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Professional Trustworthiness Cheap Essay Help






order for a large or even small company to thrive, its resources must be pulled
together to ensure maximum profitability. Having this goal in mind will create
a level of expectation in the efforts of every person in the organization. This
expectation brings the need for trustworthiness, as the firm will require candidates
that are ready to work with and for its leaders to achieve its goals. This
along with the four elements of trustworthiness, are key in the realization of
company goals.

job application addressed in this paper is from Google. The advertisement is
for a Technical Program Manager, YouTube Test Automation, and Quality Programs.
With regard to professional trustworthiness, the job requires that the
applicants have not only a degree in computer science but also experience in
managing technical and/or software development projects. The applicants should
have absolute knowledge of the task ahead. This means all the objectives must
be met. One of the stated requirements is that they are able to drive the push
follow up process to reduce regression during releases (Technical Program
Manager 1).

integrity, the managers require a promise-keeping individual who will be fully
accountable for the projects entrusted to them (Technical Program Manager 1).
They should be in a position to own the entire project during its lifecycle and
ensure objectives are met and on time. Their reliability of the employee will
be constantly tested as the job has minimal supervision. Applicants must
therefore be highly driven individuals. The job requires a level of benevolence
as the hired applicant will have to work with a given task team. Team members
will be required to work selflessly to achieve the aims of the company.


Program Manager, YouTube Test Automation and Quality Programs. Google Careers. Google. n.d. Web. 4 Sep. 2014.

End of Life Decisions online essay help
of Life Decisions



of Life Decisions

Velma Howard was seventy-six
years old. She had the Lou Gherig’s Disease, which made her spinal cord
dysfunctional. The condition makes patients lose the use of their muscles and
they end up dying from asphyxiation. They are not able to contract since their
diaphragm is not able to function. Howard’s condition deteriorated rapidly and
she had lost complete use of her arms. Her legs had become problematic and her
quality of life began deteriorating. She did not want to live in her condition
and she wanted to accelerate her death. She recorded her death wishes noting
that no one had forced her to do anything she did not want. She met up with her
family in a hotel on the fiftieth anniversary and she killed herself the next
day. Her husband and son were later accused of assisting her to commit suicide by
noting that they provided the materials she needed to do so (Graudons, 2002).

The case presents
a situation where family members helped a loved one to fulfill her dying
wishes. Mrs. Howard had already to commit suicide. She was suffering from the
disease and she felt that she could not live in that condition any more. She
wanted to end her suffering by quickening her death, which she knew would be
inevitable. The only difference was that she would reduce her suffering. It is
inhumane for a person to watch another one suffer to that extent. People should
do whatever they can to end such suffering for others (Lo, 2013). By continuing
to live, Velma could have continued to watch as her body deteriorated and she
could not have done anything about her condition. Velma’s family opted for her
to die in dignity instead of becoming a vegetative state where she would have
to endure more suffering. The fact that she had taken the effort to record her
intentions shows that she was in a competent frame of mind when she made her

The Howard family
assumed that her life was not worth living when they decided to assist her to
accelerate her death. They did not value her enough to convince her not to
proceed with her plans. By agreeing to her decision, the family members showed
that they do not respect the sanctity of life. Just because someone is old and
sick does not mean that he or she does not have anything to contribute to her
family and the society. However, some people support euthanasia because they
consider those they care for to be a burden in their lives. They do not
consider the times they share together and the memories they have with each other
when they decide to help a person to die. Some conditions make the patients
feel vulnerable and depressed and this makes them lose hope for living. In some
cases, patients receive bad medical care and this makes their condition worse
(BBC, 2007). It is important to consider such factors before a person decides
to help patients accelerate their death. Depression can be overcome and
providing good quality medical care can help to reduce the pain that the
patient is experiencing. The Howard family could have convinced Velma to hold
on and fight for her life irrespective of the challenges she was facing. They
could have found ways of helping her to manage and cope with her condition.
Quality of life should not just be determined by the tangible things that a
person is able to do or by her ability.

Assisted suicide
is a delicate issue as it concerns human life. People should not treat human
life lightly. Therefore, patients should receive the best care and support
possible to ensure that they do not develop other conditions such as
depression, which might cause them to wish for death. Palliative care is
important and so is the support that one receives from family members. Patients
who feel loved and encouraged and who do not feel that they are a burden to their
families will rarely result to suicide as a means of death. Such people will
wish to spend more time with their loved ones and they will see a reason for
fighting. Although it might seem to be an easy way out, assisted suicide is not
the option for suffering.


(2007). Ethics guide: Anti-euthanasia
arguments. Retrieved from

D. (2002). The Velma Howard case
(assisted suicide). Retrieved from

B. (2013). Resolving ethical dilemmas: A
guide for clinicians. Philadelphia,
PA: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins

Six-Sigma Implementation in Healthcare. argumentative essay help



Student no:

Postal Address:

TITLE: Six-Sigma Implementation in Healthcare.

Telephone Number;


Date of Submission:


I declare that the work I am
submitting for assessment contains no section copied in whole or in part from
any other source unless explicitly identified in quotation marks and with
detailed, complete and accurate referencing.


Introduction. 3

The research problem.. 4

Rationale of the Study. 4

The Objectives of the Study. 5

Research questions. 6

Literature review.. 7

Proposed Methodology. 10

Research design. 10

Data sources. 11

Data collection techniques. 12

Issues of Reliability and Validity. 13

Sampling techniques. 15

Definitions of Key Terms, Concepts and Variables. 16

Data Analysis and Interpretation. 16

Ethical considerations. 17

Confidentiality. 18

Informed Consent 18

Provision of debriefing, counseling and additional information. 18

Pilot study. 19

My personal work plan. 19

Appendix. 21

Cited. 22

1. Introduction

The health care sector has been
operating its businesses by utilizing the traditional methodology, which tends
to ignore vital emerging factors within the industry. These include liability,
malpractices involving insurance cost, increasing healthcare costs, patient
safety, insurance payment, and the use of Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) for
Medicare (Aboelmaged 268). These factors have currently become more prevalent
with competition between hospitals intensifying. Progressively, the need for actualizing
their goals through strategies, such as meeting the patients’ care expectation
and understanding the critical need of being able to control their operational
costs triggered the health care sector to apply quality management strategies
into the industry (Schroeder, Linderman, Liedtke, and Choo 48). Currently, there
have been drastic competitive forces within the healthcare sector, as many
organizations and hospitals are looking for new strategies through which they
can survive in the industry. Most organizations have shifted their business
strategic, operational and organizational practices including providing the
best medical care at considerably low costs. This is indeed a good step though
most hospital administrators lack adequate knowledge on how they can reduce
health care costs without compromising quality (Shirazi, Babak, Fazlollahtabar,
and Mahdavi 867).

The increased
scope, complexity and organizational roles of hospitals in the health care
industry are increasingly becoming more critical to most organizations ability
to compete. Traditionally, the healthcare sector is multifaceted with various
activities, management and resources, of which have been important to
hospitals. Nonetheless, the need to manage the diverse facets of the healthcare
sector more effectively and efficiently has gained more importance due to the increased
competition. In order to solve such issues, some hospitals are embracing other
quality management techniques such as the Total Quality Management (TQM) and
the Continuous Quality Management (CQM) to improve health care provision (Andersson,
Roy, Henrik and Torstensson 284). Under the current environment and status within
the healthcare sector, which contains many forces including steeper
competition, increased client expectations and government pressures,
implementation of the six-sigma approach would help improve the quality and
productivity of the health care delivery. 

research problem

Currently, the government has come
up with various strategies, which can help improve the delivery of healthcare
services. Conversely, the management of the industry is ineffective to some
degree. Agreeably, the policies put in place benefits every individual in the
country though to some extent there care is too much. Health care cost is meant
to serve and run projects, which are relevant in the industry. However,
approximately one-third to a half of the total cost is unnecessary and overused,
accounting for thousands of billions of dollars (Binder 1). Additionally,
half-a trillion yearly is attributed to disability and lost productivity. According
to the American college
of Gynecologists and
Obstetricians, the March Dimes, Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and
Neonatal Nurses and Childbirth Connection, the elective deliveries, which have been
repeated for over thirty years are unnecessary. As a result, billions of
dollars, which comes from the taxpayer’s money is wasted on such costs. For
instance, according to the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, approximately
$1 billion is spent on human early elective deliveries, which are unnecessary (Binder
1). This problem arises from mismanagement issues. A good management system
should be able to understand the repercussions of certain actions and work
towards maximizing and utilizing the provided resources accurately in order to
ensure quality health care.  

of the Study

Conventionally, health care is
regarded as a significant determinant in supporting the general well-being,
mental and physical health of individuals in the world. Additionally,
healthcare is a broad field of study that involves the lives of people, the
clinician as well as other bodies such as the government. The aim of the study
is to identify the different ways through which the management of the
healthcare systems is made to be much better than they currently are. With the
integration of the six-sigma model, the study  
would help in solving the problems of poor management and misuse of
healthcare revenue. Furthermore, health care is one of the few sensitive fields
to study (Stamatis 81). Therefore, testing new ideas and making great
adjustments and improvement is rather risky unless the proposed alterations are
guaranteed and approved by relevant authority. In this effect, the project
cannot be done on the ground but rather accomplished through experimental

this study into the health care system has potential contributions in the
industry. Through the six-sigma approach, the quality of health care services
would improve since it would help in identifying and eliminating the causes of
errors in the spending. Additionally, the technique utilizes a set of
management techniques such as statistical methods. Through such methods, the
study would help minimize the overuse of healthcare costs. Ideally, the study
is feasible and reasonable. Health care revenue is attained from the taxation
of every individual in the nation. This means it captures the attention of most
individuals, who can help in actualizing the goals of the study. Additionally, discussions
on how the six-sigma methodology can be implemented into the health care system
are possible as long as the proposal behind it is valid (Stamatis 83).

Objectives of the Study

Following the identification of the
purpose of the study, understanding and recognizing the objectives is vital.
Objectives complement the purpose of the study by offering a more direct
outline of the specific areas to be achieved. In this study, the objectives are
as follows:

To test the implementation and integration of the six
sigma in Health care systemsTo utilize experimental design in the six-sigma
implementationTo identify a method of testing the new solutions and
adjustments To identify the potential benefits of utilizing the
six-sigma methodology To identify the possible risks associated with the
implementation of the six-sigma methodology. To establish how the possible risks associated with
the new solutions can be avoided and eliminated


In line with the objectives of the
study, the research questions serve two distinct purposes. These include
determining the kind of research that is being written and identifying the
objectives addressed in the research. The research questions are:

How would the integration and implementation of the six-sigma
approach in health care systems be tested?How would the six-sigma implementation be utilized in
experimental design?What method would be used to test the new solutions
and adjustments?What are the potential benefits of utilizing the
six-sigma approach?Are there any possible risks associated with the
implementation of the six-sigma methodology?How can the possible risks associated with the new
solutions be avoided or eliminated?

2. Literature review

Since its inception, the six-sigma
approach has been used by various organizations in order to improve their
quality. Developed by the Motorola Company in 1986, the approach was created in
order to improve the quality of its processes by identifying and eliminating
defects while minimizing the business process and changeability in
manufacturing. Six sigma bases on the quality and depends on statistics with an
approximate 3.4 defects found per million opportunities. The six-sigma approach
is not a new technique; various industries have employed it in the past, and it
has managed to evolve from continuous improvement and scientific management
theories into a fine combination of the two (Babak, Fazlollahtabar, and Mahdavi
868). Literature on the utilization of the six-sigma approach and the
implications in the future presents a rather neutral ground with which the
implementation of the technique in the health care systems can be evaluated.

According to
Galvin Robert at Motorola Inc, there is a significant six-sigma DMAIC quality
improvement methodology, which involves a five-step process of solving problems
within an organization. Defining is the initial stage involving the grouping
and identifying as well as defining who are the clients, service providers, the
project process and the efforts towards improving the project. This step is
followed by the measurement step where quality characteristics are measured
against product performance and customer satisfaction (Schwalbe, Kathy, and
Furlong 110). From this stage, the data collected is used in formulating the strategies
in improving the services.

Analyzing is the
third stage in which analysis of the data acquired is conducted using
analytical tools including the process flow diagram, Pareto analysis, statistical
flow charts and fish-bone diagrams. The results obtained are used to process
and design modifications used in achieving performance objectives and customer
satisfaction. At this stage, the analyzed data undergoes some improvements.
Additionally, it is at this stage where resources needed for the implementation
of the design are allocated. Finally, the control step falls last. The whole
process is monitored using quality management means such as statistical process
control charts and Pareto chart, which work by ensuring the quality and
performance are improved and maintained (Schwalbe, Kathy, and Furlong 112).

According to a
past research on the implementation of a six-sigma approach into an
organization, there were several benefits and challenges incurred. The research
involved optimizing radial forging operation variables. Radial forging involves
the process used in the forging or tubular or round components with precision(Six Sigma Based Approach
128). Similar to the current research, the project was aimed at reducing the
costs while increasing their service provision in order to maintain a good
profile in the increasing competitive market. Among other quality management
techniques, which have been used by industries in the past, the six-sigma model
proved to be the most efficient in this research. With its major focus placed
on minimizing the costs, the process involved the interaction of the critical
parameters with the Taguchi experimental design in order to actualize its goal.
Further adjustments were made in the methodology by integrating the Response
Face Methodology (RSM) to make the results and analysis cost effective and more
precise (Lighter and Donald 91). Finally, the optimized parameters obtained
from both methodologies were put into test in industries, and there were
potential benefits observed.   

Notably, in the
health care sector, there are potential benefits associated with the use of the
six-sigma approach. In this case, patient care and machinery create a diverse
variability, which is subtle since the human element is involved, thus, making
it hard to quantify. Despite the potential benefits associated with the
utilization of the six-sigma approach, there are various challenges
accompanying its use. For instance, finding a way to leverage the data obtained
from the approach into human behavior presents a rather difficult task. Additionally,
in the health care industry, the six-sigma approach can only be beneficial if there
is a combination with cultural strategies involving sound operational and
change acceleration mechanisms. The level of performance within a health care
institution can be defined using four metrics. These include the service cost,
service level, clinical excellence and customer satisfaction (Munro 44). The
challenge posed by such metrics is that they are only applicable in healthcare
centers whereas very difficult to use in the health care setting. Despite the
significant challenges involved in the utilization of the six-sigma model
within the health care sector, most hospitals manage to achieve their goal,
which is to improve customer satisfaction.

Other studies
conducted on the utilization of the six-sigma method are that involving caregiver
burnout in the HIV/AIDS field. Through the six-sigma approach, several factors
were identified to increase burnout among health caregivers involved in the
HIV/AIDS care. More often, younger health care workers were observed to have a
higher risk of experiencing burnout than older caregivers due to the amount of
time they are left to spend with the patients. Additionally, the older health
caregivers have a higher sense of control over their patients and tend to
employ coping strategies to overcome stress making them less likely to
experience burnout. Following the implementation of a six-sigma approach, other
factors such as gender, occupation role, sexual orientation and marital status
were found to have no effect on healthcare givers (Munro 77). By doing so,
hospitals were able to come up with strategies of reducing such scenarios and
eventually managed to reduce cases of burnout among the AIDS health care

3. Proposed Methodology

In this research, it is more
appropriate to utilize both the qualitative and quantitative methodology while
incorporating and deductive approach of conducting a research. Additionally,
the research is more theoretical than empirical in its approach to the research
question and objectives.


The appropriate research design in
implementing the six-sigma approach is the action research design. At the
initial stages, an explanatory stance has to be adopted, and an understanding
of the research problem is build up. The characteristic flow of the research
design continues with planning on the intervention strategy during which
pertinent observations in due time are collected. The essentials of the design
progress to integrating the proposed interventional strategies into action
through a cyclical process of repeats until the implemented solution for the
problem is attained. This research design is iterative in nature, thereby
providing a deeper understanding of the problem from the conceptualization to
particularization via several evaluations and interventions. In doing so, the
six-sigma approach would be utilized in solving the problem in the health care
sector through a series of repeats (Ima et al. 114).

Additionally, in
order to actualize the goals of this research, the adaptive and collaborative
design would encompass both the quantitative and qualitative approaches. Observation
of behavior and conducting interviews as well as utilizing data sets in the
research would help in making it a success since the philosophical approach is realistic
and constructionist in nature. Some of the data used would be literature-based
while encompassing both the primary and secondary analyses. Moreover, the
research design would be deductive in the sense that it works by proving the
six-sigma approach is useful in solving problems within an organization and
industries (Munro 77). This strategy links the theory in question to previous
surveys and data sets. The research design could further be classified as an
empirical research since it involves some kind of a qualitative research with a
closer analysis of statistics. Basing on all these approaches, the action
research methodology proves to be applicable and most productive in
actualization of the research objectives and ultimate success.

3.2 Data sources

Data for the research would be obtained
from a wide range of sources. Secondary sources including scholarly written
articles on the implementation of six-sigma approach in various organizations,
their potential benefits and the problems experienced in the healthcare
industry. For instance, the six-sigma approach on radial forging variables displays
the integration of the six-sigma approach in an organization and its usefulness
in understanding and solving potential problems. Other articles such as the one
written by Thomas help in developing the six-sigma method in management(Six Sigma Based 284). This
would help in achieving the first goal of the research, which is to be able to
implement the six-sigma approach in health care services. Magazines would also be
used as data sources.        

Primary sources
would also be used in the research such as conducting interviews with hospital management,
as well as use questionnaires in various institutions within the area. This
would include interviewing the medical superintendent, two nurses, two
patients, an obstetrician and a gynecologist. Conversations with these
individuals would be recorded using voice recorders. Moreover, observational
techniques would be utilized in this research, where the behavior of the
interviewees would be noted down as well as the gestures they display in order
to rule out cases of being biased or providing false information (Desai 74). From
these identified individuals, it would be easier to attain necessary first-hand
data pertaining to the research. Additionally, data provided on the internet
would be useful in identifying some of the problems faced in the industry
including the figures of the stated overused amount of money on unnecessary
procedures. Different websites provide the data, information regarding hospital
spending, and most of them help in determining whether the expenses are
necessary or not. Furthermore, hospital records would be used in confirming the
stated figures of hospital spending. The data collected would be used in
estimating the potential benefit of implementing the six-sigma approach through
the solution it would provide.  

collection techniques

In order to obtain data from
scholarly written journals, one is required to visit the institution’s library
and select related articles, which pertain to the research. This activity would
be done on 7 September in the library between 9 am and 1pm. Other related
articles can be retrieved from the internet on the same day in the afternoon
between 2pm and 4 pm. Readings
from such articles would help in the formulation of questionnaires and
interview questions. Semi-structured interviews would be used in collecting the
data. Before conducting the interview, the researcher should borrow permission
from the librarian in order to conduct the activity inside the library. Upon receiving
permission, the interview will take place on 8 September inside the library due
to the quiet and peaceful environment provided in there. The structure of the
questions would have   a cordial tone while
still following protocol as illustrated with a sub-sample attached in appendix
A. This structure helps in giving room for exploration of the health care
provider’s answers and seeking clarification would be made easier. The
healthcare providers would be interviewed one at a time while the conversations
would be recorded using a voice recorder placed on one of the tables as the
researcher notes some of the gestures made by the interviewees. After the
interview, the results would be complied together and prepared for analysis.

administration of questionnaires would follow on the following day. A group of
selected and mentioned caregivers would receive a questionnaire in which they
would fill out the answers. The questionnaires are restricted to selected
health caregivers such as those dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, chronic disease
departments and elderly patients as well as an obstetrician and a gynecologist.
The open-ended questionnaires would be given to these health caregivers on 9
September in the hospital outpatient section at 9 am, and they would be
collected at 10am. This method allows the interviewees to express their views freely
pertaining to the questions asked, which enables the researcher receive
appropriate results. These questionnaires would then be put together awaiting
analysis. Additionally, the questions presented in the questionnaire are
similar to those asked during the interview. These methods of data collection
proved to be more appropriate since they are easy to conduct and are not time-consuming.
Furthermore, they concur to my personal abilities and weaknesses while
conducting research. Time keeping is a major personal issue and thus conducting
a research that takes up much time would rather be more inappropriate.
Nonetheless, I possess excellent abilities in conducting interviews due to my
extroverted personality that helps in adding confidence in the work and improving
communication with fellow interviewees. The experience gained in conducting
research from past episodes is vital in a complicated and complex project since
more skill is required.

of Reliability and Validity

Agreeably, one question that arises
when conducting research is whether one can believe the findings and if the
research can stand up and out rule scrutiny. By definition, reliability refers
to conditions and requirements of a specific measurement having to result in consistency.
In this research, issues of reliability are managed and dealt with accordingly
in order to result in consistent, equivalent and stable results. The research
would be tested according to the three measures of reliability(Essentials of Lean Six Sigma 178). The
data collected and used is appropriate and precise to the point that if the same
data is used with the same procedures in several other researches, it is
evident that the overall result would be consistent indicating its test-retest
reliability. Moreover, the six-sigma approach is a technique, which has been
used for several years in many industries and bigger companies. Therefore,
selecting this technique proves to be more appropriate and for researchers who
aim to obtain similar results, they can utilize other reliable techniques,
making the research inter-observer reliable. Furthermore, the answers to a set
of questions on the six-sigma implementation topic are related and associated.
Through such a method, the multiple questions and answers are used to measure
the same technique. Hence, the research displays high signs of inter-item

second important concept is determining the validity of a research. Despite the
complications associated with assessing validity, there are potential ways through
which it can be determined and measured. From the experiment, it is evident
that the research seeks to utilize the six-sigma approach in the health care
sector, which is present throughout the proposal making it to be face valid.
Secondly, the approach encompasses various facets such as its processes, the
stages involved while developing it as well as its association with industries.
All these factors have been explained in the research making it content valid. In
addition, the six-sigma approach has been used by other industries in the past,
and related literature indicates that it could be used in the future in solving
management issues within any organization. Through its well-established future
use, the research turns out to be valid in terms of the criterion. Finally, the
six-sigma approach is a technique that has been used to identify and solve
problems within the management sector of many organizations in the past. This
shows that the methodology is pertinent in the health care industry. Thus, the
research is constructed validly. Having established and displayed a higher
sense of validity all through the validity tests, it is evident that the
research is indeed valid. Ideally, the tests indicate that the research is both
highly valid and reliable; hence, yielding consistent results while accurately
reflecting the research’s objectives.

Sampling techniques

The purposive sampling technique
would form the basis of sample selection in this research. Also known as
selective, subjective and judgmental, the purposive sampling technique can be
referred to as being non-probability in nature. In other words, the sample
selection entirely relies on the researcher’s judgment when selecting people to
be involved in the research. Ideally, this technique was suitable for this
research since the sample in question is rather small. Unlike other sampling
techniques, the main aim of purposive sampling is to place focus on a small
population’s characteristics, with which the results would help in answering
the research questions. An important key factor is that the sample selected in
this research is not a representation of health caregivers but selected
individuals who have similar and interrelated roles in hospitals and they have
a close relationship with the research problem. 

close focus on the sampling technique is the utilization of the maximum
variation purposive sampling technique. From the research question, it is
evident that the sample for the research should be drawn from different
sectors. This idea coincides with the maximum variation technique, which allows
capturing sample from a wide range of viewpoint relating to the research
objective. In this research, much interest is placed in identifying and
establishing the truth behind the misuse of healthcare funds on unnecessary
strategies. A variation of the units, in this case, health care professionals,
would be useful in providing data for the research. Additionally, the research
would be limited to healthcare providers in the chronic, HIV/AIDS and elderly
departments. The participants would be selected in random from those clinics
together with two patients from each department. An obstetrician and
gynecologist would also be chosen for the research. Most importantly, gender
balance would be placed into consideration. Meaning, the number of male
counterparts would be equal to the females present.   

of Key Terms, Concepts and Variables

Throughout the research, there are
specific key terms that need to be defined. These include:

Six-sigma approach- these are tools and techniques used
in the improvement of processes.Caregiver Burnout- refers to the complete emotional,
mental and emotional state of exhaustion that affects the attitude of an
individual to change from a caring and positive to being unconcerned and
negative. Reliability- is the measurement of the degree to
which an appraisal tool produces consistent and stable results.Validity- refers to how appropriate a specific test
measures what it is supposed to measureANOVA- is a statistical approach of analysis that means
analysis of variance.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

Analysis of data is the next
important stage after collection. Having administered questionnaires and
conducted interviews as well as research from relevant readings from the
library forms the initial stage of analysis. An important fact to be put into
consideration is the fact that all the data collected should relate to the
implementation of the six-sigma approach in the health care system. Systematically,
the data would be collected and compiled in a manner where comments with
similar themes would be grouped together while discarding any information that
does not pertain to the research. Progressively, there would be an attempt of
interpreting the data collected through various methods such as drawing tables,
pie charts and graphs. These figures would help in providing a visual
representation of the results obtained in an arranged format.

attained a visual representation of the results, further interpretation of the
results would be made. This would be achieved through mathematical techniques,
which help in calculating data and providing in-depth information pertaining to
the study. Basing on the data obtained from the collection process, the
analysis can be calculated in different forms to structure the analysis. This
would include using the ANOVA approach, which means the analysis of different
types of variances including conducting measures of central tendency, standard
deviation and correlation. From the results obtained, conclusions can be drawn
and serve as the analysis of the research.  

3.8 Ethical considerations

Ethical codes and practices have to
be adhered to when conducting the research. The most important factor is that
the participants would have informed consent of their actions where they
understand the risks involved. Secondly, the participating individuals would
not be put under any form of pressure. In this case, they should participate in
the research only if they have agreed. In doing so, the data collected would be
more appropriate and precise rather than when people are made to participate
unwillingly. Every individual’s autonomy should be respected, where everyone has
the liberty and freedom to make his or her decisions. Furthermore, no harm
should be presented to the participants in the cause of the research. The
confidentiality and autonomy of the participants would be maintained throughout
the research. Finally, particular care would be made when dealing with
vulnerable groups such as the disabled and mentally challenged persons.   


Confidentiality is an important key
factor when conducting research. During the collection of data, it is important
to make the participants as anonymous as possible. This helps in protecting the
identity of the participants when dealing with personal information such as
their job title, name and other strong expressed opinions. Confidentiality
refers to protecting the data collected with the aim of ensuring that the
research is able to identify and access private concerns, feelings and stories,
which would have potential importance in the research. Additionally, the
research promises high levels of anonymity due to the sensitivity of the
research problem.

3.8.2 Informed

Before taking part in the research,
the participant should understand the importance of the research. Thus, before
the research, each participant would be given an information sheet, which would
provide him or her with information about the study. In the sheets, the
following information would be provided:

The name of the researcher, location and current
professionInform the participants why and how they were  invited to take part in the researchOffer information that despite having agreed to take
part in the research, they could change their mind at any given timeExplain the level of anonymity and,Offer information on how the information would be
stored and used.

3.8.3 Provision of
debriefing, counseling and additional information

On 6 September 2014, the involved
individuals would meet in the lecture hall and discuss how the research could be
done. The information on debriefing would be communicated through personal
phone calls, emails and text messages. The intended participants would be
counseled after the briefing in order to prepare them for the research in

3.9 Pilot study

In order to pre-test the study,
sample questionnaires would be sent to the head of department. It is after the
confirmation of the lecturer that the research materials can be put into
further tests. These may include sampling some of the questions during lecture
sessions and the participants in this case are classmates. From their comments,
it is easier to identify if the research sampling details, questionnaires and
interviews are applicable in research. Furthermore, the said dates would be
confirmed against the school calendar in order to ensure that they do not
interfere with the institution’s
important dates.

My personal work plan



Submission of the proposal


Design of a research plan


Gaining access/getting permission to work in a particular
area/have access to data, etc.


Literature review


Defining of a universe, a sample frame, sampling OR
setting up of selection criteria, etc.


Design and testing of questionnaire, if appropriate


Design of a final questionnaire/schedules, etc.


Interviews/posting of questionnaires, etc.


Editing of completed questionnaires, grouping and coding
of data, entering data into a computer


Design and testing of a computer program


Raw tabulations/draft analysis of qualitative data


Analysis of data


Report up of findings


Presentation of final research product(s)




Sample Questionnaire

What do you think about the current healthcare
standards in the country?Do you think that the healthcare expenditure is
appropriate?If not, what are the few loopholes do you think exist
in the healthcare systemDo you believe that the healthcare sector is
overspending money on unnecessary strategies?If yes, what makes you think that the strategies are
unnecessary?Do you think the problem emanates from the
management?What are your personal views about the implementation
of a new approach that would help in saving more money and reducing
unnecessary spending?Would you support such strategy? Why would you support it?Do you believe there could be potential benefits
involved with the implementation of a new approach towards healthcare management?

Works Cited

Mohamed G. “Six Sigma Quality: a Structured Review and Implications for
Future Research.” International Journal of Quality & Reliability
Management. 27.3 (2010): 268-317. Print.

Roy, Henrik Eriksson, and HÕkan Torstensson. “Similarities and
Differences between Tqm, Six Sigma and Lean.” The Tqm Magazine.
18.3 (2006): 282-296. Print.

Leah. “The Five Biggest Problems in Health Care Today.” Forbes Mag., 2 Feb. 2013. Web. 4 Sept. 2014.

Deepali K. Six Sigma. Mumbai, India: Himalaya
Pub. House, 2010. Print.

of Lean Six Sigma. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2010. Print.

R. R, MJ Brown, JR Hebl, R Moore, JC Rogers, A Kollengode, GJ Amstutz, CA
Weisbrod, BJ Narr, and C Deschamps. “Use of Lean and Six Sigma Methodology
to Improve Operating Room Efficiency in a High-Volume Tertiary-Care
Academic Medical
Center.” Journal
of the American College of Surgeons. 213.1 (2011):
83-92. Print.

Donald E, and Donald E. Lighter. Basics of Health Care Performance
Improvement: A Lean Six Sigma Approach. Burlington, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2013. Print.

Roderick A. Lean Six Sigma for the Healthcare Practice: A Pocket Guide. Milwaukee, Wis:
ASQ Quality Press, 2009. Print.

R.G, K Linderman, C Liedtke, and A.S Choo. “Six Sigma: Definition and
Underlying Theory.” Quality Control and Applied Statistics. 54
(2009): 441-444. Print.

 Schwalbe, Kathy, and Dan Furlong. Healthcare
Project Management. , 2013. Print.

Babak, Hamed Fazlollahtabar, and Iraj Mahdavi. “A Six Sigma Based
Multi-Objective Optimization for Machine Grouping Control in Flexible Cellular
Manufacturing Systems with Guide-Path Flexibility.” Advances in
Engineering Software. 41.6 (2010): 865-873. Print.

Sigma Based Approach to Optimize Radial Forging Operation Variables. , n.d.
Archival material.

D H. Essentials for the Improvement of Healthcare Using Lean & Six Sigma.
Boca Raton: CRC
Press, 2011. Print.

INTERIOR DESIGN essay help online free





The South
Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) in Adelaide is an architectural marvel that was
developed by Woods Bagot on November 2013. It is poised to have significant
consequences in the field of architecture and engineering in Australia given its distinct and
rare design. The building gave preference for environmental sustainability and
has been termed as a pace setter in sustainable designs in architecture. The
SAHMRI Center is an international research facility that accommodates well over
675 research staff on its 25000m2 gross area, with 100% wet lab enabled areas
and dry areas, public spaces that have cafes and retail shops.

The structure was
developed with an aim of creating a forecourt entry that is adjacent to the new
hospital on the west location. The developer’s was also influenced by the need
to enhance collaboration between the research staff using visually connected
floors interconnecting spiral stairs, atria and bridges. The write up spaces in
the adjacent north side is reliant on a modular design for workplaces with an
open plan and closed meeting rooms and other quiet spaces. In addition, the
building has a 10.2m column design that enables for flexibility and efficiency
within the building. This façade provides of maximum penetration of daylight,
enhances external views and creation of a health interior environment. The
structure takes into account the importance of balance between macro and micro
scales. This gives an emphasis to both interior and exterior aspects of
architectural designs.

The project was
part of an innovation and sustainability design, which achieved a LEED Gold
rating. This is line with Matta-Clark’s conclusion that “work must function
directly in the actual urban environment”[1].
Wood Bagot worked with other consultants with an aim of providing maximum sun
and daylight penetration. The living skin of the building serves a variety of 0functions
such as regulation of sunlight, heat load, glare and all levels of wind
deflection while at the same time maintaining, regulating views, and daylight
penetration into the building. The building used parametric tools for
integration of the programmatic, environmental, and formal requirements and
demands into the façade.

In essence, there
are no simple and direct equations towards organization and behavior of form
and politics. Michel Foucault notes that there may be constraining architectures
in society. However, no architecture can be termed as “liberating” in the sense
that liberation or liberty is a practice[2]. Field
conditions and space in architectural design are usually left for tactical
improvisations for future users. In addition, it is important to note that
architecture has been defined by some as “art you can live in”[3].
The SAHMRI building is an exceptional definition of the term architecture. This
is because it suits the needs of contemporary living in terms of spaces and
sustainability trends in the field of architecture.

The distinct and differentiated
structure of the SAHMRI can be traced to philosophical ideologies on part of
the developer, Wood Bagot. Derrida notes that claims that the insertion of an
interval that refuses self-identity and self-presence to any thing, any
existent, constitutes difference. The structure is an example of sustainable
design to suit modern organizational needs and aesthetic appeals. Interiors of
the SAHMRI building reinforce the interactions between interiors and

The interactions
between the micro and macro environments is effective to illustrate the variety
and scale of the space that exists in objects inside the building and to arouse
awareness on part of the viewers of the differences in quality of sights from
close-ups and from a distance. This ensures that individuals are not limited to
a single and directed experience, but are rather introduced to an entirely
diverse experience while undertaking sight of one single structure, the SAHMRI
building. This illustrates the exceptional thinking of the developer to provide
viewers and users of the building with a diversity of experience and sight of
the magnificent structure.

The views provided
by the seemingly seamless interconnections between the different sections of
the building enhance the aesthetic appeal of the building. All parts of the
building are connected in one aspect or another as a means of conveying a
message of collaboration despite the presence of different departments. The
glass walls and patterns provide a division between nature and artifice to
dissolve the boundaries between the two. It reinforces the visual fluidity that
exists between the exterior and interiors of the entire building.

The interior and
exteriors of the building are embedded in a sense of awareness in terms of climate,
atmosphere of change and modernism, moisture, sound, light and controlled
temperature inside the building. The developer’s was also inclined by the need
to enhance cooperation between the research staff using visually connected
floors interconnecting spiral stairs, atria and bridges. This illustrates the
importance of themed designs towards enhancing cooperation, mutual understanding,
and relativity in buildings and their respective inhabitants[4].

Atmosphere is an
important feature in architectural design. This is because Atmosphere in the
literal sense is one of the functions that one requires from our objects or
environments: acoustic, climatic, visual, light. Textures and patterns selected
are also essential towards selection of the aesthetic reasons that should
accompany the identified designs. They are designs for sound and light purposes
as well as the need to supplement the interior by movement of controlled light.
Architecture design is more about enhancing user experiences and interactions
with existing and new environments while the user is performing distinctive


Stan. 1999. Points + lines: diagrams and projects for the city. New York: Princeton
Architectural Press.

2007. Inside outside. Rotterdam:
NAi Publishers.

Elíasson and Peter Weibel. 2001. Olafur Eliasson: surroundings surrounded:
essays on space and science. Graz,
Austria: Neue
Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum.

Jane. 2010. Site-writing: the architecture of art criticism. London: I.B. Tauris.

Michael. 1999/2000. Makeshift stalls. Broadsheet:
a journal of contemporary art
28(4), 2 p.

[1] Petra
Blaisse, Inside outside (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers 2007) p.63.

[2] Ólafur
Elíasson and Peter Weibel, Olafur Eliasson: surroundings surrounded: essays
on space and science (Graz,
Austria: Neue
Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, 2001) 36. 

[3] Jane
Rendell, Site-writing: the architecture of art criticism (London: I.B. Tauris, 2010).
p. 37.

[4] Stan
Allen, Points + lines: diagrams and projects for the city (New York:
Princeton Architectural Press, 1999) p.35.

The One about Opportunity Cost best college essay help
One about Opportunity Cost



One about Opportunity Cost

The adage that there
is no such thing as free lunch means that one cannot get something for nothing.
Its meaning is that nothing comes free of expense. According to Economic principles,
choice will always lead to an opportunity cost. That is, the foregone chance or
venture when picking from a set of alternatives on a preference scale. The
choice picked would also require an amount of investment, either, in monetary
terms or the time devoted.

ability to place priorities into a scale of preference is necessary for any
college student. When joining the course, students had to forfeit other opportunities
such as venturing into other career paths. They also had to sacrifice time
spent with family and friends at home to move to the new school environment.
There were other choices to consider such as not going into college at all and embark
on a venture like business.

decision to continue with the classes also comes with a daily expenditure. One
has to choose to either put time into reading and research or to parties and excursions.
The choice to stay in and study comes with a cost to ones social life. The
course also demands that the students make the time put in by instructors worth
the effort. It requires that the students picked be worth the opportunity cost
the school incurred while choosing them. The adage also means that students not
only incur expenditure to dedicate their time to the course but also their parents’
hard-earned money. The school also suffers an opportunity cost to offer the
students a quality, learning environment and facilities as the money could be
used to carry out other activities.

Cognitive Development towards Healthy Foods college admission essay help
Development towards Healthy Foods



Cognitive Development towards Healthy Foods

article Training your brain to prefer healthy foods narrates on how an individual can transform
his or her eating patterns to a healthier diet through cognitive development.
According to a research study carried out in the article, a person is capable
of reversing an addiction of unhealthy food consumption to a preference of
healthy eating1. Professionals involved in the research depict the
transformation process as gradual requiring high levels of personal commitment.
The problem necessitating the study is the fact that once an individual starts
an unhealthy eating habit, it is difficult to refrain1. This major
factor subjects obese individuals to a lifetime of harmful diet patterns as
identified in the article. The study bases its conclusions on a sixth month
study involving thirteen people who had weight problems. Brain tests over the
period highlighted a shift in thinking patterns from unhealthy to healthy diets
proving it is possible to transform eating addictions. Eating is a cognitive function
that requires practice to form a healthy habit.

article gives an accurate narration on the relationship between the brain and
diet patterns in an individual. The strength of the material is in its support
of facts and structured analysis. The research was professionally structured
with sufficient time allocations and several test subjects to reduce bias and
errors in the results. In addition, the test was carried out and analyzed by
experts who have the required skills and qualifications. The integration of
technology through MRI imaging increases precision in the examination. The only
weakness I could identify is the lack of secondary support from external
sources such as past studies or literal works. The report is beneficial to
people as it educates on the significance of cognitive growth towards healthy
eating. People should start and stick to consuming nutritious foods. Diet
professionals similarly attain a new tool or methodology suitable for
rehabilitation of obese persons.


University. Training
your Brain to Prefer Healthy Foods. ScienceDaily,
2014. 1st September. Accessed 1 September 2014.

HIPAA in Healthcare college admission essay help
in Healthcare



in Healthcare

Why HIPAA is important

is a healthcare acronym that stands for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
Act. According to Murphy and Waterfill, the act is a U.S.A law structured to
facilitate privacy standards for patients (Murphy & Waterfill, 2010). HIPAA
is important as it establishes a standardized way of protecting personal
medical information from unwarranted exposures. Leak of personal records could
be harmful as past extremes depict loss of employments and high degrees of
discrimination to certain health conditions. The act has set standards that
include confidentiality in medical records or any other personal details given
to doctors, health institutions, health plans, or any other medical

How does HIPPA protect patient rights?

The act protects
individuals and their families through formulation and establishment of
appropriate safeguards that ensure privacy of health information. In addition,
the legislation sets the boundaries in which medical records can be used or
disclosed without patient authorization. The rule hands patients authority of
their medical documents allowing them to dictate use and duplication.

How can I protect patient and their families?

has a complaint center where an individual with discrepancies can obtain a data
white paper and state his or her issues. Health practitioners can equally use
the complaint centre to get professional data hosting as the platform provides
storage services. HIPAA complaint center has the latest audit protocols and
measures that guarantee information security. The platform is advantageous to
both patients and medical professionals.

Why was HIPPA invented?

            HIPAA was invented
simply to regulate the manner in which personal medical information was used. The
shift of information access was moved towards the patient to streamline
personal data usage in research and other medical processes.

Who must comply with these new HIPAA
privacy standards?

entities are all subject to compliance to HIPAA (Murphy & Waterfill, 2010).
The entities include anyone who provides treatment, expenses, and operations in
medical functions. Business associates and subcontractors with access to
personal health information are also subject to compliance.


M., & Waterfill, M. (2010). New HIPAA guide for 2010: 2009 ARRA Act for
HIPAA security and compliance law & HITECH Act, your resource guide to the
new security & privacy requirements. Bloomington, Ind:

Reading Reflection a level english language essay help





            Reading has been a
progressive process as time has streamlined my pace and cognitive ability in
the practice. Comprehension has been the tasking part in reading as the
decoding and interpretation of data applies various elements such as time
making the process difficult. John Fortenbury in the article Has
The Ice Bucket Challenge Changed Healthcare Fundraising Forever? states, “Charities may get the
impression from this challenge that it’s easy to make money if you find a gimmick
and get people to do it” (Fortenbury 1). To comprehend the statement, the
reader must identify what is the challenge, the cause behind it, time of
occurrence and participants. The article necessitates the application of
reading techniques, one of them being scanning. In the methodology, the reader
highlights key factors in the text. In the stated text, the audience could have
highlighted ‘challenge, gimmick and people’ to facilitate understanding. I did
not find any tips helpful than other as all guidelines are interdependent in
the derivation of context meaning. Reading equally to cognitive development are
gradual processes that demand practice to become fluent.

of reading techniques assists to categorize the article as a social article. Using
skimming and orientation while reading, I discovered the audience of the
article in the statement “People get tired of even exciting things as there is
a lifespan to this kind of thing” (Fortenbury 1). The term ‘people’ is a
general term and the ice bucket is a charity process making the act a social aid.
Similar global understanding is depicted in the quote, “That does not mean
every campaign will be successful in any given year” (Fortenbury 2). The
statement reveals that the ice bucket challenge can be redone anywhere and at
any time in the world. I agree with the author as he depicts the best methods
to ensure interest in a global phenomenon does not fade. The success of the
first attempt necessitates little modifications in the second and third trials
to allow continuity of triumph.


Jon. Has the Ice Bucket Challenge Changed HealthCare Fundraising Forever? Pharma and Healthcare. 1. 2014. 1-2.

Conflict in Syria best college essay help
in Syria




in Syria

            Syria is a country located in the Western side of
the Middle East and home to Arabs, Sunni,
Christians and Druze. The country was formally a unitary state but later in
2012, adopted a constitution that transformed it into a semi-presidential
republic. Therefore, Syria
has a head of state as well as a prime minister. However, the president was
awarded authority to perform various fundamental duties without the interference
of any other arm of government. Apart from being the commander in chief, the
president is also the regional secretary of Ba’ath Party. He has the ability to
declare war on other countries, select ministry heads and issue decrees. While Syria has a
unicameral parliament, it is has scarcely been active enough to be considered useful
in this paper. However, reference will be made to the activities of legislation
and its members. The country underwent its first democratic elections in May
2012, a process in which seven new political parties emerged[1]. Illegally,
there are approximately 14 Kurdish political parties. In terms of judicial provisions,
Syria has a Supreme Constitutional Court as well as other lesser courts that
have a heavy presence of Islamic jurisprudence especially Sharia law[2].
It is imperative to obtain Syria’s
political overview before progressing with the analysis into the cause of the
conflict, major players as well as the resultant political and economic situations.

Assad’s Contribution to the Syrian Conflict

president, Bashar al-Assad made a speech in March where he claimed that an
international terrorist scheme organized to overthrow his government. During
this period, Assad engaged in several activities that were contributory toward
worsening the conflict situation. First, he freed several “detainees” from prisons;
prison inmates that lacked any connection to the revolts. These released
criminals would be the leaders of several militia groups such as Islamic State
(ISIS) and al-Qaeda associates such as Jabhat al Nusra. Major armed uprising
against the government started in June. The civilians responded to these
attacks by setting off fires and demonstrations in the cities. Many other attacks
and counter-attacks took place within Syria and its environment. These
reactions forced many civilian protesters that were Syrians took up weapons, while
more soldiers fell out and assisted to safeguard protesters.

initial protests began in January 2011 followed by public demonstrations that
broke out in March in the capital city, Damascus,
and dispersed in the subsequent days to more towns, while gradually increasing
in number. By July, the social and print media was already airing news of the
Syrian Uprising. By April, the protests were mainly fuelled by the demands for
democratic reforms, the pardoning of political detainees, “liberty”, elimination
of the state of emergency as well as the end to corruption. After April, the focus
of the demonstrations slowly drifted towards the need to remove the Assad government
from power[3]. The Syrian
Army responded to the unrest with a series of sweeping military attacks on
cities, using tanks and other weapons and caused the death of numerous civilians.

reigning government faced additional threats from a resurrection of the Islamic
resistance. The president’s previous support of an infamous Christian group and
his aggressive directives against the Muslim extremists in Lebanon triggered
a fresh and unparalleled chapter in Muslim resistance that was propagated as
well-organized and efficient city guerrilla warfare against the state, armed
forces, and Ba’athist representatives and organizations. In the late 1970s, the
Islamic massacre translated
into an open revolt as several Alawite defense force and senior police were executed.
Public administration and military establishments were attacked by the Muslim. Bashar
al-Assad faced a critical threat to his rule and probably, his life, and responded
with ferocity and anxiety. His physical health also gradually declined during
this episode. He ordered a raid against the Muslim Brotherhood. His
revenge actions and attempts to restore calm and sanity within Syria spiraled into a killing craze that involved
bombing villages and towns for instance, the bombing of Hama city that killed approximately 30,000
civilians. Bashar al-Assad continued this approach for several years in which numerous
Muslims were detained and tormented, and many of them ended up being murdered
or disappeared. At this point, Assad acknowledged that his initial initiatives
to foster national unity in his state and to receive authenticity from the
Sunni municipal population had been completely unsuccessful. The president
finally realized that the Muslim Brotherhood and their staunch followers would
eventually control the state. At this point, the majority of the urban residents,
experts, philosophers and former ruling party members also considered his
regime as unlawful. This was even after Assad attempted to justify his
heavy-handed rule by pointing out that he was protecting the state from the
Muslim brotherhood.

this point, Assadtransformed into
an individual highly dependent onthe
close relationswithin his constituenciesfor support and the development of anew political societycomprising ofmassive groups ofpeasants
and proletariat,well-paid
middle-class andpublic servants regardless
oftheir ethnic background.These new groups mostly aligned around
theBa’ath Party, public syndicates, andtrade
associations,such as a large part
of Alawites andnon-Muslims, immensely benefited fromthe president’s policies. Therefore, they
either depended on him or ideologically associated with his rule. Many youthful
Syriansconnected strongly with
Assad’s approaches,given that they
hadbeen schooled orinstructed in theideology of theBa’ath
Partyas created by Assad.These pockets of thepopulacefurnished Assad’s regime with a sense of legitimacy and who
regularly supported the president’s interest for mobilization.This was designed to increaseactivesupportfor his
political agendas andrestrict the
activities of his domestic adversaries.

Background of the Syrian Civil War

Syrian Civil War that started in 2012 that continued into 2014. Most of the
causes of the Syrian Uprising began with Hafez Al-Assad from 1999 to 2000 when Bashar
al-Assad took over. In 2011, nationwide demonstrations against the leadership
of the current government were met with violent onslaughts originating from
domestic police[4]. The
conflict steadily transformed from common protests to an armed revolt after
months of military attacks. The armed resistance was made up of diverse groups
that were created in the course of the clash, mainly the Free Syrian Army as
well as the Islamic Front. In 2013, Hezbollah joined the civil war
as an ally of the Syrian army. The Islamic state complicated the conflict
further by creating new enemies within Iraq
and Syria
by triggering small wars with the rebels. In 2014, the Islamic State assumed
control of a significant portion of Syria’s country as well as the fossil
fuel reserves, therefore ascertaining itself as the ruling resistance force.

Parties in the Syrian Conflict

the Syrian government military obtained support from neighboring Iran, as well as Russia,
while on the side of the rebels, assistance came from the United States, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar who relocated weapons and
other resources. While it is clear that the origin of the conflict is internal,
the international community has expressed clear support for the Syrian government.
The contribution of the United States,
European Union and Britain
indicates a readiness to end the war and restore peace in the region. Given the
nature of the political instability, the international response to the
conflict has been impressive. By 2013, the Syrian government had regained
control of roughly 50% of the country’s provinces and over the larger part of
the Syrian inhabitants. The United Nations released a report in 2012 that shed
light on the key players in the Syrian conflict described the situation as blatantly sectarian
and involving the Alawite state forces, rogue militias and other minor group
on one side and Sunni-dominated rebel groups on the other. This was going
on despite the denial by both opposition and government of their involvement[5].


situation in Syria
is quite horrible given the number of casualties, injuries, destruction of
property and trauma that most of the civilians are exposed. The key players
within the conflict have also served to complicate the hope for peace in the
short term. Furthermore, the inclusion of non-governmental organizations such
as the U.N Security Council place increasing pressure on the inhabitants of Syria. The
conflict within Syria
represents the inability of local mechanisms such as the court, parliament and executive
to perform their duties effectively. All the adversaries fuelling the conflict
need to seek a lasting solution before the war eliminates transforms Syria into


Anne. “Syria
Warplanes Hit Lebanon for First Time”. The New York Times.
Retrieved 8 August 2013. 2013.

Gérard, and Blin, Arnaud. The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to
al Qaeda. University
of California Press. 2007.

Lisa. “Iranian
general admits ‘fighting every aspect of a war’ in defending Syria’s
Assad”. Fox News. 2012.

Nikki R. R. Women in the Middle East:
Past and Present. Princeton
University Press. 2012.

David L. From Bullets to Ballots: Violent Muslim Movements in
Transition. Transaction Publishers. 2009.

[1] Barnard, Anne. “Syria
Warplanes Hit Lebanon for First Time”. (The New York Times. 2013).

[2] Chaliand, Gérard, and Blin, Arnaud. The
History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qaeda. (University of California
Press, 2007).

[3] Daftari, Lisa. “Iranian
general admits ‘fighting every aspect of a war’ in defending Syria’s
Assad”. (Fox News, 2012).

[4] Keddie, Nikki R. R. Women in
the Middle East: Past and Present. (Princeton University Press, 2012).

[5] Phillips, David L. From Bullets
to Ballots: Violent Muslim Movements in Transition. (Transaction Publishers, 2009).

Brisk Walking custom essay help




the nation is largely composed of sedentary workers, people tend to take less
exercise on a daily basis as the nation’s health status keep on deteriorating.
Yet, one of the most effective and simple forms of exercising is walking. Agreeably,
weight related-diseases have been on the increase as most people seek for
weight loss solutions that are indeed expensive while ignoring the fact that
brisk walking can be helpful in solving such cases. Brisk walking is an
effective method of maintaining a healthy balance of body with which it not
only helps in the physical outlook but also has significant benefits to one’s
psychology. Furthermore, there are studies showing that regular brisk walks are
indeed better than strenuous jogging. Bundled with the need to take up regular
brisk walks, the activity is associated with positive effects that outrun the
negative impacts.

walking is almost similar to aerobics since both involve some form of movement.
Weight loss is one of the few topics making headlines as most people are viewed
trying to find methods they could use in order to shed the extra fat. Most
studies indicate that maintaining a moderate to high intensity brisk pace
results in the same amount of calories burnt while running or jogging (“17
Reasons”, 2014). Despite the reduced pace of cholesterol reduction, frequent
walking is associated with potential abilities of burning fats within the body
in the end. This less mechanistic and brutal approach usually takes a longer
time to actualize its results, though, dedicated individuals are able to adapt
such a practice into a habit, which would not only help them maintain good
health standards but also acquire better physical appearances that boosts their
self-esteem. Moreover, the exercise improves muscle strength and muscle
endurance in the lower part of the body.

it not only reduces the risk of getting heart related diseases but also other
fatal ailments including diabetes type 2, cancer and asthma. Any form of
activity that raises the heart’s rate can be viewed as a cardio-exercise. Once
the heart rate is increased, circulation of the blood in the body is enhanced
and this helps in reducing the risk of getting heart related diseases such as heart
attack and high blood pressure, which could cause strokes. This works through
the reduction of LDL cholesterol while encouraging the increase of HDL
cholesterol, which helps in maintain blood pressure. According to the Walk for
Health Charity, brisk walking is capable of reducing such diseases by 60% with
active individuals having 20% less likelihood of developing womb, colon, and breast
compared to the less active people (“17 Reasons”, 2014). Additionally, in older
individuals, a 15-minute walk helps in the control of their blood glucose
especially those with poor glucose tolerance. For individuals suffering from
arthritis, exercises are a harmful activity and most of them tend to avoid it.
Nonetheless, walking is a beneficial activity for such people since walking is
rather gentle when done in the right manner. In older people with
osteoarthritis, walking enables them improve their balance.

benefits of walking go beyond covering the areas below the neckline. Since the
activity is accompanied by increased blood circulation, more blood is even
circulated to the brain. This results in improved cognitive performance, which
is extensive. Memory is improved as a person gains more control of their
cognitive performance as well as academic performance especially in children.
The ability to be creative while being outdoors is dependent on blood circulation
in the brain as it boosts creativity (“17 Reasons”, 2014). In support of this
statement, researchers claim that reduced walking results in poor performance
in logical tests, as the grey matter in the brain tends to reduce considerably
in specific sections. This idea was discovered by scholars in the past though
they lacked scientific explanation such that it relates to Aristotle’s tendency
of teaching while walking. Furthermore, it is also known to reduce Alzheimer’s disease
and dementia among the seniors. In terms of one’s ability to think, walking presents
the chance to view and reflect on various things from a critical viewpoint (“17
Reasons”, 2014). Since it is a low-difficulty endeavor, a person is able to
direct his or her executive functioning to internal matters. This includes
coming up with ideas, schemes, replaying conversations, discovering solutions
or even just thinking about the normal situations.

Brisk walking is
coupled with the capabilities of increasing one’s life span. Most of the
elderly people die due to diseases involving failure of different body organs
and systems. A research pertaining to the claim indicated that approximately 10
percent increase of gait in meters per second correlates with 12-percentage
decrease in the possibility of one dying (“17 Reasons”, 2014). Speeds
reflection on vitality could be explained in the sense that most of the vital
body organs and systems are involved with the body movements. Therefore,
increased movement and activity would involve the muscles, joints, heart, brain,
and lungs, which help keep them in check resulting in increased life span. Other
associated benefits of briskly walking include its capability of reducing
stress by reducing cortisol levels in the brain that are associated with
anxiety. It boosts the immunity levels within the body as it functions as a
type of meditation. The associated increase of blood supply encourages the removal
of waste products 

Nonetheless, as
much as walking has potential benefits, there are few disadvantages that
accompany the exercise. Walking cannot be the best solution to use with the
intention of burning fat since it only reduces fat in the body in very small
amounts (Ellgen, n.d.). The exercise targets thee lower body the most and in
the process neglects the upper body. The exercise could also be strenuous to
individuals as some of the obese individuals might find it a hard task while
others might have knee and leg problems, making water aerobics the most
essential for them. In addition, walking affects appetite but the effect is
minimal. Agreeably, walking helps in improving cardio-vascular fitness.
However, glucose control and improved diastolic pressure are relative to the
intensity of the exercise making walking not as efficient (Ellgen, n.d.).

From a personal
perspective, brisk walking has been beneficial in the sense that it has been
beneficial in various ways. I have lost 3 kilograms following a daily routine
of walking in the morning and evening. Having acquired a fit body has increased
by self-esteem and I am able to relate with other people more easily than in
the past. Additionally, after completing my daily walking routine, I have
realized that I am able to understand most of my notes and even remember the
points more than in the past when I was inactive. Despite the few disadvantages
involved in walking, there are potential benefits associated with the activity
that are all-round.


17 Reasons to
Walk More This Year (2014). Mark’s Daily
Apple. Retrieved from   <>.

P. (n.d.) Disadvantages of Walking as
an Exercise. AZ Central. Retrieved
from <>.

Integrated Information Systems essay help
Integrated Information Systems



Integrated Information Systems

            The continued digitization of the
world in the twenty-first century has resulted in a situation where people use
computers in virtually all areas of their lives. The use of computer systems in
various sectors has led to increased efficiency and better performance in all
of those fields. Due to the extensive use of computers in the twenty-first
century, information systems are now present in multiple fields. Many organizations
use these systems to organize their operations in various ways. By using
information systems, companies are able to process large amounts of
information, carry out various functions with minimal errors, and improve the
nature of their services. However, for a company to reap the full benefits of
this digitization, the organization has to integrate all of the systems that it
has in various departments. 

            Systems integration can benefit a
company in a number of ways. One of the benefits of integrating information
systems is that the process reduces the number of steps that the company has to
undertake in the business. When information systems are operating separately
within different departments, they tend to waste a lot of time carrying out
redundant steps in the processing (Bakar, 2004). This redundancy normally comes
through the need for various processes to occur in each particular system.
However, systems integration normally allows the different departments to share
some common resources. This means that data processing becomes faster, as each
system can use the local resources to take information that another department
has already produced (Bakar, 2004). For instance, if the financial department
needs some information on the employees, it can take it from human resources.
This eliminates the need for the department to feed data into the system and
process it, when human resources had already done so (Bakar, 2004). Reducing
redundancy by eliminating unnecessary steps from the system can save the company
a lot of time, energy, and resources.

            By reducing the number of steps
taken to process information, systems integration increases the efficiency of a
firm, enabling it to serve clients faster and improve the quality of its
operations. The integration of information systems can increase the processing
abilities of a company (Stair & Reynolds, 2010). This will allow the firm
to deal with more customer orders and requests in a shorter period. This
improved quality of service will benefit the firm in two ways. Firstly, the
reputation of the company will increase as customers become pleased with it.
Secondly, the firm will be able to deal with more clients and thus increase its
revenue (Stair & Reynolds, 2010).

            Integrating information systems also,
benefits a company by reducing the number of employees that it needs to work in
the IT department. When information systems are departmentalized, they operate
as independent entities. This means that each system has its own facilities and
resources such as storage space and servers. Each independent information
system also has its own set of network administrators, responsible for managing
and maintaining it (Baltzan & Phillips, 2011). The integration of systems
from different departments creates a situation where the departments pool some
resources. This means that the different departments start using one
centralized system, which has only one set of administrators and resources
(Baltzan & Phillips, 2011). Accordingly, the company is able to cut costs
by reducing the number of people inside the IT department as well as the
resources that are dedicated towards maintaining the information system.

            The integration of information
systems is a process that can benefit a firm in numerous ways. The process can
enable the firm to process information faster, allowing it to deal with more
customers and increase its revenue. Additionally, the centralization of a
firm’s information systems can reduce the firm’s workforce as well as the
amount of resources that it needs. Accordingly, large organizations with
independent information systems in various departments should consider
integrating them.


Bakar, Z. A.
(2004). Benefits of systems integration: qualitative or quantitative? Malaysian Journal of Computer Science
16(2), 38-46.

Baltzan, P. &
Phillips, A. (2011). Information systems.
New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stair, R. M. &
Reynolds, G. W. (2010). Principles of
information systems: A managerial approach. Boston: Course Technology.

Differing Ideas of Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt on the Great Depression a level english language essay help




Differing Ideas of
Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt on the Great Depression

Great Depression changed the definition of Liberalism in the United States of America.
Following the Stock market crash in 1929, America’s economy fell as
individuals lost their jobs while businesses shutdown and banks closed. This
occurred during President Hoover’s tyranny and in a bid to solve the issue; he
consulted Roosevelt, where both individuals
had varying ideas. During his, rather long interim, president Hoover had employed considerably creative and
good programs that aided in solving the great depression though he remained
obstinate about offering aid to the unemployed citizens. This contradicted with
Roosevelt’s idea of the New Deal, which
involved a more secure approach that was experimental towards solving the
economic crisis.

his last day in office, Hoover
insisted on the formation of a joint proclamation concerning the closing all
banks in the state. This meeting was held after the banking sector in the
country faced deepened crisis. Nonetheless, Roosevelt
declined this request pointing out that he had come to the realization that success
can also be achieved without consenting to the given policies. Having lost his
political power, Hoover
could not issue the proclamation. According to Roosevelt, who had just won the
elections awaiting inauguration believed that Hoover’s idea was a strategy aimed at maiming
his government’s differing operations. These varying opinions reflect on the
competing visions towards solving the Great Depression issue.

time passed, the New Deal changed some of its programs. President Roosevelt
agreed to Hoover’s
proposal of having his Top treasury officials remain in office in order to
assist in the drafting of the emergency banking legislation. This change was
followed by the declaration of a bank holiday and finally opening the solvent
ones. This approach is viewed as the Great Depression’s turning point.
Additionally, the New deal faced a change with the introduction of the second
New Deal that aimed at fighting poverty and unemployment. In this new program,
the attempt was to provide more work than welfare. This was observed by the
creation of airports, schools, roads, and buildings that presented more
employment to citizens.   

Ethics in Healthcare essay help online
in Healthcare



in Healthcare

article Doctors describe ‘death with
dignity’ program for cancer patients by Karen Kaplan discusses beneficence
and its application. Kaplan discussed the choice by a major part of Americans
to legalize physician-assisted suicide under the Death with Dignity Program. However,
the proposal encountered several implementation challenges for instance, the
deciding authority in the suicide. Physicians are obligated to desist from
causing damage, but they are also mandated to assist their patients. Ethics
analysts often separate between compulsory and idealistic beneficence (Kaplan,
2013). The second kind of beneficence includes excessive acts of kindness of
which physicians are not essentially expected to achieve (Kaplan, 2013). Nonetheless,
the objective of medicine is to enhance patients’ welfare using the knowledge
and skills of physicians. Conversely, non-maleficence implies an
obligation among physicians to desist from harming a patient through
ineffective treatments or procedures. This principle is highly ineffective to
the medical practice since most of the treatments are laden with serious risks.
A common ethical dilemma emerges in balancing between beneficence and
non-maleficence. This balance determines the kind of diagnosis and
treatment administered by physicians. In all decisions, the possible benefits
of any treatment must offset the threats before the choice to be considered ethical. 

article also touched on respect for autonomy among patients in the process of administering
a risky procedure such as physician-assisted suicide (Kaplan, 2013). Kaplan stated
that most of the physicians expressed positive opinions concerning their
consent towards the procedure. “Autonomy” for a patient allows them to make
intentional decisions concerning their health conditions without external
influence. Serious conflicts emerge when a patient’s autonomy clashes with the
doctor’s beneficent obligation to keep the patients’ welfare as the main goal.
For instance, a patient who just had lung surgery may desire to smoke again. In
such a situation, the independent decision of the patient could land the physician
in serious ethical problems. However, the patient is always awarded the upper
hand provided they meet the criteria for an autonomous decision maker (Kaplan,
2013). It is assumed that the patient comprehends the choices at hand and is
not delusional. In such cases, the doctor should respect the patient’s wishes.
Ethical consideration in such cases may also translate into situations that
require the interpretation of the “principle of double effect”. This principle places
the physician in a dilemma given that the life of a patient is at risk regardless
of the procedure taken.

states in the United States
have toyed with the idea of awarding increased legal benefits to patients. However,
while the legislation has been easy to pass, Kaplan argued that the implementation
still illustrated several obstacles. For instance, only patients that had less
than six month to live were eligible for patient-assisted suicide. Other
regulations sought to restrict the authority among physicians by demanding that
all patients should undertake a psychological evaluation before deciding to end
their own lives. It should be understood that the Death with Dignity Program was
developed as an initiative to alleviate the suffering of chronically sick
patients. However, it has emerged that it can be manipulated for wrongful
purposes for instance; mentally ill patients can use the alternative to commit
suicide. More importantly, physicians have been awarded partial responsibility of
patients’ lives, a duty that requires an extraordinary amount of morality
(Kaplan, 2013). In conclusion, it is necessary to evaluate every patient case and
handle it in a unique manner. This is because while the codes of ethics are
clear, their implementation is highly dependent on the condition of the patient
as well as the physicians’ diagnosis.


K. (2013). Doctors describe ‘death with dignity’ program for cancer patients. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from

Question Responses essay help





Question One


court is faced with an unclear issue concerning which circumstances a person
possesses reasonable expectations of privacy. The physical location of an
individual that falls under the statute is the issue faced by the judiciary. Both
the Washington and California statutes were undefined and unclear concerning
incidences of privacy in public places. The Washington statute does not give a
depiction of public places, as it is states “place”. According to the statute, privacy
applies where a person can undress without being worried that his or her
nakedness is subject to photography or film. The court thus was faced with the
responsibility of determining the boundaries of the terms ‘public places’.


Court of Appeal had to reverse the ruling made on Sean Glas, as the Washington
statute was superfluous in meaning. Law should be specific in detail, which the
privacy statute did not meet. According to the Court of Appeal, the defendant successfully
highlighted that the statute created two categories for the definition of a place
where an individual could have reasonable privacy expectations. The victims were
in municipal places thus had no expectations of privacy. If the victims were to
undress at the location of the proposed violations, they would have been
subject to fret over film and photography. The women in Glas’ case were working
at a shopping mall, which is characterized by many people and mass public
interactions. Although the actions of the defendant are blameworthy, the
voyeurism statute does not apply to convict Sean, as it does not restrict up
skirt camera work in public venues. Equally, the Voyeurism statute is overbroad
as it crosses over its restrictions of free speech. The law conflicted with an
individual’s rights thus the Court of Appeal had to reverse the ruling.

Question Two


Bailey if charged under the same statute as Sean Glas is guaranteed conviction.
The crime done by the defendant occurred in 2012, a time where the Washington
statute has undergone review and incorporated two generalized rules. One,
different languages indicate dissimilar intent therefore no part of the law
should be viewed as superfluous. Both the beginning and the end of the statute
subsections had different meanings. In this, the first section of the statute
was applied to locations such as bathrooms, restrooms, and bedrooms. Two, the
statute was changed in structure reading that a place where an individual has
reasonable privacy expectations is where they remain clothed. The previous
statute referred to expectations of privacy as places where an individual gets
naked without concern. This was inaccurate as people cover in clothing to
ensure privacy.


Bailey would have been convicted given the process employed by the Courts in
the interpretation of statutes. A court would first approach the law using
plain language for understanding. Given that the legislation is unambiguous as
depicted by the Voyeurism statute, the Court derives the meaning directly from
its language alone. Given that the defendant used the same argument as Sean
Glas that the statute oversteps his right to free speech, he would still be
convicted. According to law, overstepping sweeps are only applicable where the
court is unable to provide evidence that shows the sweep lacks standard. In the
case of Brian bailey, the court had a witness and a record of prior convictions
that acted as evidence for the court.

Personal SWOT Analysis college application essay help




SWOT Analysis


Leadership Skills

One of the strengths that I possess
constitutes leadership. Prior to my enrollment in college, I was consistently
involved in projects whereby I was required to manage and supervise the group. In
addition to this, I was normally selected by my peers to lead events that the
school hosted in each term of the year. My involvement in campus activities
have also accentuated the skills that I have pertaining to leadership. Similarly,
I have been involved in various college projects through which I have acted as
an overseer and manager.

to Work

I am also a very committed
individual when it comes to personal and organizational duties and obligations.
I believe that my dedication is not only beneficial to me, but to the people
that I work with and for as well. As such, I usually put in long hours in my
assignments and try my best to ensure that I have complied with the



When it comes to deadlines in terms
of group work, I usually panic considerably. This agitated behavior usually
forces me to apply pressure on my teammates and worsens my communication
skills. Furthermore, whenever I become agitated, I overlook the stages of the
tasks I am performing which put the quality of the obligation I am performing.


I do not have a standard time in
terms of reporting to class. My schedules are usually conflicting. As such, I
fail to arrive at a specific time. This affects my level of dependability since
most people rely on me to carry out various activities involving schoolwork. In
addition to this, my indifference in reporting also endangers my reputation
especially to my lecturers, especially in instances where I have to hand in
assignments that do not have a large time allocation.


in Non-Profit Organizations

Based on the skills that I possess,
I recently discovered that not-for-profit organizations look for individuals
who can be leaders when it comes to different forms of projects. In this
respect, I believe that I can take part in non-profit activities due to the
skill set I possess. Furthermore, my capabilities in leadership also match the
type of person that they are looking for and the capacities that they want the
prospective individual to bear. In addition, my commitment to work is also a
strong factor that can propel the organization to growth if given the chance to
work and develop.

of New Skills

The environment that I currently
occupy provides me with the ability to gain novel skills and aptitudes. By
learning different types of subjects in areas encompassing business,
communication, psychology, and sociology, I can gain different forms of
capacities that can be suitable in different organizational environments. In
addition, the attainment of such skills can even motivate me to consider
pursuing other job-related opportunities in different organizations.


from Peers

In my class, there are people with
different types of abilities. Based on my shortcomings, the persons that I
perceive as competitors do better work than I do. This threatens my chances in
leadership throughout my course based on the abilities that these individuals
possess. In addition, we are competing for the same role especially in
instances where projects are concerned.

of Indifferent Reporting

My shortcoming, especially in terms
of reporting to my instructors, also restricts me from being considerably
strong. By lacking a definite schedule for handing in short assignments,
instructors perceive me slightly negatively. These perceptions limit me from
having a positive relationship with the faculty at campus and leave me
uncompetitive in relation to my peers at school.

Provide Access to Clean Water college essay help near me
Provide Access to Clean Water





e-mail Address

The NAE Grand Challenge is an organization run by engineers
who aim at restoring human needs by focusing of four major realms of the human
being concern. Central to their concerns is the quantity and quality of water,
of which is short in supply in most parts of the world. Water must be available
in plenty in order to serve both personal use including drinking, waste
removal, washing and cooking and for large-scale use including irrigation.
Maintaining the water balance means being able to maintain and sustain life. Driven
by the need to maintain life, the engineering organization aims at employing
new technologies that help solve scarcity of water in the world while improving
its quality.

to Gleick, fresh water resources are reducing on a daily basis as the number of
people on the globe increases[1].
As a result, plants are threatened and water fails to reach the natural deltas
upon where it gets filtered and purified. Therefore, he suggested that the best
method for solving the freshwater issue is by introducing softer paths that
involve investing in infrastructure. Therefore, this means construction of
massive water infrastructures including aqueducts, pipelines and dams. These
features would assist in the storage of large amounts of water that would have
otherwise been wasted. Finally, there would be need for creation of sewage
treatment plants. Similar to the idea presented by the engineering speared
organization, these water treatments would be efficient in treating used water
by removing impurities and distributing it back to the nation for the purposes
of irrigation and other industrial processes.    

                Water is
a vital aspect for the survival of human beings. However, various areas on the
planet are lacking fresh water that is suitable for drinking and cooking. The main
problem as stated by these authors is the scarcity of fresh water sources,
which is only available in smaller quantities[2].
This fact concurs with the Global Challenge’s view of the problem. The first
strategy towards solving the issue includes allocation of rules that govern the
amount of water to be used in every household. Agriculture consumes a lot of
water in develop wing countries with an approximate of 70% of its total
consumption. This strategy is diverse from that provided by the engineering
Academy. Secondly, people should move towards conducting actions that consume
less amounts of water. This involves the production and use of foods, which
tend to utilize less amounts of water. For instance, meat preparation needs a
lot of water for preparation and this water is not consumed by the body as it
losses most of it. Finally, countries should employ strategies that decrease
water footprint through the reorganization of worldwide trade. Countries
receiving low amounts of fresh water should increase the production of water
intensive crops such as wheat and rice. These views contrast with the solutions
provided by the Grand Challenge.

the two scholarly journals failed to identify other methods presented by the
Global Challenge including desalinization of seawater[3].
Water comprises of the highest percentage of the total earth’s covering a total
of 1,400million km3. However, the larger part of this water is seawater.
Therefore, engineers sought to solve this issue by suggesting the desalinization
of ocean water, which would not only provide adequate water by fresh water
also. A second approach would include the introduction of small-decentralized refinement
units. This would be efficient in ensuring equal distribution of water. If all
these methods, solutions and future work were actualized, then the fresh water
availability would not be a problem anymore.    


[1] P. H. Gleick, “Global water resources: vulnerability from
climate change and population growth,” PubMed, vol.302, pp. 1524-1528,
Nov. 2003.

[2] E. Cominelli, M. Galbiati, C.
Tonelli, and C.Bowler, “Water: the invisible problem. Access to fresh water is
considered to be a universal and free human right, but dwindling resources and
a burgeoning population are increasing its economic value,” PubMed Central, vol.10, pp. 671–676, Jul. 2009.doi:  10.1038/embor.2009.148

[3] National
Academy of Engineering of
the National Academies. (2012). NAE Grand
Challenges for Engineering. Provide Access to Clean Water [Online].

[1] P. H. Gleick, “Global water resources:
vulnerability from climate change and population growth,” PubMed,
vol.302, pp. 1524-1528, Nov. 2003.

[2] E. Cominelli,
M. Galbiati, C. Tonelli, and C.Bowler, “Water: the invisible problem. Access to
fresh water is considered to be a universal and free human right, but dwindling
resources and a burgeoning population are increasing its economic value,” PubMed Central, vol.10, pp. 671–676, Jul. 2009.doi:  10.1038/embor.2009.148

[3] National Academy of Engineering
of the National Academies. (2012). NAE Grand
Challenges for Engineering. Provide Access to Clean Water [Online].

Information Security Operation Management essay help site:edu
Security Operation Management



Security Operation Management

Question One

data breach at ChoicePoint was caused mainly by a weakness in the verification
and authorization sectors of the business. The breach occurred because of a
failure to install a secure verification system that would ensure any fraudulent
applications were flagged and tracked down to their sources. The process of
breaching ChoicePoint’s security system targeted the verification process for
new applicants. While the company was very rigorous in their credentialing
process, their weakness lay in the fact that they lacked a proper method of verifying
whether the companies themselves were genuine (Tipton, & Nozaki. 2008).
The process simply sought to confirm if the applicants’ details were valid.
Therefore, in the event that a fraudster could create several working emails, Yellow
Pages advertisements and produce the necessary permits and identification documentation,
they would be issued with an account that would allow them to access personal
data. This was the main flaw that resulted in a breach.

most functional method of lowering the risk of missing or stolen personal data
is to desist from storing the data altogether. Data storage and duplication
should be evaluated against business demands and diminished. One way is by avoiding
the collection of redundant data and erasing data after its use has been
accomplished (Tipton, &
Nozaki. 2008). The second
alternative is more applicable to highly sensitive data such as the identity of
protected individuals. For instance, ChoicePoint could avoid manually gathering
and storing complete credit card information such as the expiry dates and
numbers after the transactions have been processed. (McCrie, 2007) Data controllers
such as ChoicePoint should constantly aware of the type of data stored, the
exact locations and the various stops it flows through to the client. In
the absence of such an oversight, successful protection of personal data can transform
into a challenging mission.

Question Two

Information Technology – Code of Practice for Information Security Management,
also referred to as ISO/IEC 27002,
serves to offer proposals for information security management for consumption
by users who charged with the duty of initiating, executing or upholding
security in their companies. It is designed to supply a universal platform for fashioning
security standards and functional security management strategies and to offer assurance
in transactions within the organization (McCrie, 2007). This model exhibits
several pros. One it is standardized and popular making it relatively easy to understand,
use and diagnose across different regions and situations (Tipton, & Nozaki. 2008). Two, ISO 27002 offers companies
with the reassurance of knowing they are safeguarding their data using standards
that are harmonized according to internationally accepted levels. These
advantages are valid in organizations of different magnitudes as well as those
using diverse security systems. While these benefits are appealing, the ISO/IEC 27002 model also has several drawbacks.
One, it lacks the fundamental measurement precision of a technical benchmark. Other
drawbacks include its incomplete nature when compared to other frameworks as
well as its hurried development that resulted in various bugs and glitches (Tipton,
& Nozaki. 2008).

            The Information Security
Management Maturity Model (ISM3) concentrates on universal
information security practices shared by a majority of companies with the
intention of implementing operational metrics to security management procedures
and safeguarding techniques. Using the new model, companies can come to increasingly
informed choices concerning investing in security by a process that improves the
alignment of security management with vital business goals (Tipton, & Nozaki. 2008). The model has the advantage of providing
straightforward solutions towards problems involving the access to security
frameworks by business clients. However, the model also experiences several
problems such as maintenance costs, liabilities, and functionality (Tipton, & Nozaki. 2008).

Question Three

Metrics Program Goals and Objective

goal of the metrics program is to offer visibility into the effectiveness of
the security program in preventing future data breaches. The objectives of the metrics
program include revealing the weaknesses or vulnerabilities that exist within ChoicePoint,
evaluating the necessary requirements and proposing several recommendations to fortify
the security condition.


stage adopts a top-down approach. Metrics for this particular program originated
from the following sources: information security, organization units and risk
management groups. A specific objective of the security program is to eliminate
the instances of security breaches and lapses with ChoicePoint within the same
year. Some of the metrics that indicate progress include the current number of security
breaches compared to the baseline figures in 2013. This metric will be measured
by the number of breaches reported by the company departments. Another metric
is the current number of thwarted breach attempts compared to the baseline
figures in 2013. This metric will be calculated by the number of arrested
perpetrators that are reported by departmental heads.

for Metric Generation

of the strategies is through a formal risk assessment. This evaluation seeks to
analyze all the key areas in ChoicePoint for any potential risks. The major
departments in the business will expose the necessary metrics to be used in the
program. This type of risk assessment is quantitative to ensure that accurate
figures are collected. Accuracy in concluding the exact metrics increases the
chances of developing successful security measures. Apart from formal risk
assessment procedures, the analyst will also use employee surveys, help desk
logs, firewall records and audit reports. Another alternative is the use of automated

and Targets

targets for the company to aspire towards forms the main agenda in this
section. The set benchmarks will be compared against the global industrial best
practices that are provided by CIO Magazine and Security Stats. Concerning the
targets, they will be set by human resource department and will be aligned with
company objectives. The setting of the improvement targets seek to place a
higher benchmark for security standards at ChoicePoint. By setting a benchmark
at this stage, the company can plan its complete annual strategy with a view of
achieving them.


results of the security metric initiative will be reported using digital software.
The preferred application to be used for reporting is Microsoft Word, PowerPoint
and Excel. Excel will be used to generate graphs and charts displaying
different statistics on the metrics program. PowerPoint slides will be used to make
official presentations to different stakeholders on different aspects of the
program. Copies of these materials can be distributed easily and manipulated to
reveal several pieces of information.


            The implementation plan
contains several tasks. One, the implementation process will involve a section
of the department first. This will act as a pilot group after which all the remaining
departments can also join in on the program. The pilot group will also act as a
source of statistics as well as a testing session. The security metrics program
will include the purchase of additional security equipment, fresh training for
employees and other deliverables. ChoicePoint can benefit from the
following information security metrics. The asset value is an important aspect to
evaluate especially when it comes to security.

Question Four

risk areas refer to the weaknesses and vulnerabilities within a system or organization
that make it susceptible, For ChoicePoint, the following key risk areas are significant
in determining resultant detrimental legal action against companies in the
industry (McCrie, 2007). The human aspect in most data-collection
companies such as ChoicePoint is a major area of risk that can cause serious
data breaches. In spite of the physical and technical measures introduced in a
system, the most significant security control oversight lies with personnel that
are unaware of their duties (Bojanc, 2012). Staffs regularly write down passwords that
are forgotten in convenient places; the same passwords are haphazardly shared among
the workers. Workers in sensitive sectors such are these ought to be regulated
by industrial regulatory agencies or at least, through properly enforced codes
of ethics (Horst, Mullen, & Rosenberg,
The next major risk area is the physical controls. The physical security
measures installed in data collection premises will determine the type of
security allocated to the data stored. Examples at ChoicePoint include the
installation of CCTV cameras to record all activities.

the industrial level, different players should seek to develop a standard and effective
authorization and verification system that can proof the identification and
history of any business partners. The improved credentialing process should
seek to scrutinize any the validity of documents and claims made by potential
clients before any transactions can be made. The industry should also work
alongside other governmental agencies such as the IRS in formulation security
regimes to reduce on instances of fraud. It is important to acknowledge that the
internal weaknesses of the data collection systems were responsible for the breach.
The biometric controls used had the benefit of regulating physical intrusion
but was incapable of stopping the exploitation of administrative and
operational flaws (McCrie, 2007). It is necessary to analyze and overhaul
certain key stages in the data collection and reproduction process.

Question Five

is sufficient to point out early in the discussion that al the three factors
were poorly implemented in the ChoicePoint security system. The technological
problems and their consequences in the company are as follows. The current
generation of biometric systems that were installed in ChoicePoint cannot
be trusted since there is a possibility that the company’s records could be
accessed through stolen biometric identities (McCrie, 2007). The biometric
identities can also be compromised since they are maintained by law agencies
and this increases the chances of identity theft. There is a high possibility
that the records can be hacked if they are stored in the same location.

human factor within ChoicePoint was partly responsible for the breach. The
three-man committee is responsible for overseeing the security systems at the
company. However, the committee was clearly incompetent and ineffective given
that they had only met twice in 2003. Furthermore, the security department had
also failed to review the security system and propose changes to the credentialing
loophole that would allow fraudster to exploit the company. It is quite
possible that in the process of scrutinizing the documents, thanks to human
error, some of the discrepancies were overlooked. Neglect and other human
errors might contribute to the breach (McCrie, 2007: Fay, 2002). The human
aspect also affected the collection, storage, encryption, and retrieval of
data. Personnel involved in the handling of sensitive data at ChoicePoint might
have participated in these activities intentionally or unintentionally.

were several processes responsible for the breach in ChoicePoint. The credentialing
process for the company consisted of an application form that collected the
information for all potential applicants. The process used a series of scrutinizing
activities that combed through contact lists, addresses and other referees. However,
the verification process was flawed because it selected random items rather
than having a thorough list for scrutiny. By making an oversight, the
credentialing process overlooked numerous factors that would have exposed the
fraudulent applicants (McCrie, 2007: Trček,
2003). By assuming that the phone number was verified, ChoicePoint made a
mistake since even counterfeit applicants used valid numbers during the interview
stages. Secondly, ChoicePoint also had an ineffective follow up process that
would have discovered counterfeit applicants at the self-certification stage. This
process entailed complying with the fine print that restricted their use of
personal data. ChoicePoint made several oversights in the audition process by
making random inspections of clients to ensure that the regulations were being
followed. In the report, critics noted that the laxity of the contract compliance
process provided customers with far greater access to data. This access normally
surpassed the authorization levels they were entitled. Furthermore, the process
also failed to ratify if the documents used by “James Garrett” were authentic. In
conclusion, these processes were functional but not effective in preventing the
fraud from taking place.


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R. (2012). Quantitative model for information security risk management. Knowledge
and Learning, 267-275.

J. (2002). Contemporary security management. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.

R. T., Mullen, J. F., & Rosenberg, M. H. (2009). The growing wave of data
breach litigation. Risk Management Magazine.

R. D. (2007). Security operations management. Amsterdam: Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevier.

H. F., & Nozaki, M. K. (2008). Information security management
handbook: Volume 2. Boca Raton,
Fla: Auerbach.

Trček, D. (2003). An integral
framework for information systems security management. Computers &
Security, 22, 337-359.

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Article Summary college admissions essay help




The Politics of Cognitive Dissonance

article The Politics of Cognitive
Dissonance: Spin, the Media, and Race (and Ethnicity) in the 2008 US
Presidential Election by Marilyn Lashley discusses the roles played by the
media, spin, and ethnicity in determining voter choices in the 2008
presidential election in the United States. The paper appealed to the notion of
cognitive discord to describe how political think tanks create successful propaganda
missions that recycle their candidates as well as their rivals’ concrete
record” with the main purpose of collecting votes for their aspirants. Specifically,
it considers the usage of the spin tactic as well as the media to mould public opinion
by planting questions among voters. The article uses a cognitive dissonance
theory that creates a correlation between an individual’s attitude and the
consequent beliefs. Lashley collected information using different research
methods and sources with a large part of them being secondary sources such as books
and journal excerpts written by political scientists. Most of Lashley’s references
were cited from past studies on election patterns and political strategy within
the United States and Europe. The last section of the article concentrated on Barack
Obama’s win in the 2008 US
presidential polls. This section contained an ethnographic analysis that
dissected the winning factors in the Obama campaign such as the mixed race
element as well as the contribution by Canadians. The article revealed the
following findings. One, American citizens greatly believe in the media as well
as major political heads such as analysts and strategists. Another finding
revealed that human beings have a strong conviction in the attitudes and perspectives
rather than in facts. In conclusion, the paper was organized in a structured
manner using academic evidence from electoral practices, the media industry,
and analysts. Marilyn Lashley managed to cover the causes and results of changes
in political attitudes from an academic perspective.

Media Sociology: The Dominant Paradigm

article Media Sociology: The Dominant Paradigm
was authored by Todd Gitlin and concentrates onsociological aspects of media.Analysis of themedia from a sociologicalperspective hasbeen controlled by the subjectofsignificant helplessness of
thenewscasters.The leading modelin
media sociologyhas drawn focus from
theinfluence of the mediato identifyacceptable and irregular social and political behavior. By its methodology,media sociology has emphasized the rebellion
among audiences,their rejection of
media- created messages,and not
their reliance, their agreement or their
lack of caution. It has investigated
into the effects ofbroadcast
programmingparticularly on the behavior
among viewers. The next section of the paper sought to criticize the dominant paradigm
and presented several theories such as the hypodermic theory. It also covered
several assumptions in the subject. The paper used a literature review as the main
research method. The study revealed the following findings. One, the society is
transformed by different factors and one of them being media. Media has long been
trusted to shape society but due to malpractice, redundancy, and changes in personal
preferences, the power has shifted to the individual. Another finding from the
paper is the fact that the media effect paradigm was grounded on several defective
assumptions. Several critiques surround the statement that media effects as the
major paradigm. These critiques concentrated on the power of influences, attitude
change, and followers as leaders in opinion.

Literature college essay help





People can have
new experiences that can make them have different perspectives in life. In some
cases, this happens when they encounter individuals with a different point of
view about life. Adopting an open mind is essential. This makes it possible for
one to have different interpretations of events. People hold on to their
pleasant memories, especially those concerning their childhood. Some events
rarely happen. Therefore, when they do, one wants to make sure that they last
for as long as possible. Raymond Carver tells the story of a man whose
perspective changed after his encounter with a blind man. The narrator put
aside his previous thoughts concerning the blind man after spending time with
him. The speaker in Theodore Roethke’s poem spends time dancing with his father
and he enjoys this moment. He wants to continue clinging on to him even as the
waltz ends. People desire to hold on to the pleasant experiences and encounters
they have had for as long as they can.

Raymond Carver’s
story Cathedral is a story about a
man who changes his perspective on life after meeting a blind man. Initially,
the man has his own interpretations about what blind men can and cannot do. He
seems to think that they are limited in most areas of their lives. Once he
meets, Robert he learns that he was mistaken in his judgment. The narrator and
Robert spend some time together during the night. In an attempt to explain to
Robert what a cathedral looks like, the narrator realizes that he is the one
who has been blind all along. He ends up seeing the world from a blind man’s
point of view. He realizes that he has acquired a sense of freedom. He does not
wish to open his eyes even after he finishes the drawing. He wants to
experience it the same way that Robert does. He says that even though he is in
his living room, he feels like he is not inside anything. He has removed all
the boundaries he has created and he has realized a sense of freedom that he
had never experienced before. His unwillingness to open his eyes shows he wants
to continue clinging to Robert’s world.

My Papa’s Waltz is a poem by Theodore
Roethke in which the speaker reminisces the times he spent dancing with his
father when he was a young man. The speaker describes how his father would come
home drunk after a long day of work and dance with him. They would dance
clumsily around the house. The mother would disapprove as he watched the pair
hit the kitchen walls, which caused the pans to slide to the floor. The speaker
says, “We romped until the pans slid from the kitchen shelf.” It is clear that
this happened at a time when the boy was very young. As they danced, the
speaker could feel his ears scrap the father’s buckle. In many ways, the poem
shows the love that the father has for his child. He still wants to spend time
with him after he comes home from work and he waltzes him to bed. The speaker
seems to be enjoying the time that the two of them spend together because he
continues to cling to his father’s shirt until he takes him to sleep.

In both
situations, the characters want to hold on to something. They do not want to
let go of what they have experienced with the people in their lives. In Cathedral, the narrator wants to cling
to the new world that he has discovered after Robert directs him on how to draw
a cathedral. He gains a new experience and he says, “It was like nothing else
in my life up to now.” He has never experienced what he had with Robert that
night and he wanted it to continue. Although he can see clearly, he ends up
seeing the completed drawing through the perspective of a blind man. When
Robert asked him what he thought about the cathedral, he said, “it’s really
something.” He said this even though he was not looking at the drawing, as he
had not opened his eyes. Thus, he expressed his desire to remain in the present
situation. It gave him a different feeling than he has ever had in his life.

The speaker in the
poem has fond memories of his father. He hangs on to his father and he still
wants to cling to him after the dance is over. He says, “But I hung on like
death.” the speaker is not comfortable with his father’s drunken state.
However, he is willing to endure it since he wants to spend time with him. The
waltzing is not easy as the boy has to endure some pain when his father’s
buckle his ear. He has to deal with his father’s rough hands and his missed
steps. However, in the end, the speaker wants to continue dancing with his
father. He continues to cling to his shirt even as his father takes him to bed.
The speaker seems to cherish that time with his father. It is special for him
because his father gives him all the attention and his mother cannot interfere.
She does not object even though the boy should be sleeping and not dancing
around the house.

The narrator in
the story had initial ideas concerning blind people. However, his willingness
to learn more and to adopt an open mind made him have an encounter that ended
up changing the experience he had. He learnt how to see with his mind instead
of depending on his sight, which had limited his vision for a long time. He had
never experienced anything like that in his life and he wanted the experience
to continue for longer. The speaker in the poem got a chance to dance with his
father. He enjoyed the time that the two of them spent and he held on to him
even as the dance ended. The pleasant incidences in life increases people’s
desire to the extent that they do not want to let go

Discussion best college essay help





The show Modern Family provides diversity of
characters to present the distinct family dynamics of the modern family unit.
The title of the show illustrates the theme of a shift in the values of the
modern family. In addition, the developers of the show were seemingly driven by
the need to capture the change in values, norms and roles of individuals in the
family structure as attributed to globalization and cultural transformation. The
name of the show and the unique structures of the families used in the program
is a portrayal of progressivism in all the characters.

The men are
specifically portrayed as incompetent individuals in their roles as fathers and
husbands. In the first episode of the show’s fifth season, the developers
focused on legalization of gay marriages in the state of California. Mitch and Cam are preparing to
propose to one another after the legalization of gay marriages in announced for
the state of California.
The two individuals, Mitch and Cam are able to
take advantage of the new legislation, having been traditionally outlawed. Gay
marriages have become common around the world and more so in the United States
as society enhances liberties for individuals in same sex relationships.

The sixth episode
provides a detailed view of the modern family as Gloria succeeds in finding a
caregiver for her child, Joe. Manny and Jay dislike the new hiring because of
the gender-male. Traditionally, caregivers or nannies have been drawn from
women given that they are considered to possess the adequate and appropriate
maternal traits to provide effective care to children. Thus, a male nanny is
brought about by the directors of this program as a new aspect of the modern
family structure.  It is also important
to note that men and women are gradually alternating their roles in society
such as providing care to the young ones, assuming the role of breadwinner and
protecting the entire family.

The directors seek
to affirm and acknowledge that social roles can be alternated between men and
women because of enhanced social liberties and changing gender roles in the
family structure. Technology forms an integral part of the lives of the
characters in the television program. Characters in their daily lives use
gadgets such as cellphone cameras, iPads, YouTube videos, and baby monitors. Technology
provides these individuals with avenues for communication with one another. The
fifth season is able to move from the United
States to Australia
as the entire family heads out for a summer vacation.

The marriage of
Jay and Gloria is a deviation from social norms as the directors highlight the
origin of Gloria as a Latin American and Jay as an American. The age difference
between Jay and Gloria is evident and clear as the directors try to persuade
the audience to accept the prevalence of marriages between individuals with
vast age differences. In addition, the directors also emphasize on the
importance and success of interracial marriages between individuals with
diverse cultural backgrounds.

On the other hand,
it is also important to note that directors retained the patriarchal, hegemonic
form and conservative approach of the family structure in North
America. The wives assume a submissive role by taking care of the
children and attending to domestic duties whereas the husband is tasked with
providing for the family. The wife is reliant on the husband’s income for
upkeep given that she is tasked with domestic affairs. This is evident by Gloria
and Claire’s position as stay-at-home wives despite their respective abilities
to supplement the incomes of their husbands.

The decision to
take a vacation to Australia
is taken seriously by Claire who describes it as “a business trip”. She retains
the traditional approach of a mother by abandoning her successful career to
take care of a young family irrespective of losing her independence to her
husband. In conclusion, the directors succeed in illustrating the American
society has gradually evolved in terms of tolerance of diversity in aspects
such as race and gender. However, it has retained traditional values such as
roles assumed by the husband and wife in the family structure.

Philosophy, Mission and Vision college admissions essay help
Mission and Vision



Mission and Vision

Undeniably, the
mission and vision statement of an institution defines the philosophy and
convictions it embodies. For both Charlotte R. Riley Child Center and Queen
Emma Preschool, the facets illustrate the commitment that the organizations
exude in ensuring that they establish the best learning environment for the
children. Based on the former’s overall statement, it is clear that the aspects
are proficient. Accordingly, the school is committed towards providing teaching
measures and a conducive setting that actually meets the approaching needs of
its students. Furthermore, the philosophy of the school is distinguished from
that of the latter due to its insistence on the development of the child. As it
asserts, the philosophy plans to ensure that the cognitive, social, physical,
and emotional aspects of a learner are developed to their best of his or her
capability (Charlotte R. Riley Child Center, 2014). Similarly, Queen Emma
Preschool’s statements are distinguished from the former’s due to the way they
are summarized (Queen Emma Preschool, 2014). However, even though the structure
differentiates both, it is clear that both institutions proficiently plan to focus
on a child’s development.

For my new
childcare center, the mission, vision and philosophy will relate with one
another due to the objectives that the institution plans to accomplish. In
overview, the mission statement of the center involves the provision of a
curriculum-based setting that appreciates creativity among children. As such,
the center focuses on offering a curriculum-oriented environment that is
supportive of children’s talents. The vision statement will expound on the
mission by stating the main courses of action that it will take in order to
gratify the respective aspect. In this respect, the institution will provide a
great and fostering environment for the children. Lastly, the philosophy will
be centered on the progression of the children via the influence of their
surroundings. Indeed, the institution will be committed to offering a setting
that shapes the attitudes and behaviors of its learners into a positive way.


R. Riley Child Center. (2014). Mission, vision and philosophy. [Power point

Emma Preschool. (2014). Mission, vision and philosophy. [Power point slides].

Challenges of a unionized Workforce argumentative essay help
of a unionized Workforce



of a unionized Workforce


            In every
diversified organization, there are bound to be challenges relating to employee
interactions especially when they stem from their different cultural upbringing.
However, some of the differences may arise from the presence of union workers
within a company. In such instances, members may get into unexpected arguments
with the management over the handling of certain operations. These altercations
increase the strain among members of staff and need to be urgently addressed to
prevent the development of companywide dissatisfaction.


Part 1

            Jack’s “ding” on
his attendance record will be deleted and he will be monetarily compensated due
to a breach in the collective bargaining agreement signed between the union and
the corporation. Courtesy of his union membership, it is unacceptable to be
unfairly targeted at the workplace by either fellow workers such as Eric or his
employers. In particular, it was wrong for Steve and Phil to ignore Jack’s
mistreatment and even profit from it especially after he had made numerous
complaints to them. As such, their inaction facilitated the abuse and violated
his rights as an employee (Beik, 2005). Moreover, the apparent spat in front of
fellow members of staff provides supportive material to his predicament and
Phil’s confession of having bet with Steve about Jack’s absenteeism was
incriminating. It was also unprofessional as well since it sows dissatisfaction
among the workforce. However, the business may also file a countersuit to try
to defend itself since this may inspire similar incidents.  

Part 2

Once Jack has
filed the grievance charge with the union, the regional director of the
National Labor Relations Board will appoint one of its employees to conduct an
investigation within the organization. During this period, other workers will
be encouraged to support or deny the claims in writing in order for the charges
to be amended. Afterwards, the union steward will have a discussion with the
jack’s supervisor and other senior managers. Thus, an arbitration process will
be launched to attempt reaching at a settlement among the parties. Meanwhile,
the NLRB’s general counsel will seek injunctive relief in a federal court (Holley,
Jennings & Wolters, 2005). However, if no progress is made towards solving
the unfair labor practices at the firm according to the statutes of the
National Labor Relations Act, an Administrative Law judge will be approached to
preside over the hearing. At this forum, evidence of the harassment will be
presented and a decision made. Consequently, any aggrieved party will forward
their complaints to an Appeals
Court whose decision will have to be complied with
under the supervision of the regional director.

Part 3

It would be
prudent to initiate a conflict resolution mechanism that respects the rights of
the accused and the concerns of the accuser. Hence, channels of communication
will be opened within the company to allow Jack, Eric, Steve and Phil to
appraise the HR department of their grievances. Likewise, other workers would
be encouraged to submit their opinions about the ongoing crisis through a
medium that does not expose their anonymous owners in order to instill
confidence in the reporting. In fact, this would reduce the risk of victimization
and enhance the collection of more information. Similarly, an evaluation of the
performance and frequency of complaints of the above individuals will be performed
to ascertain their affinity to disagreements. In addition, they would be
summoned and assured of impartiality during the proceedings in order to analyze
their version of events (Deutsch, Coleman & Marcus, 2006). However, they
would have to be committed to honesty and acceptance of the decision to be made
as binding to all of them. Thus, each one would be permitted to make their
submissions and allowed to counter the assertions of the other party in a
civilized manner.  While granting them
the freedom to make their grievances, the moderation has to be conducted in a
firm and decisive manner in order to limit the submissions to relevant issues. Consequently,
a synthesis would be done to evaluate the accuracy of all the data collected. This
would be the best approach because it widens the source of information while
giving each party a chance to make their views heard.


Attaining the
proper employer-employee relationship has always been an objective of each
organizational culture. However, the rise of union membership in most
industries has become problematic to most institutions. While workers may feel
unduly targeted, the management regards some of the complaints as being forms
of insubordination. Consequently, the National labor Relations Board has to investigate
such claims in an impartial manner in order to offer fair rulings to both
parties. Similarly, it would be wise to initiate mediation efforts early on to
avoid the rigorous and divisive option of lawsuits.


Beik, M. (2005). Labor Relations.
Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

M., Coleman, P., & Marcus, E. (2006). The Handbook of Conflict
Resolution: Theory and Practice. San
Francisco, CA:

W., Jennings,
K., & Wolters, R. (2005). The Labor Relations Process. Mason, Ohio:

Review of the “Shigellosis from swimming in a park pond in Michigan” Research custom essay help




of the “Shigellosis from swimming in a park pond in Michigan” Research

Shigellosis is
classified as an infectious disease caused by the Shigella sonnei species. Shigella
is part of the gamma proteobacteria genus and the Enterobacteriaceae family
(“A Space-Time Analysis” 4). Under classification, Shigellae are non-spore forming; gram-negative, non-motile, rod-
shaped and closely related to the Escherichia
coli bacteria. Shigella sonnei
species is in the group D category with one serotype. Its incubation period is
between 5 to 7 days (“A Space-Time
Analysis” 4).

In addition to the
potential causes of shigellosis in the region as mentioned in the journal,
there are other possible causes of the infection including transmission through
soiled fingers and into the mouth as well as eating food that has already been
contaminated by food handlers (“A
Space-Time Analysis” 4). Furthermore, flies can be a cause of the
disease in cases where they breed on the feces and proceed to contaminate food.
Vegetables can also be contaminated with the bacteria if they are grown in fields
with either contaminated sewage and water or wherein the infected employees
defecate (“A Space-Time Analysis” 4).

Besides the
case-control research design, the true experimental study design could also be
used in assessing the spread of shigellosis infection in the region as well as
the causation. This research design utilizes the mathematical statistics in
proving or disapproving the causes of a certain phenomena (Merrill and Timmreck
210). In this experiment, it would be important in identifying the actual cause
of the problem. In carrying out an outbreak research of shigellosis infection,
the data collection process would include acquiring the number of individuals
affected by the disease together with the places they visited seven days prior
to diagnosis. This would be followed by the statistical analysis of the data
collected using mathematical techniques including measures of central
tendencies; mean mode and medium as well as the analysis of variance method
(ANOVA) including correlation, regression and variance (Merrill and Timmreck
211). The data would also be represented using pie charts and tables in order
to give a visual view of the problem.  

During the data
collection process, questioning of the non-infected individuals is equally
important. They could provide vital information involving the health conditions
in the region. Regardless of their knowledge regarding accurate facts, their
views and personal comments are equally significant since they provide some
sense of truth about the conditions in the region (Merrill and Timmreck 210).
Nonetheless, such information can not be relied on without backing it up with
facts since the interviewees could be biased. In worse case scenarios, other
individuals could provide false information knowingly due to a wide range of
factors including political reasons (Merrill and Timmreck 210).

The case control
study used in the research displays certain problems. Initially, the study is
selection bias in the sense that the individuals selected during the data
collection process was limited to individuals who were had visited the park (Blostein
318). This locks out important information since people who had not visited the
park could also provide data that could be beneficial to the research. Furthermore,
the research design provides information, which is subject to observational
predisposition. The conclusions made were drawn from the observations made
regarding the cause of shigellosis infection while failing to focus on other
causal factors (Blostein 318). In solving this problem, an indepth study of all
the causal factors of the infection would be made.

In order to
protect the public against the shigellosis infection, members of the public are
required to practice healthy habits including washing of hands before meals and
after visiting the toilet. People should be advised on the appropriate areas of
defecating other than farms and swimming pools. In case an individual has already
been infected, they should ensure they 
get the appropriate treatment in order to stop further infections. The
pools in the region should rectify their inflow and outflow water systems.


Space-Time Analysis of Reported Shigellosis and Salmonellosis Cases in Texas from 2000 to 2004.
DigitalCommons@The Texas
Medical Center,
2008. Print.

Joel. “Shigellosis from swimming in a park pond in Michigan.” Public Health Rep. 106. 3
(1991): 317-322. Print.

Ray and Thomas Timmreck. Introduction to Epidemiology. Sudbury,
Mass: Jones and Bartlett
Publishers, 2006. Print.

Leadership essay help





Question 2

Integrity is a cornerstone in my approach to leadership. It is important
to my style of leadership in that it enables me to establish rapport and trust
in all aspects of my social relationships including the workplace. Integrity is
a basic aspect of quality leadership given that it ensures responsible behavior
in any organizational capacity. It is also inclusive of aspects such as fairness
and responsiveness to the needs of all individuals in the firm. In addition,
integrity encompasses ethical and moral principles. This means that I am able
to adhere to set out rules and ethical conduct in the workplace to ensure
equity in dealing with all employees.

Question 3

The Resisters

They should be included in decision making given that they feel alienated
in transitional periods. This provides them with an opportunity to contribute
to policies towards change in the organization. Incorporating such employees in
the change process enables them to give up power and resistance to accommodate
new processes and procedures that would enhance productivity and work
performance in the organization.

The Self-Absorbed

Leaders should take time to discuss
and compliment all employees based on their contributions in the organization. In
addition, a leader should encourage creativity, innovation, and ensuring that
responsibility is present in the workplace. This is effective in ensuring that
credit is provided to employees who deserve it.

The Pessimists

Leaders should also educate employees
who exhibit negative attitudes in the workplace on the role of pessimism in
poor work performance and lack of productivity. This can be affirmed by
providing compliments for quality work and encouragement to cultivate optimal
The Adhesives

Communication is an effective means
of dealing with conflicts in the workplace. Leaders should be able to recognize
passive behavior and provide such employees with avenues to communicate their
frustration and in the process resolving past conflicts. Thus, a leader should
also ensure that communication channels are effective to optimize dialogue
amongst all employees in the wake of conflicts in the organization.

Artificial Sweeteners essay help





The article Artificial Sweeteners May Disrupt Body’s
Blood Sugar Controls by Kenneth Chang shows the effects of consuming
artificial sweeteners. According to the article, consuming the sweeteners can
cause diabetes, as it causes metabolic changes when it interferes with
regulation of blood sugar. The article reports on the results of research that
were obtained when scientists tested the effects of saccharin, aspartame, and
sucralose on mice. The mice exhibited intolerance to glucose. The article notes
that there have been conflicting reports concerning the benefits or harm of
artificial sweeteners on the body. It observes that most of the research has
had inconclusive results. Some studies have shown that the sweeteners have
positive effects while others have observed potential harm on the users. The
article adds that artificial sweeteners have the ability to change the
condition of the gut bacteria in both mice and humans. The intestinal bacteria
in people who use the sweeteners are markedly different compared to those who
do not normally use any form of sweetener.

I found the
article to be of great importance as far as health is concerned. There are many
cases of diabetes in the country. People consider artificial sweeteners to be a
healthier alternative to using sugar. Therefore, they consume diet sodas, most
of which use the sweeteners, in an effort to maintain good health. People need
to realize the effects that artificial sweeteners have on the body. Glucose
intolerance is a serious issue because it can lead to the development of
diabetes. Diabetes is associated with many health concerns including increased
risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and blindness. The government needs
to reconsider its recommendations on artificial sweeteners. Although more
research needs to be done on the study, it is important to act on the results.


Kenneth. “Artificial Sweeteners May Disrupt Body’s Blood Sugar Controls.” The New York Times. 17 September 2014.
Web. 30 September 2014

Assignment 6 best college essay help





the last session, the class discussed the model of trust that Mayer, Davis and
Schoorman developed. The model focused on trust between two people. This form
of trust is present in all areas of life. For instance, this form of trust
applies in a relationship between two friends, a mother and her child, a wife
and her husband as well as a teacher and his or her student. However, the class
focused on trust as it occurs in professional contexts. Trust in the context of
work could involve a supervisor and his or her subordinate, a boss and his or
her employee or a seller and a buyer. The model by Mayer, Davis and Schoorman
also shows cause and effect. This is evident in the way that trust in a
relationship is built over time as a person receives positive feedback for
their trustworthiness. In the professional context, trust is also dependent on
a person’s ability, as people are only entrusted with the jobs that they are
capable of. For this reason, company’s normally vet people to make sure that
they can trust them with certain tasks.

most important and post is 10 Predictions
for What the CIO Role Will Look Like in 2020 by John Brandon. In the post,
John Brandon looks at the ten most significant ways in which the position of
the Chief Information Officer will change. This article is important because it
gives companies and people involved in the information technology industry an
idea of the ways that they have to brace themselves for the future. By making
changes that conform to the article’s predictions, firms can ensure that they
are capable of competing in the future, after the information technology sector
has changed significantly. While the other articles also point out pertinent
issues concerning CIOs, the issues that John Brandon highlights in his post are
capable of changing the sector and the position of the CIO drastically. Some of
the key issues that the post points out include the possibility of a future
where companies base most of their information related operations online, using
cloud storage (Brandon 1). Brandon also speculates that IT departments will use
very few human resources in the future (1).


John. 10 Predictions for What the CIO Role Will Look Like in 2020. CIO. CXO Media Inc, 3 May 2012. Web. 02
Oct. 2014.

Ethics in Accounting essay help online free
in Accounting



in Accounting

Facts of the Case

In the case
between Bill and John Smith, there is evidence of fraudulent transactions
specifically on the part of the latter. With John Smith being the EVP of ABC
Company, Bill has trouble in attempting to hold Smith accountable for his
falsified expenditures. One of the main issues presented concerns ethics.
Foremost, Smith attempted to convince Bill into modifying the W-2 form, in
order to conceal his personal utilization of the company vehicle. While
contemplating on this misdeed, Bill, as the controller of funding, also
uncovers several instances where company finances have been utilized without
adding any form of financial input to the company. Simply, these expenses have
been used on a personal basis, and are therefore, unethical based on the
by-laws on the company. In this respect, Bill uncovers a considerable amount of
personal expenses under Smith as he uses company finances for individual
entertainment, despite it being illegal and unethical. Such expenses range from
fuel costs to dinner and entertainment expenditures. As such, Bill is
contemplating on whether to forward accounts of Smith’s fraudulent claims to
the company’s president.

Issues of the Case

Various issues are
evident in the case in relation to the impact of Smith’s fraudulent claims on
the organization and the involved employees.

Operational Issues

These issues
relate to the specific roles carried out by the involved parties. Despite being
the EVP of such a profitable company, Smith seems to neglect the fact that all
the laws established by the organization apply to all members of the firm, and
he is not the exception. However, the manner in which he flouts the rules
questions his operational integrity. Indeed, do the laws of ABC apply to only
those within the lower hierarchy of the organization? This question illustrates
the ethical contention that arises from the mismanagement of company funds by Smith.

Behavioral Issues

 Unethical behavior is also another problem
that arises from the case. For Bill, the rule of ethics should apply to all
personnel regardless of their position in the company. However, with respect to
the controlling position assumed by Smith, Bill notes that unethical behavior
will continue if the laws or codes of conduct established seem to be
inapplicable to Smith due to his stance as the EVP of ABC. Additionally, the
behavior of Mike Thompson further contributes to behavioral issues within the
case. As the ethics officer, Mike is expected to uphold objective treatment
when it comes to organizational matters and decisions. However, Mike seems to
express bias when conflicted with the actions performed by his boss, Smith.
Even though Mike is aware that the ethical thing to do would be reporting Smith
to the president, he hesitates further displaying unethical behavior.

Ethical Issues

Ethical issues
constitute the main part of the case by Bill against Smith. Since Bill and Mike
are aware of the unethical acts performed by the company’s EVP, ethics calls
for them to report the matter in order for action to be taken. However, bias
seems to overcome this proposed action due to the implications that such an
obligation would impose on the involved employees. For Mike, reporting Smith would
jeopardize his career and the employer-employee relationship he possesses with
his manager. Similarly, Smith illustrates unethical behavior by coaxing Bill to
alter his W-2 form even though he knows clearly that performing an act
contravenes the laws implemented by ABC.

Accounting Issues

Various accounting issues present
themselves in relation to the fraudulent claims illustrated by Smith. One of
the main issues involves falsification of financial documents. In financial
reporting, documents such as the income statement and the balance sheet are
important for assessment since they illustrate the manner in which an
organization uses its finances. In this respect, Smith used fake gas and dinner
receipts in order to get significant refunds for expenses he did not incur. In
addition to this, the EVP attempts to persuade Bill into modifying the W-2 form
further illustrating intent to defraud the company. Similarly, issues of
financial reporting are evident based on Smith’s utilization of fake restaurant
slips in order to cover his expenses via the company finances used.

Possible Courses of Action

Foremost, Bill can
decide to act as a whistleblower and reveal the misdeeds of the company’s EVP
to the president. However, this may impose a disadvantageous effect on his
career especially in the event that the hierarchy decides to reject the
allegations. In addition, Bill may find it difficult to continue working within
the organization due to the high performance exuded by Smith, which has led to
a considerable profit margin for the company. Secondly, Bill can decide to
alter the W-2 form. This will force him to engage in fraud and slander his
reputation especially in relation to the position he occupies within the
organization. Even if he does not undergo exposure, Bill will be unable to
report any fraudulent schemes performed by Smith since he will hold leverage
against him if he decides to expose him.

Best Course of Action

The best course of
action for Bill would be to report Smith to the president of the company. In
spite of the action of whistle blowing being fairly risky, reporting the matter
will ensure that such actions do not continue within the company. In addition
to this, Smith’s adequate performance within the company does not offer him the
privilege of mismanaging the finances of the company for personal use. As such,
reporting his deeds to the president will assist in preventing even further
risks that may arise from the utilization of company finances especially if
Smith is allowed to continue with his fraudulent schemes.

Selfless Love custom essay help





love refers to the unselfish action by an individual or organization that holds
no direct or indirect benefit to them but which bring immense relief to the beneficiary.
The story of Tom Wynkoop, the owner of a pizza shop in Pennsylvania is an excellent example of displaying
selfless love. During the cold weather, Tom made an online advertisement that he
and his employees were willing to deliver necessities, medicine, and food to
the needy customers within the community. Given that the community is composed
predominantly of elderly individuals, the offer came as a relief to most of the
octogenarians who were unable to brave the cold weather and harsh conditions to
get these necessities (Hallowell ln 65).
A detailed analysis of the rest of Tom’s offer that was posted on social media
site Facebook revealed that he had posted his mobile number for anyone in need
to contact him. Furthermore, his act did not bear any economic interests since
he offered the assistance to all who needed it regardless of whether they ordered
meals from his restaurant (Hallowell ln
15). Tom Wynkoop stated that he had been inspired to wake up and lend a
helping hand after watching the weather warnings on television. He argued that
since him and his drivers were out in the streets delivering pizza, it would be
kind to assist people with less mobility. The offer was met with several
responses from people who needed essential items. Tom went as far as to refuse
any tips offered by happy beneficiaries (Hallowell ln 23). This small act of selflessness triggered
donations from different locations as well as applauds for his contribution to
welfare. Tom reiterated that the donations would be channeled to Meals on
Wheels that would use them to distribute relief food. From the story, it is clear
that selfless love is displayed by sacrificing the most valuable things to help
other vulnerable people in society. Tom’s story displays the effect that one
random act can have on the attitudes of other people in the country.


Hallowell, Billy. “Pizza Shop Owner’s
Incredibly Selfless Act Teaches a Major Lesson About Helping People in Need.” The
Blaze. The Blaze Inc. Jan 9, 2014. Web. Oct 3, 2014.

McCulloch v. Maryland college admissions essay help
v. Maryland



v. Maryland


vs. Maryland was a case that the United States Supreme Court dealt with in
1819. In the landmark case, the defendant was a sovereign state (Maryland)
challenging a law passed by Congress, while the plaintiff (James McCulloch of
the Second Bank of the United States) also contested a case passed by the
state’s legislature. The court’s decision dealt with two key issues that the
parties raised in the case. The first issue was whether the Federal Government,
through legislation by Congress, could incorporate a banking institution that
would be able to operate in all states that are in the Union. The second issue
in the case concerned an attempt by the State of Maryland to tax the bank that
Congress had established, without violating any part of the Constitution of the
United States. On the first issue, the court started by explaining that
Congress followed thorough procedure when passing the bill in a debate that
featured strong opposition within the house.  The court also noted the defendant’s position
that the general government derives its power from the states, which are
themselves sovereign. However, the ruling added that such a proposition was
difficult to sustain. The court ascertained that the constitution actually
derives its authority from the people. This means that the general government
is the most powerful force within its area of jurisdiction, a status that
places it above states in the hierarchy of power. Though this authority does
not allow it to establish a bank, the constitution does not have a clause
denying the federal government such implied powers. In addition to the lack of
such an exclusion, the constitution does award the government far-reaching powers
concerning the Union’s finances, security and foreign policy. Therefore, the
court argued that the government should have the power to execute such
responsibilities through various means. One the means of this execution
included corporations that the Federal Government could establish and operate. Accordingly,
the court decided that the government’s power to run a conglomerate, as granted
in the constitution, also allowed it to incorporate a bank.

the second issue, the court started by acknowledging that the authority to
impose taxes was one that both the state and federal governments held, with
both being able to exercise the legal right concurrently. However, state
governments do not have the authority to tax imports and exports unless the
taxes facilitate the implementation of inspection laws. This restriction is
compatible with the constitution and other laws that guide the Union. With the
restrictions that the constitution places on the state, the state’s own
sovereignty is subordinate to the supreme law. Accordingly, the law must
operate in a way that the general government does not have any obstacles
hindering its operations within the sphere that it has established using the
constitution. Since the court had earlier acknowledged the legitimacy of the
Bank of the United States as an organ through which the federal government
exercised its power, it decided that the State of Maryland could not tax the
institution because that would pose an obstacle to the Union’s operations
inside its sphere.  

Definition and Discussion of Key Terms

key terms in the article include sovereignty, implied powers, corporation,
Union, State. Sovereignty refers to the authority that a political entity has
to govern itself. In the case, Maryland and other states acted as sovereign
entities when they formed the Union. However, the constitution of the United
States now gives the federal government power over them. Implied powers refers
to the federal government receives from the constitution, even though the law
does not explicitly state them in any clause. In this case, the implied powers
allow the federal government to incorporate a bank and establish it in various
states. A corporation is a legal entity that is established through legal
action or registration. Corporations normally have their own rights and
responsibilities, which are not related to those of the various stakeholders.
In McCulloch v. Maryland, the state of Maryland challenged the decision of the
US government to incorporate a banking institution. Union refers to the United
States of America as a single entity that was formed after the different states
decided to come together as a single country. In the case, the Union exercised
its power by incorporating a bank, through the authority granted to it by the
constitution. A state is a political and territorial entity that comprises a
larger union or federated country. The US is divided into various political
entities including states, counties and municipalities. The case McCulloch v.
Maryland saw the State of Maryland challenge various actions by the central


J. (n.d.). McCulloch v. Maryland.
Retrieved from

Consideration in Contract Law college admissions essay help




in Contract Law

One of the main aspects that make
an agreement legally binding is consideration. In overview, consideration
comprises the object or thing that a party surrenders to another party in order
to fulfill the agreement. Nonetheless, in order for this facet to exist, a
valuable object or thing must be provided or promised. Hence, in return, the
other party needs to perform what he or she promised. Aside from this,
consideration can also subsist in the event where the facet is viewed as a gain
to the promisor and a detriment to the promise. Hence, in an instance where a
person promises to pay or reimburse another individual for carrying out a
particular task, consideration becomes evident. As such, the individual who
made the promise has enforced a contract in which he or she is required to pay
the other person if he or she completed the requested obligation.

In the case
between Sarah and Jake, there is null evidence of consideration or a legally
binding contract between the two parties. Accordingly, Jake assisted his
neighbor, Sarah, in extinguishing the fire that was burning her house. At this
point, no promise had been made by Sarah to Jake regarding the assistance he
provided. In addition, Jake volunteered to engage in the action, which further
dispels the legitimacy of the case. However, the promise to pay Jake after
saving the house can be perceived as more of a gift, than a consideration. In
this respect, Sarah promised to pay Jake $3000 as gratitude for his involvement
in stopping the fire. Therefore, Jake is incapable of enforceable this promise.
This is because promises based on gifts comprise non-obligatory promises under
the legal nature of contracts. Hence, there is no violation of any contract
since none exists.

American Government essay help online free





Summary of Judicial Process in America

This analysis seeks to understand the
American judiciary system by comparing two books on the subject: American
Government: Roots and Reform and the Judicial Process in America. These two books are written and used
for instruction and research purposes. The
Judicial Process in America represents a methodically restructured, all-inclusive
analysis of the American justice system that offers a perceptive look at the multifaceted
setting in which litigants, lawyers, judges, and other players operate in the
state and federal, criminal, and civil systems. The publication offers a systematic
and unbiased inspection of the human and bureaucratic variables that affect the
judicial process. The two authors, Stidham and Carp analyzed the different
relationships between magistrates and public policy, the influential role of judges
in determining the face of public policy, and the manner in which judges contribute
towards policymaking while practicing law in courts. The initial chapters of
the course textbook cover the foundations and history of law within the United States. It
covers the progress of growth in the tenets of law such as early justice
systems adopted by ancient American natives. A significant part of the early
chapters addressed the manner in which the federal and state system of justice
developed and organized itself over the years. America experienced significant
friction in the implementation of the dual court system. However, depending on
the nature of the legal problem, it could be addressed at the federal or state
level. The initial years for federal courts as well as the Supreme Court were
marred by issues of equality and political favoritism. Carp and Stidham authored
these sections of the book in a lucid manner that set the reader in an
expectant mood. Most of the concepts and events were explained in a clear and
simple vocabulary that eliminated the need for further elaboration. They also
served to reveal the elaborate and strong background of America’s
renowned judicial system. The writing style used took on an informative tone that
made it quite suitable for younger readers. Judicial
Process in America captures the patriotic and proud history of America’s judiciary
from a scholar’s perspective.

authors of Judicial Process in America
both meet and exceed the qualifications to write on political topics such as judiciary
and its application in the US.
Robert Carp has been a longstanding professor at the University of Houston.
Furthermore, he specializes in constitutional law, judicial processes, and
society. Robert has published numerous articles in academic journals such as American
Journal of Political Science and Journal of Political Science. His colleague, Ronal
Stidham has been a professor in Lamar
University for over two
decades. He is the author of the prominent books, The State Courts and the Federal Courts. Their combined
experience is definitely reflected in the structure of arguments and analysis. Therefore,
both authors are highly competent in the history, functioning, and structure of
the American judiciary. The overall reaction to the book was that it contained
a massive amount of historical accuracy and detail. The book can prove to be
particularly useful to readers at the college level where a deeper understanding
of political branches is necessary. It is definitely a valuable read even for seasoned
political analysts as they can learn Robert and Stidham’s analytical and
organization styles.

Summary of American Government:
Roots and Reform

The book American Government:
Roots and Reform is inspired by the principle that learners must initially
comprehend the genesis of American government before they can grasp the problems
that most citizens in United States experience. This renowned publication
offers a strong reporting of historic and contemporary events to analyze current
political structures and decisions in the complete constitutional context. The
book is greatly beneficial as it assists students understand the process of
government evolution in the United
States and the ways in which politics can be
useful and constructive. The book is separated into two parts. The first
section highlights the role played by history in understanding American government.
All the chapter start with a historical summary and concludes with a discussion
dedicated to controversial aspects of the topics in question. The other section
handles the evolution of America’s
democracy and constitutional law.

terms of presentation, American Government: Roots and Reform is
highly simplified allowing for easy reading on print and digital formats. The
different topics are designed in a clear learning path and supported through
several ways. Tables are included in the book to capture numerical data that is
required in an orderly manner. The publishers also used graphs and charts to illustrate
statistical data in visual forms. Bar, line, and pie charts are used in American
Government: Roots and Reform to illustrate
different aspects such as the growth of American population over the years, ethnic
divisions and more. Lastly, Sabato and Yanus included political caricatures and
short cartoons that were placed across different pages in the book. These elements
were selected primarily for their ability to contribute towards a wholesome learning

terms of content, American Government: Roots and Reform is designed with a pedagogical concept. The
authors of the book were driven by the need to develop a learner-friendly publication
especially for high school and college level students. All chapters included a
marginal glossary that offered additional information and key terms. Most of
the content in book revolves around the historical events. However, a section of
American Government: Roots and Reform contained a detailed coverage
of the America
elections and analyzed the role played by different applicants and contributors.
The newest edition of the book contained updated information on Congressional
proceedings, the Supreme Court terms, and policy chapters. The new edition also
In conclusion, the two authors targeted the academic fraternity using different
styles rather than just writing a book outlining the history of American
judiciary. The authors discuss the constitution, federal system, and civil liberties.

            The two publications
also held different implications in terms of applicability. In American
Government: Roots and Reform, the two authors had the desire of creating a publication
that would serve to capture the heritage and history of America in an
academic way. Sabato and Yanus selected unique topics and outlined them in a
concise manner. This allowed more opportunities to insert learning content such
as graphs, charts as well as links and references to other textbooks. The book
also contained questions that could be used by students for revision. Sabato
and his co-author also ensured that their book contained evidence from scholarly
sources from political analysts. Conversely, Robert Carp and Ronald Stidham opted
to write a book that leaned towards chronologically outlining America’s path
from historical times to the present. Their publication is more relevant in
historical circles than in academic ones. Their book lacked any useful material
that could be used for instruction by teachers and students.

            There is a similarity between
the two books in terms of themes and topics. Both sets of authors discussed the
history and organization of American judiciary system. While Robert Carp and Stidham
allocated three chapters toward the topic, Sabato and Yanus preferred to discuss
the historical perspectives throughout the book.             It was evident that history was a significant part of the
American politics and government. Robert preferred to analyze separate sections
of history and government while Sabato included the historical aspects where
necessary within his arguments.


Both books concentrate on different
aspects of American judiciary system. There is a close similarity particularly in
their topics, method of writing and usage of additional and creative ways to lace
facts, graphs, and figures concerning the United States courts. It is clear
that both sets of authors targeted the academic population in the process of
writing their texts. This focus is evident in the last sections of every
chapter in which detailed facts, chronological historical events and other
beneficial aspects were included for readers. Much of the arguments in both books
served to promote the cause of all American patriots and pro-judiciary experts.
At a personal level, analyzing the book provides a learner with the necessary
background information on American history. It also offers a good read for political
analysts and administrators seeking to get a different perspective on the way
in which the judicial system works as well as the changes that have taken place
that shaped the court system.Bottom of

 Bottom of Form

Listening college essay help





is an active process involving a person’s ability to precisely receive and
interpret messages during communication. Listening is an important skill within
the work place and the inability to comprehend information appropriately
results in communication breakdown making the sender irritated or frustrated (Kratz
and Kratz 34). In most organizations, employees ensure their workers go through
a listening training program due to the benefits associated with good listening
skills including greater productivity, reduced mistakes, and improved customer
satisfaction, increased information sharing, which might lead to more
innovative and creative work. Additionally, good listening skills benefit a
person’s individual life, which including better health standards, improved
confidence and self-esteem.

Nonetheless, an
important factor to take note is the fact that listening is not the same as
hearing. Hearing refers to the sounds one gets regarding a certain topic, but
listening requires the ability to hear and focus on not only the story but also
how it is told. The method in which a message is communicated acts as an
important tool in determining the importance of the message as well as assist
in the comprehension of the intended communication. While listening, importance
is directed towards the use of voice and language in the sense that a variation
in the voice often places emphasis on the most important facts for remembrance
purposes. Finally, during communication, people tend to use non-verbal
communication skills including the use of gestures and facial expressions (Stowell
and Cook 24). For instance, smiling displays satisfaction and these expressions
form part of the listening process. Therefore, listening involves being aware
of both verbal and non-verbal information. In an organization, meetings are a
common occurrence where employers communicate important information to their
staff and they often utilize these important points during this process. In
order for an employee to comprehend the message, they have to listen to the
message and exhibit good listening skills, which not only benefit the
organization but also the individuals by integrating the three most important
aspects of listening. 


Kratz, Dennis and Abby Kratz. Effective
Listening Skills. Boston:
McGraw-Hill, 2005. Print.

Stowell, Jessica, and Roger Cook. Developing Listening Skills. Greenwood, IN:
Educational Video Group, 2005.

Response: A New Earth essay help free




A New Earth

his spiritual guide, A New Earth:
Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose, the author, Eckhart Tolle inspires
readers to discover the joy and freedom presented by life by expanding on the powerful
ideas, which display how rising above the ego-based consciousness state not
only guarantees personal happiness but also essential in ending suffering and
conflict in the world. From his book, there are inspiring quotes especially in
chapters 6 and 7, which offer insights regarding understanding the self after
breaking free from the ego-related consciousness ties. In chapter 6 of the
book, the author emphasizes on the point of breaking free. An interesting
passage within the book and one of my favorites is that involving a woman in
her thirties who went to visit him. From the outer appearance, she seemed
jovial but it was evident that she was in pain. After a close discussion with
the woman, the author discovers that she had a violent father (Tolle 167). This
passage is educative in so many ways. First, the author told her to accept her
situation as this helps in eliminating negative thoughts of pain in the body. This
passage is similar to a story about my close friend. She is always cracking up
jokes since elementary school and always appears to be happy. Little did we
know that she was suffering from cancer and felt that it was no need to tell
anyone while denying the fact that she is sick. While offering advise and
encouraging her, this passage became apparently more useful as the author
emphasizes that becoming alert results in an influx of the negative emotions
when the pain becomes dynamic. Thereby, the pain body will lack energy and lose
control of one’s thinking.

Chapter 7, Eckhart unfolds the origins of knowing the self. Apparently, people
like to identify themselves with others, the celebrity and gain popularity in
the process. However, one question still stands, who is the self? According to
the universal law off abundance, the author states that whatever forms in the
present life would always remain in our lives forever. The knowledge of which
one actually is guided by this law of abundance. Focusing on a different
direction is the ability to make judgments on what is wrong or right relates to
one’s self-knowledge based on the content. A good passage relating to this idea
is the illustration of the Indian spiritual leader and philosopher, J.
Krishnamuri’s actions and words. He is famously known with the phrase that he
does not care what happens, of which made it possible for him to relate and
form relationships with the non-existent (Tolle 198).  

commonly referred to as a social being in the universe, does not live up to the
definition. Ideally, humans embrace some form of solitude every once in a while
and this dates back to the ancient periods. However, as time passed, human
beings developed a rather complex mind capable of solving the complex realities
of social life. This explains the common phenomena in the present where most
individuals feel the need to belong to a certain network and be able to
communicate efficiently with others. This propagates the ego within people as
they relate with time in their consciousness. Failure of removing such
ideologies results in denial of the state of being, which fails to understand
the depths within. Such communication channels make people more resistant and
reactive making one feel more comfortable, which lessens ones value. Therefore,
solitude, though disregarding as being ancient is an important facet in
understanding the self.   


Tolle, Eckhart. A New Earth:
Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose. New
York: Plume, 2006. Print.

Stroop Effect college application essay help





My Experience with the Stroop Effect Test

I took the Stroop Test one evening
after a long day at school. The test contained forty-eight trials, with some
being congruent and others incongruent. The fact that the trials were mixed,
complicated the test. This forced me to take more time on it, focusing to make
sure that the button I pressed matched the color of the font. This did not stop
me from failing some trials and getting some incorrect answers. After
completing the test, I analyzed the results and noticed that I had failed
several incongruent trials but passed virtually all of the congruent ones.

Basic Questions

Look at your individual data. Were you faster on congruent or incongruent
trials? Does this surprise you? Why
or why not?

individual data from the Stroop Effect test showed that I answered faster in
the congruent trials than I did in the incongruent ones. Additionally, I
achieved perfect results in the congruent trials but failed to answer correctly
in some of the incongruent ones. For instance, some of prompts displayed the
word “red” in a blue font. Such situations confused me, as I tended to press
the button that corresponded with the word on the screen instead of identifying
the color used in the font. Accordingly, I failed to provide the correct answer
in such situations as I pressed the button corresponding with the color red
instead of blue. These results did not surprise me because most people taking
the Stroop Test tend to make the same mistake and get confused when the word on
the screen corresponds to one color but the font bears another.

What is the most commonly accepted explanation of why most people are slower on
incongruent trials than on congruent
trials in the Stroop task?

Research has shown that people tend
to react faster in the congruent trials than in the incongruent trials because
of semantic interference. In the congruent trials, the word displayed matches
the color of the font. Conversely, the words in the incongruent trials do not
always match the color of the font. When reacting to the prompts in the
incongruent trials, the relationship between the meaning of the word and the
color of the font creates interference in the individual’s thought process,
resulting in slower reaction times and an increase in errors.

Imagine that in this demonstration you were asked to read the color words and
to ignore the ink color in which the words are written. Using the explanation
of the Stroop Effect given in the text, do you think your reaction times on the
incongruent trials would be faster, slower, or similar to the congruent trials?

I think that my reaction times in
the incongruent trials would be similar to the congruent ones if the test asked
me to simply read the color words. When an individual takes the Stroop test,
they have to use their directed attention to ensure that they inhibit their
response to the word displayed and focus in the color of the font. By focusing
the incongruent trials on the words alone, the test would eliminate the need
for this directed attention, allowing the individual to read out the colors
without inhibition. This would lead to some similarity between the congruent
and incongruent trials. 

Advanced Questions

What strategy could one use to overcome the Stroop Effect observed in this

An individual could overcome the
Stroop Effect revealed through the test by taking more time to react to the
prompts. This would give the individual more time to inhibit the impulse to
read out the word on the screen and instead identify the color of the font. By
taking more time on the test, an individual would have a better chance of
keying in the right answers in the incongruent trials.

Usually, Subjects have a greater standard deviation on the incongruent trials
than on the congruent trials. Why do you think this might be?

When taking the Stroop Effect Test,
most individuals will not have any problems with the congruent trials because
the colors correspond to the words displayed. However, incongruent trials tend
to create more difficulties because of the discrepancy between the meaning of
the word and the color of the font. This forces the individual to use a
cognitive mechanism called directed attention, which inhibits one response to
pave way for another. As an individual repeats the test, they begin to tire,
resulting in directed attention fatigue. The occurrence of directed attention
fatigue is what makes people get higher variations in their results for the
incongruent trials than they do in the congruent ones (De Young 1).


Young, Raymond. Using the Stroop Effect to test our Capacity to Direct
Attention: A Tool for Navigating Urgent Transitions. SNRE. University of Michigan, 2014. Web. 26 September 2014.

Diabetes in the United States cheap essay help
Diabetes in the United States



Diabetes in the United States

Problem Definition

            Diabetes is a chronic health condition that is typified
by the inability of a person’s body to process food and convert it into energy
in the proper manner. The disease normally presents itself in one of two ways.
When a person suffers from diabetes type 1, his or her body may have problems
producing insulin, a situation which will inhibit their ability to process food
correctly. With diabetes type 2, the person with the disease is able to produce
insulin, but his or her body cannot use the hormone in the correct manner.
Diabetes type 1 tends to be rapidly fatal and requires the constant monitoring
of the person with the disease. Contrastingly, diabetes type 2 is far more
popular but is easier to manage and deal with. Recent years have seen diabetes
become a serious health concern in the United States and the rest of the world.
As of 2004, over two hundred million people in the world were living with diabetes.
More than half of these people were below seventy years of age and the majority
of them hailed from middle and low income nations in regions such as Africa,
Asia and Latin America.

This is
not to say that the problem does not affect the United States. Statistics from
the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show that diabetes is fast
becoming a health crisis for the United States. As of 2012, just over nine
percent of the country’s population was living with the chronic conditions. This
amounted to more than twenty nine million people. Out the twenty nine million
people with diabetes, more than eight million are unaware of the fact that they
are living with diabetes. This means that they are not seeking active treatment
for the disease through medication or attempting to control it by altering
their lifestyles and diets. The fact that a significant percentage of the
people with diabetes in the United States are not seeking treatment for the
disease means that there is a high likelihood of them succumbing to it. This
increases the burden of the disease on the nation’s healthcare and welfare
systems along with the families and relatives of the people unwittingly living
with diabetes. Due to these issues, diabetes is a critical health issue that
the United States government needs to deal with as soon as possible. If the
government fails to deal with the condition, the country is likely to face a
health crisis in the future, with the disease affecting a large percentage of
the country’s population.

Morbidity and
Mortality Rates of Diabetes

Morbidity and Mortality Rates of Diabetes in the United States

            Statistics on the prevalence of diabetes inside the
United States indicate that the rate of morbidity inside the country is
increasing steadily. Currently, 9.3 percent of Americans (29.1 million people)
are suffering from either type 1 or 2 diabetes. In 2010, the figure stood at 25.8
million Americans or 8.3 percent of the population. Authorities are even more
worried about the fact that a significant percentage of the population
continues to live with the disease without knowing. As of 2010, seven million
Americans had undiagnosed diabetes. This figure has since risen to eight
million people (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2014).

            The rate of diabetes in Americans varies across age,
gender, race and socio-economic status. The bulk of Americans living with
diabetes are below the age of sixty-five years. Approximately eleven million
senior citizens in the currently live with diabetes, a figure that amounts to
twenty-six percent of Americans above the age of sixty-five (CDC, 2014). The
government of the United States considers this a key concern, particularly
because of the fragility of senior citizens and their susceptibility to the
health complications that are associated with diabetes. Of the remaining
population, the majority of people living with diabetes are above the age of
twenty. Only two hundred and eight thousand Americans below the age of twenty
have diabetes, meaning that the remaining age category accounts for
approximately fourteen million diabetes cases in the country (CDC, 2014).
Another diabetes related concern for the authorities in the United States is
prediabetes. Prediabetes refers to a chronic health condition where a person
suffers from high levels of glucose in their blood. Normally, the high blood
glucose in the individual’s blood is not high enough for health professionals
to diagnose the person with diabetes, but still significant enough for them to
consider it a health problem. Additionally, people with prediabetes normally
have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, as the symptoms of their
disease advance. Accordingly, health professionals normally consider
prediabetes a precursor to diabetes and monitor it just as closely (CDC, 2014).
Currently, eighty-six million Americans older than the age of twenty have
prediabetes. This means that a significant percentage of the nation’s
population (almost a third) is at a high risk of developing diabetes in a later
stage of their life. The number of people in America with prediabetes has risen
from seventy-nine million in 2010 (CDC, 2014).

            The rate of morbidity of diabetes across various races
and ethnicities in the United States varies significantly. Black people are
notably more susceptible to diabetes than individuals from other racial groups
and ethnicities are. Statistically, black people are almost twice as likely to
develop diabetes as white individuals are. This issue is further compounded by
the fact that diabetes prevalence rates within the black community have
quadrupled over the past three decades (CDC, 2014). However, Native Americans
are more susceptible to diabetes than any other racial grouping in the United
States. Statistics from the last two years reflect this issue. According to the
data, 15.9 percent of American Indians have diabetes. Black people have the
second highest rate of prevalence with 13.2 percent. Hispanic people have the
third highest rate of prevalence of any racial group with 12.8 percent. Asians
and Caucasians appear to be the two groups that diabetes affects the least.
Asian Americans have a prevalence rate of nine percent, while 7.6 percent of
Caucasians in the United States have diabetes (CDC, 2014).

            It should be noted that the morbidity rates of diabetes
also seem to fluctuate within racial groups that have wide variations. This
issue is specifically evident within Asians and Hispanics. Within the Asian
community, the Chinese people have the lowest rate of morbidity at 4.4 percent
(CDC, 2014). Contrastingly, Filipinos and Indians have the two highest
morbidity rates at 11.3 and 13 percent respectively. Within the Hispanic
community, people from the central and Southern regions of South America appear
to have the lowest rates of prevalence at 8.5 percent. Mexican Americans have
the second highest rate of morbidity at 13.9 percent, while 14.8 percent of
Puerto Ricans living in the United States have diabetes (CDC, 2014).  

            Now the high rates of diabetes prevalence in the United
States mean that the disease is one of the main causes of death inside the
country. Currently, the disease ranks seventh in a list of causes of death in
the United States, making it one of the most lethal in the country. In 2010,
approximately seventy thousand death certificates stated diabetes as the main
cause. More than two hundred thousand death certificates in the country also
listed the diseases as one of the cause of death (CDC, 2014). The CDC notes
that there are discrepancies in the way that people report causes of death on the
certificates and that this is probably resulting the underreporting of diabetes
casualties. Statistically, forty percent of the people in the country normally
list diabetes as one of the causes of death on the certificate. Contrastingly,
only fifteen percent tend to list it as the main cause of death (CDC, 2014).
Health professionals claim that these discrepancies are a result of the
complications that the diseases causes, as the relatives of the dead person are
likely to list one of these other conditions as the cause of death, instead of diabetes
itself. This discrepancy means that the number of people dying from diabetes
every year is difficult to estimate.

Morbidity and Mortality Rates of
Diabetes in the World

            The rate of diabetes morbidity across the world varies
greatly depending on a range of issues. Similar to the United States, age and
race seem to play a key role in affecting the prevalence rates of the diseases
across the globe. However, socio-economic status appears to be a far more
influential factor on the international scale, as rates of prevalence vary
greatly depending on the economies of various nations (International Diabetes
Federation [IDF], 2013). One issue that the global health authorities note is
that the collection of statistics on an international scale is more difficult
because of issues such as cooperation and conflict. Accordingly, the health
professionals normally use estimates to indicate the prevalence of diabetes on
an international scale. The most recent estimates indicate that three hundred
and eighty-two million people are living with diabetes around the globe. This
translates to 8.3 percent of the global population between the ages of twenty
and seventy-four (IDF, 2013). In comparison, the United States has a prevalence
rate of 9.3 percent, indicating that the disease is affecting the country more
than it is most others in the world. However, one worrying factor concerning
global diabetes prevalence rates is that seventy percent of the people in the
disease are from countries within the low and middle income economic brackets.
This is a key concern for the global health authorities because the countries
within those economic brackets tend to have weaker health care systems, making
it more difficult for the authorities in those nations to cater for people with
chronic health conditions (IDF, 2013). Even more concerning are the estimated
future prevalence rates of diabetes. Global health authorities estimate the
number of people in diabetes in the world to reach five hundred and ninety-two
million by the year 2030. By then, this figure will account for a prevalence
rate of 10 percent, marking a gradual increase over the three decades that will
have passed (IDF, 2013). The estimates also indicate that the bulk of the new
cases will originate from developing countries.

            The diabetes mortality rate varies significantly across
different regions in the planet. These differences are mainly the result of
varying conditions in the healthcare systems found in various countries. Statistics
show that people suffering from diabetes in Africa are less likely to receive
the care that they need, thus increasing the diseases mortality rate in such
regions. However, low income countries account for the lowest proportion of
diabetes cases in the world. Conversely, diabetes sufferers in Europe have a
high likelihood of receiving proper medical care, making the diseases less
lethal in the continent. As of 2013, diabetes claimed the lives of 5.1 million
people all over the world. The majority of these casualties were recorded in
the United States, India, Russia and China (IDF, 2013). Almost half of these
casualties were younger than sixty years. Although these figures are high, the
International Diabetes Federation states that the disease actually kills more
people, with many casualties being attributed to the complications it causes.

Nature of the Disease

            Diabetes mainly occurs in one of three forms. Type 1
diabetes is the least popular form of the disease. The disease is typified by
an unusual autoimmune reaction, in which the defense system in a person’s body attacks
the cells in the pancreas that normally produce insulin. This inhibits the
body’s ability to produce insulin. Doctors do not fully understand how this
form of diabetes occurs; however, research has shown that type 1 diabetes
affects people of any age, especially young adults and children. Because of the
body’s inability to produce insulin, treatment for this type of diabetes mainly
involves the careful administration of the hormone (Young & McAdam-Marx, 2010).
Without this treatment, type 1 diabetes inevitably leads to death; however, the
careful management of the disease makes it possible for a person to live
without much difficulty.

            Type 2 diabetes is the most popular form of the disease.
Unlike in type 1 diabetes, people with this form of the disease are able to
produce insulin. However, a person with the disease finds it difficult to
produce an adequate amount of the hormone or fails to interact with insulin in
the proper manner (insulin resistance). When either of these two problems
occur, the sufferer starts to accumulate a lot of glucose within their system.
Because the symptoms of type 2 diabetes may take some time to develop, many
people with the disease remain undiagnosed. In most of these cases, doctors are
able to diagnose the disease only after complications have started to develop.
Unlike type 1 diabetes, researchers have a good understanding of the risk
factors that lead to the disease. Some of these risk factors are ethnicity,
poor diets, obesity, aging, sedentary lifestyles and family histories of
diabetes. Another difference between type 1 and 2 diabetes is that people
suffering from the second kind do not need insulin to survive. Instead,
treatment and management mostly involves dietary changes and physical exercise
(Young & McAdam-Marx,
2010). However, the administration of insulin is still an option if
other treatment methods fail to keep the blood glucose levels within the
required range.

            The third form of the disease is gestational diabetes. As
the name implies, gestational diabetes only occurs in pregnant women. In
gestational diabetes, hormones released by the placenta during pregnancy
prevent insulin from carrying out its function. This insulin resistance leads
to a high level of glucose in the individual’s blood (IDF, 2013). The condition
mostly occurs after the baby is well formed, reducing the risk posed to it.
However, failure to manage the condition could still lead to grave consequences
for the individual and her child. The process of treating gestational diabetes
is similar to that for managing type 2. The disease normally disappears after
the mother has given birth; however, its occurrence has various implications on
the health of the individual and the child (IDF, 2013). Women who develop
gestational diabetes are more likely to suffer from the disease in subsequent
pregnancies as well as type 2 diabetes. The children born by such individuals
normally have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes or becoming obese
(IDF, 2013).  

Hypotheses Concerning the Development
of Diabetes

The Impact of Lifestyle Interventions on the Development of Diabetes

            One of the key hypotheses regarding diabetes is that the
disease shares an intricate link with the lifestyle of an individual. This
hypothesis specifically concerns type 2 diabetes, which is the most prevalent
form of the disease. The key idea within this hypothesis is that the combined
effects of a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle cause type 2 diabetes.
Accordingly, researchers have attempted to find out how effective lifestyle
interventions are at controlling the disease or preventing its development. Li
et al. (2008) conducted a study in China, investigating the possibility of
controlling diabetes with lifestyle interventions and were able to confirm this
hypothesis. When carrying out the study, Li et al. (2008) were already aware of
the fact that lifestyle interventions are an effective method of reducing the
occurrence of type 2 diabetes within people who suffer from impaired glucose
tolerance. However, their study sought to establish whether the benefits of the
lifestyle interventions extended beyond the period of their active enforcement.
The study also sought to establish whether the active interventions helped
reduce the mortality of the disease as well as the development of
cardiovascular complications.

            The study by Li et al. (2008) investigated these issues
by following up on research that scientists had carried out in China in 1986.
In the first study, individuals in China underwent lifestyle interventions for
six years to see whether the actions could reduce the occurrence of type 2
diabetes. In the follow up, Li et al. (2008) found that the effects of the
lifestyle intervention lasted for an extended period after their enforcement.
Li et al. (2008) discovered that the interventions that the previous study had
enforced over a six year period had successfully prevented the development of
the disease for fourteen years. However, the study could not establish whether
the interventions had a similar effect on mortality and the development of
cardiovascular diseases (Li et al., 2008). Through these results, the study
confirmed to key issues concerning diabetes. Firstly, the lifestyle of an
individual is a key causing factor of the disease. Secondly, the key to
treating and preventing the development of diabetes lies in changing people’s
diets and lifestyles. 

Link between Socioeconomic Status and Diabetes

            Another hypothesis that researchers have concerning
diabetes involves a link between socioeconomic status and the mortality rate of
the disease. Health care professionals specifically believe that there is an
inverse relationship between the socioeconomic status of a family (as indicated
by its income) and the mortality rate of the disease. The hypothesis
specifically claims that the disease has higher mortality rate within
households of a low socioeconomic ranking. To test this hypothesis, Saydah and
Lochner (2010) carried out a study investigating the relationship between the
diabetes mortality rate and the socioeconomic status. The researchers analyzed
the results of a survey by the National Health Interview Survey and cross
referenced the diabetes mortality as it affected the respondents, with their
socioeconomic status. The research team used family income and level of
education to establish the status of each household. Through the study, Saydah
and Lochner (2010) confirmed that diabetes does have a more adverse effect on
families with a low socioeconomic status. The study specifically found that
diabetes was almost twice as lethal in households where members had an
education level lower than high school than in those families where people had
gone beyond that stage. There were similar findings concerning the income
levels in different households as the researchers found that the condition was
twice as lethal in families living below the poverty line (Saydah &
Lochner, 2010).

Knowledge Gaps in Diabetes

            Even though diabetes is one of the most lethal health
conditions known to the human race, there are still various knowledge gaps in
our understanding of the disease as well as data interpretation problems. One
of the most glaring issues concerning the world’s knowledge of diabetes
concerns the mortality rate of the disease. While the world is aware of how
lethal diabetes is, it still lacks an accurate knowledge of the number of
people the disease kills annually. Global health authorities acknowledge the
fact that there is a problem in the way that diabetes deaths are reported, an
issue that is resulting in the underreporting of the diseases casualties. The
vast majority of diabetes casualties die from the complications that the
disease causes. These complications vary widely and include conditions such as
cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, kidney disease, depression and retinopathy.
Of these conditions, cardiovascular disease and kidney disease are also key
health concerns that claim a large number of lives. In fact, cardiovascular
disease is the most lethal non-communicable disease in the world. This means
that there is a high likelihood of people attributing a large number of these
deaths to CVD instead of diabetes.

            Another key knowledge gap concerning the condition is our
limited understanding of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes differs from the
other two forms of the disease by being highly lethal and significantly rare.
With type 1 diabetes, patients have to take insulin regularly to avoid death.
Despite the seriousness of this disease, the world does not have a clear
understanding of its causing factors. This lack of knowledge means that people
living with type 1 diabetes are entirely dependent on healthcare professionals.
It also means that people in the developing countries who develop the disease
have no hope of surviving it because of problems such as poverty and
dysfunctional health care systems.

Addressing the Diabetes Knowledge

            A key knowledge gap concerning the global understanding
of diabetes relates to how many people the disease kills. Unlike other problems
concerning our knowledge of the disease, the solution to this specific issue
lies in the restructuring of the manner in which people report deaths and
government maintain statistics. Accordingly, global health authorities should
work together to develop a new method of reporting deaths that would ensure
diabetes casualties are rightly attributed to the disease. This new method
would stagger the way people record the cause of death to ensure that
underlying conditions and direct complications are both noted. Accordingly, the
world will have more accurate casualty figures for diseases such as diabetes
and AIDS which often kill people through secondary complications.

Treatment and Prevention Methods

treatment and prevention of diabetes is a process that takes years and in some
cases lasts for a lifetime. While treatments for the disease are effective, the
chronic nature of the condition means that the safest solution is prevention.
Interestingly, the processes of treating and preventing the disease both focus
mostly on lifestyle and diet. When trying to prevent diabetes, health care
professionals stress the importance of living a healthy lifestyle. Lifestyle
interventions to prevent diabetes focus on changing an individual’s diet and
incorporating physical exercise into his or her regular schedule. Doctors
emphasize the need to exercise regularly to enable the body to regulate the
blood sugar levels (Young & McAdam-Marx, 2010). This is an effective way of preventing
diabetes from developing and, for people with the condition, controlling it.
The other important treatment and prevention process concerns a change in the
individual’s daily diet. A person can prevent or control diabetes by watching
what, how much and when he or she eats. The key target of this process is to
ensure that blood glucose levels do not elevate. Following a healthy diet can
also help an individual lose weight thus eliminating one of the condition’s
risk factors (Young & McAdam-Marx, 2010). While these treatment methods are
effective for people with type 2 and gestational diabetes, individuals with
type 1 diabetes also have to rely on medication (insulin) to control their
body’s blood sugar levels. The same can become the case for people with type 2
and gestational diabetes, if lifestyle interventions fail to work (Giuffrida, Castro, Atallah & Dib, 2004).


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
[CDC]. (2014). National diabetes
statistics report: Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States,
2014. Atlanta, GA: U.S> Department of Health and Human Services.

Giuffrida, F. M. A., Castro, A. A., Atallah, A. N., &
Dib, S. A. (2004). Diet plus insulin compared to diet alone in
the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological
Research 36(10), 1297-1300.

International Diabetes Federation [IDF].
(2013). IDF Diabetes Atlas, 6th
ed. Brussels: International Diabetes Federation.

Li, G., Zhang, P., Wang, J., Gregg, E. W.,
Yang, W., Gong, Q. … Bennett, P. H. (2008). The long-term effect of lifestyle
interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Diabetes Prevention
Study: A 20-year follow-up study. The
Lancet, 371(9626), 1783-1789.

Saydah, S. & Lochner, K. (2010).
Socioeconomic status and risk of diabetes-related mortality in the U.S. Public Health Reports 125, 377-388.

Young Top of Form

J. R. & McAdam-Marx, C. (2010). Treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Insulin Detemir,
a Long-Acting Insulin Analog. Clinical
Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2010(3), 312-328.

Bottom of Form

Business Plan Milestone Five: Marketing Research and Evaluation scholarship essay help
Plan Milestone Five: Marketing Research and Evaluation



Plan Milestone Five: Marketing Research and Evaluation

Target Market

The proposed
venture targets young adults especially those in higher institutions of
education. The location of the entity within college premises will provide easy
access to the targeted consumers, which are primarily made up of new and
existing students within the institution. Students, employees of the
institution as well as other customers from the public will provide an
important market niche for the business. The entity targets employed
individuals as well as those enrolled in various educational programs given the
availability of disposable incomes, which will enable them to make purchases
from the business.


The primary
competitors in this business segment include large chain stores and franchising
entities, dealing in the sale of computer related products and services. They
will inform the strategies that will be adopted by the entity given their
experiences in operating in a highly volatile and evolving market. In addition,
online retail platforms such as Amazon, eBay and other large entities pose the
biggest threat to the success of this business given that they are at an
advantage of operating on economies of scale (Newell, 2009).  

Promotion Strategy

The entity seeks
to establish a strong online presence to ensure that it achieves success in the
sale of computers and other complimentary products and services. Creating
online profiles in social media networking platforms will provide the entity
with a point to source for clients drawn from various parts of the country. In
addition, the business will also seek active partnerships with student bodies
and financial institutions on means to provide financing to potential clients
who lack adequate funds to make their purchases of products and services. The
entity also relies on undertaking partnerships with institutions of higher
education as a means of sourcing for potential clients in the vast market for
internet-enabled products such as computers and smartphones coupled by other
complimentary products and services. Additionally, the business also relies in providing
after sales services during its initial phases of operation as a means of
attracting clients. This will provide the entity with the ability to rely on
word of mouth as a means of marketing its products and services. In addition,
word of mouth promotion is reliant on provision of cost effective, quality and reliable
products and services. This will necessitate the need to acquire efficacious
personnel who will ensure adequacy in attending to the needs of all clients
without bias (Kotler & Keller, 2012).

Distribution Strategy

This forms an
important part of the supply chain strategy that the entity will use to ensure
consistency in availability of quality products and services for the clients.
The distribution strategy will ensure availability of goods and complimentary
services in the first outlet. In addition, the entity will also ensure that
there is adequate and constant support in communication with the suppliers of
products to ensure reliability in terms of product supply. Furthermore, there
is also a need to ensure that the entity adopts efficient and modern inventory
systems as means of ensuring consistency in terms of supply and availability of
products for the clients. Using wholesaler/distributor and direct/internet
distribution channels the entity will ensue that adequate communication and
stock reliability is enhanced unless otherwise stated by the manufacturers
(Sherlekar, & Gordon, 2010).

Service Policies

The service
polices for the entity will be influenced by market trends. In addition,
providing after sales services will be reliant on the costs of providing such
services and the success of the entity in the identified market. However, the
entity will ensure that sales services are of the highest quality given the
emphasis placed by customers on efficient service delivery and value addition in
retail entities.


P., & Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing management. Harlow:
Pearson Education.

F. (2009). Customer relationship management in the new era of
Internet marketing. New York:

S. A., & Gordon, E. (2010). Marketing management. Mumbai [India: Himalaya
Pub. House.

Exposure to Antigen essay help free
to Antigen



to Antigen

the human body has been exposed to an antigen, it uses the adaptive immune
system, the innate immune system, and other physical barriers to counter its
effects. The skin is activated to counter the entry of foreign objects while
various mucous membranes are deployed along the digestive, reproductive, urinary,
and respiratory tracts to prevent the entry of such bacteria into the body. Similarly,
it produces enzymes found in mucus and tears along with the above tracts to
repel them (Malemud, Haque, Louis & Wang, 2011). Such elements secrete
antimicrobial peptides, which contain chemicals used to kill the pathogens. However,
should these antigens penetrate, the innate immune system takes over. Stem
cells in the bone marrow undergo hematopoiesis
whereby they differentiate into various B cells. Some of these are immature
while others are mature. Consequently, these cells patrol the body in search of
the antigens whereupon they engulf them.

Once they are trapped into an intracellular vesicle, lysosomes
are released thereby leading to their fusion. Digestive enzymes are then
emitted to react with the pathogen. By so doing, the antigen is killed. These
white blood cells are then reproduced and allowed to travel throughout the body
in search of more antigens. Likewise, the adaptive immune system is composed of
memory cells such as killer T cells and Helper T cells. Upon encountering the
pathogen, they discharge cytotoxins, which form pores on the plasma membrane of
the target cells (Malemud, Haque, Louis & Wang, 2011). Through these holes,
granulysin toxins, water, and ions invade the antigens forcing them to undergo
apoptosis. In the latter, the host cells fragment or shrink leading to their
elimination from the body. Accordingly, the body manages to produce its natural
defense mechanism that enables a person to fight illnesses.


C., Haque, A., Louis, N. & Wang, J. (2011). Immune Response and Apoptosis. Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology,
3(1), 18-43.

A Summer Tragedy essay help online




Summer Tragedy

Arna Bontemps
story A Summer Tragedy reflects the
life and final days of an old couple who were sharecroppers in the south. Although
people claimed that slavery had ended in America, those who supported the
institution found other ways of enslaving the people and they did this through
sharecropping. Black farmers lived with the illusion that they were free, yet
they depended on the white people for everything. The white people gave them
land and the agricultural inputs they required on condition that they would pay
at the end of the year. Many farmers were not able to do this and they ended up
incurring many debts. The old couple saw that the only solution to the problem
they were experiencing was to drive their old car into the river. Jeff and
Jennie did not have much hope for the future. They did not have anything or
anyone to live for as they had lost all their children and they had incurred
many debts. Both of them were sick in one way or the other although they did
try to care for each other.

The main intention
of the author was not so much to entertain but to raise awareness and to
educate the audience on the social problems of sharecropping and perhaps the
challenges that poor old childless couples go through in their lives. He
highlighted the effects of poverty by describing the situation that the couple
is living in and by noting their lack. Jeff and Jennie cannot afford decent
clothes. They wear fancy but torn clothes, which they have preserved for
special occasions. They do not have anyone to help them since they lost all
their five children in a span of two years. The author notes how sharecropping
has led to a situation where the black people live like they were still in
slavery. Even though they have some level of freedom, they continue to depend
on the white landowners since they do not have their own land. They cannot
afford the planting materials and they have to depend on loans. These
situations have made the couple more miserable.

One can analyze
the short story using Burke’s dramatist pentad. The main agents in the play are
Jeff and Jennie Patton, an old couple living in a log house on the plantation.
They are the protagonists in the play and they will help to shape the
developments in the story. The act involves the couple’s preparation to end
their lives and secure the freedom they need from all the problems they are
facing in their lives. They take the time to prepare themselves by wearing
their best clothes because they want to die in dignity. Jeff wears a bow tie,
which both he and his wife struggle to make. He wears his stiff-bottomed shirt
and swallow-tailed coat, which has been brushed and pressed, and he puts on a
coat and a hat. Jennie changes her old petticoats and she wears her black silk
dress and her Sunday shoes.

The action happens
during the summer and it takes place at the couple’s home in the Greenbrier
plantations and along the way to the river. The couple lives in a log house
that is similar to other houses in the area. There is some sense of strong
community because all the neighbors know each other. Every person knows his
neighbors children and animals. The couple is not worried about the animals
outside because they are safe. The couple uses their old model T to drive to
the river. They plan to die by driving the car into the river. It is clear that
Jeff and Jennie have taken the time to plan what they are going to do. They
have thought over their plans they do not seem to have involved anyone else in
making decisions.

The couple decides
to take such drastic measures as committing suicide because they have nothing
left to live for. They have lost everything and they live in misery and
poverty. They do not have anyone to help them, despite their sickness and old
age. They are in much debt and they realize they will never be able to be free
from their landowner. Jeff makes the decision to proceed with the plan because
he fears that will develop another stroke that will paralyze him. This will
mean depending on Jennie for all his needs. He recognizes that despite that
this would be a heavy burden for his wife considering that she is blind and
fragile. Jennie seems to have given up any hope for living after her children
died. She encourages Jeff to proceed with the plans they have made and not to
be afraid. The two have second thoughts during the journey but they are
determined to be free from their worldly problems.

The author seeks
to persuade the readers through appeal. He depends on the emotional response of
the reader, which he hopes he will be able to achieve by describing the
couple’s condition. Jeff has already experienced a stroke and this has made him
lame. He is not able to do some simple tasks and he even depends on his blind
wife to help him with the bow tie. His wife is blind and frail, yet she is the
stronger of the two. She has to take care of her husband despite her present
condition. She is not in good health. The author paints the picture of the old
couple in such a way that the reader pities and sympathizes with them. In the
end, one does not condemn the couple for the decisions they make. The author
tries to persuade through his arrangement of the story. In the beginning, it is
not clear what the couple intends to do and the author provides more details as
the story progresses. Moreover, the author does not mention what caused the old
man’s condition until later on in the story when he mentions the stroke and the
fact that he is lame. Furthermore, he only mentions the death of the five
children midway in the story. The readers begin the story and they learn more
about the couple before learning of the fate of the children.

The author
advocates his resentment of sharecropping by giving details concerning its
effects on the black farmer. Most of the problems that the couple was facing
were brought about by the fact that they continued to live in a system of
slavery. The author uses the couple’s life story to present his argument. Jeff
and Jennie lived on a plantation despite the fact that they were no longer
free. The Greenbrier plantation had been his home ever since he was a young
man. Jeff had worked long hours to grow the crops in the field. He had grown
the crops maturing in the field and he only had one mule. Despite all his hard
work, old man Stevenson owned the land and the mules. The old man did not care
whether the mules died from being overworked. In addition, he did not care that
the share farmers had to toil for most of the day in the fields. Most of them
ended up dead because of the work they had to do.

Stevenson did not
spare any thoughts for any man who seemed weak. In addition to mistreating the
farmers working on his land, he had developed a system that enabled him to take
most of what they produced as well. Jeff tells his wife that it does not matter
how many bags of cotton they produce since they are always going to be indebted
to Stevenson. He acknowledged that it had taken them a long time for them to
realize old man Stevenson’s ways. The author advocates against this system
because of the effects it had on the people. Despite all their hard work and
effort on the farm, the Pattons had nothing to show for it. They lived in
miserable conditions that reflected their poverty. Their best clothes were torn
and moths had feasted on them. Jennie is in such a miserable state that her
clothes do not fit her. Her petticoat hang over her body and her stockings no
longer fit and they fall down her thin legs. The author describes her as having
a wasted and dead-life appearance and her body is scrawny and gnarled as a
string bean.

The Pattons are
described as poor and old. It is clear from the squalid conditions that they
live in that they are indeed poor. However, they also want to belong to a
different class and they do not just want to be associated with poverty. The
couple has a car, which was a symbol of wealth rather than necessity during
those times. They also have reserved clothes for special occasions. They do not
just want to appear as ordinary and poor citizens during this time. They want
to be identified with a different class. Jennie is especially concerned about
this when they pass by Delia Moore’s house. She got the satisfaction of knowing
that Delia had seen her wearing her best outfit and that she did not have any
knowledge of the couple’s plans.

White Privilege Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack essay help site:edu
Privilege Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack



Privilege Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack

dominance in the society has been a controversial subject because men do not
like to acknowledge that they are subconsciously brought up to believe in their
superiority over women. Similarly, racism has been a divisive issue in the
history of America
due to the inherent behavior of whites to recognize that they are more privileged
than other ethnicities. As such, it is easy for white citizens to consider
day-to-day activities as normal when on scrutiny, but in secret, they place
other races at a disadvantage. Consequently, most people from this community
are brought up unaware of the favors that they receive for being white yet the
same cannot be said of people of color. For example, most television programs
are filled with white characters and their supremacy, whites are not subjected
to unnecessary harassment in public places or offices due to their race and
they are not prone to negative stereotypes because they are considered
civilized as well as being of a higher income category. In most of these
instances, such privileges are unearned because there was no struggle involved
to fight for them. By being ignorant to these truths, members of this ethnicity
facilitate the oppression of the communities. However, it is evident that such
a lifestyle should be experienced by all citizens in a just society
irrespective of their gender, financial status, or racial inclinations. For
example, everyone expects to be treated respectfully. By thinking that racism
only affects people of color, the culture of inequality is embedded into the
fabric of the society thereby facilitating divisive ideologies. Therefore,
obliviousness to this unfair advantage over other races needs to be discouraged
as it only propagates the myth of meritocracy thereby denying a sizeable
portion of the United States
population their fundamental freedoms.

Welfare (Session 7) a level english language essay help




Welfare (Session 7)

            The United States is an advanced
country with one of the highest prevalence of underprivileged citizens. The rate
of unemployment is high and the rise in healthcare costs has increased the standards
of living for most low-income households as well as homeless people. As such, the
government’s intervention of developing welfare programs is noble since it acts
as a safety net to people who are in need. However, the providence of free
housing units to such individuals is unethical because it encourages laziness
and enhances the development of a dependency syndrome among the population. Thus,
this project should be abandoned since its entitlement to some people is
detrimental to the psyche of the rest, especially those who contribute to the
taxation regime.

            As a government program, it seeks to
provide shelter to as many people as possible in order to reduce the level of
homelessness in the country. Nevertheless, the knowledge that such a provision
exists tends to breed complacency among the citizens (Zastrow 113). In fact, they
intentionally become less proactive in seeking gainful employment and other
income generation avenues. Hence, such attitudes affect the productivity of the
nation’s workforce leading to a decline in its economic performance. Moreover, it
makes them to shy away from their parental responsibilities, which demand that
people need to seek gainful employment in order to cater for their families. Consequently,
there are minimal family planning initiatives since the victims know that they
can always depend on the government for their housing needs. Subsequently, such
a routine increases the population and serves to raise the demand for more
settlement outlets in the future. By so doing, it amplifies the national debt
because the administration has to spend more money to facilitate the continuity
of this program.

            Similarly, this system guarantees an
unfair distribution of national resources since it discriminates against the
law abiding, taxpaying section of the population. By alienating hardworking
citizens from the rest, the social housing welfare approach facilitates class
conflict. In particular, taxpayers will feel offended that a large portion of
the taxes from their hard-earned money would fund the construction of houses
for people with little or no interest in engaging in income generating
activities. To them, it would be a waste of resources. However, the
beneficiaries would be incensed at the prospect of a reduction in the sponsorship
of the project. This would be justified by the need for successful citizens to
give back to their communities (Mandell 47). Therefore, the ensuing class
warfare between the haves and have-nots is a danger to the national security
due to the volatile environment created by such conflicting ideologies. It
would be prudent to scrap it off as a way of leveling the pursuit for success whereby
everyone is treated equally. By making the search for a modest home to live a
person’s responsibility with no intervention from the government, there would be
few causes of conflict and an increase in the work ethic of each citizen. Such
determination will be driven by the need to be accountable for one’s decisions
in life. Consequently, the government would reduce its expenditure and dedicate
more funds to other vital infrastructural developments throughout the nation.

            Likewise, it disenfranchises some of
the lawful citizens especially when they are faced with certain hardships. For
example, retrenched workers may find it difficult to continue with their former
lifestyles due to the accumulation of bills. Whereas such individuals should
easily qualify for the free houses to reduce their spending burden, some of
them do not get that opportunity. It is disheartening to note that some of the
qualifications for assessing one’s eligibility are discriminatory. Such
episodes are bound to enhance resentment within the society that may degenerate
into cases of social unrest that risks destroying the nation’s fabric. It would
make them to lose confidence in the system thereby fueling antinationalist fervor
among the people. With the presence of such motives, the unity and cultural
diversity of the Americans will be threatened. As such, the housing program
needs to be terminated.

            This practice enhances cronyism as
well. The issuance of such structures is skewed towards people with close
proximity to the relevant authorities. In some instances, corrupt methods such
as bribery are used to secure the buildings and this diminishes the integrity
of the whole process. Cases of nepotism begin to increase while some officials
would capitalize on this to enrich themselves. As a channel for exploitation, the
person with the highest bribe is guaranteed the house. Such a scenario places
the poor at a disadvantage since they do not have the financial strength to
compete with such individuals (Mandell 73). This behavior is inconsistent with
the acceptable moral standards because it even grants access to people with little
or no concern for the well-being of others. Hence, the prohibition of this
program should be based on the likelihood of its exploitation by special
interest groups that award different beneficiaries depending on their level of
closeness to the officials.

Works Cited

Betty. The Crisis of Caregiving: Social Welfare Policy in the United States.
New York:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Print.

Charles. Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People.
Belmont, CA:
Thomson/Brooks/Cole, 2008. Print.

Reaction Paper best essay help
& Number

paper number

The settlers destroyed the way of life of the indigenous people and the leaders
and government of today continue to demonstrate unfairness in the way they
treat the indigenous communities today



I think that
history has always been harsh to the indigenous people. The idea of chasing
people away from their homes, taking their lands, and subduing them in diverse
ways was unfair. This led to loss of language and culture as well as to the extinction
of different communities. The settlers were intent on eliminating the
traditional systems and eradicating the people (Hughes 29). They did this by
fighting with them and chasing them away from their homes, thereby forcing them
to look for shelter elsewhere. The settlers thought that their ways were best
even if this was not always the case. They did not take the time to understand
the lifestyle of the indigenous people. They did not bother to find out why the
indigenous people did things the way they did or why their systems had survived
for such a long time. The settlers destroyed the way of life of the indigenous
people and the leaders and government of today continue to demonstrate
unfairness in the way they treat the indigenous communities today

Before the
settlers came, the indigenous people had their way of governance and social
life. They practiced their religious beliefs without any interference. Their
families were intact and they were the basis of the society (Frideres 6). This
is an important point to consider, especially in respect of the changing
societal perceptions concerning families. The indigenous people did not have to
worry about broken families and abandoned children; a factor that has become
common in the modern times. This shows that even though the traditional people
did not have the modern education, they were wise and practical in their ways. However,
they had to change their ways when the settlers came. They adopted the new
education, political, religious, and social systems. Most of them were not able
to retain any element of their culture but some of them did. They have
continued with their traditional practices to this day although they have had
to adopt foreign systems as well.

It is unspeakable
to imagine that the horrifying acts that used to happen when the settlers came
continue to the present day. The indigenous people do not have to continue
fighting for their land. They have a right to use their land as they see fit
and it is not up to the interests of other people to determine the most
suitable way for developing the land. In the beginning, the settlers did not
consider the positive attributes of the indigenous people’s lifestyle in
relation to the environment. Many years later, people realize that the way the
traditional people related to the land benefited everyone involved. Human
beings and animals were able to get their provisions from the land because they
managed it well. However, destroying the land for development purposes only led
to environmental degradation. I think that it would not be prudent for anyone
to let such trends continue.

The first settlers
believed that they had discovered a new world. They did not consider the fact
that the people living there already owned the land (Hughes 30). The decision
to continue denying the indigenous people a right to their land today echoes
the sentiments of the first settlers. Current leaders think that other people
have a right to that land provided it is for development purpose, thus denying
the indigenous people the freedom to use their land, as they would want. The
indigenous people continue to fight for the right to use the natural resources
in their land as it suits them, just as their ancestors did many years ago. It
seems that the settlers have not changed their mentality concerning the land or
the indigenous populations. I think that some people continue to believe that
they are more privileged than others are and that they have a right over them.


James S. First Nations in the Twenty-First
Century. Don Mills, Ontario:
Oxford University Press, 2011. Print

Lotte. The No-Nonsense Guide to
Indigenous Peoples. London:
Verso, 2003. Print

Rhetoric in Lincoln’s and Dickinson’s Article college essay help




in Lincoln’s and Dickinson’s Article


The Second Inaugural Address and Success
is Counted Sweetest by Abraham Lincoln and Emily Dickinson respectively are
both works that fall under the rhetoric category of language. The two literal
works contain all four resources under rhetoric writing that are appeal, argument,
artistic devices and arrangement. The differentiating factor is the structure
that divides the writings into speech and poetry. There is wide similarity and
variance between the two authors and their writing, but it is vivid that they
both belong in the same literal category considering language use.

Abraham Lincoln’s Second
Inaugural Address


Second Inaugural Address appealed to
a wide audience through use of religion as a common factor between the slave
and non slave states. Lincoln appeals by showing the unity developed by religion,
as both conflicting states prayed and read form the same Bible. The use of
religion as a symbol increases the capability of information sharing. Religion
was not the only symbol that Lincoln used in the writing, as he further uses
blood and clouds to inform on war and peace. The speech is also filled with
strong apostrophes that make the writing sweet to hear and easy to comprehend
such as “woe unto the” and “The Almighty has his own will” (Parry-Giles, Hogan
and Shawn 77). The writing did not discriminate the South from the North thus
achieves to address both regions. The speech offered a solution through a formulated
framework appealing to both sides to integrate the process to end the war.


script was written at a time that people were eager to hear from their
political leaders. Citizens awaited detailed narrations, thus the indifference
of Lincoln’s address in terms of arrangement went along way in increasing its
effectiveness. The speech was short comprising of six hundred and thirty eight
words only. In oral form, the speech was only five minutes and eight seconds
long (Parry-Giles, Hogan, and Shawn 77). The argument of the writing is divided
into three parts allowing one point to compliment and introduce the other. The
introduction vividly describes the speaker’s intentions. The first third of the
speech establish the ethos of the writer. The following paragraphs entail
supporting evidences that strengthen the author’s arguments. Lincoln in
addition highlights how his choice affects the audience. The more writing
identifies how it influences the reader, the more effective it becomes.


speech is divided into three arguments. The first argument by Lincoln is the
establishment of ethos that creates a trustworthy and honest image of him in
the audience (Parry-Giles, Hogan, and Shawn 79). In the speech, Lincoln states
that at some point each individual was on the same track. Through this
depiction, he creates a common ideal between him and the audience thus
developing the reliable image. The precedent argument is the formulation of
logos. Lincoln uses religion to establish the familiar rationale with the
audience. The argument in the logos is that two rival sides are asking God for
mutually exclusive things as one cannot pray unto God to relieve a man of his
bread that was found through hard work and sweat (Parry-Giles, Hogan, and Shawn
79). He states that as long as people hold on to slavery, the war between the
south and the north would persist. The final argument, the pathos is the
establishment of emotional reactions. In the end of the writing, the author
uses an emotional challenge that entails sound logic. The pathos is argued to
be the most memorable part of the speech.


Second Inaugural Address used several
artistic devices ranging from diction to tone. Sentences in the speech that are
parallel begin with either North or South to reinforce the unification of the
conflicting groups. The author writes in passive language in order not to
project blame and narrate that the issue is the equal implications of war. Religion
and blood used are symbolic to create commonality and show consequences of war
respectively. Lincoln uses a humble tone to transform the thinking of his
audience into a more charitable and unified mindset. The humbleness of his
speech is unexpected given his power and position.

Emily Dickinson’s Success is
Counted Sweetest


            The main argument presented by
Emily is persons who understand success best are those yet to achieve it
(Finnerty 223). The author argues that people who have worked to attain success
enjoy it more than individuals to whom it was handed. Success to hardworking
individuals is an obsession while to the fortunate it is a daily occurrence.


poem Success is Counted Sweetest is
made up of only three stanzas. Each stanza comprises of four lines. The first
stanza depicts the main argument highlighting the relationship between hard
work and success. The second and third stanzas support the main idea through
use of imagery. For instance, she creates the mental picture of soldiers from
war, some wounded, and others in full celebration. To the writer, soldiers are more
familiar with victory than natives who were far from the battlefields (Finnerty
223). Similar to Lincoln’s speech, the short arrangement of the poem is argued
to be the most effective part of the poem.


The first
appealing property of Success is Counted
Sweetestis its brevity. The
short form of the writing increases comprehension and recall in the reader. The
poem entails a limbic pentameter that improves flow of information between the
lines making the poem more attractive in reading. Throughout the supportive
stanzas, Emily makes the audience refer to imaginary scenarios creating an
emotional response from the audience. The poem uses hidden heartaches to
elevate the effectiveness of emotional response by combining it with curiosity
and anxiety. Hidden heartaches are developed through metaphors and imagery.


applies metaphors to narrate on her argument on success. For instance in the
third line of the first stanza, she uses nectar to show how the wealthy would
suffer given its scarcity. In meaning nectar and the wealthy represent success
and work respectively. The writer uses imagery to create sentimental reactions.
For example, she creates the image of a dying soldier unable to attain victory.
In the metaphor, a hard worker who is unable to become successful is haunted by
his or her failure (Finnerty 224).


Although there is dissimilarity in
the way resources were applied in the two literal works, both writings are
rhetoric. The variance of resource use is related to the divergence of
arguments and target audience. Both writings had a specific message to put
across to a specific audience. The literature was set up in the most suitable
manner to bring out the desired social effect. The difference in the writings
is in their categorization in literature genres one being a speech and the
other a poem. 


Páraic. Emily Dickinson’s Shakespeare. Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press, 2006. Print.

Shawn J, and J M. Hogan. The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address.
Chichester, West Sussex, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Print.

Costs college admission essay help





Variable Cost


Fixed Costs

Variable Costs

Total Cost























































law of diminishing returns alleges that the total Return on Investment rises at
a decreasing rate in the event that more investments within an area are made,
supposing that every variable is fixed. Simply, to persist with investing in a
certain area after a specific point is to obtain a decreasing yield on the
input respectively. In relation to the shape of the marginal cost curve, the
law of diminishing returns assumes considerable significance. One of the
impacts of this principle is based on production costs. Accordingly, the
production of a single output unit will ultimately incur increased costs. This
occurrence is due to the utilization of inputs in a less effective manner
consistently. As such, the law of diminishing returns affects both the costs
incurred within production in the short-run and the production of an
organization in limited time as well.

respect to the outline of the marginal cost curve, a company’s marginal cost
within the short-term is led by similar principles that direct production in
the short-run. Therefore, when the marginal commodity of a variable input
lessens, a company must focus on employing more of this respective input in
order to receive a similar boost in output. This illustrates that the production
cost of an extra unit increases. Hence, it is evident that the law leads to the
increase in marginal cost. Hence, connecting the shape of the curve to the law,
the shape will slope downwards. This illustrates increased efficiency when the
production boosts. However, if the principle holds, the curve will ultimately
slope upward. This indicates that it will continue to ascend.

iPhone Advertising essay help online free





GP- To advertise

SP- To advertise to my audience by
informing them about the benefits of purchasing an iPhone

CI- iPhone is an international
multi-functional gadget that eases the day-to-day activities of people.

With the emerging innovative world
comes the responsibility of embracing technological change. The importance of
Apple’s iPhone products becomes useful in such times. Guided by the common
advertising phrase, “You are more powerful than you think,” iPhone is one of
the best phones in the global market. Today, I will inform you on the
importance and potential benefits of purchasing this excellent product. iPhone
is a mobile phone handset manufactured by the Apple Company, which is currently
the best manufacturing industry in the world, despite having lost its founder,
Steve Jobs. I would briefly discuss: 1) iPhone’s unique features; and 2)
iPhones popularity

iPhone has unique features that distinguish it from
other phones.iPhone uses improved operating software known as
iOS.The iOS software together with PowerVR hardware enables
motion graphics interfaces (Pogue 37).The software supports Apple’s bundled and third party
developed applications, which allows access to various services.The touch screen of the first six generations is large
and display colors of higher resolution. The screen sizes range from 3.5 inches to 6 inches (Ligthart
22).The liquid crystal display is scratch resistant and
capacitive.iPhone is characterized by an internal non-removable
charger.The phone is capable of retaining up to 80% of its
original battery value after 400 full and dischargeable cycles (Pogue 58).While still under warranty, the phone can be taken back
to the manufacturer if it stops working properly and this helps reduce
mishandling of phones.iPhone has gained immense popularity over the years.It is used all over the world.Countries from different nations use the apple products
including iPhone.Almost half the populations in the U.S. use iPhone.Apple sold approximately 6.1 million handsets in five
quarters (Ballew 66).This figure surpasses Blackberry’s sales of 5.2 million
handsets.According to excellent ratings, it is ranked first
followed by Nokia. Despite the increasing preference in smart phones, it has
continually gained interest among its customers.iPhone is among the few phones, which are not android
yet mostly used.According to Ballew, this prompted the opening of
stores worldwide (44).  

In the past few minutes, I have
discussed about iPhones, their unique features, and popularity. The iPhone is “a
must have” gadget with a monumental display for iOS loyals with a myriad of
benefits including its productivity, intuitive user interface and unique
battery life.


Ballew, Joli. Iphone. Harlow: Pearson, 2013. Print.

Ligthart, Jolanda. Iphone.
Uithoorn: Visual Steps, 2012. Print.

Pogue, David. Iphone. Sebastopol, CA:
O’Reilly Media, 2007. Print.

ANALYSIS OF RED CROSS best essay help



Role of Red Cross

Red Cross or International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an
international organization concerned with maintaining global peace and offering
relief services to conflict victims. The organization has won numerous
accolades for its exemplary performance. Red Cross was founded by the efforts a
few notable individuals such as Henry Durant. These efforts were later reflected
by the respective affected states (Forsythe, 2007). One of the fundamental
tenets of the Red Cross is provision of relief services to afflicted
individuals and groups in the society. Analyzing the numerous roles played by
Red Cross requires a prior categorization that will facilitate the process of
understanding (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). The phrases Red Cross
and International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) are used interchangeably throughout
the paper based on the context and subject of discussion.

            When it was being founded in 1863,
the ICRC was hinged on five key principles designed to direct its work (Forsythe,
& Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007).
The first principle is that of humanity, and stresses that all human beings are
treated humanely despite the circumstances (Forsythe, 2007). The second ideology, impartiality,
confirms that the ICRC is prepared to avail their services to assist each
individual, devoid of any type of bias or favour, based on only the arrangement
of their necessity. This entails the ICRC to maintain firm impartiality in the
military, philosophical, denominational, and political circles, desisting from siding
with a specific side in a divergence. Autonomy asserts the need for the ICRC to
be free from all types of control. The last belief is universality that assures
that the efforts of the ICRC must reach to all populations and states.

Maintaining Peace and Stability

ICRC is a strong
advocator for the restoration of peace and security within and between states. Peace
is gradually becoming an elusive aspect in the new world as more agents affect the
cohesive relationships that individuals, states, leaders and other actors
share. Through globalization, the problems that can cause conflict are no
longer restricted to one state. They overlap and affect the operations of other
states making it necessary for a supra-national body to intervene. ICRC assumes
this role by creating diverse opportunities and institutions for the resolution
of inter-state and intra-state conflicts. Examples of inter-state conflict
resolutions alternatives include bilateral diplomacy that result in the signing
of peace treaties. Conversely, examples of internal conflict resolution
mechanisms include dialogue between parties and legislation to eliminate
political conflict (Forsythe, 2005).

Promotion and Development of International
Humanitarian Law

less known but equally important role as the custodian of international
humanitarian law (IHL) particularly in situations where it applies to armed
conflict. This multifaceted role is closely linked to the establishment of the
ICRC. Even more specifically, the function of protecting it was entrusted
to the ICRC on behalf of the international community. Ever since the core business
of Red Cross became to offer “practical” aid and relieve suffering among
populations that experience it, the ICRC has always had a strong and unique association with international
humanitarian law. Currently, ICRC has consistently operated in harmony with the
consecutive phases of the founder’s experience. It has applied on battlegrounds,
and has always desired to adjust its action to the modern improvements in combat.
Consequently, ICRC has made official reports on the difficulties experienced,
and based on that, has made applicable recommendations for the development of
international humanitarian law. In summary, it has contributed in a direct manner
to the procedure of codification, in the course of which its suggestions were scrutinized,
and which has contributed to frequent amendment and growth of international
law, particularly in the late 19th century (Forsythe, &
Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). Article 5 stipulates
that the function of the ICRC is to assume the duties compulsory upon it as
prescribed in the Geneva Conventions, to strive for the truthful implementation
of international law appropriate in armed encounters and to take into
consideration any grievances that point towards the violation of that rule (Forsythe,
& Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007).
This mandate is attached with the duty of disseminating the information about
the presence of such a body of law within the same conflict-prone areas (Goldstein,

            Definitely, creating
interest in the challenges that emerge in implementing international
humanitarian law work to transform this body of law into a familiar and better comprehended
one. This latter objective forms the ultimate purpose of promotion that consecutively
has several aspects. It is imperative, particularly in situations involving
armed conflicts, that all actors are regulated by the same set of rules. Therefore,
great effort must be placed in ensuring that authoritarian and non-member
states similarly cooperate and comply with international humanitarian law (Forsythe,
2007).One of the reasons why international law is currently
entrenched in domestic law for most states is the zealous efforts of ICRC that
has acted to table the issue at international platforms on a constant basis (Forsythe,
& Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). This has also had an invaluable effect on the
validity of the National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies as well as other
governments that have taken it upon themselves to promote and enforce
international law (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007).

Functioning in Red Cross

the background of perpetual conflicts, materialization of a new wave of challenges
and risks, and, consequently, heightened need for humanitarian action to care
for victims of conflicts, it is important to get a grasp of how the ICRC
functions in terms of its administration and structure (Forsythe, &
Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). Most functions of ICRC are hedged around the
development of different aspects of international law that can be in turn used
to enforce or facilitate humanitarian conditions and support in afflicted
areas. This method of operation is most befitting for an institution such as
ICRC given the restricted international environment characterized by state
sovereignty (Neethling¸ 2012: Ford
& Cohen, 2011). Two key sets of rules, the four Geneva Conventions
and Statutes of the International Red Cross are the main focus for ICRC and
whose implementation in states are expected to govern the uninhibited provision
of humanitarian support at a global level (Forsythe, 2005). For instance, international
humanitarian law provides for the creation of a “humanitarian space” in all states
(Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). This provision is legal in nature but
holds massive influences that allows ICRC and its affiliates to freely access
and assist victims of conflict in any state. The principle of humanitarian
space does more than simply open up an avenue for humanitarian aid; it offers
an opportunity for ICRC to pursue the agenda of formulating new laws that can
be passed by the parliaments of various member states. By creating cooperation
between states and the ICRC, it is possible for ICRC to reach out to afflicted populations
(Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). Within the structure of this collaboration,
ICRC representative have the privileges of clinching a seat in the Migration,
Refugees and Demography Committee meetings in the position of an observer and updates
the committee members on current ICRC activities. After specific intervals, the
Committee is requested to ICRC Headquarters at Switzerland with the intention
of exchanging information and opinions, and to publicize the results of the
Committee meetings to the rest of the ICRC members (Welsh¸ 2006).

state of operations for ICRC in most countries where it carries out humanitarian
activities is influenced by treaties between these two parties. The ICRC has fostered
such accords with practically seventy countries (Forsythe, &
Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). These accords are international agreements regulated by
international law. They acknowledge the ICRC as a global legal body that deserves
the same rights and exemptions enjoyed by international institutions (Forsythe,
2007). These include exception from legal procedure; inviolability of its establishment,
records and other assets and credentials; and exclusion from customs duties and
tolls. Similarly, ICRC representatives enjoy benefits and exemptions just like
those of intergovernmental organizations. These two aspects are crucial for the
ICRC because they assure two conditions necessary to its action, specifically independence
and neutrality. Consequently, the ICRC is excused from offering evidence on issued
concerning its official functions (Gulati & Khosa, 2013). Even though the ICRC is a
non-governmental agency, it has a legally acknowledged authorization from the
international community to guard and support the sufferers of armed conflict
and to endorse and have a say in developing humanitarian law (Welsh¸ 2006: Moroney et al., 2010). The
following sections address the four major areas of the ICRC that are
influential in running the organization: concepts and challenges, strategy,
forum corporate social responsibility and governance (Forsythe, &
Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007).

Analysis of Performance

ICRC Strategies

Red Cross has been releasing several strategies plans over the years that
describe why, where and how the organization is progressing as well as the future.
Over the period of four years, ICRC releases a strategy document that is
released publicly. It evaluates opportunities and obstacles in the setting under
analysis, examines the most significant stakeholders, and describes the establishment’s
preferred positioning, the span of its accomplishments, and its prospects. It establishes
strategic trends and areas of activity for achieving the ICRC’s humanitarian undertaking
(Forsythe, 2005: Palmieri,
2012). ICRC has the mission of enhancing the lives of susceptible
individuals by marshalling the resources of the state and other non-governmental
institutions. ICRC is a leader in mobilizing large-scale resources that can be
used for sustainable risk mitigation and reaction to disasters (Forsythe, &
Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). Their strategies are focused on several areas: social
programs, disaster management, injury avoidance, violence prevention, and
humanitarian law. ICRC has proved to be the organization of choice for the
global population to present their support to victims afflicted by tragedies or
conflict across the globe (Welsh¸
2006). ICRC representatives are always present when disaster happens,
with neighboring volunteers offering instantaneous assistance, accompanied by
the fast release of the international network, composed of workers, supplies, and
resources. Likewise, when resident lives are distressed by conflict, ICRC is present
to offer security and life-saving support (Forsythe, 2005). The ICRC promotes humanitarian
action in conflict situations and natural tragedies through their internal
rapid reactions and by availing a variety of essential resources to the other
humanitarian societies. The institution works by organizing inventory and workers
and activating their network from business, communal and academic fields to transfer
technical information and expertise, human and financial resources, and relief statistics
and provisions. When civilians donate items or volunteer in the Red Cross, they
contribute towards pressing lifesaving deeds (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan,
2007). The target for ICRC is to comfort the affected individuals to a point
where they restored their facilities and recovered their lifestyles, throughout
recuperation in the six areas of focus. The ICRC development programs additionally
expand the relationships with collaborating societies and groups designed to
enhance lasting development results. The dedication by ICRC often lasts for
several years. For instance, in Honduras,
they have sustained humanitarian support especially within the healthcare
sector. This initiative has benefited vulnerable societies that were affected
by hurricanes (Forsythe, 2007).

ICRC Concepts and Challenges

dominant concept in international humanitarian law and ICRC is armed conflict.
By definition, it refers to any unstable situation involving weaponry, army personnel,
and the use of coercion. Conflict is an inevitable event within the international
milieu that, surprisingly, has to be regulated by different types of rules.
These regulations serve to mitigate the offset of war. In cases where conflict
is inevitable, these rules also limit the effect of the war on innocent
civilians (Biermann, Bernd &
Anna¸ 2009). This concept is perhaps the most important in the study of
ICRC since it is a contributory factor in the creation of humanitarian situations
particularly in the third world (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). In
addressing armed conflict, it is important to note that many states invoke the
right to self-governance or “state sovereignty” to avoid the obligation to
comply with regulations in international law (Forsythe, 2005). However, other
states also seek to apply double standards in promotion international law and desist
from following it. The best part of armed conflicts in the recent years is within
the state. Many domestic conflicts have persevered for many years, in spite of
noteworthy international initiatives to find resolutions. These conflicts
are often generated by racial and tribal differences, religious intolerance, and
struggle for resources, particularly natural ones such as oil and natural gas (Moir¸ 2008). For
example, in Afghanistan,
the mounting conflict has caused numerous deaths and harmed several thousand civilians.
These war crimes are very destructive mainly because of the use of advanced weaponry,
drastic battle strategies and targeting innocent civilians as part of the war (Wheeler, 2004).


operates within an environment that is increasingly affected by political, economic,
and social factors. These elements are modern and their emergence has served to
change the way in which international humanitarian law is implemented. The
issue of civilization of the military has greatly hampered the realization of benefits
accruing from efforts of international law. The last years have experienced an
increase in the civilianization of the military (Forsythe, &
Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). However, in the United States, the participation of
civilians in numerous previous military activities is a common feat (Forsythe,
2007). Civilians are gradually being employed to draw blueprints, construct, service,
and man several weaponry systems and are engaged in several assignments that
could possibly be deemed as direct involvement in conflict when implemented in
the setting of an armed conflict (Holzgrefe, & Keohane, 2013). An example is the activity of
the US Department in the Army that indicated the significant involvement of civilians
in the handling of American military operations (Wheeler, 2004: Cook & Wall, 2011). In
recent times, military civilians have entrenched themselves as a crucial and fundamental
aspect of a state’s armed forces (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007). This
set of civilians have served beside their assigned uniformed citizens by providing
the vital skills and services necessary to ensure the accessibility of important
combat systems and military hardware (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan, 2007).
These benefits may be advantageous to the state defense stakeholders but they hold
negative consequences for the realization of international peace, stability and
the provision of humanitarian support. For instance, military civilians operating
to develop technological weapons can facilitate greater destruction in the
process of armed conflict. This is because the army can use unmanned drones or long-range
missiles that can attack forces in another continent (Forsythe, 2005). By increasing
the scope of operation of the military, technological civilians in the military,
complicate the process of administering relief and support to war victims (Tonkin, 2011).

recent trend that has affected the implementation and practice of humanitarian support
for ICRC is the privatization of previously military functions. The governments
of many states have resorted to contracting private organizations to do most of
the administrative tasks such as logistics, maintenance, and service provision.
These individuals and groups work within military circles raising the question
of their involvement in determining the amount of hostilities they control. Furthermore,
civilian private organizations may be unable to meet the objectives of international
security given that they are unable to meet public demands. Most of these organizations
are more interested in financial profit and may end up being compromised and
fail to deliver on their responsibilities (Forsythe, & Rieffer-Flanagan,

challenge of being directly participating in hostilities is another ethical
dilemma that has affected the functioning and validity of the ICRC. One of the
key methods through which the ICRC accomplishes its objective of providing humanitarian
support is by utilizing the “humanitarian space” provision. Under this
principle, they have the liberty to travel to the location of conflict and
offer humanitarian aid to civilians and other victims. In doing so, ICRC can
deliver essential amenities and supplies that the local government may be
unable or unwilling to provide (Forsythe, 2007). However, there exists a thin
line between providing humanitarian aid and interfering with the conflict and
in a partisan way. ICRC and other similar international organizations such as
EU, AU, and NATO have been quoted as violating the principle of “impartiality”
in the process of offering humanitarian assistance. In such situations, ICRC
has been quoted as working unethically to offer biased support and even going
to the level of interfering with domestic local.` A question therefore emerges:
What happens in the event that the ICRC violates one of their own regulations? Perhaps
the real question is the regulatory body that coordinates the activities of international
organizations particularly in situations such as these. Combined with the issue
of defining and allocating the limits of state sovereignty, most international organizations,
ICRC included, have been unable to enforce international humanitarian law especially
within the domestic constitutions of diverse states (United Nations, 2011).

issue of respect for international humanitarian law is a major obstacle that hinders
the full realization of ICRCs’ objectives in the international milieu. The duty
of other institutions and actors in encouraging respect for international
humanitarian law has become progressively more significant (Forsythe, 2005). While
supranational organizations such as the United Nations UN have contributed
greatly in influencing the political and official requirements that would
eventually validate international humanitarian law and make its respect worthwhile, they lack
the necessary implementing power. Ensuring respect for this category of law is fundamental
to the efforts of the Red Cross to restore safety and comfort to the victims of
conflicts. The challenges faced by ICRC and other international organizations combined
with the restrictions on their authority and the poor perceptions held by other
players in the international system serve to make it difficult for international
humanitarian law to take root.

ICRC Governance

ICRC has created a wide system of delegations across the globe. The eventual plan
of such types of networks is to facilitate the ICRC to accomplish its directive
for victims afflicted by armed conflict as well as other situations of bloodshed.
This is done by reacting in an opportune, well-organized, and sufficient way to
the resultant humanitarian requirements. ICRC delegations become accustomed to
the particular needs of the settings in which they are dynamic and struggle to create
the most suitable and efficient approaches. They also operate as early-warning procedures
that can predict political violence laden with armed conflicts and their possible
implications in humanitarian terms. In continuing or fresh situations where
armed conflict is involved, the delegations concentrates on operational tasks
such as security, aid, collaboration and defensive actions at the receptive and
counteractive levels, for the immediate benefit of civilians (Forsythe, 2007). Such
people may be sick, bound or wounded and therefore, do not enjoy the full
rights and privileges accorded to all human beings.

other circumstances, the delegations concentrate mainly on preventive action
that deals with environment development, collaboration with other societies and
humanitarian relations while maintaining a ready plan to become more functional
if such a need arose. Numerous delegations can be allocated to one state.
Others delegations operate across several states and these are labeled as “regional
delegations”. Some delegations are shifting their mandate towards the provision
of regional services in their allocated regions, for instance, the Bangkok
delegation works to offer training services while the Egyptian delegation handles
communication. The presence of ICRC in the region can also assume different
forms of missions modified to the specific setting of the environment or the unique
tasks allocated to the ICRC personnel on the ground.

ICRC Corporate Social Responsibility

social responsibility is concerned with contributing towards the society in
different ways. At ICRC, the organization created the ICRC Corporate Support
Group that works to combine the efforts of different organizations that share
the same social responsibility. The aim of the group is to achieve a massive participation
among private sector actors. The ICRC strives to react to the humanitarian requirements
emerging from the current complicated armed conflicts and other settings of conflict
in the most appropriate, humanitarian and specialized way possible (Forsythe,
2005). Each situation demands methodical analysis, a responsive but impartial evaluation
of the needs and human suffrage, and the plan and execution of precise and resourceful
humanitarian reactions modified to needs. Currently, above all, circumstances
have to be regarded in a holistic manner that incorporates domestic, regional,
and worldwide aspects and allow for the wide range of challenges and demands of
the beneficiaries the ICRC wants to assist. The ICRC Corporate Support Group comprises of entrepreneurs, domestic
and international companies as well as non-governmental organizations bearing
the desire to assist the ICRC by donating to the foundation (Voillat¸ 2012). Companies that are members
illustrate a strong representation of dedication to humanitarian efforts, and take
pleasure in close and individual access to ICRC meetings with the leadership
for discussions on issues with a common base. The foundation is interested
in high ethical standards for all its sponsors. Similarly, membership is highly
limited to a small circle of corporations whose agendas are attuned to those of
ICRC’s in terms of philosophy and directives. Consequently, for any decision to
be accepted, an all-inclusive investigation is conducted on the situation, the
viewpoints of the people involved for instance, residents, children, actors in
attendance and the dynamics (Wheeler,
2004). This facilitates the ICRC to categorize the people negatively
affected and their exact wishes (Nardin, Williams & American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy,
2006). A valuable reaction demands a transparent comprehension of the source
of the problems and an excellent understanding of domestic facilities, their competencies,
and their prospective ability; the direct participation of those concerned is consequently
fundamental to ascertain that their opinions, apprehension, weakness areas, and
abilities are factored into the description of the reaction. The ICRC strives
to acquire a general viewpoint of a complication of humanitarian distress by examining
all aspects of the crisis and all probable responses. It is also imperative
that ICRC makes certain the consistency of its directives in the short and long

has engaged in numerous efforts to seek funding from its contributors and like-minded
groups. For instance, the “Diamonds for Love, Not War”campaign that was initiated in2014 supplemented a previous campaigncarried out byseveral groups to
prohibit the trading of “conflict diamonds” (Forsythe, 2007). The
campaign was particularly interested in condemning the unethical trade of buying
and selling rare stones that were acquired through war and conflict. This
phenomenon is highly common in Africa and Russia where military warlords engage
in conflicts with the state over gold mines and other valuable natural
resources. Theinternational
community has takena mounting noticein the contribution made by economic actors
inarmed clashes. Several researches have observed thatthe profits accrued from mineral miningor fossil fuelscan be
an element of conflict.Furthermore, certain corporations havetransformedintoglobalmultinationalsafter the fresh trends ofacquisitions.These corporations have emerged as
significant actors in the international relations as well as in implementing
international humanitarian law.

as far as ICRC is concerned, exchange of ideas with the corporate sector targets
first to acquire greater esteem for humanitarian practices by the players
involved in conflicts and, in so doing, offers better security to the afflicted
people (Moke, Zwitter&
Schewe¸ 2010). The discussion focuses on three main areas: the promotion
of international humanitarian law particularly among security personnel, elevating
companies’ consciousness of ICRC’s precise interests in the field and the distribution
of information on relevant issues for instance, the economic state of affairs, public
services and transportation (Forsythe, 2005). As with its conventional
interlocutors, ICRC is very objective when it comes to dealing with companies.
It endeavors to expand the scope of its humanitarian campaign by indulging in a
productive dialogue with all the players that have an effect on the lifestyles
of victims. The discussions are not simply limited to company directors. It includes
other actors, for example, union heads, and professional groups (Hilhorst, & Jansen, 2012: Apte,
2010). This allows the ICRC to evaluate the monetary perspective of a particular
situation better and therefore, to enhance the investigation that assists it describes
its programs.


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Apte, A, (2010), Humanitarian
logistics: A new field of research and action, Boston: now.

Biermann, F, Bernd Siebenhüner, &
Anna S, (2009), International organizations in global environmental
governance, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Cook, D, T, & Wall, J, (2011), Children
and armed conflict: Cross-disciplinary investigations, Houndmills,
Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ford, C, & Cohen, A, (2011), Rethinking
the Law of Armed Conflict in an Age of Terrorism, Lanham: Lexington Books.

D, P, (2005), The Humanitarians: The International Committee of the Red
Cross, Cambridge, UK:
Cambridge University Press.

D, P, (January 01, 2007), The ICRC: A unique humanitarian protagonist, International
Review of the Red Cross, 89, 865, 63-96.

D, P, & Rieffer-Flanagan, B, A, J, (2007), The International
Committee of the Red Cross: A neutral humanitarian actor, London: Routledge.

Goldstein, J. S. (2011). Winning
the war on war: The decline of armed conflict worldwide. New York: Dutton.

Gulati, J, & Khosa, I, (January
01, 2013), Humanitarian intervention: To protect state sovereignty, Denver
Journal of International Law and Policy, 41, 3, 397-416.

Hilhorst, D, & Jansen, B, J,
(January 01, 2012), Human rights and humanitarian action, Human Rights and Conflict:
Essays in Honour of Bas De Gaay Fortman.

Holzgrefe, J, L, & Keohane, R, O,
(2013), Humanitarian intervention: Ethical, legal, and political
dilemmas, Milton Keynes UK: Lightning Source UK Ltd.

Moir, L, (2008), The law of
internal armed conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Moke, M, Zwitter, A, & Schewe, C,
(2010), Humanitarian Action Facing the New Challenges, Berlin: BWV
Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag.

Moroney, J, D, P, Beck, J, Eaton, D,
Hiromoto, S, & Marquis, Jefferson P, (2010), Developing an Army Strategy
for Building Partner Capacity for Stability Operations, RAND Corp.

Nardin, T, Williams, M S, &
American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy, (2006), Humanitarian
intervention, New York: New York University Press.

Neethling, T, (2012), Maintaining
International Peace and Security: Reflections on Peace-Support Operations in
Africa, (Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies; Vol
28, No 1 (1998); 111-137,) Stellenbosch University.

Palmieri, D, (January 01, 2012), An
Institution Standing the Test of Time? A Review of 150 Years of the History of the
International Committee of the Red Cross, International Review of the
Red Cross, 94, 888, 1273-1298.

Tonkin, H, (2011), State
control over private military and security companies in armed conflict,
Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.

United Nations, (2011), International
legal protection of human rights in armed conflict, New York and Geneva:
United Nations.

Voillat, C, (September 01, 2012),
Pushing the humanitarian agenda through engagement with business actors: The
ICRC’s experience, International Review of the Red
Cross, 94, 887, 1089-1114.

Welsh, J, M, (2006), Humanitarian
intervention and international relations, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wheeler, N, J, (2004), Saving
strangers: Humanitarian intervention in international society, Oxford:
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Idol college admissions essay help





In the article, Bierber Fever! Local Girls take their
Passion for the Pop Star to Serious Extremes, Leah Chernikoff writes about
how young girls were obsessed with the Canadian pop star Justin Bierber. The
girls went to extreme lengths to show their devotion for the pop star. Their
rooms were full of his pictures and they spent most of their time thinking
about him. In one case, one of the girl’s grades started falling because she
spent most of the time thinking about him and she could not concentrate on
anything else (Chernikoff). In another case, one of the girls had planned how
her entire life would be as Mrs. Bierber. She obsessed about how the two of
them would end up married. Idolatry is defined as the worship of any other
thing or person instead of God. God warned people in the Old Testament days
concerning the sin of idolatry. He was not pleased with their worship of other
gods, which they had created (Hyndman 59).

Idolatry remains a
common problem today. Many people have abandoned religion and they no longer
observe God’s law. Instead, they have replaced God with other objects and
people. They worship and adore other things instead of worshipping God.
Idolatry is present when people dedicate all their effort, time, and energy to
a particular thing. This is the case with many people today. They show an
extreme adoration of pop stars and sports personalities. Idolatry is wrong in
God’s eyes. God expects people to worship only him alone. He warns people about
using other people or objects to replace Him. In the old biblical times, God
punished the people who were into idolatry and He withheld His blessings from
them. God wants people to put Him first in everything they do. Spending all the
time thinking about pop stars and replacing the devotion that one has for God
is a form of idolatry.


Leah. “Bierber Fever! Local Girls take their Passion for the Pop Star to
Serious Extremes.” New York Daily News. 31 May 2010. Web. 9 October

Rob J. The Way of Life. Australia: Bethel
Publications, 2003. Print.

Racial Disparity in Minority Incarceration among Juveniles: A Review cheap essay help
Disparity in Minority Incarceration among Juveniles: A Review



Disparity in Minority Incarceration among Juveniles: A Critique

A considerable
amount of literature regarding the issue of minority confinement, specifically
in relation to persons of African-American descent exists. Even though this
research is divided into the premises of economic conditions and psychological
factors, it is impossible to ignore the role that institutional or political
defects assume in the disproportionate incarceration of minorities based solely
on racial disposition. Accordingly, the conjecture of institutional flaws
illustrates a relationship between governmental institutions, and the rate of
minority confinement. The main argument illustrated in this point asserts that
the issue lies within the system and the manner in which it influences a larger
share of minority arrests, litigations, verdicts, and sentences along a single
particular race in comparison to another race. To be specific, the rates at
which African-American minorities undergo incarceration, while compared to
their white counterparts, is significantly high and moreover, attributable to
either the institution or the law itself.

Descriptive Summary

Overview and Argument

The article, Disproportionate Minority Confinement of
Juveniles: A National Examination of Black-White Disparity in Placements,
1997-2006, examines the changes made in the American juvenile justice
system regarding the incarceration of African-American and white juveniles. In
overview, Davis
and Sorensen (2010) claim that the rate of disproportionate minority
confinement among African Americans has reduced in comparison to the level of
white juveniles. By assessing these changes over a decade, the authors illustrate
that significant efforts have been implemented especially in limiting disparity
within minority confinement on the foundation of race. Nevertheless, Davis and
Sorensen do not ignore the past state in which the juvenile justice system
assumed before 1994. Accordingly, the ratio of juvenile placements among
African Americans and white was considerably disproportional with more Black
minorities occupying juvenile prisons in comparison to their white

Purpose of the Article

The main purpose
of the article is to illustrate the decrease in the ratio of African American
to white juveniles in the current justice system. In order to fulfill this
objective, Davis and Sorensen examine past literature in order to determine the
level to which disproportionate minority confinement has changed in the United States.
In addition, both authors, while attempting to assess the decrease in juvenile
incarceration among the respective minorities, evaluate the role that the
system assumes in extending this problem. With the focus on the United States
juvenile justice system, Davis and Sorensen depict that much of the disparity
in juvenile prisons originates from discriminatory laws and institutions.
Simply, the high rate of African American juveniles to white juveniles is
influenced significantly by the police and courts guilty of exercising racial
disparity in numerous juvenile cases. 

Methodology and Results

The method
utilized in the research mainly involves the collection of related data from
the Office of Juvenile, Justice, and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). In order
for the authors to illustrate a decrease in African-American: White ratio in
juvenile incarceration, such data is required. In addition to this, the method
also takes into consideration the importance of the date. Indeed, the data
collected from the OJJDP starts from 1997. Further data, based on ethnicity and
offence arrests was attained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The aim
of this was to compare the change in juvenile incarcerations among African
American and white individuals over a ten-year period. Using Blumstein’s
methodology, the results of the research illustrated a comprehensive reduction
in the rate of African American juvenile confinement despite placement rates
for both races decreasing.


In review, Davis
and Sorensen are capable of reinforcing their argument in a purely objective
basis. By using data from the OJJDP and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, it
becomes possible to view the decrease of disproportionate minority confinement
especially among African American juveniles. Additionally, review of past
literature regarding this subject provides a comprehensive assessment of the
inequities exhibited in the American juvenile justice system via law
enforcement agencies and the courts. Nonetheless, utilization of Blumstein’s
methodology represents a weak point for the research. This is because racial
distribution of individuals detained for a specific crime does not necessarily
equal the racial distribution for persons incarcerated for the particular
offense if there were null discriminatory practices. In addition to this, the
study relies considerably on arrest data, which may possess unforeseeable
errors. Moreover, the dependence on arrest data limits the research’s ability
especially in the identification of prejudice in selection originating from
modifications within law enforcement procedures over the last ten years. Nevertheless,
Leiber (2002) agrees with Davis
and Sorensen based on the efforts that the respective justice system has
assumed in mitigating disproportionate minority incarceration. Accordingly, the
institutionalization of the DMC into the 1974 Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention Act has led to significant contributions aimed at addressing the
problem of racial disposition as well as involvement within the American
juvenile justice structure.


To this end, Davis
and Sorensen illustrate the change in policies governing the juvenile justice
scheme is imperative in mitigating disproportionate minority incarceration.
Since the establishment of Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC) in
juvenile law, the American system has experienced a decrease in racial-based
juvenile imprisonment and a drop in placement rates for both African-Americans
and whites generally. However, much still needs to be done regarding this issue
seem it is partly unresolved in other areas of the country. In addition, future
research needs to consider the involvement of other factors such as
socioeconomic conditions and education needs, which may further reinforce
juvenile delinquency in the United


J., & Sorensen, J. R. (2010). Disproportionate minority confinement of
juveniles: A national examination of Black-White disparity in placements,
1997-2006. Crime & Delinquency, 20(10), 1-25.

M. J. (2002). Disproportionate minority confinement (DMC) of youth: An analysis
of state and federal efforts to address the issue. Crime & Delinquency, 48(1),

Writing Instructions best essay help





Intended Audience

These instructions are intended for
people who do not have basic knowledge on computer use. The instructions are
clear and simple and this makes it easy for the novel users. Any person who has
an interest in learning how to use a computer can benefit from the

How to Use a Personal Computer


System unit




system unit, monitor, keyboard and mouse

The mouse is used
for navigating through the computer. One can use it to select specific items
such as programs and icons. Icons are the images displayed on the screen. Programs
are the instructions that are designed to command a computer to do a particular
task. The mouse moves the cursor, which is the pointer arrow, around the
screen. It has two buttons at the top and a trackball in between them. The left
button is used for most purposes. Clicking on it twice in rapid succession, an
action called double clicking will open the selected item. Clicking the right
button reveals a menu with a variety of options (Easy Computer Tips).

keyboard is the most common type. The keyboard contains numerous keys and it is
used for a variety of functions such as inputting data. It contains the letter
keys, numbers, and function keys among others. One can navigate a document
using the page up, page down, home, and end keys or the arrow keys instead of
using a mouse. The backspace and delete keys are used to remove unwanted data
from documents (Easy Computer Tips).

The system unit is
the most important part of the computer as it contains the components necessary
for it to function. The external part of the system unit contains ports through
which other computer parts and peripherals are connected. It also contains the
power button. It has drives where one can insert storage devices such as floppy
disks and CD or DVD drives (Microsoft).


1. Place the computer in an
elevated place such as a desk. This will ensure that you are able to use the
computer well.

Caution: it is important to place the
computer on an elevated place to prevent damage from water. This will also help
to ensure that other people see it clearly and they do not knock it down.
Ensure that you have placed all electrical appliances in a dry place. Take the
necessary precautions when using electrical appliances.

Warning: The computer screen should be
at the eye level and the keyboard should be at the elbow level. Maintaining the
right posture is important as it will ensure that the user does not injure her
back when using the computer.

2.  Familiarize yourself with the personal
computer. This includes knowing all the essential components including the
computer CPU, the monitor/screen, the keyboard, and the mouse. You should let a
technician connect all the necessary peripherals.

3. The computer has a power button.
Switch on the power source and press the button. Give the computer some time to
boot. A screen will appear displaying different images or icons.

4. Use the mouse for interacting
with the computer by selecting and opening programs and icons.

5. Once you have determined the
item you want from the screen, use the left button on the top of the mouse, and
double click to select that particular item. You can also select the item by
clicking on it once using the left button. Then click the right button to get a
menu containing different actions.

6. Familiarizing yourself with the
keyboard is important.

7. Locate the start/windows button
on the keyboard and click on it. Alternatively, use your mouse and left click
the start button displayed on the lower right side of the monitor. This will
reveal different programs.

8. To select a program, use your
mouse for navigation, and then use the left button to select the program you

9. Programs have a ‘help’ option. Once
you have opened a program, clicking on the help option will reveal what each
program does and how it operates. You can do this for multiple programs.

10. You can also click on the icons
displayed on the monitor to know what each one of them does. An icon will open
when you click it twice.

how to use a computer is not a difficult task although it might seem so in the
beginning. A person increases his knowledge and skill every time he uses it.
Computers are necessary in today’s world. Different modern versions have come
up. However, learning how to use a computer using the PC will be beneficial as
many people find it easier to use. Moreover, it will be much easier for a
person to learn how to use other types of computers such as laptops, once they
have learnt how to use a PC. One can also have fun on the computer. The
computer is not limited to official and technical purposes only. A person can
learn how to play different games or use the computer to see movies or listen
to music (Parker).


Computer Tips. How to Use Your PC-The
Basics. 18 February 2007. Web. 10 October 2014

Parts of a Computer. Web. 10 October

Stephen B. “How to use a Computer Keyboard.” Digital Unite. 2012. Web. 10 October 2014

Exhibition Review argumentative essay help





The De Young
Museum in San Francisco California was developed by Herzog and de
Meuron and completed in the year 2005 to measure 293,000 square feet in total
area. The building form of the museum is a 144-foot long tower, narrowly landscaped
courtyards, three extensive bands that are in line with the surroundings of the
area. It has a dominant form of deformed mass with a slippery appeal that
assumes a bowed and stretched rhomboid. The building lacks any form of decorative
articulations that may be used to provide an understanding of the iconography,
scale, replacement columns, and statues covered in copper and marked with
dotting patterns. The copper and dotting patterns have been used to provide an
abstraction because of reflection of light that is moving in between the canopy
of tree in the surrounding park.

The building has a
band of glass that the architects used to mark a transition from the towering tower
towards its capital. This point is also used by patrons to view the city of San Francisco in the
horizon. In addition, the horizontal point of the tower provides a vertical
shape that is at a similar level with the city’s horizon. The entire building
has been arranged into three primary parallel bunds such that the park is able
to fill the spaces that are present between as it extends into the center of
the building to form central courtyards. Nature has been blended into the
building as part of sustainability efforts by the architects.

building has contrasting perspective as one draws near it. From afar, the
structure is seemingly monumental and simple. However, as one draws near, the perspective
shifts and it accrues an ornamental aspects as it reveals itself to the outside
world. The patterns that are used in layering of the spaces and façade are
integral in the creation of a layered composition of rich textures and colors.
The permeable skin was developed with the primary aim of mimicking the effects
of various positions of light coming through into the building through the
canopy of trees in the park.

Zahner Company Metal fabricators from Kansas
City were selected to provide assistance with
developing the panel designs. The designers experimented on the use of copper
mesh and gradually using punched and embossed sheets of copper. The copper skin
was selected for its ability to change in terms of quality by oxidation on
exposure to the environment and its distinct quality. In addition, the selected
material was preferred because of its ability to change into a rich green color
that will ensure blending of the structure with the surrounding environment of
the park.

structure of the entire museum enables patrons to access the artwork coupled by
the accommodation of natural light and serenity of the natural environment from
the surrounding park. The still lifes in the museum were particularly
interesting given their portrayal using oil on canvas. One of the select works
that was present in the museum is Abraham Van Beyern’s Still Life 1666, which can be termed as a rich and excellent
banquet of grandiose of groupings of diverse vessels, fruits, meats, and
gold-fringed cloths.

to the themes used to develop the artwork, the museum incorporates the use of
color as its primary theme to enhance its visual appeals for the patrons. Transience
of all material possessions in the world, the brevity of human life and the
importance for moderation in life are also themes captured in the artwork and
more so in the structure and design of the entire museum. The ability of the
author the blend and bring together nature and the building is effective. In
addition, the outlook of the museum provides patrons with a feeling of moving
in time given the rustic external visual aspect of the museum.

Social Media essay help online free




The advancement in
technology has resulted in the progression of social media within this
contemporary age. Indeed, social media possesses a range of positive aspects
that can be easily applicable in harnessing effective communication. Foremost,
social media is cost-effective (Ryan, 2012). Accessing social media platforms
such as Facebook and Twitter is cheap due to the compressed amount of data they
require. Thus, in order to ensure effective communication, the cost-effective
aspect of these platforms can be integrated by both persons and companies
especially in the promotion of unique brands to the selected audiences.
Consequently, social media maintains ease of accessibility (Ryan, 2012). With a
simple smartphone and data connection, it is particularly simple to utilize
social media platforms across all locations. This further explains the ease of
connectivity among different persons in disparate parts of the globe. Hence, as
a facet in the promotion of effectual communication, this respective aspect can
assist persons and companies in reaching out to both local and international
audiences without wasting resources on conservative marketing (Macy &
Thompson, 2011). In spite of these positive aspects, social media also has its
own cons with the largest one comprising security risks (Ryan, 2012). Usually,
accessing such a platform requires the submission of personal information.
However, this information can be used negatively especially in occasions of
cyber crimes such as identity theft. Another con of social media comprises
privacy issues. With the ease of connection, it is virtually simple for private
information to be leaked to strangers and even employers. Nonetheless, such
demerits can be avoided by ensuring that the information provided does not pose
a hazard to a person’s life. By limiting the information that one posts, a
potential communication disaster can be averted. In terms of effectiveness, the
use of sites such as LinkedIn is effective especially for people and firms
seeking to maintain an online professional presence. However, using Facebook as
a marketing platform on its own is negative and does not assist in reaching out
to target audiences.


B., & Thompson, T. (2011). The power of real-time social media
marketing: How to attract and retain customers and grow the bottom line in the
globally connected world. New
York: McGraw-Hill.

W. (2012). Visual literacy: Learning to
see. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.

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