a separate world where there is a severe lack of face-to-face communication. Problem Statement The world is today celebrating the improvements in communication technology which has broadened the scope of communication through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Ufuophu and Ayobami (2012:129) observe that the ICTs include internet, satellite, cable data transmission and computer assisted equipment.

Social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige (Adeboye, 2012, cited in Asemah and Edegoh,2012). Social networking sites include: Yahoo Messenger, Facebook Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM), Twitter, Youtube and so on. These networking sites are used by most people to interact with old and new friends, physical or internet friends (Adeboye, 2012, cited in Asemah and Edegoh, 2012).

The expansion in technology has also affected internet software, thus leading to chatting sites known by the name “social media”. With social networking sites, one can send and receive messages almost immediately. However, lack of regulation of the internet has led to its excessive use. McQuail (2008:154) avers that the internet penetrates more homes. It is a common sight to see a youth chatting in sensitive and highly organized places like church and lecture venues.

Some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting. The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation, as youths no longer need to visit a cybercafe before they send and receive messages. Attention has been shifted from visible to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in the process. This phenomenon has become a source of worry to many who believe in knowledge and skill acquisition.

The emergence of social media as a result of advancement in technology and expansion in internet software has raised eye brows among academics on its (social media) impacts on studies. Students at all levels of learning now have divided attention to studies, as a result of available opportunities to be harnessed from social media. Whether these opportunities promote studies is a question that needs to be answered. Thus, the problem this study investigates is the effect of social media networks on the academic performance of the students.

Herman Miller Inc cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

Curt Pullen talks amid the unmistakable pounding sounds and commotion associated with a construction work site about his company’s plan to rebound from the recession. Pullen, the firm’s executive vice president and president of North America, says the workers are installing new lower-height Herman Miller workstations designed to accommodate a growing trend in offices toward more open, collaborative environments.

The new product, called Canvas, is part of the company’s market-shift strategy after the demand for office furniture fell hard during the economic downturn. The plan also involves diversifying into the health care and academic furniture markets and more emphasis on emerging economies. The plan appears to be paying off. For the first time in nearly four years the company reported two consecutive quarters of double-digit percentage sales growth after releasing its second-quarter earnings statement on Dec 15th.

Orders in the second quarter rose 34% to $462 million. CEO Brian Walker noted the company’s expanded market reach as a contributing factor to growth. Significant increases occurred in international markets where sales rose 33%. In 2010 the company acquired UK-based ergonomic workstation manufacturer Colebrook Bosson Saunders and purchased assets from Australian furniture maker Living Edge Group. In 2008, the company announced a partnership with China’s Posh Office Systems Ltd. to expand in the Asia-Pacific region.

The company attributed a year-end surge to gains in its international, health care, learning and retail vertical markets. The expanding health care industry has become one of the company’s key growth targets. One of the more recent expansions into the health care field came on Jan. 31 when Herman Miller completed its acquisition of health care furniture manufacturer Nemschoff Chairs LLC based in Sheboygan, Wis. Herman Miller designed the Canvas workstation at a lower height than traditional workstations to facilitate a workplace trend toward more collaborative environments.

The design also allows more light into work areas and saves space, the company says. Including sinks and headwalls, to be reconfigured to meet patient needs. 2. Business Strategy: Broad Differentiation Strategies This strategy pursues the buyer’s needs and preference to make them satisfied with the product. And to be different from other rivals, the product must have unique product attributes that a wide range of buyers find appealing and worth paying for. The strategy achieves its aim when an attractively large numbers of buyers find the customer buyer value proposition.

Herman miller is pursuing this strategy as we refer to the case study that their products are based on the design which is designed according to the people who use the furniture. Like the president of Herman Miller said: ‘people are important not the furniture. Furniture should be useful’. Besides, this company emphasizes on product design and environmental friendly, these are two basic things that they have been practicing for many decades. Furthermore, they also invest more in research and development for product innovation.

Take an example of office design product, Herman Miller’s Insight and Exploration team observed various workplaces to analyze how people collaborate and the ways in which their interactions vary over the course of a day, and throughout the life of a project by differentiating the subtleties of how, when, where, and why people connect independent of content or industry. Senior Researcher Shilpi Kumar notes that, “outlining these collaborative work behaviors will empower designers and decision makers with a greater understanding for how people really work, and will enable more informed choices in regards to office spaces.

Herman Miller takes advantage of the growing desire for green products to create a better world and increase ergonomic furniture, because the consumers are willing to pay a premium for such quality and social responsible product. Since the designer of Herman Miller emphasized quality, excellence, and the continual improvement of their products, obviously one of their product which is designed by Charles and Ray Eames since its launch in 1950 had developed from plastic chair to wood chair in 2000.

She also confirmed that this wood chair is 100 times recyclable since Herman Miller is concerned about environmental friendly, and Eames Molded Wood Side Chair earns “Gold” award at NeoCon 2013 in the Guest Seating category. 3. Functional strategy: Research and Development (R&D) This category focuses on strategy that is concerned with the actions in managing particular functions within a business especially in R&D. In terms of Herman Miller R&D, they invested in research and development (R&D) financially. Although there was downturn in financial, Herman Miller still invested tens of millions of dollars in R&D.

The investment in R&D was code named Purple. A result of investment in R&D was an outgrowth of project Purple. The goal of this project was to spread beyond the boundaries of normal business. Herman miller created a special team called the accessories team in which the team-identified a potential growth area. This team is made to recruit people with different disciplines needed to support that goal. In addition, this team focuses on contributing ideas to the success of the team from all resources and also to develop a particular product as it goes through that piece of work.

This project is in line with functional strategy of R&D in which a company’s product development represents the plan for keeping the company’s product in accordance with what buyers are looking for (Thompson et al, 2014). In the case of Herman Miller Inc, they began with research in every real design solution in which the exploitation and insights of the best research leads to human-centered design and problem solving. Herman Miller Inc is doing many things for R&D in the case of education, sustainability, performance, healthcare, manufacturing, architectures design and ergonomics.

Herman Miller Inc has its major R&D activities and projects, i. e. its way to support and develop a company’s product. According to Herman Miller’s financial statement for fiscal years 2006-2011, there was a decline in design and research in 2009 due to the ongoing economic downturn. Figure 1. 1: Spending on Design and research So far, they have done some research projects regarding education such as; student’s research work behaviors behind innovation spaces. In the fall 2012, there was a project Herman Miller funded as a way of investing in the next generation of workers by giving students the chance to apply what they learn in a real-world setting.

Herman Miller wanted them to look at the business objective of the company. Besides Herman Miller providing the funds, the employees of the company also participated in the project. After the field research, the goal of this project was that the students shared what they had learned from going to the company for a workshop. The company also wanted to discover more about places that encourage creativity and the places of creative people. Besides Herman Miller providing the funds, the employee of the company also participated in the project.

In regarding with the research in technology, the research starts by understanding which technological trends are creating new behaviors in the workplace. So from that, they can produce new design solution. Over the last three years, a group of designers, engineers, and researchers, the Insight Herman Miller and Exploration Team (I & E) has focused on emerging technologies and how they alter social behavior in the workplace. Herman Miller’s goal is to identify the technology trends that are relevant to the office and also understanding new behaviors that allow the designers, architects and manufacturers to bring new workplace design.

For healthcare, Herman Miller Healthcare saw the opportunity to study and analyze by doing the research from the discussion of Bluewater health in which prior to design development and also the satisfaction and safety of patients and staff members. Herman Miller Healthcare is sponsoring a research project that will explore how changes in the built environment have affected staff in three important areas: Ambulatory Care, Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Department. 3 4. Functional Strategies: Marketing Marketing is one of the strategies used under functional strategy.

First and foremost, Herman Miller products were sold internationally through wholly owned subsidiaries in countries including Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Australia, Singapore, China, India, and the Netherlands. Hence, they use the international strategy to compete its products in each country. In other words, they use the foreign subsidiary strategies because it seemed that they prefer to have a direct control over all aspects of operating in a foreign country that is the reason why they established wholly owned subsidiaries.

As a result, this strategy was successful as their brand was recognized by customers and increased customer base spreading over 100 countries. Moreover, they used green marketing strategy to sell their products. This is because they mainly focus on environmental friendly such as Mirra chair, one of their products which was made of 45 percent recycled materials, and 96 percent of its material were recyclable. Therefore, the chairs used 100 percent renewable energy. Due to this strategy used, Mirra chair was recorded as one of the Top 10 Green Products by Architectural Record and Environmental Building News.

Hence, this can indicate the success of using this strategy. In addition, Herman Miller engaged in cooperating advertising with strategic partners. As the example of Hilton Garden Inns which they equipped the Mirra chair in some room and on the desk in the room, was a card that explain how to adjust the chair while also providing the advertisement of Herman Miller’s website, how to purchase the products. Likewise, this is one of the advertising used to promote their products by using the strategic partner. As a result, they can reduce the advertising cost and gain more brand awareness.

Lean Production Initially, at Spring Lake, Herman Miller had invested in a giant robot assembly that welded supports inside file cabinet housings, including a tractor-trailer-length automated welding line with 1,000 sensors to drive labor completely out of the process. Unfortunately, big customers like Hewlett-Packard and AT&T were pulling their orders of 100 instead of 500 and some wanted file cabinets in two weeks instead of six with much higher quality. The Spring Lake plant could not deliver, and certainly not for the lower prices customers demanded.

HMPS created competitive advantage through large assembly – manufacturing based. For example, direct materials and components purchased as needed to meet the demand and some suppliers delivered parts to Herman Miller production facilities five or six times per day. This resulted in a standard lead time of 10 to 20 days for majority of the products and low inventories on hand. Interestingly, HMPS managed to increase the variable costs rather than fixed costs while retaining proprietary control over manufacturing process.

It was reported that “the plant managers across Herman Miller have learned that the best-run plants rely on people, not machines. Only people can solve problems to make assembly lines go faster, run cheaper, and deliver higher quality” (Booz&co. , 2010, para 25). Therefore, it can be concluded that labor intensive approach tend to outperform machine intensive approach especially when the products demand further customization with limited time and the majority of industry products are built to each customer’s unique order. Question 2: Culture at HMI: healthy and largely supportive of good strategy execution.

Herman Miller had codified its long-practiced organizational values, intended as a basic for uniting all employees, building relationship, and contributing to society. Herman Miller started in 1905 with the Star Furniture Company and created the Herman Miller furniture company with his son in law named Dirk Jan De Pree. From the beginning, De Pree committed himself to treating all workers as individuals with specials talents and potential. This was part of Herman Miller’s corporate culture which continued to generate respect for all employees and take advantage of the diversity of skills possessed by all.

This is one of the functional strategies in corporate culture in Herman Miller Inc in which included the company’s approach to people management, procedures and operating practices that provide the guidelines for the behavior of the company. The impact of this culture became one of the competitive advantages that make strong management and employee satisfaction in the company. The business principles and ethical standard of Herman Miller are the management practices as the key of company’s culture. Herman Miller was one of the furniture company named to Fast Company’s “Most Innovative Companies” in both 2008 and 2010.

Herman Miller had pursued a path of reinvention and renewal. Herman Miller has many ways to develop their products and its culture is also unique. Through the growing of the company, Herman Miller maintains the relationship with the employees. Herman Miller’s commitment to innovation included sharing ideas and opinions from the employees. On January 1979, Herman Miller established new organization structures that included all employees were to be given the opportunity to discuss new plan in small group settings. In addition, Herman Miller also established a plan in which all employees became shareholders.

Herman Miller Inc. also focuses on more efficient and environmentally friendly by taking a major initiative in 1981. It is in line with a better world value which is pursuing sustainability and environmental policy. They established environmental quality action team whose goal was to coordinate environmental programs worldwide that involves many employees. A Herman Miller’s culture is grounded in and resides to certain core value and some sets for ethical behavior. Herman Miller had long practiced organizational values that were still used in 2012.

The values are as basis for uniting all employees, building relationship, adapt the implied attitude, behaviors and work practices. The company adopted inclusiveness which means they include all the expressions of human talent and potential that society offers. As mentioned before, Herman Miller corporate culture continued to create respect to all employees and looking for and utilizing the skills possessed by anyone. The second value is design in which it is important to Herman Miller Inc. in order to make innovative products. It is the way for them for looking at the world and how it can work.

The results of this value are Herman Miller established many innovative products and designs. In 1971 and 1984, they introduced products based on ergonomics principles such as the Ergon chair and Equa chair. For another groundbreaking design, it introduced the Aeron chair which was almost added to New York Museum of Modern Art’s permanent design collection in 1990. Other important values are based on Herman Miller’s best performance that focuses on enriching the lives of employees, customers and create value for the shareholders.

The result of this value has made Herman Miller share the gains and pains with the employees especially about the compensation. All employees received a base pay and they also participated in a profit sharing program where they received stock in accordance to the company’s financial performance. The company also offered to the employees the employee stock purchase plan (ESPP), retirement income plan, offered annual bonus to all employees based on company’s performance, and in regard to profit sharing both the employees and executives have same calculation of bonus potential. High performance culture.

In Herman Miller Inc. there is a strong sense of involvement on the part of company personnel and emphasis on individual initiative and creativity. Two of the greatest strengths lie behind our heritage of research-driven design. Respecting and encouraging risks, exploring new ideas and freedom of speech. Owners actively committed to the life of the community called Herman Miller, pride in doing things right, sharing in its success and risks. The strengths and payoff really comes in when engaging in people’s own problems, solutions and behavior. Performance is required at the highest level possible.

Herman Miller enriches employees’ lives, delight its customers, and create value for its shareholders. Herman Miller includes all the express human talent and potential, everyone should have a chance to realize his or her potential regardless of color, gender, age, sexual orientation. It believes that skill; different educational background could bring the company uniqueness. Adaptive Culture Herman Miller always keep innovating its products to serve their customers better. Herman Miller’s corporate culture, which continued to generate respect for all employees, had fueled the quest to tap the diversity of gifts and skill held by all.

The company designs products according to what people want the most, and it is a way of looking at the world and how it works or does not. To design a solution, rather than simply devising one, required research, thought sometime starting over, listening and humility. Manager and employees support each other in dealing with working environment. Herman Miller designed the Canvas workstation, at a lower height than traditional workstations to facilitate a workplace trend toward more collaborative environments. The design also allows more light into work areas and saves space, the company says.

In terms of leverage, overall, it can be said that the performance of the company has been improving over the years and regaining its position in the furniture market after the economic downturn. Although it may not do well as compared to its competitors in terms of financing the debt and equity, there is a sign of improvement and effort in positioning its self in the market industry in U. S. iv. Activity Ratios Figure 3. 4. 1: HMI’s Inventory turnover ratio versus its competitors’ ratio The inventory turnover is commonly used to measure the operational efficiency in managing its assets.

Based on the figure 4. 1 illustrated above, in 2009, Herman Miller Inc. has the highest ratio compared to other years. This high ratio could indicate two conditions, such as; whether the company has strong sales during the year or it has an ineffective buying activity. However, it is perceived that the company did have strong sales proven from the lowest level of inventory and high sales revenue which are seen in the annual report during the year. While in 2010, Herman Miller Inc. ’s turnover ratio drops significantly compared to the other years.

Its cost of sales for the year has the lowest and showed a decrement of 24% from previous year which simultaneously contribute to low ratio as well as indicating the lack of effectiveness particularly in turning its inventory into sales. One of the reasons is that it could be due to the recession which highly affected the company, and hence making them to reduce the cost of sales. However, Herman Miller Inc is getting better in turning its inventory into sales proven from the increment of its ratio by year. Additionally, compared to competitors, the position of the ratio shown for Herman Miller Inc. is located somewhat in the middle.

Steelcase is somewhat faster in turning their inventory into sales compared to others. In contrast, HNI has the lowest rate. This proves that Steelcase is more effective in managing its operational assets. Figure 3. 4. 2: HMI’s Average collection period versus its competitors’ ratio Average collection period is the number of days it takes a company to collect its account receivables. As illustrated from the figure 4. 2 above, Herman Miller is getting better in obtaining its receivables shown by the average days taken which was from 58 days in 2008 and 34 days in 2012. This demonstrates that Herman miller Inc.

Constantly improve its credit policy effectiveness confirmed by a dramatic slump by years. Comparing to other competitors, originally HNI was the most effective company in managing its credit term policy, as the company only took 38 days in collecting its account receivables compared to Steelcase or Herman Miller. However, the company ended up to be the highest rate at 2012 showing that it is not effective in evaluating company’s credit policy. As a result, when a company possesses a lower average collection period, it is seen as optimal as it indicates that the company does not take very long to turn its receivables into cash.

HMI’s current strategies: an issues of need to change its strategies during poor economic conditions The current Herman Miller strategy which focuses on growth strategy, through innovative products and related diversification made the company to survive the Great Depression early in its history, multiple recessions in 20th century and in early 21st century the company recovered from the dot-com bust and was able to continue expanding overseas. The furniture industry is an economically volatile industry. The office furniture segment of the industry was hit hard by the recession.

Industry sales decreased 26. 5 percent during the 2009 economic downturn. However, because of the innovative and diversification, Herman Miller was able to outperform its competitors in terms of sales and profitability, during that time Herman Mill’s sales dropped by 19% which is relatively low in comparison with its competitors HNI Corporation and Steelcase which had dropped by 33 percent and 28% respectively. The furniture industry is at its maturity stage, thus Innovation is crucial to the company’s survival. If Herman Miller continues to successfully innovate, it will enable them to compete in the market strongly.

The industry had been negatively impacted telecommunication which had reduced the need office furniture. Yet, more employees were spending more hours in front of the computer screens than ever before. Because of Herman Miller’s effective innovation, they were able to respond to the need of ergonomically correct office furniture that had helped to decrease fatigue and injuries like carpal tunnel syndrome. In summary, the company does not need to radically alter its main strategy which focuses more on innovation and diversification as it’s the reason they were not dramatically hit by recessions and competitions among the rivals. 3.

Recommendation: i. Reduced current benefit and incentive schemes There are several incentives that had been eliminated by Herman Miller’s management due to the economic downturn in 2009. The suspend of 401(k) contribution plans (saving contribution plan), cut-off 15 percent of current workforce and 10 percent reduction in salary for remaining workforce had been implemented during the crisis. However the pay cuts was discontinued because of Herman Miller’s quick turnaround.

The company was stable starting the year 2011, but the selling, general, and administrative were the highest contribution of the operating expenses. Specifically, “…$3.8 million and $16. 6 million of additional operating expenses during fiscal 2011 due to the reinstatement of all of our employee benefits and employee incentive expenses” (Herman Miller’s Annual Report, 2011). The company believed that the large benefit and incentives had created motivated and skilful employees which are the key of its competitive advantage. Even though the company has increased in sales as compared to the year 2010, it is important to cut the costs by eliminating some of the less important incentives schemes and benefits such as $100 rebate on a bike purchase, concierge services and one-site services to name a few.

Previously, the company had eliminated the 401(k) contribution plan so that they could stop providing some percentage on the employees’ contribution. It is crucial since it could allow the company to save a significant amount of money in the long run (Richardson, 2009). It can be done by communicating the problems and issues which need to be addressed to the staff before they get out of hand. Address the problems proportionately and regular communication could make the staff be aware on their role to support the company throughout the economy downturn.

By having it, the staff might accept the decision positively and provide effort to help the company to fully recover after the recession (‘Recession Business Cost Cutting”, 2013). ii. Reduction in company’s cost of sales According to Herman Miller’s Annual Report (2011), the increase in cost of sales for the year 2011 was due to the increase in sales volume that was driven primarily by cost leverage on higher production, which was partially offset by deeper discounting, higher employee benefit and incentive costs, and higher costs of key direct materials, most notably steel and steel components.

Besides that, the cost of direct material increased as compared to previous years which there was increase in the cost of commodities and the increase in discounting, which has the effect of reducing net sales The costs of certain manufacturing materials used in producing finished products are sensitive to the volatility of commodity market price. The cost of direct labor and overhead were increased due to increase in product volume while the cost of freight expenses had increased during the year because of increase in product volume as well as increase in fuel costs in 2011.

First recommendation to cut the cost of sales in terms of direct material is substituting lower cost material where possible to replace the expensive one and each angle should be considered for better decision. For example, the substitution of carbon steel to replace expensive stainless steel could reduce the cost but the corrosion protection might not last longer. This method should be applied if only the benefit from the substitution is higher than the cost of reduction in quality (Lewis, n. d. ). Second recommendation is by eliminating unnecessary product features to reduce cost.

The company should produce a product that really suits customers’ preferences in buying their products. For example, the company should identify whether customers are purchasing its products because of their unique looks, lower price or high quality. If customers buy the products because of their lower price, unique features may not be needed (Lewis, n. d. ). Third recommendation which is the most effective one is by hedging the price of the steel through futures contract. According to Herman Miller’s Annual Report (2011):

“The company believes market prices for commodities in the near term may move higher and acknowledges that over time increases on its key direct materials and assembly components are likely. Consequently, it views the prospect of such increases as an outlook risk to the business” (p. 34). By locking the price in the contract, it could eliminate any risk of price volatility (“Hedging in Practice”, 2013). For example, if there is a huge possibility that the price of steel will increase in a certain period of time. Due to that, the company will engage in future contract and lock-in the price for a specific period in the future.

Regardless of increase in steel price, the company is eligible to buy the commodity at a lower lock-in price as stated in the agreed future contract. Conclusion Herman Miller Inc. has implemented different strategies in order to improve its performance and expand its self in furniture market, such as diversified strategy, broad differentiation strategy, green marketing, product development and innovation. In addition, besides focusing on those strategies to achieve the business goals, the company also concerns about how it communicates and treat its employees.

“All workers as individuals with special talents and potential” can be considered as one of the healthy culture at Herman Miller since 1927 and the Company continued to generate respect for all employees and fueled the quest to tap diversity of gifts and skills held by all. According to one of the verse in chapter 42 of the Qur’an: “Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance” (Quran 42:38) The verse above explains the importance of mutual consent in making a decision.

Islam encourages Muslims to decide their affairs by consulting with those who will be affected by the decision. Thus, in the case of Herman Miller, it empowers its employees and nurture participative decision making so that the employees feel as part of the company. Surviving in matured furniture industry and the economic volatility such as recession, demand full cooperation from the whole organization. It is not easy to integrate the diverse nature of employees with different backgrounds and behaviors to achieve goal congruence.

Thus, Herman Miller’s healthy culture leads to its employee’s readiness to accept any relevant decision by Herman Miller such as cutting their salaries as the employees work with Herman Miller and not just work for it. Furthermore, in term of design value, the designer team of Herman Miller always emphasized on quality, excellence, and the continual improvement of their products. “At Herman Miller the products we made decade ago are still sold after today, and products we make today we will do for a decade to come. ”

All in all, Herman Miller should pursue its current strategies and continue to expand those strategies such as product innovation, diversification and so on. We believe that these strategies have made and will make Herman Miller one of an outstanding and award winning Company. They will continue to provide the Company with the ability to renew and reinvent itself in the furniture market and outperform its rivals in the future. From the explanation above, it gives us a broad view of how the company’s long-term strategy and objective affects all their business: from product design to decision-making process to the culture of the Company.

Illegal Immigration research essay help: research essay help

When we talk about the way the United States developed, the one and always topic that will be at the forefront of the conversation would be that of immigration. Since the United States was founded, men, women and children migrated from all over the world to be a part of the free world. These immigrants came to America to find jobs, buy lands for farming and to start their families. These immigrants also brought with them cultures that helped shape the way the United States is today, rich in cultures from all over the world but all here in one country.

The United States in the late 19th century and early twentieth century had over 25 million immigrants flood their ways to the free county. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) These immigrants filled in the urban areas around cities and became the workforce in industrial labor for industries such as steel, automobile, textile and coal. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) This flood of immigrants brought the thought that the nation was becoming too populated and that restrictions on immigration must be initiated on immigration.

The National Origins Act of 1921 was enacted by congress to limit the number of immigrants and also assigned numbers of origins that could enter the country based on what country they were immigrating from. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) This act also declared that any immigrants from Asia to be refused any immigration as they were deemed unworthy. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) The National Origins Act of 1921 however did not cover immigrants from Central and South Americas which they could come and go freely into the United States.

The Hart-Cellar Act in 1965 changed the way immigrants came into the country and it took away the quotas that the National Origin Act had placed on immigrants. The Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 once again began a flood of immigrants as was scene in the late 1800’s but this time instead of the immigrants coming from Europe, they were headed from Asia. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) The United States was once again a country that was formed and transformed by immigration.

The problem of illegal immigration has been around since the United States put limits and restrictions on immigration in the early twentieth century. We live here and have grown up in the United States. There are many people throughout the world that want a better life for themselves, their families and especially their children. Many illegal immigrants will illegally enter the United States for this reason alone. However, there are illegal immigrants that will come here for criminal activities mainly the drug world.

When we think of illegal immigrants we mainly focus on those illegal’s that are here after they illegally entered the United States, some by boats from the Caribbean while others from crossing the unprotected borders of Mexico and Canada. But there are millions of illegals that have come here to work on Visa’ and Green Cards that have since expired but they want to stay as they have enjoyed their lives here and that their lives are better than where they originally came from. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) Illegal immigrants also come here to be reunited with family members that have come to the United States.

Many illegal immigrants are hired by companies that have low paying and high physical requirements that many people don’t want. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) These companies have been known to hire illegal immigrants as they can pay them lower than minimum wages as they do not meet the requirements under federal standards. These illegals are hard workers that want to take care of their families and make that better live in the land of freedom and opportunity.

However, they do not have health care and most federal benefits afforded to citizens. In the past decade, these companies have been targeted by federal and local law enforcement agencies for the employment of illegal immigrants. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) These companies face stiff penalties, fines, and can lose federal aid to the company. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) In 2010 the Department of Homeland Security estimated that the number of illegal immigrants in the United States at approximately 11 million.

Over 57% of these are Mexican nationals and 24% from Cental American countries. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) No other country has over 1 million illegal immigrants here in the United States but the largest numbers are from Central America and Caribbean countries. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) With that number in mind, in 2011, there were 641,633 illegal immigrants apprehended and removed from the United States.

Legal Rights with Illegal Immigration Under United States law any foreign national over the age of 14 and will stay in the United States for longer than 30 days must register with the U. S. government and have registration documents in their possession at all times. (Cornell University Law School) Illegal immigrants can be classified as illegal for one of three reasons: entering without authorization or inspection, staying beyond the authorized period after legal entry, or violating the terms of legal entry.

 Section 1325 in Title 8 of the United States Code, “Improper entry of alien”, provides for a fine, imprisonment, or both for any immigrant who enters or attempts to enter the United States at any time or place other than as designated by immigration agents, or eludes examination or inspection by immigration agents, or attempts to enter or obtains entry to the United States by a willfully false or misleading representation or the willful concealment of a material fact.

The maximum prison term is 6 months for the first offense and 2 years for any subsequent offense. (Cornell University Law School)In addition to the above criminal fines and penalties, civil fines may also be imposed. (Cornell University Law School) This federal law is fine but it doesn’t seem to be enforced as it was intended to and with over 11 million illegals in the country it is not being enforced enough. With the frustration of state and local governments and law enforcement agencies facing problems with illegal immigration, some states have decided to take the illegal immigration problem into their hands by passing state laws in regards to illegal immigration.

One very controversial law was Arizona’s Senate Bill 1070, the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act. The SB 1070 went along with the federal law and made it a misdemeanor for aliens to be in Arizona and not to have any required documents on them, which is required for peace officers in Arizona to determine an individual’s immigration status during a lawful contact or lawful stop, detention or arrest when there is reasonable suspicion that the individual is an illegal immigrant.

The Arizona SB 1070 brought on national debate in which President Obama was an outspoken opponent to the law and had the United States Attorney file a lawsuit against Arizona in hope to stop the bill as many thought it was a violation of constitutional and civil rights. (State of Arizona, 2010) The United States Supreme Court ruled on Arizona v. United States and upheld the provision requiring immigration status checks during law enforcement stops.

Since the passage of Arizona SB 1070, 16 other states such as Michigan, Georgia, Texas, Florida and California have introduced illegal immigration bills such as Arizona’s in order to help curb the illegal immigration problem. Illegal immigrants do not have rights to vote, to own or possess a firearm and can be denied citizenship if convicted of a felony and as the government and states list illegal immigrants as violators of the law, they do have some protections under the United States Constitution.

 Under the 14th Amendment of the Constitution the United States Supreme court has ruled that the amendment states “Nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws,” applied to all persons “without regard to any differences of race, of color, or of nationality,” and to “an alien, who has entered the country, and has become subject in all respects to its jurisdiction, and a part of its population, although alleged to be illegally here.

This ruling gave illegal immigrants protection under the 14th Amendment 126 years ago in Yick Wo v. Hopkins (1886). Ten years later, Wong Wing v. US (1896) was also heard by the Supreme Court, under this ruling the argument of the 5th and 6th amendments were given to illegal immigrants as it stated “. . .

It must be concluded that all persons within the territory of the United States are entitled to the protection guaranteed by those amendments, and that even aliens shall not be held to answer for a capital or other infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law. ” ( U. S. Supreme Court, 1896) Effects of Illegal Immigration on Communities Illegal Immigration is a constant topic on crime in the United States and is a public safety issue.

Not all illegal immigrants are involved in criminal activity but some illegal immigrants have come to the United States to be a part of the criminal world. Some come as gang members in urban areas as gangs are infiltrated by illegal aliens. The MS-13 gang is a violent gang with a high Hispanic gang member rate. These gang members are mostly illegal immigrants and participate in crimes to include murder, prostitution, drugs and other criminal activity. (Taylor, 2007) Here in Arizona, there are a high number of illegal aliens that partake in human smuggling. This is done by charging money to smuggle them into the United States.

Although many can’t afford this fee, they are forced to sell drugs or participate in criminal activity to pay off the debt to the smuggler. Other crimes committed by illegal immigrants include identity theft, theft and drunk driving. It is stated that 20% of motor vehicle crashes involving illegal immigrants that are Hispanic and are related to drinking and driving. (Taylor, 2007) Illegal immigration impact on the economy has different views in regards to if it is a bad thing or a good thing. Illegal immigrants usually will fill in the low paying and unskilled jobs such as farming, landscaping and construction.

A positive side to this is that by illegal immigrants filling these positions it helps keep the prices lower as they are being paid less. (Davidson, 2011) If a union job takes that position, the workers would be paid more and the prices of the products would go up. The negative side would be that it takes away from native unskilled workers that would be paid at minimum wages and that these illegal immigrant workers do not pay into social security and taxes but they do use government facilities like schools and hospitals leaving the bill to the taxpayers.

According to the Federation for American Immigration Reform, illegal immigration costs tax payers $113 billion dollars per year with $52 billion of that costing taxpayer’s for the use of public schools by illegal immigrant’s children. (Federation For American Immigration Reform, 2012) This is a high price paid as most state and local economies are in deficits and looking for ways to save money and cut spending. Solving the Illegal Immigration Problem Just build a wall over the borders.

Sounds good but solving the illegal immigration problem is not as easy as one would think. We can seal off the borders but we still have 11 million illegals inside the country. Do we give them amnesty as they are locked in now that the walls are built? This will create the U. S. into giving them citizenship’s and then will bring up the unemployment rates all across the nation let alone the welfare and health care costs. I do think that the first step would be to look at the laws and rewrite them for today’s world.

Many laws were written hundreds of years ago and make no sense in today world. Then we must start enforcing illegal immigration laws to show that we will not sit back and let it happen as we have for decades. Now that we are enforcing the laws let’s get that border secured. Make the wall or ditch or whatever will stop the illegal crossings into this country. Have motion detecting cameras along with armed patrol. Set up a military base and have the armed forces secure it, they do it in Afghanistan and Iraq, why can’t they do it here in their homeland?

Now after all this is done, empty the prisons of illegals and send them back to their country. It would be a cost at first but over the long run of paying for years in prisons we would make our money back. Then start giving amnesty to those who want to work, want to live the life of freedom and have a pride in their new country. These would be the ones that we would want here. Grant amnesty only for the crime free citizens and send others back to fill out requests to come back here. The problem we would have with my entire plan is that there are families here that are here legally and illegally.

It would be hard to send back a mother or father when their children are here. This plan would have to take a long time in order to first find them and then to send the rights ones back without breaking up families and causing future problems within the family and the neighborhoods. So illegal immigration has been a problem for the United States for over a hundred years and I feel that it will be a problem for the next hundred. The problem is a difficult one to solve in a democratic country and one that is based on the rights and beliefs of its citizens.

Procurement and supply chain management writing essay help: writing essay help

This Publication is concerned with the vital subject of business logistics and supply chain management, an area that can be essential to a firm’s competitive strategy and revenue generation. This management area has been described by many names, including physical distribution, materials management, transportation management, logistics, and supply chain management. Relevant business activities may include one or more of the following areas: transportation, inventory, order processing, purchasing, warehousing, materials handling, packaging, customer service standards, and production.

The focus of this Publication is on the planning, organizing, and controlling of these activities – key elements for successful management in any organization. Special emphasis is given to strategic planning and decision making as an important part of the management process. Managerial efforts are directed towards setting the level of the logistics activities so as to make products and services available to customers at the time and place required, and in the condition and form desired, in the most profitable and cost-effective way.

Logistical activities have always been vital to organizations, and so business logistics and supply chain management represents a synthesis of many concepts, principles, and methods from the more traditional areas of marketing, production, accounting, purchasing, and transportation, as well as from the disciplines of applied mathematics, organizational behaviour, and economics. This Publication attempts to unify these elements to assist in the effective management of the supply chain.

The Publication aims to present ideas, principles and techniques that are fundamental to good business logistics practice. It concentrates on important activities of management such as planning, organizing, and controlling, and also on a triangle of interrelated transportation, inventory, and location strategies, which are at the heart of good logistics planning and decision making. Contemporary trends that affect the scope and practice of business logistics and supply chain management have been integrated into the body of the text.

Firstly, emphasis is placed on logistics and supply chain management in a worldwide setting to reflect the growing internationalization and globalization of business in general. Secondly, the shift towards service-oriented economies by industrialized nations is emphasized by showing how logistics concepts and principles are applicable to both service-producing tirms and product-producing ones. Thirdly, attention is given to the integrated management of supply chain activities. 1 LSCTMMOD1

Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk The Publication contains many practical and contemporary examples that show the applicability of the textual material and assist in the understanding and learning of the key points and concepts.

Each Chapter in this Cambridge International College Publication on Logistics, Chain Supply & Transport Management includes: • An introduction section • Examples and/or figures and diagrams to explain the concepts being covered • A summary of concluding comments • Review Questions designed to reinforce learning and contemplation of what is covered in the Chapter Advice on How to Study this Program Every individual CIC Member approaches his/her study in a different manner, and different people may have a particular study method that they find most effective for them.

However, the following is a tested and proven Study Method, suggested to you as a CIC Member in order to assist in making your study and learning easier – and enjoyable – and to assist you to quickly master the contents of this CIC Publication on Logistics, Chain Supply & Transport Management: Step 1: Set yourself a flexible study schedule, depending on the time you have available and what is best for you. For example, the target set could be to study for 1 or 2 hours a night, or for 8 or 9 hours a week, or to complete one Chapter every 2 weeks.

There is no set or compulsory schedule, but simply setting a schedule or goal is often an important action in ensuring that study is undertaken successfully and within the specified timeframe. Step 2: Read the whole of the first Chapter at your normal reading pace, without trying to memorise every topic covered or fact stated, but trying to get “the feel” of what is dealt with in the Chapter as a whole. Step 3: Start reading the Chapter again from the beginning, this time reading more slowly, paragraph by paragraph and section by section.

Make brief notes of any points, sentences, paragraphs or sections which you feel need your further study, consideration or thought. You may wish to keep any notes in a separate file or notebook. Try to absorb and memorise all the important topics covered. Step 4: Start reading the Chapter again from its start, this time paying particular attention to – and if necessary studying more thoroughly – those parts on which you earlier wrote notes for further study. It is best that you do not pass on to other parts or topics until you are certain you fully understand and remember those parts you earlier noted as requiring your special attention.

Try to fix everything taught firmly in your mind. 2 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk Step 5: There are self-assessment review questions at the end of the Chapter, and you are strongly advised to try to answer or think about them as best you can – but do not send your answers to the College.

If these questions/exercises highlight any areas that you feel you need to revise or re-read in the Chapter, then go ahead and do that before moving on to Step 6. Step 6: Once you have completed steps 1 to 5 above, move on to the next Chapter and repeat steps 1 to 5 for each subsequent Chapter. 3 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining.

com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk LOGISTICS, SUPPLY CHAIN & TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT PROGRAM MODULE ONE – BUSINESS LOGISTICS/SUPPLY CHAIN – A VITAL SUBJECT (based on Chapter 1 of ‘Logistics, Supply Chain and Transport Management’ by Ronald H Ballou) Contents Introduction Business Logistics Defined The Supply Chain The Activity Mix Importance of Logistics/Supply Chain (SC) Costs Are Significant Logistics Customer Service Expectations Are Increasing Supply and Distribution Lines Are Lengthening with Greater Complexity Logistics/SC Is Important to Strategy

Logistics/SC Adds Significant Customer Value Customers Increasingly Want Quick, Customized Response Logistics/SC in Non-Manufacturing Areas Service Industry Military Environment Business Logistics/SC in the Firm Objectives of Business Logistics/SC Questions and Problems Introduction As far back as history records, the goods that people wanted were not always produced where they wanted to consume them, or these goods were not accessible when people wanted to consume them. Food and other commodities were widely dispersed and were only available in abundance at certain times of the year.

Early peoples had the choice of consuming goods at their immediate location or moving the goods to a preferred site and storing them for later use. However, because no well developed transportation and storage systems yet existed, the movement of goods was limited to what an individual could personally move, and storage of perishable commodities was possible for only a short time. This limited movement-storage system generally constrained people to live close to the sources of production and to consume a rather narrow range of goods.

Even today, in some areas of the world consumption and production take place only within a very limited geographic region. Striking examples can still be observed in the developing nations of Asia, South America, Australia, and Africa, where some of the population live in small, self-sufficient villages, and most of the goods needed by the residents are produced or acquired in the immediate vicinity. Few goods are imported from other areas. Therefore, production efficiency and the economic standard of living are generally low.

In this type of economy, a well-developed and inexpensive logistics system would encourage an exchange of goods with other producing areas of the country, or even the world. 4 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk As logistics systems improved, consumption and production began to separate geographically.

Regions would specialize in those commodities that could be produced most efficiently. Excess production could be shipped economically to other producing (or consuming) areas, and needed goods not produced locally were imported. This exchange process follows the principle of comparative advantage. This same principle, when applied to world markets, helps to explain the high level of international trade that takes place today. Efficient logistics systems allow world businesses to take advantage of the fact that lands, and the people who occupy them, are not equally productive.

Logistics is the very essence of trade. It contributes to a higher economic standard of living for us all. To the individual firm operating in a high-level economy, good management of logistics activities is vital. Markets are often national or international in scope, whereas production may be concentrated at relatively few points. Logistics activities provide the bridge between production and market locations that are separated by time and distance. Effective management of these activities is the major concern of this Program. Business Logistic Defined

Business logistics is a relatively new field of integrated management study in comparison with the traditional fields of finance, marketing, and production. As previously noted, logistics activities have been carried out by individuals for many years. Businesses also have continually engaged in movestore (transportation-inventory) activities. The newness of the field results from the concept of coordinated management of the related activities, rather than the historical practice of managing them separately, and the concept that logistics adds value to products or services that are essential to customer satisfaction and sales.

Although co-ordinated logistics management has not been generally practiced until recently, the idea of co-ordinated management can be traced back to at least 1844. In the writings of Jules Dupuit, a French engineer, the idea of trading one cost for another (transportation costs for inventory costs) was evident in the selection between road and water transport: “The fact is that carriage by road being quicker, more reliable and less subject to loss or damage, it possesses advantage to which businessmen often attach a considerable value.

However, it may well be that a saving induces the merchant to use a canal; he can buy warehouses and increase his floating capital in order to have a sufficient supply of goods on hand to protect himself against slowness and irregularity of the canal, and if all told the saving in transport gives him a cost advantage, he will decide in favour of the new route. ” The first textbook to suggest the benefits of co-ordinated logistics management appeared around 1961, in part explaining why a generally accepted definition of business logistics is still emerging.

Therefore, it is worthwhile to explore several definitions for the scope and content of the subject. A dictionary definition of the term logistics is: “The branch of military science having to do with procuring, maintaining, and transporting material, personnel, and facilities. ” This definition puts logistics into a military context. To the extent that business objectives and activities differ from those of the military, this definition does not capture the essence of business logistics management.

A better representation of the field may be reflected in the definition promulgated by the Council of Logistics Management (CLM), a professional organization of logistics 5 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk managers, educators, and practitioners formed in 1962 for the purposes of continuing education and fostering the interchange of ideas.

Its definition: “Logistics is that part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers’ requirements. ” This is an excellent definition, conveying the idea that product flows are to be managed from the point where they exist as raw materials to the point where they are finally discarded. Logistics is also concerned with the flow of services as well as physical goods, an area of growing opportunity for improvement.

It also suggests that logistics is a process, meaning that it includes all the activities that have an impact on making goods and services available to customers when and where they wish to acquire them. However, the definition implies that logistics is part of the supply chain process, not the entire process. So, what is the supply chain process or, more popularly, supply chain management? Supply chain management (SCM) is a term that has emerged in recent years that captures the essence of integrated logistics and even goes beyond it.

Supply chain management emphasizes the logistics interactions that take place among the functions of marketing, logistics, and production within a firm and those interactions that take place between the legally separate firms within the product-flow channel. Opportunities for cost or customer service improvement are achieved through co-ordination and collaboration among the channel members where some essential supply chain activities may not be under the direct control of the logistician.

Although early definitions such as physical distribution, materials management, industrial logistics and channel management – all terms used to describe logistics – have promoted this broad scope for logistics, there was little attempt to implement logistics beyond a company’s own enterprise boundaries, or even beyond its own internal logistics function. Now, retail firms are showing success in sharing information with suppliers, who in turn agree to maintain and manage inventories on retailers’ shelves.

Channel inventories and product stockouts are lower. Manufacturing firms operating under just-in-time production scheduling build relationships with suppliers for the benefit of both companies by reducing inventories. Definitions of the supply chain and supply chain management reflecting this broader scope are: “The supply chain (SC) encompasses all activities associated with the flow and transformation of goods from the raw materials stage (extraction), through to the end user, as well as the associated information flows.

Materials and information flow both up and down the supply chain. ” “Supply chain management (SCM) is the integration of these activities, through improved supply chain relationships, to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. ” After careful study of the various definitions being offered, Mentzer and other writers propose the broad and rather general definition as follows:

“Supply chain management is defined as the systematic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole. ” 6 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining.

The supply chain management model in Figure 1-1 viewed as a pipeline shows the scope of this definition. It is important to note that supply chain management is about the co-ordination of product flows across functions and across companies to achieve competitive advantage and profitability for the individual companies in the supply chain and the supply chain members collectively. It is difficult, in a practical way, to separate business logistics management from supply chain management.

In so many respects, they promote the same mission: “To get the right goods or services to the right place, at the right time, and in the desired condition, while making the greatest contribution to the firm. ” Some claim that supply chain management is just another name for integrated business logistics management (IBLM) and that the broad scope of supply chain management has been promoted over the years. Conversely, others say that logistics is a subset of SCM, where SCM considers additional issues beyond those of product flow. For example, SCM may be concerned with product pricing and manufacturing quality.

Although SCM promotes viewing the supply channel with the broadest scope, the reality is that firms do not practise this ideal. Fawcett and Magan found that companies that do practise supply chain integration limit their scope to one tier upstream and one tier downstream. The focus seems to be concerned with creating seamless processes within their own companies and applying new information technologies to improve the quality of information and speed of its exchange among channel members. The boundary between the logistics and supply chain management terms is fuzzy.

Even then, logistics activities are repeated once again as used products are recycled upstream in the logistics channel. A single firm generally is not able to control its entire product flow channel from raw material source to points of the final consumption, although this is an emerging opportunity. For practical purposes, the business logistics for the individual firm has a narrower scope. Usually, the maximum managerial control that can be expected is over the immediate physical supply and physical distribution channels, as shown in Figure 1-2.

The physical supply channel refers to the time and space gap between a firm’s immediate material sources and its processing points. Similarly, the physical distribution channel refers to the time and space gap between the firm’s processing points and its customers. Due to the similarities in the activities between the two channels, physical supply (more commonly referred to as materials management) 8 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain.

International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk and physical distribution comprise those activities that are integrated into business logistics. Business logistics management is now popularly referred to as supply chain management. Others have used terms such as value nets, value stream, and lean logistics to describe a similar scope and purpose. The evolution of the management of product flows toward SCM is captured in Figure 1-3.

Although it is easy to think of logistics as managing the flow of products from the points of raw material acquisition to end customers, for many firms there is a reverse logistics channel that must be managed as well. The life of a product, from a logistics viewpoint, does not end with delivery to the customer. Products become obsolete, damaged, or nonfunctioning and are returned to their source points for repair or disposition. Packaging materials may be returned to the shipper due to environmental regulations or because it makes good economic sense to reuse them.

The reverse logistics channel may utilize all or a portion of the forward logistics channel or it may require a separate design. The supply chain terminates with the final disposition of a product. The reverse channel must be considered to be within the scope of logistics planning and control. The Activity Mix The activities to be managed that make up business logistics (supply chain process) vary from firm to firm, depending on a firm’s particular organizational structure, management’s honest differences of opinion about what constitutes the supply chain for its business, and the importance of individual activities to its operations.

Follow along the supply chain as shown in Figure 1-2 and note the important activities that take place. Again, according to the CLM: 9 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk

“The components of a typical logistics system are: customer service, demand forecasting, distribution communications, inventory control, material handling, order processing, parts and service support, plant and warehouse site selection (location analysis), purchasing, packaging, return goods handling, salvage and scrap disposal, traffic and transportation, and warehousing and storage. ” Figure 1-4 organizes these components, or activities, according to where they are most likely to take place in the supply channel. The list is further divided into key and support activities, along with some of the decisions associated with each activity.

Customer service standards co-operate with marketing to: a. Determine customer needs and wants for logistics customer service b. Determine customer response to service c. Set customer service levels 2. Transportation a. Mode and transport service selection b. Freight consolidation c. Carrier routing d. Vehicle scheduling e. Equipment selection f. Claims processing g. Rate auditing 3. Inventory management a. Raw materials and finished goods stocking policies b. Short-term sales forecasting c. Product mix at stocking points 10 LSCTMMOD1

Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk d. Number, size, and location of stocking points e. Just-in-time, push, and pull strategies 4. Information flows and order processing a. Sales order-inventory interface procedures b. Order information transmittal methods c. Ordering rules Support Activities 1. Warehousing a. Space determination b. Stock layout and dock design c.

Warehouse configuration d. Stock placement 2. Materials handling a. Equipment selection b. Equipment replacement policies c. Order-picking procedures d. Stock storage and retrieval 3. Purchasing a. Supply source selection b. Purchase timing c. Purchase quantities 4. Protective packaging designed for: a. Handling b. Storage c. Protection from loss and damage 5. Co-operate with production/operations to: a. Specify aggregate quantities b. Sequence and time production output c. Schedule supplies for production/operations 6. Information maintenance a. Information collection, storage, and manipulation b. Data analysis

Control procedures Key and support activities are separated because certain activities will generally take place in every logistics channel, whereas others will take place, depending on the circumstances, within a particular firm. The key activities are on the “critical” loop within a firm’s immediate physical distribution channel, as shown in Figure 1 to 5. They contribute most to the total cost of logistics or they are essential to the effective co-ordination and completion of the logistics task. 11 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website:

Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk Customer service standards set the level of output and degree of readiness to which the logistics system must respond. Logistics costs increase in proportion to the level of customer service provided, such that setting the standards for service also affects the logistics costs to support that level of service. Setting very high service requirements can force logistics costs to exceedingly high levels.

Transportation and inventories maintenance are the primary cost-absorbing logistics activities. Experience has shown that each will represent one-half to two-thirds of total logistics costs. Transportation adds place value to products and services, whereas inventories maintenance adds time value. Transportation is essential because no modern firm can operate without providing for the movement of its raw materials or its finished products. This importance is underscored by the financial strains placed on many firms by such disasters as a national railroad strike or independent truckers’ refusal to move goods because of rate disputes.

In these circumstances, markets cannot be served, and products back up in the logistics pipeline to deteriorate or become obsolete. Inventories are also essential to logistics management because it is usually not possible or practical to provide instant production or ensure delivery times to customers. They serve as buffers between supply and demand so that needed product availability may be maintained for customers while providing flexibility for production and logistics in seeking efficient methods for manufacture and distribution of the product. Order processing is the final key activity.

Its costs usually are minor compared to transportation or inventory maintenance costs. Nevertheless, order processing is an important element in the total time that it takes for a customer to receive goods or services. It is the activity triggering product movement and service delivery. Although support activities may be as critical as the key activities in any particular circumstance, they are considered here as contributing to the logistics mission. In addition, one or more of the support activities may not be a part of the logistics activity mix for every firm.

For example, products such as finished automobiles or commodities such as coal, iron ore, or gravel not needing the weather and security protection of warehousing will not require the warehousing activity, even though inventories are maintained. However, warehousing and materials handling are typically conducted wherever products are temporarily halted in their movement to the marketplace. 12 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain.

International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk Protective packaging is a support activity of transportation and inventory maintenance as well as of warehousing and materials handling because it contributes to the efficiency with which these other activities are carried out. Purchasing and product scheduling often may be considered more a concern of production than of logistics.

However, they also affect the overall logistics effort, and specifically they affect the efficiency of transportation and inventory management. Finally, information maintenance supports all other logistics activities in that it provides the needed information for planning and control. The extended supply chain refers to those members of the supply channel beyond the firm’s immediate suppliers or customers. They may be suppliers to the immediate suppliers or customers of the immediate customers and so on until raw material source points or end customers are reached.

It is important to plan and control the previously noted activities and information flows if they affect the logistics customer service that can be provided and the costs of supplying this service. Management of the extended supply chain has the potential of improving logistics performance beyond that of just managing the activities within the immediate supply chain. Importance of Logistics/Supply Chain Logistics is about creating value – value for customers and suppliers of the firm, and value for the firm’s stakeholders. Value in logistics is primarily expressed in terms of time and place.

Products and services have no value unless they are in the possession of the customers when (time) and where (place) they wish to consume them. For example, concessions at a sports event have no value to consumers if they are not available at the time and place that the event is occurring, or if inadequate inventories don’t meet the demands of the sports fans. Good logistics management views each activity in the supply chain as contributing to the process of adding value. If little value can be added, it is questionable whether the activity should exist.

However, value is added when customers are willing to pay more for a product or service than the cost to place it in their hands. To many firms throughout the world, logistics has become an increasingly important value-adding process for a number of reasons. Costs Are Significant Over the years, several studies have been conducted to determine the costs of logistics for the whole economy and for the individual firm. There are widely varying estimates of the cost levels. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), logistics costs average about 12 percent of the 13 LSCTMMOD1

Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk world’s gross domestic product. Robert Delaney, who has tracked logistics costs for more than two decades, estimates that logistics costs for the U. S. economy are 9. 9 percent of the U. S. gross domestic product (GDP), or $921 billion. For the firm, logistics costs have ranged from 4 percent to over 30 percent of sales.

The results from a cost survey of individual firms are shown in Table 1-3. Although the results show physical distribution costs at about 8 percent of sales, this survey does not include physical supply costs. Probably another one-third may be added to this total to represent average logistics costs for the firm at about 11 percent of sales. Over the last decade, physical distribution costs have ranged between 7 percent and 9 percent of sales. There may be a trend of increasing costs for individual firms, although Wilson and Delaney show over the same period that logistics costs as a percent of U. S.

GDP have declined by about 10 percent. Logistics costs, substantial for most firms, rank second only to the cost of goods sold (purchase costs) that are about 50 percent to 60 percent of sales for the average manufacturing firm. Value is added by minimizing these costs and by passing the benefits on to customers and to the firm’s shareholders. Logistics Customer Service Expectations Are Increasing The Internet, just-in-time operating procedures, and continuous replenishment of inventories have all contributed to customers expecting rapid processing of their requests, quick delivery, and a high degree of product availability.

According to the Davis Survey of hundreds of companies over the last decade, world-class competitors have average order cycle times (the time between when an order is placed and when it is received) of seven to eight days and line item fill rates of 90 percent to 94 percent. LogFac summarizes world-class logistics performance for domestic companies as: Error rates of less than one per 1,000 orders shipped Logistics costs of well under 5 percent of sales Finished goods inventory turnover of 20 or more times per year Total order cycle time of five working days

Transportation cost of one percent of sales revenue or less, if products sold are over $5 per 500 gms As might be expected, the average company performs below these cost and customer service benchmarks, when compared with the statistics in Tables 1-3 and 1-4. Supply and Distribution Lines Are Lengthening with Greater Complexity The trend is toward an integrated world economy. Firms are seeking, or have developed, global strategies by designing their products for a world market and producing them wherever the low-cost 14 LSCTMMOD1

Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk raw materials, components, and labor can be found (e. g. , Ford’s Focus automobile), or they simply produce locally and sell internationally. In either case, supply and distribution lines are stretched, as compared with the producer who wishes to manufacture and sell only locally.

Not only has the trend occurred naturally by firms seeking to cut costs or expand markets, but it is also being encouraged by political arrangements that promote trade. Examples of the latter are the European Union, the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and the economic trade agreement among several countries of South America (MERCOSUR). Globalization and internationalization of industries everywhere will depend heavily on logistics performance and costs, as companies take more of a world view of their operations.

As this happens, logistics takes on increased importance within the firm since its costs, especially transportation, become a larger part of the total cost structure. For example, if a firm seeks foreign suppliers for the raw materials that make up its final product or foreign locations to build its product, the motivation is to increase profit. Material and labor costs may be reduced, but logistics costs are likely to increase due to increased transportation and inventory costs. The “tradeoff”, as shown in Figure 1-6, may lead to higher profit by reducing materials, labour, and overhead costs at the expense of logistics costs and tariffs.

“Outsourcing” adds value, but it requires careful management of logistics costs and product-flow times in the supply channel. Logistics/SC Is Important To Strategy Firms spend a great deal of time finding ways to differentiate their product offerings from those of their competitors. When management recognizes that logistics/SC affects a significant portion of a firm’s costs and that the result of decisions made about the supply chain processes yields different levels of customer service, it is in a position to use this effectively to penetrate new markets, to increase market share, and to increase profits.

When a firm incurs the cost of moving the product toward the customer or making an inventory available in a timely manner, for the customer “value” has been created that was not there previously. It is value as surely as that created through the production of a quality product or through a low price. It is generally recognized that business creates four types of value in products or services. These are: form, time, place, and possession. Logistics creates two out of these four values. Manufacturing creates form value as inputs are converted to outputs, that is raw materials are transformed into finished goods.

Logistics controls the time and place values in products, mainly through transportation, information flows, and inventories. Possession value is often considered the responsibility of marketing, engineering, and finance, where the value is created by helping customers acquire the product through such mechanisms as advertising (information), technical support, and terms of sale (pricing and credit availability). To the extent that SCM includes production, three out of the four values may be the responsibility of the logistics/supply chain manager.

Customers Increasingly Want Quick, Customized Response Fast food retailers, automatic teller machines, overnight package delivery, and electronic mail on the Internet have led us as consumers to expect that products and services can be made available in increasingly shorter times. In addition, improved information systems and flexible manufacturing processes have led the marketplace toward mass customization. Rather than consumers having to accept the “one size fits all” philosophy in their purchases, suppliers are increasingly offering products that meet individual customer needs.

Companies too have been applying the concept of quick response to their internal operations in order to meet the service requirements of their own marketing efforts. The quick response philosophy has been used to create a marketing advantage. Saks Fifth Avenue applied it, even though big profits are made through big margins and not on cost reductions that might be achieved from good logistics management. Supply chain costs may even rise, although the advantage is to more than cover these costs through increased profits. Logistics/SC in Non-manufacturing Areas

It is perhaps easiest to think of logistics/SC in terms of moving and storing a physical product in a manufacturing setting. This is too narrow a view and can lead to many missed business opportunities. The logistics/SC principles and concepts learned over the years can be applied to such areas as service industries, the military, and even environment management. Service Industry The service sector of industrialized countries is large and growing. In the United States, over 70 percent of all jobs are in what the federal government classifies as the service sector.

The size of this sector alone forces us to ask if logistics concepts are not equally applicable here as they are to the manufacturing sector. If they are, there is a tremendous untapped opportunity yet to be fulfilled. Many companies designated as service firms in fact produce a product. Examples include: McDonald’s Corporation (fast foods); Dow Jones & Co. , Inc. (newspaper publishing); and Sears, Roebuck and Co. (merchandise retailing). These companies carry out all the typical supply chain activities of any manufacturing firm.

However, for service companies such as Bank One (retail banking), Marriott Corporation (lodging) and Consolidated Edison (electric power), supply chain activities, 16 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website: Britain. International Headquarters: College House, Leoville, Jersey JE3 2DB, Britain Telefax: +44 (0)1534 485485 Email: info@cambridgetraining. com Website: www. cambridgecollege. co. uk especially those associated with physical distribution, are not as obvious.

Even though many service-oriented companies may be distributing an intangible, nonphysical product, they do engage in many physical distribution activities and decisions. A hospital may want to extend emergency medical care throughout the community and must make decisions as to the locations of the centers. United Parcel Service and Federal Express must locate terminals and route pickup and delivery trucks. The East Ohio Gas Company inventories natural gas in underground wells during the off-season in the region where demand will occur. Bank One must locate and have cash inventory on hand for its ATMs.

The Federal Reserve Bank must select the methods of transportation to move cancelled cheques among member banks. The Catholic Church must decide the number, location, and size of the churches needed to meet shifts in size and location of congregations, as well as to plan the inventory of its pastoral staff. Xerox’s repair service for copying equipment is also a good example of the logistics decisions encountered in a service operation. The techniques, concepts, and methods discussed throughout this Program should be as applicable to the service sector as they are to the manufacturing sector.

The key, according to Theodore Levitt, may be in transforming an intangible service into a tangible product. Problems will remain in carefully identifying the costs associated with the distribution of an intangible product. Perhaps because of this, few service firms or organizations have a physical distribution manager on their staff, although they frequently do have a materials manager to handle supply matters. However, managing logistics in service industries does represent a new direction for the future development of logistics practice. Military

Before businesses showed much interest in co-ordinating supply chain processes, the military was well organized to carry out logistics activities. More than a decade before business logistics’ developmental period, the military carried out what was called the most complex, best-planned logistics operation of that time-the invasion of Europe during World War II. Although the problems of the military, with its extremely high customer service requirements, were not identical with those of business, the similarities were great enough to provide a valuable experience base during the developmental years of logistics.

For example, the military alone maintained inventories valued at about one-third of those held by all U. s. manufacturers. In addition to the management experience that such large-scale operations provide, the military sponsored, and continues to sponsor, research in the logistics area through such organizations as the RAND Corporation and the Office of Naval Research. With this background, the field of business logistics began to grow. Even the term logistics seems to have had its origins in the military.

A recent example of military logistics on a large scale was the conflict between the United States and Iraq over Iraq’s invasion of the small country of Kuwait. This invasion has been described as the largest military logistics operation in history. The logistics support in that war is yet another illustration of what worldclass companies have always known: Good logistics can be a source of competitive advantage. Lt General William Pagonis, in charge of logistics support for Desert Storm, observed: “When the Middle East started heating up, it seemed like a good time to pull out some history books on desert warfare in this region ….

But there was nothing on logistics. Logistics is not a best seller. In a couple of his diaries, Rommel talked about logistics. He thought the Germans lost the battle not because they didn’t have great soldiers or equipment – in fact, the German tanks outfought ours almost throughout World War II – but because the British had better logistics. ” 17 LSCTMMOD1 Send for a FREE copy of our Prospectus book by airmail, telephone, fax or email, or via our website:

The first wave of 200,000 troops and their equipment was deployed in a month and a half, whereas troop deployment took nine months in the Vietnam conflict. In addition, the application of many good logistics concepts was evident. Take customer service, for example: “We believed that if we took care of our troops, the objectives would be accomplished no matter whatever else happened. The soldiers are our customers. It is no different than a determined, single focus on customers that many successful businesses have.

Now, you take care of your soldiers not only by providing them cold sodas, and burgers, and good food: you make sure they have the ammunition on the front line, so that when they go fight the war they know they have what they need. ” This meant that when 120 mm guns rather than 105 mm guns were desired on tanks, they were changed. When brown vehicles were preferred over the traditional camouflage green, they were repainted at the rate of 7,000 per month. Environment Population growth and resultant economic development have heightened our awareness of environmental issues.

Whether it is recycling, packaging materials, transporting hazardous materials or refurbishing products for resale, logisticians are involved in a major way. After all, the United States alone produces more than 160 million tons of waste each year, enough for a convoy of 10-ton garbage trucks reaching halfway to the moon. In many cases, planning for logistics in an environmental setting is no different from that in manufacturing or service sectors. However, in a few cases additional complications arise, such as governmental regulations that make the logistics for a product more costly by extending the distribution channel.

Business Logistics in the Firm It has been the tradition in many firms to organize around marketing and production functions. Typically, marketing means selling something and production means making something. Although few business people would agree that their organization is so simple, the fact remains that many businesses emphasize these functions while treating other activities, such as traffic, purchasing, accounting, and engineering, as support areas. Such an attitude is justified to a degree, because if a firm’s products cannot be produced and sold, little else matters.

However, such a pattern is dangerously simple for many firms to follow in that it fails to recognize the importance of the activities that must take place between points and times of production or purchase and the points and times of demand. These are the logistics activities, and they affect the efficiency and effectiveness of both marketing and production. Scholars and practitioners of both marketing and production have not neglected the importance of logistics. In fact, each area considers logistics within its scope of action.

For example, the following definition of marketing management includes physical distribution: “Marketing (management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges with target groups that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. ” Marketing’s concern is to place its products or services in convenient distribution channels to facilitate the exchange process. The concept of production/ operations management often includes logistics activities.

Now, viewing product flow activities as a process to be coordinated, product flow aspects within marketing, production, and logistics are collectively managed to achieve customer service objectives. The difference in operating objectives (maximize revenue versus minimize cost) for marketing and production/operations may lead to a fragmentation of interest in, and responsibility for, logistics activities, as well as a lack of co-ordination among logistics activities as a whole. This, in turn, may lead to lower customer service levels or higher total logistics costs than are necessary.

Business logistics represents a regrouping, either by formal organizational structure or conceptually in the minds of management, of the move-store activities that historically may have been partially under the control of marketing and production/ operations. If logistics activities are looked upon as a separate area of managerial action, the relationship of logistics activities to those of marketing and production/ operations would be as is shown in Figure 1-7. Marketing would be primarily responsible for market research, promotion, sales-force management, and the product mix, which create possession value in the product.

Production/ operations would be concerned with the creation of the product or service, which creates form value in the product. Key responsibilities would be quality control, production planning and scheduling, job design, capacity planning, maintenance, and work measurement and standards. Logistics would be concerned with those activities (previously defined) that give a product or service time and place value. This separation of the activities of the firm into three groupings rather than two is not always necessary or advisable to achieve the coordination of logistics activities that is sought.

Marketing and production/operations, when broadly conceived and co-ordinated, can do an effective job of managing logistics activities without creating an additional organizational entity. Even if a separate functional area is created for logistics within the firm so as to achieve effective control of the firm’s immediate logistics activities, logisticians will need to view their responsibility as one of coordinating the entire supply chain process rather than being just a local logistics activity administrator. To do otherwise may miss substantial opportunities for cost reduction and logistics customer service improvement.

The interface is created by the arbitrary separation of a firm’s activities into a limited number of functional areas. Managing the interface activities by one function alone can lead to sub-optimal performance for the firm by subordinating broader company goals to individual functional goals-a potential danger resulting from the departmental form of organizational structure so common in companies today. To achieve interfunctional coordination, some measurement system and incentives for cooperation among the functions involved need to be established.

This is equally true of the inter-organizational co-ordination required to manage product flows across company boundaries. It is important to note, however, that establishing a third functional group is not without its disadvantages. Two functional interfaces now exist where only one between marketing and production/ operations previously existed. Some of the most difficult administrative problems arise from the interfunctional conflicts that occur when one is attempting to manage interface activities.

Some of this potential conflict may be dissipated if a new organizational arrangement is created whereby production/ operations and logistics are merged into one group called supply chain. Just as managers are beginning to understand the benefits of interfunctional logistics management, inter-organizational management is being encouraged. Supply chain management proponents who view the area more broadly than some logisticians have been strongly promoting the need for collaboration among supply channel members that are outside the immediate control of a company’s logistician, that is, members who are legally separate companies.

Collaboration among the channel members that are linked through buyer-seller relationships is essential to achieving cost-service benefits unable to be realized by managers with strictly an internal view of their responsibilities. Supply chain managers consider themselves to have responsibility for the entire supply channel of the scope as illustrated in Figure 1-8. Managing in this broader environment is the new challenge for the contemporary logistician. Objectives of Business Logistics/SC

Within the broader objectives of the firm, the business logistician seeks to achieve supply channel process goals that will move the firm toward its overall objectives. Specifically, the desire is to develop a logistics activity mix that will result in the highest possible return on investment over time. There are two dimensions to this goal: (1) the impact of the logistics system design on the revenue contribution, and (2) the operating cost and capital requirements of the design. Ideally, the logistician should know how much additional revenue would be generated through incremental improvements.

Adolescent Development assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

There are mutual influences between an individual and their social environment. There are also at-risk factors involved in the life of a developing adolescent that interconnects with a series of reciprocal systems. I can recall as a developing adolescent quickly maturing into adulthood, the many social, economic, external and internal influences that contributed to certain at-risk behaviors. These type of influences impacted me directly and indirectly. I was influenced by the several environments I was in, and I also contributed to influencing the environment around me.

Attempting to exert control over uncontrollable circumstances only lead to desperate situations and weighty consequences. However, learning to accept my present circumstances, and how to appropriately respond to the hardship and temptations in life developed positive life changes. Individual human development occurs within interconnected and embedded ecological systems (McWhirter et al, 2013). The ecological systems include the individual, the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, and macrosystem (McWhirter et al, 2013).

The individual consists of genetic and biological factors, and personality characteristics (McWhirter et al, 2013). The microsystem consists of the people that the individual comes into direct contact with and who the individual interacts with (McWhirter et al, 2013). The mesosystem is the embedded interconnections between different microsystems and the impact of the interactions that take place (McWhirter et al, 2013). The exosystem consists of the interconnections between one or more settings that indirectly involve the individual (McWhirter et al, 2013).

The macrosystem represents the social blueprint of cultural values, societal structure, gender-role socializations, race relations, belief systems, and national and international resources (McWhirter et al, 2013). The chronosystem is the interconnection and interaction of the individual within different environments, and is the transitions that occur during the course of the individual’s lifetime (McWhirter et al, 2013).

These interconnecting systems are referred to as the ecological model, and assumes that the individual is continually interacting with his or her environment that produces constant change due to mutual influences (McWhirter et al, 2013). Part A – The Ecological Model The core of who I really am involves the combinations of my genetic predispositions, evolutionary and biological components, personality characteristics, and the ongoing process of behavioral, cognitive, and affective experiences (McWhirter et al, 2013). Who I am has a lot to do with my experiences in life, my responses to life events, and the social and environmental influences and interactions involved.

The ecological model provides a greater understanding of how I influence my environment and my environment influences me. This is important because it is through the interactions of the ecological systems that help me better understand myself and others. The Individual. I entered the world with an umbilical cord wrapped around my neck, struggling to live due to insufficient oxygen intake. As a child I was very susceptible to illness. As an adult I discovered that I was living with an autoimmune disorder. I have very vivid fragmented memories as a child of several doctor office visits.

At the personal level, I was a very fearful, anxious, angry, socially withdrawn child who experienced an unstable, insecure, neglectful, abusive, and dysfunctional home environment. The structure of personality develops in childhood and continues to develop in adulthood (Caspi, Roberts & Shiner, 2005). I developed a combination of extraversion and introversion traits. These traits show themselves depending on how safe I determine the environment around me to be. As a child I experienced positive and negative emotionality.

I at times struggle with viewing the world as a safe place and occasionally viewed it as threatening. I experienced anxious distress with a tendency toward anxiety, sadness, insecurity, and guilt. As a teenager I experienced darker emotions such as anger, frustration, and irritation. I developed agreeable personality characteristics as a child. In adulthood I sometimes struggle with the fear of rejection, self-acceptance, people pleasing tendencies, self-awareness, and feeling comfortable in my surrounding environment and own skin.

I also developed a strong motivation to achieve academically, and have a strong sense of independence. As a child and through my teenage years I was not allowed to have an opinion or express individuality, which resulted in the inability or challenge to think on my own, questioning who I am through life stages, fearful of making decisions on my own and especially decisions I need to make on behalf of others, and codependency issues. The Microsystem. I grew up in a traditional family household for a time being that consisted of my mother, father, and sister.

Although, it was considered a traditional two parent household, my father was rarely home, and when he was home he was unavailable. My mother was emotionally unavailable and suffered from manic depression. My mother stayed at home and my father was either out working or pursuing one of his addictions. My family was homeless until I was the age of 5. We had lived and slept in my father’s suburban, randomly stayed with strangers, and at times lived in a recreational vehicle. I assumed responsibility and care of my younger sibling, my mother, myself, and household chores.

I entered the stages of maturity alone and without parental support. The lack of positive parenting during my adolescent years made me vulnerable to at-risk risk behaviors such as premarital sex, tobacco use, substance abuse, gang involvement and mental and social disorders (Clinton & Clark, 2010). At the age of ten I was removed from my parent’s custody and placed in foster care where my sibling and I were separated and placed in different homes. In the foster system I was only allowed to socialize at school, and attended church depending on whether or not my foster parents at the time deemed it necessary.

My sister and I went through several foster home placements which resulted in the loss of security, the loss of our personal possessions, and sense of belonging. Being bounced from home to home, it was difficult maintaining a close friendships with others. I developed an internal mechanism of being friendly with everyone, but not allowing myself to develop a close friendship with others. As I gained independence and freedom in my later teen years and early adulthood, I became more involved in church. The Mesosystem. I grew up in a rural community with a lack of parental involvement.

There were no real established mesosystem relationships. The environment was inconsistently positive and very negative at times. Since school was my outlet, I strived for academic excellence and successfully achieved it. School seemed to be the only sense of stability. The Exosystem. Outside agencies that developed policies and created public resources were an indirect benefit to me as an adolescent and young adult. During childhood, I was able to eat lunch at school, and enjoy extracurricular activities such as Campfire Girls, cheerleading, and Key Club.

I was given accessibility to the basic needs that my parents could not afford such as cloths, food, and shelter. As an adult, several community resources helped my daughter and escape and terminate a domestically violent relationship. The Macrosystem. During adolescence I was exposed to abuse, neglect, and violence first hand and via the television. My father grew up in the south and was very racist toward certain nationalities and races of people. The cultural context consisted of low socioeconomic status (SES), poverty, and experiencing our Native American ethnic background and being exposed to several conflicting belief systems.

I grew up on a culture where corporate punishment was an acceptable practice. The culture valued individuality, independence, and self-reliance. I grew up in poverty with a prevailing crime rate not as noticeable as it is today. Social norms included the overuse of antibiotics (McDonnell Norms Group, 2008), and the use of drugs and alcohol were socially acceptable. Chronosystem. A pattern of environmental events, transitions, and sociohistorical circumstances contributed to my development over my lifespan. Both of my parents lived disloyal and adulterous life styles.

Overtime, there unhealthy and dysfunctional patterns of relating to each other resulted in a separation. My father died when I was 17 years old. My parent’s marriage legally dissolved at the time of my father’s death. My mother remarried multiple times. My sister and I were exposed to their dysfunctional lifestyle, which tremendously impacted our lives. I personally, transitioned through many of life events by experiencing two divorces, being a single-mother of four children for quit sometime, remarrying and adjusting to a blended family, the loss of my oldest daughter, and facing the social political arena at work.

The soil of my family growing up consisted of poverty, low socioeconomic status (SES), judgmental and racist attitudes, abusive and neglectful home environment, and conflicting belief systems. The three primary roots are family, school, and peer groups (McWhirter et al, 2013). My parent’s inability to raise my sister and me in a loving, secure, stable, and nurturing environment, and expose us to family conflict, abuse, neglect, lack of parenting, being emotionally unavailable, and an unstructured home environment contributed to my dysfunction and the at-risk behaviors in my life.

The school system was unaware of our life circumstances and did not any support. My sister ended up dropping out and getting involved with drugs. I became sexually involved with my boyfriend at the age of 15 and became pregnant at the age of 16. My daughter gave me the drive to continue my education and succeed academically in order to provide her with a better life. I was withdrawn during my adolescence and teenage years. Although, I made intent to get along with everyone, I did not associate with everyone. The peer group I involved myself in strived for academic excellence and engaged in positive extracurricular activities.

The trunk of the at-risk tree representing my life consisted of low self-esteem, and depression. The branches of at-risk categories in my life were high-school dropout, substance abuse, risky sexual behaviors, and suicide. I was at risk for teen pregnancy and became pregnant at the age of sixteen. I succumbed to sexual activity with one partner in high school that resulted in teen pregnancy. I was very fortunate that at risk behaviors did not escalate. My tree was broken and bruised and produced damaged fruit. Instead of running to quick gratification I learned to run to God. I found my value and security in Christ.

My branches although bruised eventually healed and produced good, healthy fruit. It took a lot of effort, drive, motivation, will, and trusting God in the midst of temptation and hardship. I was fortunate to have a variety of Gardeners in my life from Christian counselors, law enforcement, human service workers, youth group leaders, Sunday school teachers, and church mentors who helped me redirect my lifestyle. I learned how to be academically successful, a loving, supportive, caring mother to my children, a hard worker of integrity, and to do the right thing when the wrong thing seems easier at the time being.

The Last Duel by Eric Jager common app essay help: common app essay help

This story is placed in France in 1386. This story speaks of how cruel this time was. It also states how serious crime accusations were taken. This duel is about an offence committed eleven earlier months. The duel is to be between two men who were once friends. The men are to duel each other because Lady Marguerite is not allowed to directly accuse LeGris herself of this crime, because she is women. In the time period the story is based in, women have very few rights. Lady Marguerite looked to her husband for help.

She asked him to accuse LeGris of raping her while he was away on business in Paris. Her husband becomes her champion to fight on her behalf. Lady, being a woman, is considered his property this makes the crime against him. Marguerite endured pregnancy leading up to the duel. Jager makes sure to show us how hard it was for Lady Marguerite to speak up about the attack. I think Eric Jager is a phenomenal writer. His writing is powerful and descriptive. His battle scenes describe how detrimental the duel is for the two noblemen.

This is also important for Lady Marguerite de Carrouges, who would be burned to death if her husband is to lose. This story is presented in two main parts, both enclosing chapters. This is written in an organized fashion. First, the prologue speaks of the conflict, the duel the two men are having. Then, Jager takes us back to tell us what has happened in the past leading up to the time of the duel. This story seems to present new information; it does not show that he is just re-writing what others have already written.

The book fulfills its purpose to explain how the justice system worked and how cruel people used to be. He has succeeded at thus; he displays information well and has created a great historical plot to show what the book is meant to do. This book is a good historical book and I do recommend it to those who enjoy history. Eric Jager is a good author, he specializes in medieval literature. I recommend reading his other books if you enjoyed this one. He has also written “The Book of the Heart”, and “The Tempter’s Voice”.

This are his older stories compared to “The Last Duel” witch is one of his newest. I was not a huge fan of this book. It is very well written, but I do not usually like historical books. I do give Jager credit because it is the best historical book I have ever read. It is well put together and full of information on the topic. I did not find the subject interesting so I did cloud my view of the story some-what. This story is good for its intentions, to write about true events in medieval history.

Tom Ford Bio a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

A businessman. An artist. He is everything it takes to be a successful entrepreneur and designer. His ambition and persistence has led him to be one of the most influential designers in fashion. Thomas Carlyle Ford was born on August 27, 1961 in Austin Texas. His parents Tom Ford Sr. and Shirley Bunton both worked as real estate agents so Ford spent a lot of time with his grandparents on their ranch in Brownwood Texas. When he was eleven years old his family moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico.

Ford graduated from Santa Fe Preparatory School in 1979 at 17 years old. He wasted no time and continued his education at New York University as an art history major that same year. While attending NYU, Ford became a regular at Studio 54 nightclub causing his academics to suffer. A year later he dropped out and moved to Los Angeles to act in commercials. There was a point where he was in twelve national advertising campaigns at the same time (2). A few years later he continued his education in the Parsons School of Design in New York where he studied architecture.

Ford transferred to Parson’s Paris campus for a year and a half where he worked as an intern for Chloe’s press office. Chloe is a French fashion house founded in 1952 which coined the term ‘pret-a-porter’ which means Ready-To-Wear (2). This internship triggered his love for fashion and although he spent his last year of school studying fashion, he graduated from Parsons with a degree in architecture. According to Tom Ford, architecture was too serious. “I realized that fashion was the right balance between art and commerce, and that was it.” (1). After graduating from Parsons in 1985 Ford wanted to pursue a career in fashion. He drew up a portfolio and when interviewing for jobs he mentioned that he went to Parsons, a school know for art and design, however he left out that he graduated in architecture (3). He also said that his work at Chloe was a “low-level public relations position” rather than an internship (2). What Ford lacked in experience in the fashion industry he made up for with his drive and perseverance.

Adamant about landing a job with Cathy Hardwick, a well-known sportswear designer, Ford called Hardwick’s office every day for a month straight. Annoyed by his daily calls Cathy finally answered his call to see how soon he could take a meeting. About two minutes later Ford arrived in her office because he had been calling from the lobby. Impressed by his persistence Hardwick hired Ford as a design assistant. In 1988, Ford landed a job designing jeans for Perry Ellis in New York where he knew the company’s president (Robert Mcdonald) and designer (Marc Jacobs) socially.

After a brief two years Ford grew tired of working in American fashion. Ford commented “If I was ever going to become a good designer, I had to leave America. My own culture was inhibiting me. Too much style in America is tacky. Europeans, however, appreciate style. ” (2). Staying true to his word, Ford moved to Milan in 1990 as the chief ready-to-wear Designer of Gucci. Gucci at the time was struggling to keep up with market trends and “no one would dream of wearing Gucci” according to Dawn Mello, the creative director at the time (2).

Mello hired Ford because most other people weren’t interested in the job however Ford rapidly brought Gucci back to life. Within six months he was designing menswear and by 1992 Ford was promoted to design director heading the brand’s ready-to-wear fragrances, image and store design. By 1994 Ford became the creative director and was credited with “putting the glamour back into fashion” (2). Ford completely revamped Gucci’s image with updated retro looks that oozed sex appeal (2). He introduced the company into new ventures such as men’s and women’s sportswear, eveningwear and home furnishings.

Ford also led Gucci to acquire Yves Saint Laurent where he was also named the creative director. Ford was working eighteen hour days and designing sixteen collections per year (3). Ford resigned from the Gucci in 2004 after Pinault Printemps Redoute bought it. Over the course of a decade, Ford took an almost bankrupt company and increased their annual sales to $3 billion (1). By 1999 Gucci was valued at $4. 3 billion and when Ford left in 2004 it was valued at $10 billion (2). Fortunately for Tom Ford all his success at with Gucci was just the beginning.

Early in 2005 Ford announced the opening of his film production company Fade to Black. Four years later Ford debuted A Single Man which he co-wrote, directed and produced. Based on the novel A Single Man by Christopher Isherwood, Ford put a lot of personal emotion into making this movie and admitted that it was like having an on screen mid-life crisis (3). It was nominated for a Golden Lion award as well as two Independent Spirit Awards for best first feature and best first screenplay (2).

In April 2005 Ford also announced the creation of the Tom Ford brand, a partnership to produce and distribute optical frames and sunglasses and an alliance with Estee Lauder to create a beauty brand. In 2007 Ford opened his first store and debuted the Tom Ford menswear and accessory collection (1). Finally in 2010 Ford presented the much anticipated womenswear collection during an intimate old fashioned runway show. He chose iconic women of all ages and body sizes, such as Beyonce Knowles and Julianne Moore, because ultimately it is about individuality (3).

Initially Ford was not going to launch a womenswear collection because he said it was so grueling all those years however he eventually gave in and did what he does best (3). In 2011 Ford launched a complete cosmetics collection. There are currently 15 private blend and six signature fragrances in the Tom Ford beauty collection as well as 49 freestanding Tom Ford stores all over the world. As if this overachiever doesn’t have enough projects he has also kept busy by styling Justin Timberlake since 2011. Ford has styled Timberlake for the Oscars, the Grammys, the Brit Awards, the SAG awards and his wedding.

Focusing on a young rat pack fantasy look has worked for Timberlake and Ford has created a whole new persona through the way he has styled Timberlake. “When you’re someone in your early 50s and a major global pop star who’s barely 30 identifies with your style and wants you to make all his clothes, you think I’m still valid,” said Ford (4). Fords first inspirations came from his mother and grandmother. His mother was chic and classy while his grandmother had Texas flair with everything big and flashy. Although these are two different looks, Ford found a way to combine the two when he reinvented Gucci.

According to Ford “The images of beauty you get in your childhood stick with you for life” (1). Ford is also inspired by his female friends with great style which usually includes women with jobs, kids and lives. He is also inspired by life itself and is appreciative of the architecture and construction of things. According to Ford, when he designs it is intuitive. Tom Ford is openly gay, and he and his partner, fashion journalist Richard Buckley, have been in a long term monogamous relationship since 1986. They own two smooth fox terriers, Angus and India.

In September 2012 they announced the birth of their son, Alexander John Buckley Ford. Tom Ford has been one of the most influential designers of the world for the last 20 years. This man is extremely accomplished and admits that 90 percent of his success comes from his drive (3). Not only was he able to revive and reinvent a company that was nearly extinct but he turned Gucci into one of the largest and most profitable luxury brands in the world. He has won numerous fashion awards for his work not only with Gucci but with the Tom Ford brand as well.

He has won five Council of Fashion Designers of America awards, four VH1/Vogue Fashion Awards and was named 2001’s GQ designer of the year. This man is unstoppable and his story is truly inspiring. Tom Ford is proof that with persistence, hard work and dedication you can accomplish your biggest goals. Bibliography 1. http://www. biography. com/people/tom-ford-5936 2. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Tom_Ford 3. “Tom Ford. ” Visionaries: Inside the Creative Mind. Oprah Winfrey Network. . 23 Oct. 2011. Television. 4. Trebay, Guy. “He’s All Dressed Up. ” New York Times 20 March 2013: E1. Print.

The hand that rocks the boardroom cannot rock the cradle ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

The hand that rocks the cradle can rock the boardroom After being raised by a mother who? s time has been mostly spent working and trying to run a business, it is definite for me that a working mother can not expect to be good mother. Comparing my working mother? s job as a mother to my friend? s mothers who spend all of their time and energy focused on raising their child, makes it crystal clear that the characteristics needed to be a good mother, at least from my point of view, are not completed by my mother. It is just out of the question, either you do one thing properly or the other.

Mothers can’t expect to have to completely different jobs that require their complete attention and excel at both. Either they do one thing or the other. In order to be a salient mother, attention or just the simple act of being present throughout their children? s day is very necessary. For most hard-working mothers, babysitters, or in some cases day care, are their sweet escape from having to deal with their children; what they don’t know is that the more they depend on the babysitters to meet their children? s need for attention, the more distant they grow from their children.

Since having a job or running a business draws most of a mother? s attention, it is impossible for her to think that she is doing a good job as a mother. All of this attention is being given by the babysitter, therefore making her play the role of a mother in the child? s life and creating a vast distance between the child and the mother. It is most important for a mother to be present in her son or daughter? s life physically as crucial as it is for her to be there mentally. It is frustrating for any child to lack the presence od a mother in their life.

The nanny or the babysitter fills in this gap, but it still doesn’t suffice for the huge abyss. Simple things like taking their kids to soccer, or assisting their school reunions are not most likely to be done by a busy woman. These things are mildly important because they build a sufficient amount of confidence between the mother and child and make their bond stronger. As motherhood is affected by working, working is also affected by motherhood. Mothers claim to say that they can multitask, but is this true? For most mothers, their kids mean everything to them which means that they think sufficiently about them.

This is a clear impediment for efficient work and is proved to be true. How can a mother expect to be good at her job when she is thinking about her kids the entire time? Mothers have the trait of being very precarious, and leaving their precious kids to the care of someone else who will probably not take as good care of them would only amplify that. The fact that a mother is a mother doesn’t mean that she is her child slave o that she has to devote her entire life to him or her, it is more about the small and unnecessary details that a devoted mother shows that not only make her a mother, but a true friend.

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