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Prison Comparison Contrast Paper gp essay help

Running head: PRISON COMPARISON CONTRAST PAPER Prison Comparison Contrast Paper Kelvin Hunter University of Phoenix Introduction to Corrections CJA/234 Ms. Johnson January 26, 2011 Prison Comparison Contrast Paper The American prison systems have changed since the 1800s. There are new developments and advanced technologies that help contribute to a better prison/penitentiary system as well as run it effectively. The subject of this will define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. It will explore historical factors while comparing and contrasting the prison systems during and after World War II.

Finally, it will take a look at the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period as well as focus the attention of the trend of prison labor since then. The Ideal of Penitentiary Teachers and other scholarly intellectuals have used the terms “penitentiary” for more than twenty years. “The penitentiary was more of an idea or set of principles than a physical institution with shape and form”(Foster, 2006, p. 21). It wasn’t really a building for ex cons, it was more of a concept. The purposes of a penitentiary were both secular and spiritual.

In Western societies, penitentiary was supposed to be a place of humane punishment rather than physical punishment. This place was created to keep prisoners separated from each other as much as possible; isolation, as opposed to regular prisons. It was also created for prisoners to express their feelings of regret of their wrongdoing. “As a secular institution, the penitentiary was meeting the religious need for expressing contrition for sin. The principal goal of the penitentiary was to achieve the kind of spiritual transformation in a criminal being that was associated with the religious beings of the medieval monastery”(Foster, p. 2). Prison Systems in World War II The World War II had many affects on the prisons. “Prison populations declined as many young men in trouble (including convicts who were paroled to work in war industries) were allowed to choose between military duty and prison”(Foster, 2006, chap. 3). So, if men committed crimes, instead of serving a prison sentence they had an option to serve in the military and fight in the wars. Active military service had provided strong control socially over young men. The Prison Industries Branch of the War Production Board was established in December 1941 to manage the industrial and agricultural output of state and federal prisons”(Foster, 2006, chap. 3). Production in industrial and agricultural in state prisons estimated about $25 million each. Prisoners mainly manufactured items pertaining to the world such as assault boats, bomb noses, cargo nets, Navy shirts, flags, and leather materials. After the World War II, the prison systems have changed drastically. Prisoners do not have the option to serve out their sentence in the military anymore.

It’s more on the concept: If you do the crime, you do the time. The prisons are overpopulated and the agriculture and industrial production has declined. “Politicians who had advocated greater involvement of prisoners in the war effort turned a blind eye to prisons after the war”(Foster, 2006, chap. 3). The guards are not as strict as the guards were during World War II. Prisoners are attacking the guards and trying to escape more frequently. They are also brave enough to take the guards and wardens hostage all while creating a prison riot. It is like they do not have respect for the law or the justice system.

In conclusion, this paper addressed the differences between what happened in the prison systems during and after World War II and the ideal and theory of penitentiary. With regards to the way prisons were operated during the WWII as opposed to the way it was operated today, one would think that they would show great appreciation. If the legal system apply some discipline and restrictions on the prisons now, then maybe it would not be as overpopulated as it is now. Without the exception of electrocution and lethal injection, this is a very effective method to show as an example to the people who are thinking about committing crimes.

References Foster, B. (2006). Prisons in Crisis. In Corrections: The Fundamentals (p. 50). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Foster, B. (2006). The Penitentiary and the 1800s. In Corrections: The Fundamentals (p. 21). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prencitice-Hall. * preferences * help Document Viewer Turnitin Originality Report * Processed on: 01-29-11 2:51 PM CST * ID: 168660078 * Word Count: 716 * Submitted: 1 PRISON COMPARISON AND CONTRAST By Kelvin Hunter Similarity Index 1% What’s this? Similarity by Source Internet Sources: 1% Publications: 0% Student Papers:

N/A exclude quoted exclude bibliography exclude small matches download refresh print mode: 1% match (Internet from 4/11/10) http://www. sses. se Running head: PRISON COMPARISON CONTRAST PAPER Prison Comparison Contrast Paper Kelvin Hunter University of Phoenix Introduction to Corrections CJA/234 Ms. Johnson January 26, 2011 Prison Comparison Contrast Paper The American prison systems have changed since the 1800s. There are new developments and advanced technologies that help contribute to a better prison/penitentiary system as well as run it effectively.

The subject of this will define and examine the theory and ideal of a penitentiary. It will explore historical factors while comparing and contrasting the prison systems during and after World War II. Finally, it will take a look at the impact and involvement of prison labor during this time period as well as focus the attention of the trend of prison labor since then. The Ideal of Penitentiary Teachers and other scholarly intellectuals have used the terms “penitentiary” for more than twenty years. “The penitentiary was more of an idea or set of principles than a physical institution with shape and form”(Foster, 2006, p. 1). It wasn’t really a building for ex cons, it was more of a concept. The purposes of a penitentiary were both secular and spiritual. In Western societies, penitentiary was supposed to be a place of humane punishment rather than physical punishment. This place was created to keep prisoners separated from each other as much as possible; isolation, as opposed to regular prisons. It was also created for prisoners to express their feelings of regret of their wrongdoing. “As a secular institution, the penitentiary was meeting the religious need for expressing contrition for sin.

The principal goal of the penitentiary was to achieve the kind of spiritual transformation in a criminal being that was associated with the religious beings of the medieval monastery”(Foster, p. 22). Prison Systems in World War II The World War II had many affects on the prisons. “Prison populations declined as many young men in trouble (including convicts who were paroled to work in war industries) were allowed to choose between military duty and prison”(Foster, 2006, chap. 3). So, if men committed crimes, instead of serving a prison sentence they had an option to serve in the military and fight in the wars.

Active military service had provided strong control socially over young men. “The Prison Industries Branch of the War Production Board was established in December 1941 to manage the industrial and agricultural output of state and federal prisons”(Foster, 2006, chap. 3). Production in industrial and agricultural in state prisons estimated about $25 million each. Prisoners mainly manufactured items pertaining to the world such as assault boats, bomb noses, cargo nets, Navy shirts, flags, and leather materials. After the World War II, the prison systems have changed drastically.

Prisoners do not have the option to serve out their sentence in the military anymore. It’s more on the concept: If you do the crime, you do the time. The prisons are overpopulated and the agriculture and industrial production has declined. “Politicians who had advocated greater involvement of prisoners in the war effort turned a blind eye to prisons after the war”(Foster, 2006, chap. 3). The guards are not as strict as the guards were during World War II. Prisoners are attacking the guards and trying to escape more frequently. They are also brave enough to take the guards and wardens hostage all while creating a prison riot.

It is like they do not have respect for the law or the justice system. In conclusion, this paper addressed the differences between what happened in the prison systems during and after World War II and the ideal and theory of penitentiary. With regards to the way prisons were operated during the WWII as opposed to the way it was operated today, one would think that they would show great appreciation. If the legal system apply some discipline and restrictions on the prisons now, then maybe it would not be as overpopulated as it is now.

Without the exception of electrocution and lethal injection, this is a very effective method to show as an example to the people who are thinking about committing crimes. References Foster, B. (2006). Prisons in Crisis. In Corrections: The Fundamentals (p. 50). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Foster, B. (2006). The Penitentiary and the 1800s. In Corrections: The Fundamentals (p. 21). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prencitice-Hall. Prison Comparison Contrast 1 Prison Comparison Contrast 2 Prison Comparison Contrast 3 Prison Comparison Contrast 4 Prison Comparison Contrast 5

Cv Essay college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Curriculum Vitae Katrina Williams Address: 68 Bruce Street Swindon Wilts SN2 2EW Tel Mobile: 07889 851761 Email: k4trin4@hotmail. co. uk PROFILE: I am an experienced, passionate sales and management professional with extensive learning and development experience, spanning across financial sectors, having the ability to build good relationships with customers and staff to deliver industry leading results. summary of Qualifications Education: Churchfields School (1993– 1998) GCSE’s English Literature English Language Mathematics

RELEVANT EXPERIENCE • . Deliver in house training and development expertise where there is significant competitive advantage. • Deliver learning for specific corporate programmes. • Deliver Sales, Service and Regulatory training that meets the external needs of FSA and internal needs of retail and compliance. • Meet agreed standards of professional training delivery within a Training and Competence Scheme. • Maintain expert knowledge of fit to trade, Sales, Service and regulatory training. EMPLOYMENT Nationwide Building Society

Business overview: Nationwide is the UK’s leading mutual organisation, which means we are owned by and run for the benefit of our members. We offer a complete range of financial services: savings, investments, insurance, mortgages, loans, pensions, credit cards and banking. With 3 head offices and five call centres. Just merged with Portman Building Society. the second largest retail mortgage lender and the second largest retail savings provider in the UK around 13 million members (nearly 12 million pre-merger) assets in excess of ? 60 billion (over ? 137 billion pre-merger) around 19,000 employees (around 16,000 pre-merger)over 900 retail outlets giving members access to an extensive network of branches and agencies (around 680 pre-merger) Job Description: Regulatory Sales and Service Trainer – HR Division 12/06/2006 – Present date Directly responsible for the Learning & Development for employees at Nationwide, Capabilities include but are not limited to: Commercial outlook to ensure a business focus to learning delivery • Understanding of fit to trade, sales, service and regulatory training requirements Skills and Knowledge include but are not limited to: • Strong background in financial services • Clear understanding of the financial sector market place • Commercially and business focused • Recognised expert in sales, service and regulatory training design and delivery • Understand learning development theory and the application of different models • Strong communication and presentation skills Engaging, impactful and have “presence” in the training room • Clear understanding of the training cycle and how people learn • Effective questioning and listening skills • Ability to influence and assert myself Nationwide Building Society Job description: Sales Advisor Directly responsible for generating mortgage sales from pre qualified leads to maintaining customer relations from point of contact, through to completion working to pre-set targets and deadlines. Skills and Knowledge include but are not limited to: Hard working, dynamic, self-motivated, disciplined, fast learner, flexible • Enthusiastic and professional with a proven track record in sales. • Excellent communication and interpersonal skills • Excellent telephone manner • Dynamic sales ability • Ability to work independently or as part of a team • Good computer and data input skills EDUCATION Certificate In Learning and Development Practice • 8th July 2001 – Current date (finishes April 2012) REFERENCES Available upon request.

Impact of Government Support on Cocoa Production in Ghana ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

ID:207DE02002696 NAME:NII AYI KOME THE IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT SUPPORT ON COCOA PRODUCTION IN GHANA FROM 2006 TO 2010 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background to the study For 66 years, Ghana was the largest producer of cocoa beans in the world. However, during the 1977/78 season, this position was lost by the country. Today, La Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana’s direct neighbor is the largest producer of the crop in the world, producing about 1. 2 million metric tonnes. In terms of cocoa exports, Cote d’Ivoire accounts for the largest share in West Africa with an estimated 34%, followed by Ghana 17. % (Based on ICCO figures for 2010). The contribution of the crop to the overall economy of the country cannot be overemphasized. This is what has been the driving force of the various government interventions to support the sector. For instance in 2002, cocoa revenue contributed to 22. 4 percent of total foreign exchange earnings to the country (ISSER, 2003). The crop is now contributing over $1billion of foreign exchange earnings to the country (COCOBOD, 2009). Losing the number one position, therefore, is a big blow to the country.

The target is not just to be called the number one but due to the important role of the crop to the economy, it is necessary to increase production. To achieve this, several initiatives have been put in place to support the cocoa sector. In 1999, government approved a Cocoa Sector Development Strategy under which cocoa production was projected to increase from the 335,000 metric tonnes to about 500,000 metric tonnes by 2004/5 and to 700,000 metric tonnes by 2009/10 (Quartey 2008). Government again introduced several interventions in 2001.

This time a multisectoral approach was adopted to improve yields and the sector as a whole. These include the construction, expansion and rehabilitation of roads in cocoa growing areas; expansion of warehouse facilities; research into the development of high yield cocoa species; and the Cocoa Diseases and Pest Control Programme(CODAPEC). The CODAPEC programme, popularly known as “Mass Spraying”, is aimed at addressing some very serious challenges to production in the country. The programme was among others is to educate farmers on best practices and periodic spraying of cocoa farms with insecticides to rid the crops of pests.

This initiative paid off during the 2003/4 season where the country produced about 737,000 metric tonnes of cocoa (Quartey 2008). Disease and pest is believed not to be the only impediment to high cocoa yields. The weather is another factor. Cocoa is said to be highly sensitive to drought in terms of growth and yield. Output is projected, as a result, to see a consistent decrease from 2020 to 2080 (Anim-Kwapong and Frimpong, 2004). This is attributed to high temperatures being experienced lately as a result of climate change.

After the impressive yields of the 2003/4 season, the performance of the sector has not been that impressive. From the common man’s point of view, production figures should be rising by the year as government increases funding for the implementation of the mass spraying programme. Between 2004 and 2010, the country’s production figures have seen constant fluctuations. Sometimes, there has been consistent fall in production. During the 2009/10 cocoa season, the country produced about 640,000 metric tonnes of cocoa. This figure is expected to rise to 1 million metric tonnes during the 2011/12 cocoa season (Kpodo, 2010).

This study will primarily focus on the mass spraying project to support the cocoa sector for an increase in production between 2006 and 2010. The study will focus on these years due to the danger of getting incorrect information from farmers when the period is too long. The study will evaluate the effectiveness of the project in view of the fluctuations in yield. 1. 2 Problem Statement The problem of pest and disease on cocoa farms in Ghana, which greatly hinders production, should be solved by now. The mass spraying programme is supposed to have taken care of that.

It is believed that a similar mass spraying project undertaken between 1959 and 1962 paid off with an impressive yield of 580,000 metric tonnes in the 1964/5 cocoa season (Adjinah and Opoku, 2009). Two years after inception of the mass spraying project of 2001/02, yields doubled. As shown in Table 1, the production figure of 2009/10 (8 years) is almost the same as that which was experienced after two years of inception of the mass spraying programme of 2001/02. The problem at hand is that the country is unable to see significant increases in production even though efforts are being made to that effect.

How effective has government support to increase production been over the period. 1. 3 Objectives of the Study The study aims at achieving the following: 1. To find out how effective the programme has been in ridding farms of pest and disease 2. To evaluate the cost benefits of the programme to the nation. 3. To find out its contribution to increase yields. 1. 4 Significance of the Study The outcome of the study will be of value to two main categories of people. First it will be of value to the major stakeholders in the cocoa industry.

The findings could help shape decisions and policies put in place that is aimed at improving on cocoa yields. The findings will inform government on how to improve on support interventions to the cocoa sector. Secondly, students and other researchers will find this study of great value. They will find valuable information and credible data which will facilitate their research or study. 1. 5 Definition of terms COCOBOD – Ghana Cocoa Board; The regulator of the cocoa sector in Ghana. CODAPEC – Cocoa Diseases and Pest Control; The body set up to administer the mass spraying initiative.

CRIG – Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana; A subsidiary of COCOBOD responsible for research into everything leading to improvement in the cocoa sector. ICCO – International Cocoa Organization 1. 6 Organization of chapters Chapter one is an introduction to the study. It is made up of the background, problem statement, and objectives of the study, significance of the study and definition of terms. Chapter two represents a literature review. This chapter reviews relevant literature on the topic and tries to analyze such studies. It involves both the studies of empirical and theoretical data relevant to the study.

Chapter three give the methodology to be used in the study. The chapter elaborates how the research is to be conducted the statistical tools to be used, sample and sample size. Chapter four discusses the results and findings of the study. An attempt will be made at making meaning to the data gathered. Chapter five is the summary, conclusion and recommendations chapter. This last chapter summarizes the whole research, points out how it has created knowledge and how far the objectives of the study have been met, and makes recommendations.

What Is International Strategic Management? Critically Examine the Course of Strategic Decision Making, Identifying the Types, Processes and Implication for Managers mba essay help: mba essay help

1. 0Definition: International Strategic Management is a planning process of developing international strategy in the direction of achieving strategic-fit between the organisation’s competence & resources and the global environment under which it tends to operate. It is an ongoing process that adhere an organization to compete in an international scenario. International Strategic Management (ISM) is an ongoing management planning process aimed at developing strategies to allow an organization to expand abroad and compete internationally.

Strategic planning is used in the process of developing a particular international strategy. An organization must be able to determine what products or services they intend to sell, where and how the organization will make these products or services, where they will sell them, and how the organization will acquire the necessary resources for these tasks. Even more importantly an organization must have a strategy on how it expects to outperform its competitors. 2. 00The Course of Strategic Decision Making, the Types processes and Implication for the Managers 2. 01Course of Strategic Decision Making:

Strategy formulation is the process of deciding best course of action for accomplishing organizational objectives and hence achieving organizational purpose. After conducting environment scanning, managers formulate corporate, business and functional strategies The initial task in strategic management is typically the compilation and dissemination of a mission statement. This document outlines, in essence, the raison d’etre of an organization. Additionally, it specifies the scope of activities an organization wishes to undertake, coupled with the markets a firm wishes to serve.

Following the devising of a mission statement, a firm would then undertake an environmental scanning within the purview of the statement. Strategic formation is a combination of three main processes which are as follows: •Performing a situation analysis, self-evaluation and competitor analysis: both internal and external; both micro-environmental and macro-environmental. •Concurrent with this assessment, objectives are set. These objectives should be parallel to a time-line; some are in the short-term and others on the long-term.

This involves crafting vision statements (long term view of a possible future), mission statements (the role that the organization gives itself in society), overall corporate objectives (both financial and strategic), strategic business unit objectives (both financial and strategic), and tactical objectives 2. 02The Types processes and Implication for the Managers 2. 01Researchers since Mintzberg et al. have focused on identifying and describing the major categories or types of strategic decision processes.

In perhaps the most extensive study of strategic decision processes to date, Hickson, Butler, Cray, Mallory, and Wilson (1986) examined 150 decision processes in British organizations and developed a typology which included three basic types of processes; fluid, constricted, and sporadic. (i)A fluid decision process is one that is steadily paced, formally channeled, and speedy. (ii)A constricted process is one that is narrowly channeled. It is moderately restricted in terms of the effort made to obtain information and in terms of the number of organizational members who participate in the decision. iii)Finally, a sporadic process is one that is spasmodic, protracted, and contains many interrupts and recycles Furthermore, Hart (1992) synthesized earlier research on strategic decision models and developed his own integrative framework which included five styles of strategy making processes. (i)The command mode, in which strategy is driven by the organization’s leader or by a small top management team. (ii)The symbolic mode. In this mode, strategy is driven by the organization’s mission and vision of the future. (iii)The rational mode, in which strategy is driven by formal structure and planning systems. iv)The transactive mode, strategy formulation is driven by internal processes and mutual adjustment. (v)The generative mode, strategy is most strongly influenced by the initiative of organizational actors. Strategic Decision Models and Characteristics For the past few decades, researchers have attempted to model the strategic decision process and identify the major types or categories of strategic decisions. This is a difficult task since strategic decisions are often described as “unstructured”, “unprogrammed”, and “messy”.

Mintzberg, Raisinghani, and Theoret (1976) provided an early attempt at modeling the process of strategic decision making and identified three major phases with subroutines or subphases within each. These included the following: THE IDENTIFICATION PHASE 1. The Decision Recognition Routine: Opportunities, problems, and crises are recognized and evoke decisional activity. 2. The Diagnosis Routine: Information relevant to opportunities, problems, and crises is collected and problems are more clearly identified. THE DEVELOPMENT PHASE . The Search Routine: Organizational decision makers go through a number of activities to generate alternative solutions to problems. 4. The Design Routine: Ready-made solutions which have been identified are modified to fit the particular problem or new solutions are designed. THE SELECTION PHASE 5. The Screen Routine: This routine is activated when the search routine identifies more alternatives than can be intensively evaluated. Alternatives are quickly scanned and the most obviously infeasible are eliminated. 6.

The Evaluation-Choice Routine: An alternative is chosen either through a process of analysis and judgment or a process of bargaining among decision makers. 7. The Authorization Routine: When the individual making the decision does not have the authority to commit the organization to a course of action, the decision must move up the organizational hierarchy until it reaches a level at which the necessary authority resides. Strategy Evaluation and choice An environmental scan will highlight all pertinent aspects that affect an organization, whether external or sector/industry-based.

Such an occurrence will also uncover areas to capitalize on, in addition to areas in which expansion may be unwise. These options, once identified, have to be vetted and screened by an organization. In addition to ascertaining the suitability, feasibility and acceptability of an option, the actual modes of progress have to be determined. These pertain to: +Implication for Managers The strategic management process means defining the organization’s strategy. It is also defined as the process by which managers make a choice of a set f strategies for the organization that will enable it to achieve better performance. Strategic management is a continuous process that appraises the business and industries in which the organization is involved; appraises it’s competitors; and fixes goals to meet all the present and future competitor’s and then reassesses each strategy. Therefore, a manager with sound strategy that is result oriented, would not only perform well, by ensuring that his organization compete creditable with other organization, but would also be promoted to a higher level, up to the chairman/chief executive of the organization.

American Identity Paper: John Hector St. John de Crevecoeur college essay help online free: college essay help online free

American Identity Paper Stafford Sweeting University of Phoenix HIS/110 Tom Albano May 28, 2011 American Identity Paper John Hector St. John de Crevecoeur was a naturalized French-American writer authored the 1782 essay Series, ‘Letters to an American Farmer’ which were presented as a book; the narratives of the collective essays describing and giving rise to what can now be determined as ‘American Ideals’ His through his ‘letters’ used American-English slang as they were used in the frontier; the American ideals of self-determinism, principles of equality & liberalism were ever present and exemplified in the narrative.

Together with detailed descriptions of daily lives from farms, towns cities & villages, the 1782 release opened the ‘New World’ to European eyes as slowly Europe came to t realize that a unique culture, a collective of varied nations & immigrants with new freedoms and greater risks worked the new British territories for little, big or no rewards. The hardships & joys he described, the landscapes & the social situation forged, to the Europeans an image of an American, a colonial one, that is.

He was all encompassing in his essay, looking at America as a collective of people, a new nation other than describing it only as a certain colonial territory/region. De Crevecoeur immigrated to the Americans in 1755; the 3 decades of his American experience gave him a unique insight to how the America that he was a part of was a melting pot of culture believes and experiences where religious diversity was accepted and unlike in Europe, like was uncomplicated.

Bearing in mind that de Crevecoeur lived over 200 years ago in Colonial America and a Europe of Colonial rivalry, this is how he described an American: • They were able men (Englishmen, French, and Europeans) who had enough of the miseries of life in Europe and were seeking a new beginning, a refuge in the new world. • An adaptable individual who draws from his own ethnicity, experience and history to survive the risks and challenges of the new world. • Americans live in a society where the divide between the rich and the poor is not as pronounced and emphasized. A nation where equality is an ideal • Americans appreciate hard work and are ready and willing to work anytime on any situation. • In America, there are no princes or royalty, in America there is no great social divide because you do not get anything for free unless otherwise you deserve it. • Americans, for Crevecoeur equates to Freedom. Crevecoeur did not set out to glorify the Americans and make them far more modern, forward-thinking and liberal than any of the European monarchies and Kingdoms that still held sway in Europe and parts of the world when he released his book.

His focus, I believe was to introduce the new nation as a unique society that came to be due to the culture, perspectives, beliefs and traditions that was influenced by the need to survive. By adoption and by understanding the value of each refugee, each pioneer and each immigrant involved in the new nation have come to believe that all men are created equal and that hard work is the only way to go; while it is nice to be born into moneyed families, in America your hard work determines your lot in life.

Crevecoeur does not go on in the sections indicated that Europeans are the opposite of these; his message is clear. To his then readers he wanted them to see America as a place where equality, freedom and hard work determine one’s quality of life. References Owens, M. R. H. & Forrest, T. J. (1995). Letters from an American Farmer: J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur. Retrieved July 28, 2010 from http://xroads. virginia. edu/~hyper/CREV/letter03.

Literature Review of Fal-G free essay help online: free essay help online

CHAPTER. 2 Literature review GENERAL Fly ash is a waste product from thermal power plants where pulverized coal is used for the as per the literature review GouravHYPERLINK “http://biblioteca. universia. net/autor/Gourav,%20K. html”, Studies, 2007. Fly ash is being utilized in the blended cements, additive for concrete and manufacturing of concrete blocks and bricks. Fly ash-lime-gypsum bricks are being manufactured and marketed throughout the country.

The literature review on fly ash-lime-gypsum (FALG) mixtures as intended to manufacture bricks or blocks for masonry applications indicates several gaps in understanding the various aspects of the technology. The present thesis is an attempt to understand the behavior of compacted stabilized fly ash mixtures for the manufacture of fly ash bricks and characteristics of masonry using such bricks. A brief introduction to the technology of compacted stabilized fly ash bricks for structural masonry is provided.

The main focus of the investigations is on arriving at the optimum stabilizer-fly ash mixtures considering density, stabilizer-fly ash ratio, curing conditions, etc. as the variables. Therefore the parameters/variables considered in the investigation include: (a) density of the compacted fly ash mixture, (b) stabilizer-fly ash ratio, (c) curing duration (normal curing and steam curing) and (d) dosage of additives like gypsum. The investigations clearly show the possibility of producing bricks of good quality using compacted fly ash-lime gypsum mixtures.

Wet compressive strengths of 8- 10 MPa was obtained for compacted fly ash-lime-gypsum bricks at the age of 28 days. Wet strength to dry strength ratio for these bricks is in the range of 0. 55 – 0. 67. Initial tangent modulus for the fly ash-lime-gypsum bricks in saturated condition is in the range of 8000 – 12000 MPa. There is a large scope for selecting optimum mix ratios of Fly ash, sand, lime and other additives to obtain a specific designed strength for the brick. The thesis ends highlighting major conclusions of the investigations.

A general study conducted on M30 strength of neat FaL-G has indicated that 1. 5 times of its dosage by weight, as against OPC, keeping the other aggregate same, renders a mortar or concrete of parallel grade strength. A Study on workability for M15 grade concrete has not shown any slump, unlike OPC. The additional 50% input of FaL-G cement might have rendered relatively better cohesion for wet concrete to show this phenomenon. Hence a different approach to study workability of FaL-G concrete has to be developed. Even at low workability, this can be considered as roller compacted concrete.

FaL-G can replace OPC in many avenues. The reinforcement behavioral studies in reinforced FaL-G cement concrete (RFCC) are in progress but the postulations indicate that the constituent of FaL-G being 1. 5 times more than OPC by weight which in other words 3 times by volume of account of two to one ratio in densities, the specific area of cement matrix is relatively larger in RFCC than in RCC. Thereby reinforcement is more closely coated with cementitious gels and more safely ensured for water impermeability to veto the chances of corrosion.

However FaL-G is weak abrasive product hence may be avoided on high abrasive prone areas, till its abrasive resistance is virtually improved. It is cheap in cost; transportation cost can be reduced by decentralizing the FaL-G cement activities. Fly ash-based brick and cement are far superior in engineering properties over their conventional competitors. This knowledge needs to be disseminated globally, more so in second and third world countries, through tangible technical explanations (Bhanumathidas and Kalidas 2003).

Although results of FaL-G bricks and hollow blocks were promising, and the technology could not be implemented due to initial consumer resistance in adapting to new materials. Ambalavanan and Roja (1996) in their study of FaL-G bricks utilized waste lime and gypsum with fly ash. They have observed that in most cases the use of waste lime does not give technically desired results and some improvement is needed to increase the strength of FaL-G bricks. The treatment to be given to waste lime increases the cost of FaL-G bricks significantly as compared to conventional bricks, which is hindering the commercialisation of this new material.

Some researchers have reported that there is fall in strength in FaL-G composites at later age. This aspect should be considered in the field application of FaL-G products. For wider application of FaL-G bricks and hollow blocks in the housing sector, extensive research is further needed. ENGINEERING & MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FAL-G Radhakrishnas (2010) preparation of FAL-g composite included both blocks & cubes, with different parameters like finesse of fly ash, aggregate to binder ratio, degree of saturation, age & testing the blocks and cubes for unconfined compression to determine the compressive strength.

The strength data was generalized for a reference value of water-to-FaL-G ratio. A phenomenological model was developed to account for synergy between the materials used. Its robustness was verified with an independent set of experimental data. The predicted strength values are in close agreement with the experimental strength. He reinforced the possibility of using the model in the field to re-proportion the FaL-G mix of any consistency.

Ismail Demur and Serhat Baspinar, 2007: investigated the effect of different type of pozzolan additions to cement free lightweight block made from fly ash–lime–gypsum mixture and observe the changes in physical, mechanical, thermal properties and microstructure Thermal conductivity of the fly ash–lime–gypsum mixture was improved by the addition of the expanded perlite. Optimal strength-thermal conductivity combination was obtained by the usage of silica fume and expanded perlite together. Improved strength properties were obtained by using hydrothermal curing conditions and super plasticizer addition.

Mingjie Hua et al, 2009: conducted test using- -new type of semi-rigid road sub-bases. , which is a mixture of FGD gypsum, water glass and slaked lime. They studied molded samples of this new material & investigated using different curing methods and measuring unconfined compressive Strength, soundness and water stability. Their team showed that the road sub-base material reflects excellent mechanical properties and soundness durability. S. K. Antiohos et al; 2007: In their test they studied Mechanical and durability characteristics of gypsum-free blended cements incorporating ulphate-rich reject fly ash. No gypsum was added in the mixtures, since it is believed that sulphate ions necessary for the prolongation of the setting process (commonly provided by gypsum) could be provided by fly ash enriched in sulphates. Their tests results revealed that waste materials not up to relevant standards could still contribute to the production of quality products of energy and economical efficiency. * This article is not included in your organization’s subscription. However, you may be able to access this article under your organization’s agreement with Elsevier.

As per Patent paper, Accession Number: 01022792; This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation on tensile strength, bearing ratio, and slake durability characteristics of a class F fly ash stabilized with lime alone or in combination with gypsum. They developed Empirical models to estimate tensile strength, bearing ratio, and slake durability indices of stabilized fly ash from unconfined compressive strength test results are also proposed herein. They concluded with enhanced tensile strength and durability characteristics, the stabilized fly ash may find potential use in civil engineering construction.

Ambarish Ghosh; 2006: presents paper with results of a laboratory investigation on tensile strength, bearing ratio, and slake durability characteristics of a class F fly ash stabilized with lime alone or in combination with gypsum. Empirical models to estimate tensile strength, bearing ratio, and slake durability indices of stabilized fly ash from unconfined compressive strength test results are also studied, he reported that, with enhanced tensile strength and durability characteristics, the stabilized fly ash may find potential use in civil engineering construction.

D. P. Benz et al; (2010); presents paper about thermal Properties of High-Volume Fly Ash Mortars and Concretes. Paper focuses on a characterization of the thermal properties, namely specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity, of such mixture. Because the specimens being examined are well hydrated, estimates of the specific heat capacity based on a law of mixtures, with a “bound specific heat capacity value being employed for the water in the mixture, provide reasonable predictions of the measured performance.

Observed measured values should provide a useful database for evaluating the thermal performance of high volume fly ash concrete structures. RESEARCH PAPER 1999: points about the effects of processing and materials variations on mechanical properties of lightweight cement composites. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing the amount of silica fume, fly ash, and fibers. Paper says both carbon fibers and alkali-resistant glass fibers were effective in reinforcing the matrices, but carbon fibers were superior to glass fibers.

Fabrication techniques for producing lightweight cement composites that can substitute for autoclaved lightweight concrete was developed. Md. Moinul Islam1and Md. Saiful Islam 2010: did research about Strength Behaviors of Mortar Using Fly Ash as Partial Replacement of Cement. Concrete Research Letters Vol. 1(3) this paper reports the results of an experimental investigation carried out to study the effects of fly ash on strength development of mortar and the optimum use of fly ash in mortar.

His test results show that strength increases with the increase of fly ash up to an optimum value, beyond which, strength values start decreasing with further addition of fly ash. Among the six fly ash mortars, the optimum amount of cement replacement in mortar is about 40%, which provides 14%higher compressive strength and 8% higher tensile strength as compared to OPC mortar. Jia-sheng Chen1 et al; February 2010: His study results show that yellow phosphorus slag can be used as the cement substitute for potential coagulation property.

The hydration reaction involves hydration stage, solidifying stage, and strength stage with Ca (OH) 2 as the activating agent. The reaction rates of yellow phosphorus slag, Portland cement, and ultrafine powder hydration with the increase of microstructure stability and initial strength. S. Maitra et al; 2005: Effect of heat treatment on properties of steam cured fly ash-lime compacts was studied. Kinetics of thermal dehydration of the compacts was also studied from thermo gravimetric measurements under non-isothermal condition to ascertain the order of dehydration process and the associated activation energy.

Seema Karami1 et al; 2010: Research was undertaken to study the effect of sulphate activation of Run of Station Ash (ROSA) blend with Red-Gypsum (RG), Plaster Board Gypsum (PG) and By-Pass Dust (BPD). Research on Fly ash, Lime and Phospho gypsum (FaL-G) reported that when gypsum was added to Fa-L mix, the compressive strength increased by 3 and 22 times in comparison with that of Fa alone and Fa-L at 28 days curing time, respectively [A. Ghosh and Ch. Subbarao, 2001]. FaL-G is a hydraulic binder that was used for bricks and hollow blocks [Kumar, 2002].

Analysis of aerated concrete block wall; construction quality control; paper gives information about aerated cement concrete blocks are made of , lime, gypsum and fly ash, or river sand as the main raw material, aluminum is made by the gas-foaming agent, molding, maintenance and other craft made of autoclaved porous block walls material. As a load-bearing and non load-bearing structural materials and thermal insulation envelope materials, with a light weight, thermal insulation, sound insulation performance is good; there is a certain mechanical strength and process ability advantages.

This paper discusses the aerated concrete block wall construction quality control points. | ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS PapitaSaha & ShyamalKSanyal;2010;The present contribution deals with the removal of cadmium ion using clay soil mixed with different admixture (cement, gypsum, lime, bentonite) as adsorbent in laboratory scale experiment. In continuous experiment it was observed that the % removal was 95–99%. A mathematical treatment of this adsorption phenomenon has been developed and it was observed that the experimental results showed satisfactory agreement with the theoretical predicted results. M.

Ahmaruzzaman; 2010: In this paper, the utilization of fly ash in construction, as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of organic compounds, flue gas and metals, light weight aggregate, mine back fill, road sub-base, and zeolite synthesis is discussed. The adsorption capacity of fly ash may be increased after chemical and physical activation. Converting fly ash into zeolites not only alleviates the disposal problem but also converts a waste material into a marketable commodity. Investigations also revealed that the unburned carbon component in fly ash plays an important role in its adsorption capacity.

Future research in these areas is also discussed. | As per the experimental studies done by S. Geetha, & Ramamurthy; 2010: Chemical activation is done using Na2SO4 to enhance the strength of the cold-bonded aggregate by accelerating the pozzolanic reaction and formation of more ettringite. It was observed that increase in binder and Na2SO4 dosages increased the strength and decreased the open porosity thereby reducing the water absorption As per, Lal C. Ram & Reginald E. Masto; 2010: Studies the application of FA has improved the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soil to which it is applied.

FA generated in India tends to be mostly alkaline, with lower levels of trace elements than are often found in FAs from other countries. The concentrations of potential chemical stressors, predominantly metals, in Indian FAs are often less than established or proposed permissible limits and are thus better suited for soil application. A major logistic limitation to the use of FA could be the cost involved in transport of ash from production to utilization sites. High Volume Fly Ash Concrete and Its Mechanism Posted: 2009- It is known that the fly ash emissions from industrial by-products are very large.

To fully exploit the potential activity of industrial waste, fly ash has to be used to reduce the amount of cement concrete. To reduce the Cost of production; turning waste into treasure, of harm into, saving a lot of valuable land dumping of fly ash; a greater degree of high performance edge, to improve concrete workability, durability, and physical and mechanical properties we have to use Fly Ash Concrete In one embodiment the invention provides solid bricks produced by compressing together fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum, calcium carbonate, and lime.

These bricks have sufficient structural strength for use in building and construction. In another embodiment, waste materials are encapsulated in a mixture of fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum, lime, and calcium carbonate and compressed into bricks that may be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Further, the compressed bricks containing waste material may be coated with an impermeable membrane of a synthetic polymeric material. Further, the invention provides a mobile, trailer-mounted apparatus for compressing the mixtures into bricks.

Mohammad M. Khabiri; 2010: studied the effect of Stabilized Sub base, Containing Waste Construction Materials on Reduction of Pavement Rutting Depth, & examined the changes of rutting depths due to using from stabilized Recyclables materials. Milken et al; study & investigates the feasibility of using coal fly ash and fly ash-bentonite mixtures as a barrier material for mine waste. Tara Sen and Umesh Mishra; 2010: studied, applications of industrial wastes considered in road construction with great interest in many industrialized and developing countries.

The results of this study suggest that the addition of 10% bentonite to coal fly ash reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the coal fly ash to less than 1_10? 9 ms and improved the chemical compatibility for mine waste containment. Use of these materials in road making is based on technical, economic, and ecological criteria. Various Industrial wastes for use in the construction of highway have been found to be successful. ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES. Eco-housing Assessment Criteria – 2009. Information about Fly Ash Lime Gypsum Brick.

Fly ash-lime-gypsum bricks / blocks are very good products, giving the highest strength among various bricks. These require relatively higher investment and expensive raw materials to give arrange of high strength products. This is most suitable for mechanized operations, though semi mechanized operations are also possible. Fly ash lime gypsum bricks are made up of 60% fly ash, 10-20% lime and 10-20% gypsum. These bricks have medium range strength. Minimum compressive strength (28 days) of 70 kg/cm2 can easily be achieved and this can go up to 250 Kg/cm2 (in autoclaved type).

Advantage of these bricks over burnt clay bricks: Lower requirement of mortar in construction, Plastering over brick can be avoided, Controlled dimensions, edges, smooth and fine finish & can be in different colors using pigments and cost effective, energy-efficient & environment friendly (This avoids the use of fertile clay). Polycor Vetrazzo; -2010: did research about recycled material & investigates the composition preferably used for recycle that is Fal-g and observes, has high recycle content.

The sheet-form material made in accordance with the invention can be used to provide exposed solid surfaces, for example, surfaces for shower walls and floors, counter-tops, table-tops, and the like, where low hydraulic permeability and high compressive and tensile strength are required. The cement content is relatively low, preferably in the range of about 3% to 20% by weight, and the pozzolan to cement ratio is relatively high, preferably equal to or greater than unity and can be suitably used as alternative construction material.

Godfrey MadzivireLeslie et al; 2010: studies about Balfo Application of coal fly ash to circumneutral mine waters for the removal of sulphates as gypsum and ettringite. They observed Subsequent treatment of circumneutral mine water to pH greater than 11 resulted in more than 60% sulphate removal. Treatment of circumneutral mine water to pH greater than 11 with FA followed by seeding with gypsum crystals and the addition of amorphous Al(OH) 3 resulted in removal of sulphate to levels below the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) water quality effluent limit (500 ppm0). Keat-Teong LeeKok-Chong Tan, et al, 2007, they devised a

Model that was found useful to predict the daily operation of flue gas desulfurization processes by using CaO/CaSO4/coal fly ash sorbent to remove O2from flue gas. Puvvadi V et al; 2010: studied about Gypsum treated fly ash as a liner for waste disposal facilities. They investigated the use of gypsum, which is known to accelerate the unconfined compressive strength by increasing the lime reactivity, and further improving the hydraulic conductivity. They made an attempt in the present context to reduce the hydraulic conductivity by adding lime content up to 10% to two selected samples of class F fly ashes.

They investigated that the higher amount of lime in the presence of sulphate is observed to produce more cementitious compounds which block the pores in the fly ash. The consequent reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of fly ash would be beneficial in reducing the leach ability of trace elements present in the fly ash when used as a base liner. J. Sanjurjo Sanchez et al. 2010. Studied about the deposition of particles on gypsum-rich coatings of historic buildings in urban and rural environments and made comparisons.

They studied XRF and SEM analyses of these coatings and their comparison with both the composition of dust coatings formed by the deposition of gaseous and particulate matter in an urban and a rural locality allows assessing which pollution sources are the most damaging for these materials, knowing the elemental composition of these emissions. Aly Ahmed et al; 2011: did Investigations of using recycled gypsum “bassanite” which is derived from gypsum waste plasterboard and waste plastic trays for ground improvement; this can be also used for soil improvement.

Recycled gypsum content, curing time and frost heave property throughout capillary rise test were investigated to determine the behavior of treated soil with recycled gypsum. In addition, size, content and aspect ratio of strips of waste plastic trays were investigated. Adding strips of waste plastic trays to samples treated with recycled gypsum enhanced both splitting tensile and compressive strengths as well increased the value of secant modulus. The size and content of strips of waste plastic trays have significant effect on the potential of capillary rise and the enhancement of strength and stiffness of tested soil.

Mridul Garg et al; 2010:did investigations about environment hazard mitigation of wasteHYPERLINK “http://www. sciencedirect. com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2G-50HWJ3X-9&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F14%2F2010&_alid=1529465624&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=5702&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=15&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=227eba22bc38c03d62ab580849bcc1c7&searchtype=a” gypsumHYPERLINK “http://www. sciencedirect. om/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2G-50HWJ3X-9&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F14%2F2010&_alid=1529465624&_rdoc=2&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=5702&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=15&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=227eba22bc38c03d62ab580849bcc1c7&searchtype=a” and chalk& how to utilize HYPERLINK “http://www. sciencedirect. com/science? _ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V2G-50HWJ3X-9&_user=10&_coverDate=07%2F14%2F2010&_alid=1529465624&_rdo =2&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_zone=rslt_list_item&_cdi=5702&_sort=r&_st=13&_docanchor=&view=c&_ct=15&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=227eba22bc38c03d62ab580849bcc1c7&searchtype=a” in construction materials. The paper deals with studies on select wastes like phosphogypsum and chalk for use in value-added building materials. The engineering properties and techno-economics of materials like gypsum plasters, cementitious binders, boards/blocks, masonry cement and flooring tiles produced from phosphogypsum and lime have been detailed.

They came to the conclusion that the production and use of building materials from such wastes will protect the environment from degradation. The disposal and use of solid industrial wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum, fly ash, and slag can be met successfully. Activation or strengthening of fly ash-lime with gypsum Yang MinQian Jueshi and Pang Ying; 2007:studied about the Activation of fly ash–lime systems using calcined phosphor gypsum & also experiments were performed to determine the effect of calcined phosphogypsum on the strength of fly ash–lime binders.

Significant strength increases compared to binders without calcined phosphogypsum were observed due to the activation. They opined lime sludge, is significant in view of their availability and potential applications. Kelly RuschTingzong Guo and Roger; 2002: They investigated how best PG can be stabilized with class C fly ash and lime for potential use in marine environments. Development of the ruptures in the composites must be considered when the composites are used for aquatic applications.

They came to the conclusion that effective diffusion coefficients and effective diffusion depths alone are not necessarily good indicators of the long-term survivability of PG: class C fly ash: lime composites. Larbi Kacimi & Martin Cyrand Pierre Clastres; 2010: The objective of this study was the synthesis of ?? L-C2S (Ca2SiO4) belite cement, starting from fly-ash of system CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–SO3, and using the hydrothermal method in alkaline solution. The optimization of the synthesis parameters (temperature and time of stirring, pH of solution, temperature and duration of mixture burning) was also studied.

The results obtained showed that these ashes could form belite cement composed of only one dicalcium silicate phase (?? L-C2S). Bhanumathidas and Kalidas; 2004: They studied the Point of View Dual role of gypsum: Set retarder and strength accelerator. They opined while all fly ashes may not need additional gypsum, care has to be taken not to deprive those fly ashes in need of additional gypsum FaL-G technology, developed by the authors, achieved its breakthrough by tapping the potential of calcium aluminates towards the formation of ettringite and mono-sulphate; thus changing the pace of lime-fly ash chemistry.

They said gypsum plays a predominant role as the strength accelerator in the context of hydrated mineralogy in FaL-G. Moreover, gypsum works as set-accelerator in lime-pozzolana binders in contrast to its role as set-retarder in OPC. Stefania Grzeszczyk, and Katarzyna Front; 2000. They carried out rheological studies out on the effect of a super plasticizer from the sulphonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) group upon the properties of fly ash suspensions containing a small quantity of mineral admixtures such as cement, lime and gypsum. Ghosh, et al; 2007: They studied about Leaching of Lime from Fly Ash Stabilized with Lime and Gypsum.

They presented leaching test results of a class F low lime fly ash stabilized with varying percentages of lime (4, 6, and 10%) alone or in combination with gypsum (0. 5 and 1. 0%).. The effects of factors like lime content, gypsum content, curing period, and flow period on leaching of lime from a compacted stabilized fly ash matrix are reported herein. Two non dimensional parameters, alpha sub coi and beta sub coi, are presented herein to study the effect of gypsum on the total amount of calcium leached out from the compacted stabilized fly ash.

They presented a model is also to estimate the amount of calcium leached out from the stabilized fly ash. Ambarish Ghosh 2010; conducted lab test to determine the compaction Characteristics and Bearing Ratio of Pond Ash Stabilized with Lime and Phosphogypsum. This paper presents the laboratory test results of a Class F pond ash alone and stabilized with varying percentages of lime (4, 6, and 10%) and PG (0. 5, and 1. 0), to study the suitability of stabilized pond ash for road base and sub base construction. As per the empirical model he developed to estimate the bearing ratio for the stabilized mixes through multiple regression analysis.

Linear empirical relationship has been presented herein to estimate soaked bearing ratio from unsoaked bearing ratio of stabilized pond ash. He concluded from the experimental results that pond ash-lime-PG mixes have potential for applications as road base and sub base materials. As per,PeijiangHYPERLINK “http://scitation. aip. org/vsearch/servlet/VerityServlet? KEY=ASCERL&possible1=Sun%2C+Peijiang&possible1zone=author&maxdisp=25&smode=strresults&aqs=true” Sun and HwaiHYPERLINK “http://scitation. aip. org/vsearch/servlet/VerityServlet?

KEY=ASCERL&possible1=Wu%2C+Hwai-Chung&possible1zone=author&maxdisp=25&smode=strresults&aqs=true”-Chung Wu 2009, Splitting Tensile Strength of Fly Ash Activated by Hydrothermal Hot-Pressing Process, an innovative process of recycling fly ash (both Class F and Class C) into potential construction materials with superior mechanical properties is investigated. Several key parameters—such as treatment temperature, duration of process, and amount of chemical activator—are evaluated critically. The results confirm that fly ash can be solidified and specimens show splitting tensile strengths of about 1. 0 MPa by hydrothermal hot pressing alone.

With a small amount of chemical activator (NaOH), the tensile strength can reach as highas5. 4 MPa. Fal-g used as Road sub base parameters Weiguo ShenMingkai Zhoua and Qinglin Zhao; 2006:, Studied on lime–fly ash–phosphogypsum, FaL-g Binder. As per his their study a new type of lime–fly ash–phosphogypsum binder was prepared. To improve the performances of lime–fly ash binder this was a typical semi-rigid road base Material binder in China. They concluded the modified lime powder had much higher activity than ordinary quick lime or slaked lime powder; it was the best alkali activator to prepare lime–fly ash–phosphogypsum binder.

As per, Degirmenci & Nurhayat; 2008, they investigated Utilization of phosphogypsum as raw and calcined material in manufacturing of building products. The main objective of this research was to investigate the utilization potential of phosphogypsum with fly ash and lime in construction industry. On the basis of the test results, it was concluded that the curing conditions have an important influence on the compressive and flexural strength of the binder specimens. It was also concluded that the, Cementitous binder obtained can be used for the production of interior wall materials such as bricks and blocks

MinYang et al; 2008: presented a (Technical Note) regarding activation of fly ash-lime systems using calcined phosphogypsum. Experiments were performed to determine the effect of calcined phosphogypsum on the strength of fly ash lime binders. But lowering the lime to calcined phosphogypsum ratio of blends with the same fly ash content yielded a relatively lower compressive development at late ages. Strengths of samples cured first at 45[degrees] C in over 90% R. H. for 12 h and then at room temperature were better than those cured at room temperature all the time.

X-ray analysis suggests that the activation of calcined phosphogypsum to the systems was due to the formation of ettringite and dehydrate calcium sulfate during the hydration process. LJMU 2008 ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 20TH -21ST FEBRUARY 2008, LIVERPOOL, UK. This paper will review the various applications for coal fly ash associated with road construction, summaries the technical benefits and discuss in detail the environmental and sustainability considerations of its use. Composite masonry material from Fal-G A Paki Turgut; 2010: investigated about Masonry composite material made of limestone powder and fly ash.

LP waste and class-C FA were used to produce a composite material without the addition of Portland cement. They concluded, from Preliminary results obtained from the tests that masonry composites can be produced using LP, FA and water. | | | etd AT Indian Institute of Science ; 1994:Did investigation about-| -a method of using waste materials produced by coal combustion to produce useful products. In one embodiment the invention provides solid bricks produced by compressing together fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum, calcium carbonate, and lime.

These bricks have sufficient structural strength for use in building and construction. In another embodiment, waste materials are encapsulated in a mixture of fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum, lime, and calcium carbonate and compressed into bricks that may be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Further, the compressed bricks containing waste material may be coated with an impermeable membrane of a synthetic polymeric material. Further, the invention provides a mobile, trailer-mounted apparatus for compressing the mixtures into bricks. P.

Chindaprasirt; 2008: did investigation about Lightweight bricks made of diatomaceous earth, lime and gypsum. They studied Water content, pre-curing period, lime content, gypsum content and calcined temperature. The nature of hydration products and morphological characteristics of the lightweight bricks are also investigated. Yang et al; 2009 conducted studies about Preparation of load-bearing building materials from autoclaved phosphogypsum. The present study was focused on autoclaved PG and its use in making load-bearing wall bricks. Tobermorite was the significant hydrated product, which contributed to the strength of bricks.

The use of autoclaved PG for making load-bearing wall bricks was recommended instead of conventional burnt clay bricks. A possibility to get water-stable materials at curing in the ambient air. It was shown that water uptake might be reduced by different methods, the best of which is short-term impregnation by a hydrophobic liquid of the siloxane group. Results from experiments with small specimens and full size pressed blocks were compared. It is noted that blocks answered to the requirements of Israeli Standard to cement concrete blocks. As per the S. Marinkovic and A. Kostic-Pulek; 2007.

Examination of the system fly ash–lime–calcined gypsum–water. The feasibility of the utilization of the system fly ash–lime–calcined gypsum (? -hemihydrates)–water (the mass ratio 2:1:2:2. 5) for the production of building ceramics was investigated. S. Marinkovic and A. Kostic-Pulek opined curing of these products, a compressive strength of 4. 01 MPa in the water-cured and 7. 83 MPa in air-cured system developed. When the air-cured system was exposed to three alternate heating–cooling or three alternate cooling–heating cycles, the compressive strength increased (from 7. 83 to 9. 47 and 10. 55 MPa, respectively).

The fly ash–lime–calcined gypsum–water systems prepared in this work can be applied for the manufacture of products for internal walls (bricks and blocks). As per Vimal Chandra Pandey & Nandita Singh; 2010, systems Studies revealed that the lower FA incorporation in soil modifies the physico-chemical, biological and nutritional quality of the soil. He concluded that FA could be effectively used in the barren or sterile soil for improving quality and enhancing fertility. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of FA addition into degraded soils for improving nutritional and physico-chemical properties.

As per literature review of  Gourav, K 2010; fly ash-lime-gypsum (FALG) mixtures as intended to manufacture bricks or blocks for masonry applications indicates several gaps in understanding the various aspects of the technology. The literature review on the present thesis is an attempt to understand the behavior of compacted stabilized fly ash mixtures for the manufacture of fly ash bricks and characteristics of masonry using such bricks. A brief introduction to the technology of compacted stabilised fly ash bricks for structural masonry is provided.

Review of the literature on fly ash-lime and fly ash-lime-gypsum mixtures, and fly ash bricks are provided in chapter 1The main focus of the investigations is on arriving at the optimum stabilizer-fly ash mixtures considering density, stabilizer-fly ash ratio, curing conditions, etc. as the variables. Some of the major conclusions of the investigations are (a) compressive strength of compacted stabilised fly ash mixtures is sensitive to dry density of the specimens and the strength increases with increase in density irrespective of stabilizer content and type of curing, (b) Optimum lime fly ash ratio yielding maximum strength is 0. 5, (c) addition of gypsum accelerates rate of strength gain for compacted fly ash-lime mixtures (d) for 28 days wet burlap curing optimum gypsum content yielding maximum strength is 2% and maximum compressive strength is achieved for lime contents in the range of 10 – 17%, (e) steam curing (at 80 °C for 24 hours) gives highest compressive strength for compacted fly ash-lime mixtures. Compressive strength, flexure bond strength and stress strain relationship for the fly ash brick masonry using cement-lime mortars were evaluated.

The investigations clearly show the possibility of producing bricks of good quality using compacted fly ash-lime gypsum mixtures. Wet compressive strengths of 8- 10 MPa was obtained for compacted fly ash-lime-gypsum bricks at the age of 28 days. Wet strength to dry strength ratio for these bricks is in the range of 0. 55 – 0. 67. There is a large scope for selecting optimum mix ratios of fly ash, sand, lime and other additives to obtain a specific designed strength for the brick. Curing effect; on improving strength of fal-g.

As per, Is? k Yilmaz and Berrin Civelekoglu; 2009, this paper deals with the performance of the gypsum as an additive for treatment of the expansive clay soils by means of swell potential and strength. Gypsum can be used as a stabilizing agent for expansive clay soils, effectively. The literature contains a vast number of stabilizing techniques such as lime, cement, and fly-ash for treatment of expansive clay soils. They however concluded the use of gypsum as a stabilizing agent is currently not clear. As per Pimraksa and P.

Chindaprasirt; 2008, Water content, pre-curing period, lime content, gypsum content and calcined temperature are the factors investigated. The nature of hydration products and morphological characteristics of the lightweight bricks are also investigated. He concluded that the diatomaceous earth possesses pozzolanic property and can be used for making lightweight bricks. Concrete blocks of fal-g As per the literature review of Sunil Kumar. 2007, The compressive strength, water absorption and weight of FaL-G hollow blocks were determined .

FaL-G hollow blocks are light in weight and being hollow, impart thermal insulation to the buildings. In this paper, a study based on the results of an experimental investigation on FaL-G hollow blocks is presented. The durability of these blocks in terms of loss in compressive strength in sulfate environments is also presented in this paper. It is observed that FaL-G hollow blocks have sufficient strength for their use in general building construction.

High Volume Fly Ash Concrete and Its Mechanism Posted: 2009: As the fly ash emissions from industrial by-products is very large, large volume fly ash concrete to fully exploit the potential activity of industrial waste fly ash to reduce the amount of cement, concrete to reduce the Cost of production; to improve concrete workability, durability, and physical and mechanical properties. High Volume Fly Ash Concrete to save both cement, but also consume a large amount of fly ash, for the reduction of Environmental load of very effective.

High Volume Fly Ash Concrete as a new type of material has its own unique advantages, with its performance study, large volume fly ash concrete and continuously improves the performance. In one embodiment the invention provides solid bricks produced by compressing together fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum, calcium carbonate, and lime. These bricks have sufficient structural strength for use in building and construction. In another embodiment, waste materials are encapsulated in a mixture of fly ash, bottom ash, gypsum, lime, and calcium carbonate and compressed into bricks that may be disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner.

Further, the compressed bricks containing waste material may be coated with an impermeable membrane of a synthetic polymeric material. Further, the invention provides a mobile, trailer-mounted apparatus for compressing the mixtures into bricks. As per the Technical paper ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES. 2009. Fly ash-lime-gypsum bricks / blocks are very good products, giving the highest strength among various bricks. These require relatively higher investment and expensive raw materials to give arrange of high strength products.

This is most suitable for mechanized operations, though semi mechanized operations are also possible. Fly ash lime gypsum bricks are made up of 60% fly ash, 10-20% lime and 10-20% gypsum. These bricks have medium range strength. Minimum compressive strength (28 days) of 70 kg/cm2 can easily be achieved and this can go up to 250 Kg/cm2 (in autoclaved type). Advantage of these bricks over burnt clay bricks: Lower requirement of mortar in construction, Plastering over brick can be avoided, Controlled dimensions, edges, smooth and fine finish & can be in different colors using pigments and cost effective, energy-efficient & environment friendly

History of Science and Technology my essay help uk: my essay help uk

History Of Science And Technology Submitted by ryan89 on April 18, 2011 •Category: History •Words: 2273 | Pages: 10 •Views: 90 •Report this Essay For centuries it was religion that had kept contemporaries of science in the shadow. Any sort of advance to explain a certain phenomena in ways other than that of God’s doing could eventually end up in one’s demise. However, what happens when religion loosens its grip on science or as some may argue loses its appeal to the masses due to an influx of intellectual material?

This paper will outline the key stages during the period of 1400-1700 (the Renaissance) in which religion and science co-exist on a scale far larger than before. Prior to this period, the works of Aristotle were most commonly affiliated with religion. Although some of Aristotle’s ideas caused tension towards Christianity, scholars noticed some similarities with Aristotle’s matter theory and Christian doctrine. An example of this was the “Christian soul and it could be explained as the “form” of the body, the immaterial feature that gives the body its defining essence (Ashworth, Kit, p. 7)”. Religious contemporaries at the time felt no threat by Aristotle’s theory of form and matter and it continued to present itself until the 17th century. The relevance of this is simply that religion was the only way in which scientific endeavors were possible or even allowed, most scholars eventually credited God at some point in their work, which deemed it possible to continue or even publish. The intellectual influx mentioned before is directly linked to Johannes Gutenberg.

He was the one, with the invention of the printing press, who made it possible for all Greek philosophical works to be readily available for almost anyone who could afford them. “Gutenberg combined two Asian inventions, the screw press and paper to develop his movable type printing press (Text, p. 107). ” On the religious side, bibles, religious texts and indulgences were in high demand. By the year 1500 there had been more then 1,000 working printers in Europe. On the contrary the revitalization of Greek classical works was also on the rise and with the printing press the spread of these works was inevitable.

In regards to science, it is now evident that works other than those of the church are circulating around Europe and people are starting to develop, critique and modify hypotheses that were once made concrete by the church. At this point in time we notice a change in what people are studying. The printing press had single-handedly given birth to alternate ways of thinking for the average person. God and theology had finally succumbed to natural philosophical works like Ptolemy’s Almagest. Nicholas Copernicus was one of the men who fully benefitted from the printing press when he studied the works of Ptolemy.

Furthermore, Copernicus was one of the first to alter the system in which so many (including the church) had come to accept since the days of Ptolemy himself. After the study of Ptolemy’s astronomy, Copernicus decided to place not the Earth at the center but the sun with all planets including the Earth in orbit around it (Text, p. 109). The problems that became evident did not lie within the mathematical difficulties but the religious aspect (Aristotelian by nature), which hindered the publishing of this heliocentric model proposed by Copernicus further into the 16th century.

The Earth must have remained at the center of the universe because it is the least perfect part of the universe which homes sin and transgression but also a focal point for salvation (Text, p. 111). Copernicus knew that there was a zero tolerance level for ideas that created controversy amongst historical beliefs and popular religious views. This being the case, he published his work, On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543 on his deathbed. Copernicus knew that when he first published his work that it was not something he could teach. What he did was the leave the world with an idea that he thought would change a flawed system.

This question remains, was Copernicus proposing a model in which he felt would function to provide a system in which there were further explanations for loose ends in centuries past? The Danish nobleman, Tycho Brahe answers this question by forming a new system; a split between the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems. The Tychonic system put the sun and moon revolving around the Earth, while everything else revolved around the sun, which brought the Earth back to the center, and mending any religious turmoil set forth by the Copernican system but also explaining the problems of Mercury and Venus (Text, p. 113).

Economic Goals college application essay help online: college application essay help online

ECONOMIC GOALS INTRODUCTION What are economic goals? How do economic goals affect our lives and what are its implications to sustain stability? These questions will be answered based on the materials gathered, learned insights from Miss Nur Shalihah Muhdi, my lecturer for this subject, and using some issues particularly in the country Malaysia. It is a common knowledge that each country is centered by its government who paved way the economic system.

Economy as to be the basis of the topic is defined as a study of how people and society end up choosing, with or without the use of money, that could have alternative uses to produce commodities and to distribute them for consumption now or in the future among various group in the society (by our class batch 2000 at Miriam College, Phil. , for economic subject). It could also be defined as a study of choices according to Paul Samuelson. With the better understanding of economy we can now bring to light why there are economic goals and why it is very important that each country must posses such goals.

These goals are to attain price stability; make economic growth become faster than population growth; to have low unemployment of resources; and to achieve an equitable distribution of income and wealth. ? Price Stability One of the most important factors to achieve economic growth is to have price stability. It is the ability of the government to control price and minimize fluctuation for the benefit of the public. Price stability shows a situation where the price of goods and services don’t change much over the time. How could it be if a country doesn’t get hold of this influence?

Could you imagine how it will create uncertainty to the consumers and firms? Consumers are those who buy products. Now, their consumption will depend on their ability to afford buying a certain product. If a country has price stability, then, the consumers can avoid a “wait and see” attitude which is to wait until the price decreases. It helps maintain low price of goods and services. This follows such theory that if the price decreases the demand will increase and vice versa. Firms also go after the trend. No businessman will decide to invest if he is aware that there is much fluctuation of price since it will lead to losses.

However, if there is control of price, and resources are being affordable most of the time, chances of getting more profit could be more likely to happen. Aside from its advantages for consumers and firms, price stability also holds a big role to reduce inflation rate. Inflation rate is the upward price movement of goods and services in an economy which is measured by consumer price index and producer price index. Malaysian government for example, controls prices on many of the basic items by subsidizing them to keep the price affordable to the public.

These items are rice, palm oil, cooking oil, petrol, flour, bread, and many others so that low cost of living could be maintained. It had been reported that the government has spent RM40. 1 billion in 2007 for its subsidies to keep prices levelled. Recently, as of 2009, the government allotted 22 percent of its expenditures for subsidies. Petrol was prioritized with 12 percent of subsidies. Economic Growth faster than Population Growth Economic growth is “a positive change in the level of production of goods and services by a country over a certain period of time”.

Such change is usually being brought about by technological innovation and positive external forces. This essential development should be greater in rate than population growth therefore there would be a zero chance of scarcity rather a sustainable progress and most importantly to uplift the living standard of the people. If let say, the population growth cannot be controlled, while there is no much developmental progress in economy, greater number of people will then be sharing with the same amount of resources and each will be having lesser accumulation than before.

Another point is, if economy cannot grow faster than inflation rate, people will also suffer from high cost of living since it will lead to price increase of goods and services while workers who have fixed income will not be able to afford buying the same amount of goods they used to have, instead, it could also be lesser. One good example was three years after Malaysia gain its independence from British occupation; the government gives importance to its growing population rate. They realized that tin and rubber production began to face instability in prices due to fluctuating demand for both commodities and it lso cannot support the growing population’s employment, therefore they launched a program for industrial development making agriculture more modern to ensure adequate returns and at the same time achieve an economy which can be sustained. In 1970, ten years after they begun the program, the government succeeded in providing economic growth over population growth by providing more job opportunities to Malaysian people, aside from agriculture diversification and its sprouted industries mainly in wood products, textile, tin and rubber. Low Unemployment of Resources

What are resources? What do we mean by unemployment of resources and why it should be lowered? Resources in terms of economy refer to land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship. Land resources are land products, labour refer to the workers, capital would be the means to invest or buy a business and entrepreneurs are the ones who give ideas to run the business. Lowering unemployment of resources would therefore mean lowering the rate of not used resources; or to maximize the use of available resources to expand productivity and create more goods and services.

This one important economic goal will not only increase production of goods and services but would also bring more income to the business world and will make the country economically stronger by earning foreign exchange through exporting excess products and services or even labour for those who cannot get a job in their own country. These factors hinder causes of crime rates and corruption activities since people will be getting enough means to live a better life.

It would also reduce health problems and malnutrition with enough supply of food and an ability to sustain a healthy living and proper medication. To illustrate such type of low unemployment of resources, I will bring back the history of tin industry in Malaysia. It was late 19th century when it boosts and developed by the British due to increase in the demand of the canning industry worldwide specially the country Britain. The tin resources were abundant and excessive upon discovering major deposit sites in Larut region and Kinta Valley during 1848.

These were fully utilized and opened job opportunities even to Chinese workers. Though the supply is excessive for the country, it was eventually exported worldwide and Malaysia became known as the largest producer of tin in the world during 1883. Equitable Distribution of Income and Wealth Equitable distribution is being succeeded when each of one gets a fair share of his rights and choice in terms of job availability, income, health support, better education and proper nourishment.

The government must be responsible for this so that there would be a balanced flow of wealth and opportunities to everyone. As such is attainable by knowing what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce, however tax is the common means of every country. What to produce is a question that answers what products are necessary for the time being. How much to produce sets limits of production thus promotes avoidance of exploitation. The third question, for whom to produce gives priority among the various people who are in need of concentration.

These are actually often neglected by the government especially in third world countries, the reason why the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. I have read many issues that imply negligence of these factors and it is sad to say that this ‘negligence’ is happening to my own country Philippines. Another great way to drill equilibrium is to impose taxes among workers and businessmen and also a value added tax (VAT) on goods and services. Through taxation, government can generate fund so as to give support to the needy.

This is actually a common policy of every country. If you are getting more income then you will also have to pay more taxes from your salary up to your expenditures. Throughout my research, I came to know that Malaysia experienced unbalanced distribution of income and wealth. This happened when British had mainly concentrated in western part of Malaya being more urbanized and was of a higher income group compared to those who lived in the east who were absolutely farmers and fishermen. The eastern become an ethnic group with low level of income.

CONCLUSION Upon distinguishing the importance and benefit of four economic goals which are price stability, economic growth faster than population growth, low unemployment of resources, and equitable distribution of income and wealth, we could now be more responsive on every economic decision our government are dealing with and also on economic issues we are encountering on day to day basis. It would still be in the hands of our government how they run and execute these very important factors to achieve developmental progress in our economy.

It is simply because they are the one who have the control of distribution, generate laws and reprimands to protect the public and the local market. The more effective the government in observing such goals, the more the people will enjoy the benefits, having a better standard of living with job opportunities to everyone, quality education, descent food on their table, medication and shelter without compromising the needs of the future generations.

Related Literature for Cell Phones essay help: essay help

Communication is essential in all aspects of our everyday lives. Effective communication enhances our personal, social and career relationships and allows us to make connections with people from other cultures, according to the book of William J. Seller and Melissa L. Beall – Communication Making Connection. In additional of that, communication is essential in your work even if you don’t pursue careers such as law, sales and teaching, communication skills is a must in a human being. Communication is woven into all facets of our lives.

We talk, listen, think, share confidences with intimates, ask and answer questions, participate on teams attended public presentations, exchange information with co-workers, watch television programs, chat online with friend and so forth. From birth to death communication is central to our personal, professional and civil lives. You can see more information about values of studying communication in the 4th Edition Communication Mosaics by Julia T. Wood. Also from the book of Julia T. Wood, she discussed the evolution of communication technologies.

The researchers considered what it means to live in an era that is saturated with communication technologies. After reviewing the evolution of communication technologies, the researchers focused on our important controversies about the impact of the technologies on individual and societies. The researchers considered different views of communication technologies effect on how we think, build and participate in communities, and define and express our identities, and their effect on our efficiency and productivity. Cellular phone or cell phone is one of the mostly used devices in this era to communicate in each other from one place to another.

Cell phones are much more than portable telephone – according to TIMES for kids ALAMANAC 2011. Depending on the model you use, a cell phone can do many tasks, including sending & receiving e-mail and text messages, surfing the internet, taking photographs, keeping track of appointment, flashing reminders, transmitting TV programs, navigating with global positioning and downloading music. It is because of the help of the new technology. Unlike a walkie-talkie or CB radio with which only at a time, cell phones have dual frequency capacity.

They can send signals and receive them at the same time. Inside the phone is a microprocessor similar to one inside a computer. This is what enables the phones to act like a computer and do such a wide variety of tasks. Not all trendy has a good effect on individual and society, like using cellphones. As more and more people send text messages to each other they are increasingly using acronyms and smileys since the screen on mobile devices keep getting smaller and smaller. For example, “AFAIK CU 2NITE” means, “As far as I know, I’ll see you tonight”.

The craze for sending text message by phone started when Globe introduced prepaid cards that enabled students, soldiers and others too poor for a long-term subscription to start using cellular phones. People quickly figured out how to express themselves on the phone’s alphanumeric keypad “Generation Txt,” as the media dubbed it, was born. Sending text messages does not require making a call. People merely type in a message and the recipient’s phone number hit the phone’s send key and off it goes to the operator’s message centre, which forwards it to the recipient.

Because messages are exchanged over the frequency the network uses to identify phones rather than the frequencies their owners talk on, messages can be sent and received the instant a phone is turned on–and can even be received when a phone call is in progress. According to Lisa M. Russel, an author, debate rages among educators about the effects of text messaging on English grammar. According to an unscientific poll conducted by Educational Organization, 50% of the 1028 respondents felt texting is harming students’ writing and grammar.

In the same poll 20% thought that text messaging may have some impact’s student’s writing but they do not think it is a major problem; 27% felt texting was not a negative influence. Some teachers believe the abbreviations used in text messaging are assaulting written English. Middle and high school teachers report that papers are being written using poor punctuation, had grammar and inappropriate abbreviations. Students sometimes do not realize they are using text lingo in their academic writing. In the other hand, some educators feel that anytime you can get students to write, it is positive.

Students are writing more than ever before because of texting, instant messaging and online communications. Educational researchers discovered that students are writing more and revising more. Canadian researchers believe that using text message language does not harm children’s spelling abilities; it may even be a good sign. The study, suggested that children who are good at spelling “real” words are also good at spelling in texting. The study also conclude that kids who are good spellers are good spellers in instant messaging and those kids who are poor spellers in English class are also poor spellers at instant messaging.

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Introduction Diprotodon, meaning “two forward teeth”, sometimes known as the Giant Wombat or the Rhinoceros Wombat, was the largest known marsupial that ever lived and the last of the extinct, herbivorous Diprotodontids. Diprotodon was the first fossil mammal named from Australia and one of the most well-known of the mega fauna. It was widespread across Australia when the first indigenous people arrived, co-existing with them for thousands of years before becoming extinct about 25,000 years ago. Distribution and Abundance

Diprotodon is known from many sites across Australia, including the Darling Downs in southeastern Queensland: Wellington Caves, Tambar Springs and Cuddie Springs in New South Wales; Bacchus Marsh in Victoria; Lake Callabonna, Naracoorte Caves and Burra in South Australia. It is believed that Diprotodons could be found in all parts of Australia except in Tasmania. Until recently it was unknown how many species of Diprotodon had existed. Sir Richard Owen, a well- known palaeolontologist, studied them and gave the genus the name, Diprotodon in 1938.

Wikipedia Reports 4 species : Diprotodon optatum, Diprotodon minor, Diprotodon laden, Diprotodon annextans. Timeline Evolution of the Flora The past 2 million years have been characterized by marked instability of the vegetation caused by dramatic cyclical fluctuations in climate. The remaining evergreen rainforest was further stressed. Evidence from southeastern Australia indicates that rainforest and Sclerophyll vegetation had very restricted distributions within a predominantly steppe vegetation during the cold dry periods of the ice ages.

These colder conditions would have also made it easier for cold-adapted herbaceous plants from overseas to colonize Australia. By around 750,000 years ago, the vegetation had become adapted to the climatic changes. This pattern was broken within the last glacial cycle, possibly 140,000 years ago, with substantial replacement of the remaining rainforest and fire-sensitive sclerophyll vegetation by fire-tolerant communities, especially those dominated by eucalypts. This change was accompanied by significant increases in charcoal due to an increase in burning, perhaps the result of Aboriginal activities.

Effects of this increase were probably greatest during the height of the last ice age, between about 20, 000 and 10,000 years ago. Today’s plant distributions have developed only within the past 10,000 years under higher temperatures and rainfall levels and have been affected by frequent fires. The Historical Development of Fauna The development of contemporary climatic patterns in Australia – of monsoonal rains across the north, Mediterranean winter rains across the south, year-rain only on the mountain ranges of the coast, and low erratic rain inland – has had the effect of zoning the flora and fauna.

Fauna Today Within the concentric faunal zones, the climatic fluctuations of the past several million years created cyclic make-and-break connections around the fringe of the continent. During cold, dry spells, the regional faunas were split and compressed into refugia and the fauna specied into isolation. When conditions ameliorated during the warmer, wetter periods between the ice ages, the isolated stocks expanded with their habitat and remet, to overlap or, if the speciation had not been completed to interbreed. In this way, rings of species formed around the periphery of the continent.

Many of the refugia are self-evident from the number of endemic forms now present there. Evolution of Climate In “Pleistocene Climate Variation” compline by J. Richerson from the University of California, Richerson states that, using a variety of proxy measures of past temperature, rainfall, ice volume mostly from cores of ocean sediments, and ice caps, paleoclimatologists have constructed an increasingly detailed picture of the climate deterioration over the last few million years, culminating in the Pleistocene ice ages. The trend of deteriorating began in the mid-Miocene, about 14 million years ago.

By the Pleistocene, the Earth’s temperature had dropped several degrees and the amplitude of climate variation increased. Continental ice sheets began in the middle Pleistocene about 900,000 years ago. Pleistocene environments varied gently in complex ways that presented organisms with major adaptive challenges. The glacial environments were not only colder but drier and had lower carbon dioxide content. Hence, the overall plant productivity was lower. According to time series analysts, the climate record of the past few million years is highly non-stationary.

Physical features of the Diprotodon compared with the wombat Like many large living herbivores, Diprotodon was heavily built, large-bellied quadruped. It is up to 3. 8m long from head to tail and 1. 7m at the shoulder. While wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupeds, approximately 1m in length with a tail that is a mere nubbin. Diprotodons had an oversized skull, like those of other Diprotodontids, was lightweight and filled with numerous air spaces while Wombats have the most developed brain of any marsupial The skull contained four molars in each jaw, three pairs of upper incisors, and one pair of lower incisors.

From this dentition, we can deduce that the diprotodons were herbivorous like wombats. The Diprotodons were probably browsers, rather than grazers, as their incisors enabled them to strip vegetation from branches. The molars, with their ? at surfaces, ground the food before it was swallowed. The limbs of the Diprotodon were sturdy and pillar-like. The upper limb bones were longer than the lower limb bones. The distinctive feet of Diprotodon were remarkably small for its size, and were in turned, as in wombats.

At just under 4 metres in length and up to 2800 kilograms in weight, the Diprotodon, although massive, was smaller than either a hippopotamus or rhinoceros, to which it is often compared. Unlike the Diprotdon, all four limbs of the wombat are short and powerful, the forelegs being the strongest. They also have powerful shoulders which help them dig. The hind legs are longer than the front; this can best be seen by examining a wombat’s skeleton. Both the front paws and the rear feet are wide and each have five digits. All digits are armed with broad claws except the first toe which is shorter than the others.

The claws are long, strong, and well-designed for digging. Like all marsupials, diprotodons had a pouch. There are even bones of adult female diprotodons that are accompanied by the tiny skeletons of their joeys, which were in the pouch when their mothers died. Marsupial babies are born at a very early stage of development. Little more than embryos, they struggle through their mother’s fur to the pouch and latch onto one of the teats inside. The teat expands in their mouth, and they’re locked in place for the next few months, feeding on their mother’s milk.

When the diprotodon baby outgrew the pouch, it ventured out into the wide world, keeping close to its mother and retreating to its furry refuge at the ? rst sign of danger, in much the same way as a kangaroo joey. In the case of the wombats, the pouch on the female wombat opens to the rear. This not only prevents it from filling with dirt and debris when the mother digs, it also provides greater protection to the young when the mother walks or runs as wombats have minimal ground clearance. Climate in the Pleistocene epoch and the current Climate in Australia The Pleistocene dates from 2. 88 million to 12,000 years ago before present, the era in which the Diprotodons lived. The overall climate of the Pleistocene could be characterized as continuous El Nino. Prolonged differences in Pacific Ocean surface temperatures compared with the average value define El Nino. Repeated glaciations occurred during the Pleistocnee with 30% of the earth’s surface being covered by ice at maximum glacial extent. During glacials plant productivity was lower but a high percentage of plants being tundra, shrub desert and steppe which favour herbivores like the Diprotodon.

Huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets about 1500 to 3000 metres thich resulted in temporary sea levels drop of approximately 100 metres over the entire surface of the earth including Australia. Australia today experiences a relatively harsh and variable climate. Temperature ranges from above 50 degrees Celsius to well below zero unlike in the Pleistocene era. Due to the lack of mountains and the influence of surrounding oceans minimum temperatures are moderated. Rainfall patterns in Australia are highly seasonal.

More than three quarters of the continent receive less than 600 mm of rainfall and less than 300 mm of rainfall is experienced in half of the continent. Northern Australia however, has heavy monsoonal rains in Summer and occasionally destructive tropical cyclones. Southern Australia enjoys a generally mild but still highly variable climate with predominantly winter rains and frequent spring and summer bushfires in the south eastern states. Australia’s tropical/ subtropical location and cold waters off the western coast make most of Western Australia a hot desert. These cold water produce moisture needed on the mainland.

A 2005 study by Australia and American researchers investigated the desertification of the interior, maintain that regular burning by early settlers could have prevented monsoons from reaching interior Australia. ` Extinction Diprotodonts, along with a wide range of other Australian megafauna, became extinct shortly after humans arrived in Australia about 50,000 years ago. Three theories have been advanced to explain the mass extinction. They are : a) Climate change Australia has undergone a very long process of gradual aridification since it split off from Gondwanaland about 40 million years ago.

The recent ice ages produced no significant glaciation in mainland Australia but long periods of cold and very dry weather. This dry weather during the last ice age may have killed off all the large Diprotodons. Critics point out a number of problems with this theory. First, large Diprotodons had already survived a long series of similar ice ages, and there does not seem to be any particular reason why the most recent one should have achieved what all the previous ice ages had failed to do. Also, climate change apparently peaked 25,000 years after the extinctions.

Finally, even during climatic extremes, some parts of the continent always remain relatively exempt: for example, the tropical north stays fairly warm and wet in all climatic circumstances; alpine valleys are less affected by drought, and so on. b) Human hunting The “blitzkrieg theory” is that human hunters killed and ate the diprotodons, making them extinct. The extinctions appear to have coincided with the arrival of humans on the continent, and in broad terms, Diprotodon was the largest species that died out.. Recent finds of Diprotodon bones which appear to display butchering marks lend support to this theory.

But critics of this theory regard it as simplistic, arguing that there is little direct evidence of hunting, and that the dates are too uncertain to be relied on. c) Human land management The third theory says that humans indirectly caused the extinction of diprotodonts, by destroying the ecosystem on which they depended. In particular, early Aborigines are thought to have been fire-stick farmers using fire regularly and persistently to drive game, open up dense thickets of vegetation, and create fresh green regrowth for both humans and game animals to eat.

Evidence for the fire hypothesis is the sudden increase in widespread ash deposits at the time that people arrived in Australia, as well as land-management and hunting practices of modern Aboriginal people as recorded by the earliest European settlers before Aboriginal society was devastated by European contact and disease. Evidence against the hypothesis is the fact that humans appear to have eliminated the megafauna of Tasmania without using fire to modify the environment there.

Although they are hotly and sometimes acrimoniously debated by specialists, few would argue that it is necessary to choose one single explanation for the extinction of many different animals in a wide range of different environments, from tropical to temperate, from desert to rainforest. The Giant Beaver Castoroides ohioensis was a species of the Giant beaver, huge members of the family Castoridae (Rodentia), endemic to North America during the Pleistocene epoch (1. 8 MYA—11,000 years ago) It was also the period the Diprotodons existed on the face of the Earth. However, the Diprotodons lived in parts of Australia.

The Giant beaver is the largest rodent in North America and second largest in the world while the Diprotodon was the largest marsupial in the world during that time. Castoroides ranged from Florida to the Yukon, and from New York State to Nebraska, but it has not been found outside of North America like how the Diprotodons not sighted outside of Australia. The giant wombat and the giant beaver, both lived in the Ice Age existed in the Ice Age started in the Pleistocene Period. Giant beavers seem to have preferred lakes and ponds bordered by swamps as their habitat, because their remains have been found in ancient swamp deposits so often.

While Diprotodon preferred semi-arid plains, savannahs and open woodlands, and is generally absent from hilly, forested coastal regions. These giant Ice Age beavers had a length up to 8 feet and an estimated weight of 130-220 pounds; while the giant wombats were 10 feet tall and weighed about 6000 pounds. The teeth of the giant beaver are bigger and broader, prominently ridged outer surfaces and blunt, rounded tipped incisors. Generally, the teeth were well adapted to grinding up the plants that made up the animal’s diet.

Conversely, the giant wombats possessed four pairs of incisors  which continued to grow throughout its life. Each of its four molars was high-crowned, meaning that it ate harsh types of foods. In addition, the giant beaver has short hind legs and it is assumed that its feet were also webbed. However, the giant wombat’s legs were sturdy and pillar-like; the feet were small and turned in like the wombat’s feet. The main difference between the two megafauna is that the Giant wombat had a pouch but the beaver does not due to the fact that the giant beaver is a rodent and the giant wombat a marsupial.

The Giant Beaver family can be seen at its favorite haunt—around a pond where cattails and sphagnum moss grow in abundance. Unlike the beavers of today, these giants were not capable of chopping down trees as their teeth tapered to a blunt point. Their diet consisted of water plants such as cattails. However, Diprotodon was probably a browser, feeding on shrubs and forbs. One skeleton from Lake Callabonna had the remains of saltbush in its abdominal region. Diprotodon may have eaten as much as100 to150 kilograms of vegetation daily. Its chisel-like incisors used to root out vegetation.

The giant beaver played an important role in the ecosystem perhaps by altering the soil structure and micro topography, nutrient cycling and water flows over local or regional areas. It also had dramatic effects on the growth and species composition of plant communities. The Giant Beaver impoundments affect nutrient cycles and water flow, and consequently the species richness of aquatic invertebrates, fish and riparian vegetation at local and catchment scales. Similarly, the giant wombats were important in maintaining ecosystem productivity, as native grazers and ecosystem engineers, they increase soil turnover thus impacting soil nutrition.

Mechanism of evolution of Australian Animals Both geologic and climatic events helped to make Australia’s fauna unique. Australia is home to many unusual animals, bugs and creatures that are found nowhere else in the world. Australia was once part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, which also included South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. Gondwana began to break up 140 million years ago (MYA); 50 MYA Australia separated from Antarctica and was relatively isolated until the collision of the Indo-Australian Plate with Asia in the Miocene era 5. 3 MYA.

The establishment and evolution of the present-day fauna was apparently shaped by the unique climate and the geology of the continent. As Australia drifted, it was, to some extent, isolated from the effects of global climate change. The unique fauna that originated in Gondwana, such as the marsupials, survived and adapted in Australia. After the Miocene, fauna of Asian origin were able to establish themselves in Australia. The Wallace Line—the hypothetical line separating the zoogeographical regions of Asia and Australasia—marks the tectonic boundary between the Eurasian and Indo-Australian plates.

This continental boundary prevented the formation of land bridges and resulted in a distinct zoological distribution, with limited overlap, of most Asian and Australian fauna, with the exception of birds. Following the emergence of the circumpolar current in the mid-Oligocene era (some 15 MYA), the Australian climate became increasingly arid, giving rise to a diverse group of arid-specialized organisms, just as the wet tropical and seasonally wet areas gave rise to their own uniquely adapted species.

Therefore, being situated a long distance from other parts of the world, and having many climatic changes throughout each part of the country, Australian animals have had to adapt to this. This has led Australia into being one continental country that boasts many unusual types of species, land and sea dwelling. Distributional patterns differ according to whether the fauna which already belonged to the Australian landmass or a fauna that immigrated.

Much of the old endemic component of the fauna, dates from the time when the Australian landmass was still joined to the super-continent Gondwana. Old endemic groups show marked evolutionary diversification into different environments with numerous species and genera ranged about all corners of Australia. New immigrants show little evolutionary diversification. Most are represented by only one or two itinerant species of genera that are diverse in Eurasia. Most of the species are wide-spread in Australia or limited to the tropical north, the region in which they are arrived from Eurasia.

Another distributional characteristic of the new immigrants is their common occurrence in habitats that also are recent developments in Australia. Australia was home to many giant species of animals, but evolution and hunting by the indigenous people wiped out many of the larger or giant species of kangaroo and wombats. Today we still have smaller versions of these creatures, but they are still unique to this land and habitat. Many of these strange animals cannot be found anywhere else in the world, although certain characteristics of each can be seen in animals that may be extinct

The Contribution of Marxism in Literary Criticism write my essay help: write my essay help

THE CONTRIBUTION OF MARXISM TO THE STUDY OF LITERARY CRITICISM It is evident that Marxism has made great contribution in the study and criticism of Literature, there is need to explain a little bit on Marxism before we discuss its contribution. Marxism is a social and political theory based on the works of Karl Marx and his followers, associated with the socialist and communist movements, these works mainly are Manifesto of the Communist Party and the German Ideology.

It should be understood that Marx never formulated a complete literary or aesthetic theory, but he laid down the foundation to the emergence of Marxist literary critics, to mention only few ideas which we think are very important in the study and criticism of literature are: The history of any society is characterized by the history of the class and class struggle,that means oppressor and oppressed always are in constant opposition.

The ruling class or those who own capital tends to perpetuate self interests and exploitation, with the help of ideological instruments and coercive instruments, all these make possible the maintenance of the status qua. Necessity of violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie for the sway of proletariat, this means that, proletariat can take power only through the use of force and not through peaceful means, therefore the oppressed people should get prepared for the revolution which need to be carried out by themselves.

Law, morality and religion for Marx, are so many bourgeoisie prejudices behind which hark in ambush just as many bourgeoisie interests, therefore all these are should not be trusted at all,and once the working class takes an upper hand are to make sure all these are destroyed. Another idea is concerned with the role of ideology, as for him ideology is made of false consciousnesses and its role is to disguise the realities in the society.

The ruling class control the means of production and superstructure, so the ideology is made to work on the ruling class’s interests. Consciousness, ideals, conceptions are produced by men depending on the material activity, intercourse, mode of production, and language of real life, of a single individual as well as the whole society, due to this Karl Marx argued that circumstance are made and can be changed by, also the nature of an individual is determined by material condition.

After considering the basic ideas given by Karl Marx and hiss followers, it should be understood that Marxism is not one, but several branches of which attempts to understand the relations between the literary text and the social world, recognizing that Literature is a process and that the social world involves contexts of production and those of reception. Apart from that, all Marxists critiques agree on the fact that Literature should be analyses in n historical and materialist terms or in other words , as an integral part of a social structure resting on economic foundation. The following individuals are key figure on Marxism as a theory of literary criticism: Georg Lukas who ha contributed a lot on realism, Theodor Adorn o who came with the idea of culture industry, Pierre Macherey who has contributed on literature as one form of production and Walter Benjamin who explained the need to politicize art.

Every individual here is Marxist with different position from the other,sometimes arguing against his fellow Marxist critic, and among the most significant issue which has led the divergence among the Marxist is realism, where by for example Lukas consider realism as the representation of social world exactly as it is but for Theodor Adorn o, although he agree that realism aim to reflect the social reality but is not the exact reality, therefore there is need to supplement the literary text as there is a lot of information left out by write, this is intentionally or unintentionally.

The following are the contribution of Marxism on the study and and criticism of Literature: Emphasized the place of history in the study of Literature, as the Marxist critics argue that, history is the horizon within which Literature should be written and understood, up to now a novel, poem,or a play can only be best analyzed if the experiences of the people, their political and economic relations, and their social systems are all examined.

Due to this emphasis, those who are considered as good writers tend to recast the historical record in an artistic way, without reducing a literary text into a history book, this has even made possible to trace the history of a particular society through the use of literary text, for example in Tanzania you can use a novel or a play to trace the history of Tanzania from pre colonial period to post independence era.

This also can be seen through Ngugi’s novels whereby he begins from the history of his people as the starting point: from Kikuyu and Mum-bi, the Father and Mother of the tribe; the prophesies of ancient seers like Mugo wa Kibiro; the coming of European colonialists; the colonial encounter with Africans; the maumau struggle for independence and the post independence scene in Kenya

Emergence of the view that, Literature should aim at a truthful reflection of reality, this means it must demonstrate both concrete and abstract potentialities of human being, the literary representation of this kind, implies a description of actual person’s inhabiting a palpable, identifiable world. This is put clearly by Lukas as he says ….. Am interested in what is typical, in what one might call the ghostly aspect of reality ….. ( pp. 112).

For Lukas, great art is supposed to be a realistic art and which presents a social totality. Pierre Macherey also contributed to the discussion on the relations between the literary text and social reality (realism), for him literature reflects the social condition not exactly as it is, therefore in order to get the exact reality, there is need to uncover the significant absences in the texts, the ideological pressuppositions on which the text was at once founded but of which it could not speak.

Literature is supposed to reflect the real situation of a society, simply because Literature is considered as a tool for social – political transformation, and for Marxist critics this is the most important aspect, that is why in the study and criticism of literature we find the aspect of change being much emphasized, for example Ngugi’s committiment to activism and need for change is seen through his novels like Devils on the Cross, Petals of Blood, and Matigiri, he calls upon the Kenyan masses to rise in a popular revolution and fight for their land and their rights, therefore the role of literature for the marxists is to cause change where change is due. This has influenced very much the belief that literature can enforce change in a particular society and this has made a writer to become an activist as the writer’s main goal is to heighten people’s feelings and desires to rise up and demand for radical change, this is put as follows by Marxist critics …….

Marxist agree that Literature is produced in material condition, that it reflects back upon those conditions and can help to change them ( pp. ) Due to this tendency, it has led the emergence of various literary works striving to bring social, cultural, economic and political change, for example in Sembene’s Gods Bit of Wood, he presents a massive strike of railway workersdemanding for their rights,better pay and improved working conditions, and this for marxists critics is supposed to be the main function of literature: to cause change where change is necessary. Furthermore, Marxism has contributed a lot on the understanding that literature reflects society’s superstructure, economic base and class relations, it is very important to define these terms, to start with uperstructure it means the institutions of the rulling class or those who wield power to govern, such institutions include the judiciary, the legislature, the exacutive, the military and the religious institution, in other hand the economic base is also often called the production relation or mode of production ,this is the process of production and the social and economic relations people engage in during the process of producing and sharing wealth between classes. This is explained by Philip and Patricia as they say the first question perhaps for each of Marxist critic is how does a literary work take its shape from society as whole, from its mode of production and being totally determined by its economic base or superstructure (pp . , this argument has helped to challenge the formalistic argument on art for arts sake, Marxists argue that there is nothing like objective literature as writer’s are bound to reflect their social class leaning on what they write, therefore a text can either reinforce the ideology of the superstructure, or challenge and expose it in order to promote the interest of the exploited and the oppressed. In addition to that, they contributed very much on the relationship between form and content, whereby they rejected the formalist emphasize on form alone and ignoring the importance of content, some Marxist literary critics have argued that in Literature the artistic content is the divisive element of the literary work as whole but also they appreciate the importance of form in making sure that the intended content is presented as it was aimed.

Apart from this, they also argued that a form of a given work is not merely determined by content alone but there are other factors such as a style of a living class(writers class), the general level of the material culture of a given society, the influence of its neighbor, the inertia of the past or the striving of the innovation. , this view has led the domination of the notion that there should be the balance between the form and content as both of them are equally important. Georg Lukas goes beyond this kind of relationship between form and content, as he argues that content determine form, as he attempt to answer the question what determine the style of a given work of art, he says the intention of the work of art is very important in determining the form of a particular literary work. He put these in the following way …. we are concerned here, of course with the intention realized in the work; it need not coincide with the writer’s intention ( pp. )

Due to the arguments given by Lukas, we find that style ceases to be a formalistic category rather is rooted in content, that is why we find a lot of literary works written on the perspective that content is very important than form, hence they little attention to the form, for example in Tanzania there are many literary works written during the time of Arusha Declaration, these works put much emphasis on the content rather than on form, hence no balance between the two elements, one example of such woks is Ngomoi’s novel Ndoto ya Ndaria , Senkoro’s novel Mzalendo. It should also be understood that , not all marxist critic follow Lukacs emphasis on content rather than on form, as there are number of marxist critics consider form also to be equally important as content.

Another contribution made by Marxism is concerned with the relationship between Literature and ideology, it has been realized that Literature is a product of particular society or group, therefore it is not free from the ideological positions of the writer and the people , it is argued that ideology creates blind spots in people’s vision,also ideology is socially constructed with the aim to maintain the social relation, this is put clearly by Balibar and Macherey as they say Literature is one form of ideological states apparatus and its function is to reproduce the ideology within the french education system (pp. ) What does this mean to the writer, he or she should not propagate a dominant ideology for its own sake. Rather he or she should challenge certain ideologies that are considerable untenable, dangerous or misguiding for society. due to the existence of contradictory ideologies, there is no neutral literature, as each Literature is either of the oppressor or of oppressed. Macherey says the objectivity of literary production, therefore is inseparable from social practices in a given ideological state apparatus.

Furthermore Marxism provided a criterion on which the evaluation of a work of Literature is based, the basic criterion is that everything that aids the development and the victory of the proletariat is considered as good literary work and everything that harms or hinder the development of working class (oppressed) is considered not good, due to this perspective , there is a lot of literary works, written in favor of the development of the working class (oppressed) and are considered as good works as they address the social problems of a given society, for example a novel by Shafi Adam Shafi Vuta Nkuvute, portray a struggle between the ruling class and the oppressed , it addresses the social economic problems of the majority, this tendency has dominated the study and criticism of literature.

Apart from that, Literature is produced in material condition, that it reflects back up on those conditions, and can help to change them, therefore it has helped the understanding that, Literature is not concerned with writer psychology but rather with the material condition of the society, therefore Marxist criticism recognize that consciousnesses and its products grow out of material condition, due to this ,Literature whatever its relation to ideology is never completely transcendent and nor may it ever achieve that degree of disinterestedness. Not only that but also has enabled the placement of a writer and a literary critic at a very significant position, as up to now they are considered as teachers of the society, a writer in Marxist perspective is supposed to be informed with the social conditions of his or her society, also a writer is supposed to suggest the ways towards overcoming the social and political problems,this means a writer is supposed to write for the people( majority) so as to change the existing situation which hinders the prosperity of the society, even for the case of a literary critic.

Is also supposed to teach a writer, this is put clearly by lunacharsky as he says, in trying to teach the writer usefully, the Marxist critic must also teach the reader. The critic as a commentator as a person who warns of a poison which may taste sweet. ( pp. ) The last but not least is concerned with the acceleration towards the rise of other theories in literary criticism, such as Feminism, Black Aesthetics and Negritude,all these emerged as the reaction of class struggle where by one group in a society develop a feeling of being humiliated or oppressed by the other dominant group. Some of these theories emerged as a critic to Marxist literary criticism.

After long discussion on the contribution of Marxism, it is very important in this section to discuss prominent individuals who have made significant ideas towards the study and criticism of literature, these figures are: Georg Lukas, Theodor Adorno, Walter Benjamin, and Pierre Macherey. These people are discussed in the following order: Georg Lukas (1885-1971) He is the Hungarian Marxist philosopher, literary critic and politician, Lukas was born in Budapest on April 15, 1885. From 1930- 1945 he lived in Moscow, editing the journal which was known as Literary criticism ( literaturnyi kritik) and writing books upholding the realism of 19th century against the modernism of his own time.

Lukas works also represents one of the earliest attempts within Marxist criticism to address the problem of the relationship between form and content in developing a historical materialist account of literature, in 1930, Lukas started to develop a Marxist theory of the novel which would draw on Marxist critique of German idealist aesthetics. In his famous critique to the modernism, he argued that modernism was a formal reflection of bourgeoisie modernity in all its alienation, it also denies the role of history in literature, therefore he proposed realism literature to take the place of modernism literature, as for him great art is the one which is realistic and it must present a social totality. Theodor Adorno (1903- 1969)

He is a German Marxist philosopher,sociologist and musicologist, in 1930 he become an associate of institute for social research of Frankfurt University, which spawned the Frankfurt School of which he went on to become a leading member, in this school they engaged in developing a critique of Western philosophy and providing analytic studies of contemporary culture. Adorno regarded the culture industry as potent force for holding the masses in a state of submissive ignorance and believed that only an avant- garde art which utterly repudiated realism might articulate any kind of oppositional position. Therefore it can be observed that Adorno do not concur with Lukas idea of rejecting modernism,but they concur on the importance of literary text to reflect the social reality. PIERRE MACHEREY

He is a French Marxist critic, he contributed much on the idea that literature function is to reproduce the ideology, he also discussed the relationship between the literary text and social reality, to fulfill this he used the model which involved uncovering the significant absences in the texts, the ideological presuppositions on which the text was at once founded. he appreciate that Literature reflects the social reality, but for him this reality not is not the exact reality as he says .. literature can not be reduced to a straight mirroring, but it is true that the text does produce a reality- effect, more precisely it produces simultaneously a reality effect and a fiction effect (pp. , this for him Literary discourse institutes and projects the presence of the ‘real’ in the manner of an hallucination. Benjamin Walter (1892-1940) He is the German writer, Marxist theorist and aethetician. Benjamin was born in Berlin to a middle class Jewish family,he worked in Berlin as a literary critic and translator. During the 1920s Benjamin developed Marxist learning, under the influence of the German Philosopher Ernst Bloch and the Marxist critic Georg Lukas. He wrote classic Marxist essays on aesthetics and literary topics, Benjamin argues that the rise of fascism and mass society are symptoms of a debased age in which art is merely a source of gratification to be consumed, but communism could politicize art and thus politicize the masses.

All in all Marxism has contributed a lot on the study and criticism of literature, as it has made possible for literature to be considered as something very useful, especially on explaining the social conditions of a particular society and can be used to enforce change. REFERENCES Eagleton,T. (1997),Literary Theory:An Introduction,oxford:Blackwell Publisher Ltd Rice,P. And Patricia, W. (eds. ) (2001), Modern Literary Theory : A Reader,Easton Road-London: H odder Headline Group. Riv-kin, J. and Ryan, M. (1998),Introduction: “Formalism” In Riv-kin, J. and Ryan,M. (eds)Literary Theory: An Anthology,USA:Blackwell Publishers. Literary Criticism(2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica Online retried on11, November 2009

The John Lewis Partnership – Motivation essay help tips: essay help tips

John Lewis, Waitrose and Ocado: distinctively successful Analyse and comment on ‘the John Lewis Partnership’ approach to the welfare of its workers in relation to different theories of motivation. Fda Business Year 1 HR186 – Understanding Organisations 29th November 2010 Table of Contents Introduction Page 1 The Partners Page 1-2

Motivational Influences Page 2-3 Money Page 3-4 The Theory Page 4-5 Conclusion Page 5-6

Introduction With relation to different theories, motivation has derived more from behaviour than need. Although without need, there is not an understanding of the motivational process requirements within an organisation. The John Lewis Partnership has evolved over the past century, owing a proportion of its success to its industrial democratic structure. The approach to the welfare of its workers is its co-ownership, making the workers the main assets within the organisation. The employees are more than just a workforce; they are the Partners of the business.

The Partners With the industrial democracy demonstrated, there is not a requirement for a union. Workers have the responsibility to choose and elect 80% of representatives in their Partnership council, though the employees do not run the business. There are 4 Principles on which the Partnership centres its motivation skills; purpose, power, profit and its members. The diversity within the organisation is based upon equal opportunities, treating every member with respect and as individuals.

Tracey Killen, Director of Personnel believes, ‘Our aim is to be a business where our leaders feel confident with, and have a full understanding of the diversity in their teams, so that they can ensure Partners have a consistent, equitable, and motivating experience of the Partnership. This goes to the heart of our ultimate purpose and drives business advantage. Available @ John Lewis Website 2nd November 2010. http://www. johnlewispartnership. co. uk/Display. aspx? =74681741-bda8-4258-840b-f4eb1ad2e05c=633. Partner Happiness’ comes from the satisfaction, shared responsibility and the benefits provided to the workforce. The benefits include an annual bonus, pension schemes and discounts, generous holiday entitlements, leisure facilities and several estates to house the workers and their families. Each week the ”supreme purpose…. the fairest possible sharing by all members of all advantages of ownership-gain, knowledge, and power. ” This will promote greater happiness in working life, satisfying the mind and spirit of employees. Based on Labor-Management Relations 10th November 2010 http://heinonline. rg/HOL/LandingPage? collection=journals=hein. journals/ialrr22=56= Motivational influences F . W Taylors influence over the twentieth century (1856-1917), alongside the social change in politics, appeared to be the reason John Lewis took his courageous step of leaving the family run business, to be the founder of the highly successful organisation widely known on our high street today. F W Taylor (1947) perceived that the resulting increase in working efficiency would improve the status of labour and society in general. Mackay, 2007, Elsevier Ltd, 1st edition, page 37.

His father and brother earned between them a salary of more than their entire workforce. Mr Lewis began to foresee his future and the realism of bringing equality into the workforce. The equity theory of motivation, which can be associated with Adams work, was inspired from realising that every person requires the equalisation of the next. Within the work environment, an ‘equal status’ requires no competitiveness against another individual. Behaviour becomes of a positive nature, having the capabilities to achieve goals and show a level of effort, responsibility and initiative.

Though originally outlined by Benjamin Franklin, in recent years, McClelland (1965) formulated a motive acquisition process that included goal-setting and planning, of which are essential for change to occur. Cherniss & Goleman, Jossey Bass, 1st edition, page 248. Money Organisations which are based on shares are not only the reason for motivation but are an inevitable stimulation to the workers. Every member will receive an amount of between 6-9 weeks wages per annum based upon the profits earned within that financial year.

The Tory proposal for core public services to be owned and managed by “employee-owned” co-operatives contains a number of ideas rolled into one. The two most important are: 1) organisations perform better where staff have a direct financial stake in their success or failure; 2) the role of the state should be limited to providing funds and monitoring outcomes. Available @ BBC Website 15th November 2010. http://www. bbc. co. uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2010/02/the_john_lewis_state. tml During difficult economic situations, The John Lewis Partnership has not fallen but continued to grow at a substantial rate. The workers are motivated by the bonuses they receive. Benefits are generated upon the profits earned through satisfaction of service to the customer. The employee’s behaviour is a need to achieve in all aspects of the business in order to continue with its financial growth which is shown in appendix 1. Not everybody sees this motivation as a reward but a reduction in performance and effort, with money benefits being highly adequate.

Is there a need to achieve higher? analysts such as Jensen and Meckling (1979) have argued the opposite: that profit-sharing will reduce performance. Rather than rewarding personal effort directly, profit-sharing gives each worker only a fraction of any additional benefit due to his or her own effort. This fails to increase the incentive to work in the manner of individualized pay schemes, and it increases the importance of peer monitoring in maintaining effort levels. Based on Industrial Relations:A Journal of Economy and Society 15th November 2010. http://onlinelibrary. iley. com/doi/10. 1111/j. 1468-232X. 1990. tb00760. x/pdf The Theory Frederick Herzberg (1956) worked as an American psychologist whose research extended to what motivated a human at work and the satisfaction of an individual within their job. This work was known to of complemented Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory. Herzberg’s theory was based on 2 factors; hygiene and motivators (intrinsic). The hygiene factor known as ‘dissatisfiers’ are tangibles such as pay, company policy and relationships, which play only a small part in the motivation of a person.

Motivator factor known as ‘satisfiers’, derives from fulfilling the hygiene factors such as achievement, responsibility and promotion. Only unsatisfied needs will motivate a person. The Partners co-ownership status of the business allows them to achieve adequate satisfaction from the responsibility they withhold. When the employee’s have reached their required goal, they shall receive rewards of worthy bonuses alongside highly paid salaries. Conclusion In relation to Maslow’s hierarchy theory within a large organisation, every individual has a different need.

The reality of fulfilling these needs is not easily achievable, though can be arguably, dependant on the type of needs required. John Lewis has the capabilities of meeting the needs of his workforce by the variation of benefits offered both internally and externally of the work place. From promoting both work and leisure benefits, this enables the Partnership to balance work and home lifestyles which also will become a strong influence in committing the workers to the business for a majority of their work life.

The workers are attracted to the money and bonuses they receive, as throughout life everybody in some way shall be influenced and motivated by the fulfilment and need to have or obtain money. Seemingly, the John Lewis Partnership may have to find new ways of motivation beyond money if the economy struggles to stabilise. Responsibility without sufficient pay might not be enough to keep the Partnership at its current level of successfulness.

However, appendix 2 indicates that organisations such as the John Lewis Partnership have a greater resilience to such difficult economic times and that we should be looking at how this ownership model could benefit the economy as a whole. Bibliography Cherniss & Goleman, Jossey Bass, 1st edition, page 248. http://www. bbc. co. uk/blogs/thereporters/robertpeston/2010/02/the_john_lewis_state. html http://www. johnlewispartnership. co. uk/Display. aspx? =74681741-bda8-4258-840b-f4eb1ad2e05c=633. http://onlinelibrary. wiley. com/doi/10. 1111/j. 1468-232X. 1990. tb00760. x/pdf

Labor-Management Relations http://heinonline. org/HOL/LandingPage? collection=journals=hein. journals/ialrr22=56=. Mackay, 2007, Elsevier Ltd, 1st edition, page 37. Appendices Appendix 1 : Partnership weekly sales figures for last week (to 6 November 2010) Appendix 2: Employee ownership model ‘shows greater resilience’ Wednesday 10 February 2010 Research published today finds that companies owned by their employees are more resilient than conventionally structured companies, outperforming the market during the downturn and demonstrating a lower risk of business failure.

The report Model Growth: Do employee-owned businesses deliver sustainable performance? was commissioned by the John Lewis Partnership and is based on research by Cass Business School, including an in-depth survey of senior executives and analysis of the financial data of over 250 companies. The research finds that the employee ownership model offers particular advantages to small and medium-sized businesses and in knowledge and skill-intensive sectors, where employee-owned companies significantly outperform competitors.

Employee-owned firms also create new jobs more quickly and add more value to output and human capital than conventionally structured businesses, whilst demonstrating the same levels of profitability. Professor Joseph Lampel, one of the report’s authors, comments: ‘Resilience – the ability of firms to sustain employment and growth during difficult economic conditions – has been neglected as a crucial aspect of company performance over the past two decades.

Instead, business strategy and public policy have been dominated by an unremitting focus on maximising share value. In the current economic conditions, business leaders and policy makers should be looking again at the resilience associated with the employee ownership model – and how it could benefit the economy as a whole. ‘ The report also identifies barriers to the growth of employee-owned companies.

It finds that some have difficulties obtaining favourable financing from institutions that are more accustomed to dealing with listed companies, and that they also face more regulatory and policy challenges than businesses with other ownership structures. The report is written by Professor Joseph Lampel and Dr Ajay Bhalla from Cass Business School and Dr Pushkar Jha from Newcastle University Business School. It was produced with the support of the Employee Ownership Association, which represents nearly 100 companies wholly or substantially owned by their employees, including the John Lewis Partnership.

Subfields of Psychology gp essay help: gp essay help

The Subfields of Psychology: 1. Behavioral geneticsstudies the inheritance of traits related to behavior 2. Behavioral neuroscienceexamines the biological basis of behavior 3. Clinical psychologydeals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders 4. Clinical neuropsychologyunites the areas of biopsychology and clinical psychology focusing on the relationship between biological factors and psychological disorders . Cognitive psychologyfocuses on the study of higher mental processes 6. Counseling psychologyfocuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems 7. Cross-cultural psychologyinvestigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups. 8. Developmental psychologyexamines how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death 9.

Educational psychologyis concerned with teaching and learning processes, such as the relationship between motivation and school performance 10. Environmental psychologyconsiders the relationship between people and their physical environment 11. Evolutionary psychologyconsiders how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. 12.

Experimental psychologystudies the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world. 13. Forensic psychologyfocuses on legal issues, such as determining the accuracy of witness memories 14. Health psychologyexplores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease 15. Industrial/Organizationalis concerned with the psychology of the psychology workplace 16.

Personality psychologyfocuses on the consistency in people’s behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another 17. Program evaluationfocuses on assessing large-scale programs such as the Head Start preschool program to determine whether they are effective in meeting their goals 18. Psychology of womenfocuses on issues such as discrimination against women and the issues of violence against women 9. School psychologyis devoted to counseling children in elementary and secondary schools who have academic or emotional problems 20. Social psychologyis the study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others 21. Sport psychologyapplies psychology to athletic activity and exercise THE EDUCATION OF A PSYCHOLOGIST CAREERS FOR PSYCHOLOGY MAJORS Subfields

Lee Chong Wei gp essay help: gp essay help

This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lee (? ). Lee Chong Wei Personal information Birth name ??? Born October 21, 1982 (age 28) George Town, Penang,Malaysia Height 1. 70 m (5 ft 7 in) Weight 60 kg (130 lb; 9. 4 st) Country Malaysia Handedness Right Coach Tey Seu Bock Men’s singles Highest Ranking 1 (29 June 2006 –20 July 2006, 24 August 2006 –21 September 2006, 21 August 2008 –) Current Ranking 1 (July 14, 2011[1]) Medal record[hide] Competitor for Malaysia Men’s badminton Olympic Games Silver 2008 Beijing Men’s singles World Championships Bronze 2005 Anaheim Men’s singles

Asian Games Silver 2010 Guangzhou Men’s singles Bronze 2006 Doha Men’s singles Bronze 2006 Doha Team Sudirman Cup Bronze 2009 Guangzhou Team Thomas Cup Bronze 2010 Kuala Lumpur Team Bronze 2008 Jakarta Team Bronze 2006 Sendai/Tokyo Team Commonwealth Games Gold 2010 Delhi Men’s singles Gold 2010 Delhi Mixed Team Gold 2006 Melbourne Men’s singles Gold 2006 Melbourne Mixed Team BWF Profile Datuk Lee Chong Wei (simplified Chinese: ??? ; traditional Chinese: ??? ; pinyin: L Zongweii; born October 21, 1982 in Georgetown, Penang [2] ) is a professional badminton player from Malaysia who esides in Bukit Mertajam. [3] Lee won the silver medal in the 2008 Olympic Games, thus becoming the first Malaysian to reach the final of the men’s singles event and ending Malaysia’s Olympic medal drought since the 1996 Games. This achievement also earned him the title Datuk, and a description by Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak as a national hero. [4] As a singles player, Lee was ranked first worldwide on August 21, 2008. [5] He is the third Malaysian men’s singles shuttler after Rashid Sidek and Roslin Hashim to achieve such a ranking (since official rankings ere first kept in the 1980s), and is the only Malaysian shuttler to hold the ranking for more than two weeks. Despite his number 1 status since 2008, Lee is still searching for his first Olympic Games, World Championship and Asian Games titles. Contents [hide] 1 Personal life 2 Career o2. 1 2002–2007 o2. 2 2008 o2. 3 2009 o2. 4 2010 o2. 5 2011 3 Awards and honours 4 Achievements o4. 1 Career finals (38 titles, 17 runner-ups) 5 References [edit]Personal life In his early years, Lee favoured basketball, however his mother soon banned him from that activity due to he searing heat of the outdoor basketball court. Lee began to learn badminton at the age of 11, when his father, who liked to play the game, brought him to the badminton hall. Attracting the attention of a local coach, the coach asked Lee’s father if he could take him as a student. After receiving the nod from his father, the coach began to train Lee after school. [6] Discovered by Misbun Sidek, he was drafted into the national squad when he was seventeen years old. [7] On November 3, 2006, Lee was involved in a car accident. On his way to Bukit Jalil after dinner, he was nocked from behind by a vehicle which had lost control after a tire burst. He was then sent to the Sunway Medical Centre and treated with six stitches for his head injury. [8] Lee received RM300,000 on August 21, 2008, as a reward for his silver medal effort in the 2008 Olympic Games. Also, he received RM3,000 a month as a lifetime pension beginning in August 2008. [9] For the same achievement, he was conferred with a Darjah Setia Pangkuan Negeri (DSPN), which carries the title Datuk by Governor of Penang, Tun Abdul Rahman Abbas on August 30, 2008. [10]

On June 6, 2009, Lee received the Darjah Bakti (DB) award, from Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin, in conjunction with the Birthday of Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong, for his achievements in the 2008 Olympics. [11] He was in a relationship with Wong Mew Choo, his teammate. [12] However, Lee and Wong announced they are no longer together during the 2009 World Championships in Hyderabad, India. [13] On March 16, 2011, Lee received Permodalan Nasional Berhad shares worth MYR100,000 from Najib Tun razak soon after his triumph in All England Open. [14] He has hinted he could retire following the 2012 Olympics. [15] edit]Career [edit]2002–2007 Lee picked up only one title in 2002 and 2003, the major achievement being, reaching the final of the 2003 Malaysia Open, his first final of a major tournament, where was defeated by Chen Hong of China. [16] Lee then secured two titles in 2004, the Malaysia Open and Chinese Taipei Open. Lee gained a spot for 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. In his first Olympics appearance, Lee defeated Ng Wei of Hong Kong in the first round. His journey ended in the second round when he was beaten by Chen Hong. [17]Lee then bagged another two titles in 2005, his second Malaysia Open title and Denmark Open.

Lee bagged bronze in his first appearance in the world meet, the 2005 World Championships after losing to eventual winner Taufik Hidayat in the semifinal. [18] Lee then wrapped up three titles out of six finals in 2006. He was crowned as the winner of Swiss Open, [19] Asian Badminton Championships and his third Malaysia Open title. He also reached the final of the Chinese Taipei Open, Macau Open and Hong Kong Open. In the Malaysia Open, Lee pulled an amazing comeback, as he fought back from 13–20 down in the rubber game and saved eight match points against Lin Dan, and finally wrapped up the game 23–21 to secure the title. 20] Lee helped Malaysia bagged two gold medals in the badminton event for 2006 Commonwealth Games in March, in both men’s singles and mixed team event. [21] Lee reaches top spot twice in Badminton World Federation’s world rankings in 2006, [22] and he participated in the World Championships as top seed. [23] However, he was upset by Bao Chunlai of China in the quarterfinal despite Lee holds all win in previous meeting. The match was also marred by two controversial line calls that were not in favour of Lee. [24] The 2007 season saw Lee failing to reach the final for the first time in five years in Malaysia Open, he lso suffered an early exit in five competitions afterward and only saw him bounce back and took the Indonesia Open crown, his first title since the 2006 Malaysia Open after reuniting with former coach Misbun Sidek from Li Mao. [25] His performance at the second half of the year was solid, as he achieved three titles in Philippines Open, Japan Open, and French Open. He also managed to reach the final of the China Open and Hong Kong Open, despite his knee injury haunting him on both occasions. [26] Lee won all matches he played in Sudirman Cup in June, despite Malaysia finished only fifth in the tournament. 27] Lee’s lowlight of the year was in World Championships, despite the tournament held in front of his home crowd and his solid performance during the second half of the year, he was upset in the third round to Indonesian’s Sony Dwi Kuncoro. [28] Lee swipe at chief coach Yap Kim Hock soon after the defeat by claiming that Yap treated him indifferently and was putting pressure in his preparation for the championships. [29] [edit]2008 Lee Chong Wei playing in the semifinals of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing Lee kicked off year 2008 in success, capturing his fourth Malaysia Open title in five years. [30] However,

Lee only captured his second title of the year inSingapore Open,[31] also the final tournament in his pre-Olympic preparations, just after five tournaments he took part, in Korea Open;[32] All England Open; [33] Swiss Open;[34] Badminton Asia Championships;[35] and Thomas Cup in Jakarta, Indonesia where Lee helped Malaysia advanced through to the semifinal where he defeated Lin Dan to give Malaysia a 1–0 lead in its clash with defending champion China. However, Malaysia eventually lost 2–3 due to the defeat of its first doubles team in the vital final match. [36] In the 2008 Olympic Games, Lee was given a bye in the first round.

He cruised to straight game victories over Ronald Susilo in the second round, Kestutis Navickas in the third round,[37] and Sony Dwi Kuncoro in the quarterfinals. [38] He had a scare in the semifinals where Lee Hyun-il gave him a tough fight, but eventually Chong Wei was able to beat the South Korean and reach the final. [39] However, it was a one-sided final, as Lee was completely outplayed by Lin Dan and salvaged only 20 points, losing 12–21, 8–21. [40] He came second place overall. Lee participated in several tournaments after the Olympic Games, without capturing a title. He advanced o the finals of the Japan Open, the Macau Open andChina Open, but lost to Sony Dwi Kuncoro,[41] Taufik Hidayat,[42] and Lin Dan respectively. [43] In the French Open Lee was eliminated in the semifinals. [44]His coach, Misbun Sidek, cited the pressure of being ranked world number one to explain Lee’s recent failure to capture a title. [45] Lee ended his last Super Series tourney of the year, the Hong Kong Open, with a sudden withdrawal due to a knee injury, conceding a walkover to Germany’sMarc Zwiebler. [46] His last minute withdrawal led to the Chinese media to tag him as the “weakest world number one”. 47] The Chinese media also speculated that three factors had hampered Lee’s performance since the Olympic Games. They listed these as the stress of the Olympic final, a phobia of Lin Dan due to his lopsided Olympic defeat at Lin’s hands, and (echoing Misbun Sidek’s conjecture) the pressure of being the world number one. [48] Despite Lee’s recent difficulties in international play, he recorded his seventh consecutive victory at the National Badminton Grand Prix Final in Kedah on December 12, 2008, thus breaking the record of six consecutive titles set by Misbun Sidek. [49] Lee ended the year with a title in the Super Series Masters

Finals, however, Lin Dan and China’s other top players did not compete, their association citing injuries and fatigue. [50] [edit]2009 Lee started 2009 season with his fifth Malaysia Open title. [51] He failed to secure his first Korea Open and All England Open title despite marching into the final. [52][53] However, he secured his second title of the year in the Swiss Open which was held in Basel, defeating Lin Dan in straight sets and marking his first win in the finals against the Chinese opponent outside home turf. [54] Next, Lee surprisingly was defeated by Chen Long of China in the India Open. 55] He cited that the loss was due to food poisoning and insisted the authorities to improve the conditions before the World Championships. [56] In May, Lee helped Malaysia reached the semi-finals of the Sudirman Cup, the first in national history, despite his unbeaten record in the tournament being blown by Lin Dan. [57] He bagged another two titles in June, the Indonesia Open, [58] and the Malaysia Open Grand Prix Gold,[59] despite failing to defend his Singapore Open title when he was surprised by Nguyen Tien Minh in the second round. [60] Lee kicks off second half of the season with defeat to Sony Dwi Kuncoro in the world meets,[61] but ecovery to won the Macau Open in August. [62] He reached semi-final in the China Masters, but once again failed to beat his all time rivalry Lin Dan. [63] Then, Lee participated in the Japan Open, he only manage into second round of the Open,[64] before won the Hong Kong Open in November. [65] His inconsistency saw him tumbles down in the first round of the China Open. [66] In December, Lee defended his Super Series Masters Finals title, which saw the competition played without the top badminton players in the world. [67] [edit]2010 Lee started the year with the title in all events he took part, his first treble in the Super Series titles.

His first ever Korea Open crown,[68] sixth Malaysia Open,[69] and defeated Kenichi Tago to win the oldest and prestigious badminton championship in the world, the All England Open, his first one since he took part in 2004. [70] Lee participated in the Thomas Cup in his home ground. He managed to defeat Kenichi Tago and take the first point, despite Malaysia’s eventual loss (2–3) to Japan. [71] In the quarter finals, he beat Peter Gade, thus helping to secure Malaysia’s place in the semi-finals. [72] In the semi finals against China, Lee was defeated by Lin Dan, which ended his 18-match unbeaten record since the start of the year. 73] In June, Lee participated in Singapore Open losing in the quarter-finals. [74] However, Lee bounced back winning the Indonesia Open,[75] Malaysian Open Grand Prix Gold in July,[76] and Macau Open in August. [77] In late August, Lee suffered a shock exit in his another attempt for World Championships, beaten to Taufik Hidayat in the quarterfinals. [78] Misbun cited that the lost was due to the back injury he picked-up after the match against Rajiv Ouseph in third round. [79] On September 26, Lee beat his arch rival Lin Dan in Japan Open, the only title not grab by Chinese player in the tournament. 80] In October, he helped Malaysia to beat India to defend the gold medal at the 2010 Commonwealth Games mixed team event, then he also successfully defended his gold medal once again in the singles event a few days later. [81] The following month he won a silver medal at the Asian Games. Despite beating reigning World Champion Chen Jin in the semi-final, Lee once again tasted defeat at the hands of his great rival, Lin Dan, in the final. [82] In season end, He bagged the second consecutive Hong Kong Open title,[83] and third consecutive Super Series Master Finals title, where the tournament was held in

January 2011. [84] [edit]2011 In January, Lee won his seventh Malaysia Open title by defeating Taufik Hidayat from Indonesia in the final. [85] However, he failed to defend the Korea Open title, the world’s first ever million-dollar badminton tournament, after being beaten by Lin Dan from China in three games. [86] In March, Lee cruised into the final of the All England Open for the third consecutive time and retained his title successfully with a convincing straight games victory over Lin Dan, and was praised by prime minister Najib Tun Razak. [87]

On Labour Day, he won his first ever India Open,[88] and also his third consecutive Malaysia Open Grand Prix Gold title a week later. [89] Despite the fact that Lee won all his matches he played during the Sudirman Cup, Malaysia’s journey ended in quarterfinals, after being beaten by South Korea 2–3. [90][91] [92] In late June, he won the Indonesia Open, becoming the first non-Indonesian player to complete the hat-trick in the tournament. [93] [edit]Awards and honours Below is the list of awards won by Lee, also he was appointed as UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in 2009. [94] Date Awards Reason April 2006 2005 National Sportsman[95] Consistency and focus in game 29 April 2006 2005 Penang Sportsman[96] Performance in the 2005 IBF World Championships and 2005 All England Open Badminton Championships. 18 November 2008 2007 Penang Sportsman[97] 12 December 2008 Malaysia’s Male Olympian 2008[98] The only Malaysian to win a silver medal in 2008 Summer Olympics. 23 March 2009 2008 National Sportsman[99] 12 June 2009 Winner of the Sportswriters Association of Malaysia (SAM) awards[100] 9 August 2009 2008 Penang Sportsman[101] 17 October 2010 2009 Penang Sportsman[102]

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Market penetration stratergies of magi noodles Promotional campanes in schools Advertising stratergies * Focusing on kids Availability in diff pack sizes * Packaging is the biggest plus point of magi market penetration * They have product available in all sizes to tap the categories of consumer New product innovations

Following are the stratergies undertaken by magi to launch new products * Nestle sa introduced magi brand in india by 1982 with launch of magi 2min prod as instant noodles product * With launch of magi noodles nil created entirely new food category instant noodles in the Indian packeg food market bcz of its frst mover advantage nil successfully managed to rtain its leadership in instant noodle categories even until 2000s * They launch campan test b health b nw bcomes synonymus with magi * They changed the jingle of magi instant noodles campaign it was pretty catchy and went down well with target audience children * Nil started offering healthy prod to their consumers bcz they knw that if they have to tap Indian consumers they have to focus on health benefits * Focus on wellness n nutrition factor * The company moved away frm not so healthy maida to make its noodles and launched the magi veg aata noodles followed by dal aata noodles and finally rice noodles varients

The first point used by Yippee to position itself as a better alternative over Maggi was that it was telling the customers that they should have the choice of variety of masala with two variants in their product portfolio – Classic and Magic. The stress was made upon the point that we want choices in each and everything in life so why not have a choice while having instant noodles. 2 – The second point focused on the shape of the contents within the pack. The contents in other options available are in rectangular shape which have to be broken which leads to short pieces of noodles, where as in Yippee noodle pack the cake is in round shape which keeps the noodles intact and long and smooth. 3 – Then third thing that it focuses upon is the fact hat Maggi must be had immediately after it is cooked as after sometime the taste deteriorates and you cannot have it, where as Yippee noodles promises that they can even be had after some time. Thus it has tried to give itself a totally different positioning from the other competitors present in the market and it is the only competitor to Maggi which has decided to take it head on while competing with it. The biggest advantages available with the Sunfeast Yippee noodles brand are as follows: – 1 – The deeper penetration provided by the already well established and penetrative distribution channel provided to ITC by its channel member in the tobacco business which provides it the most penetrative distribution network both in rural and urban India. – Then it used the Sunfeast brand, thereby using the Umbrella branding strategy, which had already become a well known name in the Indian households because of the equity that the brand had gained in the minds of the consumers. 3 – The financial muscle of the ITC conglomerate to back the company to tackle all the competitive moves in an efficient manner. The Marketing Mix for Sunfeast Yippee Brand : – 1 – Product – It is a product that is different in terms of package (red and yellow contents), contents (which was round cake instead of the rectangular cakes as used by other brands), labeling, 90 gram pack (where as the biggest competitor Maggi is offering 85 gm pack), with two variants available and many more lined up for launch in the coming months. 2 – Price- available at the price tag of Rs. 0 to match the competitive prices that the other competitors are offering. 3 –  Place – The distribution reach is the biggest asset that ITC has got and Yippee is also using this biggest advantage of ITC to penetrate especially into the rural market at a rapid pace. 4 –  Promotion – The company is focusing very heavily on the benefit positioning concept in their ads focusing on the benefits or the advantages it has over Maggi as a competitor. Click on the links below to see the ads: – http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=PU3WCgIDjb8&NR=1 http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=7aIWsqb0jR0&feature=related http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=lIG5uUZQm9Q&feature=related

Thus all in all ITC has come up with an alternative which seems to be a bit different from all the options that have tried to compete with Maggi and the only alternative that has decided to take the market leader head on through its television commercials which are making direct comparisons with Maggi thought without naming it and showing how Sunfeast Yippee Noodles is a better option than Maggi. The competitive scenario in this industry is getting more intense as the customers habits are changing and they now want more options in anything and everything that they consume and the entry of these variants has provided the customers with a lot of options, and the brands are using their financial and marketing prowess to come out on top of the competitors. It now needs to be seen how Sunfeast Yippee Noodles from ITC is able to make a dent in stronghold of Maggi from Nestle and how it is able to come out on top in this battle of FMCG giants.

Kalpana Chawla my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Teachers Day BY vtnay2085 Speech given on the Teachers Day. Ghiyasuddin School, Wednesday 13th September 2006 Madam Aishath Adam, Senior Assistant Principal, Supervisors, members of the staff, Teachers and Dear Students. Assalaam Alaikum and Good afternoon. Today, we are here to celebrate great teachers and great teaching. As a fellow teacher, I find awkward to speak about teachers or for teachers. But, first, let me convey to all the teachers, my personal greetings and best wishes on the teachers’ day. Dear Teachers: Though a fellow teacher, I want to say I am proud of you. I am proud of your edication to the profession and for the personal sacrifices you make to teach our children. I am delighted of your devotion to train their questing minds, and for your inspiration of their hopeful hearts. I am proud that you take this responsibility seriously ”that you see it as sacred trust. We celebrate teachers’ day, because we value you. I want to remind you that all the parents, students and the wider community deeply appreciate your commitment to teaching and to the children. There is no substitute for education. Firstly, because it’s the most precious gift we can give our children.

Secondly, because it’s the most critical investment in our future. And thirdly, because it’s the most effective strategy which will enable us to survive and to thrive in a changing world. Dear Students: I became a teacher because of some of the happy experiences I had in school. There were teachers who touched my soul; who helped me realize my own potential. I decided to become a teacher because I want to help change someone’s life. Sometimes, it is hard. We have our own families, financial life and life problems that challenge us, like everyone else. Sometimes we are exhausted by our workload nd responsibilities. This is why teachers need encouragement and support. So that in turn, we can devote ourselves to our students. Dear staff and students; On Teachers’ Day every year, we remember our teachers, we remember our children’s teachers. We recognize these very dedicated people. People who give of themselves and take a personal interest in their students. Teachers who have touched our lives, moulded us into what we are today, and are helping to shape tomorrow’s people, tomorrow’s students. Just as a country is as good as its people, so its citizens are only as good as their teachers.

Therefore a great deal depends on you, teachers, and I salute you, all of you, those here today, and those absent, for your passion, dedication, commitment and contributions. I wish to all the teachers a successful career in teaching  a career in which you find happiness, health, friendship and love. Happy Teachers’ Day and thank you. Kalpana Chawla By Vaishakhi Status Deceased Born July 1, 1961 Karnal, Haryana, India Died February 1, 2003 (aged 42) Over Texas Previous occupation Research Scientist Time in space 31d 14h 54m selection 1994 NASA Group Mission insignia Sts-87-patch. ng STS-107 Flight Insignia. svg Kalpana Chawla , was an Indian-American scientist and a NASA astronaut. She was one of seven crewmembers killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. Early life Kalpana Chawla was born in a Punjabi Hindu family at Karnal, Haryana, India. [l] She was born in Model Town Karnal. Kalpana in Hindi means “imagination”. Her interest in flying was inspired by J. R. D. Tata, a pioneering Indian pilot and industrialist. [2][3]. Kalpana has two sisters (Sunita & Deepa) and a brother (Sanjay). Being the youngest, the family members gave her the nickname “Montu”. She met and married Jean-

Pierre Harrison, a flying instructor and aviation writer, in 1983 and became a naturalized United States citizen in 1990. [4] [edit] Education Chawla completed her earlier schooling at Tagore Public School, Karnal. She earned her B. E. degree in aeronautical engineering at Punjab Engineering College in Chandigarh in 1982. She moved to the United States in 1982 and obtained a M. S. degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington (1984). Chawla went on to earn a second M. S. degree in 1986 and a Ph. D. degree in aerospace engineering in 1988 from the University of Colorado at Boulder.

Later that year she began working for NASA Ames Research Center as vice president of Overset Methods, Inc. where she did CFD research on WSTOL. [2] Chawla held a Certificated Flight Instructor rating for airplanes, gliders and Commercial Pilot licenses for single and multiengine airplanes, seaplanes and gliders. She held an FCC issued Technician Class Amateur Radio license with the call sign KD5ESl. [edit] NASA career Chawla Joined the NASA astronaut corps in March 1995 and was selected for her first flight in 1998. that flew the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87. Chawla was the first Indian-born oman and the second person of Indian origin to fly in space, following cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma who flew in 1984 in a Soviet spacecraft. On her first mission Chawla travelled over 10. 4 million miles

Differences Between Cars and Motorcycles nursing essay help: nursing essay help

I am going to tell you about the cost of motorcycles and cars, the comfort of motorcycles and cars, and the safety of motorcycles and cars. First, motorcycles are less expensive then cars. As you can see motorcycles can cost only a few thousand dollars. But cars can cost anywhere from a little more than a few thousand dollars to twenty thousand dollars and up. Cars are nice to have but depending on which one you prefer to purchase can cost you a pretty penny. You can get a small compact car which might only cost between seven and ten thousand dollars or you can get an SUV which would be over twenty thousand dollars.

Motorcycles are not that expensive when compared to a car. You can get a motorcycle for under a few thousand dollars. Most people who look at this at a cost factor would prefer to go with a motorcycle to save money. Second, cars are more comforting to be in than motorcycles are. As you probably already know motorcycles are not that big and have a leather seat. The seat is not roomy enough and can get hot at times. This makes it really uncomfortable. Also lots of people like to wear motorcycle gear such as leather gloves and leather clothing such as leather pants.

Leather pants can make it very uncomfortable to ride a motorcycle at any given time. Cars are big and very roomy. It’s actually very comfortable to be sitting down riding in one. The seats can be leather or cloth with a carpet like material. Sitting in the car driving does not bother the comfort. People have been driving cars for many years and are very well use to the comfort of them. Third, is the safety of cars and motorcycles when riding? Both cars and motorcycles are not safe at all. Some could say one is not safer than the other. But from hearing on the news about accidents with cars and

Accidents with motorcycles we can say that they all have their fair share of safety problems. Motorcycles are not safe at all. Motorcycles ride on two wheels which we all know of. Motorcycles can go fast quickly and motorcyclists like to swerve in and out of lanes which cause a safety hazard. There is a lot of motorcycle related accidents all the time. Cars are dangerous also. There are car accidents being reported all the time. Even though cars seem like they are much safer than motorcycles they actually are not that safe. Some can argue that cars are safe or

Attendance Monitoring System persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

The system tracks the performance of employees regarding their attendance on a daily basis. 1. 2 System Overview Attendance Monitoring System provides a foolproof solution using fingerprint authentication with the use of a Barcode Scanner for input and affiliated with payroll ystem and human resource development system and provides efficient reports of the company.. The system records details such as arrival and departure of employees besides monitoring their attendance on a daily basis. 1. 2. 1 System Description Attendance Monitoring System takes input in a barcode scanner to collect and process data. Attendance monitoring system will provide the needed data for the payroll system for the deductions of the employee to be process. It provides reports of the DTR, the absences, and the leave of the employee. 1. 2. 2 System Organization

Attendance Monitoring System has a barcode scanner that takes the input of the employee in barcode id. The system will monitor the daily, monthly, yearly record of the employee’s absences, leaves, and DTR. It computes for the late of the employee for the deductions. 1. 3 Project References http://www. digitscorp. com/insight/attendance-and-time-monitoring-system. html  http://www. bioenable. co. in/fingerprints_software_development_kit. htm  http:// www. aryah. net/TAMS. htm 1. 4 Glossary Provide a glossary of all terms and abbreviations used in the manual.

If it is several pages in length, it may be placed in an appendix. 2 MANAGEMENT OVERVIEW The subsequent sections provide a brief description of the implementation and major tasks involved in this section. 2. 1 Description of Implementation This section provides a brief description of the system and the planned deployment, installation, and implementation approach. * The Attendance Monitoring System will be implemented along together with the Human Resource Development Information System and Payroll System, in which it can operate as a single software. 2. 2 Points of Contact

In this section, identify the System Proponent, the name of the responsible organization(s), and titles and telephone numbers of the staff who serve as points of contact for the system implementation. These points of contact could include the Project Manager. Program Manager, Security Manager. Database Administrator, Configuration Management Manager, or other managers with responsibilities relating to the system implementation. The site implementation representative for each field managers and staff with whom the implementation must be coordinated. 2. 3 Major Tasks

This section provides a brief description of each major task required for the implementation of the system. Add as many subsections as necessary to this section to describe all the major tasks adequately. The tasks described in this section are not site-specific, but generic or overall project tasks that are required to install hardware and software, prepare data, and verify the system. Include the following information for the description of each major task, if appropriate: What the task will accomplish  Resources required to accomplish the task Key person(s) responsible for the task

Criteria for successful completion of the task  Examples of major tasks are the following:  Providing overall planning and coordination for the implementation  Providing appropriate training for personnel  Ensuring that all manuals applicable to the implementation effort are available when neededProviding all needed technical assistance Scheduling any special computer processing required for the implementation  Performing site surveys before implementation Ensuring that all prerequisites have been fulfilled before the implementation date Providing personnel for the implementation team

Acquiring special hardware or software Performing data conversion before loading data into the systemPreparing site facilities for implementation 2. 4 Implementation Schedule In this section, provide a schedule of activities to be accomplished during implementation. Show the required tasks (described in Section 2. 3, Major Tasks) in chronological order, with the beginning and end dates of each task. 2. 5Security If appropriate for the system to be implemented, include an overview of the system security features and requirements during the implementation. 2. 5. 1 System Security Features

In this section, provide an overview and discussion of the security features that will be associated with the system when it is implemented. It should include the primary security features associated with the system hardware and software. Security and protection of sensitive bureau data and information should be discussed, if applicable. Reference the sections of previous deliverables that address system security issues, if appropriate. 2. 5. 2Security During Implementation This section addresses security issues specifically related to the implementation effort, if any. For example, if LAN servers or workstations will he installed at a site ith sensitive data preloaded on non-removable hard disk drives, address how security would be provided for the data on these devices during shipping, transport, and installation because theft of the devices could compromise the sensitive data.

George Elton Mayo get essay help: get essay help

George Elton Mayo BY ncha83139850 George Elton Mayo (26 December 1880 – 7 September 1949) was an Australian psychologist, sociologist and organization theorist. He lectured at the University of Queensland from 1911 to 1923 before moving to the University of Pennsylvania, but spent most of his career at Harvard Business School (1926 – 1947), where he was professor of industrial research. On 18 April 1913 he married Dorothea McConnel in Brisbane, Australia. They had two daughters, Patricia and Gael. Mayo is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, and is known for his research including he Hawthorne Studies and his book The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization (1933). The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the importance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. Mayo’s employees, Roethlisberger and Dickinson, conducted the practical experiments. This enabled him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace.

What he found however was that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the work group. Where norms of cooperation and higher output were established because of a feeling of importance, physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. People will form work groups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization. He concluded that people’s work performance is dependent on both social issues and Job content. He suggested a tension between workers’ ‘logic of sentiment’ and managers’ ‘logic of ost and efficiency’ which could lead to conflict within organizations. Disagreement regarding his employees’ procedure while conducting the studies: 0 The members of the groups whose behavior has been studied were allowed to choose themselves. Two women have been replaced since they were chatting during their work. They were later identified as members ofa leftist movement. One Italian member was working above average since she had to care for her family alone. Thus she affected the group’s performance in an above average way. Summary of Mayo’s Beliefs:

Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation, but must be seen as members of a group. 0 Monetary incentives and good working conditions are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group. 0 Managers must be aware of these ‘social needs’ and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it. 0 Mayo’s simple instructions to industrial interviewers set a template and remain nfluential to this day i. e. A. The simple rules of interviewing:- 1. Give your full attention to the person interviewed, and make it evident that you are doing so. 2. Listen – don’t talk. 3. Never argue; never give advice. 4. Listen to: what he wants to say; what he does not want to say; what he can not say without help. 5. As you listen, plot out tentatively and for subsequent correction the pattern that is being set before you. To test, summarize what has been said and present for comment. Always do this with caution – that is, clarify but don’t add or twist. [SOURCE: papers held by Mayo’s

Kolb Learning Methods college essay help service: college essay help service

Based on the descriptions in the text, where do you see yourself on the Kolb Inventory? I see myself on the Kolb Inventory as reflective observation. Reflective observation is the abilities which help learners to reflect on their experiences from many perspectives. After reading about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, determine which personality is most like you (e. g. ENT]). After reading about the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, I have determined that The Thinking verses Feeling; logic or values fits me. Thinking types are usually logical, rational, analytical, and critical. That describes me; I always want o know why this or what’s going to happen next, If I don’t do this, what am I up against? I’m always weighing my options. Feelings are types that are typically warm, empathic, sympathetic, and interested in the happiness of others as well as themselves. I find myself sympathetic at times and always interested in others happiness whether it involves me or not. List the results of the VARK and Multiple Intelligence Inventory learning assessments. The results for the VARK Learning Styles Inventory are as follows: Total number of Vs circled is 9 Total number of A’s circled is 9 Total number of R’s circled is 12

Total number of K’s circled is 12 The results for the Multiple Intelligence Inventory Learning are as follows: Verbal/ Linguistic Intelligence – 2 Logical/Mathematical Intelligence – 2 Visual/Spatial Intelligence – 2 Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence – 1 Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence – 4 Interpersonal Intelligence – 5 Intrapersonal Intelligence – 1 Naturalist Intelligence – 1 Look at your results, what similarities do you see? What are some of the differences that you see? The similarities I see are: I got a low score of visual in both VARK and Multiple Intelligence. The differences I see are: Bodily/Kinesthetic, in the Multiple

Intelligence Inventory was low but in the VARK Learning Styles Inventory Kinesthetic, I scored high. Which learning strategy is most effective for you based on these four models? How will this knowledge make you a more effective college student? The learning strategy that is most effective for me based on these four models is the VARK Learning Styles Inventory. By using the VARK Learning Style the knowledge will make me a more effective student because it is different methods in learning with the VARK Style. With the VARK Style you can hear, visualize, read/write, and kinesthetic. I can very

Review of Related Literature and Studies college essay help online: college essay help online

Background of the Study Now we are experiencing the computer revolution as we see the effects of the computer on transportation, economy, education, business, and even in our homes. Today, there is an extensive use of computers in a various applications, a compu Premium1063 Words5 Pages Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies Review of Related Literature (Foreign) Tomas Shearin(March,2012) This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies for both foreign and local underlying the framework of the study.

Related Literature The development of the study is based on “published” materials like books, newspapers, ublished Journals, articles, magazines, etc. Foreign Literature – the author is a foreigner Local Literature Premium330 Words2 Pages Review of Related Literature and Studies According to George Epstein “Computer is an electronic device that performs calculation and processes information. It handles vast amount of facts and fgures and solves complex problems at incredibility high speeds. A computer can processes many kinds o Premium265 Words2 Pages Chapter II: Related Literature and Studies of Inventory System Chapter II: Related Literature and Studies Review of Related Literature In exploration, we find new ommodities, new devices, services, Premium405 Words2 Pages Review Related Literature ChapterThis chapter presents the literature and related studies that clarifies the different aspects of the research. It also discusses the theories about the subject, and its purpose. The commodities, new devices, services, in technology ar Premium273 Words2 Pages Online Games on Teenagers Related Studies Game Addiction as we commonly call someone playing (video/online) games as if there’s no tomorrow, is still out of the “addiction book” of the doctors. Isn’t that neat?

Further showing how politicians and some members of the media are Just using this topic so they have something to say, and Premiuml 394 Words6 Pages Computer Effects on the Academic Performance of Students – Review of Related Literature “Effects of computer usage to the academic performance of students” ChapterThe scope of computer effects denves a wide scope of related literature that is worth mentioning. In this regard, this literature review concerning the effects of computer usage Premium1010 Words5 Review of Related Literature places for geeks to communicate via the web.

However, as the internet continues to grow and define itself, we have found them to be a very valuable resource of information. Forums benefit your internet experi Premium836 Words4 Pages Background and Literature overview The regulatory landscape of the air transport industry throughout the world has been changing dramatically since the 1980s to meet the growing density of air traffic as a result of the increasing integration of economies. Reforms Premium998 Words4 Pages How to Make a Review of Related Literature

India the Next Super Power write my essay help: write my essay help

All Developed Countries have A sizeable but manageable population Are endowed with unity, political cohesion and stability. Structured their national economic orders which are productive and competitive. Trained manpower resources and high level of technological capacities. High levels of defense or possession of nuclear and missile weaponisation Ten years from now, the people of India will be more numerous, better educated, healthier and more prosperous than at any other time in our long history. Having radicated the scourge of famine that plagued the country for centuries, we still confront the challenging tasks of providing a nutritious diet to all our children, educating our teeming masses, abolishing epidemic diseases and creating employment opportunities for all our citizens. The single most important implication of India’s rapid population growth during the second half of the twentieth century was the threat it posed to national food security.

That threat reached dangerous proportions in the mid-1960s, leading to the launching of the Green Revolution, chievement of food self-sufficiency, and subsequently, a growing stock of surplus food grains by the mid-1970s. Happily, such a threat no longer exists for the country. Growth of food production has exceeded population growth for each of the past three decades. Reasons for food security Reduction in calorie intake due to sedentary life style. Transport facilities and communication tech. has reduced the amount of physical work Diversification of the Indian diet to include a larger intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, sugar, oil nd pulses, eggs, fish and meat products, thereby reducing the required intake of calories from cereals. There is enormous scope for accelerating growth in agriculture, through improved soil and pest management, diversification into higher value crops and more efficient use of irrigation systems. Which serves both the economic intrests as well as provides foof security

Torque: Kinetic Energy essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Torque is a measure of how much a force acting on an object causes that object to rotate. The object rotates about an axis, which we will call the pivot point, and will label ‘O’. We will call the force ‘F’. The distance from the pivot point to the point where the force acts is called the moment arm, and is denoted by ‘r’. Note that this distance, ‘r’, is also a vector, and points from the axis of rotation to the point where the force acts. (Refer to Figure 1 for a pictoral representation of these definitions. ) I Figure 1 Definitions I Torque is defined as =rxF=rFsin().

In other words, torque is the cross product between the distance vector (the distance from the pivot point to the point where force is applied) and the force vector, ‘a’ being the angle between r and F. Using the right hand rule, we can find the direction of the torque vector. If we put our fingers in the direction of r, and curl them to the direction of F, then the thumb points in the direction of the torque vector. Imagine pushing a door to open it. The force of your push (F) causes the door to rotate about its hinges (the pivot point, O). How hard you need to push depends on the distance ou are from the hinges (r) (and several other things, but let’s ignore them now). The closer you are to the hinges (i. e. the smaller r is), the harder it is to push. This is what happens when you try to push open a door on the wrong side. The torque you created on the door is smaller than it would have been had you pushed the correct side (away from its hinges). Note that the force applied, F, and the moment arm, r, are independent of the object. Furthermore, a force applied at the pivot point will cause no torque since the moment arm would be zero (r = O). Another way of xpressing the above equation is that torque is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance from the force to the axis of rotation (i. e. the pivot point). Let the force acting on an object be broken up into its tangential

In order to lift the lever, you apply a force F to point P, which is a distance r away from the axis of rotation, as illustrated below. Suppose the lever is very heavy and resists your efforts to lift it. If you want to put all you can into lifting this lever, what should you do? Simple intuition would suggest, first of all, that you should lift with all your strength. Second, you should grab onto the end of the lever, and not a point near its axis of rotation. Third, you should lift in a direction that is perpendicular to the lever: if you pull very hard away from the wall or push very hard toward the wall, the lever won’t rotate at all.

Let’s summarize. In order to maximize torque, you need to: 1. Maximize the magnitude of the force, F, that you apply to the lever. 2. Maximize the distance, r, from the axis of rotation of the point on the lever to which you apply the force. 3. Apply the force in a direction perpendicular to the lever. We can apply these three requirements to an equation for torque, : In this equation, is the angle made between the vector for the applied force and the lever. Torque Defined in Terms of Perpendicular Components There’s another way of thinking about torque that may be a bit more intuitive than the definition provided above.

Torque is the product of the distance of the applied force from the axis of rotation and the component of the applied force that is perpendicular to the lever arm. Or, alternatively, torque is the product of the applied force and the component of the length of the lever arm that runs perpendicular to the applied force. We can express these relations mathematically as follows: where and are defined below. Torque Defined as a Vector Quantity Torque, like angular velocity and angular acceleration, is a vector quantity. Most precisely, it is the cross product of the displacement vector, r, from the axis of otation to the point where the force is applied, and the vector for the applied force, To determine the direction of the torque vector, use the right-hand rule, curling your fingers around from the r vector over to the F vector. In the example of lifting the lever, the torque would be represented by a vector at O pointing out of the page. Example I A student exerts a force of 50 N on a lever at a distance 0. 4 m from its axis of rotation. The student pulls at an angle that is 60„0 above the lever arm. What is the torque experienced by the lever arm? I Let’s plug these values into the first equation we saw for torque:

This vector has its tail at the axis of rotation, and, according to the right-hand rule, points out of the page. Energy Basics: I Issac Says: “Let’s Learn about Potential and Kinetic Energy! ” I Potential Energy: Potential energy exists whenever an object which has mass has a position within a force field. The most everyday example of this is the position of objects in the earth’s gravitational field. The potential energy of an object in this case is given by the relation: PE = mgh where * PE = Energy (in Joules) * m = mass (in kilograms) * g = gravitational acceleration of the earth (9. 8 m/sec2) * h = height above arth’s surface (in meters) Kinetic Energy: Kinetic Energy exists whenever an object which has mass is in motion with some velocity. Everything you see moving about has kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object in this case is given by the relation: KE = (1 /2)mv2 * KE = Energy (in Joules) * v = velocity (in meters/sec) Conservation of Energy This principle asserts that in a closed system energy is conserved. This principle will be tested by you, using the experimental apparatus below. In the case of an object in free fall. When the object is at rest at some height, h, then all of its energy is PE.

As the object falls and accelerates due to the earth’s gravity, PE is converted into KE. When the object strikes the ground, so that PE=O, the all of the energy has to be in the form of KE and the object is moving it at its maximum velocity. (In this case we are ignoring air resistance). These concepts are merely an outgrowth of Newton’s second law as discussed in an earlier unit. Newton’s second law (Fnet = m  a) stated that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting upon the object and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. When combined with he definition of acceleration (a = change in velocity / time), the following equalities result. If both sides of the above equation are multiplied by the quantity t, a new equation results. collisions during this unit. To truly understand the equation, it is important to understand its meaning in words. In words, it could be said that the force times the time equals the mass times the change in velocity. In physics, the quantity Force  time is known as impulse. And since the quantity mv is the momentum, the quantity  must be the change in momentum. The equation really says that the Impulse =

Change in momentum One focus of this unit is to understand the physics of collisions. The physics of collisions are governed by the laws of momentum; and the first law which we discuss in this unit is expressed in the above equation. The equation is known as the impulse-momentum change equation. The law can be expressed this way: In a collision, an object experiences a force for a specific amount of time which results in a change in momentum. The result of the force acting for the given amount of time is that the object’s mass either speeds up or slows down (or changes direction). The mpulse experienced by the object equals the change in momentum of the object. In equation form, F  = m  v. What Is Linear Momentum? Linear momentum is a vector quantity defined as the product of an object’s mass, m, and its velocity, v. Linear momentum is denoted by the letter p and is called “momentum” for short: Note that a bodys momentum is always in the same direction as its velocity vector. The units of momentum are kg  m/s. Fortunately, the way that we use the word momentum in everyday life is consistent with the definition of momentum in physics. For example, we say that a BMW driving 20 miles per hour has less momentum than he same car speeding on the highway at 80 miles per hour. Additionally, we know that if a large truck and a BMW travel at the same speed on a highway, the truck has a greater momentum than the BMW, because the truck has greater mass. Our everyday usage reflects the definition given above, that momentum is proportional to mass and velocity. Linear Momentum and Newton’s Second Law In Chapter 3, we introduced Newton’s Second Law as F = ma. However, since acceleration can be expressed as , we could equally well express Newton’s Second Law as F = . Substituting p for mv, we find an expression of Newton’s Second Law in erms of momentum: In fact, this is the form in which Newton first expressed his Second Law. It is more flexible than F = ma because it can be used to analyze systems where not Just the velocity, but also the mass of a body changes, as in the case of a rocket burning fuel. Impulse The above version of Newton’s Second Law can be rearranged to define the impulse, J, delivered by a constant force, F. Impulse is a vector quantity defined as the product of the force acting on a body and the time interval during which the force is exerted. If the force changes during the time interval, F is the average net force over that time interval.

The impulse caused by a force during a specific time interval is equal to the bodys change of momentum during that time interval: impulse, effectively, is a The unit of impulse is the same as the unit of momentum, kg  m/s. Example I A soccer player kicks a 0. 1 kg ball that is initially at rest so that it moves with a velocity of 20 m/s. What is the impulse the player imparts to the ball? If the player’s foot was in contact with the ball for 0. 01 s, what was the force exerted by the player’s foot on the ball? What is the impulse the player imparts to the ball? Since impulse is simply the change in momentum, we need to calculate the ifference between the ball’s initial momentum and its final momentum. Since the ball begins at rest, its initial velocity, and hence its initial momentum, is zero. Its final momentum is: Because the initial momentum is zero, the ball’s change in momentum, and hence its impulse, is 2 kg  m/s. What was the force exerted by the player’s foot on the ball? Impulse is the product of the force exerted and the time interval over which it was exerted. It follows, then, that . Since we have already calculated the impulse and have been given the time interval, this is an easy calculation: Impulse and Graphs

SAT II Physics may also present you with a force vs. time graph, and ask you to calculate the impulse. There is a single, simple rule to bear in mind for calculating the impulse in force vs. time graphs: The impulse caused by a force during a specific time interval is equal to the area underneath the force vs. time graph during the same interval. If you recall, whenever you are asked to calculate the quantity that comes from multiplying the units measured by the y-axis with the units measured by the x-axis, you do so by calculating the area under the graph for the relevant interval.

I What is the impulse delivered by the force graphed in the figure above between t = O and t = 5? | The impulse over this time period equals the area of a triangle of height 4 and base 4 plus the area ofa rectangle of height 4 and width 1. A quick calculation shows us that the impulse is: Work When we are told that a person pushes on an object with a certain force, we only know how hard the person pushes: we don’t know what the pushing accomplishes. Work, W, a scalar quantity that measures the product of the force exerted on an object and the resulting displacement of that object, is a measure of what an applied orce accomplishes. The harder you push an object, and the farther that object or by the object or person exerting the force, on the object on which the force is acting. Most simply, work is the product of force times displacement. However, as you may have remarked, both force and displacement are vector quantities, and so the direction of these vectors comes into play when calculating the work done by a given force. Work is measured in units of Joules 0), where 1 J = 1 N m = 1  m2/s2. Energy Energy is one of the central concepts of physics, and one of the most difficult to define.

One of the reasons we have such a hard time defining it is because it appears in so many different forms. There is the kinetic and potential energy of kinematic motion, the thermal energy of heat reactions, the chemical energy of your discman batteries, the mechanical energy of a machine, the elastic energy that helps you launch rubber bands, the electrical energy that keeps most appliances on this planet running, and even mass energy, the strange phenomenon that Einstein discovered and that has been put to such devastating effect in the atomic bomb. This is only a cursory list: energy takes on an even wider variety of forms.

Energy, like work, is measured in Joules 0). In fact, work is a measure of the transfer of energy. However, there are forms of energy that do not involve work. For instance, a box suspended from a string is doing no work, but it has gravitational potential energy that will turn into work as soon as the string is cut. We will look at some of the many forms of energy shortly. First, let’s examine the important law of conservation of energy. Conservation of Energy As the name suggests, the law of conservation of energy tells us that the energy in the universe is constant. Energy cannot be made or destroyed, only changed from ne form to another form. Energy can also be transferred via a force, or as heat. For instance, let’s return to the example mentioned earlier of the box hanging by a string. As it hangs motionless, it has gravitational potential energy, a kind of latent energy. When we cut the string, that energy is converted into kinetic energy, or work, as the force of gravity acts to pull the box downward. When the box hits the ground, that kinetic energy does not simply disappear. Rather, it is converted into sound and heat energy: the box makes a loud thud and the impact between the ground and the box generates a bit of heat.

Forms of Energy Though energy is always measured in Joules, and though it can always be defined as a capacity to do work, energy manifests itself in a variety of different forms. These various forms pop up all over SAT II Physics, and we will look at some additional forms of energy when we discuss electromagnetism, relativity, and a number of other specialized topics. For now, we will focus on the kinds of energy you’ll find in mechanics problems. Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy a body in motion has by virtue of its motion. We define work. For instance, a cue ball on a pool table can use its motion to do work on the ight ball. When the cue ball strikes the eight ball, the cue ball comes to a stop and the eight ball starts moving. This occurs because the cue ball’s kinetic energy has been transferred to the eight ball. There are many types of kinetic energy, including vibrational, translational, and rotational. Translational kinetic energy, the main type, is the energy of a particle moving in space and is defined in terms of the particle’s mass, m, and velocity, v: For instance, a cue ball of mass 0. 5 kg moving at a velocity of 2 m/s has a kinetic energy of 1/2 (0. 5 kg)(2 m/s)2 = 1 J. The Work-Energy Theorem

Effect of Caffeine on Heart Rate in Daphnia descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

At high levels of consumption caffeine has been linked to restlessness, insomnia and anxiety, causing raised stress and blood pressure. This can lead to eart and circulation problems. Hypothesis: Daphnia subjected to a caffeine solution will show a rise in heart rate as caffeine is a stimulant that speeds up the body affecting the nervous system and rate in which the nerve pulses are sent and received in humans. (Caffeine increases the heart rate of Daphnia. ) Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the heart rate of Daphnia in distilled water compared to that in caffeine. Safety: Handle cavity slide carefully to prevent breakage. Ethics for the Daphnia: 1. Every possible attempt to keep Daphnia alive. 2.

Use low concentration of caffeine so not to harm the Daphnia. 3. Place the Daphnia in the presence of pond water instead of distilled water. 4. Use the same Daphnia throughout the whole experiment and handle it with care. 5. Turn off the microscope light between observations to prevent the Daphnia from overheating while on the microscope. Materials: Culture of Daphnia (water fleas), cavity slides, dropping pipettes, distilled water or pond water, 0. 5% of caffeine solution, stopwatch, paper towels, microscope. Independent variables: Type of treatment- distilled water/ pond water and 0. % caffeine solution. Dependent variables: Number of heart beat per 20s Other variables: 1. Size of daphnia 2. Volume and concentration of caffeine 3. The time of Daphnia being immersed in the caffeine solution 4. Surrounding temperature 1. Have ready the 0. 5% of caffeine solution, the Daphnia culture, a stopwatch, cavity slides, pipettes and other materials. 2. Catch a daphnia with the pipette and place into well on a deep well cavity slide. 3. Use the microscope to get the daphnia in focus. If the Daphnia isn’t too large, use a cover slip to hold it in place. . Add two or three drops of the 0. 5% of caffeine solution. Leave the Daphnia immersed in the 0. 5% caffeine solution for 1 minute before removing the excess of the caffeine solution by using a pipette. 5. Using your stopwatch, count how many times the Daphnia’s heart beats in 20 seconds. Each heartbeat is recorded by tapping a pencil on a piece of paper and counting up the pencil marks after the specified time. 6. Repeat Step 5 for 2 times and record heart rates. Find the average heart rate of Daphnia with a 0. 5% caffeine solution. 7.

Repeat all the above steps for the control (pond water). Results: Table Treatment Heart beat rate/beat per 20s Mean heart rate / beat per 20s beat per min repeat 2nd repeat 3rd repeat Distilled water/ pond water 94. 00 95. 00 96. 00 95. 00 285. 00 Mean heart rate / 0. 5% caffeine solution 110. 00 100. 00 100. 00 103. 33 310. 00 Graph: Discussion: 1 . It is considered ethical to use invertebrates such as daphnia rather than large organisms e. g. monkey or human in scientific studies. Daphnia has reduced awareness of pain because of the lack of a well developed nervous system.

It is transparent and its heart is visible without the need for dissection. Daphnia is abundant in nature and there is no threat to it or its dependent species (food chains). Some people also feel that it is bred for fish food and will thus die anyway. Daphnia can reproduce asexually and may be clones, therefore there is no loss of genetic variation. At the other extreme, some research on animals involves suffering or loss of life. Animals that are kept in confinement on University premises are normally species that have been bred for many generations in captivity e. g. mice,

Risk and Return on Real Estate Investing research essay help: research essay help

A global real estate securities market has slowly developed over the last two decades. At year-end 1999, the market value of publicly traded real estate companies was approaching $400 billion. This public market provides a vehicle for investors to construct international commercial real estate portfolios without the burden of acquiring, managing, and disposing of direct property investments in far- ustain and increase the flow of investment capital into the international real estate securities market, performance benchmarks and relative performance measurement are vital. This paper investigates the return performance of publicly traded real return data on over 600 companies in 28 countries

The estimated Oensen’s) alphas from these regressions provide direct evidence of abnormal riskadJusted return performance. In addition, the estimated peta coefficients and coefficients of determination provide evidence on the extent to which country specific real estate returns respond to a global market risk factor. If returns on real estate securities in country i are heavily influenced by a world-wide risk factor, this may suggest that investors already diversified internationally with stocks will gain little additional diversification benefits by investing in the real estate securities of country i. In a econd specification of our asset pricing model, we add a country specific factor to pricing restrictions imposed. First, to avoid generated regressors and associated problems, we re-estimate our two-factor models using simultaneous equation estimation procedures. Second, we also re-estimate both the single- and two-factor models after imposing appropriate asset pricing restrictions.

Unfortunately, these data are not generally available on a global basis and the market size of them is not known precisely. However, given common fluctuations in the factors that comprise the world wealth portfolio, it is likely that our market portfolio proxy is highly correlated with the “true” world portfolio. Furthermore, to the extent that there are measurement errors, these are likely to be mitigated with the two-factor specification that we employ. For example, there is a 99% percent correlation between the MSC’ U. S. return and the value-weighted return calculated by the Center for Research in

Security Prices at the University of Chicago. 11 10 changing assessment of the quality and vision of the management team. Second, because the securities are publicly traded, they are exposed to the arbitrage forces of the public market. Nevertheless, there is an obvious link between the performance of real estate in the public and private markets. Several authors who have investigated international real estate portfolio issues have used time series of rents and capitalization rates, instead of property share return data, in their research (e. g. , Goetzman and Wachter, 1996, and Case, Goetzman, and Wachter, 1999). The dvantage of such an approach is that the database may contain information on a larger sample of the commercial real estate stock in a given market or country. The disadvantages of this approach reflect the problems of infrequent trading and the lack of a central marketplace for privately held and traded assets. Moreover, rents and capitalization rates in different countries are hard to compare, given the international variation in rental contracts. 12 Real estate stock indices have the advantage that they are publicly traded, transaction-based, transparent, and reported on a frequent basis (Lizieri, et al. , 1998).

For these reasons we limit our analysis to publicly traded property shares. 13 3. 2 Descriptive Statistics Table 1 provides descriptive statistics for the full sample period from 1984-1999. On average, the aggregate GPR index was comprised of 277 firms over the 192 sample months. However, many of the country-level returns must be interpreted with caution due to the small number of companies that comprise the index in some countries. In fact, the return indices in 12 of the 20 countries in the 1984 to 1999 sample are calculated with an average number of 12 See Corgel, Jaffe, and Lie (1992) and Geurts and Jaffe (1996) for an expanded

The Effects of the Iraq War law essay help: law essay help

The study most likely underestimated the true mental impact of these deployments on wives, in part because of a military stigma over seeking mental health care for depression or other issues. Then there are the concerns for the children of deployed parents, who suffer more emotional issues, particularly if the deployments are long or the parent who is still at home to care for them are having mental health issues (“When soldiers deploy, family deploys. ” 2010). Many of these children are being raised in a single parent home because the other parent is absent due to deployments. They have the same worries as adults, ondering if their mother or father will make it home from the war. They will have many holidays and birthdays that the deployed parent will miss. This may affect the relationships between the soldier and his spouse and child. Missing significant events can leave a child feeling abandoned and angry. When the deployed soldier is reunited with family and friends, this can be trying on their coping skills and produce shame and lead to withdrawal or depression (Litz & Orsillo, 2007). There will also be a significant impact on the family relationship if the Veteran has physical wounds from his or her deployment.

This can change their quality of life and well being of the entire family. There may be a disconnection with the soldier and the family members, which comes from feelings of guilt from what they were forced to do and what the soldiers seen in combat. An interview with one Veteran of the Iraq War says, “He sleeps in one of their children’s rooms because he has nightmares and panic attacks that cause him to hit and fght in his sleep” (Modell, 2009 p4). He is physically sick from the nightmares, so he is running to the restroom in the night. He wakes up in sweats and has to get up to shower in the middle of the night.

He has not shared a bed with his wife in three years. Another story told by a Veteran was similar. When he returned from Iraq, he became paranoid and thought he needed to protect his family. His wife wanted him to get help, but he was afraid as he thought it would be the end of his career. Eventually his wife left him. One night, he felt like he had lost his head Just in time. As a result, he was placed in a military psychiatric ward and was diagnosed with PTSD. He was charged with illegal possession of a firearm, dishonorably discharged from the military and got five years in Jail (Modell, 2009).

These are Just a couple of stories of how the effect of this war has taken a toll on soldiers and their families. According to SFC J. Johnson, the United States Army has set up a facility on each military post called the Warrior Transition Unit or WTIJ. This was set up so that the soldiers returning from Iraq with injuries would have a place for them to go. Not all of these men and women need to be in a hospital environment once they are on their way to recovery. When a soldier has physical injuries such as the loss of a limb, being paralyzed and confined to a wheelchair, or even the smallest thing such as a broken eg, which affect his or her readiness to perform their current Job duties, they are placed in the Warrior Transition Unit. These wounded soldiers are accommodated with treatment plans and rehabilitation to promote Job readiness. They are assigned a nurse case manager and a primary care provider who will evaluate his or her needs and place him or her in the appropriate programs. Most of the soldiers who are diagnosed with PTSD or depression will be placed in anger management, as many of them have anger issues. Many of these soldiers are having reintegration problems, which require marriage, family or de-stress counseling.

There are many soldiers required to call in at least twice a day to a platoon leader, depending on their risk level. If there have been threats of suicide or hospitalizations, they are placed on high risk. Many of these soldiers having a hard time being back in their home environment and adjusting to being back with their families are placed in barracks, which have been set up for these soldiers in the WTIJ (SFC J. Johnson, personal communication, July 23, 2010). There will be a comprehensive assessment of each soldier’s mental health to determine whether they are fit for duty.

This evaluation is done by a group of people who includes a nurse case manager, a counselor, a psychiatrist, primary care provider, and the Company Commander. The soldiers can return to duty, medically retired from active duty, or discharged or separated from the military if they are deemed not fit for duty. Being fit for duty will mean, most often than not, another deployment back into a combat situation, which causes further mental health stressors (SFC J. Johnson, personal communication, July 23, 2010). “If soldiers who are struggling with serious functional impairment as the result of a previous deployment re deployed again, there is a potential that this could impair their performance in combat. This has implications for the safety of unit members and mission success” (“About one-tenth of soldiers returning from Iraq may be impaired by mental health problems. ” 2010). Many of these soldiers have been deployed at least three to four times.

Character Formation essay help: essay help

Give Your Full Attention to Character Formation 10th June 2010, Chennai, India For some time now, I have been deeply thinking about the reason for the slow progress of abhyasis, and in some cases even about the lack of their progress ” total lack of progress. Of course, some are progressing well, but that too is perhaps more because of the personal attention that the Master gives them rather than by their own effort, and I am not referring especially to their spiritual practice but to their lifestyle. You know, in Sahaj Marg we are always talking of the Master giving the inner piritual condition, which for him is a matter of a second, whereas character formation is the responsibility of the abhyasi. I think, in general, abhyasis conveniently think that maybe the Master’s role is ninety-nine percent, or more, and the abhyasi’s role in personal character transformation or formation, is even less than one percent. I am forced to this, shall I say, conclusion, because that is how it appears to be, and people are not really serious about character formation or character transformation. Why I say this is because, as I said before, spirituality is given by the Master and that cannot be doubted, you see.

But their outer behaviour, their outer lifestyle, the way they conduct themselves, their politeness or lack of it, and, as repeatedly pointed out to me by abhyasis from all over the world, especially the behaviour of those very close to me ” what the outside world calls the inner circle. You know, I used to feel concerned, then I used to feel pained, now I really feel guilty. I feel guilty because the people close to me, my inner circle so-called, are, one and all, arrogant, proud, demanding, oppressive, authoritarian and lack politeness” one and all. Of course, I keep telling them about this.

Either they smile it off or they say, “Yes, yes, we will change now. ” But you know, recent affairs, especially when I was in Tiruppur immediately following dear brother Alay Shatter’s revocation of his nomination to succeed me, it has shown the raw human nature at its worst. Gossiping, condemning, blaming” always others, forgetting the principle that when you point your finger at somebody (one finger), three fingers are pointing towards yourselves. So what to do about this, you see. How to make abhyasis realize that the Master’s responsibility or his, what shall we say, duty towards an abhyasi (if I should all it that), is hardly one percent ” probably one thousandth or one millionth of a percent; whereas the abhyasi’s role, responsibility in making himself, transforming himself, should be ninety-nine percent or more. It is exactly opposite. Now, what are the consequences? People close to me think that because I keep them close to me, continue to keep them close to me, they are blameless, they are really blameless and I am only talking for fun or to show-off or something like that, you know, like chastising a pet. And people who are away from me, but who are close to me in an inner sense, they stay away.

I remember BabuJi Maharaj had a dog, Honey; and he was not fond of dogs, but it was there and it remained there. It used to run around chasing the monkeys and he used to tell me with a twinkle in his eye that, “You know, Honey recognizes abhyasis, because when abhyasis come, he doesn’t bark. He only barks at non-abhyasis. ” And, you know, I never understood the significance of BabuJi people around me, they are all the time barking, shutting doors, putting away people, using my name for everything that they do. “He is ill. ” “He is resting. ” “He is asleep. ” “He told us no,” so on and so forth.

I get letters from very, very close, devoted abhyasis who love me saying, “l cannot come, and I will not come so long as I am stopped. ” For them too, it is a need to transform themselves, because as BabuJi once said, “Two lovers cannot remain separated because the circumstances are not favourable. ” You know the old saying in English: Love laughs at locksmiths. It doesnt mean it only laughs at locks. The locksmith is symbolic of every circumstance that can come between the lover and the beloved. You remember the old story of the man who was so besotted with a girl that when she went out of town, he followed her.

There was a river to cross, and the river was in flood. He did not know what to do and then he found something like a log of wood. He took that log of wood and went across the river; and then he found a light burning in the house on the first floor. He said, “That must be my beloved’s room. ” And he saw to his surprise a thick rope hanging, and he said, “Oh, she loves me so much that she has left a rope for me,” and he climbed up using it. And when he entered the room, the girl was stunned. She said, “How did you come? ” He said “Oh, there was a boat, you know, there was a log of wood; I crossed the river.

And you have left this rope for me. ” And to their horror, they found that the log of wood was a human corpse and the rope was a python! Now, suppose that lover had been standing on the opposite side ” I mean I am giving a deliberate twist in interpretation to this story. Suppose he had stood there waiting until the flood subsided? Then he found the water was muddy because it was a flooding river. He waited till the water was clear. Then he tested it to make sure that there was no contamination. Then he crossed it. What would have happened? So for devoted, loving souls who use these excuses to not come near, I must emphasize that hey are losing a great deal more than these ruffianly people who surround me and who keep people away. They too will not benefit. So what happens is that the dogs which bark at the visitors dont have anything, and the people who are turned away because the dogs are barking, they have no benefit. So lack of correct appreciation of what character transformation means… You know, I get letters from wives about their husbands: He continues to drink, he continues to smoke, he continues to beat me. He is misbehaving with the children. I get letters from others you know, from a brother, n elder brother or a younger brother, that: My brother is still indulging in various fantasies. He watches porno movies, he indulges in self-titillation. He is masochistic, and yet to the outside world he looks something different. He will not change himself. He says these are something natural; under pressure of inner psychic needs these things happen. Then there are others who say: My children are being ill-treated. The father beats them regularly. Of course, for me it is my destiny as a wife. So you see, people must understand that sadhana does not begin and end with the morning meditation, with the evening cleaning and the night prayer.

It is not the end. That is only the foundation of the practice. The superstructure of what has to be erected is a clean structure ” well ventilated, that means behaviour transparent. The man is transparent. If he is a businessman, he must have stopped cheating the government by evading taxes. He must have stopped cheating by adulteration of his products. He cheating his partners, if he is a businessman. Are our people doing it? Or do they say, “Sahib, that cannot be done because there would be no profit. ” They must understand that profit is what legitimately comes by buying and selling honestly, sincerely and correctly.

Anything else you get by evading taxes, by cheating partners is robbery. I am sorry I have put it in such strong terms but our friends from the business community, our abhyasis, they often satisfy themselves by saying, “Yeh hoga nahin, Saab, kabhi ” this is not possible. Business cannot be done this way. ” I say, the whole world is doing business this way. Why you cannot do it? Then a man says, “No, no, Sir. My wife denies me everything. She won’t give me proper food. ” He doesnt talk about sex, which is the main thing between a husband and wife in our society. If that is denied, marriage is a failure.

Is there a proper way of conducting your marital life, whether it is social or sexual or in any way else, to be harmonious? Should a man not respect his wife’s needs, her privacy, her health condition, her moods, or Just insist on what we call in India in our legal language [as] ‘his marital rights’ that she must be available any time of the day, twenty-four into seven into three hundred and sixty-six ” day or night it doesn’t matter. I was horrified to hear a story from an abhyasi long ago that after her child was born, on the third day or fourth day her husband demanded sex. Third or fourth day!

Now whether he is a husband or an animal or a brute, who is to say? He says, “It’s my right. ” It’s an interpretation solely to the purpose of a, shall we say, crazy fellow who has sufficient power to enforce his will upon another, to use the principles of marriage to his own purpose and ignoring completely that she may have Just had a child. “It doesn’t matter. So what? She is a woman, isn’t she? ” So those of you who are going to listen to this, I don’t know how you will take all this. But, you know, I should have spoken about this years ago. But I was perhaps too optimistic or too foolish or perhaps even too fraid to put across these ideas to my abhyasis and tell them: Sisters and brothers, this is what is required of you. Always love. Love does not mean lust. Love means giving; love does not mean taking. Love means consideration for others; not a selfish concern for your own self and what you need and what you want. Love means, your income (legitimate), is yours; nothing more. Love means, in a partnership in business, if it is an equal partnership I cannot rob others. Suppose they rob me? Love means first and foremost putting yourself in the place of another before you speak and before you act.

If these things are not followed and applied to your own life, dear brothers and sisters, whatever may be the spiritual input that our Master gives us, graces us with, blesses us with, will be lost. Because it is my samskara that I will carry with me into my next life, God forbid if there is a next life, and they are governed by what we do here, what we think here, which is how samskaras are born. So I say, beware, be alert, understand these principles properly, apply them to your own life, examine yourself. If necessary, in your diary be very frank and say, “l have stopped beating my wife. ” Truth, if it is the truth. l have stopped telling lies to my partners. I have stopped cheating. I have stopped adulterating. I have stopped self-titillating. I have stopped beating my children. ” All these are relevant to your spiritual diary, if you want to be honest about it, so that anybody can read what you have written. Then only you will be aware. Because now, you know, we live in the secrecy of our personality is what I show to the outside world. My true self is inside, secret, safely buried, and I am blissfully thinking that by Master’s grace I will evolve, I will go to the Brighter World, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera.

The Master is magnanimous. He loves us, he wants to give us everything that he has, but his limitation is that unless the vessel is clean he cannot put anything else into it. We are in a situation where the Master gives us, let us say, a hundred gallon tank of milk, and two drops of poison which is our contribution, ruins it. It is so potent ” human will, human endeavour is so potent. As BabuJi said, “You can train a lion to do what you want in six months. But it’s impossible to train a human being over a whole lifetime unless he or she cooperates. ” What is the cooperation that I am now trying to emphasize that an bhyasi should offer to the Master? Full attention to character transformation, knowing that the spiritual part is being attended to by him, meticulously, every moment of our life, with total concern for our spiritual welfare and our future. I exhort all of you who will listen to this to take it seriously; if necessary, read this again and again if it is available in written form, and apply it every moment of your life. Think ten times before you address your friend. Think twenty times before you refuse somebody entry into my place to meet me. Do not shout; imagine what it would be like if somebody shouted at you.

Do not push people; you dont like to be pushed. Do not force yourself on your wife. And do not make negative comments all the time. “There is no salt in this, there is no sugar in this. You are ugly,” you know I don’t want to see anything in you. Because, by force of circumstances, call it health, call it whatever it is, I really cannot see any of you now, beyond six feet, and my seeing your spiritual condition if I am able to do it, is of no use, because what is going to carry you into the next level of spiritual welfare, spiritual achievement, is you yourself. I pray for all of you .

Tiger Woods: Enough is Enough essay help online free: essay help online free

Woods issued a apology to his wife and the public admitting he had hurt his family and saying he needed to focus on being a “better husband, father and person,” an ambition that many of us could add to our list of New Year’s resolutions. (Mathew, 2010) To further that aim, e said he was leaving competitive golf “indefinitely’ even though the implication that playing golf is somehow incompatible with becoming a better husband and father is more than a little troubling for the sport. “When corporations attempt to set themselves up as moral arbiters, they Just end up making themselves look out of touch. First, no one really cares. Moss, one of the world’s most well-known models, found herself in trouble in 2005 after pictures were published allegedly showing her using cocaine. Companies such as Hennes & Mauritz AB and Chanel SA promptly canceled her contracts. Five years later, Moss is still a big brand.

Likewise, the Rolling Stones packed more bad behavior into a single tour date than Tiger Woods could chalk up in a year. Yet corporations still line up to sponsor their concerts. (Mathew 2010)Second, companies want to associate themselves with stars who have personality. The average Joe doesn’t identify with Accenture’s corporate-mission statements. Sponsors have to put a golfer on the brochure to get anyone to take a look because the sportsman has character and an inspiring life story. Those qualities are what people find most interesting. (Mathew 2010) But don’t expect those “personalities” to be perfect. If hey were, they would be as dull as the products they are promoting. And then what would be the point hiring them? It is precisely their human foibles we find appealing. (Mathew 2010) Nike and Electronic Arts have decided to stand by Tiger during this rough time.

Spain’s Clothing college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Spain’s Clothing BY ntkkki816 Clothing from Spain During the Sixteenth Century, Spain was widely known for fashion and elegance. The traditional Spanish clothing was widely known for elegance, austerity, rigidity, and superb decoration. The cloth fabrics used for making traditional Spanish clothes were rich and heavy, with decorations in gold and silver thread with Jewels or pearls. The Moorish Culture greatly influenced Spanish dressing; it introduced rich embroideries, use of Jewels, jeweled buttons, points and ornaments as well as heavy girdles and collars.

Capes, corets, farthingale, which were bell-shaped all originated in Spain. Spain refused to develop or change its’ fashion sense and continued to use these styles well after they were outdated, this was the main cause for Spain to give up its title as center of European fashion to places like Paris. Today, Spanish traditional clothes are indeed very colorful. Most Spanish citizens dress in their traditional wears for festivals & bullfghts. The matadors costume has remained the same over the years.

The bullfghter’s cloak, the cape de paseo, worn for his ceremonial entry into the ring, is well decorated and still worn. Traditional Spanish Clothing comes in different forms. The most widely used ones are mantilla, Peineta, Gilet etc. A brief overview of each type of clothing is discussed below: Mantilla: The mantilla is a light lace or silk scarf worn over the head and shoulders, usually over a high comb, by women in Spain. The mantilla is a traditional Spanish garment and is a variant of the veil that is used by women in religious celebrations.

Mantilla style veils originate from Spain and are usually held in place using pins. Peineta: A Peineta is similar in appearance to a large comb and used to hold up a mantilla. This decorative comb, usually in tortoiseshell color, originated centuries ago. It consists of a curved body and prongs and is usually used in conjunction with a mantilla. It increases the height of the wearer and also holds the hair in place when worn for occasions. Gilet: The Gilet is a sleeveless Jacket similar to a waistcoat or blouse. It may be waist- to knee-length, and straight-sided.

Initially, they were fitted and embroidered. In a further derivation, in 19th-century dressmaking a gilet was a dress bodice shaped like a man’s waistcoat. Flamenco Dressing There are many different costumes for Flamenco dancing. Women typically wear black, red or white frilly dresses with many ruffles, high heels, their hair in a bun, and a rose behind their ear. Men wear black or red tuxedo undershirts with classic pants that allow freedom. Flamenco costumes usually come in red, black, white, naw blue or any other dark color.

Ethical Dilemma a Walmart Manager Might Face cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Using Collaborative Care The most common uses for collaborative care are patients with chronic diseases and patients with complex problems in need of care across a continuum of health care settings. Chronic diseases that benefit from the use of the collaborative model of care include type II diabetes mellitus, diseases of the cardiovascular system such as hypertension and heart failure, and renal disease, such as failure or chronic insufficiency. In addition, addictions such as those to illegal substances or alcohol, and mental health issues are ideal for the application of the team approach to care.

Evidence clearly shows that the collaborative approach significantly increases the quality of care and patient satisfaction with his or her care. According to Kearney (2008), “team care is complex because the members must recognize each other’s competencies, determine the division of responsibilities for patient care and adhere to essential communication and documentation protocols. ” Successful collaborative teams exhibit respect and focus for the common patient goals, have clear role assignments, respect and understand each member’s competencies, use effective and frequent communication and are able to resolve onflicts in a timely manner without major disruptions in the flow of care to the patient. Barriers to successful collaborative team care include any type of breakdown within the team. The most common issues that impact negatively on successful collaboration include disrespect for other members, role boundary conflicts, ineffective communication and power struggles between professions. Conclusion As society ages the number of people with chronic diseases and complex illnesses will continue to increase. The acute care setting is only one stop along the continuum of care for the treatment of these conditions.

How the Rule of Henry Viii and His Pursuit get essay help: get essay help

Icons of Modern Leadership: Lee Kuan Yew of Modern Singapore vs. Adolf Hitler, a Prominent Aggressor of World War II They say history must not repeat itself especially when it involves loss of lives, destruction of property and disruption in the delivery of basic services to people including relationships. In this paper, former Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and Fuhrer and Chancellor Adolf Hitler have been chosen as effective World Leaders whose achievements, whether good or bad, have been identified to greatly mpact many lives of people around the world. This paper is not to pass Judgment on them whether they have become good or bad leaders of the past. What is being looked into is how effective these leaders have been in carrying out their goals, strategies, etc. and the lessons that must be learned. The strategies, ways and means both used to achieve their goals may have been totally poles apart or different based on their beliefs, manner of doing, choices, etc. But for one thing, both leaders dreamed of harmony, peace, unity and progress for their country.

The difference is how they executed that dream. Both leaders have left significant different memories, one of which is the unforgettable holocaust initiated by Fuhrer Adolf Hitler and a successful giant leap of economic redemption of Singapore from a Third World country to become an Asian Tiger country within the three decades of Lee Kuan Yew’s rule. Each leader delivered significant changes that deserve to be called great icons in the history of world leaders. Adolf Hitler who was the reason for the outbreak of

World War II and Lee Kuan Yew who transformed Singapore from a Third World country to another Asian Tiger country, have been chosen and Juxtaposed to learn the similarities and contrasts of their qualities and styles as leaders as well as how their reigns brought impact to the world. Credited to Hitler’s achievements were as follows: “awarded the Iron Cross, First Class in December 1914 (a rare decoration for bravery in action to a corporal)” (Hitler,A. , 2011); “annexation of Austria and Sudetenland” (Chen, P. , 2012); wrote the book ‘Mein Kampf (meaning My Struggle) here it was an anti-Semitic, anti-Communist diatribe outlining his strategy for remaking Germany and becoming a conquering power throughout Europe” (Harkavy, 1996). “By 1938 Hitler had made Germany the most powerful and feared country in Europe (and perhaps in the world)” (Hitler, A. , 2011). “Majority of the German people supported him because they saw during his early leadership to his credit how unemployment virtually disappeared, the rising prosperity of the masses, the new social institutions and the increase of German prestige in the 1930’s. All these chievements of Hitler were unparalleled in the histories of other modern totalitarian dictatorship”(Hitler, A. 2011). On the other hand, achievements credited to Yew include: redemption of Singapore from a Third World Country to become an Asian Tiger country now aligned with other rich Asian countries like Japan, Hongkong, and Taiwan. Singapore is now an enw of many neighboring Asian countries. Of Lee Kuan Yew’s outstanding achievements, eradication of corruption was envied by many ASEAN nations because ‘Corruption’ has always long been associated with Third

Dream Job scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

How to Do Well on a Job Interview by Glenda Davis Ask a random selection of people for a listing of their least favorite activities, and right up there with “getting my teeth drilled” is likely to be “going to a Job interview. ” The Job interview is often regarded as a confusing, humiliating, and nerve-racking experience. First of all, you have to wait for your appointment in an outer room, often trapped there with other people applying for the same Job. You sit nervously, trying not to think about the fact that only one of you may be hired. Then you are called into the interviewer’s office.

Faced with a complete stranger, you have to try to act both cool and friendly as you are asked all sorts of questions. Some questions are personal: “What is your greatest weakness? ” Others are confusing: “Why should we hire you? ” The interview probably takes about twenty minutes but seems like two hours. Finally, you go home and wait for days and even weeks. If you get the Job, great. But if you don’t, you’re rarely given any reason why. 2 The Job-interview “game” may not be much fun, but it is a game you can win if you play it right. The name of the game is standing out of the crowdn a positive way. If ou go to the interview in a Bozo the Clown suit, you’ll stand out of the crowd, all right, but not in a way that is likely to get you hired. 3 Here are guidelines to help you play the interview game to win: 4 Present yourself as a winner. Instantly, the way you dress, speak, and move gives the interviewer more information about you than you would think possible. You doubt that this is true? Consider this: a professional Job recruiter, meeting a series of Job applicants, was asked to signal the moment he decided not to hire each applicant. The thumbs-down decision was often made in less than forty-five secondseven efore the applicant thought the interview had begun. 5 How can you keep from becoming a victim of an instant “no” decision? * Dress appropriately. This means business clothing: usually a suit and tie or a conservative dress or skirt suit. Don’t wear casual student clothing. On the other hand, don’t overdress: you’re going to a Job interview, not a party. If you’re not sure what’s considered appropriate business attire, do some spying before the interview. Walk past your prospective place of employment at lunch or quitting time and check out how the employees are dressed.

Your goal is to look as though you would fit in with that group of people. Page 264 * Pay attention to your grooming. Untidy hair, body odor, dandruff, unshined shoes, a hanging hem, stains on your tie, excessive makeup or cologne, a sloppy Job of shaving”if the interviewer notices any of these, your prospect of being hired takes a probably fatal hit. * Look alert, poised, and friendly. When that interviewer looks into the waiting room and calls your name, he or she is getting a first impression of your behavior. If you’re slouched in your chair, dozing or lost in the pages of a ver with your hands in your pockets, he or she will not be favorably impressed. What will earn you points is rising promptly and walking briskly toward the interviewer. Smiling and looking directly at that person, extend your hand to shake his or hers, saying, “I’m Lesley Brown. Thank you for seeing me today. ” * Expect to make a little small talk. This is not a waste of time; it is the interviewer’s way of checking your ability to be politely sociable, and it is your opportunity to cement the good impression you’ve already made. The key is to follow the interviewer’s lead. If he or he wants to chat about the weather for a few minutes, do so. But don’t drag it out; as soon as you get a signal that it’s time to talk about the Job, be ready to get down to business. 6 Be ready for the interviewer’s questions. The same questions come up again and again in many Job interviews. You should plan ahead for all these questions! Think carefully about each question, outline your answer, and memorize each outline. Then practice reciting the answers to yourself. Only in this way are you going to be prepared. Here are common questions, what they really mean, and how to answer hem: * “Tell me about yourself. ” This question is raised to see how organized you are. The wrong way to answer it is to launch into a wandering, disjointed response or”worse yet”to demand defensively, “What do you want to know? ” or “What do you mean? ” When this question comes up, you should be prepared to give a brief summary of your life and work experience”where you grew up, where your family lives now, where you went to school, what Jobs you’ve had, and how you happen to be here now looking for the challenge of a new Job. * “What are your strengths and weaknesses? In talking about your strong points, mention traits that will serve you well in this particular Job. If you are well organized, a creative problem-solver, a good team member, or a quick learner, be ready to describe specific ways those strengths have served you in the past. Don’t make the mistake of saying, “l dont have any real weaknesses. ” You’ll come across as more believable if you admit a flaw”but make it one that an employer might actually like. For instance, admit that you are a workaholic or a perfectionist. Page 265 * “Why should we hire you? ” Remember that it is up to you to convince the nterviewer that you’re the man or woman for this Job. If you Just sit there and hope that the interviewer will magically discern your good qualities, you are likely to be disappointed. Don’t be afraid to sell yourself. Tell the recruiter that from your research you have learned that the interviewer’s company is one you would like to work for, and that you believe the company’s needs and your skills are a great match. * “Why did you leave your last Job? ” This may seem like a great opportunity to cry on the interviewer’s shoulder about what a Jerk your last boss was or how unappreciated you were.

It is not. The experts agree: never bad-mouth anyone when you are asked this question. Say that you left in order to seek greater responsibilities or challenges. Be positive, not negative. No matter how Justified you may feel about hating your last Job or boss, if you give voice to those feelings in an interview, you’re going to make the interviewer suspect that you’re a whiner and hard to work with. * “Do you have any questions? ” This is the time to stress one last time how interested you are in this particular Job. Ask a question or two about specific aspects of the Job, f you’re dying to know how much the Job pays and how much vacation you get, don’t ask. There will be time enough to cover those questions after you’ve been offered the job. Today, your task is to demonstrate what a good employee you would be. 7 Send a thank-you note. Once you’ve gotten past the interview, there is one more chance for you to make a fine impression. As soon as you can”certainly no more than one or two days after the interview”write a note of thanks to your interviewer. In it, briefly remind him or her of when you came in and what Job you applied for. As ell as thanking the interviewer for seeing you, reaffirm your interest in the Job and mention again why you think you are the best candidate for it. Make the note courteous, businesslike, and brief”Just a paragraph or two. If the interviewer is wavering between several equally qualified candidates, such a note could tip the scales in your favor. 8 No amount of preparation is going to make interviewing for a Job your favorite activity. But if you go in well-prepared and with a positive attitude, your potential employer can’t help thinking highly of you. And the day will come when you are the one who wins the Job.

Financial Projection college essay help: college essay help

Operating Budgets. Based on the projected financial statements, the company/flrm is able to Judge its future level of receivables, inventory, payables and other corporate accounts along with its profits and borrowings requirements. After analyzing the financial forecasting the finance manager can carefully track actual events against the plan nd make necessary adjustments keeping in view the requirement. The financial a guide for the future. Forecasting statements are projected financial statements embodying a set of assumptions about the future performance of a company and the funding requirements. The process flow of the financial forecasting can be depicted as under- Sales projection- Prior Balance-sheet Production Plan Pro forma Cash Budget Sales Forecast is the starting point of the financial forecasting exercise. Forecasting of other financial variables based on sales projections, therefore, the necessity for accuracy of sales projection is of a matter of vital importance.

There are different forecasting techniques and methods of sales forecasting, but all of them fall within the following three categories. a. Quantitative techniques b. Time Series projection methods c. Casual methods Preparation of Production Schedule Based on the anticipated sales the necessary production plan for the projected period is prepared. The number of units produced will depend on the beginning stock of inventory, the sales projection and the desired level of closing stock of inventory. Q. 5- What is Zero -Base Budgeting ? Ans- Zero-base budgeting is a new technique designed to revitalize budgeting.

ZBB, was designed in its logical basic framework in 1970 by Peter A. Pyhrr, who developed implemented and popularized its wider use in the private sector. Zero base Budgeting is a planning, resource allocation and control tool. This tool requires and executive to Justify his/her budget requirement for projected performance starting from scratch. A close examination of programs, projects and activities of the departments/ divisions is needed so that funds are allocated to high-priority programs by eliminating outdated programs curtailing of funds to the low-priority programs and projects.

In this process, this calls for a fresh evaluation and prioritization of ongoing as well as new programs and projects, so that scarce resources are deployed efficiently and effectively. The underlying philosophy of zero- base approach is a structured, systematic and analytical process of questioning, done in two stages. The first one stage involves redefining the urgency, importance or and projects needs to be classified into vital, essential and desirable. The second stage involves an in-depth questioning of every program, project or the task as if it is a fresh one. In this process the following steps are adopted. . Spelling out the discrete activities or decision units by top functionaries. it. Construction of decision packages with specification of specific objectives, operational objectives and alternative performance methods to achieve these objectives. iii. Priority ranking of endorsed projects by the Junior functionaries followed by a hierarchical review with continual consolidated re-ranking. ‘v. Allocation of resources to decision units based on the consolidated ranking of accepted or approved decision units based on the consolidated ranking of accepted or approved decision packages and projection of vailable funds. v. Monitoring performance of projects on the basis of criteria established in the approved decision packages. v’. Zero-base review is a resource planning and re-deployment process. Its implementation leads to an improved utilization of staff and other resources in addition to enhancing cost effectiveness. Therefore, this process can be called a resource planning and re-deployment device. Zero-base budgeting is more suitable for budgets and administrative departments and expense centres engaged mainly in co-ordination and provision of supportive services. Benefits of adopting ZBB are as under-

Improved planning of work and re-deployment of resources. Cost effectiveness by a systematic learning process that would ensure that the budget for following year will not be based on the pitfalls of the previous year’s performance and resource allocation. Increased participation of managers in the budget-making process. It links budgets with the corporate objectives. It can be used for introduction and implementation of the system of ‘management by objectives’. Summary : Budgetary control is an essential tool of management for controlling cost and maximizing profits and Zero-Base Budgeting is a new technique to revitalize budgeting.

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