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Recovery and Relapse write essay help

What must be remembered is that the rewards for living a sober life are many, and they should be considered as motivation to remain clean and sober. The Brain In order to understand about recovery, one must first understand about addiction. Drug addiction is thought to be a combination of both biological and psychological factors, including the Dopamine Theory (Pinel, 2007). The Dopamine Theory is one in which the hypothesis states that addicts have reduced dopamine levels when not using drugs, which makes it extremely difficult for them to stop using for any length of time (Pinel).

There is much evidence supporting this theory, there is also evidence supporting the theory that sex and food also increase the release of dopamine in the brain as natural reinforcers. The neurotransmitters are constantly working in the brain, releasing their chemicals which are needed for healthy living. Too much of one of too little of one throws the body into an unbalance state, whether it is before or after drug use. When a person is first in recovery from drugs, their biological makeup is considerably out of sync.

What is normal for them due to the drug use is not normal for others, and their brains are reacting as if in a “crash”. The production of dopamine is lessened, and they feel lethargic and often depressed due to the lack of drugs in their systems. Sometimes their serotonin and endorphin levels are effected which leads to a biological and mental depression. This is causing a biological reaction which then brings on a psychological reaction of anxiety and stress (Pinel, 2007), which can be very daunting to the person in recovery.

Without the energy needed from the brain, many people lose all internal motivation, leaving them craving more of what the drug brought to their system. Craving Craving is an extremely intense urge for the drug that has been withheld from the person, and many times this craving is too intense for many addicts in recovery to withstand. The negative symptoms from the withdrawal are many, and oftentimes they are both physical and mental, causing even more cravings to “feel better” again (Deckers, 2010).

This motivation to use again is negative, although at the time it is often the only foreseeable event a person sees that will help them. Addiction is terrible, withdrawal is painful, and the mental stress endured is extremely hard for many to take for long, especially without the support of family or friends. Heredity Oftentimes it is presumed that everyone has a parent or loved one that can help these people in recovery on their journey, and motivate and encourage them in their walk toward sobriety, but that is not always the case.

In most cases there is a genetic predisposition to addiction, meaning that there may be some inherited traits. This theory implies that there may be a gene to be isolated that causes addiction, though this is only a theory without proven support (Deckers, 2010). What is known though is that between the inherited traits and the environment a person is raised in, much is taken in by which the personality is formed. A person with a personality for sensation seeking or an impulsive and high-risk taker will probably be more at risk for developing addictions than someone who is a lower risk taker and who less impulsive (Deckers).

There is also the theory that in some addicts the reward center is not readily activated by the “usual” and everyday occurrences in life (Comer, 2005). This reward deficiency makes it even more difficult for a person to remain internally motivated to remain in recovery due to the physiological malfunctions taking place in their brains. When a person comes into recovery, they may be motivated internally to have a better life, become a better parent, or just remain sober. This motivation may be psychological and very strong, the person may want to be sober and become sober minded and start out on their path of recovery with that strong ntrinsic factor. After they have stopped using drugs, their battle is actually just beginning as they learn to deal with the triggers in life that may fall on them. If they do not have close family to lend them support and to encourage them in an external motivating factor, then the person in recovery may give in to the familiar, and fall back into their life of drugs. There are also the physiological happenings in the brain and their neurotransmitters, which can be more powerful than their psychological drive (Comer, 2005). Relapse

Although there are many obstacles to be found in recovery, recovery is possible. There are many events to watch out for though on this path that could lead to drug relapse. Priming is a good example of how someone can relapse, by using a drug just one more time (Deckers, 2010). Many times a person can have a time of sobriety and their physical withdrawal symptoms have decreased. They begin to feel better as their neurotransmitters and dopamine levels are more stable, and psychologically they begin to have more confidence and self-esteem.

Though this is good, it can lead a person to believe that they can use “just one time” and stop. This one time use can actually reestablish their cravings for the “high”, and cause the person to be right back into their addiction. This priming actually brings on the cravings once again for the effects the drugs have on them, and that becomes their internal or intrinsic motivation (Deckers). Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Many times a person can begin this fall and be helped by external factors, such as their families and friends encouragement to stop using.

External motivations for sobriety are often in the form of friends and family who can encourage and pull a person to wanting a better and drug free life. Unfortunately these same types of external motivations found through others can also be the motivation that pulls a person back into the drugs too. Motivation can be both positive and negative, and can be found internally or externally. It is thought that someone with strong internal or intrinsic motivational factors can become sober easier and maintain that sobriety longer than those with less of the internal motivation.

Facts seem to point out though that it takes both, internal and external motivations working in a “push/pull” rhythm to gain more strength and ability to stand. Other external motivating factors to remain in recovery could be loss of freedom, loss of children, and even loss of their own lives if their physical heath has deteriorated due to their drug use. These reinforcers and punishers play a big role in whether a person maintains their sobriety or not, and should be used to positively encourage the person on their path of recovery.

Positive reinforcement can also be used with incentives, such as getting their children back, to encourage sobriety. Many times, before a person enters in to recover for their first time, they have been arrested or felt the negative punishers from their drug use. These same negative punishers may also be the incentive needed for someone to gain and remain sober. Conclusion In conclusion it must be stated that although recovery can be difficult, it is done on a daily basis. It is in the recovery process that people learn to find deep within them a reason for living sober, and see external rewards and incentives to maintain their sobriety.

Azerbaijan persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

The country was among the birthplaces of mankind and is located at the heart of ancient civilizations. Furthermore the country is known to be among the most progressive and secular Islamic societies. Aside from having been the first Muslim country to have operas, theater plays, and a democratic republic, Azerbaijan today is among the Muslim countries where support for secularism and tolerance is the highest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world, was established in 1918, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920.

Azerbaijan regained independence in 1991. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion but the majority of people adhere to the Shia branch of Islam, although Muslim identity tends to be based more on culture and ethnicity rather than religion and Azerbaijan remains as one of the most liberal majority-Muslim nations. The pre-Turkic Azerbaijani population spoke an Iranian language called the Old Azeri language, which was gradually replaced by a Turkic language, now known as the Azerbaijani language from the 11th century onward until it became completely extinct in the 16th century.

To distinguish it from the Turkic Azerbaijani or Azeri language, this Iranian language, is designated as the Azeri language (or Old Azeri language), because the Turkic language and people are also designated as “Azeri” in the Persian language. Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and longitudes 44° and 51° E. The total length of Azerbaijan’s land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 kilometers are with Armenia, 756 kilometers with Iran, 480 kilometers with Georgia, 390 kilometers with Russia and 15 kilometers with Turkey.

The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country’s center. There are also three mountain ranges, the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40 percent of the country.

The main water sources are the surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km (62 mi) in length. All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country. Since the independence of Azerbaijan in 1991, the Azerbaijani government has taken drastic measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan. But national protection of the environment started to truly improve after 2001 when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.

Within four years protected areas doubled and now make up eight percent of the country’s territory. Since 2001 the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked for environmental protection. Azerbaijan’s diverse landscape affects the ways air masses enter the country. The Greater Caucasus protects the country from direct influences of cold air masses coming from the north. That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile, plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates.

Rivers and lakes form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan; they were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period. This is particularly evidenced by fragments of ancient rivers found throughout the country. The country’s water systems are continually changing under the influence of natural forces and human introduced industrial activities. Artificial rivers (canals) and ponds are a part of Azerbaijan’s water systems. From the water supply point, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately 100,000 m? year of water per km?. The first reports on the richness and diversity of animal life in Azerbaijan can be found in travel notes of Eastern travelers. Animal carvings on architectural monuments, ancient rocks and stones survived up to the present times. The first information on the animal kingdom of Azerbaijan was collected during the visits of naturalists to Azerbaijan in 17th century. Unlike fauna, the concept of animal kingdom covers not only the types of animals, but also the number of individual species.

There are 106 species of mammals, 97 species of fish, 363 species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan. The national animal of Azerbaijan is the Karabakh horse, a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse endemic to Azerbaijan. The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world. Azerbaijan’s vegetation consists of more than 4,500 species of higher plants.

Due the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the vegetation is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other republics of the South Caucasus. Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions; 66 rayons and 77 cities of which 11 are under the direct authority of the republic. Also, Azerbaijan includes the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan. The President of Azerbaijan appoints the governors of these units, while the government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Self-ruling Republic. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan.

The country’s large abundance of natural and cultural attractions make it an attractive destination of visitors. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s; yet, the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination. It was not until 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays. In the recent years, Azerbaijan has also becoming a popular destination for religious, spa, and health care tourism.

Around 95 percent of the populations are Muslims. 85% of the Muslims are Shia Muslims and 15% Sunni Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the Second highest Shia population percentage after Iran. There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. Of the nation’s religious minorities, Christians are mostly Russian and Georgian Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic (almost all Armenians live in the break-away region of Nagorno-Karabakh).

The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences. Today, Western influences, including globalized consumer culture, are strong. National traditions are well preserved in the country. Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, cinematography and Novruz Bayram. The latter is the traditional celebration of the ancient New Year. Novruz is a family holiday. The traditional cuisine is famous for richness of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes.

Fresh herbs, including mint, dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table. Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea, local meat (mainly mutton and beef), and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens. Saffron-rice ploy is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage.

Azerbaijan–Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as “one nation with two states” by the ex-president of Azerbaijan Abulfaz Elchibey due to a common culture and history, and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. The countries share a short border, with the Aras River separating Turkey from the Nakhchivan exclave for just a few kilometers.

Today, the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the “most important bilateral partnership” in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijani foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peace keeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces.

Super Bakery Analysis admission college essay help: admission college essay help

The ABC method benefit companies that assign costs based on cost drivers and how they reflect the depletion of the resources to create the product. Complications with Current Accounting System Super Bakery uses the ABC accounting system that is a management tool that focuses on reducing costs and improving process by using the information obtained from this form of accounting. This allows managers to take the approach of practicing activity based management.

This method ,however, is not the preferred method for a company running a virtual corporation simply because at the cost of goods sold will fluctuate depending on variables related to the outsourced and subcontracted companies and how the economy impacts their individual business. By averaging the cost of each good made and shipped to all parts of the globe Super Bakery relies on the least expensive products to make up for the more expensive ones and diminishes the amount of net income that can be produced. Job Order Cost System

The job order cost system will benefit the Super Bakery company more effectively than the ABC system solely because the job order cost system assigns prices to unique products, and also can be assigned to unique shipping locations. This process keeps track of the material, labor, and overhead costs of the individual job. Assigning different values to the fluctuating variables of shipping methods, contractors, and outsourced companies the Super Bakery management would be able to determine what outsourced interests need to be looked into.

By using this method, management can determine if the shipping company is charging too much for certain locations or a manufacturer of a particular product charges less for the various vitamins. This will allow Super Bakery to find another company that will ship a product to a destination that orders a certain product more than other locations. For instance, if shipping company A charges $10 to ship a product to Alaska and company B charges $8 and 80% the companies shipment of this particular product go to Alaska Super Bakery can decide to ship this product with company B and keep company A for the domestic locations.

The method that Super Bakery is currently using would not necessarily show this dynamic simply because it assigns to cost to shipping as a whole and not the individual location or product. Process Cost System This system assigns cost to mass-produced products identical and mass-produced like the products manufactured for Super Bakery. This process breaks down cost between products in a work-in-progress, and products finished goods.

This method reports the production costs allocation between work-in-progress and finished goods through the cost of production report. This method would benefit Super Bakery more than their current one as well. It allows management to see how much each individual product production costs and allows management to assign cost to units completed and to those in the work-in-progress inventory. Conclusion

Although Super Bakery utilizes a business model that keeps costs down because of the outsourcing that takes place to operate the company they can benefit from changing their Cost Accounting system to the Job Order Cost System. This system calculates for material, labor, and overhead, and assigns a price to individual products and those products being shipped to different locations. The other method of accounting that would benefit Super Bakery would be the Process Cost System; this system assigns costs not only to products finished but also cost to products still in progress.

While this could work, it will be too difficult to calculate all the stages of the production process with all of the different outsourced companies used to run Super Bakery. Super Bakery would benefit from changing to the Job Order Cost System to enhance how they view the cost of goods sold. References Kimmel, P. D. (2009). Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making (3rd ed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

Porter Five Analysis of the European Airline Industry admission essay help: admission essay help

While the business model existed for some time (first such in 1973 US), the appearance of these in the European market needed the liberalization brought forth by the EU, implementing the „Freedoms of the air” in three stages. In 1997 the first LCC (Low Cost Carrier), the Ryanair began its operation, and in a few years a few more followed, which gave the national and network airlines a new problem to the existing economic problem, shrinking market and others such as 9/11. By today the changes in the past two decades have shifted and diversified the industry, which was once a mature and to some level declining in structure.

The new regulations, companies, investors and consumers have brought new life, the industry once again mature with fragmented characteristics. The ideal tool for the assessment of the airlines industry is Michael Porter’s five force model. It aims to find and demonstrate the forces in the microenvironment which influence the industry, internal and external as well. Threat of new entrants (barriers to entry) •High capital investment ? •Capital intensive ? •Airport slot availability ? •Predatory pricing ? •Brand loyalty/frequent flyer ? •Economies of scale ? Limited number of routes ^ The threat of new entrants, due to the barriers mostly set by the nature of the industry and by the existing companies, are very low. Yet sometimes when the possibility arises, new companies start: in the past few years many national companies went bankrupt leaving a market to take by the existing companies or new upstarts. Bargaining power of suppliers •Aircraft manufacturers •Relatively low number of suppliers ^ •Suppliers are concentrated ^ •Airlines are valued customers ? •Airports •Slot availability ^ •Alternatives to the primary airports ?

The bargaining power of suppliers is mostly two-legged, and both have a medium threat. For both parties it is best to find a mutually working solution on a long term, because it is a industry with relatively small number of players loosing even one can have an impact on both sides. Threat of substitutes •Alternative transport (bus, car, train) ^ •Videoconferencing ^ •Global environmental awareness ^ The threat of substitutes includes a broad variety for the different needs. All-in-all it still only gives a medium threat, since the quick transport to a distance has no alternative.

Bargaining power of customers •Price ? •Internet/social media ^ •Customer orientation ? •Choice ^ With the first LCCs the customers had no bargaining power: if you choose to go with this low price, accept the services as it is. However, nowadays with more alternatives and the ever-reaching internet and social media a bad customer satisfaction can be a disaster. This can however be mitigated with customer orientation, but still customer had the choice, it is a medium high level. Rivalry within the industry •Between LCC and national/network airlines ^ •Between LCCs ^

The rivalry within the industry is high due to the high number of big and medium sized companies. The airlines industry is highly competitive, with very high barriers and medium to high threats within. While there is a relatively low threat from a new market entree, the existing international competition is fighting over all the resources: more and better airports possibly with mutually excluding contracts, picking up the customers fed up with their previous carrier or starting a price war on a selected destination, binding the newly aquired flyers with brand loyalty programmes.

Unless there is an opportunity, it is not an attractive industry to enter due to the high number of barriers. However, once established a foot, it is a very interesting and very intensive industry with good possibilities. The major LCCs depending on how low cost they are making good profit and there is still room for growth. The key factors for success should include: •Efficiently utilizing the resources (financial, time, human resources) •Utilizing a network of business partners (complementary) •Timely expansion (trying new destinations, increasing frequency) •Customer orientation (with following trends eg. ocial media) These above should be observed by both LCCs and traditional airlines. The industry standards are given, those companies will become successful which can effectively utilize them.

Opposites and Paradoxes in King Lear aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

The sequence of oppositional characters and motifs in the play bring about in the audience a sense of the corruption of principles that beset the protagonists of the play. With this sense of opposition comes a strong sense of the duality within the play seemingly centred on the Epodoclean theory of a “world governed by the contrary forces of love and hate. Though this is not unusual for a stage production, McAlindon believes that when the bond of opposites that constitutes the natural order of “revolt against limit and fly to extremes. ” This can be seen in the characters foremost as the sons of Gloucester as well as the daughters of Lear are directly opposed to each other. Indeed it is in the internal nature of Lear that this is focused most powerfully as his beliefs in love and kindnesses are offset by the egocentric and chloric feelings that dwell within his heart.

It is mainly from the character and fate of Lear that the true extent of the breakdown of nature can be seen as within the space of two weeks he has sunk from kingship to a world of destitution and poverty as he suffers at “th’ extreme verge” in his relationship with his family. What is most tragic in relation to Lear though is his rediscovery of Cordelia before the heart wrenching death she endures as he is thrown from the heights of grief before his heart gives way under the strain of ecstatic joy.

But while the emotional converses that Lear endures are tremendously powerful they are not the only matters in opposition throughout the play. There can be seen in the various settings of the play a number of thematic oppositions, with the most apparent being the contrast between the nocturnal and gloomy castle of Gloucester as opposed to the serene Dover fields where Father and daughter are reunited, where love opposes strife. Indeed there are a great number of inversions that apply a new number of possible thoughts to the understanding of the play.

Lear’s sufferings are completely opposed to the more typical tragedies of the Shakespearean era where there was a distinct separation between the suffering of the social elite and “the low and the ludicrous” in the principal of the Senecan school of thought. In King Lear though it would appear to be the Saturnalism theories that prevail as the positions of the lowest are inverted with those of the highest, as Lear takes the place of his fool in declaring the unpalatable truths of the world in his madness, adopting a sense of tragedy in the manner in which this is done.

There are none more demonstrative of inversions than the antonymic nominalism that occupy the play with the most pathetic being Gloucester’s praise of Goneril and Cornwall, whereby his loyalty to the king becomes “treason” whereas Edmund’s betrayal is described as a show of “loyalty. ” But more than this it is a key illustration of the wickedness of protagonist such as Goneril who condemn “harmful mildness. ” This sense of paradox is prevalent mostly in the evil party where it comes to signify a moral and social inversion of a rational order of things.

In contrast to this a positive paradox comes to represent a renewal through destruction and a discovery though loss, most notably seen in the increase of France’s attraction for Cordelia following her rejection by Lear as she becomes an “unprized precious maid,” becoming “most choice, forsaken” as the isolation of “forsaken” seemingly highlighting the paradox. What is more is that a sense of pathos is granted through this as Lear’s misinterpretation of each one of his daughters and his reliance of the “wolfish” Regan and Goneril, as well as Gloucester’s miscomprehension of Edmund as being a “loyal and natural boy. The twin paradoxes that appear in the discovery of madness, characterised by Lear, and the discovery of vision in blindness are the most powerful in the development dignity undertaken by Lear and to an extent Gloucester in this play. McAlindon believes that of all the paradoxes it is the fact that the tragedy develops around an inability “to contain the worst effects of a terrible eruption in nature,” and none is more terrible than the progressive failing of family links. The typical familial bond of mutual love and affection that is the ornerstone of most families is shockingly absent in King Lear though it is desperately craved by Lear himself. McAlindon believes that this style of bond involves love and justice as well as that it “predicates a glad and spontaneous performance of offices and responsibilities. ” It is therefore bewildering that Edmund would break such a bond in such an anti-familial manner, undermining civilised society in the process, and comparisons can be drawn between him and Iago in his mistreatment of Claudius in Othello.

Gloucester, however, can be seen to be as equally to blame for Edmund’s waywardness as his dreadful mistreatment of him, whose breeding is only acknowledged as Gloucester “often blushed,” and seems to be a victim of tragic causality as Edmund comes to believe that he owes everything to himself. The ancient Greek writers Plato and Aristotle believe that love creates emotional awareness and allows for the creation of just law.

With this in mind the manner with which Lear treats the link between him and his daughters in such a material way shatters any sense of order or responsibility in his court with the dismissal of Cordelia and Kent becoming a satire of what passes for justice in society. If Plato’s theories are developed then it would seem that the main cause for injustice is a loss of human kindness and sympathy, explaining fully Edmund’s pathological hardness as his bastardy alienates him.

In the same manner in which Edmund suffers a lack of acknowledgement, so too does Lear suffer the same fate, it is only through his mistreatment on the familial ties. McAlindon believes that Lear holds a heavy “dependence of personal identity on the bond” and it is his reliance on the bond as a material tie makes him a nobody after he divulges himself from his power and estate resulting in one of the most pathetic lines “I gave you all” separated from the cruelty of Regan.

The greatest dignity is then conveyed onto those around him who still perceive the bond to be a union through love, and therefore still hold the same respect for Lear despite his failure to recognise them. The importance of a character understanding the treatment of time plays an integral part in the possibility of them being seen as a tragic figure. King Lear is a tragedy characteristic of its age, a tragedy of extreme and terrible violence, as there is a sense of the untimeliness of violence and destruction that rashness and impatience bring about.

Most characteristic of this flaw is Lear as his kingdom implodes through his “hideous rashness” as he signals the unleashing of pitiless violence that culminates in the utterly pathetic death of Cordelia. He is ironically guilty too of being overly patient as there is an almost comic stichomythia between him and Kent portraying his unwillingness to accept facts. A parallel can be drawn with Gloucester in this as his impatience regarding the supposed traitor Edgar is both unjust and demonstrative of the nexus between time and justice as well as injustice and haste.

Calculated swiftness becomes characteristic with the actions of the evil party and can be seen by Edmunds manipulation of Gloucester under the pretence of judicial behaviour as well as that of his brother as he acts “in cunning” and its placement a the beginning of the line illuminates its two meanings. In an extreme contrast the good party align themselves with time, adopting a policy of patience that is both dignified and tragic. Edgar is keen to wait for “the mature time” whilst Kent waits for the perfect moment to reveal himself to his master, however, it is his own personal tragedy that he never finds the right moment.

This can be seen as a demonstration of a true heart as this is a play that appeals profoundly to the heart as much as it does to the mind. Emblematic of a noble heart is the manner in which a protagonist empathises and treats those around them and powerful contrasts can be seen between characters and their counterparts. Indeed the most powerful of these contrasts is between the “dog-hearted daughters” of Lear and Cordelia with the scenic juxtaposition of tranquil Dover and the castles and courts of Regan and Goneril a clear demonstration of this.

To be truly tragic in King Lear a character possess a good heart and this is perfectly shown by the “marble hearted sisters” as opposed to Kent’s whose own heart is pierced by Lear’s rejection of Cordelia. Alongside the good characters Lear’s heart is true in its nature, though he seems to suffer the promethean anguish, with his heart replacing the traditional liver, culminating in his death which must be presumed as being from a broken heart. Compassionate love is the supreme value in the play and as discussed above beliefs and social morals come from love and therefore the heart.

Conversely though a slighted heart can produce the most devastating fury and hatred through grief as not only does the heart present the duality of nature with the possibility for disunity and anarchy but in this same manner emphasizing the importance of patience. Therefore the presence of all the aforementioned undertones and subtle themes tragedy is both made distinctly more unattainable as well as becoming much more powerful in its nature, with pathos coming to play a key role in its development.

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