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Presentation of self outline narrative essay help

Erving Goffman was one of the most important Sociologists in the 20th century who focussed his study on aspects of social life. It is often argued that Goffman was “one of the twentieth century’s most remarkable practitioners of social science” (Smith, 2006:1). He was born on the 11th June 1922 in Alberta, Canada. His parents were Jewish and part of the group of Ukrainians who moved to Canada before the beginning of the First World War.

Initially Goffman studied Chemistry before moving to the University of Toronto to study Anthropology and Sociology where he gained an understanding in Durkheim, Warner, Freud and Parsons. Goffman’s wife killed herself after battling with mental illness which provokes him to research into these areas and criticise many medical and scientific claims. Between 1959 and 1969 Goffman published seven significant one of those being the presentation of self in everyday life which will be assessed throughout this review.

In the discipline of Sociology Goffman was looked upon highly and today his work is widely cited. He referred to his work as dramaturgical analysis “Dramaturgical social psychology is the study of meaningful behaviour” (Brissett and Edgley, 1975) which was the study of social interaction on a micro scale looking at the meanings behind everyday events. Nowadays his work can be looked at as symbolic interactionism; the presentation of self in everyday life was and is regarded as one of his greatest contributions to the discipline. It looked at everyday behaviour grasping the elements of social interaction.

This was a key contribution and sparked debates amongst sociology in years to come as he was the first to highlight social interaction as something to be studied within Sociology. It was a subject relatively untouched and in Goffman’s world everything is not quite what it seems. Goffman believed social life was based on theatrics and any face to face interactions in society could be interpreted as a theatrical performance. He provides a qualitative analysis of this process looking at the components of interaction. Within social interaction he identifies an individual as playing a part and uses the term “performance” “the impression the actor is making on others” (Messinger et al, 1975) to refer to someone performing an activity in front of a set of observers. Then he talks about a “front” which can be seen as part of the “performance” to define the situation to those who are observing. One of the main aspects of this idea is the “setting” which provides the background/scenery to the theatrics. Goffman states performance of some cannot take place without the correct setting, the “actors” must bring themselves to a correct place but “must terminate their performance when they leave it”.

If we apply this to a modern day scenario with a student playing the role of “actors”, how they behave in social interactions will vary dependant on those involved. The “actor” would act differently in a social interaction with their personal tutor in comparison to their peers. Vitally important is Goffman referral to the existence of a “front” and “back” stage with the “front” being the stage where the performance takes place (they play the role what they assume is expected of them) with the individual “acting” throughout the social interaction.

But the “back” stage is behind the scenes a less formal area which allows them to be “out of character” and converse with other “actors” in places like smoking areas, the bathroom and basically somewhere away from the “observers”. As Goffman exaggerates the “setting” is vital for the “performance” indicating “actors” behaviour is dependent on their social situation. Within this section and throughout the book Goffman offers several examples around each theory to enable the reader to grasp a true understanding.

Essentially he indicates our social actions within society are shaped by invisible forces and the way we behave is not instinctive but our actions our shaped by the society we live in dependant on the scenario of the social interaction. He also implies how an individual will be focussed on making a favourable show of him (a good impression) which gives another explanation to why humans can be seen as actors in situations of social interaction, they act how they think the audience (observers) want them to act.

To summarise his chapter on presentation Goffman’s primary assumption is that individuals differ not by their specific qualities, but by the situations they find themselves in to which they adopt different ‘roles’ to perform for the “observer”. For this work Goffman gained inspiration from his own personal experiences, as his wife struggled with mental illness and he chose to travel to the Shetland Islands to study the interaction in their society. His wife’s illness may have shaped his argument as another key piece of his work was Asylums where he carried out fieldwork in a hospital where he wished to look at the social world of an inmate.

In his findings he was very critical and stated how behaviour that was deemed out of the ordinary was simply someone not conforming to the rules and expectations of society. If those rules or norms/values are broken that person would be viewed as an outsider and therefore displays an inability to play the role of an “actor”. A key theorist behind his work is Herbert Mead who published a book Mind, Self and Society and he looked at the experiences of human beings and focussed on the development of self.

“The individual mind can exist only in relation to other minds with shared meanings” (Mead 1934) which shows Mead was one of the early sociologists to focus on the self like Goffman. Also Talcott Parsons whose work on stratification may have inspired him to focus on social interaction. Parsons was a structural functionalist and part of his worked looked at how a system adapted to its environment. As we know Presentation of self in everyday life looks at how individuals adapt in different scenarios of social interaction so he may have gained some inspiration from Parsons in that aspect.

Emile Durkheim is one of the founders of Sociology and someone Goffman would have looked up to. Goffman makes it clear there are a set of standards which individuals are expected to follow which he describes similarly to how Durkheim did to religion; “as an expressive rejuvenation and reaffirmation of the moral values of the community”. There are links in their work particular around the concept of “spontaneity” which is to be spontaneous but to come from natural feelings. Within The presentation of self “spontaneity” is brought up by Goffman as an element of the “performance” to make it seem life-life and real, not entirely artificial.

In Durkheim’s The division of labour in society he looks at a model of spontaneity although it is about labour it looks at a type of social interaction “finely articulated organisation in which each social value… is appreciated at its true worth” (Durkheim) implying each individual has to conform within the social organisation they find themselves. Some aspects that are weaknesses of the book; what Goffman did not do is complicate his theory of social interaction with is by looking further into these situations and applying class, gender, social status etc.

If he had of done this it could have taken his theory to another level as it is not something accounted for. In a sense he presumes all individuals would react similarly and does not take into account. For example if we looked at Pierre Bourdieu’s work on cultural capital, how some have greater access to aspects of society because of social aspects like education, certain knowledge which gives individuals advantage. The differentiation in these people would not be taken into account in Goffman’s work therefore would assume everyone would play the role of the “actor” the same in a social interaction.

Nowadays in modern society it could be argued there is a reduced amount of social interaction due to globalisation and the mass advancements in technology. Therefore the book is not as relevant to modern day society although the key theories are still very much applicable. The issue with applying the theories in this book to society today is that an awful lot of interaction is no longer made face to face. With the advancements in technology since a lot of interactions are made via emails, over the phone, on Facebook obviously making Goffman’s theory deemed useless.

It would be interesting to hear his thoughts on those and whether we are still acting whilst communicating through these means or is it the back room and somewhere we are preparing for our next performance. Goffman does come under criticism from other sociologists who claim that work like this makes him unpopular in the discipline. This is because he criticises and highlights what is wrong with society but does not provide an alternative or a solution to what he deems a problem.

Of course this book was written in the 1960’s by Goffman but despite this many of his work is still relevant today particular the aspect of using “fixed crops” like houses, cars, clothes and employment. They still represent aspects of self and are in important aspect of the appearance of the actor. It provides a different view and perspective for members of society to look upon, seeing the self as a cause of cultural and social arrangements. Putting the question into people’s mind when are we truly ourselves and are our actions actually shaped by the society we live in.

Although Goffman came under some criticism for highlighting the issues but offering no explanation to overcome them; Manning makes the argument that “unlike the traditional anthropologist whom broadens our horizons by expanding our knowledge of other societies, Goffman shows us the complexity of our own” (1992). This demonstrates the idea that Goffman with The presentation of self, did broaden people’s perspectives and offered a different explanation about our social conduct.

Potentially he may have come under a lot of criticism as people were afraid to accept that he could be correct which would cause a lot of people to re-evaluate their situation. His theory of Presentation of self, talks of how individuals and groups put on a performance in society. Initially the performances are constructed and then maintained and those involved may be unaware of their own performances. A final interesting point raised is whether social arrangements have affected the self which is an example of interesting discussions within the discipline derived from Goffman’s work.

To conclude the appreciation of Goffman’s book it is thought provoking not only to the reader but to the theorists in the discipline. His theory on social interaction provided a different perspective to those before him and he raised the question of social circumstances affecting people’s behaviour in social situations. Also the way his work is set out, each theory he lays out is alongside several example which allows everyone to be clear of what he is portraying and he manages to make his theory concise, therefore memorable.

Although this piece of work was significant in Sociology and Goffman is now one of the most cited theorists in the subject, his work on the presentation of self; in everyday life has come under considerable amount of criticism. As mentioned this is because of him not offering solutions to the problems and today because of people interacting without being face to face his theory is not entirely applicable. But his work was essentially a metaphor and a lot of modern day theorists have taken his theory too literally.

Social Class and Doolittle online essay help: online essay help

The social hierarchy is an unavoidable topic in the play pygmalion by george bernard shaw. Shaw includes members of all social classes from the lowest (Liza) to the servant class (Mrs. Pearce) to the middle class (Doolittle after his inheritance) to the genteel poor (the Eynsford Hills) to the upper class (Pickering and the Higgins). Shaw highlighted the errors in people’s ideas of how the lower classes lived, and highlighted all the social prejudice, including stereotypical views of women and of the poor.

Instead of writing a book about the prejudice and stereotyping, Shaw used the characters in his play, Pygmalion, to put forward his opinions. Pygmalion also showed that whatever class you were in, whether you were born rich or poor, you had a chance to succeed, as we can see with Mr Doolittle and Eliza, where Doolittle is given money by Ezra D. Wannafeller and becomes middle class. When Doolittle ‘sells’ Eliza to Higgins for ? 5, Higgins offers him ? 10 and Doolittle says, “Ten pounds is a lot of money: it makes a man feel prudent like; and then goodbye to happiness. ” This proves that lower class people felt that if they were to have more money than they needed then they would lose who their personality and become a stereotypical upper class person, having to stay without the higher class’s boundaries and following the rules. The social hierarchy is an unavoidable topic in the play pygmalion by george bernard shaw.

Shaw includes members of all social classes from the lowest (Liza) to the servant class (Mrs. Pearce) to the middle class (Doolittle after his inheritance) to the genteel poor (the Eynsford Hills) to the upper class (Pickering and the Higgins). Shaw highlighted the errors in people’s ideas of how the lower classes lived, and highlighted all the social prejudice, including stereotypical views of women and of the poor. Instead of writing a book about the prejudice and stereotyping, Shaw used the characters in his play, Pygmalion, to put forward his opinions.

Pygmalion also showed that whatever class you were in, whether you were born rich or poor, you had a chance to succeed, as we can see with Mr Doolittle and Eliza, where Doolittle is given money by Ezra D. Wannafeller and becomes middle class. When Doolittle ‘sells’ Eliza to Higgins for ? 5, Higgins offers him ? 10 and Doolittle says, “Ten pounds is a lot of money: it makes a man feel prudent like; and then goodbye to happiness. ” This proves that lower class people felt that if they were to have more money than they needed then they would lose who their personality and become a stereotypical upper class person, having to stay without the higher class’s boundaries and following the rules. The social hierarchy is an unavoidable topic in the play pygmalion by george bernard shaw. Shaw includes members of all social classes from the lowest (Liza) to the servant class (Mrs. Pearce) to the middle class (Doolittle after his inheritance) to the genteel poor (the Eynsford Hills) to the upper class (Pickering and the Higgins).

Shaw highlighted the errors in people’s ideas of how the lower classes lived, and highlighted all the social prejudice, including stereotypical views of women and of the poor. Instead of writing a book about the prejudice and stereotyping, Shaw used the characters in his play, Pygmalion, to put forward his opinions. Pygmalion also showed that whatever class you were in, whether you were born rich or poor, you had a chance to succeed, as we can see with Mr Doolittle and Eliza, where Doolittle is given money by Ezra D.

Wannafeller and becomes middle class. When Doolittle ‘sells’ Eliza to Higgins for ? 5, Higgins offers him ? 10 and Doolittle says, “Ten pounds is a lot of money: it makes a man feel prudent like; and then goodbye to happiness. ” This proves that lower class people felt that if they were to have more money than they needed then they would lose who their personality and become a stereotypical upper class person, having to stay without the higher class’s boundaries and following the rules.

Stereotypes of Native Americans devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Native Americans in films during the 1930’s, 1940’s, and the 1950’s were usually portrayed as irrational people that were determined on attacking and pillaging the peaceful settlers of the American west. The understanding of Native Americans in films was mostly limited to a single genre, the Western. The generalization of Native Americans can be classified under a few key themes. The history of the Native Americans have been condensed and represented under a single period of time. They have a rich history and it has been categorized under the period of the Western.

Over time, much of the Native cultures have been interpreted through white values. In the past, white people had a different way of doing things but it doesn’t make the Natives lifestyle wrong or primitive. Furthermore, a reoccurring theme is the grouping of the six hundred distinct Native American cultures under one general classification. Films and movies have always been influential in American life and almost every type of movie has been created. It has covered many different and popular genres and one of the most enduring genres of the film world is the Wild Wild West.

Ever since the birth of the film industry, there have been approximately 2,000 dramatic films produced with “Indian themes. ” About another 2,500 Indian television programs were made between 1950 and 1970. Film played an important role in spreading the stereotypes of the Native Americans as riding horses, screaming war chants, and scalping people. Film reveals the culture of the people and represents the values, beliefs, and social structure by spreading their interpretation of culture to large audiences. It is evident in movies because when an Indian comes into the picture, the mood of the actors change.

They start to act startled, the background music changes, and the pigeonholed “big-bad” Native Americans emerge. These stories and generalizations about Native Americans are very much alive today because media has been able to bring the misconceptions to life. More times than not, the “good” Indians portrayed in the western era was one that either assisted the white settlers or tried to adjust to the white culture. This portrayal made Indian violence a key art in western films and a focal point for the suspense and excitement necessary to selling them.

Categorizing Native Americans in limited, stereotyped roles were so established and unchallenged that they turned out to be society’s only impression of Native culture. This sparked the creation of the popular misunderstandings and racial slander today. The development of natives in film has mainly been from the influences of white directors and them being oblivious to the realistic view of Native culture. In result, the progress of natives in films has been determined by the changing social views of the white Americans.

A Native American author, Michael Hilger, supported this statement saying that “tracing images of the Savage and Noble Red Man through historical periods of the cinema, it will reveal little about Native American people of the past or present but a lot about the evolution of white American attitudes and values. ” In western films, they were always shown with scowls and wearing war paint, making them look willing to kill at any time. They appeared inferior to the whites and that the Indians needed to be taught everything having to do with the white way of life.

Quoting a scene from “The Great Sioux Massacre, ”a man said, “Cheyenne, Apache, Blackfoot, Sioux – they’re vicious killers all of them; they ain’t even human. ” The film justified the slayings committed at the Sand Creek Massacre by classifying the Indians and stating that they are all ruthless and blood-thirsty. Throughout films there has been many stereotypes, one of them being the Indian woman being restrained to only two types, a princess or a squaw. The Indian princess is displayed as the Native beauty who falls in love with the white man, and becomes open to giving up her cultural heritage and wed into the “civilized” white culture.

The Indian squaw is traditionally reserved and almost invisible as she tends to her husband and family, preparing hides, weaving, cooking, and taking care of the children. Even when an Indian is designated as a secondary hero, he is still believed to be inferior to his white counter part and is typically the joke of racist humor. They provide racial comedy relief, which is demeaning to his intelligence and significance in the film. Also, any multiracial affairs happening between Native and non-Native people were never blessed with a happy ending.

These relationships often concluded with the Indian giving up their lover at the understanding that their cultures could never coexist. These kinds of endings and generalizations promoted the fact that white civilization and Native culture could never live together as one. All through history, many Americans have placed Native people in the lower echelon of intelligence since first interaction was made. Like any other traditional minority, Native Americans are frequently portrayed as biologically and morally lesser to the more civilized white Americans.

However, while these depictions are fabricated, the audience is very naive and sheltered from any real interaction with a Native American. The majority of people had no experience or familiarity of how an Indian looked or appeared. They had nothing to compare the imageries they saw on screen with so they believed the film was true. Movies during this time were very influential because how the movies portrayed Native Americans to the people who have never seen or been exposed to that culture. The people believed that they were seeing an authentic Native American, or the “real” Indian that they had heard all of the stories about.

Television and old movies often portray the “Indian” speaking little to few words of English, and repeatedly saying “ugh. ” Yet anthropologists have documented the intricacy of Native American languages and at least 350 different languages were spoken in North America before first contact was made ashore in Massachusetts. As the nation has experienced changes in the way that it views people as equals, most of Hollywood has begun to change from displaying Indians as vicious savages into showing what the majority of Native Americans in fact were; a peaceful and proud people who stood up and fought for what they believed.

Hollywood often ignores the historical standpoint of Indian cultures and rarely provides an informed understanding of Indian identity. Most Native Americans dislike the stereotypical image that the commercial media has created. In the past few decades, there has been a growth of Native American producers and scriptwriters, working to show audiences a new outlook on their culture. There is much truth in a book made by an intelligent author on the subject, stating that “Film must provide a face for the faceless” in a history that does not provide one (Rosenstone 36).

Film provides an image of Native Americans that we were not able to see from that time and place. It generates the life and times that American society has merely heard about or studied, but never lived. Filmmakers found it easy to create a negative image of Native Americans because they are not white; so they can be whatever directors and historians want them to be seen as. Many directors were inclined to settle on the Indian’s illiteracy, alcoholism, and “primitive” way of life. These traits made the red man appear like a child who needed the protection and guidance of the white father.

All of these judgments live off the assumption that the Native American’s culture was “savage,” white culture was “civilized,” and the two societies could never peacefully harmonize. On the other hand, the nation has made many great strides and improving the relationship between both ethnicities. We are all a part of the United States and we are all equal in the law and in the eyes of the public. Directors, television, and film have been much more educated on the representation of Indians and have improved on how they are shown in media today.

Ancient Religion vs Modern Religion essay help free: essay help free

There are many differences between an ancient religious viewpoint of the Greeks and Romans and a modern world religion viewpoint. I feel that the most distinguishing difference and the difference that I feel makes the biggest impact is that in a modern world religion society believers say there is one God or that the religions today are monotheistic, whereas in the ancient religions we have studied in class citizens say and believe there are multiple gods or were polytheistic. For example the Greeks believed in twelve gods such as Zeus, Poseidon, Apollo, and Artemis. They all had names other than just God.

This difference is obviously very apparent. In the ancient Greek religion there are gods for everything including grain, the moon, and the underworld; of these gods one is more powerful than the others but they have all power. For each element of the world they lived in, there was a god assigned to each. These gods were both male and female, had relationships with each other, and many had equal power. I like the idea that a specific god was worshipped for each separate element and piece of their world, and not just one god was worshipped for everything. I feel it made the society stronger and more balanced.

Today in Christianity and other modern religions, it is believed there is one God who rules all. He created everything, hears all things, sees all things, and basically is everywhere. In ancient religion, the gods were both male and female. This showed that both males and females had power and it was believed that both genders were capable of creating, and worth worshipping. Versus Christianity, where the God is simply a male, and there is no woman god. The worship of many gods meant that the citizens of ancient worlds understood that one person or being should not hold all of the power and that power should be equal.

It provided a balance to the society. Today in religion all of the power rests on one being. This just seems silly. In ancient religion it was spread among many beings. This difference leads to other differences between ancient religions and modern world religions. One other difference is that today God has to be everywhere and has to be all knowing. In ancient religions the gods lived on Olympus, woods, and other scared places. They were scattered throughout the world to ensure that the world functioned properly.

Another difference I feel comes from the difference in being monotheistic and polytheistic is that today God is pure and has a wholesome character that is essentially perfect with good morals. God does not have imperfections like humans do. But in ancient religion the gods had the personalities of humans and were not so perfect. This difference I think attributes that humans don’t know why God behaves the way he does or does the things he does, but when the ancient gods would act like humans, they knew why, they shared the same emotions and personalities.

For example Demeter felt the pain of loss when Persephone went to the underworld, this is indeed similar to the sadness a woman gets when she can’t have children or when all of her children have left the nest. One more difference that arises between modern world religions and ancient religions is that today God is abstract and must be all things to all people and is seen as a parent to protect humans. In ancient religions the many gods were seen more as divine beings who just made the earth better but frequently punished the humans and well didn’t really like the mortals.

One final difference between modern world religions and ancient religions is that in a modern religion God created nature and can control nature but is never nature. God is never the sun, he is never the rivers. In ancient world religions the gods were nature, and they controlled nature as well. Ancient gods are sometimes seen as a personification of different elements of nature itself. The most important difference among the ancient religions and modern world religions is that ancient religions were mostly polytheistic and modern world religions are monotheistic.

This main difference creates many more differences among the religions of different periods and creates a boundary that is clearly drawn between the religions of the ancient world and modern world religions. The gods of ancient worlds reflect the humans’ personalities, thoughts, and the balance of power they strive for in the world, and God represents perfection, good morals, and everything humans wish they could be. This main difference is fundamentally the difference that builds and creates other differences between ancient religions and modern world religions.

Rizal scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

After the court-martial, Rizal returned to his cell in Fort Santiago to prepare his rendezvous with destiny. ** 6:00 am December 30, 1896-He was busy meeting visitors including Jesuit priests, Josephine Bracken and members of his family ,some friends, and he was secretly finishing his farewell poem. **Josephine Bracken- A Spanish newspaper correspondent. **September 24, 1894 –Rizal published his last poem.

LAST HOURS OF RIZAL

**General Canola polavieja –Was designated to take charge of all arrangement for the execution of the condemned prisoner, read the death sentence to Rizal. December 29, 1896 At 7:00 am-Rizal was moved to the prison chapel. ** Father Miguel Saderra Mata (Rector of Ateneo Municipal) and Father Luis Viza, Jesuit teacher –were first visitor of Rizal ** At 7:15 am –Rector Saderra left. **Fr. Viza gave the statuette of Jesus to Rizal happily received it and place it on his writing table ** At 8:00 am –Fr.Antonio Rosell arrived and was invited by Rizal to have breakfast. After breakfast , Lt. Luis Taviel De Andrade (Rizal’s defense council) came and Rizal thanked him for his gallant services. **At 9:00 am – Fr. Federico Faura arrived and was reminded by Rizal that he once said to Rizal that someday he would lose his head for writing the Noli . ”Father you are indeed a prophet”, Rizal remarked. **At 10:00 am –Fathers Jose Vilaclara and Vicente Balaguer visited the hero.

After them , came Santiago Mataix , who interviewed Rizal for his news paper El Heraldo de Madrid. **At 12:00 noon to 3:30 pm –Rizal was alone and he then finished his Farewell poem and hid it inside his alcohol cooking stove which was given to him by Paz Pardo de Tavera during his visit to Paris in 1890. At the same time he wrote his letter to professor Blumentritt in German. **At 3:30 pm- Fr. Balaguer returned to Fort Santiago and discussed with Rizal the Retraction letter of the Anti-Catholic ideas of his membership in Masonry.

At 4:00 pm –Rizal’s mother arrived. He knelt down kissed mother’s Hand begging for forgiveness and they are both crying as the guards separate them. Afterwards Trinidad entered the cell and fetched her mother. As they were leaving Rizal gave the alcohol cooking stove to Trinidad and whispered “ There is something inside” , which the latter understood. So it came to pass that she was able to smuggle the Hero’s last and greatest poem-a priceless gem of Philippine Literature. **At 6:00 pm –Rizal received anew visitor, Don Silvino Lopez Tunon.

Marketing local brand overseas cbest essay help: cbest essay help

The objective on this research is for telling the readers about the local brand of Indonesia that will be marketed in either Brazil or Russia. We will also discuss about foreign market entry modes and PEST Analysis. The local brand that I choose is Gudang Garam, which will be marketed in Russia. Gudang Garam is original Indonesian clove cigarette brand that was launched on 1979 in Kediri, East Java. Gait length in the clove industry is characterized by a number of achievements, among others, was ranked 2nd in the category rolled cigarettes “full flavor”.

Made from the leaves of high-quality tobacco and clove, Gudang Garam is dedicated for smokers who appreciate the art of enjoying rolled cigarettes. A blend of high technology and clove mix formula inherited from generation to generation making Gudang Garam is able to provide the irreplaceable experience of smoking cigarettes for the true connoisseur. The reason why I choose gudang garam to be marketed in Russia because, The number of people who are consuming cigarette there have reach the 4th higher number across the world.

It was hard to find clove cigarettes outside Indonesia that’s why I think gudang garam is the most perfect Indonesian local brand that should be imported around the world especially in Russia. Foreign market entry modes differ in degree of risk they present, the control and commitment of resources they require and the return on investment they promise. Types of foreign entry modes: Exporting Licensing Joint venture Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Internet Each type of market entry have their own advantages and disadvantages: MODE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

Exporting Minimize risk , speed of entry, minimize scale. Transport cost, Trade barriers & tariff add cost, limit acess to local company. Licensing Minimizes risk of entry, speed of entry, High ROI. Lack of control, knowledge spillover. Joint venture Potential for learning, Viewed as insider, less investment. Difficult to manage, Dilution of control. Foreign direct investment Greater knowledge of local market, can be apply specialized skills. Higher risk than other modes, may be difficult to manage Internet Simpler, easier Easy to get error PEST Analysis

A scan of the external macro-environment in which the firm operates can be expressed in terms of the following factors: Political: political factors include government regulations and legal issues and define both formal and informal rules under which the firms must operate. Economic: Economic factors affect the purchasing power of potential customers and the firms cost of capital. Social: Social factor include the demographic and cultural aspects of the external microenvironment. Technological: Technological factors cam lower barriers to entry, reduce minimum efficient production levels and influence outsourcing decisions.

Here in Indonesia we can easily find gudang garam cigarette, since people here are enthusiast with cigarette they sell it everywhere. We can found it in the small minimarket, supermarket, mall ,and etc. There are also some posters across the street in Indonesia about gudang garam. Even though the gudang garam wrote about the disadvantages about smoking but, still the consumer of gudang garam is the most higher compare to another brand of cigarettes. Thesis statement As we know the number of smoking rates in Russia is high, so I believe importing gudang garam cigarette in Russia will be successful because they have much demand there.

This is because they rarely seen clove cigarette and the climate there are cold, so people are likely to smoke to warm their selves. 2. 0 Methods This report is based on the secondary sources. The sources that I found are from the Internet through government website. The materials that I found in the Internet are reliable and current. The data collection methods of the research objectives are containing both qualitative and quantitative. Most of it are qualitative because, it contain of graph, table, and it was colorful. 3. 0 Findings PEST Analysis on Russia:

Political: In 1993, after the crisis in the constitution of Russia and with the support from most part of the population. Russia was officially became the federation of Russia with semi presidential republic. They keep going with the same regime until today. It is very important to have a constant regime and policy to attract more investors. It is also important to have the policies, which provide more benefit and advantages for people who want to contribute or get into the business. Economic: The economics of Russia depends mainly on the natural resources. There are two major resources are oil and gas.

This country has the GDP in the rank of 10th. biggest in the world. Russia is the country with the advantage of natural resources, the big area with the area for agriculture 4th largest in the world and a perfect location between Europe and Asia. Despite all the advantage that the country has, its economic is not comparable to other countries it is because the growth of the economy of Russia is depending the price of the oil in the market. Social: From 1990, with the changes in the regime of politic, the society stepped forward. They convert from a society with autocratic structure to a society with democratic character.

This change enlarges the gap between the poor and the rich people in the society. Even there is no obvious classification structure in society, the stratification is judged by wealth. The most obvious evident of capitalism in the society is that people started to spend in a wasted scale with expensive cars, clothes and outfit that a normal Russian can not afford. Technological: Russia is a country, which is rich in science tradition. The technology sector of Russia started to be recognized from the early of 18th century and continue to develop until today.

There is a political stability in Brazil government the workers party has won the election continuously for 3 times. The focus on the administration policies of the government is steadily towards the growth of the economy. Economic: Foreign firm can own the company 100%, registered capital and earning can be taken back from the country on tax free basis. The country strengthening its economic policy and increasing public private partnership model of doing business that attracts the private people in the world to invest.

Social: since brazil is at the peak of the economic advances which is responsible for a drastic improvement in the social area in brazil. Technological: the Brazilian economy is alive and growing at a rapid pace. That’s why the technological there keep on growing rapidly. Unilever markets its brand in Brazil: A business with real scale, strong brands, people & infrastructure • Underperformance in recent history: Growth below the market (+ 4% p. a. ) Low competitiveness Low profit growth Product quality below standard Customer satisfaction low. Unilever markets its brand in Russia: Unilever strategic priorities include:

Personal care D&E Vitality The changing of the Unilever in D&E is clearly seen in the graph it keep on increasing especially in the D&E. 4. 0 Discussion There will be the disadvantages and advantages by importing gudang garam to Russia and Brazil, because every country have a different pest analysis and provision. Here are some advantages and disadvantages: Russia ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES A lot of smokers The climate is cold Russia is the nearer compare with Brazil Hard to ask for the permission Different Languages Brazil ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES It might be easier to communicate Government grants are easier

Brazil is kinda far from Indonesia The number of smoker are not too many compare with Russia There will be also some factors that might be influence on my finding, the website might be too old or not really sufficient because every website say a different thing. 5. 0 Conclusion I have decided Gudang Garam, which will be marketed in Russia. Because, I have done it on the research from the secondary resources from any different website. The reason why I choose gudang garam to be marketed in Russia because, The number of people who are consuming cigarette there have reach the 4th higher number across the world.

It was hard to find clove cigarettes outside Indonesia that’s why I think gudang garam is the most perfect Indonesian local brand that should be imported around the world especially in Russia. The action that should be taken for my marketed are to take approval from both government in Indonesia and also Russia, which is really hard because of the different language. We need a big budget to start importing gudang garam cigarette to Russia because the location is kinda far.

How to make school better free college essay help: free college essay help

Honestly, I like school, I really do its just I get bored easily! I like being able to come and see my friends, learn new things, and not just sit at home doing nothing. We need more fun in this school. We need to like change it up, make it more lively not so much like a prison. A way we can make it not so boring would be, make the classes shorter. Instead of having about 45 minutes each class make them like 35 minutes, then we could have another break maybe after 6th hour.

Having another break could also make us more awake because we would be able to talk with our friends instead of sitting in class listening to teachers or not doing something interesting which makes us sleepy. Also in a second break we could be doing fun activities or something hands-on to make us not so sleepy. In the classes I think we should be doing more fun things, instead of sitting in a desk for 45 minutes. Another way we can make it better would be, screw the detentions.

All the staff in this school says they are trying to make us ready for college, but in college there aren’t no detections, no nothing. If we don’t show up thats our own problem on missing out of what was learned in class that day and punishing us doesn’t really make a difference. In college they don’t go around chasing you telling you, you have detention and why didn’t you go and things like that, so why do it here if people here are trying to get you ready for college. Just doesn’t make sense. I like doing things on the computer like assignments, notes, etc. and I’m sure other students do to. So doing more computer/technology things would be better also. A lot of student are more into typing things than writing things now days. When it comes to taking notes, i think it’s more useful on the computer because you’re able to change colors, highlight, insert charts/pictures, different size things. Wen on paper it takes more time, example if you want to highlight you got to write it all then highlight, when on the computer you can highlight as your writing.

Incase you’re sick one day your friend can share/email the notes to you. You can also share/email your assignments to your teachers or whatever. Now if only the school would actually listen to what us students have to say. It is where we go to school so we should enjoy going not feel like we are in a prison. Those are some things they could change to make it better, but not like they will change and even if they do it wouldn’t matter to us seniors because it’s our last year.

Presistence pets popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

In the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitos that transmit the disease malaria. Before that an organization in Southern Africa had produced a poison to kill these mosquitoes but it wasn’t completely successful. The produced poisons by the WHO kills most members of the insects population leaving only the resistant individuals to reproduce with new genes that somehow enable them to resist the chemical attack. The problems such insects pose are just some of the many ways that evolution has a direct connection to our daily lives considering the adaptations in local environments.

In the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitos that transmit the disease malaria. Before that an organization in Southern Africa had produced a poison to kill these mosquitoes but it wasn’t completely successful. The produced poisons by the WHO kills most members of the insects population leaving only the resistant individuals to reproduce with new genes that somehow enable them to resist the chemical attack. The problems such insects pose are just some of the many ways that evolution has a direct connection to our daily lives considering the adaptations in local environments.

In the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitos that transmit the disease malaria. Before that an organization in Southern Africa had produced a poison to kill these mosquitoes but it wasn’t completely successful. The produced poisons by the WHO kills most members of the insects population leaving only the resistant individuals to reproduce with new genes that somehow enable them to resist the chemical attack. The problems such insects pose are just some of the many ways that evolution has a direct connection to our daily lives considering the adaptations in local environments.

In the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitos that transmit the disease malaria. Before that an organization in Southern Africa had produced a poison to kill these mosquitoes but it wasn’t completely successful. The produced poisons by the WHO kills most members of the insects population leaving only the resistant individuals to reproduce with new genes that somehow enable them to resist the chemical attack. The problems such insects pose are just some of the many ways that evolution has a direct connection to our daily lives considering the adaptations in local environments.

In the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitos that transmit the disease malaria. Before that an organization in Southern Africa had produced a poison to kill these mosquitoes but it wasn’t completely successful. The produced poisons by the WHO kills most members of the insects population leaving only the resistant individuals to reproduce with new genes that somehow enable them to resist the chemical attack. The problems such insects pose are just some of the many ways that evolution has a direct connection to our daily lives considering the adaptations in local environments.

In the 1960s, the World Health Organization (WHO) began a campaign to eradicate the mosquitos that transmit the disease malaria. Before that an organization in Southern Africa had produced a poison to kill these mosquitoes but it wasn’t completely successful. The produced poisons by the WHO kills most members of the insects population leaving only the resistant individuals to reproduce with new genes that somehow enable them to resist the chemical attack. The problems such insects pose are just some of the many ways that evolution has a direct connection to our daily lives considering the adaptations in local environments.

What does globalization mean for Lafarge writing essay help: writing essay help

What does globalization mean for Lafarge and how can it globalize effectively? What role does the nature of industry play in the globalization process? Localization and globalization- those two aspects, according to Lafarge policy are the principals to growth In last decade Lafarge accelerated the pace of its growth into new countreis by acuaring companies and expending into new business and new products through its four divisons (cement, aggregates and concrete, roofing and gypsum). Through numerous acquisitions and joint ventures, Lafarge became a Global company and a leader in cement.

In General globalization for Lafarge means entering the new markets and growing by acquisitions. The company uses its acquisitions as a bridgehead to introduce the group’s product such as, gypsum, aggregates, etc. with the aim to create a building materials didvison in each country. On the other hand in the building materials business, markets are local (consumer tastes diversive, business strategies of companies results in fragmentation of different markets, different trands and competitors depending form the country).

There are also two aspects- high transportation costs and low inventories- which anables to build sustainable, worldwild competitive advantage by locating in one country. 2. Should Lafarge grow by expanding current operations or should it grow by acquiring foreign firms? Why is growth imperative in this industry? Lafarge should do both. On the one hand should grow by acquiring foreign companies (as building a greenfiels pland is much more expensive than buying an existing one).

By the acquisitions company can use its presence in the market as a bridgehead to introduce the group’s product other than cement and creat a leader in each country they enter. One of the main motive of th growth is to remain visible and attractive to investors, expanding cashflow. As a long term goal of the growth is achieve profitability for new operations 3. Is the overall business strategy of Lafarge in tandem with its principles of action and the “Lafarge way”?

Althought Lafarge achieved its goal to become the nuber one company in the construction business, managing of growth itself still needs improovenent. A lotof improovemenst has to be made in the field of working across different cultures, languageandminset. The culture difference should also inflects the decision making process, which is not perfect in my opinion. Decisions are taken by the Direction Generale, even at the regional and coutry level. Managers exist to implement thedecisions of the DG. Also having The DG taking most of the decisions might not be a great strategy since every territory seems to vary.

Should the goverment have a say in what we eat college essay help service: college essay help service

Should the government have a say in our diets, Many people will argue that it is freedom of choice to eat whatever you want but the government has a right to interfere with that freedom if it is infringing upon the rights of others. I am not saying that if someone is eating unhealthy it is going to eliminate another person’s freedom but it does affect everyone in the nation. With a rising number of people with poor diets, the number of people suffering from obesity rises also. Obesity can cause a person many medical complications in their lifetime.

These medical complications mean that there will be more trips to hospitals which can cause insurance rates to go up, affecting a large number of people. Obesity also causes other expenses for the nation such as needing to pay for larger seats, hospital beds, etc. to fit the rising number of obese individuals. And to all of you who say that Michelle Obama should mind her own business-you should be grateful that she is more concerned for your well being than you are for yourselves. And just so you know, go back to middle school history class-the First Lady doesn’t make or pass the laws, Congress does.

Should the government have a say in our diets, Many people will argue that it is freedom of choice to eat whatever you want but the government has a right to interfere with that freedom if it is infringing upon the rights of others. I am not saying that if someone is eating unhealthy it is going to eliminate another person’s freedom but it does affect everyone in the nation. With a rising number of people with poor diets, the number of people suffering from obesity rises also. Obesity can cause a person many medical complications in their lifetime.

These medical complications mean that there will be more trips to hospitals which can cause insurance rates to go up, affecting a large number of people. Obesity also causes other expenses for the nation such as needing to pay for larger seats, hospital beds, etc. to fit the rising number of obese individuals. And to all of you who say that Michelle Obama should mind her own business-you should be grateful that she is more concerned for your well being than you are for yourselves. And just so you know, go back to middle school history class-the First Lady doesn’t make or pass the laws, Congress does.

Abortion Outline essay help: essay help

Specific Purpose: To inform citizens of some of the advantages and disadvantages of abortion. Thesis: The ongoing battle on whether abortion is promising or destructive is a concern to all citizens. Introduction: I. ) Definition of abortion II. ) Advantages of abortion Ex: Parent may not be able to support child, parent may be unfit, child may be at risk of poor health, etc. III. ) Disadvantages of abortion Ex: Death of an innocent child, preventing opportunities that could benefit numerous citizens, etc. IV.) Why should you care? a. Every individual has certain rights (the parent themselves, and the baby should too) b. The birth or death of any baby could change your life c. What if you had been that baby who did not have a choice? Transition statement: (Concluding of introduction) Although you may or may not have experienced an encounter with abortion previously, you may be placed in the situation in the future and it’s important that you understand all of what is impacted by abortion, and exactly how things are affected.

Body: I. ) Main advantages of abortion a. ) Detailed b. ) Supporting evidence c. ) Specific example of why abortion may be appropriate d. ) Opinion of someone who is pro-abortion Transition statement: In many cases, abortion is the right choice to make and is in the best interest of many people, however sometimes this option can take a negative toll in several aspects. II. ) Main disadvantages of abortion a. ) Detailed b. ) Supporting evidence c.) Specific example of why abortion may be inappropriate d. ) Opinion of someone who is pro-life/anti-abortion Transition statement: The harm inflicted by abortion is heart wrenching, but may be hard to understand for someone who has never personally encountered this harsh reality.

III. ) Why abortion is such a huge concern: a. ) You may be placed in the situation one day where you have to make the choice b. ) How abortion could be extremely destructive or somewhat beneficial to many citizens c.) Your rights are at risk of being taken away, some places trying to pass laws forbidding abortions Transition Statement: Now that you’ve seen how all individuals can be affected by abortion, you may have formed a solid and supported position on your views regarding abortion Conclusion: I. ) The butterfly effect a. ) Define this effect b. ) Relate this to abortion II. ) Refer back to major points a. ) Major advantages of abortion b. ) Major disadvantages of abortion c. ) That you could be effected III. ) Reflect on the rights on individuals IV. ) Was this information helpful? a. ) Yes? b. ) No? c. ) Maybe? V. ) Closing Statement

Martial Law essay help service: essay help service

Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was popularly known in the Philippine history as a dictator who established the Martial Law. His wife, Imelda Marcos is only a popular icon, known because of her collection of a thousand pairs of shoes. The history of the Philippines was made more enlightening and newsy when Ferdinand Marcos was elected President of the Philippines. His first term was great. Many establishments, roads, etc. was constructed. The economy was good and there was a healthy export of the country. The Philippine government was well managed by Marcos.

Imelda Marcos also had great power being the wife of the late president and was known to have an edifice complex. She helped establish many institutions such as the Heart Center, Lung Center, Kidney Center, Film Center and Cultural Center. However, during Marcos’ second term, Martial Law was born. This fateful event marks that start of a change in Philippine History, and has therefore affected the lives of many Filipinos. This also exhibits the greed and want of Marcos for power and control over the country.

When someone says Martial Law, the first thing that comes to most people’s minds is the unceasing violence. Activists and protesters were captured and tortured to death. Violence was all around the country during that time. Anyone who seeks to bring down the legitimate power of Marcos was either captured, tortured or sentenced to death. It could even be done all at the same time. The Martial Law clearly and obviously violates the right of the people to life and liberty. Surging events such as the Plaza Miranda Bombing, and Ninoy Aquino’s death were reported under the rule of Martial Law.

During this time, the military has the control. Civilian supremacy was under the military. Marcos was indeed a great and intelligent man, but he used his almost impeccable knowledge for his selfish desires. History indeed repeats itself. What Marcos hasn’t predicted during his reign was that the people might seek and plan to overthrow a government if it doesn’t satisfy their needs and expectations. The People Power Revolution serves as a constant reminder to the Filipinos of their love for freedom and right democracy.

The Filipinos have protested against the Marcos regime and sought for their rights. Rights, in general, should be given to the people. What I found rather amazing during the People Power Revolution was that it was a peaceful revolution, and it succeeded in overthrowing the relentless rule of the Marcoses. The Philippine Republic was in chains during that particular moment in history. This event serves as a constant reminder to the citizens, and to the next leaders of the next generation to serve the country without their selfish appetites, and their unethical governing techniques.

League Of Legends Video Game Analysis essay help us: essay help us

League of legends is a multiplayer online battle arena video game video game developed and published by Riot Games for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, inspired by the mod Defense of the Ancients for the video game Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne. It is a free-to-play game, supported by micro-transactions. The game was first announced on October 7, 2008, and released on October 27, 2009. League of Legends was generally well received at release, and has grown in popularity in the years since.

According to a 2012 Forbes article, League of Legends was the most played PC game in North America and Europe in terms of the number of hours played. As of January 2014, over 67 million people play League of Legends per month, 27 million per day, and over 7. 5 million concurrently during peak hours. To get started , Simply create an account at leagueoflegends. com Once youre in the client, select find a co-op vs ai game. It basically means your fighting against robot controlled opponents while teaming up with other players. By completing a match , you get experience as well as an in game currency know as Influence points.

Every champion has a different role , so try to play around to find your niche. The primary map, Summoner’s Rift, features three lanes, commonly referred to as top lane, where bruisers (partially damage, partially tanky) and tank type champions tend to go. Mid lane, where assassins and burst damage carries tend to go, and bot lane, where the ranged DPS (damage per second) carries and their supports tend to go. The jungle is sometimes considered a lane, where an assassin or tank champion tends to roam in order to collect buffs and assist in the other lanes freely.

The player earns a small amount of gold every second passively, but can earn more by getting the last hit on minions, destroying enemy towers (referred to as turrets) that guard the lanes, neutral monsters located in the jungle, and killing enemy champions. With this gold, they can buy a variety of items in order to strengthen their champion for the duration of the game. Try to learn how to last hit properly , as this ensures you more gold. You can find video regarding last hitting on youtube. You can also purcahse champions with Rp, Or Riot Points, but these require real money .

Compare historical and current features of public health essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Public health efforts are planning to protect the general health and safety of the population by taking measures to prevent or avoid the transmission of disease. Historically, measures such as quarantines were enforced, where there were no means to vaccinate or inoculate to prevent the spread of a dangerous transmissible disease. In more modern times, vaccines were developed to protect against diseases, and of course, in the case of smallpox, the disease was able to be eliminated in 1979, so there’s no longer a need to vaccinate against it.

In modern times, there is little reliance on quarantine, though people with multiply-antibiotic-resistant TB and other diseases may be detained and isolated. In the early 19th century, the growing towns of Britain were characterised by overcrowding, poor housing, bad water and disease. In 1842, Edwin Chadwick argued that disease was the main reason for poverty, and that preventing disease would reduce the poor rates. In 1848, a cholera epidemic terrified the government into doing something about prevention of disease, through both public and individual health measures.

Further measures included: •In 1848 the first Public Health Act caused the setting up of a Board of Health, and gave towns the right to appoint a Medical Officer of Health. •In 1853 vaccination against smallpox was made compulsory. •In 1854 improvements in hospital hygiene were introduced (thanks in large part to Florence Nightingale). •In 1875 a Public Health Act enforced laws about slum clearance, provision of sewers and clean water, and the removal of nuisances. •In 1906 local councils were told to provide free school meals for poor children.

In 1907 school medical examinations were ordered for all children (among these examinations were those of the ‘nitty nurse’). •In 1908 Old-age pensions were introduced. •In 1911 National Insurance (free medical treatment for workers who fell ill) was introduced. Nineteenth century ?Chicken Pox: this is one of the most common diseases which children are most likely to get. It will emerge in the form of little spots and round. The illness will give you a fever, chills, headaches and sometimes aching in the back and limbs. You will first not notice that you have chicken pox until they appear as spots.

This is not the same as small pox this on its own is a distinct disease. Neither vaccination or small pox can protect anyone from getting chicken pox, it is very contagious nor is anyone at risk of catching them. Chickenpox causes a red, itchy skin rash that usually appears first on the abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body, including the scalp, mouth, arms, legs, and genitals. The rash begins as multiple small red bumps that look like pimples or insect bites, usually less than a quarter of an inch wide.

They appear in crops over 2 to 4 days and develop into thin-walled blisters filled with fluid. The blister walls break, leaving open sores, which finally crust over to become dry, brown scabs. The rash is very itchy, and cool baths or calamine lotion may help to manage the itching. Chicken pox may not exist as much now because more people are getting their children vaccinated at a young age to help not to prevent chicken pox, and now we now the actual causes of this and we are now more advanced. ?Cholera: this is one of the most feared diseases, it is infectious, and it is caused by drinking water from a contaminated item.

When you get cholera is causes a slowing in the blood circulation and it will cause the skin to become blue and shrunken it can also cause deaths. Some people believe that cholera is caused by eating fruits and vegetables. The most common symptoms of cholera are: •extensive, watery diarrhea •nausea •vomiting •muscle cramps Around three-quarters of people who are exposed to cholera bacteria do not develop any symptoms. However, these people can contaminate water by passing faeces that contain bacteria into water, or pass on the disease through poor food hygiene.

However, things have changed over time and we now have vaccinations and treatments to help to reduce the number of people with Cholera. There is a vaccine which is given as a drink that protects against cholera. Vaccination is usually only required for: •people travelling in remote areas where cholera epidemics are occurring and there is limited access to medical care •those intending to visit high-risk areas such as refugee camps or war zones •those taking part in disaster relief operations These people include emergency relief workers, members of the armed forces and healthcare workers.

It is important to get advice from your nurse or doctor about whether you need a cholera vaccination well in advance of travelling; the vaccine is available free on the NHS. Cholera needs prompt treatment with oral rehydration solution (ORS) to prevent dehydration and shock. ORS comes in a sachet; it is made up of a mixture of salts and glucose, which are dissolved in water. ORS is ideal for replacing the fluids and minerals that are lost when a person becomes dehydrated. As well as treating dehydration and shock with ORS, antibiotics can be used to treat the underlying infection.

ORS sachets are available from many pharmacists, camping shops and travel clinics. If you are travelling to regions of the world affected by cholera, take ORS sachets as a precaution. ?Consumption: this is also known as ‘tuberculosis (TB)’ is another common cause of deaths; the word consumption was named as it described the action of the body tissue wasting away. This is highly contagious and the bacteria which it causes is found in milks and other foods and sometimes in the saliva of a person which has the diseases, researchers found out that only direct sunlight will kill the bacteria.

In 1882, Robert Koch discovered that the bacteria which caused this disease were barely visible in the human eye, this will cause it to attach and grow in every organ of the body, including the lungs and the brain. This mainly affects the lungs. However, it can affect any part of the body, including the bones and nervous system. Typical symptoms of this include: •having a persistent cough for more than three weeks that brings up phlegm, which may be bloody •weight loss •high temperature (fever) •tiredness and fatigue •loss of appetite TB is caused by a bacterium called mycobacterium tuberculosis, it affects the lungs is the only form of the condition that is contagious and usually only spreads after prolonged exposure to someone with the illness. For example, TB often spreads within a family who live in the same house. In most healthy people, the immune system kills the bacteria and you have no further symptoms. However, sometimes the immune system cannot kill the bacteria, but manages to prevent it from spreading in the body. This means you will not have any symptoms, but the bacteria will remain in your body.

This is known as latent TB. If the immune system fails to kill or contain the infection, it can spread to the lungs or other parts of the body and symptoms will develop within a few weeks or months. This is known as active TB. There is now treatment and vaccination for this, with treatment. A TB infection can usually be cured. Most people will need a course of antibiotics, usually for six months. Several different antibiotics are used; this is because some forms of TB are resistant to certain antibiotics. If you are infected with a drug-resistant form of TB, treatment can last as long as 18 months.

If you are in close contact with someone who has TB, tests may be carried out to see if you are also infected. These can include a chest X-ray and blood tests. Vaccination currently, BCG vaccinations are only recommended for groups of people who are at a higher risk of developing TB. This includes children living in areas with high rates of TB or those who have close family members from countries with high TB rates; it is also recommended that some people, such as healthcare workers, are vaccinated due to the increased risk of contracting TB while working.

Small pox: this affects people of all ages however; it is especially fatal to young children. This is caused by a virus which makes small blister like bumps on the skin sometimes even the mouth and throat. If this virus makes your throat swell up it can cause difficulty to breath, if you catch this and you survive you will not catch this again. This information was used to find a vaccine to prevent the disease. Smallpox is contagious that means the virus can spread to others. It spreads through tiny drops of an infected person’s saliva when the person coughs, talks, or sneezes.

Smallpox usually passes from person to person during close, face-to-face contact. If someone does get smallpox, a doctor can recognise the disease because it causes a special kind of rash. The rash shows up as blisters on the skin that fill with fluid and crust over. This might sound like chickenpox, but the blisters look different from the blisters that chickenpox causes. The other symptoms of smallpox are like those of many other less serious illnesses: fever, headache, backache, and feeling tired.

A vaccine, a type of shot, can prevent infection with the virus that causes smallpox. Years ago, people were vaccinated against smallpox. Today, smallpox vaccines aren’t given because nobody has had the disease for many years. This has changed over time because science has improved more, now in the twenty-first century there are more advanced people and scientist and things have improved much more since the nineteenth century. The doctors and scientist have found out more cures and reasons for diseases and they are able to help out more people.

Also the NHS is free therefore; more people are able to get free treatment for the diseases or infections that they have. Sanitation and Hygiene: There was a lack of sanitation because at the time the government never took this matter seriously as no one was complaining about the issue. The higher class people never had to live like the lower class and they never had to deal with the poor sanitation because they had the money and the power to live healthy lives and in better conditions.

Therefore, the lower class did not complain about the issue as not one would listen to them and even if they did not one will act upon the issue to make it better. When Mr. Black looked into this situation he found out that the sewage system was not correctly working making the environment smell, when he raised this issue to the parliament they acted as if they never had enough money to place a proper sewage system to help improve the environment.

Lack of sanitation now affects about 2. 4 billion of the world’s population and is expected to rise to 50% by 2025. Diarrhoea caused by bad sanitation kills nearly 6,000 children a day, an annual toll of two million deaths. People suffering from waterborne diseases occupy half the world’s hospital beds. Already half of Asia’s population lacks adequate sanitation and in China, India and Indonesia twice as many people die from diarrhoeal diseases as from HIV/Aids.

In developing countries 80% of all disease results from a combination of poor hygiene, contaminated water and poor sanitation. Parasitic infections are also exacerbated by poor sanitation; the report estimates that 1. 5 billion people have parasitic worm infections. Such worms, whilst they may not cause death, lead to stunted growth and general debilitation. Among the diseases resulting from poor sanitation, unclean water and poor waste disposal are dysentery, cholera, typhus fever, typhoid and trachoma.

Sanitation will be affected by the amount of people that are in the population, for example, if there are an increasing amount of people growing in the society there will need to be more sanitation because if they do not fit in more sanitation systems then the old ones will get worn out by being used continually, and over time it will stop working correctly therefore, it is important that the government start to build more sanitation systems so there will be no danger of the society to be exposed to harmful waste because the sanitation system fails to work.

On the other hand, if the population decreased there will be no need for loads of sanitation systems and the government will be able to save a lot of money. When you have poor sanitation it can cause diseases such as: •Diarrhoea; this caused by different micro-organisms including viruses and bacteria. This causes a person to lose both water and electrolytes, which leads to dehydration and, in some cases, to death. Repeated episodes of diarrhoeal disease makes children more vulnerable to other diseases and malnutrition. Diarrhoea is the most important public health problem directly related to water and sanitation.

The simple act of washing hands with soap and water can cut diarrhoeal disease by one-third. Next to providing adequate sanitation facilities, it is the key to preventing waterborne diseases. •HIV/AIDS; A hygienic environment, clean water and adequate sanitation are key factors in preventing opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS, and in the quality of life of people living with the disease. AIDS-affected people are more susceptible to water-related diseases than healthy individuals, and they become sicker from these infections than people with healthy immune systems.

Maintaining a healthy environment is essential to safeguarding the health, quality of life and productivity of people living with HIV/AIDS. •Cholera; Cholera is an acute bacterial infection of the intestinal tract. It causes severe attacks of diarrhoea that, without treatment, can quickly lead to acute dehydration and death. Cholera is a world-wide problem, especially in emergency situations. It can be prevented by access to safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene behaviour (including food hygiene). •Malaria; Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite carried by certain types of mosquitoes.

Humans are infected when bitten by the mosquitoes. Reducing the mosquito population in households and communities by eliminating standing water (caused by poor drainage and uncovered water tanks) can be an important factor in reducing malaria cases. This has changed over time because in the twenty-first century people and the government have realised to live healthy lives it is important to have good sanitation and hygiene because if they do not have good sanitation or hygiene its very likely that diseases and infections will spread around causing many people to get ill.

Technology have now improved therefore, the government is able to put more advance technology in place to help in the environment. Environment: Global warming is the rise in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation. Since the early 20th century, Earth’s mean surface temperature has increased by about 0. 8°C, with about two-thirds of the increase occurring since 1980.

Warming of the climate system is clear, and scientists are more than 90% certain that it is primarily caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases made by human activities such as the burning of fissile fuels and deforestation. These findings are recognised by the national science academies of all major industrialised nations. During the 21st century the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 2. 9°C for their lowest emissions scenario and 2. 4 to 6. 4 °C for their highest. The ranges of these estimates arise from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations.

The effects of an increase in global temperature include a rise in sea levels and a change in the amount and pattern of rain, as well a probable expansion of subtropical desert. Warming is expected to be strongest in Antarctica and would be associated with the continuing sea ice. Other likely effects of the warming include a more frequent occurrence of extreme whether events including heat waves, droughts and heavy rainfall due to shifting temperature regimes. Effects significant to humans include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields and the loss of habitat from inundation.

Proposed policy responses to global warming include mitigation by releases reduction, adaptation to its effects. Most countries have policies designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to assist in adaptation to global warming. The Earth’s average surface temperature rose by 0. 18°C, over the period 1906–2005. The rate of warming over the last half of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole 0. 03°C per decade, versus 0. 02°C per decade. Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0. 13 and 0. 22°C per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements.

Climate substitutions show the temperature to have been relatively stable over the one or two years before 1850. The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in pale climate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified. In the late 19th century, scientists first argued that human emissions of greenhouse gases could change the climate, but the calculations were disputed. Many other theories of climate change were advanced, involving forces from volcanism to solar variation.

In the 1960s, the warming effect of carbon dioxide gas became increasingly convincing, although some scientists also pointed out that human activities, in the form of atmospheric aerosols e. g. pollution, could have cooling effects as well. During the 1970s, scientific opinion increasingly favored the warming viewpoint. By the 1990s, as a result of improving fidelity of computer models and observational work confirming the Milankovitch theory of the ice ages, a consensus position formed: greenhouse gases were deeply involved in most climate changes, and human emissions were bringing serious global warming.

Some challenges we face now are: 1. Climate Change: this has been concerning scientists for decades, from the melting polar ice caps to catastrophic weather and threatened ecosystems, not only is climate change real, scientists agree that humans are influencing climate change with our production of greenhouse gases (mainly stemming from carbon dioxide and methane). 2. Energy: clean energy vs. dirty energy. Renewable energy, energy independence, petroleum, biofuels and coal. 3.

Waste: with the immediate looming problems of climate change and energy, focus has shifted away from landfill waste, but this is a serious problem. The world has largely gotten accustomed to a throwaway lifestyle, but that’s neither healthy nor sustainable. Waterways are choked with trash and modernised nations ship their undesirable leftovers to the developing world. Fashion, fast food, packaging and cheap electronics are just some of the problems 4. Water: Pure water is in short supply. Our global reserves of drinkable water are a fraction of 1% and 1 in 5 humans does not have access to potable (safe) water.

Many people do not realise that strife has already broken out in some stressed regions. Overall, I have learnt the difference between the diseases in the nineteenth century and the twenty-first century, in the twenty-first century there is more cures for diseases then there was in nineteenth century. More people know the reasons behind certain diseases and why they be caused and we are now able to produce cures for most diseases and we are now able to help most people around different places.

Creativity, innovation and invention free essay help online: free essay help online

Nowadays, discussions about creativity, innovation and invention are often made difficult because people are unclear about the exact meanings of some key terms. They are not the same thing. To create for example a successful product or business, a leader needs to recognize the differences, and combine them in the right mix. So what is the real definition and difference between all these three wonderful concepts? Creativity is your ability to imagine new concepts. It does not require value creation.

That is why when we run brainstorming sessions; we do not allow concepts to be screened for merit. We are being divergent and looking for all possible ideas. Artists, musicians and designers possess powerful creative skills. They imagine and reimagine scenes and sounds from the world. They create memorable and provocative pieces. But pure creative types rarely invent anything. Creativity alone doesn’t suffice for original or patentable breakthroughs. . Creativity plays an important role in both invention and innovation, but is only the front end component of each.

Innovation is the process through which value is created and delivered to a community in the form of a new solution. Innovation requires both creativity and invention. But it also requires something more. To innovate, a person or an organization must marshall the resources to introduce an invention into the world. Innovation requires a team. One person does not a company make. When investors look for the next innovative business idea, they look for a core team that can work together to build the product. Innovation requires adequate funding.

Whereas artists and inventors can get by on limited resources, innovators must marshall adequate resources to make their ideas real. Invention is very distinct from innovation. When a new idea surfaces or a new patent is filed, that is an invention. Inventors often possess creative minds. It is constrained by reality. While an artist can imagine paradoxical scenes, an inventor works within a framework of possibility, sometimes defining the framework along the way. Inventors may work alone, or in small teams.

They benefit by studying widely and interacting with people unlike themselves, but they often find the spark of an idea while on their own. The best inventions possess all of the qualities of beauty that artists appreciate: symmetry, harmony, elegance, simplicity, but invention extends beyond human senses and into the realism of pure science At the end, besides all these, it’s easy to confuse creativity, invention and innovation. Each has its place, and each builds on the previous. They have been so thoroughly misused that it is hard to tell the difference between them. Yet they could not be more different.

Case Study of Child with Autism argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

I became increasingly interested in Autism since I had the opportunity to work alongside kids with Autism this summer. Seeing how their minds worked and how they processed information was astounding to me. Ever since this experience, I have fallen in love with children with Autism and I am always thriving to learn more about them. With this being said, I am looking to do my research on a child with Autism. I will be looking into the question how does Autism affect language development in children?

Under this broad topic I will be specifically looking into why their pragmatic language is impaired. To find my information I will interview my child’s parents. I will do my own observations both in the home and at school. Finally, I will research scholarly articles that are based off of good scientific research in my subject field. I want to become more informed about children with Autism and why their language development is impaired in the ways that it is. In doing so, I feel that I can become a more informed teacher which I can use to my advantage in my classroom.

I will know how to make children with Autism that are in my class successful both in class and in social situations. Section 2: Research Article #1 Measuring Pragmatic Language in Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Comparing the Children’s Communication Checklist—2 and the Test of Pragmatic Language “1 in 165 children” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 204). The number of children that are prevalent with some type of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as stated by Joanne Volden and Linda Phillips. It is a statistic that is on the rise and highly debated.

It is a statistic that greatly affects classrooms across the nation. And yet, how to we help these children to the best of our abilities? An aspect that is being highly overlooked is pragmatic impairments. Children with an ASD have a greater chance of having a pragmatic dysfunction than do ‘typical’ children (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 205). How do we help children that are having these issues? How do we even diagnose these types of Language Development impairments? This article points to two of the ways this is being done: The Test of Pragmatic Language and The Children’s Communication Checklist – 2.

This article examines the validity of two tests: The Test of Pragmatic Language (TOPL) and The Children’s Communication Checklist – 2 (CCC – 2) (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 205). Each test was made to identify “pragmatic impairments” in children with high functioning ASD (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 205). The study identifies the difficulties that children with ASD have with pragmatic language –these children have “peculiar and out of place (communication) in ordinary conversation” (Rutter, 1965, p. 41); may “fail to develop (a) topic by contributing new, relevant information” among other minor things (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 204). Each test was developed to measure pragmatic dysfunctions in children so they may receive the support needed to thrive in everyday life. “Pragmatic language has proven (to be) difficult to assess… (because) the (general) structure of formal testing procedures fails to capture flexible adjustment to changing circumstances” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 205). The TOPL test “samples a range of typically developing pragmatic behaviors” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 205). The test compares students that have typical development pragmatic skills and students that have been diagnosed with high functioning ASD.

The CCC-2, on the other hand is “designed to screen for clinically significant communication problem of any type and (identifies) pragmatic language impairments” (Phillips, Volden, 2010 p. 205-206). So while the CCC-2 does test of pragmatic language impairments it also screens for communication impairments as well. The TOPL test is scored using a summary score called the “Language Quotient” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 207). The Language Quotient is expressed as a “standard score with a mean of 100 (SD = 15) (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 207). According to Phillips and Volden, Language Quotients of “70-79 are interpreted as poor, and quotients below 70 are interpreted as very poor” (2010, p. 207). The cutoff score indicating a pragmatic impairment in the child was designated as 79 (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 207). The CCC-2 on the other hand derives two composite scores that are interpreted allowing for a greater variety of information to be processed and taken into account while interpreting whether or not a child with high functioning ASD has pragmatic issues or not.

These two composite scores are the GCC that is expressed by a standard score “with a mean of 100 (SD = 15) and the SIDI (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 207). If a GCC score is less than 80, it indicated a communicative impairment: not a pragmatic impairment (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 207). On the other hand, a negative SIDI score represents a pragmatic issue. “If the SIDI score is -15 or below Bishop (2003) suggests that pragmatic language impairment is present regardless of the GCC score (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 207).

So what does all of this mean? It was shown that both tests can in fact show whether or not a child with high functioning ASD has an issue with pragmatics. But how valid are these tests? Both tests ended with different results. The TOPL test showed that “9 out of 16 students with ASD were pragmatically impaired” while the CCC-2 identified “13 out of the 16” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 208). While it is known that students with ASD do in fact have pragmatic impairments is there a chance that not every student will have this type of impairment?

It is hard to tell what test was more reliable in this situation for biases and cultural considerations were not taken into effect. However, it is a start. The article states that “the CCC-2 would be better at identification because the test included items designated to tap a broad range of pragmatic symptoms that are frequently reported as characteristic of ASD…. that would not occur in the course of typical development” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 209). This study does prove to have a lot of vital information in regards to pragmatic dysfunctions in children with high functioning ASD.

However, it does say that the study was small: “This study is limited by its small sample size and by restricting participation to those who had structural language scores within typical limits” (Phillips, Volden, 2010, p. 210). With that being said, it would not be reliable to extrapolate the information from this study to schools across the nation. This study only used children that were diagnosed as high functioning ASD. It would be important that other studies be done using children across the spectrum to see if the results were reliable.

It would also be important to use other students with Intellectual Disabilities or even students that have been formally diagnosed with a Language Disorder to see how the validity of each test would withstand against these types of children. And although there is a lot that this study could have done further to prove their point, the information is still interesting and conclusive in its own regard. It is important that these types of tests continue to grow and evolve in our everyday world. If these tests can further prove to diagnose students with pragmatic impairments, it would be incredible in the world of teaching.

Students with pragmatic impairments are being over looked and swept under the rug because they are not diagnosed as atypical in this aspect of Language Development. And while not all children with high functioning ASD have pragmatic impairments, there are large numbers of children that do exhibit these dysfunctions. As teachers, it is vital that these children, diagnosed with ASD or not, get the necessary treatment plans and resources to allow them to excel. Whether that be through an IEP or 504 plan, students need not be ignored because there is not a way to formally diagnose their language dysfunction.

And while this article does state that the CCC-2 may be the better route to diagnose these children, it is important to use either the CCC-2 or the TOPL test rather than nothing at all as a start to diagnose a child. Once a child is assessed and diagnosed not only will that child be able to learn in the school setting but in the home setting as well. For although it may not always be good to label a child, having that label will allow for the child to have adequate and necessary treatment to allow for further success. Pragmatic dysfunctions, when treated early, can make a large impact on a child’s life.

Growing up to know when the right time is to say certain things can be essential when trying to obtain a job or just talking in public. As teachers, these language issue needs to be taken into account more often and more seriously. Children are slipping through the cracks because teachers are uneducated as to how to formally diagnose and help these issues. Article #2 Brief Report: Pragmatic Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationships in Measures of Ability and Disability Pragmatic language is something that we use on a day to day basis whether we know it or not.

Talking to a single person, talking to a group, or even listening to another person talk is all included in pragmatic language skills. Children, especially children with Autism, often lack pragmatic language. Children with Autism generally have more difficulties with pragmatic language than do any other children. If tested, they could even be diagnosed as having a pragmatic language dysfunction. Their speech is often considered “peculiar and out of place in ordinary conversations” and “irrelevant” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 388). “Pragmatics is consistently agreed upon as the domain that is specifically and universally impaired in Autism Spectrum Disorders” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 388). With this all being said, why is pragmatic language so often pushed to the side? Should pragmatic language be considered an important factor in considering a person’s long-term ability to function effectively in his or her community? Students with Autism may or may not have structural language difficulties paired with pragmatic language difficulties as well.

Do structural language difficulties predict pragmatic language difficulties? This study that was done measured the “contributions of nonverbal cognitive and structural language skills to the prediction of pragmatic language scores” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 391). The study was done on “37 children aged 6-13 years who met the criteria of Autism/ASD” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 389). This study showed that pragmatic language, as measured by the TOPL, is strongly related to, but not dictated by, structural language.

Structural language plays a part in pragmatic language, but it is not the driving force behind it. A student with Autism may have nearly perfect structural language but lack pragmatic language. Whereas another student may lack structural language and pragmatic language. Every student is different. These results simply state that structural language and pragmatic language are related in some way. How they are related, however, was not stated. The study also shows, as predicted, that if a child has better pragmatic skills, they were linked to fewer ASD communicative symptoms.

Better pragmatic language was also linked to fewer symptoms in the social domain. These findings underscores how central the theme is between ASD symptoms and social communication. This study, done mostly on children with High-Functioning Autism, increases the evidence that children with Autism cannot help the way that they act in social settings. They cannot help that they can’t hold a conversation, among other things. Children with Autism are different: in a good way. Although they may not be able to communicate effectively and appropriately, they are so good at so many different things.

Communication just happens to not necessarily be one of those things. This study has its flaws. The study should not be extrapolated to large groups, although the results are informative and interesting. The study was only done on a small sample size. The children that were selected “functioned within normal limits on most measures” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 392). Having a larger sample size with children of different ‘functions’ will prove to be more effective in showing the same results, assuming they will come out the same way.

So, what is the point of this study? It can be stated that students with ASD have pragmatic language difficulties. It can be stated that students with ASD have structural language difficulties. It can be stated that these are intertwined within one another. But what does this all mean in the life of the child? How can this information better the life of a student wit ASD? The study suggests the importance of developing a “comprehensive (assessment) of pragmatic language to help document a person’s level of disability” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 392).

With this information, professionals will be able to intervene in functional, community based contexts so students can develop social skills needed across all domains. Students will be able to grow individually to further their importance in their community. Should pragmatic language be considered an important factor in considering a person’s long-term ability to function effectively in his or her community? With the information given, all signs point to yes. Pragmatic language is an essential part in a student’s life. It allows students to function in everyday social situations.

Students that lack pragmatic language are set back because of their inability to function ‘normally’. “It stands at the intersection of language and social skills, impairments central to defining features of ASD” (Bryson, Coolican, Garon, Volden, White, 2008, p. 391). Article # 3: Diagnostic Differences of Autism Spectrum Disorder s and Pragmatic Language Impairment Children with Autism are generally associated with having pragmatic language impairments. However, not all children that have pragmatic language impairments have Autism. So, along with difficulty in social communication

settings, what else do these children have in common? Do children with Autism get labeled as having a pragmatic language impairments because they actually have a pragmatic language impairment or do their Autism symptoms overlap with those of pragmatic language impairments? Do children with Autism and children with pragmatic language impairments show comparable levels of behaviors associated with the ‘autism triad’ (Cornish, Frombonne, & Reisinger, 2011, p. 1701)? The study sought out to answer these questions. The Autism triad is composed of three components.

Component one involved the social and emotional aspect of development. Children with Autism in this area will have trouble with making friends, managing unstructured parts of the day, and working co-operatively. The second component is language and communication. Children with Autism will have difficulties in this area including difficulties understanding jokes and sarcasm, social use of language, literal interpretations, and body language and facial expressions. Finally, the third and final component of the Autism triad is flexibility of thought (imagination).

In this area, children will struggle with coping with changes in routine and empathy. The study was done with “forty-one children with communication impairments aged 7-15 years” (Cornish, Frombonne, & Reisinger, 2011, p. 1696). Each child was tested using both the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). The purpose of these tests was to compare the scores of children with ASD and children with PLI. These tests would then show whether the children have comparable levels of behaviors associated with the autism triad.

The diagnostic cut-off scores of each test were examined and measured. Overall, the results from the ADOS and SCQ showed that children with PLI have less severe impairments related to the autism triad as compared to children with ASD. However, the sub domains of these tests could not always differentiate between children with PLI and children with ASD in reference to their scores. When the combined measures were being used, it was possible to separate out the children with PLI and children with ASD that show signs of PLI. 7 cases could not be differentiated (Cornish, Frombonne, & Reisinger, 2011, p. 1701). Therefore, it was concluded that using ADOS and SCQ alone were not strong predictors in differentiating between ASD and PLI. This study then goes on to support the theory that there are subtle differences between ASD and PLI. Children with PLI have “significant difficulties socializing” (Cornish, Frombonne, & Reisinger, 2011, p. 1702). Because of these difficulties, children with PLI have an increased risk for problem behaviors related to Autism.

The difficulties that these children have in relation to their socialization lead to an increased risk of frustration and anxiety, and in turn “an increase in expression of abnormal behaviors” (Cornish, Frombonne, & Reisinger, 2011, p. 1702). This same relationship was not found in children with ASD. This may be due to the fact that children with ASD lack a sense of awareness of their surroundings and do not allow their surroundings to get to them in the way that children with PLI may. This is not true, however, of all children with ASD. This study examined children with ASD that were not diagnosed in having PLI.

Children that are comorbid with ASD and PLI will experience the frustration, the anxiety, and the increased behaviors. Even some children that have ASD but not PLI could essentially still show these frustrations in social contexts. Looking back at the Autism triad after reading this article, children with PLI and children with ASD really only share equal difficulties in one area: language and communication. And not to say that this will always be what is shared amongst these two different diagnoses, but this is what will be most common amongst the two.

The overlapping symptoms does not mean that children who have been diagnosed with PLI should also be diagnosed with ASD, but rather that they share common characteristics about their speech and communication, especially in social situations. Article #4 An Exploration of Causes of Non-Literal Language Problems in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome It is known that children with Autism show difficulties in pragmatic language. “One of the key features characteristic of individuals with high functioning Autism is a marked disruption to the ability to engage in social communication” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 311). The question that is never brought up, however, is why these children are at an increased risk for having pragmatic language difficulties. Article after article, case study after case study all talk about the signs and symptoms of pragmatic language impairments (PLI) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). They talk about how to test for PLI and intervention techniques that can prove to be beneficial for the child. This article explores what others do not: the why of pragmatic language.

Knowing the cause of pragmatic language impairments in children should essentially lead to potential remedies to help treat children that are affected. There are two competing hypotheses that are correlated with pragmatic deficits. The first is Theory of Mind (TOM). This may be “the most prominent position on the causation of social communication in ASD” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 311). TOM encompasses the ability to form representations of “other individual’s mental states, and, furthermore, to use those representations to understand predict, and judge others’ utterances and behavior” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 312). The ability to infer mental states of another individual is pivotal in engaging in effective pragmatic communication. “Deficits in TOM have been observed in individuals with ASD across a range of age groups and IQ ability” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 312). The comprehension of non-literal language relies on a person’s TOM capacity. Therefore, children with ASD who have difficulty understanding metaphors or irony in another person’s speech could essentially blame their lack of TOM. With a lack of TOM, children will not be able to communicate effectively with another person.

Their speech will be egocentric and will lack empathy. The second hypothesis that is correlated with pragmatic deficits seen in children with ASD is the notion of weak central coherence (WCC). WCC is not as strong of a thesis as TOM is. WCC refers to how language is processed. It’s argued that, according to the WCC theory, “language is processed in a kind of fragmented isolation without reference to the social context in which it occurs” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 312). In accordance with WCC, children with ASD display difficulties when they interpret words according to the context of the sentence given.

“WCC predicts that individuals with Autism should be impaired in their ability to achieve local linguistic coherence” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 313). Children with Autism are also less able to “draw coherence inferences, or themes across, a set of statements” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 313). While these two theories are seemingly informational and reliable, their validity is questionable. Therefore, a study was performed to establish validity among the two theories. “The primary aim of this study was to compare the competing theories of social interference” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 315). Two predictions were made about TOM and WCC: “If deficits in TOM underlie pragmatic ability, then deficits in social interference should be significantly associated with deficits in pragmatic ability. However, impairments in social inference making should not be associated with either general inference ability, or the ability to integrate perceptual information. If WCC underlies pragmatic ability, then the ability to organize perceptual details into meaningful wholes should be significantly associated with the ability to make pragmatic inferences.

Furthermore, this ability should be related to the capacity to make general and social inferences, as both these abilities require the capacity of drawing together disparate sources of information to infer meaning” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 315). The results showed that “students with ASD were found to be impaired on both the mental inference questions and the non-mental control inference questions” (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 325). Therefore, their difficulty with TOM reasoning extended from one activity to the next, whereas WCC was only seen a small portion of the activities performed.

WCC was assessed and found to not be related to pragmatic language ability. However, this study was done solely on testing children on processing visual-spatial information. It is unclear and not studied whether WCC would play a role “in the processing of auditory verbal information” in accordance with pragmatic communication (Martin & McDonald, 2004, p. 326). More research, of course, would have to be done to replicate the information done in this study. This small sample size that was used has limited power in showing the true difference between the two competing theories that are TOM and WCC.

Furthermore, with more research, it could be shown what other types of language deficits are applicable using these explanations. Article #5: The Social Communication Intervention Project: A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of speech and language therapy for school-age children who have pragmatic and social communication problems with or without autism spectrum disorder There has recently been a strong push to increase language therapy for students with Pragmatic Language Impairments (PLI).

Pragmatic language is an underexplored field that has increasing numbers of diagnoses year to year. No real therapy is implemented in school systems for children that have PLI. “There is little robust evidence of effectiveness of speech-language interventions which target the language, pragmatic or social communication needs of these children” (Adams, Earl, Freed, Gailet, Green, Law, Lockton, McBean, Nash, & Vail, 2012, p 233). This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of one particular type of language therapy aimed at children with PLI with or without Autism Spectrum Disorder.

The aims of the study at hand were to “examine the effectiveness of an intensive manualized social communication speech and language intervention in improving language skills and observed pragmatic ability” (Adams, Earl, Freed, Gailet, Green, Law, Lockton, McBean, Nash, & Vail, 2012, p 233). The study that was performed was a small-scale randomized controlled trial. The trial was aimed to compare the effects of Social Communication Intervention (SCIP) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) on a standardized language assessment. Children either received SCIP intervention or TAU intervention.

The results then showed what type of intervention was more effective for children with PLI. Participants that received SCIP ceased all other intervention programs when they began this formal intervention program. Children that were receiving SCIP sat down for “16 to 20 individual face-to-face one hour sessions of intervention in school over the course of one school term” (Adams, Earl, Freed, Gailet, Green, Law, Lockton, McBean, Nash, & Vail, 2012, p 236). Each child received an individualized intervention strategy that was derived from a manual as to ensure that intervention was consistent amongst all participants.

Two specialist speech and language therapists and five specially trained therapy assistants delivered the experimental treatment. Children that received TAU continued with their regular/typical treatment that was being provided by their local speech and language therapy services. After the children had finished their intervention treatment plan for their pragmatic language impairment, they took the CLEF-4 to measure their general language ability. The participants also took a secondary outcome measure titled the Targeted Observation of Pragmatics in Children’s Conversation (TOPICC).

The outcomes of the CLEF-4 along with secondary measures did not show a significant intervention effect for SCIP compared with TAU. The article does state, however, that “the overall conclusion provided in SCIP is effective at improving overall conversational quality in 6-11 year olds who have significant pragmatic and social communication needs compared with TAU” (Adams, Earl, Freed, Gailet, Green, Law, Lockton, McBean, Nash, & Vail, 2012, p 242). These conclusions do not match the evidence that the study provides, however.

This may be due to the fact that the children that were selected for this individualized intervention program were so diverse in their backgrounds and diagnoses. This sample was also small. Providing more research with a more consistent group may show results more of what the study intended. The amount of therapy was also constrained by the study. In reality, some of the children may have needed more or less therapy to achieve maximum potential. Although the results of the study were not consistent with the conclusion, the article does make some good points.

More research must be done to show the effects of a structured individualized intervention program for students with PLI and ASD. With the increasing numbers of ASD diagnoses, PLI diagnoses soon too will be on the rise. Children deserve the best possible intervention and therapy needed, so why are children with PLI getting cut short of this due to lack of research? In the upcoming years, there is sure to be more done on this particular topic to ensure that students will in fact receive the treatment that they need.

Section 3: Data Collection I had the opportunity to work with a student that I taught over the summer. ‘A’ is 8 years old and is in third grade. He is an energetic, fun, loving boy. A has Autism and trouble with his pragmatic language. Although A has never been formally diagnosed with a Pragmatic Language Impairment, it is evident that he shows the signs and symptoms. As discussed in the interview paper, A’s mother does not want him to be diagnosed with PLI for she does not want him to have another label on top of the others he already has.

As I mentioned, I observed A first over the summer while I taught him at a camp which was for students with Autism and social difficulties. At first, A was a quiet and compliant student for the first week or so. However, I later found out he was only testing the waters. After A felt comfortable in the classroom, he swore on a regular basis, had social outbursts, never raised his hand, etc. A went from being an angel to one of the most difficult children in the classroom. I was baffled as to what we were supposed to do.

On a regular basis, A was talking out of turn and was talking in ways not appropriate for students of his age. I also observed that A, when talking with a peer, did not allow his peer to engage in a conversation with him. It was a one-sided conversation, all with A talking. After talking to A’s mother about our concerns, I, along with my other classroom staff members, came up with a positive behavior plan that A used in his classroom and at home. I distinctly remember A’s mother telling us that she was so sorry that he was acting the way that we was and that it was probably because he wasn’t in his typical routine.

I also remember her telling us that once we put into action this behavior plan that his pragmatic language difficulties would slightly decrease. And, just like she had promised, they did. A still swore when he was frustrated but instead of condemning him for this, we applauded him for using his words to communicate. However, we then asked him why he would use the words that he chose and once he calmed down we would ask him if he felt those words were appropriate for the context he used them.

We would then brain storm together ideas of words that he could use instead of the swear words (or even inappropriate words). We would then replay the situation and A would use the words that were brainstormed rather than the original words that he chose. Another thing we began to do, not just with A, but with all of our children in our classroom was to use a tennis ball when having a conversation. We encouraged the children to pass the tennis ball back and forth when they were talking with one another to discourage one sided conversations.

We told the children that they should not have the tennis ball the whole time they were talking and that you could only talk for long sentences if you had the tennis ball in your hands. We saw a great improvement not only in A’s conversations but in the conversations in all of the children as well. Along with my experiences with A over the summer, I got to see A in his classroom this year. Although I only got to spend a little over two hours with him, I saw a lot of the same techniques used over the summer in his classroom here as well.

I think this is because of what his mother said to us over the summer: A does well with a consistent routine. The thing that I found interesting about A in his classroom is that his Therapeutic Support Staff (TSS) was the one who would talk to A if he had an outbreak. I am sure that this is because the teacher does not always have time to sit down and talk to A individually, but I personally feel that it is important to help shape A’s pragmatic language. Finally, I observed A in his home as well. I feel that A acts different in his home than in school because he knows how to push his mom and dad’s buttons.

They of course use the same techniques in the classroom as they do at home. However, they are more firm with him. They expect a lot out of A. It is extremely evident that they love and care for him and they only want the best for him. That is why they have gone to such extreme measures to make him be as successful as possible in regards to his pragmatic language. (Checklist Attached from Observation) Section 4 Interview A=Student Where do you see (student) have the most difficulties with pragmatic language (i. e. in the classroom, at home, out in public)? -We feel that A has the most trouble with his pragmatic lang

Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of representative vs direct democracy essay help app: essay help app

Essay Title – Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of representative vs direct democracy Democracy is a word known to most persons today, in the Western world atleast, and almost always has positive connotations associated with it. Indeed from far left to far right, democracy has been proclaimed and embraced by political parties, indeed for a party to profess democracy is seen as necessary to its claim of legitimacy.

The word democracy derives from the Greek prefix ‘Demos’ which could be seen as ‘people’, or in ancient Greece was associated with ‘the poor’ and the suffix ‘Kratos’, which could be seen as ‘power’ or ‘rule'(Heywood, 2004; 221). The nuance in translation has particular significance, and is not due to ambiguity in translation. It is the purpose of this essay to first set out an account of what we mean by legitimacy, for our discussion of democracy as the most important form of legitimacy hinges upon such an account.

We shall then take representative and direct democracy in turn, discussing their strengths and weaknesses. And conclude with this authors opinion on the equal credibility of both forms, depending on the context within which they are put to practical use. Foundational to the existence of any democratic government is the concept of legitimacy, that is; right over might; legitimacy over power, and – out of which grows – duty over obedience. In the words of Jean-Jacques Rousseau ‘ The strongest is never been strong enough unless he turns might into right and obedience into duty'(Palgrave.com, Chapter 4: Democracy and Legitimacy). Should a government fail to evolve so, its rule is no more than despotic subjugation, and its demise is most likely only a matter of time as the subjugated will inevitably revolt and take back power. Rousseau has been seen as a highly influential figure in, if not indeed the father of, modern liberal political thought, with the school having its foundations in enlightenment thinking(Garrard in Kurian et al, 2011: 508). This is an important starting point when considering the strengths and weaknesses of either form of democracy.

The first form of democracy, that of direct or pure democracy, has its roots in the classical idea forged it ancient Athens. The men of Athens were expected to have continuous and direct participation in the decision making and running of their city, and any public offices held were allotted by way of rota or the casting of lots(Scrunton, 1982). Although in practice the electorate was discriminatory and therefore not truly representative of all citizens, those who did participate were not politicians.

The vocations of participants would be quite diverse, and therefore we encounter the first important point relating to direct democracy, education. If the decisions of the community are dependent on every individuals understanding of the decision being made, then education is key. To take the modern day example of the upcoming referendum on Scottish independence, this can be seen as a form of direct participation, the decision being made is a profound one and a decision either way will have significant and long term implications for each Scottish citizen.

Therefore in the interest of the greater good of the community, we have each of us a duty to educate ourselves on these implications. In this way we can see the idea of legitimacy being championed, after all as we all become less aware of our own opinions, usually ill informed, and educate ourselves on the matter, the social institution known as the state, within which Rousseau saw corruption lying, would begin to take on a literal life of its own and individual interests within this sphere would dissipate allowing for the purity of the states greater good(Wokler, 2001: 44-70).

The idea of the state taking on a life of its own is important, the general will is not to be seen as the sum total of individual wills, but the will of the state alone. As obedience becomes duty, the decision made in the best interest of the state could in theory, be contrary to any one individuals best interest. It goes without saying that education then is a great benefit of direct democracy, on an individual level an educated populace leads to greater awareness of oneself, other citizens and the state within which one lives.

This in turn reduces crime and social issues(such as poor parenting, domestic abuse etc) and would then in theory reduce the need for public spending on public sector spending. The level of education required however, especially in light of the complexities of modern living, would require a significant amount of an individuals time, this would affect the number of hours a citizen could contribute to their employment, and break the continuity of that work.

This would then affect the productivity of the state, the domestic economy would shrink and given the importance of the economy in the modern world this would have dire consequences, most likely resulting in economic collapse. Direct democracy also makes the assumption that intellectual education is sufficient for a person to make an ‘informed’ decision, to the neglect of practical education. One would rather have the chef cook ones meal than a person who has merely studied the subject of cooking.

For a population base to undergo such a level of practical and intellectual education in secular society is impossible. A second point to note about direct democracy is the sense it gives the individual of having control of his own destiny, taking Scottish independence again, if the decision was made for us by the Hollyrood parliament whether the results of independence were successful or otherwise, we would feel that we were in effect subjugated and in such cases one always tends to focus on the negative.

If however we are involved in the decision, for better or worse as individuals we would feel we had a part to play in that outcome, and in turn our own destiny. There are other issues to take into account however, unless an electorate are all equally enthused over participation, something which is ultimately an intangible variant in the equation, then referendums can lead to inconsistent and unrepresentative decision making.

Westminster almost unanimously opposes Scottish independence, and as the referendum looms Torres and Whigs will most likely unite in opposing the SNP propaganda campaign with their own opposing it. History has shown favor to the campaigners with the most resources at hand, and as propaganda becomes more insidious in method, one must question just how in control are citizens over their own personal vote. Coming on finally to representative democracy.

This is the form most recognized today when we think of ‘liberal democracy’. In this form people elect an enlightened group of people, usually politicians, within whom they vest a measure of their natural freedom and liberty, to act on their behalf to make decisions pertaining to the running of the country. The most common form this takes in contemporary society is that of parliaments and presidencies. For the purposes of this essay we shall focus on parliaments.

Within this form of representative democracy political parties with varying ideologies all compete for public vote in elections, which arguably is the only real way in which legitimacy is manifest. Their are a plethora of ways parliaments can be arranged, but of importance in the first instance is how manageable this makes public participation. In direct participation the whole electorate must turn out to vote, this is logistically unrealistic, if not impossible in secular society, and would slow the political system down tremendously.

In Representative democracy, a politician takes the place of the whole chunk of society which he represents and can focus 100% of their time on fulfilling this role. This relieves the citizen of the enormous burden that political participation would involve, and in turn allows for greater productivity, benefits the economy and gives the citizen the feeling of freedom from the state and this could then be seen as a counterpoint in the argument of what system provides the greater feeling of freedom and control of destiny.

The downside of this form of democracy is its susceptibility to corruption and the infiltration of politicians with a self seeking intent. As people feel less of an affinity with the political process, they loose interest and as the decisions a government make are tremendously diverse and complex, it makes it easy for politicians to hide their true intentions and in effect subjugate the populace, at which point it is no longer democratic and legitimacy is lost. The apathy felt by most Westerners over politicians and their rhetoric speaks volumes.

There is an element of ‘ignorance is bliss’ to this however, and we enjoy the subjugation under the illusion of freedom, so long as we are allowed to fill our time as we see fit. In conclusion this essay wishes to attest a prejudice neither way toward direct or representative democracy. They are both sound in reasoning, and have both been proven historically to be equally successful and fallible, and both continue to be used all around us in social institutions.

Take for example the Christian church, Baptist are congregational and operate under the direct form of democracy, Presbyterians have a hierarchy and operate under the representative system. The question of which system to use within a communal context depends entirely upon the size and complexity of the constituency, and the number of persons within it. Direct has worked well within smaller rural settings, and representative the only logistically feasible in large metropolitan areas.

Risk and challenge free college essay help: free college essay help

Risk and challenge is important for a child and young person’s development. A child needs to be challenged in order to develop and promote in their development. A child or young person will need to learn from their mistakes. Making mistakes will help the child or young person learn the difference between what’s safe and what isn’t and what they should and shouldn’t do. As practitioners, our main concern is to keep children safe from harm however we need to encourage them to experience risk and challenges. If we try to remove all risks from children’s lives we could be risking restricting their learning experiences.

Depending on a child’s age, will depend on their needs and abilities. For example, a baby will have different needs compared to a child who is in pre-school. A baby will not have limited ability, they won’t be able to walk, run etc. in the early stages. Until they learn to do this then there risk and challenge is limited. A child who is slightly older will have different needs and abilities. It is important not to over protect children and young people when making risk and challenge as this is a ‘stepping stone’ in their development a certain level of risky experiences will help them to develop confidence.

Children need to learn how to control risk themselves; by learning what is a safe boundary are with the help of adult, and showing the children how to recognise the risk and dangers in the safest way possible. 3. 2) it is important that children and young people are given opportunities to make their own decisions and choices. children need independence to give themselves a satisfied and pleased emotion when they have done something without being told to by an adult or done something to their best ability after being asked.

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) is an international human rights treaty that grants all children and young people complete set of rights. it is important that children have a environment to provide challenging tasks according to their different interests and ability levels. 3. 3) I have supported a child to assess their own safety and manage risks in my setting by supervising outside play after it had been raining. the slide/climbing frame had become wet and therefore hazards where formed. I assessed the situation and informed the children they could not play on it until I had dried it. after drying it I informed the children that it may still be a bit wet so they was to be careful when climbing it and to hold onto the rails when climbing the stairs. In age appropriate language, I asked the child open-ended questions, to find out why they may hurt themselves. Doing this, both me and the child can work together to gain a better understanding of why they were to be cautious and what they can do to make it safer as well as the child learning from their mistakes and actions and the consequences that will have effect.

Final Paper essay help writing: essay help writing

Target corporation is one of the biggest retailers there is out there, bringing in an estimate of $74 million dollars a year in revenue. Majority of Target revenue is earned during the busiest time of the year, which are Black Friday and holidays. Target has had a huge positive reputation because of the “Expect More Pay Less” promise and giving 5% back to the community. However, Target has been going through some hard times because of the Target breach that occurred during the holidays of 2013.

This research paper will focus first on introducing the Target breach and how it has affected the company and what the company has done to fix the problem. Moving forward, I will focus on internal controls that Target could have applied and summarizing everything towards the end. Target Breach & Internal Controls Target Corporation is a well known and respected retail store out there. Target is a corporation that buys goods from manufactures at a purchase discount price and reselling it to consumers in a higher price to make a profit. Target has brought in revenue of $74 million dollars a year and continues to grow every year.

However, Target has gone through some hard times with the Target breach that just occurred during the holidays of 2013. Consumers have had a hard time trusting their card readers and loyalty and sales have been dropping ever since. The question that is now in the air is what internal controls that company had during this breach and what could they have done to avoid this breach that just occurred. To begin with, the company was running perfectly and driving outstanding sales until the company and guest found out that they had a breach, also known to the community as the “Target Breach.

Target corporation confirmed that a major data breach occurred between Black Friday and December 15, 2013, which includes many of the most important shopping days of the year” (Edelson, 2013). Ever since the Target breach, the company’s reputation was hurt, consumers were not confident about shopping, and are afraid of using the card readers at the stores. Later in time, after the breach was announced, the company had given further information on how the breach affected the people.

It is believed that the breach affected roughly 40,000 card devices at store registers, which could mean that millions of cardholders could be vulnerable, according to the people familiar with the incident” (Sidel, 2013). On top of the 40,000 card devices being affected, 40 million people’s credit card and debit card information was stolen. The CEO of Target Corporation later released to the press and announced that personal information such as address, names, phone numbers, and e-mail address were also taken from the Target system.

After reading about the Target breach, being an assistant manager for Target, and hearing about the tragic that has been caused, I remember feeling upset because of the way the company was going to be affected. However, it also reminded of the internal control concept that was thought in class. There was a lot of fraud involved with the Target breach, which is something that occurs when it comes to intern control. “Fraud refers to any act by the management or employees of business involving an internal deception for personal gain.

Fraud may include, among other acts, embezzlement of business cash, theft of assets, filing false insurance claims, filing false health claims, and financial statement fraud” (Ferris, Wallace, Christensen, 2014, pg. 314). With the Target breach, you are able to see the fraud triangle concepts, which consist of pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. Being employed by Target, that concept came into mine when reading the article because there was an e-mail sent to management about believing that an employee that worked with the POS (point on sale) system had a lot of inside information within the system.

The pressure was there to get information from the POS system and rationalization was involved when they knew that they can get credit card information. The opportunity occurred when they knew the busiest time of the year was going to be Black Friday and majority of the sales are driven in that day. From all that has occurred it is not clear what internal controls Target had in order to avoid this situation. Internal controls are important when it comes to businesses in order to avoid situation like the Target breach.

There are two parts that I believe that important when it comes to internal controls, which are prevention control and detection control. A “prevention control is intended to deter a problem or fraud before it can arise” (Ferris, Wallace, Christensen, 2014, pg. 316). Target should have followed the prevention control with the POS system in order to avoid the Target breach. A “detection control, on the other hand, is designed to discover any problems or fraud shortly it arises” (Ferris, Wallace, Christensen, 2014, pg. 316).

Target followed the detection control after the problem of the breach was brought and took justice in their own hands in order to fix the problem. The first thing Target did was post a prominent message on its Web site, “Important notice: unauthorized access to payment card data in the U. S. stores. ” The message linked to a letter alerting customers that a breach occurred and outlining steps Target is taking to a voice a recurrence” (Edelson, 2013). Another step that Target has taken is bringing justice for the information was that was stolen out of their systems.

Target had invested $5 million dollars into a multi-year campaign in order to stop phishing scams (Target, 2013). “Target has longstanding history of commitment to our communities, and cyber security is one of the most pressing issues facing consumers today,” said Steinhafel. “We are proud to be working with three trusted organizations-the National Cyber-Forensics and Training Alliance (NCFTA), National Cyber Security Alliance (NCSA) and Better Business Bureau (BBB)- to advance public education around cyber security” (Target, 2013).

Target has gone to long measures to protect the information of the guest and reinsure loyalty by offering ProtectMyID, which keeps track of credit reports, monitoring, and identity theft (Target, 2013). As an apology to the guest, Target offered a 10% off discount to all guests which were a huge success for the company but numbers of transactions was cash paid. Being an employee for Target, we are still determine to follow our core roles, continue delivering the “Expect More Pay Less” promise, and delivering an excellent shopping experience for our guest in order to continue driving profitable sales and guest loyalty.

In order to avoid this situation and detect the problem ahead of time, Target should have incorporated the following elements that are designed for prevention and detection controls. The first element is establish clear lines of authority and responsibility, which is giving authority to a supervisor or manager but also evaluation their consequently to companies policies and rules. Implement segregation of duties, “requires that when allocating various duties within the accounting system, management should make sure that no employee is assigned too many different responsibilities” (Ferris, Wallace, Christensen, 2014, pg.317). Hire competent personnel, which the company sees if that person has the education and qualified skills to perform that job. Use control number on all business documents, which is having all important documents with control numbers. Develop plans and budgets, which is having a plan and budget in order to bring the company forward. For example, the $5 million dollars that were invested in the anti fraud software in order to bring guest loyalty back. Maintain adequate accounting records, which is making sure that the company has the most recent accounting records.

For example, the number of fraud claims that were reported under guest bank statements in order to reinvers their money back. Provide physical and electronic controls, is locking their doors or important files to prevent theft, which should have happened with the POS system. Conduct internal audit, “is a company function that provided independent appraisals of the company’s financial statement, its internal control, and its operations” (Ferris, Wallace, Christensen, 2014, pg. 319).

In conclusion, we are able to see how the company was impacted from the breach that had occurred and the actions that the company has taken in order to fix the problem. People information had been stolen and finances have been tampered through it. We are able to see how internal controls play an important part when it comes to finances, accounting, and to businesses such as Target. If the proper elements and procedures had been applied with internal control I am sure that all of this could have been avoided or reduced.

Importance of agriculture to economy of mianwali college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Mianwali is the district situated in the north of Punjab. It is located at the border of province KPK AND PUNJAB. This district was formed in the year 1906 . it has three tehsil’s Mianwali Easa khel Piplan The majority of peoples of mianwali belong to the field of agriculture . Mianwali consists of wonder full irrigation system. It consists of canals, river, and tube well, INDUS RIVER is one important source which provides water to many areas in mianwali. this river covers the areas of esakhel,mianwali,kundian,chashma,doaaba, etc. due to this river most of the irrigation system in mianwali is easily approachable to all farmers. There are two major canals in mianwali too Thal canal Upper-Jhelum canal These two canal canals cover the major portion of mianwali. Apart from these canals there are many tube wells which fill the agricultural needs of mianwali people. From a long time the economy of mianwali was revolving around the crops which were more cultural in nature . These crops consist of wheat mungi and some vegetables.

These crops were produced in mianwali for a long time but due to some problems these crops cannot give economical benefits to mianwali neither they can full fill the food needs of mianwali. But now in last ? years the type of crops being produced in mianwali is changed now mianwali people are producing crops like cotton, tobacco, etc. These crops are providing large profits to the people of mianwali and it is also providing people with employment . these crops are also giving industrialization in mianwali. In this article we will discuss about the effect of agriculture to mianwali.

In Pakistan agricultural sector is of prime importance. It is the major source of income for the country during last 65 years. According to the latest survey it is contributing 1. 20. 9 % to the GDP. 2. Its growth rate is as low as 1. 5%. 3. It gives employment to 45% labor force So this scenario shows that agriculture is of prime importance to the economy of PAKISTAN. As mianwali is located in Punjab province so it also possesses a very fertile land. Due to this reason agriculture is also very important to the people of mianwali and its economy.

Everyone knows that mianwali is traditionally producing those goods which are used as food, like wheat but in this article we will study about a few crops which are new in mianwali and which are making mianwali economically strong. EXPANSION OF COTTON INDUSTRY. The production of cotton in mianwali is increasing in last couple of years. MIANWALI was not known for the production of crops like cotton in the history but now mianwali is producing cotton at a high rate. Cotton is helping the economy of mianwali in many ways we will study those ways but firstly we will show the stats which show Amount of cotton in 2011 /acre

Amount of cotton in 2012/acre 91000 96500 This increase in the production of cotton is providing mianwali with many benefits these benefits are explained shortly. Direct benefits. Employment Industrialization Increase in per capita Income Increase In the Production Tobacco Increase in the production of other crops Now these direct benefits are discussed in brief: Direct benefits Like every crop cotton has a direct benefit because cotton is a premium crop and it has a high market value so it gives farmer a very large amount of profit. This large amount of profit gives two benefits to the farmer . 1st is large revenue and 2nd is increase in per capita income. Also if a farmer gets large amount of benefit it proves incentive to work hard which helps to increase in income of the farmer directly and city and country indirectly. Employment: This increase in production of cotton is leading to many advantages to our district. The biggest of all these advantages is providing employment . firstly when the people work on wages in the fields they get jobs. 2nd reason is that with the increase in production many GINNING FACTORIES have started working in the premises of mianwali.

There are 33 ginning factories working in mianwali. Due to these factories many people in mianwali have started to get jobs in these factories. Almost 100 people are working in these factories. So at least 3000 people have got their jobs. This leads to increase in per capita income and ultimately to the stability of economy of mianwali. Industrialization: Industrialization is the thing which gives development to a country and a city every developed city in the world is developed due to its industry.

Manchester is one of the most developed countries in the world it is just developed due its industry. In Pakistan Faisalabad Gujarat Gujranwala is one on of the developed cities just because of their industry. Cotton industry is providing mianwali with a chance to be industrially strong now in mianwali 33 ginning factories are working this is not a very big no but for a city like mianwali it is very healthy thing to have a start in the field of industry and this start is just because of crop of cotton . Increase in per capita income:

Cotton factory is also increase leading to per capita income because if a farmer earns a direct revenue ,or a person gets a job in a factory or a person installs a industry it leads to the increase in earnings of mianwali and also it is leading to the increase in per capita income and development of economy of mianwali. INCREASE IN PRODUCTION OF TOBACCO: In the last few years the production of tobacco has increased in mianwali especially in last two years its production has increased at a very rapid rate, which can be seen from the following data. Amount in 2011 per acreage Amount in 2012 per acreage 1000 1500

According to this data the amount of production of tobacco has increased almost half of the amount since last year. This increase in the production of tobacco is giving mianwali many economic benefits. Firstly if the production of any crop increases it can increase the revenue, secondly it increases the rate of employment but the major benefit which mianwali has got from the production of tobacco is the INDUSTRIALIZATION because the increase in the rate of production has got the attention of PAKISTAN TOBBACCO COMPANY (PTC). due to the increase in the rate of production of tobacco PTC has started a plant in the mianwali.

In the past few years the production of other crops is increasing in mianwali at a constant rate . for example the production of wheat is increasing at a rapid rate, wheat is an important ingredient of human food . it is a premium crop and increase in its production has lead to the increase in the rate of revenue earning for the people of mianwali. The increase in the production of all other crops is increasing the living standards of the people of mianwali . this increase in the production rate is increasing the per capita income.

It is providing people of mianwali jobs and also giving mianwali a chance to be industrially strong. But there are some indirect benefits which people of mianwali are getting from agriculture now we will study about those benefits. BENEFITS OF AGRICULTURE FOR ECONOMY OF MIANWALI (INDIRECT): There are many benefits of agriculture in a country. Many people know about these advantages but there are some other advantages about which not enough people know but these advantages are as important as other advantages and they are also helping the economy in a descent way. FOCUS OF NATIONAL & MULTINATIONAL AGRO COMPANIES:

This increase in the rate of agricultural products has lead to the focus of many national and multinational companies in mianwali. This focus is giving people of mianwali a chance to get employment. Their are around 20 agro companies working in the mianwali presently . around 50 men are working in each company as a salesmen, accountant, managers, . So almost around 1000 people have got the jobs in these companies . so in a small city like mianwali it is proving to be very beneficial . this is increasing the per capita income and helping our economy in a great way.

The volume of grain market has increased in mianwali at a rapid rate in mianwali(complete info about grain market is provided on a separate page). due to this increase in grain market it is easier for the farmers to get their grain into other areas and earn important revenue. (All the data was provided by ALI AKBAR GROUP) PROBLEMS FOR FARMERS IN MIANWALI As we have already discussed that mianwali is a remote area it is not much developed so our district is facing many problems in its agricultural process.

The irrigation system of mianwali need to be improved and the farmers need to have some support from government. There are many problems faced by the farmers of mianwali a few of them are as follows: SHORTAGE OF WATER: Water is the necessity for agriculture easy access to water and better irrigation system makes it easier for farmers to produce good crops. Unfortunately many areas of mianwali are facing problems of water farmers don’t have easier access to water. Low level farmers cannot use tube wells . most of the agriculture system of mianwali depends upon rain water so if there are no sufficient amount of rains farmers of mianwali suffer losses. Transportation of agricultural commodities: In many areas of mianwali like kacha there are serious transportation problems . farmers are not able to take their commodities to the other cities easily . as the farmers are not able to take their commodities to the other cities so, there is less amount of production because the farmers know that they cannot sale their products in other cities so they produce in less amount.

Cold stores Another serious which people of mianwali are facing is the problem of cold stores. Because there is no cold store in mianwali due to this reason the production of citrus is affected in mianwali because farmers know that if they produce in large amount then their fruits can be ruined due to the absence of cold store. So due to this reason production of goods is affected at a high rate. Inputs should be cost effective The inputs like fertilizers, seeds pesticides are really important for the production of crops.

If the inputs are cost effective then it directly influences the rate of production. In mianwali these inputs are not easily available and also not very much cost effective. So to improve the economy of mianwali inputs should be cost effective. So to improve the economy of mianwali we need to find some solution of these problems because without solving these problems we cannot improve the economy of mianwali. STEPS TAKEN BY INDIAN GOVERNMENT FOR THEIR FARMERS AS COMPARED TO GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN PAKISTAN AND INDIA are two neighboring countries . these two countries resemble with one another in many ways. The weather, economic conditions type of soil and many other traditions are same between these two countries but due to certain reasons India is much more economically strong than Pakistan. These reasons are as follows. Here is a short comparison between the steps taken by Indian government and Pakistan government is as follows: PAKISTAN Inputs are not cost effective Tube wells are not easy for small farmers to install. Ways of transportation are not good. The middlemen’s in Pakistan reduce the benefit of farmers

Transportation system is better in india. There is no middle man in india that is why farmers gets more profits. At the end we will like to end our article by suggesting that government of Pakistan should also take steps to improve the life style of our farmers as Indian government did. And there should be new methods in agriculture to improve the production and the farmers should be given skills so that they can enhance their production.

Peer Review Worksheet college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Read the essay completely once. Then, read it again taking all of the following into consideration. Be honest, constructive, and appropriate in your comments Read objectively Do not offer comments like “Cool,” Great,” “I liked it,” or anything else that does not include a scholarly explanation or justification for the comment Feedback is important, especially at this critical first stage Help your classmate think outside the box; does what you read bring something to mind? If so, tell them. This is the kind of creative banter that inspires imagination. 1.

Check the paper’s MLA style – are changes needed to the (make bold your answer): heading? yes/no title? yes/no page numbers? yes/no margins? yes/no font? yes/no page length? yes/no any explanations to these answers? 2. Read the paper from beginning to end for understanding (make bold your answer): Rate the paper on a scale of 1-5 for enjoyment12345 Rate the paper on a scale of 1-5 for understanding12345 3. Locate the thesis statement and copy/paste here: Within John H. Banzhaf III’s essay, “Lawsuits against Fast Food Restaurants Are an Effective Way to Combat Obesity”, there is an overwhelming theme of foregoing personal responsibility.

Banzhaf, an American legal activist, preaches the importance of the public being made aware of the dangers of fast food. However, he seems to willingly overlook the responsibility that the public holds to itself for the sake of frivolous litigation. He himself has stated that improving one’s personal health is dependent on one’s own desire to do so, while pushing lawsuits that plead the ignorance of the public. 1 Banzhaf is often compared to Ralph Nader for his public health advocacy. However, he seems to opportunistically advocate the use of excessive legal action for personal gain, even though he seemed to once stand for the public welfare. Rewrite the thesis statement in your own words here: Banzhaf is an American legal activist, who makes the public aware of dangers in fast foods. However his uses excessive legal action for personal gain, though he appears to stand for the public welfare. The author contradicts himself in the public eye about the issues on obesity, with statements of “one’s personal heal is dependent on one’s own desire to do so. ” 4. Look at individual paragraphs (make bold your answer): Does each paragraph build on the main idea(s) of the essay? yes/no Do the paragraphs transition well into one another? yes/no Would you recommend any reordering of sentences or paragraphs to better construct the essay? yes/no Does the conclusion bring this discussion to a logical end without restating word-for-word the thesis? yes/no 5. Consider the supporting textual examples (make bold your answer): Did the writer use examples to support their argument? yes/no Are these claims accurate? yes/no Are any examples properly cited? yes/no Any explanations to these answers? 6. What is this essay’s greatest strength? I enjoyed reading your thesis and conclusion.

I like the use of words to explain your point throughout the entire paper. 7. What is this essay’s greatest weakness? The second paragraph on the introduction may need more back ground information on the author. However I didn’t see any “greatest weakness” in the essay. 8. Say at least one thing constructive to the writer about this essay. I enjoy your way with words, and how the flow of the essay goes, with the disagreement with the author’s point of view. I am currently working on my writing flow as well and visually seeing your essay, creates a new way for me to construct my essay papers in the future.

Criminal procedure college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

“Uganda’s criminal laws give judicial officials discretion to decide on the cases they wish to handle and empower them to make phone calls to accused persons to appear before their courts. ” With the aid of authorities discuss the veracity of the above statement. With reference to the Black’s Law Dictionary a judicial officer is a person who holds an office of trust, authority or command. Judicial officers such as judges and magistrates have discretion to decide on cases they wish to handle however they are limited to Jurisdiction.

There are three types of jurisdictions and they are; Territorial jurisdiction, Local jurisdiction and power to try cases. Firstly, in accordance to territorial jurisdiction, section 4(1) of the penal code cap120 lays down the extent of the jurisdiction of the courts of Uganda. It should be noted that the general rule under this section is simply that the jurisdiction of Ugandan courts is confined to crimes committed within the territory of Uganda. Section 4(2) provides exceptions stipulated in s. 23, 24, 25, 27 and 28 of the penal code committed by a Ugandan outside Uganda.

Such as Treason, acts intended to annoy the person of the President, concealment of treason, terrorism, promoting of war on chiefs and many others. It should be noted however that under international law, there is no restriction on the competence of the court to prosecute its own nationals for crimes committed outside its territorial jurisdiction if this right to national jurisdiction is conferred by statute. In Uganda vs Mustapha Atama 1975 HCB 254, where the accused a Kampala business man was charged in the chief magistrate’s court with obtaining money by false pretence contrary to section 9 of the PCA cap 106 now cap 120.

The prosecution alleged that the accused while in the republic of Zaire obtained shs. 3360/- from the charge-d’ affaires of the Ugandan embassy by falsely pretending that he required the money for the maintenance of eight Ugandan soldiers who were stranded in Zaire while on an official mission. On the issue on whether Ugandan courts had jurisdiction over the matter as the offence had been committed in the Republic of Zaire, though in Uganda’s embassy. It was held that s. 6 of the PCA cap 106 now cap 120, confers jurisdiction to courts in Uganda to try offences committed partly within and partly without Uganda.

While s. 2(b) merely presupposes the existence of a law conferring extra territorial jurisdiction to the courts in Uganda, in the absence of a Law enabling Uganda Courts to try nationals for acts committed whole outside Uganda, the Chief magistrate would have no jurisdiction to try such cases. Secondly, Local jurisdiction’s Magistrates are usually appointed to specific magisterial areas with reference to s. 5 of the MCA. The general rule is that every offence must be tried by a court within the local limits of the jurisdiction where it was committed under s. 31 of the MCA cap 16. Should the accused be found outside the area in which the offence was committed, the court in whose local limits of jurisdiction he is found will have him brought before it and cause him to be removed, in custody, to the court having jurisdiction to hear the case under s. 32 of the MCA. i. e the offence is committed in mbale and the fugitive is in Masaka, the court in Masaka will hand him over to the Mbale court which has Local jurisdiction over the offence that was committed by the accused.

However where the offence is committed partly within and partly without the Local limits of jurisdiction, any court having jurisdiction in either the two places may hear the case with reference to s. 37 of MCA. Thirdly on jurisdiction, the power to try cases, where an offence is committed in Uganda within the territorial boundaries and is committed within the local limits of jurisdiction of a particular magisterial area, the judicial officer handling the case will still have to ask himself whether he has the power to try the case, or whether the court he presides over , has jurisdiction to hear the case.

For instance the Anti Terrorism Act No 14 of 2002 section 6, provides thus; The offence of terrorism and any other offence punishable by more than ten years imprisonment under this act are triable only by the high court and bail in respect of those offences may be granted only by the High court. Only the High court has powers to try the offence of terrorism under the Anti terrorism Act. The original jurisdiction of a chief magistrate’s court is governed by section 161 (1) (a) MCA.

A chief magistrate may try any offence other than an offence in respect of which the maximum penalty is death. Example of these are murders, treason, rape, aggravated robbery, etc. However, a chief magistrate may pass any sentence authorized by law under section 162(1) (a) MCA. This means that he can pass a maximum sentence of imprisonment for life and can impose a fine of any amount. A magistrate grade 1 may try any offence other than an offence in respect of which the maximum penalty is death or imprisonment for life. Under 162 (1) (b) MCA, as amended provides that a magistrate grade 1 may pass a sentence of imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years or a fine not exceeding four million, eight hundred thousand shillings or both. In Uganda vs Nicholas Okello (1984) HCB 22, The charge in this case was for attempted defilement contrary to section 123(3) PCA cap 106 of which the maximum sentence was 18 years imprisonment. The magistrate 1 tried this offence and sentenced the accused to 18 years imprisonment. He appealed against sentence and conviction. It was held that the magistrate had no powers to try such offence and therefore the trial was a nullity.

A magistrate grade 2 may try any offence under any written law other than the offences and punishments specified in the first schedule of the MCA. Section 161(1) c) MCA. The sentencing powers of a magistrate grade 2 are limited to imprisonment for a period not exceeding three years or a fine not exceeding half a million shillings S. 162(1) c) MCA. In the Uganda vs c. Kiwanuka [1979] HCB 210, In this case the magistrate grade 2 tried the accused of the offence brought under the fire arms Act, which was an offence stipulated under the first schedule to the MCA to which a magistrate grade 2 had no powers to try.

It was held that the conviction of the accused and sentence imposed on him by the magistrate grade 2 in disregard of the provisions of the first schedule was illegal. Article 129 of the constitution gives a list of the courts of judicature in Uganda such as, the Supreme court which is a superior court of record and a final court but does not have original jurisdiction like high court but has appellate jurisdiction.

With reference to article 132(2) of the 1995 constitution of Uganda provides that it hears appeals from the Court of appeal. The court of appeal has appellate jurisdiction and hears decisions of the high court with reference to article 134(2) of the 1995 constitution, also has powers to hear cases or petitions regarding any questions as to the interpretation of the constitution according to article 137, Constitutional court.

According to article 139(1) of the constitution, confers High court unlimited original jurisdiction in all matters with such appellate and other jurisdiction as may be conferred on it by the court or any other law. Section 1 of the T. I. A cap 23 provides that the high court has unlimited jurisdiction to try any offence under any written law and may pass any sentence authorized by law.

Except that no criminal case can be brought under the cognizance of the high court for trial unless the accused person has been committed for trial to the high court in accordance with the M. C. A. Section 2 of the T. I. A provides the sentencing powers of the high court whereby it may pass any lawful sentence combining any of the sentences which it is authorized by law to pass. High court hears decisions of the Chief magistrate and magistrate grade 1 as provided in section 204(1) a) of M. C. A. with reference to section 168 of the M. C. A. provides for committal proceedings where, When a person charged with an offence to be tried by the High Court appears before a magistrate and the Director of Public Prosecutions has complied with subsection (1), the magistrate shall give the accused person a copy of the indictment together with the summary of the case, read out the indictment and the summary of the case and explain to the accused person the nature of the accusation against him or her in a language he or she understands and inform him or her that he or she is not required to plead to the indictment, commit the accused person for trial by the High Court and transmit to the registrar of the High Court copies of the indictment and of the summary of the case. According to the law in Uganda, judicial officers are not entitled or empowered to make any phone calls to the accused to appear before court. There is a clear procedure on the issuing of summons. With reference to the Blacks law dictionary summon refers to a writ or process commencing the plaintiffs action and requiring the plaintiffs to appear and answer. A criminal summon is a simple court document that contains a number of facts justifying an inquiry into a complaint against an accused person and requiring him to attend the inquiry.

It is a document issued by court to be served on the person addressed in it requiring that person to appear before court on the date specified in the document to answer charges brought against him or her. Most importantly every summon must be in writing, prepared in duplicate, signed and sealed by the magistrate or such other officer as the chief justice may from time to time direct with reference to section 44(2) of the M. C. A. Every summon must be directed to the person summoned and shall require him or her to appear at a place, date, time indicated therein before the court having jurisdiction to inquire into and deal with the complaint or charge as provided in section 44(2). In section 44(3), a summon must also state shortly the offence with which the person against whom it is issued is charged.

This is basically for purposes of letting the accused know and prepare for the charge he is being compelled to answer. Service of summons to accused is supposed to be in person. According to section 45(1) of MCA every summon must be served by a police officer or an officer of the court issuing it or any public servant but in practice, a summons is served by a police officer or an officer of the court called a process server. A summons must be served on to the persons to whom it is addressed personally but the section states, if practicable. The summons is served on the accused by giving him a duplicate of the summons and in practice he must sign the original copy of the summons.

Section 45(2) of the MCA provides that every person on whom a summons is so served, shall if so required by the serving officer, sign a receipt of it on the back of the original summons. In a situation where service of summons to an accused who cannot be found, service of summons maybe effected by leaving the duplicate of the summons for the accused with an adult member of the family or the accused’s servant who normally resides with him or by leaving it with his employer as provided in section 46 of the MCA. The person with whom the summons is left, if so required by the process server, must sign receipt of it on the back of the original summons.

The procedure when service cannot be effected is provided in section 47 of the MCA, the process serving officer shall affix the duplicate of the summons to some conspicuous part of the house or homestead in which the person summoned ordinarily resides and thereupon the summons shall be deemed to have been duly served. Where the person summoned is in the active service of the Government or of the East African Community, the court issuing the summons shall ordinarily send it in duplicate to the head of the office in which that person is employed, and the head shall thereupon cause the summons to be served in the manner provided by section 45, and shall return it to the court under his or her signature with the endorsement required by that section. That signature shall be evidence of the service as provided by section 48 of the MCA.

A summon can too be issued to a company with reference to section 49 of the MCA, that provides that service of summons on an incorporated company or other body corporate may be effected by serving it on the secretary, local manager or other principal officer of the corporation or by registered letter addressed to the chief officer of corporation or by a registered letter addressed to the chief officer of the corporation at the registered office of the company or body corporate in Uganda. Service of criminal summons on a body corporate can be done by sending the summons by registered mail addressed to the chief officer of the company, secretary, local manager or other principal officer of the company.

These officers of a company are deemed competent to plead on behalf of the company. In showing proof that service was effected, section 50 provides where a summon can be served, that is at any place in Uganda. Where the summons was served outside the local limits of jurisdiction of the presiding court or if the accused for whom the summons was intended doesn’t appear at the place, date and time indicated, the court might either on its own or upon application by the prosecution decide to issue a warrant for his apprehension. But before the court does so, it will be necessary to show by evidence that the accused was served and had deliberately refused to obey the summons.

According to section 51 of the MCA, ordinarily proof of service of summons shall be given by calling the process server to give evidence on oath that service was effected. But where the officer is not present or the summons was served outside the local limits of the jurisdiction of the issuing magistrate, proof maybe effected by the person with whom the summons was left, swearing an affidavit before a magistrate and presenting the original summons duly endorsed in the manner described above. Even if the original summons is not endorsed, the affidavit shall be admissible in evidence if the court is satisfied from the statements made in it that service of the summons has been effected properly with reference to section 51(2) of MCA.

When the only tool you have is a hammer gp essay help: gp essay help

“When the only tool you have is a hammer, all problems begin to resemble nails” (Abraham Maslow). How might this apply to ways of knowing, as tools, in the pursuit of knowledge? In order to approach this question sufficiently, two things need to be determined; what a problem is considered and what Maslow’s “hammer” means in his quote. If the tools are the ways of knowing, then the hammer would be the body of the knower. The knower’s conflicts in the pursuit of knowledge while using these tools will portray the “problems” in this essay. At first glance, Maslow’s quote seems to be very vast, containing many unexplained metaphors.

By limiting the knower to having control of only one tool, the hammer, Maslow restricts the knowers pursuit of knowledge. With many other tools, the knower is able to overcome many varying problems. In this quote, there is a clear problem and solution already stated; the knower is given the problem, the nails, and is also given the solution, the hammer. This simple quote also forces the knower to discover many questions: how can one identify a problem? Is the knower able to identify a problem if he/she does not possess the required tool to solve it?

When faced with this scenario, do we guide ourselves to find the correct tool? One example that correlates to these questions is the heavily debated notion that Eskimos have a large number of words that describe snow in their vocabulary. They are limited in the knowledge they know, they have only one tool (the hammer). Because of this lack of tools, they slowly progress their narrow vocabulary (the nails). Situations like this tend to guide many knowers to the infamous “the chicken or egg was first” predicament. Referring back to the quote, does the knower identify the problems first or the solution?

At first, the hammer seems to be this great and powerful “tool” that is able to solve any given problem. When a knower looks at this metaphor with a logical sense, he/she will realize that not all problems can be solved with one tool. The hammer will not work for all situations, while not all nails can be pounded into every surface. Therefore, the knower will essentially understand that the more tools he/she possesses, the more problems they will be able to take on, and in the end more solutions. Is the knower able to identify a problem if he/she does not possess the required tool to solve it?

When faced with this scenario, do we guide ourselves to find the correct tool? One problem that could be seen, however, is the friction between each of the tools such as emotion and reason. This can be illustrated by a situation where a person is faced with a problem, and his decision is influenced by their cultural background. To that person, their decision would seem logical in accordance with their reasoning. However, their responsibility to their culture would release emotion, therefore clouding that person’s reasoning. When looking at the Middle-Eastern area, many would say it is unsafe place to be.

Although this isn’t necessarily wrong, people have to first understand the religion and the culture of the people. Not every person there acts and reacts the same as others. To a few subcultures, the problems that arise are pounded back down with their form of a hammer. For example, the attacks of 9/11 were the solution to some of these terrorist group’s problems. Their hammer, the hijackers, were used to bring down their nails, or problems, that being the United States. In this situation, the emotion that comes along with the religion of these people may overpower the reasoning, therefore maybe ending with an unwanted solution.

Another example could be my presence in Spanish class. As an average Spanish speaker, I would regard the Spanish online dictionary as the hammer in Maslow’s quotation. Using this dictionary, as well as many other tools given to me, I am able to translate words or find the meanings of words that I had not understood before. Thus, the words or phrases that I have translated assume the form of the nails. In some cases, however, there are words or phrases that do not translate precisely from English to Spanish or vis versa. The hammer, or the dictionary, can help in many cases but it also can limit knowledge.

For a situation like this, the knower has to go through his assortment of tools to find the right one to solve this problem. In class, we are given many online sites to use as our “hammer” to handle different sizes of nails, or the different problems. When one builds a relationship with the ways of knowing as tools, while being completely conscious of all the ways of knowing, that knowledge will lead them to have an understanding of the problems that they will encounter pertaining to these ways of knowing. Like many other theories, there are a few knowledge questions that arise.

How much would such things like blindness or lack of taste influence one’s sense perception? Using the given theory, would someone with these given troubles still be able to recognize and face problems that involve seeing or tasting? Does any other way of knowing influence the others, such as reason? These questions all depend on the knower and his/her way of thinking, which in turn chooses the mightier tool between reason and emotion. When considering the hammer as a notion for a knower to obtain new knowledge in their pursuit of knowledge, various inquiries come up.

When the eight ways of knowing serve as the varying tools available to the knower, can the quality and quantity of knowledge obtained be restricted? Can the ways of knowing be applied to all problems we face? Are these eight ways of knowing the only method of obtaining knowledge? In the pursuit of knowledge, Maslow’s hammer metaphor is very relevant when one portrays the ways of knowing as tools because it depicts a situation where the quality and quantity of ones knowledge is restricted due to their own bias.

It is of great importance, however, to acknowledge that it is not always reasonable for every circumstance where a knower experiences a problem. In some circumstance, the opposite can occur from such a problem because the knower makes adjustments to their path to find a better result that suits to the given problem. This can also result in the knower becoming single-minded, limiting their pursuit of knowledge and their overall amount of knowledge.

Cause and Effects of Divorce essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

From the past to present, people all over the world have determined to live together, so that they depend on each other for living. Nevertheless, some couples are unable to maintain their relationship; therefore they choose divorce, which is one of the solutions to cope with problems between husband and wife. Most people think carefully before they get married. However, the divorce rates tend to continually increase. Therefore, it might be argued that divorces can happen a lot easier than the past.

There are three main causes of divorce: changing woman’s roles, stress in modern living, and lack of communication, which are highlighted below. The first significant cause of the recent rise in the rates of divorce is that women completely changed in roles. In the past, men had to earn all or most of the money to afford their expenses, whereas woman only do housework, hence women have no money, leading to depend on husbands’ money. Because of these situations, it is too difficult for most women to separate from their husbands. Nonetheless, these situations have change nowadays.

The equality between men and women in roles are very clear at the moment, thus women can work outside to earn money, while men share the household tasks such as cooking, cleaning, washing as well as caring for children. It can be clearly seen that women are independent from money as they can earn money by them-selves to support their living cost. Therefore, the divorce rates recent rise. Another cause to confirm the recent increase in divorce rates is stress in modern living. Many people have considerable pressures to earn money. It can be obviously seen that the stress has occurred since they were children.

For instance, students generally want to go to famous schools so that they take advantage of well-known universities. Studying in distinguished universities mostly causes having a good opportunity to find a job or earn a lot of money. This circumstance happens in many countries. Some people are laid off from their companies; consequently, the stress occurs in their family, which leads to divorce. Some families can earn money, but insufficient for covering their expenses, therefore it is easy to think about divorce. Nevertheless, the rates of unemployment tend to continually increase as a result the divorce rates also raise.

It is no doubt that the stress in modern living may lead to increasing divorce rates. The final cause of recently increasing divorce is lack of communication. Many people are fairly busy. For this reason, they have inadequate time to talk about the problems with their partners, which produces the likelihood of divorce. Some couples are often quiet when they have problems with each other, as a consequence, little problems can be expanded to become huge problems, resulting in divorce. It is quite clear that the more communications are used, the more divorce rates are reduced.

Although, these three causes of the recent rise in divorce rates are expressed above, there are also two effects of the recent increase of divorce rates: negative effects and positive effects Firstly, the effects of the recent enlargement in divorce rates are negative effects. Most couples normally have children when they get married. Consequently, divorces can have a direct effect on children. Children living in single parent families are more susceptible to get pregnant as teenagers, drop out of high school, abuse drugs and have aggressively emotional and behavioral problems, which lead to social problems.

Some children decide to go out of their home when their parents separate each other; consequently, they become homeless children. They do not have good opportunities to find a job due to shortage of education. Consequently, crime may likely be the end result. These are significantly negative effects of recent increase in divorce rates. Secondly, on the other hand, another effect of the rise in divorce rates positive effects, people who divorce by consent from their partners, want to have better quality of life, since they are unhappy with their spouses.

They not only have more free time to do many things, but also free from their spouses’ mumbles. In addition, divorces also rid the violence of disagreement between husband and wife; hence, everybody in the family gets better in physical and mental health, particularly for children. These are the beneficial effects of increasing divorce rates. In conclusion, a family is one of the important parts of society; therefore, many people had better be aware of the significance of relationships in families. At the moment, divorce has become the substantial problem because of changing women’s roles, stress in modern living and lack of communication.

Nevertheless, there are also the two different ways in effects, which are negative and positive effects. Some couples, which have no children, divorce by consent. Therefore, divorce should be a good solution for couples to deal with this problem. On the other hand, some couples having children in their family whom should think long and hard before they end their marriage in divorce; otherwise, innocent children probably become victims for this situation. Although people tend to think carefully before they get married, the rates of divorce endlessly rise.

H&M Swot custom essay help: custom essay help

Strengths: Weaknesses: Sales in January 2014 increase 15% in local currencies, compared to the same month in the previous year. Clever Care labelling Strong celebrity endorsements Designer Collaborations Clothing recycling scheme Largest consumer of organic cotton Benefits from economies of scale Improved online experience Heavy reliance on EU markets Quality concerns Store experience, sometimes lacking Lack of click and collect Gross Margin Decreasing Does not own any factories Only has transactional website in 9 countries Opportunities: Threats: First store in India in 2013/14

Company opened 356 net stores globally in the year with plans to open a further 375 stores by the end of the coming year. US and China biggest expansion plans in 2014-15 Australia early 2014, Philipines late 2014 South Africa new sourcing hub could be new retail destination also New online markets Sportswear – dresses the Swedish Olympics team in. Winter & Summer Olympics Rising concern for environmental issues and H&M look to be at forefront H&M Home Expansion Independent Mens stores? Flat like-for-likes for the year to 30 November 2013 Rapid expansion causing cash flow issues

Supermarket fashion Target market struggling with finances Increasing labour costs in manufacturing countries Fluctuating raw material costs Continued economic uncertainty in European markets Transparency of suppliers 90% of products transported through Ocean more than 20 country offices responsible for the various departments in each sales country. Outsourced its product manufacturing to approximately 700 independent suppliers across the word for higher efficiency and synergies to cater its customer requirements Political AGAO duty free regulations in Ethiopia

Bangladesh political instability (80% of H&M products manufactured here) Economical Recession & economic uncertainty in Europe Young people having less disposable income Rising labour costs in sourcing countries Youth unemployment rates China apparel sales growth slowing down? Social Rising interest in sustainability, traceability and ethics Worker ethics in foreign countries Consumer reliance on discounting Is ‘Fast Fashion’ becoming boring for consumers Consumers becoming interested in quality Technological Rising popularity of online shopping Multi/Omni channel Environmental

Consumers growing interest in sustainability Waste Reduction Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals Diverse weather conditions Increasing concern over resource availability (e. g. Cotton) Legal Labour laws in foreign countries such as Bangladesh (Bangladesh Accord) Minimum wage increase in Bangladesh THINK ABOUT COMPARED TO FOREVER 21… especially in store experience! Zara is present in all of the BRICS with 46 stores in Brazil, 149 in China, 13 in India, 3 in South Africa and South Africa: New sourcing destination Good tax environments In China, apparel sales through internet retailing more than doubled in share from 3. 4% in 2011 to 7. 4% in 2012. H&M’s affordable positioning is particularly suited for Chinese online retailing, as consumers are attracted to the channel due to its value proposition. It will also provide a more cost-effective means of reaching consumers in lower-tier cities. the global apparel and footwear market grew by 5% in value, according to the latest estimates from Euromonitor International. New Apparel and Footwear Research: What is it Telling Us? Part 1: A Focus on Geographies The Middle East and Africa region has also become a new frontier for growth.

The region’s apparel and footwear sales are set to rise by US$17. 9 billion over 2013-2018. The importance of the Middle East as a travel destination and shopping paradise will continue to sustain the influx of multinational brands into the market. Sub-Saharan Africa’s demographic dividend presents a sizeable opportunity for international apparel brands, but one which remains latent due to a weak retail infrastructure outside of South Africa. At the other end of the spectrum, conditions continued to deteriorate in the region’s largest markets, Germany, France and Italy.

The German market is forecast to contract by US$2. 2 billion over 2013-2018. A key issue in this region has been breaking the cycle of discounting, which has been placing downward pressure on margins. Consumer perceptions of prices have strongly changed following ongoing bleak economic conditions. Latest Research: Apparel and Footwear 2014ed Now LIVE In 2014, one of the main difficulties will be breaking the cycle of discounting and increasing margins. Since the recession, apparel unit prices have decreased 5% globally, having a negative impact on profitability.

Consumer attitudes and perceptions of value will need to shift as people have been trained to expect discounts. Alternatively, “fast fashion fatigue” means more consumers are now paying increased attention to quality and longevity. Key Trends for the Apparel Industry in 2014 Magdalena Kondej Head of Apparel and Footwea Acceleration in m-commerce In particular, 2014 is expected to see an acceleration in m-commerce sales, especially in emerging markets such as India and South Africa, which already generate a higher proportion of sales through mobile devices than some more developed online markets.

As the number of ways and touch points in which to engage with the consumer has increased radically, the challenge for retailers is to create a fully-integrated customer experience which works across multiple channels – in-store, traditional websites, mobile apps and social media. This will be the major focus for brands in 2014. The UK and Germany will be two of the few markets to post positive growth as consumer confidence remains relatively strong. Retail Mix through different channels: Online: Ladies, Kids, Home, Men App: Same as online Store: Most stores stock women, only 2/3 stock home!

Reflection of My Clinical Practicum gp essay help: gp essay help

As a second year nursing student, I felt more confident in Simulation Learning Experience (SLE) practicum in that, I could integrate my nursing knowledge, skills, and clinical experience into the practice. In the simulation scenario, I simulated the primary nurse caring for a patient with post-operative complications. I learned about general procedures regarding how to approach a patient with post-operative complications. I learned how to effectively decide which assessments are priority, as well what signs and symptoms posed specific concern in such a scenario.

I thought I had done quite well for some part; however, there was a situation in which I did not act as I should have. Elaborate A female patient with a postoperative left total knee arthroplasty, entered my floor that morning. Before she came in, she had vomited three times. My primary assessments focused on pain and the wound. The patient did not complain of pain, but I found a large amount of blood leaking out of the dressing. After analyzing the current vital signs and the lab results from last shift, blood pressure 90/40 mm/Hg was the main issue, so I decided to call the doctor.

The doctor ordered : “2 NS boluses, 500 cc each and 2 units of PRBC’s and to increase the IV maintenance from 75cc/hr to 125cc/hr. ” I hung up the IV bags and set up the IV pump, then I called the blood bank. After the blood arrived, my partner disconnected the IV line and connected the blood bag to the saline lock. My patient still complained of dizziness, the blood pressure was 90/50mm/Hg. Under that situation, I really did not how to act in this situation. In this scenario, I also paid close attention to the patient’s temperature and assessed the level of the patient consciousness, and so on.

I believe that there were many problems in the scenario that I was unable to address. Analyze I was good at several assessments and interventions in that scenario, which could demonstrate my strength. A patient with a postoperative left total knee arthroplasty required specific assessments. According to Smith (2010), the priority care process should be respiratory and circulatory function, pain, temperature, and surgical site. I focused on pain assessment first, which is very important. Lucas (2008) stated that adequate pain management is essential in that, it can make patients mobilize as soon as possible after surgery.

As cited in Smith (2010), the most effective interventions for pain include both pharmacological and non pharmacological approaches. Another good intervention I did was paid more attention on temperature of the patient. According to Smith (2010), if the core temperature was less than 36? , this could mean that the patient had hypothermia. Hypothermia may compromise immune function and cause postoperative pain, bleeding, and delay drug metabolism resulting in a prolonged hospital stay. If the temperature was higher than 37. 7 ? after the first 48 hours of a surgery, then infection should be considered.

As well I assessed the patient’s level of the consciousness and sensory and motor status, which was an essential assessment, although they may not be prior assessment in this scenario. I also figured out some of my weaknesses in this scenario, which should be noted and improved in the future. For a postoperative patient, assessment should begin with an evaluation of the airway, breathing, and circulation (ABC) status (Smith, 2010). I assessed the airway and carried out suction, then administered oxygen, but I did not do it immediately.

She had vomited three times, keeping the airway patent and administrating oxygen are very important for postoperative care (Smith, 2010). In fact, concerning treatment of hypotension in PACU, should always begin with oxygen therapy to ensure hypo-perfused organs meet the need of oxygen (Smith, 2010). The common cause of hypotension is fluid loss, IV fluid boluses will be given to normalize blood pressure (Smith, 2010), which is the reason why the doctor ordered the IV and blood transfusion. When transfusing blood or blood components, assessment is required before, during, and after the transfusion.

If the client has an intravenous line in place, assess the venipuncture site for signs of infection or infiltration and patency (Jantzen & Molzahn, 2010). In fact, we did not do very well in blood transfusion and we should keep the IV line running and set up another blood transfusion line in the other arm. The scenario was too short, if I had more time, I should assess potential urinary problem and gastrointestinal problem. Kwong, Kistler, Mills, Wildgoose, & Klaskala (2012) stated that venous thromboembolism prophylaxis is also an important intervention nursing care for the postoperative patient.

In a word, I can clearly figure out my strengths and weakness through the Simulation Learning Experience (SLE) practicum. Revise By participating in the scenario of post-operative complications, I realized that health care should be varied with the changing of the patient’s situations. As cited in Alligood & Tomey (2010), Nightingale stated that any nursing process must be strictly followed in accordance with natural rule. The safety of a patient is the most priority (College of Nurse of Ontario, 2002), so it is very important for nurses to apply critical thinking for a nursing process (College of Nurse of Ontario, 2008).

As cited in Alligood & Tomey (2010), Parse noticed that the human is unitary human-living-health and human beings have their own rhythmical patterns of daily life. The intervention of nurses should adapt to the clients’ patterns, and an appropriate nursing process needs to be formed based on the clients’ different medical situations. In this scenario, I assessed the patient following the nursing process of postoperative care, although some of them need to be improved. I deemed the patient in the unitary of human and health environment and adhered to the rhythmical patterns of human being.

I assessed pain, wound and attention on temperature, which demonstrated compliance with the particular nursing care in the postoperative unit. New perspective After the SLE lab practicum, I realized it is important to do more research on new nursing perspectives and techniques. Research will enrich my nursing experience and improve my nursing practice in the future. Furthermore, I need to be aware of the importance of nursing theories and apply them into daily nursing practice, because nursing theories can assist nurses to fulfill their clients’ needs. ?

General election compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

In what will be one of India’s most keenly watched Lok Sabha elections, the only declared prime ministerial candidate is pitted against many more hopefuls. With the congress shying away from naming a nominee for the top post although it is not necessary as per Indian constitution. It forms one of the basic necesscity for voters to know who will rule them after election. As the election champaign is heating up every party is pullling all their strings to deliever better music to gather people. Irrespective of who becomes India’s next prime minister, one man has ruled himself out of the race: incumbent Manmohan Singh.

Rise of the 3rd world: On February 25, the third front – comprising seven regional and four left-leaning parties – declared itself an “alternative” to the dominance of India’s two main parties: the incumbent Congress and the opposition BJP. .The third front consists of a number of India’s regional big-hitters: Nitish Kumar (chief minister of Bihar), Jayalalitha (chief minister of Tamil Nadu), Naveen Patnaik (chief minister of Odisha) and H. D. D. Gowda, the 11th prime minister of India. A third front has long been an elusive project, and only once has a non-Congress, non-BJP formation succeeded at the national level.

In 1977 Indians voted in the Janata Dal government in protest against the Congress party for Indira’s Gandhi’s declaration of a draconian national emergency. The few other non-Congress and non-BJP governments that came to office since then have either been supported by, or ultimately fell because of, the two main parties. Hidden ethics of Indian Politics: Coalition building in India has tended to follow a set sequence: all sides wait to see how the electoral cards fall before jostling to forge alliances and form a government.

The audacious declaration of a third front, months before the election, suggests that its members have confidence in the front’s prospects. The Herald of change: As India prepares for the general election, there is a growing sense of a need for a new kind of politics. The BJP presents itself as a bold development-driven alternative to the neo-socialism of Congress, with no clue about Third alternative manifesto and the newly formed AAP’s anti-establishment ethos resonates with those that have become disillusioned by Indian politics and it can be realized that AAP may not swing an election in it’s very first outing.

But, it surely can affect some manifesto. Comman man’s influence: If AAP gets more than 50 seats in Loksabha elections, it will be clear that government can’t be formed without them, and any party which wants AAP’s support can’t buy them the way it does with other parties. AAP will have clear condition of passing at least 2 bills Janlokpal & Swaraj, and both Conress & BJP know after their resignation from Delhi’s government, that AAP will not compromise on this issue, so their is no point of making the promise and not passing it once the government is formed.

If these two bills are passed, those who know about these two concepts know that it will put a check on both big ticket corruption (by Lokpal bill) and lower level corruption (by Swaraj). So, I think this time BJP shouldn’t repeat the same mistake that they did in Delhi by not responding to the letter sent by Kejriwal (in which he sent the agenda on which coalition can be formed) . If this time BJP repeats the same and Congress accepts this condition, it will be BJP’s mistake and not AAP’s fif UPA comes in power. The forecast: The most favourable possible outcomes Assumption: AAP wins more than 50 seats Case 1: NDA + 3 front – THE AVENGERS – Will be equipped and developed to handle Demi-God and aliens too. If BJP wins more than 160 it can climb the seat with a little assistance. Case 2: 3 front + APP – THE JUSTICE LEAGUE What fedration wants but exist only in toon form. Case 3: UPA + APP – THE TRANSFORMERS We will require someone from other universe to save India. Conclusion: The third front’s electoral clout of this cross-country, however, is unclear: though each enjoys powerful support within their own states, whether their collective vote bases will be sufficient for success at the national level is uncertain.

The AAP’s denial of a BJP victory in Delhi – and the possibility of the AAP doing the same in other urban centers – means the BJP’s success at the national level cannot be guaranteed. It will hardly make any difference which party comes in power among Congress & BJP, BJP seems just a bit better than Congress, may be because when it was in power, there was no media to report their corruption the way it does today (thankfully), moreover in states like Gujarat, media is stopped from reporting corruption cases in detail by acts like “Gujarat Lokayukt Act 2013”.

So, unless and until BJP bringing some changes in this regards, they don’t make a difference. I’m okay with little lower GDP, and less land acquired from farmers, than to have a corrupt government. Either way, having AAP a strong power in Indian politics and having control on the government will be a good thing for the democracy of India.

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1. Whose financial statements should we prepare (e. g. , the baron, vassals, farms, etc..? ) Solution: The financial statements will be prepared for “Vassals” i. e. for Ivan and Frederick and additionally for “Baron”. 2. What financial statements should we prepare? Solution: The financial statements which should be prepared are as following: ? Income Statement ?Statement of Retained Earnings ?Statement of Cash Flows ?Balance Sheet 3. What period do these statements cover and why (e. g. , year, quarter, month, etc..? ) Solution: The statements will cover two quarters. ?1st Quarter – Summer: When the farmers will grow the wheat.

Quarter – Fall: When the wheat will be harvested. 4. What currency are these financial statements going to use? Solution: The currency used for the financial statements is “Bushels of Wheat”. 5. Who/ What would be the modern day equivalent of the Baron? Solution: Modern day equivalent of Baron would be private equity firms or investors who invest in businesses to gain maximum value for their investments. 6. Who/ What would be the modern day equivalent of the vassals? Solution: Companies, corporations or even managers can be considered as modern day equivalent to vassals. 7. Who/ What would be the modern day equivalent of the ox?

Solution: Non-current assets which is utilized to manufacture or to increase the efficiency of work with a depreciation value can be considered as modern day equivalent of the ox. More precisely, equipment would be a perfect example of modern day ox which has a depreciation value over time. 8. Answer Financial Statements of Ivan: Beginning Balance Sheet for Ivan Ivan Beginning Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed20 Fertilizer2 Non-Current Assets Ox40 Land100 Total Assets162 LIABILITIES0 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital162

Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity162 Income Statement for Ivan Ivan Income Statement For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Revenue Wheat produced243 Operating Expenses Seed Used20 Fertilized Used2 Ox (Value 40 Bushels, 1 Year Depreciation = 4)4 Plow Usage 3 Total Operating Expenses 29 Net Income214 Earnings per share(Net Income / # of Shares; = 214/162 = 1. 32)1. 32 **** Assuming every bushel contributed by Baron is worth 1 share **** Statement of Retained Earnings for Ivan Ivan Statement of Retained Earnings For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Beginning Balance,

Retained Earnings at the Start of the Period0 Add: Net Income for the period 214 Total214 Less: Dividends or Withdrawals Baron’s withdrawal (20) Total Deductions(20) Ending Balance Retained Earnings at the end of the period194 Cash Flow Statement for Ivan Ivan Statement of Cash Flows For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Indirect Method Cash Flow from Operations Net Earnings214 Depreciation of Ox4 Plow Usage3 Decrease in Inventory – Fertilizer 2 Net Cash Flow from Operations223 Cash Flow from Investing Activities Plow Purchase0 Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities0 Cash Flow from Financial Activities

Baron Withdrawal (20) Net Cash Flow from Financial Activities(20) Net Increase (Decrease) during the period 203 Balance at the Beginning of the period 20 Balance at the end of the period223 Ending Balance Sheet for Ivan Ivan Ending Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed223 Fertilizer0 Non-Current Assets Ox36 Land100 Total Assets359 LIABILITIES A/C payable 3 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital162 Retained Earnings194 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity359 Financial Statements for Frederick: Starting Balance Sheet for Frederick Frederick

Beginning Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed10 Fertilizer1 Non-Current Assets Ox40 Land50 Total Assets101 LIABILITIES0 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital101 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity101 Income Statement for Frederick Frederick Income Statement For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Revenue Wheat produced138 Operating Expenses Seed Used10 Fertilized Used1 Ox (Value 40 Bushels, 1 Year Depreciation = 4)4 Plow Usage 1 Total Operating Expenses 16 Net Income122 Earnings per share(Net Income / # of Shares; = 122/101 = 1.21)1. 21 **** Assuming every bushel contributed by Baron is worth 1 share **** Statement of Retained Earnings for Frederick Frederick Statement of Retained Earnings For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Beginning Balance, Retained Earnings at the Start of the Period0 Add: Net Income for the period 122 Total122 Less: Dividends or Withdrawals Baron’s withdrawal (30) Total Deductions(30) Ending Balance Retained Earnings at the end of the period92 Cash Flow Statement for Frederick Frederick Statement of Cash Flows For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) Indirect Method Cash Flow from Operations

Net Earnings122 Depreciation of Ox4 Plow Usage1 Decrease in Inventory – Fertilizer 1 Net Cash Flow from Operations128 Cash Flow from Investing Activities Plow Purchase (3) Net Cash Flow from Investing Activities(3) Cash Flow from Financial Activities Baron Withdrawal (30) Net Cash Flow from Financial Activities (30) Net Increase (Decrease) during the period 95 Balance at the Beginning of the period 10 Balance at the end of the period 105 Ending Balance Sheet for Frederick Frederick Ending Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Seed105 Fertilizer0 Non-Current Assets Ox36

Total Assets193 LIABILITIES A/C payable to Feyedor for Plow0 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital101 Retained Earnings92 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity193 I am adding Baron’s Income Statement and Balance Sheet as well. Baron Balance Sheet For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD (In Bushels of Wheat) ASSETS Current Assets Wheat328 Non-Current Assets Ox72 Land150 Plow2 Total Assets552 LIABILITIES A/C payable for Plow3 STAKEHOLDER’S EQUITY Baron’s Contributed Capital263 Retained Earnings286 Total Liabilities and Stakeholder’s Equity552 Baron Income Statement For the Period Ending Month AA, Year ABCD

(In Bushels of Wheat) Revenue Wheat produced381 Operating Expenses Seed Used30 Fertilized Used3 Ox (Value 40 Bushels, 1 Year Depreciation = 4)8 Plow Usage4 Total Operating Expenses45 Net Income336 Earnings per share(Net Income / # of Shares; 336/263)1. 28 **** Assuming every bushel contributed by Baron is worth 1 share **** 9. How should we measure the performance of the vassals in this case? What can we use this information for? Solution: In order to measure performances of the vassals, we can apply financial ratios such as return on assets, return on equity, net profit margin, assets turn-over ratio on the vassals’ financial statements.

These calculations have been completed (see below). The following financial ratios can be utilized to determine and analyze which vassal is more effective, efficient and delivered higher returns to investor i. e. Baron. Debt Ratio = Total Debt / Total Assets Ivan: 3/359 = . 0083565 = 0. 8% Frederick: 0/193 = 0. 00 = 0. 0% Debt Ratio is a ratio that indicates what proportion of debt a company has relative to its assets. According to the above analysis, since Frederick has Debt ratio of 0 because he has no debt, in regards to Debt Ratio he has performed better. Return on Assets = Net Income / Total Assets Ivan: 214/359 = . 596 = 59. 6%

Frederick: 122/193 = . 6321 = 63. 21% Return on Assets Ratio is a ratio that is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. According to the above analysis, Frederick has Return on Assets ratio of 63. 21% as compared to Ivan’s 59. 6% which indicates that his net profit is higher compared to the total assets he had. Profit Margin = Net Income / Sales Ivan: 214/243 = 0. 8806 = 88. 06% Frederick: 122/138 = 0. 8840 = 88. 40% Profit Margin Ratio is a ratio of probability calculated as net income divided by revenues or sales. It measures how much out of every dollar of sales a company actually keeps in earnings.

According to the above analysis, Frederick has slightly higher Profit Margin i. e. 88. 4% compared to 88. 06%, which implies that Frederick has retained higher profits based on his wheat production. Asset Turn-over Ratio = Sales / Average Total Assets Ivan: 243/260. 5 = 0. 9328 = 93. 28% Frederick: 138/147 = 0. 93877 = 93. 88% Asset Turn-over ratio is the amount of sales generated for every dollar’s worth of asset. As given above, it is calculated by dividing sales by average total assets i. e. assets at the beginning of the period and assets at the end of the period divided by 2 to find the average.

As per the above analysis, Frederick has slightly higher Asset Turn-Over ratio therefore it implies that Frederick has generated better bushels of wheat over his average total assets than Ivan. Production of Wheat Per Acre = Wheat Production / Land in Acres Ivan: 243/100 = 2. 43 Frederick: 138/50 = 2. 76 Production of wheat per acre is a ratio being used to find out who has performed or generated more wheat based on the land provided. In this case, Frederick has performed considerably better than Ivan, his production efficiency on the per acre basis is better than Ivan. 10.

Using your answer to the previous question analyze the performance of Ivan and Frederick. Who was the better manager of the two? Solution: Based on the above financial ratios and explanations provided, it can be concluded that Frederick is a better manager than Ivan. Frederick has shown better debt ratio, return on assets, profit margin, asset turn-over ratio and production of wheat per acre which clearly indicates that he has been more efficient than the comparative percentages related to Ivan. 11. How will the answer to question 10 affect our strategy in the future? Solution:

As an investor, in future, to achieve maximum value for the capital investment, it will be more profitable and less perilous to invest more in Fredrick than Ivan. For next season, Baron should give 100 acre of land to Frederick and 50 acre of land to Ivan. It could also have been concluded that since Frederick had been a better manager, Baron should devise a strategy to provide all the material and land to Frederick, but, it will mean putting all the eggs in the same basket which would not be the best strategy to implement, assuming what if Frederick will have a poor season, Baron will lose the opportunity to break-even.

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In Judith Ortiz Cofer’s essay “Volar”, the author describes that both her and her mother dreams of being able to fly. The author portrays the problems faced by many immigrant families, and shows the reason why they want to fly. She also shows her and her mother’s secret desire through their dreams. The author’ obsession with superheroes is her desire to fit in to the culture where she lives. The author shows that she with tight curls and skinny arm and legs is not happy with way she looks. She feels different from people surrounding her.

She dreams that as she turns into super girl her” legs would grow long” (para 1, line 7) her “arms harden into steel”(para 1 line 8) and her” hair would magically go straight and turn a golden hair” (para 1 line 8). Escaping into her dreams, the little girl is trying to avoid a reality of not fitting in her new world. She feels “incongruous” waking up in her body. She wants to fly. The author’s mother is homesick for her country. Her dream is to go back to her country and see her “familia on the Island” (para 2 line 8). She understands that it is financially impossible for her to go back and it hurts her.

She looks out from her kitchen window and has a view of the sky. She wishes to fly to her family and says “Ay,si yo pudeiera volar”- all she could do is wish she could fly. Both of mother and daughter’s dream symbolizes many immigrant families that they are hard to melt in new culture. They all want to fly and to have magic and ability. Their desires shows that they are disappointed in this new society. The only difference between both of their dreams is that the author’s mother’s dream is more realistic than her daughter’s dreams, which is being super girl.

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Hey Pops. I wish we could’ve had one more night out on the town, whistling at cute girls as they walked by. I’m getting married you know; I was going to settle down and fix everything while you were still here. We had so many great memories in that house from when Biff and I were younger, especially when you had that red Chevy. That day when Biff was scoring a touchdown in your honor and we all piled up in the Chevy was one of my favorite memories. A time when things were simpler and we looked to you as a hero.

You’ve always been a hero for all of the dedicated sales trips you made to support the family and pay for the house. At some point after high school, Biff had always seen you in a different way. He felt that he had to separate himself from us. He could never take orders as well after that summer that he visited you in Boston, but we can’t possibly imply that was caused by you. I wish you and Biff didn’t have such different perspectives on work and the success you wanted him to live up to. He had contradicting dreams he wished to fulfill which you could never accept him for.

Biff had always seen me as being the more successful son similar to how you had seen Ben as more accomplished. Maybe this was the reason you had always been tough on him to make something of himself. Ben’s success was mostly based on luck, and you shouldn’t have continued to regret not going with him to Alaska. You had your own way of working and you did an amazing job raising and caring for us. Even Ma was proud of all of your accomplishments, but you didn’t feel that you had done all that much with your life.

The secret to being happy is maintaining low expectations, and you had kept yours too high to keep yourself satisfied with what you had. We were too stubborn to realize that you were a victim of your profession. Driving back from a sales trip in solitude without having made any sales must have eaten away at your conscious. As Charley had stated, “He’s a man way out there in the blue . . . A salesman is got to dream, boy. ” If only we had taken notice of the hardships you went through as a salesman.

You had always been dedicated to the Wagner firm and for them to lay you off after years was completely unjust. I just wish that people had seen how wonderful you were; how humorous and enthusiastic you had also been with us. Regardless of the fact that most believed you were better at carpentry than selling, I believe that being a salesman is not a dead-end job, and I will continue in your path so that I can validate your death and fulfill your dreams. You can finally rest at ease Pops. – Happy Loman

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In the TED presentation “Why We Have Too Few Women Leaders” presenter Sheryl Sandberg describes why women do not reach the top in any profession around the world. She begins the presentation by admitting that the women now are lucky because they did not live in the world our mothers and grandmothers experienced in the past. Shortly after, Sheryl reports some numbers and data to describe the problem clearly. For example, in the U. S. just nine women are head of state, another example is that women in parliament around the world constitute 13%, and about 16% of women are in board seats in the corporate sector.

In short, just 20% of women are in the top profession. Also, she reported study about married senior managers, which showed that two thirds of married men had children, and only one third of the married women had children. Moreover, she tells the story of when she went to New York to pitch a deal and the director did not know where the location of the women’s restroom was because he did not work with any women in his office. Thereafter, Sheryl sent three letters for women who wanted to stay in workforce. The first message was “sit at the table”.

She thinks that women are underestimating their own abilities and do not have self-confidence. Sandberg highlighted that when she was a college student, her brother did not attend classes and did not want to study. On the other side, her roommate studied a lot and attended all her classes, but when they finished the test of their class, her brother said that the test was easy and her roommate was not sure about what she did. So, she says to all women “believe in yourself and negotiate for yourself. Own your own success”. The second message was “make your partner a real partner”.

She thinks that if one woman and man work full time and have children, it means a woman does twice the amount of house work than the man does, and the woman does three times the amount of childcare than the man does. So, she has two to three jobs, and he has one. Sheryl wants women and men to do the same housework and childcare. The third message was “do not leave before you leave”. She thinks that the women are thinking about having a child, and from the moment she starts thinking about having a child, she starts thinking about making room for that child.

Thus, she does not look for a promotion and does not take on the new project. Sheryl wants women to not waste their time on thinking when they will leave. It appears to me from Sandberg’s speech that women are doing a good job in all aspects of work, but they still do not reach the top, or maybe just not in a majority percentage. However, men somehow are not having the choice to contribute fully at workforce or at home. She also talked about the challenges women face during their jobs. These challenges are the reason for their attitude or others’ reflections on them.

I may agree with the point that women are underestimating their ability. Besides, the difficulties they find in appreciating their success are in addition to the fact that they are the negative creatures. Although Sandberg’s speech might be far sensible, I disagree with her in some points. Especially, the three messages that send to women. From my point of view, choices are divided equally between men and women, but the problem is with the personalities. Women are born with a weaker attitude compared to men, which we cannot do anything against it.

The Second disagreement is “making your partner a real partner “ am not totally beyond the idea. However, I think it is clear that the main job for the women is taking care of kids and creating, which is the best job in the world as it’s benefited the society and provide it with need of workers. Beside, it’s known role in raising the living standard and improving the quality of life. What job can be better than that? . And I’m not saying here that women should stay at home, but re-ordering their priorities in life.

Man as well, should help in raising the children, but it’s not a sort of jobs he can succeed in. The best proof to my saying is our dropped communities, it is obvious that women’s having many jobs are affecting badly on the young generation. Whereas, we can see the spread of crimes and many societies issue. Anyway, I really enjoyed the speech and the honesty on it. Sandberg left a very big space for us to think and to share in finding the solution, for a problem that has been made by us.

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The author, Leslie Chang, contends that “the history of a family begins when a person leaves home”. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Tell why, and then give examples from your own life or from published material outside this book to defend your opinion. I agree with the statement “the history of a family begins when a person leaves home” . when Chang left rural tradition behind to make a new life for themselves in the city.

The old rules no longer apply, traditional education and family values have little or relevance, and new arrivals in the city have to learn fast and adapt quickly in order to survive and prosper in this strange and often hostile new environment. I saw so many changes for people migration to city . when many migrations return to their home villages, they feel bored, listless and alienated . so they bring technology and new ideas to their family and influence them. China is now experiencing the greatest migration in human history, there are so many stories to be told. 2.

Chang informs the reader that migrant factory workers “use a simple term for the move that defines their lives: chuqu, to go out. There was nothing to do at home, so I went out. This is how a migrant story begins”. The story’s two protagonists, Lu Qingmin (Min) and Wu Chunming, both left home to work in the city. What was life like for the girls in their home villages? How old were they when they initially left home, and why did each choose to go out into the world? Min live in the village, around ninety households lived with same family name, they planted rice ,rape and contton on small plots of land.

As a girl in traditional chinese family that she was not important . so she had to bear many burdens. 2003 min left the villige to city. Because they had to or chose to escape their farm lives and to work in a factory. 3: Each girl faced significant challenges upon her arrival in the city, and also faced difficulties in her respective factory. What do you think were the most difficult aspects of their new lives in the city, and which of these aspects would be most difficult for you? some of the young women had no idea what factory work was like before arriving there, imagining it as some sort of chatty, casual environment.

What they discover is, of course, far different, First and foremost is money, both for their own use and equally to send back to their families. The most difficult for me is the cold heart and careless each other in the city. 4: Describe the benefits of leaving home to become a factory girl. Even though their lives seem unstable and full of never-ending challenges, both Min and Chunming mature and develop in exceptional ways from their experiences. How does each girl change—physically, emotionally, intellectually, socially, and financially, as a result of leaving home?

What are the clear advantages of taking control of their own lives in a new city? They trying to find their way in the factory world, to rise up and make something better of their lives. They leave their families for unknown cities far away at age sixteen or younger ( an event made easier because girls are less precious to families than boys) where they then work long hours and live in cramped quarters all the while striving for the edge that will get them off the factory floor and make them upwardly mobile. many migrants also feel freed from a suffocating web of traditional habits and mores.

Able to explore and grow in the lawless free-for-all of China’s boomtowns, many cross an invisible line into the modern world, and there is no going back. 5: Much of this book is about fitting into a foreign culture. Just as the factory girls leave home and are required to adjust to life in a new environment, all expatriate employees share a common history that includes migration. Like the factory girls, employees on global assignments leave their homes and extended families to live in unfamiliar places and cultures.

While employees on global assignments may not face the same economic challenges as the factory girls, what kinds of challenges do global employees face when they take on new assignments? How can global HR professionals prepare global employees for the challenges they will face, and what might global HR professionals do to help deal with cultural challenges faced by people working in new cultures? Discuss specifically what might be done to help counteract separation anxiety, loneliness, homesickness, and other issues that make people feel like strangers in a strange land.

From the book ‘psychological aspects of geographical moves” it explain that “it will be important to establish a consensus on the construct in order to pave the way for the development of assessment tools with adequate psychometric characteristics. homesickness reflects problems with separation from the home environment. It interferes with adjustment to the new situation. By contrast, distress caused by adjustment problems in new environments should not be labeled homesickness. In order to avoid unnecessary ambiguity and confusion (recall the serious problems with the stress concept!), I would like to conclude by calling for attention to problems of definition. I look forward to fruitful discussion and the development of new and promising research plans”. 6: What are the clear advantages of global professional experience and living for awhile as an expatriate citizen? What experiences do people who have had these opportunities take with them into the rest of their lives? Specifically, how might the person’s individual or family history be altered by the decision to leave home and go out into an alien but fascinating world? professionals have experienced overseas assignments know the downside as well. Advantages include, permitting closer control and coordination of international subsidiaries and providing a broader global perspective. Disadvantages include high transfer costs, the possibility of encountering local government restrictions, and possibly creating a problem of adaptability to foreign environments. There are many reasons . one of the reasons probably is Your ancestors’ lousy childhoods or excellent adventures might change your personality, bequeathing anxiety or resilience by altering the epigenetic expressions of genes in the brain. People immigrate to other countries for a number of reasons.

They include: greener pastures in terms of better paying Jobs, Asylum from political and religious persecutions from their countries, family reunions and many more. 7: Even among the factory girls, compassion, kindness, and understanding seem to make a difference in how one comes to view life. Choose one of the girls in the book (it could be any character identified by name) and recount how her life was made easier by others showing her compassion, kindness, or understanding, or how the lack of compassion, kindness, or understanding made life harder for her.

Then, tell about a time in your life when a challenge was lessened by someone showing you compassion, kindness, or understanding. How will this experience of being treated with compassion inform the way you approach your career in global HR? In the book, Lu Qingmin had two true friends when she went to class her friend washed her clothes. When they had friends they live could have fun. Foe example, tipping can be a great way to show people you are grateful for their service. We’ve all committed failures of kindness when we are hurt, angry, or tired.

But each of us holds within us the power to achieve triumphs of kindness every day. In the different countries, HR manager’s compassion could lead them easy to adapt the new environment and lead them success. 8. Min and Chunming have fairly common profiles among the factory girls: both come from poor farming families and left home as teenagers to work in the factories without first having attended high school or college. How does going out to the city change the relationships Min and Chunming have with their families back in their respective villages? How does it change thegirls themselves, their ambitions, and their life expectations? Even they both come from same background, they thought the life different ways and different expectation, these different life attitude led them to have the different way for live. Min had a optimistic life attitude , she had more ambitions and she deserved to learn knowledge , so let her have different life for live 9: Imagine that every factory girl changes in the same ways that Min and Chunming have changed, in terms of family relationships, self-view, ambitions, and life expectations.

What would be the impact on China’s culture, traditions, and economy if every factory girl’s worldview changed to mirror Min’s and Chunming’s? In china many younger have open mind to the world, they are fascinated to learn about how their society is viewed by an outsider. China have changed a lot already, many younger have strong ambitions and work hard. However, it is not enough, the key is not only have passion also the important is get knowledge. The author Chang is offering a very different view to migrant workers in china. Almost 20-30 years migrant have already changed china’s tradition culture and economy.

Chang includes her own family story in the book, juxtaposed with Min’s and Chunming’s. What are the similarities and differences between the Chang family’s story of migration to the US and Min’s and Chunming’s stories of migration from the village to the city? Chuqu is the words represent Chinese people look for better life and freedom even from different generation. In the “factory girls” teen women’s migration from country to factory represents the ambition of the young Chinese people wishing to access greater opportunities that exist in certain parts of the country.

But in Chnag’s family they are more search for freedom life. It had subtle meaning about the hash life in the communist part. 11: Contemplate the role honesty plays in the role of the factory girls’ lives. Chang tells stories of factory girls using forged or stolen identification documents, misrepresenting their qualifications, and indulging in other behaviors that would be considered highly inappropriate for workers in the US and some other cultures. How does the knowledge that such practices seem to be condoned affect how you might develop and manage the HR function of your global employer’s global operation?

As a global HR professional, what policies and procedures might you implement in China to make it more difficult for prospective employees to misrepresent themselves, or would you adopt a laissez faire approach to recruiting and selection in China? In China this is seem normal for the under age people eho have hard life in their hometown, they need to work to get better life or support their younger sister or brother to get education. For the model life especial in the western country people think this is not inappropriate, but for some family this is necessary for life.

As a HR manager work in this situation, even they understand the culture, they still need have the rule to control this misrepresenting, because in the host country, they need carefully obey the law and regulation. They couldn’t act like local businessman. They can make many different ways to prevent this happen. 12: Many of the consumer goods produced by the factory girls are sold in the US, as well as in other industrialized countries. We may be carrying, wearing, or using goods made by the factory girls Chang writes about. Consider the life circumstances of these girls in terms of housing, working conditions, and pay.

How does this affect your attitude towards consumerism, affluence, and your own spending practices? People live in the western country, they use and wear many goods from the country like “factory girls” the life circumstances of these girls in terms of housing, working conditions, and pay. Consumerism still pay hihe price for goods even the cost is cheap because for the globle competition, company require the low cost, the the world, there are so many poor countries, for survive they sacrifice the environment and human resource for get profit or survive for the competition.

Cosumer is hard to know and choice where and how the goods product. Every people work hard for life and try look for cheap goods for family. The world is not equal, people aware are good but to change the world is hard. 13: . At one point, one of the factory girls gives Chang a designer handbag made in the factory where the factory girl works. When Chang suggests that it might be a nice gift for the mother of the factory girl’s boyfriend, the girl informs Chang, “She lives on a farm. What would she do with a purse”?

What do you think this statement says about the opinion this particular factory girl may have of rural village life and the family the girl has left behind? This is true! People live different place they have different need. In china, people live in the rural village , they have their own style and taste, if Chang give this designer handbag to her boyfriend mother, probably the mother of her boyfriend never use, it is better give a useful things and they will proud that instead the handbag that the villiage people don’t know the brand. This is only the people really understand their own culture, they can give a gift by different ways.

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1. Joy, who has completed his first finance course, is unsure whether he should take a course in business analysis and valuation using financial statements since he believes that financial analysis adds little value, given the efficiency of capital markets. Explain to Joy when financial analysis can add value, even if capital markets are efficient. 2. In 2005, Puma was a very profitable sportswear company. Puma did not produce most of the shoes, apparel and accessories that it sold.

Instead the company entered into contracts with independent manufacturers, primarily in Asia. Puma also licensed independent companies throughout the world to design, develop, produce and distribute selected range of products under its brand name. Use the five forces framework and your knowledge of sportswear industry to explain Puma’s high profitability in 2005. BAJAJ AUTO LTD The Bachraj Trading Corporation incorporated in 1945 was renamed as Bajaj Auto Private Limited in 1960. The company manufactures Bajaj brand of scooters, motorcycles and spare parts.

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Traditions tend to make you do what everyone else in your society is doing. Both of the tragic stories “The Lottery”, and “Harrison Bergeron” teach about how society tends to conform to certain traditions or ways of being, no matter how gruesome. Their societies conform to such bizarre traditions, in fear of what might happen to them if they do not comply year after year. These stories have some similarities, but also have many differences, for example, the setting. The setting of “The Lottery” is set in the past, around 1948 in a small village of around 200 people, who are a little more barbaric than nowadays.

The setting of “Harrison Bergeron” takes place around 2080, in Middle America. In both stories, the main character gets punished for going against their society’s way of life, and both die while their families watch. Although people today may think that the people and societies in these stories are doing is crazy, but in reality our societies today do not differ in the sense that we are fighting for equality. But fighting for equality may not be what we should be doing. After all, wouldn’t it be bland and no interesting things going on in the world if we were all the same?

In “The Lottery”, each year, everyone in the village is counted for, and the head of the village makes a blank slip of paper for everyone in the village, except one of the papers has a black dot in the middle of it. They put them all in a box, and the next morning, everyone comes to the meeting point in the village, and all of the men of the houses pull a piece of paper out. The family that draws out the paper with a black dot will have one of their family members stoned to death.

Even though they may not want to run the society this way, they are afraid to change the ways that their ancestors have lived, and by changing their lifestyle will cause even more problems. In “Harrison Bergeron”, anyone that had a talent above or below the average was given a handicap to make them equal to everyone else. Those handicaps would either increase their abilities, or decrease them to the average human’s. They may have not liked the way that they were using handicaps against them, but they did not go against it, because it was making the society equal for the better.

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In 2001, The American Scholar derived an excerpt from a talk given by Margaret Drabble, an English author who stated, “Our desire to conform is greater than our respect for objective facts.” This quote declares that as we tend to ignore our logic sense and morals in order to fulfill society’s needs. The desire to not be distinctive can make us cohere with something we normally wouldn’t agree to. As human beings we fall upon this constantly with smoking illegal substances, treating others with disrespect and the inability of implying our self morals in public.

In the United States, marijuana is known as an illegal substance, yet, it does not stop teens or “adults” from blazing it. In fact, it happens so often now a days that it’s considered to be non-taboo in a variety of places. For example,Tennessee is one of the most corrupted states in the US because of marijuana, still they continue to smoke the illegal substance in order to conform with society. Peer pressure is the blame of this cause, for example, if a young boy who endeavors to be popular and becomes friends with the “in crowd”; he will disregard anything, even if its not right. Conformity and selfish needs defeat logic and morals to obtain popularity.

As student in high school, I have fallen to conformity many times as so have others. For instance, I have been guilt of excluding others because of different styles of wardrobe and personality; yet even though as a child I been taught to “treat people as I want to be treated. ” Conformity is able to intrigue you to do things you never imagined, as I did. However, I ignored my morals to continue “fitting in” or simply out of fear of disagreement and confrontation.

As humans, we have the natural instinct of being afraid of standing up for what we believe it, because others may not concur with us. In elementary school, I experienced the sight of many inferior children getting bullied as myself. Yet, nobody would speak up because we’re all afraid of being targeted or teased for defending the “weak.” Even though we acknowledge the fact that it was wrong, we continued to walk our own separate ways. Many say we are young and care too much for our reputation than our characters, but I believe you don’t have to be young to fall into conformity. Nobody is perfect, adults fall for it as well in order to keep employment, etc. Adults will do anything to maintain job like cheat, lie and steal, which is where conformity fits in.

We work so hard to be accepted into society that we forget on walls and the matter we were raised. In other words, we come form to what society expects of us rather than what our hearts demand of us. Disregarding the objective facts comes so easily when we are faced with complex situations. Most of the times we choose not to do the right thing but the “easiest” thing at the moment.

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Most groups use some form of parliamentary procedure for their meetings. This Factsheet not only briefly explains proper parliamentary procedure for more formal meetings, but also describes acceptable alternatives for decision-making in smaller groups. Rules For Meetings Just as the object of a game gives direction to its players, traditional principles of a democratic meeting guide group members when they gather: 1. Every member has rights equal to every other member. 2. The will of the majority must be carried out. 3. The minority must be heard, and its rights protected.

Only one topic will be considered at a time. In order to play a particular game, certain rules for that game must be followed. “Parliamentary procedure” is a set of rules for meetings which ensures that the traditional principles of equality, harmony and efficiency are kept. Robert’s Rules of Order, the best-known description of standard parliamentary procedure, is used by many different organizations as their rule book for conducting effective meetings. The Problem With Rules The saying “Rules are meant to be broken … ” implies that no rules are perfect.

The parliamentary rules used in government provide guidance for a body of hundreds of people meeting daily for months with a great volume of business to conduct. These same rules are not appropriate for all organizations. How rigid are your meetings? Does too much technical procedure (motions, amendments, seconding, etc. ) get in the way of effective decision-making and total group discussion? Too much formality in a meeting will frustrate and discourage members when the proceedings “bog down”. Parliamentary rules for meetings are intended to help the group conduct its business (fairly and efficiently), not hinder it!

There are many effective ways for a group to conduct its meetings. Technical procedure, however, should be discouraged in the average group meeting. Every organization should examine standard parliamentary rules, then interpret and adapt them to its own use. If group members agree that the rules they’ve developed permit a majority to accomplish the organization’s ultimate purpose within a reasonable period of time, while allowing the minority a reasonable opportunity to express its views, then those rules are appropriate. Rules For Small Group Meetings?

Meeting procedures for committees, executives and most boards can be much different than those for larger gatherings. Certain formalities are unnecessary when the group size is less than about a dozen members. For example: 1. There is no limit to the number of times a member may speak to an issue. 2. It is not necessary to address the chair before speaking. 3. The chair needn’t leave that post in order to speak, make motions or vote. (In fact, he or she may well be the most active participant in discussions and work of the committee. ) 4. Motions need not be seconded. 5. Action can be taken, at times, without the introduction of a motion.

If, however, a small group using these “relaxed” rules discovers that any one of the four basic meeting principles is being abused, then more formal procedures may be reintroduced to the meeting. Parliamentary Procedure At A Glance If your group follows parliamentary procedure “by the book”, the occasional technical question might be asked. 1. What is the proper sequence of steps in having a motion voted on? A motion has nine possible steps: Moved – a proposal from the floor. Seconded – another member feels the proposal is worth discussing. Stated – by the chair or secretary.

Wording is recorded properly and everyone understands the intent of the proposal. Discussed – every speaker addresses the chair and must speak only to the motion. Usually, each member may speak only once to a motion except the mover who has first and last chance to speak. Amended – changing the wording of the motion by: adding or deleting words replacing with different words. – each amendment has the same 9 steps as a motion. Called – after sufficient discussion, either a motion to end debate or a vote is called at the discretion of the chair. Restated – ensures everyone understands what is being voted on.

Voted – chair calls each option: “All in favour? “, “Opposed? ” or “Abstaining? ” Declared – results of the vote are announced by the chair. 2. Can the intent of the main motion be changed by an amendment? Yes; the main motion may be changed, contrary to the intent of its movers. Only two criteria govern the use of an amendment: An amendment may not convert a motion to its direct negative; and An amendment must be pertinent to the topic in the main motion. E. g. , a motion “to purchase a new typewriter for the secretary” may not have “and to pay the expenses of delegates to the annual meeting” added to it.

This amendment clearly has no relationship with the secretary’s need for new equipment. 3. How many amendments can be made to a motion? There are only two kinds of amendments: those pertaining to the proposed motion called “first rank”; and those pertaining to a proposed amendment called “second rank” (amendment to the amendment). Only one amendment of each rank may be on the floor at one time. Any number of amendments may be made to most motions, but no “second rank” amendments may be amended (i. e. , an amendment to the amendment to the amendment is not allowed! ). 4. How can a meeting start without a quorum?

A quorum is the minimum number of eligible voters that must be present at a meeting to conduct business. This number is designated in the by-laws of the organization and for a board is usually half the voting members plus one. If no quorum is present when the advertised hour of the meeting has been reached, then: the presiding officer may dismiss the group (after setting a time for future meeting); or the group may agree to proceed informally with the agenda, awaiting ratification of any decisions at a future meeting; or the group may discuss any items of interest but make no decisions. 5. How can our constitution be amended?

A good constitution contains provisions for amendment, so the structure and procedures can continually meet the changing needs and purposes of the group. Usually, a special committee is appointed to review the group’s objectives, structure, functions, etc. Copies of its report and recommendations are circulated to all members with the required notice and agenda for the meeting (often the organization’s annual meeting). Any amendments proposed during discussion at the meeting require a majority vote for approval, but the motion to amend the constitution needs a two-thirds majority vote for adoption.

Who is the presiding officer at meetings? Often the president is designated in the constitution or by-laws to chair the organization’s meetings. In many groups, however, the chair is assigned to the past-president, special moderator, or to a different person each time on a rotating basis. This allows the president to take a lead in debates on policy rather than maintain a position of “supposed” neutrality which is directly contrary to his or her usual role as spokesperson for the group. 7. After considerable debate, we still are not ready to vote on the motion. What can we do?

A motion to postpone the matter until the next meeting may be in order, so that more information can be gathered. A motion to postpone temporarily (to table) allows a motion to be set aside until later in the meeting, allowing more urgent business to be dealt with, permitting amendments to be drafted, or allowing time for implications of the motion to be checked. A motion to take from the table brings it back before the meeting. The motion may be withdrawn at the request of its mover, but only if no member present objects. 8. What happens when someone yells “Question!

From the floor indicates that he or she wants the motion put to a vote. Only if the chair feels that the motion has had reasonable debate and most members are ready to vote, can he or she call the question (i. e. , “All those in favour? “, etc. ). Another way to close discussion on a motion is for someone to make a motion to call for a vote. This motion must be seconded and requires a two-thirds majority vote in order to proceed with a vote on the motion on the floor. 9. How should a committee report be accepted by an organization?

A motion to “receive” the report means that the organization is not committed to any of the conclusions or recommendations contained in it. (An example of such a report would be the monthly, unaudited treasurer’s report. ) A motion to “adopt” the report in whole or in part commits the organization to some or all of the recommendations of the report, and often implies some action to be taken. 10 Sometimes while one motion is being considered, an alternative motion might be the better one. How can it be presented? 1. The movers request permission from the presiding officer to read out the alternative motion.

The movers of the original motion are asked if they will withdraw their motion, with the unanimous consent of the meeting. 3. If the original motion is withdrawn, then the alternative motion is moved. 4. If the original motion is not withdrawn, then the movers of the alternative motion inform the meeting that their motion will be moved if the original is defeated. They thus urge the members to vote against the original motion. | Top of Page | Consensus: Another Method Of Decision-Making In Groups How many meetings does your group hold in a year to discuss issues or problems?

How much time is spent in each regular meeting making decisions or solving problems? Does the discussion end with a proposal for action? One rule in parliamentary procedure that can hamper a free and easy exchange of ideas is: “Discussion can take place only after a motion is proposed”. In fact, a motion is a proposed course of action, a solution to a problem, or a decision. By focusing the group’s attention on a solution before realizing the scope of the problem, the group may be voting on something that is entirely inappropriate. Is the “cart before the horse”?

A simple method of ensuring an effective group decision is to build a motion through consensus. This method eliminates a complicated amendment procedure after an initial motion has been proposed. It also ensures that a large majority will agree with the motion rather than the mere 51% required by a typical voting procedure. The following process can be used throughout the meeting for every problem the group needs to discuss. Step 1. Describe the issue or problem confronting the group. – State the problem clearly and concisely. If it is complex, then write it out. Step 2.

Gather all information relevant to the problem. – All pertinent facts and ideas about the problem need to be heard in order to make a wise decision. – Distinguish between facts and opinions. A decision can often be made right away. However, action may need to be deferred so that additional information can be gathered. Step 3. List all possible solutions or actions. – Explore alternatives. – Be creative. Use brainstorming techniques to generate new ideas, from every member. Step 4. Choose the best possible solution. – Use a process of elimination; refine and combine parts of your list in step 3.

Reaching consensus is not always easy. Some individuals become frustrated with the time taken for group decision-making. Also, this method relies on the discretion of the chair who eventually decides when a general agreement or common “feeling” has been reached. In some situations, if only extremely vocal and confident individuals dare to challenge the majority view, then the minority opinion is in danger of being suppressed. Using consensus, however, can result in higher quality decisions. The complicated rules of parliamentary procedure are reduced while maximum member participation is encouraged.

In the end, group decisions lead to group action! Conclusion Whichever method your group chooses to make its decisions or conduct its meetings, the four principles of a democratic meeting must be followed. As more formal procedures are adopted, more complicated rules are followed. There is little reason for any one person to attempt to learn every rule of parliamentary procedure. To know where to find the answers is enough. The following references may help answer any questions not addressed in this Factsheet. References Parliamentary Procedure at a Glance. Jones, O. Garfield.

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Objectives 1. To understand the function of the endocrine system 2. To learn about the major endocrine glands, the hormones they produce, and the effects they initiate 3. To familiarize the student with histological identification of various endocrine glands Background The endocrine system consists of cells and tissues that secrete chemical messengers, called hormones, into the blood. The hormones are transported in the blood, via the circulatory system, to target cells.

Once the hormone reaches the target cells and binds to a specific receptor, either on the cell membrane or within the cell cytoplasm or nucleus, it can initiate a response that will facilitate homeostasis in the body. Questions 1. What are some of the major endocrine glands? 2. List the three major categories of hormones. Identify specific hormones within each category. Procedure Using the microscope, examine the indicated endocrine glands. Draw a picture, identify any indicated structures within the gland, and answer the questions in each section.

Total Magnification 1. Identify a pancreatic islet. 2. What major hormone is secreted by the alpha cells? Beta cells? What are the primary effects of each hormone? 3. Describe a pathophysiological condition associated with the pancreas (describe condition, symptoms and treatment). ADRENAL GLAND __________ Total Magnification 1. Identify the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. 2. What major hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex? Adrenal medulla? What are the primary effects of each hormone?

Describe a pathophysiological condition associated with the adrenal glands (describe condition, symptoms and treatment). THYROID __________ Total Magnification 1. Identify the follicles, the follicular cells, and the colloid. 2. What major hormones are secreted by the thyroid? What are the primary effects of each hormone? 3. Describe a pathophysiological condition associated with the thyroid (describe condition, symptoms, and treatment). PITUITARY GLAND __________ Total Magnification 1.

Identify the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary (Hint: the anterior pituitary staining is darker than the staining of the posterior pituitary). 2. What major hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary? Posterior pituitary? What are the primary effects of each hormone? 3. Describe a pathophysiological condition associated with the pituitary (describe condition, symptoms, and treatment). Review Questions 1. Identify whether peptide/protein hormones are water soluble or lipophilic. How are they transported in the blood?

Where on the cell are the receptors for these hormones located? 2. Identify whether steroid hormones are water soluble or lipophilic. How are they transported in the blood? Where on the cell are the receptors for these hormones located? 3. Distinguish between the mechanism by which peptide/protein hormones exhibit their effects on the target cell and the mechanism by which steroid hormones exhibit their effects on the target cell? 4. Choose a hormone and diagram a negative feedback loop that illustrates how the hormone helps the body to maintain homeostasis.

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Locard’s principle, the basic principle of forensic science, was formulated by Dr. Edmond Locard. Dr. Edmond Locard believes and states “Every contact leaves a trace”, meaning whatever is touched, left behind or approached will serve as factual evidence against a person and only can that evidence be failed is by the lack of human effort by failing to study and understand it.

The Locard’s exchange principle believes no matter what a criminal does or where a criminal goes, simply by coming in contact with anything, a criminal is capable of leaving many different sorts of criminal evidence for investigators to gather and collect. Having said this, different sorts of evidence can include, fingerprints, footprints, DNA, hair, bodily fluids, skin cells, blood, clothing, fibers, etc.

Though many different types of evidence can be investigated and found at a crime scene, it is extremely common that when a criminal leaves the location in where a crime has been committed, that criminal will most likely take away something such as evidence from the scene with them. Trace evidence is clear and factual physical evidence, which most importantly, cannot lie, be forgotten and be cannot be wrong. As Paul L. Kirk expressed and explains Locard’s exchange principle, Paul L. Kirk states “Trace evidence (physical materials) is a silent witness that speaks when humans cannot”.

An example of Locard’s exchange principle can be viewed as the following, a person enters another person’s home and strangles that person to death. The person who strangled and committed this crime has now most likely left footprints and other evidence at the scene of the crime. When police, detectives, investigators, etc… have located and found that suspect involved this this crime, you find the victims skin cells under the suspects fingernails, the case has now been solved because that criminal has taken away evidence from the scene with them.

The importance of this principle from the perspective of a criminal investigator at different scenes of crimes is because when criminal activity or a crime has been committed, the importance and main goal of a criminal investigator is to document and collect evidence from and at the crime scene and also anyone or anything that has interfered or come in contact with the crime scene.

It is important that a criminal investigator recognizes every possible aspect done or leading up to the event because it is mandatory that criminal investigators have the skill and ability to solve and put together all collections of evidence in order to create and conclude an image of what could have possibly happened. It is extremely important that procedures are done correctly and professionally because evidence collected serves to prove or disprove something, meaning, evidence can determine ones innocents or guilt. Without evidence, there is no proof.

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American exceptionalism is a pivotal concept within the American culture. Stemming from a revolution, this theory shaped a new way of thinking within the United States that seemed far different from many other cultures. Seymour Martin Lipset used this concept to explain, “why the United States is the only industrialized country which does not have a significant socialist movement or Labor party. ” This essentially explains why America is extraordinary.

Punk personifies American exceptionalism with its distinct lifestyle to be different from the norm, and is surrounded by independent self-governing thinkers. The United States didn’t become what it is today because of law abiding and passive citizens. This is also a main reason why Punk Rock became so popular in America, and has stayed relevant to teens and young adults all over the world. People began to thrive on understanding the history of this nation, and take pride in the originality of our constitution, and way of life.

Punk Rock adds another chapter in the long list of independent concepts and ideas within the American Culture. “America marches to a different drummer. Its uniqueness is explained by any or all of a variety of reasons: history, size, geography, political institutions, and culture. ” This type of “American” thinking continues to inspire all kinds of musicians, but more so with the Punk Rock genre than any other. It was defines the core competencies of the bands, as well as that of their followers.

This defining concept of individualism is also why Punk Rock has stayed relevant for all of these years. This country was built off this impression, as well as Punk Rock. It is hard to break down the barrier of individualism, because everyone is so unique, and Punk Rock simply unites and celebrates all different types of unique thinking. Through lyrics from bands such as the Romones, Blink 182, and The Clash, a colossal following came to Punk Rock.

The lyrics almost became anthems to band groupies lives. In “The Shape of Things to Come” by the Romones, they sing “There’s a new sun Risin’ up angry in the sky? And there’s a new voice Sayin’ we’re not afraid to die. ” One could argue that that way of thinking was backbone for what soldiers in the American Revolution stood for, and how the United States became to be what it is today. Of course American exceptionalism has its negative aspects to it that can be looked down upon.

The United States has at times been exceptionally bad, racist, and violent. This cannot be ignored in the conversation of American exceptionalism. Although some of this demonstrates unfair and harsh governing, it shows that the American spirit still have that Punk Rock “drive” in them that fuels and strengthens them. This is also another reason why Punk Rock has, and will always continue to stay relevant in todays American Culture

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Currently, Teletech Corp. is using a single corporate hurdle rate to evaluate its investment decisions in its products and systems segment as well as its telecommunications segment. Using only one hurdle rate doesn’t take into account the risk that the company faces within each segment. Investors demand higher returns for riskier investments. Victor Yossarian is concerned about the low returns for the high risk in the products and systems segment, this is why he wants to abandon this segment.

Using two hurdle rates adjusts for the risk in each industry allows the company to adequately value each segment. Our analysis will show that by using two hurdle rates it will lower the cost of equity and WACC for the less risky telecommunications segment, while raising the cost of equity and WACC for the more risky products and systems segment. Lastly, our calculation of the economic profitability for each industry using the segmented hurdle rates will show that Teletech may be overvaluing its products and systems segment while undervaluing its telecommunications segment.

This implies that Teletech should reallocate its capital in order to increase economic profitability . Introduction We will conduct an industry comparison analysis to show how the the company’s cost of borrowing and beta compares to its competitors. Next, we will explain why it is more beneficial for the company to use segmented hurdles rates rather than the corporate hurdle rate currently being used. We will then calculate a new hurdle rate and the economic profit for each division. Then, we will explain how capital restructuring can increase our profits for each segment.

Lastly, we will address the concerns with the company’s recent performance and the future direction of the company. Industry Comparable Analysis Prior to any action, we will examine Teletech Corp’s market debt to capital and market debt to equity in comparison with a few selected competitors. In Exhibit One, all three comparable companies have a beta lower than 1. 05, which allows them to raise capital at a lower the cost of equity. However, when you compare market debt to equity, it is lower than the industry average showing that more equity can be issued.

They also have a market debt to capital of 22%, which is below the industry average as well. The mean for this section is 28. 10%, which gives us an idea of where the ratio should be in comparison with Teletechs’ top competitors. Based off industry average, Teletech can increase their margins by becoming more levered. Now we will compare the products and systems segment using the same base of measurement with more focus towards the beta. Displayed on Exhibit One, the mean of the three companies is 1. 30, which is a substantially higher beta than Teletech corporate beta of 1.

It is likely that the company can choose to raise capital from the wrong source; which shows’ when you compare its’ corporate debt to equity of 29% to an industry average of 9. 2%. This leads to the assumption that the capital structure that management has in place is inadequate in terms of risk and reward. Due to several outliers in this segment, we believe the industry average should be a little higher. Our assumption is that the the market debt to equity for the new segmented P&S should be somewhere in between.

This is discussed in the capital restructuring section of this analysis, where we assume a 15% weight of debt to calculate the new WACC. Telecommunication Services In order to calculate the new hurdle rate for the telecommunications segment we first had to calculate the cost of equity using the capital asset pricing model. We used the corporate risk free rate and market risk premium and the average beta for the telecommunications segment to make this calculation. As demonstrated in Exhibit Two, the cost of equity is lower than the corporate rate.

Next, we calculated the WACC using the new cost of equity and the average market value of debt in the telecommunications segment. Exhibit Two shows that the WACC is lowered when using the market value of debt and new cost of equity. This means that shareholders will require a lower return on their investments and will cost the company less while raising equity, and issuing debt at a lower rate than the 9. 3% corporate rate currently being used. The segmented hurdle rates allow for lower cost of debt than the corporate hurdle rate.

Lastly, we calculated the economic profitability using both the corporate hurdle rate and the segmented hurdle rate. Using the corporate hurdle rate, we calculated an economic profit that was negative, which can be shown in Exhibit Three. However, when we use the segmented hurdle rate the economic profitability is positive, which is shown in Exhibit Three. This shows that we are undervaluing the telecommunications segment when we use the corporate hurdle rate. Products and System Segment Our next objective was to determine what was the weighted average cost of capital for the products and systems segment.

First, we needed to calculate the cost of equity for this segment. The risk free rate and risk premium were given to us and we calculated the beta by taking industry averages in the telecommunication equipment industry and the computer and network equipment industry. In Exhibit Four, the calculation can be shown and the result is a cost of equity for this segment of 12. 1%. The next step was to determine the overall weighted average cost of capital for this segment. We were given the after-tax cost of debt, but we had to determine a suitable weight of debt for this segment.

The weight of debt was determined by calculating the average market value of debt to capital in the telecommunications equipment industry and computer and network equipment industry. We determined a suitable weight of debt of 9. 2% and a weight of equity of 90. 8% based off the average market value of debt to capital for the telecommunication equipment firms and computer and network equipment firms. This segment is riskier than the telecommunication services segment, so less debt is issued in this segment.

In Exhibit Four, the calculation for the WACC is shown resulting in 11. 4% cost of capital for this segment. We decided to determine what the economic profitability of this segment was using the new segmented WACC. First, we had to calculate the capital employed in order to correctly figure out the profitability. We were given the return on capital for the segment of 11% and the net operating profit after taxes of $480 million. We calculated the capital employed and by using the newly determined capital employed, we plugged the new hurdle of 11. 4% and the given return on capital into the economic profitability formula. Exhibit Five shows the calculations for both the capital employed and the new economic profitability using the new segmented hurdle rate resulting in an economic profitability of $-17. 41 million. We wanted to do a comparison analysis using the corporate hurdle rate and the segmented hurdle rates for each segment. We used the same capital employed that we calculated above and just plugged in the corporate hurdle rate instead of the segmented hurdle rate.

Exhibit Five shows the calculation using the corporate hurdle rate resulting in economic profitability of $78. 19 million. Capital Restructuring After calculating economic profitability for both the telecommunications services segment and products and systems segment using both the newly calculated segmented hurdle rates and also using the corporate hurdle rate, we decided to do a comparison. Exhibit Six shows the economic profitability for each segment. However, the products and systems segment is still underperforming and has negative economic profitability.

The segmented hurdle rate shows that the capital structure of the firm does not properly allocate the optimal capital that could result in much larger economic profits than using a single corporate hurdle rate. The telecommunications services segment has strong performance and low risk, so we determined that we could issue more debt in this segment and decided a weight of debt of 40% was suitable based on performance and comparable firms. Exhibit Seven shows the new WACC with a 40% weight of debt and 60% weight of equity resulting in a lower WACC then using the 27. 1% industry average debt weight.

The products and systems segment is struggling to make economic profit, but we believe that even with the riskier characteristics of this segment that slightly raising the weight of debt above the industry average was a suitable option. The average weight of debt for the industry was 9. 2%, but this resulted in negative economic profit. So, we decided to push the weight of debt to 15% in order to just make this segment profitable without creating major debt risk. We decided to issue more debt because Teletech is a more diversified company that allows the risk to be separate out between the two segments instead of just one industry.

Exhibit Seven shows the calculation for the products and systems segment using the newly determined weight of debt of 15% and weight of equity of 85% resulting in a factorial decrease in the WACC to 10. 96%. Exhibit Eight shows the new comparison analysis using the new WACC from the capital restructuring and shows that both segments are profitable. Conclusion After determining separate WACCs, we calculated economic profit for each segment discovering that products and systems was underperforming.

Using comparable firms, it was evident that there was an opportunity to issue further debt. With the new debt weight, products and systems segment became profitable without significantly impacting this segment’s debt risk. The new debt structure and positive economic profitability would provide increased value for shareholders including Victor Yossarian. We believe that products and systems segment improves the horizontal diversification of Teletech and allows the debt risk to be more separate out with more segments.

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Throughout the play, Shylock is portrayed as many things, both victim and villain, therefore making him an extremely ambiguous character. On one hand, he is a very villainous character as shown when he declares that he wishes his daughter was ‘…dead at my food, and the jewels in her ear. ’ This quote clearly shows his desire for wealth rather than love or family. On the other hand, Shylock is shown to be a victim when he claims that ‘Suff’rance is the badge of my tribe’ overtly showing that he accepts his place at the bottom of the social hierarchy.

Because of this, despite all of the angles from which he could be viewed as a villain, I strongly believe that he is a victim. He is further illustrated as a villain when he is cursing Antonio behind his back with his speech beginning ‘I hate him for he is a Christian’ when he is claiming that Antonio, because he lends out money freely or ’gratis’, is bringing down the rate that he can charge interest at, thus reducing the profits that he can make.

He also believes that, whether right or wrong, Antonio lends out money this way not as in a sense of loyalty or friendship but rather in a way to improve his public image by showing off his wealth but also that he is a very modest and unassuming man. Furthermore, in this internal monologue Shylock also indicates that he is also a firm believer in prejudges, not so different from those of the Christians when he proclaims to the audience that ‘I hate him for he is a Christian’ which explicitly implies that he would act just as the Christians do I he was in their position.

Obviously, the main passage of play where Shylock is portrayed as a villain is when the bond is first agreed, especially the point when he first suggests that, ‘for a merry sport’, he will forfeit a ‘pound of his fair flesh’ if he does not pay back the three thousand ducats at ‘such a time and such a place’. Despite the fact that this may be seen as sarcasm, or perhaps a ‘spur of the moment’ proclamation, the fact that Shylock later goes and seals this forfeit in a contract.

Of course, this one moment of villainy will come back to haunt Shylock throughout the play, eventually resulting in his forced change in faith, converting from Judaism to Christian. Another interesting moment of Shylock’s clear villainy caused by the creation of this bond is uncovered during the trial scene when Shylock is offered the original sum many times increased but would rather have his worthless pound of flesh, showing yet again how villainous he is.

During the scene from which the above quote is taken, Shylock is further portrayed as a villain when he takes a moment to patronise Antonio by abusing his momentary power by say ‘Hath a dog money? Is it possible a cur can lend 3,000 ducats? ’ Despite the fact that one may say that he is justified as Antonio and Bassanio have in fact called him those exact words; by coming to him to borrow money they are coming to him in a business related manner which should mean that all past experiences are momentarily put behind them so that they can discuss business without prejudice seeping into negotiations.

Whilst one might argue that Shylock would rarely if ever be in apposition of absolute power, abusing that power would make him even more hated within the Christian community. Furthermore, Shylock has the ability to make money from this loan and insulting potential business clients is hardly a good way to start a transaction involving large sums of money. Shylock is also shown to be a villain for the majority of the court case, especially when he says ‘My deeds upon my head!

I crave the law, the penalty and forfeit of my bond’ which shows just how cold hearted he is and how obsessed he is with the acquisition of his pound of flesh, almost like a child at Christmas, pestering his or her parents for their presents. As I have outlined before, this yet again shows how much he would rather have a worthless pound of human flesh instead of 6,000 ducats, a small fortune at the time.

As a final point for the ‘villain’ argument, I am using Jessica’s line of ‘Our house is hell’ which she says to Lancelot just before eloping with Lorenzo. This line just shows how horrible it is to live under the watchful, controlling even abusive eye of Shylock, even for his daughter. Although we are not told this, it can be expected that he was equally controlling through Jessica’s earlier life, resulting in her not having many friends or social interactions with people her own age which would cause her to be difficult and demanding.

Because of this there is an implication that Shylock would have been much harsher than a normal parent would. However, in reference to my second paragraph, one could say that it is perfectly reasonable that he may hate Christians, as the Christians hate him and it is a common moral that you should treat others as one should expect to be treated, thus justifying his hatred. Later in the play, Shylock also makes his ‘To bait fish withal’ speech which reflects his need to be able to treat others as he is treated.

In addition to this, in his ‘I hate him for he is a Christian’ he goes on to say that Antonio, by lending out money ‘gratis’, brings down his interest rate which is very true, and does destroy Shylock’s ability to make large sums of money at a time. So therefore, in reality, this monologue does not show him as a villain but more as a victim as he simply believes in his own human rights to treat others as he would like to be treated.

Furthermore, when Shylock decides on the forfeit of the pound of flesh he isn’t being as unethical as one might immediately think as his lifelong abuse at the hands on Antonio and other Christians in make his life almost not worth living and therefore one could view it as a simple eye for an eye punishment to end Antonio’s profitable and enjoyable life.

Moreover, many Jews would likely have been murdered in 16th century Venice at the hands of Christians simply because of their faith with little or no justice given so yet again this action could be seen as less of a cruel man with murderous intent but more as an action that attempts to right the many wrongs dealt to his people during that era throughout Europe. On the grounds of this it is much easier to see this action as one of a victim rather than that of a villain.

To advance my argument I must now review Shylock’s abuse of power, as mentioned in the fourth paragraph. To me, this is perfectly justified as, to be frank, a dog doesn’t have money and a cur can’t lend 3,000 ducats and as Antonio and Bassanio have treated him as both of these, it is perfectly reasonable that he should find it frustrating that he is only approachable in a human way when the Christians have something to gain from the interaction ahead of them.

I also think that Shylock’s power abuse, whilst some may consider it self-righteous or sanctimonious; I believe that it was actually the right thing to do in the circumstance as Antonio and Bassanio have humiliated him all his adult life and it might not be such a bad thing if they had a ‘taste of their own medicine’ or so to speak. Additionally, with Shylock’s outburst that he would rather have his daughter ‘dead at my foot, and the jewels in her ear’ than just to return alive.

Whilst one could say that this is a very cold hearted thing to say about your own daughter, she has left him with all of his money, all of his precious possessions like rings and suchlike and made him the laughing stock of Venice. As if to add insult to injury, the man that she has eloped with is a Christian, the very people that Shylock despises the most. This Christian in particular is also friends with the very two men, Bassanio and Antonio who are making his life a misery at this very moment and throughout Shylock’s adult life.

I also think that Shylock could have said something like this with such fury as a spur of the moment thing, and doesn’t actually mean it. However, even if Shylock did mean this, I don’t think that it would be as much of a horrific act as it could be interpreted as because his daughter, the only person in the world that he truly loves has left him, almost like a castaway escaping from a desert island and leaving a life-long companion behind.

In addition to this, his daughter’s elopement also caused hi great embarrassment within both Jewish and Christian societies And finally, in response to my fifth paragraph, I see her statement that her house is hell as completely unreasonable as Shylock has spent his entire life balancing his life between being abused on the streets and being abused and hated at home by his daughter despite the fact that all of his actions made towards here will have been, however controlling they may have been, to protect here from the abuse that he receives.

So, in conclusion, I believe that Shylock is more of a victim than a villain. In my opinion, Shylock was fully justified in making all of the decisions that may at first seem like villainous if one simply delves a bit deeper into Shylock’s past and all of the abuse and hardships that he has received. This is further illustrated by Al Pacino’s portrayal of Shylock at the end of the court case when his one bit of ‘good fortune’ is stripped away from him and he is forced to give up everything, both in terms of possessions and the way he lives his life. 1,710 words total.

Kingfisher Beer Company Case Analysis essay help online free: essay help online free

Kingfisher Beer Company (KBC) has enjoyed being in top position in premium beer segment for the past fifty years and is now facing a potentially identity–changing challenge: the traditional premium beer market has been declining due to changes in consumer preferences at a compound annual rate of 4% and KBC for the first time is experiencing a decline in revenue, whilst a change in leadership infuses new energy to bring a change in their product line.

Jake Hope, son of the retired president and owner of KBC faces the challenge of whether to introduce a ‘light’ beer in a growing beer segment, as maintaining status-quo would no more be an option to sustain their existing position in marketplace in the next few years (see Exhibit 2). I recommend that Jake would go for the light beer product venture. The recommendation is based on a complex assessment of the company’s financial viability and of more qualitative reflections.

Even if for the year 2007 (the case is restrictive for only a 2-year horizon quantitative analysis) projected Operating Margin does not reach levels KBC had enjoyed in prior years, it is positive and growing substantially. Growth from $599,734 to $2,205,235 ($1,605,601 in absolute growth) from 2006 to 2007 with introduction of Light Beer versus of decline from $4,015,024 to $3,414,586 ($600,438 in absolute decline).

If KBC will manage to reduce its lost sales of famous Lager (due to market conditions in the premium beer market) from 20% to slightly lower levels then the company could break-even in 2 years (Exhibit 1). From the case’s limited data it is still certain that introducing Light Beer and managing relatively moderate levels of cannibalization (20% or below – Exhibit 3) of the Lager sales opens opportunities to increase the firm’s financials. Moreover, it is essential to capitalize on growing light beer market (4% annually) which also will help fuel possible future expansion or to retain sustainability.

According to market research, targeted segment where light beer drinking segment holds “anti-big-business” values, is already aware of the KBC brand so the firm can leverage on being independent family owned small regional company. In addition, the introduction of a new product will eliminate the risk of being on a single product brand and reduce risk of being in an unfavorable position with regards to distributors who favor more product offerings. On the other hand the introduction of the light beer will affect the brand image, alienate core customers, and squeeze margins.

In addition, it is most likely the Company will not be able to sustain advertising and distribution cost against bigger competitors (high entry barrier, competitors strong presence in light beer market). This will lead also to additional unwanted cannibalization of Lager sales and more uneven relationships with distributors and retailers. My recommendation rests on several assumptions (exhibit). The key assumption is that the KBC will attain the 0. 25 market share to break even in 2007. Another assumption is that the light beer market will sustain its growth and consumer preferences will hold in the nearest future.

Hotel and Hospitality Industry college essay help free: college essay help free

Hospitality management, in hotel and restaurant management, is a very interesting and challenging program, which has become a popular career choice for most of the young generation in this century. This is a diploma program, which provides students the opportunity to become an excellent manager in the hospitality industry. The program is divided into four semesters. The first two semesters focus on basic managerial skills and the hospitality industry. In these semesters, students will learn about mixology – the art or skill of preparing mixed drinks (Graham).

They will also learn food and beverage service theory which is about theoretical components that relate to food and beverage department of hospitality business (“Fanshane college,”). Effective leadership and management courses will train students how to behave and act as a leader in the hospitality environment. Hospitality and tourism careers will introduce students to their careers, show them how hospitality and tourism affects us, and students will also recognize numerous career opportunities available to them.

In the third semester, students will select two of five electives to focus on specific area of their careers: Entrepreneurship, wine appreciation and food pairing, risk management and hospitality law, fundamentals of beer. For the last semester, students will have a chance to practice what they learned in a 14 weeks internship in a real hospitality environment. Hospitality industry is believed to have a bright future. Graduated students will have all the qualifications to seek a job in different areas, such as front office, housekeeping, food and beverage operation, human resources, marketing and sales, hotel and restaurant management.

As the hospitality business environment becomes more and more complex (J. West and Tonarelli-Frey,2008), it will provide many opportunities for students. Due to traveling demand, the number of hotels and resorts has increased in the last few years, which make the hospitality industry full of opportunities (Prasain). The average monthly income for a hotel and restaurant manager in Canada is about 5500 CAD, and for other jobs in hospitality industry like bartender, cook, receptionist, chef, and supervisor of food service is around 1000 CAD to 4000CAD ( “salary explorer”,2012).

Although the hospitality industry has many opportunities, graduated students from the program still need other skills, such as communication, foreign language ability, leadership, strong analytical ability, creativity and a strong work ethic. As foreign language ability is the key element in the hospitality industry, the more languages students can speak, the more advantages they have. For hotel and restaurant manager, students are required to know at least three languages.

Hospitality environment is also one of the most complicated work’s environments as it involves many cultures, many ethnic groups from many countries. Furthermore, it needs very high security control. Hotel managers/staffs need to be extremely careful not only in communication with their guests, but also in making any type of decision, because their hotels may end up as breeding grounds for illegal activities such as narcotics or prostitution. To sum up, the hospitality industry is a developing industry, which offers many opportunities for students. It is also a well-paid job.

In order to be successful in this complex environment, students are required to be determined, independent, self-monitoring and most important of all, have passion for their job. The reason I choose to study and work in this environment is because I’m a hard worker, I always want to keep myself busy, and I love to communicate and meet new people. I know that the hospitality environment is very complex, and the risk that employees may have to face, but I believe in my ability to resolve any problem. Every industry has its own good side and bad side, the most important reason that keeps us not to give up is the passion for our career.

Bureaucratic Control System english essay help online: english essay help online

In this assignment I will be discussing the discrepancy from the Sandwich Blitz scenario that I watched. I will also be discussing how the issue could have been avoided, how the Bureaucratic Control System could be applied, and the steps with the system. There was an issue with the supervisor allowing an employee to report time that wasn’t worked in that specific pay period. By having a control system in place will mitigate many discrepancies that could possibly occur because there would be protocol and disciplinary actions.

The bureaucratic Control system is designed to measure progress toward set performance goals and to apply corrective measures. This is essential in running any business. How can you run a business without structure? With this system there are rules and standards that needs to be followed. This is where the four steps of the control system come into play. Setting performance standards is the first step in the control system. These standards clarify what is to be expected from staff.

In the case of Sandwich Blitz, Dalman and Lei had no standards put in place so the employees didn’t know what was expected of them. This enabled the supervisor to allow a staff member to report hours that were not yet earned. Measuring performance is the second step in the control process. It’s basically developing methods to collect and organize what is going on within the company. This is definitely a step that needs to be taken with Dalman and Lei.

They need to have a sit down and see what is going on with their payroll. See how much damage that had been done thus far. I would suggest that their middle management report submit lower level staff time on a weekly basis so it can be accounted for accordingly. Comparing performance with the standard, in my words is evaluating the standards that were put in place. This step was actually taken in Sandwich Blitz because this is how Lei identified the discrepancy with the unpaid time.

By evaluating employees performance there could be an evaluation for preset standards. Applying this process, Dalman and Lei can see what works for their business and what don’t work for them. The last and fourth step is talking action to correct problems and reinforce successes. The in-text meaning of this is to ensure that operations are adjusted to achieve the planned results or to continue exceeding the plain if the manager determines that is possible.

(Batman&Snell, 2009 P297) In other words it’s stating that once the standards are set and we take corrective action to ensure that the methods and standards are corresponding. In summary, following the bureaucratic control system is needed to regulate. Rules and regulations must be put in place to evade unnecessary issues A business needs a formalized structure such as bureaucracy. Standards are the top of the list for me because once that is in place the blue print of operation is in order. Along with follow up and righting wrong, everything else is smooth sailing.

Amistad Reflection Paper buy essay help: buy essay help

“ Amistad “ Reaction The movie ” Amistad ” was a great movie. while watching this movie in class, the begining of the movie was kind of intense , but then throughtout the next scenes it was kind of boring. The movie made it seem like it was a few white people and blacks against everyone else when that actually was not the case. One thing that should have been included in this three hour movie is the favor that the public of the north had for the Africans. Also, there definitely should’ve been a lot more racism included to show you how black people were viewed and treated as back in those times.

It wasn’t just the triumph of the defense, but more of a monumental win for slaves everywhere in a way that would have you skeptical for more. In this movie we hear many different stories as each character tries to explain why his view is the right one. In the first courtroom scene we hear several different “stories” about what should happen to the Africans. All of those stories assume that the Africans are property; the only question is whose property they are. Interestingly, as “property,” they can not be charged with murder or theft.

One cannot be both property and capable of forming criminal intent. The only issue before the court is where the Africans will go. This movie takes on the basis of two core themes, suffering and survival. The way in which these two are represented can label the film as unique. The opening scenes of the enslaved Africans overrunning the Amistad, killing its crew and taking over sets the tone of the movie , and the people watching it is never allowed to forget the image of the African screaming as he thrusts his sword into one of his former captors.

The enslaved Africans are not represented as supplicants: they have fought for their freedom. These scenes are coupled with representations of the Middle Passage which are often considered to be the most powerful aspect of the film. This distinctive approach to the movie that represents the Atlantic slave trade is also evident in the portrayal of African culture and identity. Sengbe, the lead member of the enslaved Africans, is shown as strong, knowledgeable and surprisingly intelligent.

Rather than turn the story of the Amistad into a celebration of the kindness and generosity of white abolitionists, Sengbe is shown to be the instigator and cause of the freedom which is eventually granted to the enslaved Africans. This was my very first time watching a movie with the storyline like this and after watching and understanding the key points of this movie , i would highly recommend others to watch it.

Ghana, the mixed capitalist college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Gold Coast, now Ghana had his independence in 1957 after a long struggle with our colonial masters, the British by Kwame Nkrumah and others who helped in diverse ways such as “the Big Six” and others. Colonized by the British, Ghana has gone through a lot of systems of governance; Monarchical, autocracy and now democracy. So is with economic systems which go with any form of governance system. Currently there are about four (4) economic systems in the world which are; socialist, capitalist, mixed economy (Socialist and Capitalist) and Islamic economic jurisprudence. The Economic Systems

All these are economic systems and it is defines those who controls and owns the economic resources which forms the “means” in economics. Every economy is measured by the usage of its means and the nature of the “means” owners determines the kind of economic system the country runs. Socialist system of economy is a one that has its resources highly controlled by the central government. E. g. USSR (Russia, Ukraine, Yugoslavia etc), the Capitalist economy is that whose resources is highly owned and controlled by private individuals or a body other than the government. E. g. USA, UK, part of Europe etc.

The Mixed economy is that which combines both the socialist and the capitalist economic systems to run the country’s economy. In that, the central government controls part of the economy whiles the other part is controlled by private participation. Functions of the Economic Systems There are multiple components to economic systems. Their interaction may be coherent or result in instability. Decision-making structures of an economy determine the use of economic inputs (the factors of production), distribution of output, the level of centralization in decision-making, and who makes these decisions.

Decisions might be carried out by industrial councils, by a government agency, or by private owners. Every economic system represents an attempt to solve three fundamental and interdependent problems: What goods and services shall be produced and in what quantities? How shall goods and services be produced? That is, by whom and with what resources and technologies? For whom shall goods and services be produced? That is, who is to enjoy the benefits of the goods and services and how is the total product to be distributed among individuals and groups in the society.

E. g. the current load management by the VRA and the ECG. Thus every economy is a system that allocates resources for exchange, production, distribution and consumption. The system is stabilized through a combination of threat and trust, which are the outcome of institutional arrangements. An economic system possesses the following institutions: Methods of control over the factors or means of production: this may include ownership of, or property rights to, the means of production and therefore may give rise to claims to the proceeds from production.

The means of production may be owned privately, by the state, by those who use them or be held in common. A decision-making system: this determines who is eligible to make decisions over economic activities. Economic agents with decision-making powers can enter into binding contracts with one another. A coordination mechanism: this determines how information is obtained and used in decision-making. The two dominant forms of coordination are planning and markets; planning can be either de-centralized or centralized, and the two coordination mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and often co-exist.

An incentive system: this induces and motivates economic agents to engage in productive activities. It can be based on either material reward (compensation or self-interest) or moral suasion (for instance, social prestige or through a democratic decision-making process that binds those involved). The incentive system may encourage specialization and the division of labour. Organizational form: there are two basic forms of organization: actors and regulators. Economic actors include households, work gangs and production teams, firms, joint-ventures and cartels.

Economically regulative organizations are represented by the state and market authorities; the latter may private or public entities. A distribution system: this allocates the proceeds from productive activity, which is distributed as income among the economic organizations, individuals and groups within society, such as property owners, workers and non-workers, or the state (from taxes). A public choice mechanism for law-making, establishing rules, norms and standards and levying taxes. Usually this is the responsibility of the state but other means of collective decision-making are possible, such as workers’ councils.

The Ghana’s Economy Ghana’s economy is purely a mixed type with the resources sharply divided between the public and private participation. The service sector is highly controlled by the government while the production sector is dominated by private and group participation. Decision making, which determines the direction of the economy and the type system, is done a lot of the times, through consultations with stakeholders of the economy. Example; when the power and water companies wanted to review utility tariffs to a certain percentage, there was a lot of consultations thereby; getting the rate we have now.

Ghana, before the independence was purely capitalist. After independence, the then government focused on turning the economy into a communist/socialist system. They invested so much in agriculture which was the only sector controlled by the government and also reached out to industrialize the economy. Currently, Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 50% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange.

Oil production at Ghana’s offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December, 2010, and is expected to boost economic growth. Finally, I may agree with the statement but require more facts to completely justify its truth. Ghana is a mixed economy but capitalist oriented on the face assessment value of the various sectors. But can justify, if all percentages of public/private participation of the economic sectors are well defined. This will couple with the clear policy direction of the present governments which has state on record as being social democrats and has manifestoes seeking to provide a lot for the people.

Database and Nouns Major Topics essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

In Grandfield College, the Software-Tracking database will be used to help in managing the school’s software licensing. The software will be watched for lifecycle and version corrections as well as keeping track of the number of users accessing the software under the constraints of the license agreement. The faculty and staff computers will be followed for which version and licensed copy of software is presently running on each system. Objectives: 1. Have a better system by allowing employees to see the shared calendars and student’s grades.

Advance the tracking of Software Licensing and the Lifecycle of programs. Preliminary timeline: 1. Gathering Data: Meet with School Board and those involved to discuss the needs and wants for a database. 2. Analyzing Data: The information gathered from the meeting will be analyzed and form a rough draft of the database model. 3. Normalization: The database model will be completed and all last minute changes adjusted and any lasting questions answered. 4. Building the physical database: The database model will be constructed into the actual database program. Lab 1. 4 – Challenge Activity 1. There could be more than one Joe Smith entered into the database and info between the two could be confused. Misspelling could occur. 2. The relational database could assign a unique identifier to an entry and any changes to customer info could be managed in one area. 3. The biggest drawback is the chance of a misspelling after the fifth entry (for example) creating a whole new customer data file for an existing entity. 4. I would create at least three tables one for customer info, one for customer payments, and one that shows all payment info.

Invention Essay law essay help: law essay help

During the Industrial Revolution numerous inventions were created in order to solve problems that arose at that time. Also, in this time period one invention created a “ripple-effect” that soon led to the development of another invention. Over time as more and more innovations came about the simpler life became. In our current time period there are a variety of inventions that people use to simplify their lives on a daily basis. Nowadays many of these utilities are taken advantage of. People do not comprehend that without these inventions they would not be able to carry out certain tasks as efficiently as they do now.

Inventions that I believe are the most important in my life are the automobile, eye glasses, and electricity. Without any single one of these inventions my life would be drastically different and exceptionally more difficult. Without an automobile I would not be able to travel from one place to another in a lesser amount of time. Also, if a required something immediately I would not be able to go get it. Moreover, if I were in need of medical services I wouldn’t be able to drive to a hospital in proximity. Eye glasses are essential tool in my life since I have myopia.

I have been wearing eye glasses since I was five years old. Without eye glasses I wouldn’t be able to see anything which in turn would slow down my reflexive abilities as well as lengthen the time I need in order to respond to stimuli. Electricity is the energy supplied in the form of currents to houses or other buildings for heating, lighting, or powering appliances. If electricity was no longer available to me other aspects of my life would also be affected. Losing all or any of these inventions would affect my life and most likely change the way how I function.

Customer profitability narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Pilgrim Bank (A) is a case that analyzes customer profitability in a retail banking setting. It explores a business phenomenon common to the retail banking industry and, within this context, acquaints you with the types of managerial questions that can be made by data analysis. As a recently hired analyst, Alan Green (your group’s role) has data on a sample of customers and must make recommendations about whether the bank should charge fees or offer rebates for use of the online channel. The data consist of customer-level information on demographics, online channel use, and profitability.

The dataset is now available for downloading on our course blackboard website. The first worksheet is “Definition of Variables” and the second worksheet is the dataset. Link to purchase Pilgrim Bank Case: https://cb. hbsp. harvard. edu:443/cbmp/access/25928453 Requirements: Write a business report summarizing your analysis and findings. The report should include the answers to the following assigned questions, which are useful when Alan Green (or your group) meets with Ravi Raman next Monday morning. Remember to support/justify your answers.

How do retail banks make money from their customers? How much variation is there in profit across customers? Based on this, what do you recommend the bank do in terms of matching service levels to customer profit levels? 2. Based on the sample of customer data for 1999, what can you conclude about average customer profitability for pilgrim Bank’s entire customer population? 3. Is the difference in average profitability between online and offline customers in the sample indicative of a meaningful difference in probability across these groups for Pilgrim Bank’s entire customer population?

What role does customer demographics play in analyzing customer profitability for online and offline customers? 1 5. What is your recommendation to the senior management team in terms of Pilgrim Bank’s online channel pricing strategy? Should the bank charge fees, offer rebates, or do nothing in regards to pricing for online channel use? As always, be careful when making recommendations to the senior management team. You should provide enough explanations/justifications with data analysis (statistic tests).

The main text of your report should NOT be longer than SIX pages (double-spaced, 1-1. 5 inch margins, Times New Roman 12 pt font). You can provide some results of your data analysis in appendix which will not count toward the maximum page length. Please have ONE member of your group submit the assignment to both Blackboard and to turnitin. com (course ID: 7434367; enrollment password: winter2014) by Friday April 4 at 11:00pm. Remember to include the group cover page with your submission. Please see information posted on Blackboard for detailed submission instructions.

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