Consider the following points:
Our reader examined when ideology was first coined and how others interpreted its meaning overtime.
– First, Antoine Louise Claude Destutt, Comte de Tracy coined the term “ideology” as a philosophy of the mind. It developed during the Enlightenment period in France (17th-18th century), where thinkers were focused on reason. As a result, “ideology” was supposed to be a linkage between “logic, psychology, and politics” where “intellectuals discover the truth” and “enlightened politicians” that understand these truths would be able to carry out policies to help society. (pg 4-5)
– Second, Napoleon Bonaparte at first agreed with de Tracy during the French Revolution, but in his pursuit of power reverted back to supporting the Church and supernatural phenomenon as opposed to reason. As a result, Bonaparte denounced “ideology” as a sinister metaphysics, breaking that relation between intellectuals and rulers/philosophers and politicians that de Tracy advocated for. (pg. 5)
– Third, Karl Marx saw “ideology” as an abuse of power. He lived in the late 18th century when the industrial revolution not only brought about new innovation, but huge gaps in wages and an increase in poverty. Therefore, looking at things in the lens of class, he saw that those who held the means of material production also controlled the means of mental production. In other words, it was the elite who controlled ideas, or who were the ideologues/ideologists. To him, these ideologists created illusionary arguments for their own material benefit. For instance, the French Revolution spoke about rights for men and citizens, but it benefited those with private property at the expense of workers. Marx’s own concept of communism was different. He saw it as a science that identified, explained and promoted the working class’ interests that would advise rather than impose its ideas on people as ideologists would do. (pg. 5-7)
– Fourth, Friedrich Engels was Marx’s counterpart in the same time period and called ideology “false consciousness,” or concealed the explotiation of the working class in a capitalist society. In terms of Marx’s work, Engels called it “scientific socialism” because it has fundamental laws into finding the truth to how we think, particularly looking at history. Engels’ approach uses logical deduction, which Marx might not have agreed with, according to our reader. Followers of Marx who wanted to promote Marxism as a comprehnesive system began to see this idea about the working class as a “scientifc ideology.” (pg. 7)
– Fifth, Lenin was a Russian revolutionary that applied Marxism as “a comprehensive science derived from an abstract logic,” thereby accepting it as an ideology, which countered Marx’s original intentions. For Lenin, he contrasted bourgeois ideology with a “socialist ideology,” believing that the working class needed socialist intellectuals to awaken them out of bourgeois ideology and that science was there to serve the working class/proletariat interests to realize they were being exploited in a capitalist society and rise up against the elite/bourgeois. (pg. 7)
– Sixth, Karl Mannheim argued later in the 20th century that studying ideology involved unmasking the real nature of the situation at a particular and total level in which the whole of reality could be distorted by a particular ideology. (pg. 8)
– Seventh, Malcolm B. Hamilton more recently attempted to define the elements of ideology in the 1980s. He called it a “system of collectively held normative and reputable factual ideas and beliefs and attitudes” about social patterns. His focus, however, was only on “empirical application and research” taking out the element of political action. In other words, his definition made ideology apolitical and independent of the interest of human beings. (pg. 8-9)
– Eight, our textbook defines ideology as a “system of ideas that tries to link thought with action” by “explain[ing] and evaluat[ing] social conditions, help[ing] them understand their place in society [or orienting them], and provid[ing] a program for social and political action.
Political Science Question
Select a specific course in sociology, specify a set of student learning outcomes, and defend their importance. Why is it important for instructors to evaluate the effectiveness of assessment methods? 150 words
After reading about the assignment in the “Assessment Method Analysis Worksheet,” explain whether or not the assessment type effectively provided information to evaluate student learning outcomes about the sociology topic. Describe an assessment that effectively evaluates student learning outcomes for the topic of Sociology Beginnings and Perspectives. 150 words
Political Science Assignment Help In this material, you are learning about the importance of acid-base balance in maintaining homeostasis. The acid-base balance must be maintained within a narrow range in order for the body to function normally. Please read over the following case study to address the questions below. Please reference the ROME mnemonic listed below as needed. Don’t forget to cite your sources! (FYI the source can be anywhere besides the book) but I have pages form the book if you like just ask if you need it. Mrs. Breathless is a 45-year-old female nurse with a history of asthma. She reports to the ED in the early morning with shortness of breath, blurred vision, headache, and restlessness. After several laboratory tests, the following ABG (arterial blood gases) lab results are confirmed: Blood pH=7.30 PaCO2 = 46 mm Hg HCO3 = 24 mEq/L. Based on the results of her ABG, which acid-base imbalance is Mrs. Breathless likely experiencing? Justify your answer by referencing the ROME mnemonic. What is the underlying pathophysiology of this disorder? What type of compensation is likely to take place? Why do you think Mrs. Breathless develop this imbalance? What are some of the contributing factors leading to this?RO-ME:Respiratory Opposite: When pH is up, PaCO2 is down = Alkalosis, When pH is down, PaCO2 is up = AcidosisMetabolic Equal: When pH is up, HCO3 is up = Alkalosis, When pH is down, HCO3 is down = Acidosis
Warfare Studies Essay
1) Describe the key concepts and issues involving conflict resolution and war termination.
2) Describe the challenges of translating military victory into successfully achieving political objectives in the post-conflict/stability phase.
Answer the following two prompts in a minimum 125 word post for each prompt.
In his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote the following: “A state of peace among men living together is not the same as the state of nature, which is rather a state of war. For even if it does not involve active hostilities, it involves the constant threat of their breaking out. Thus the state of peace must be formally instituted, for a suspension of hostilities is not in itself a guarantee of peace.”
PROMPT 1: What does it mean to “formally institute” peace?
PROMPT 2: Why does the suspension of hostilities not equal “peace”?