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Renaissance Vs. Rococo Art Movements Essay Help





vs. Rococo Art Movements


The paper will make an in-depth
analysis of Michelangelo Buonarroti’s Sistine
Chapel Ceiling and Antoine Watteau’s Jupiter
and Antiope artworks in order to highlight the style differences between
Rococo and Renaissance art movements. Rococo art is a European art movement
that followed Baroque art from 1715 to 1774. The style was most popular in
France under the rule of King Louis the fifteenth and is more inclined on
cultural mythologies in its creations. The renaissance era is regarded as a
period of diverse and progressive activities in terms of creativity and
intellect. The art movement was dominant throughout the fifteen century and emphasized
on the perspective and anatomy of its subjects. Renaissance and Rococo art
depict styles that are not separated only by time, but also through cultural
concepts. Conceptual divergence is that Renaissance art is absolute and unified
(religious) while Rococo is relative and multiple (pagan).

Art Works Background

The Sistine Chapel represents one
of the most common works of the High Renaissance period. The art is a fresco
painting done on the interior ceiling of the chapel from 1508 to 1512 (Fields
1). The chapel was commissioned by Pope Sixtus the fourth. Michelangelo the
creator of the ceiling was a sculptor as opposed to popular belief that he was
a painter. Coaxed by the pope to do the art, the ceilings in the chapel offer clear
illustrations on the Catholic Church doctrines. The ceiling is made up of three
hundred figures that give a chronological narration of Christian doctrine from
Moses to the life of Christ. Modern researches on Michelangelo’s frescos
suggest the existence of hidden images such as the human brain under the
creation of Adam.

and Antiope is a French oil painting also referred to as the Satyr and the Sleeping Nymph. Watteau
created the art from the years 1714 to 1719 (Riviere 277). The artwork is derived from the story of seduction
by Greek god Zeus on Antiope. According to the cultural myth, Zeus appeared to
Antiope, a beautiful daughter of Thebes, under the pretence of a satyr. Because
of the emotional manipulation, Antiope got pregnant and gave birth to twins
Zethus and Amphion (Riviere 277).
Satyr and Nymphs are two distinct Greek mythology creations that only unite
because of their instinctive natures. The two are employed in erotic creations
as sexual relations represent one of the most popular art expressions.


The Sistine Chapel Ceiling and Jupiter
and Antoipe both use light and color to ascertain clarity in the structure
of individual forms. For instance, in the Creation of Adam fresco, three
separate panels illuminate the start of the book of Genesis. God is painted as
an old man covered in a white swirling cloak to bring out his supremacy. On the
other hand, Adam, who is naked, is painted using dark brown color that
structures his dependence on God (Szalay 1). Bright white color is sued to show
the connection in the two where God’s and Adam’s arms stretch in order to touch
each other. God’s white light creates his role as the giver of life, while
Adam’s dull color depicts his relative significance in the relationship. In the
Rococo painting, light is employed to bring out the conceptual sexuality in the
characters. Watteau paints the feminine flesh using bright lights that falls on
a silky fabric giving the feeling of relish. He uses golden color to create the
enticing feel of the female anatomy (Smith and Up Stone 286). Behind the female
character is a man painted using dull golden color to highlight on his muscular
anatomy. The dull color also narrates on humanities’ sexual desires that entail
manipulation as seen in the man removing the silk fabric covering the woman. Color
and lighting in both art styles facilitate the creation of individual forms
with their respective physical characteristics.

is close attention to space in both Rococo and Renaissance art styles. The
Sistine Chapel ceiling highlights central and harmonious use of close space
while Jupiter and Antiope depict depth in close space. For instance,
Michelangelo’s fresco on the Old Testament includes three hundred and forty
three painting pieces on the Northern ceiling (Szalay 1). There are no
scaffolds in the artworks as used in early renaissance in order to ascertain
the painting were not too big or too small to serve their informative purpose. Despite
centralizing the nude peasant in Jupiter and Antoipe, Watteau provides depth by
painting a bushy horizon behind the character within the same oval dimensions
of the character. Through the horizon, viewers find depth by relating the nude
character with the open environment or nature (Smith and Up Stone 286). In
essence, there is freedom of physicality because of the deep use of space.


The major divergence in the
artworks is in how systems interact with each other to give the final message. In
the Renaissance artwork, a close relationship between parts unify to create one
picture (Fields 1). This is seen in the chronological alignment of the pieces
from the creation of Adam to the life of Christ. Pieces in the artwork unify to
give a complete story of the Christian doctrine. Rococo art on the other hand
has a decentralized form of relationship between its pieces. There is one
dominant piece that moves away from the others as seen in the nude peasant. There
is no holistic perception in the painting as comprehension is derived through
summing up the different parts of the system (Riviere 279).

is divergence in alignment as the ceiling is linear while Jupiter and Antiope
is painterly. In meaning, there is difference in the way lines are used to
create the world like perception on the viewer. Michelangelo’s frescos follow a
chronological line in Christian history and architectural order. The frescos
are located in triangles located immediately after the arched windows (Fields
2). Viewers gain understanding of the divergent historical periods through the
separated arched windows. On the other hand, Watteau employs lighting to
highlight the sexually intensive world of the painting. The shadows created by
the lighting help the viewer focus on the physical outline of the nude peasant
creating the deep and emotional concept (Smith and Up Stone 286). Rococo art in
this appears to emphasize on depth while Renaissance focuses on planes.

art is closed while Rococo style is open under the context of forms and scenes.
The Sistine ceiling as seen in the creation of Adam has a closed composition
because it has the intent of narrating on a specific part of history. The
information cannot be altered in any way giving the art a specific direction. In
addition, Adam and God are two unique beings with distinct forms. Jupiter and
Antiope on the other hand is aristocratic and emotional. The piece can include
any form of skill to modify its information. Rococo style is conceptual thus is
open to any formal elements that improve its apprehensions of reality (Riviere 279). The divergence can also
be seen as a cognitive difference in complete and relative clarity. One cannot
become confused while viewing the Sistine ceiling because it is explicit in
content. Satyr and Nymph is unclear in its content.


Douglas. Michelangelo’s Secret Message
in the Sistine Chapel: A Juxtaposition of God and the Human Brain. The Scientific American. 27 May 2010.
Web. 6 August 2015.

Riviere, Calude. France: An American
Magazine. New York, 1917. Print.

Alison, and Robert Up stone. Exposed: The Victorian Nude. London: Tate
Pub, 2001. Print.

Jessie. SistineChapel: Facts,
History & Visitor Information. Live
Science. 30 October 2013. Web. 6 August 2015.

Summary on “How Stephen Colbert Stacks Up Against His Late-Night Rivals”: writing essay help




on “How Stephen Colbert Stacks Up Against His Late-Night Rivals”:

The article
provides details concerning the taking over of “The Late Show” by Stephen
Colbert from David Letterman, the former host. Steven’s personality is
discussed. The author explains that the development of Colbert’s career and
personality has been successful because of his adaptation to a persona that is
strongly opinionated, vain and headstrong. This is especially observed during
this commentary on issues such as consumer culture and politics. He is renowned
for coining the word “truthiness” in his program on Comedy Central known as
“The Colbert Report”. The article elaborates that despite Colbert’s outward outspokenness;
he is a funny, topical and bombastic person. This further elucidates reasons
that justify his promotion in becoming the host of “The Late Show”.

He has conducted
quite a number of projects over the years as he sought to establish his career
in the showbiz business. One of these projects included his presidential
campaign coverage, which he headed in 2008 known as “The Hail to the Cheese
Stephen Colbert Nacho Cheese Doritos 2008 Presidential Campaign coverage”. The
second project involved the establishment of a committee for political action.
It was titled “Americans for a Better Tomorrow, Tomorrow”. According to the
author, the main aim of the committee was revealing the truthful facts
surrounding political fundraising events. There has been concern over how
Colbert will be able to remain relevant, as the show will allow him to expose a
more buffoonish side of his persona. Additionally, staff from “The Report” will
also be included during the shows. Fortunately, the author assures Colbert’s
viewers and fans that the infamous talk show host will have enough content for
the show, which will ensure he remains relevant.

Response to Chapter 10-15 of Oryx and Crake college admission essay help




to Chapter 10-15 of Oryx and Crake

From chapter 10, jimmy presents a
common experience undergone by college graduates. This is depicted when he
graduates and does not get a job immediately. He puts in effort to send his credentials
to companies that have job vacancies (Atwood 243). Jimmy finally getting
employment opens up a chapter in his life whereby he can gain sexual favors. One
might think this is primarily because he heads the ad campaign for the beauty
products at the AnooYoo Company.

relationship between a child and a parent is clearly depicted. This is
portrayed when Jimmy is asked to identify his mother in a video presented to
him by the CorpseCorps (Atwood 256). The execution of his mother in the video
allows the reader to understand the amount of grief such a loss brings. The
aspect of friendship is also captured in chapter 10-15. Crake, being Jimmy’s
friend provides comfort for his depressed friend after the death of his mother.

scientific innovations are also introduced within this context. Some of these
innovations include a drug that reverts aging being advertised under the
leadership of Jimmy as well as the humanoid creature developed by Crake to
mimic only the best attributes of earthly beings (Atwood 300). Crake is
depicted as a scientist driven by the need to relinquish imperfections from
humanity. It is clear to state that his end goal is immortality. He embodies
the traits of a true scientist as he seeks to accomplish a goal that seems quite
unachievable practically.

Deception is a theme that is
introduced within these chapters. This is illustrated when Oryx and Jimmy
establish a romantic relationship yet she is Crake’s partner (Atwood 333). It
is clearly observed that Crake has no knowledge of the budding love affair.
This sheds a bad light on Jimmy as he betrays his friend. The severity of their
deception is illuminated when there is a worldwide pandemic. Crake manages to
kill Oryx by slitting her throat. At this point, the theme of love is seen
because Jimmy avenges his lover by shooting Crake.

Loyalty is a theme, which runs
throughout the book. Snowman, the name that Jimmy goes by when introducing
himself to the Crakers, is hell-bent on protecting them. This is because he
vowed to Oryx and Crake to keep them safe (Atwood 349). Loyalty is also noted
when Jimmy faces the dilemma of protecting the Crakers or his own species. This
is after he is notified that three humans have been seen passing by the beach
encampment (Atwood 360). Perfecting humanity flaws is portrayed as an
unachievable venture. This reality is observed when the Crakers exhibit some traits,
which Crake wanted to edit out in order to create an immortal and perfect

Works Cited

Atwood, Margaret. Oryx and Crake. New York: Anchor Books. 2013. Print.,. ‘Casebook – Oryx And Crake’. N.p.,
2015. Web. 9 Sept. 2015.

Comprehensive Security Plan essay help online
Security Plan



Security Plan


security plan outline describes the safeguards that the Baltimore Medical
Centre will adopt in order to protect its information systems that contain vital
patient and corporate information. Any violations of the protocols and policies
set in this outline will subject the actuator to corrective action where in
adverse degrees may result in employment termination. Baltimore Medical Centre
intends to honor the set workplace guidelines and procedures, but has the right
to make changes in the event of poor results or fault under sole discretion of
the management.


security plan covers all processes applicable or relating to access control
mechanisms and functions. The stipulations will be effective throughout all
hospital departments irrespective of functionalities in order to ascertain
centralization of information access. Managers, supervisors and departmental
heads are given the mandate to ensure conformance to the set instruction

Purpose and Objectives

plan intends to establish protocols and policies that will ascertain service
quality improvements and continuity given that the responsibility of the
hospital extends beyond physical limitations in the protection of data
(Dhillon, 2011). The aim is to ensure patient and corporate data possess
attributes of confidentiality, integrity and availability standards conforming
to global trends in the information industry.

Current Security Environment

hospital currently employs a two-tier information network that is centralized physically
within the facility. In this, the system is inflexible given instances of
damage in both physical or non-physical damage and intrusion.

Security Strategies and Actions

Access Control and Validation

to the facility’s information system that holds electronic data will be granted
only after authorization and validation of the actuator’s identity. Access
control of the protected information will follow the Security Access Validation
and Authorization policy that is stipulated in the prior security guideline. In
meaning, access control will cover:

Health Information Evidence RoomDoctor’s Transcription RoomBaltimore Clinic Document RoomSurgical Associates NetworkWomen ServicesBaltimore Specialty Record Room

             Divergence in the security plan is that keypad
codes will be subject to change after every thirty days under the supervision
of the manager. In addition, all employees will be required to sign an
agreement of confidentiality that will necessitate that all corporate and
patient information is kept private and confidential (Fay, 2012). Visitors to
the facility will sign entry and exit sheets that will encompass electronic
names, passwords and visitor identification cards.

Emergency Contingency Plan

Medical Centre will integrate an external decentralized data server that will
act as a backup location for all data. In the event of any alarm, the outside
server immediately will initiate data downloads and locking. The backup
location will be discrete and access will be given to two employees who will
remain unknown to the worker base and to each other.


public and private Security Officers will make analysis and recommendations on
the system on a semi-annually basis in order to determine new faults and
instances regulatory non-conformance. The officers will follow present HIPAA
security instructions and other more strict regulations that are applicable and
beneficial to the institution (Fay, 2012). In the event of faults or regulatory
non-conformance, the security plan will be subject to updates in secretive
contexts. Baltimore’s Engineering Manager is accountable for approving
recommendations from the Security Officers. In essence, the EM is responsible
for system repairs and adjustments.


G. (2011). Information Security Management: Global Challenges in the New
Millennium. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Pub.

J. (2012). Contemporary Security Management. Boston:

Realism and Industrialization essay help online




and Industrialization

In the nineteenth
century, realism was considered as one of the major art movement against
romanticism owing to its influence on French art and literature during this
period. The main issues that sparked off the rejection of romanticism were
exaggeration of emotional depictions as well as the drama (Khan
Academy n.p).
Thus, the movement was directed towards creation of a more typical and
realistic portrayal of situations and people with the aim of depicting accuracy
and truth. The major subjects delved on in this movement include capturing of
changes enacted by commercial and industrial revolutions.

Courbet was part
of the chief exponents that promoted realism. His works were used to depict the
ongoing of contemporary life, which challenged other artistic models such as
history painting (Kleiner and Mamiya 30). Through
his work, he was able to represent everyone in his native region in a similar
manner without consideration of social factors (Khan Academy
n.p). As will be further elaborated, two of his best works of art that were
considered instrumental in illustrating the essence of philosophy of realism
being responsive to industrial revolution included Stonebreakers and A Burial at

Stone Breakers

The Stonebreakers was painted during the 19th
century and presents the first work of Courbet. Courbet illustrates the real
aspect of industrialism by presenting two workers whom one is too old for hard
work that includes breaking and carrying stones while the other is too younger
and hence not suited for the job as well. The main aim of the artist was to demonstrate
sympathy for the workers due to the exhaustion and hardship they undergo (Kleiner and Mamiya 34). It is evident to examine that
Courbet portrays the predicament of the poor where the two laborers are working
to remove rocks from a road that is under construction despite their
incapabilities due to age.

An indication of
industrialism would be the use mallets and jackhammers that were considered
modern tools during that era. This period was faced with progressive economic
industrialization (Khan Academy
n.p). Thus, in relation to this Courbet’s painting, it captures one of
the major activities that contributed to increased industrialization, which is
construction of infrastructure. Poverty was a factor that contributed to the
characterization of industrialization. This is validated by the tattered
clothes worn by the two characters illustrated in the painting. In summary, the
painting reflects on the disgust of the artist towards capitalism and poverty
that are indicative of industrialism.

Further analysis
of Courbet’s painting, a notable feature is he refuses to direct focus on areas
that are usually concentrated on such as the aerial perspective and developing
a composition that organizes and selects. Rather, more focus is placed on
foregrounds, hands and faces (Khan Academy
n.p). The main concept being forwarded by the artist is creation of a
realistic portrayal of the industrialization and its effect on the peasants.

The relationship
between realism and industrialism, as elaborated by Courbet is characterized by
deprivation and abuse of the poor living in the rural life in the mid century
French. As previously explained, the two characters are not suited for breaking
stones, as one is too young whereas the other is too old. With this in mind, it
is valid that the artist is indicating the close affiliation presented between
the formal choices they made and the narration of the artwork. Through elements
such as color, composition, brushwork and line, Courbet is able to mirror the
relationship between industrialization and realism.

A Burial at Ornans

A Burial at Ornans was created in the 1850’s.
It captures the events of an actual funeral at Ornans, the painter’s
birthplace. It is a monumental painting where the artist depicts an
unflattering realism, which contradicts the normal illustration observe in
history paintings (Khan Academy
n.p). This is accomplished using dull greys and dark greens as well as
the application of the robust brush technique that emphasizes on weight and
density. The entire composition and portrayal of the open grave draws attention
to the condition of humans (Khan Academy
n.p). Based on his approach, Courbet is seen to apply a more radicalized
perspective judging from the dimensions of the painting as well as the material
used. In historical painting, canvas was utilized when painting nobles (Kleiner and Mamiya 37). However, Courbet uses canvas
to portray a funeral attended by normal people who would not be considered as noble.
This is applicable with the dimensions of the painting as well. Thus,
industrialization, in this sense, is illustrated as a means through which
people are ostracized based on their social status. However, as a response,
artists such as Courbet respond through displays that elaborate the message
that everyone should be treated with the same respect and dignity accorded to
the nobles. 

industrialism, the artwork elaborates the progression of funeral setting as
illustrated by art. This is because the images fail to capture grief but rather
the face of the characters seems more caricatured (Khan Academy
n.p). The sentimental rhetoric that characterized the previous artistic
styles such as romanticism and historic painting is not observed which, marks
progression and response to the changes within the society catalyzed by
industrialization. This is also validated by the criticism and opinions
forwarded by critics and people. According to them, the painting is ordinary
and ugly and marks the revolution of modern history. Additionally, the
characters in the artwork include a Masonic judge, a mayor, gathering of people
from all walks of life as well as Christ crucified on the cross that illustrate
universal understanding. In summary, the relationship between industrialization
and realism is somewhat is disconnected as the latter responds in a
contradictory manner to the effects of the former on culture and art.


Kleiner, Fred S, and Christin J Mamiya. Gardner‘s Art Through The Ages.
Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. Print.

Khan Academy,. ‘Khan
Academy’. N.p., 2015.
Web. 4 Aug. 2015.

New Port Jazz Festival 2014 college admission essay help




Port Jazz Festival 2014

Newport jazz
festival celebrated its 60th anniversary by holding the concert for
three days over the usual two days. The festival was held in Newport
at the Fort Adams State Park
and the International Tennis Hall of Fame at the Newport Casino. The concert
brought together some of the old and new faces in jazz and much to the delight
of the fans there were performances by the legends such as Lee Konitz and
pianist Dick Hyman. The Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra attended along with Dee
Dee Bridgewater, Robert Glasper, The Cookers, Dr. John, Snarky Puppy, Wynton
Marsalis to mention a few. The festival was held between the first and third of
August with the first day made solely for upcoming artists. The event was extremely
lively and went beyond the expectations of its audience considering the weather
conditions experienced. The occasion also featured jazz aficionados and historians
whose take was important in the comparison of the festival this year and it
first festival in 1954.

first day performances were left to the emerging artists who kicked off the
event with the performance by Berklee Global Jazz Ambassadors and the University of Rhode Island Big band whose performance
was lively and paced by the loud dynamics. The day’s performances were a
selection of inspired musicians such as Dercy James Argue’s Secret Society and Rudresh
Mahanthappa. The night however had much more in store for the fans as they
proceeded to the International Tennis Hall of fame. Here, the first performance
by Dee Dee Bridgewater paved the way for Wynton and the Jazz at Lincoln Center
Orchestra. There was a brilliant display of Puerto Rican heritage by Miguel
Zenon’s ensemble. It featured a quartet and an arranged big band.

Saturday rain drenched the audience, but the music was heartwarming to say the
least. The Robert Glasper Experiment started the show. The music could be
described as modern jazz, which included a feel of R&B and Hip-Hop. The
Cuban band, Pedrito Martinez impressed the audience with their mastery of
percussion and paced Latin beats. This rich representation of the cultural
aspect of jazz was outstanding. Another brilliant display of talent was the
band Dave Holland and Prism whose guitarist channeled Hendrix, Jimmy Page, and
Mahavishnu altogether. The band also shared a stage with the acoustic piano playing
Craig Taborn whose band comprised of instruments such as the electric guitar
and drums. The theatrical singing by Salvant also had the crowds excited with
their joyful mood and controlled tempo.

Sunday shows had the classical jazz fans fulfilled after the performance by the
all-star band, The Cookers under the quad tent. What followed were avant-garde
compositions and arrangements that were performed by the septet Vijay Iyers.
The quartets took the day with most of the performances held being by quartets.
Gary Burton’s New Quartet, Lee Konitz with his quartet and Ravi Coltrane’s piano-less
quartet, were the most outstanding as they employed the use of progressive

best of performances in my opinion was the Danillo Perez Panama 500 Band, who
had a three-year-old boy who could play the Congas. The performance was
inspiring as the 60th anniversary was a marking of how far jazz has
come and the passing of the culture to generations to come. The performances
managed to convincingly display the diversity of jazz music and change the
general perception of Jazz.

Public Administration college essay help
Public Administration



Public Administration

Boo in her article Expectations highlights the concerns of the American citizens on
the growing levels of semi-illiteracy and poorly educated individuals mainly
drawn from the migrant populations in the country. The article illustrates what
Paul C. Light in his article describes as ‘tide’ reform. This is because
it indicates the dire need for educational reform in public high schools in the
country. The author uses a real example of reform in public institutions
through enhanced quality of instruction for the students. Light defines ‘tide’
reform as an encompassment of administrative efforts by the government aimed at
enhancing efficiency in service to the public.

The aim of
educational reform is influenced by the need to ensure that students
irrespective of their backgrounds and levels of diversity are provided with
access to quality education (Stillman, 2009).
The Denver
state government passed legislation that was driven towards enhancing
motivation levels among instructors through monetary incentives. Enhancing
service delivery in public institutions, which can be termed as high poverty
and disadvantaged, is in itself a tide reform (Stillman, 2009). This is because it was influenced by the need to
reduce the number of semi-illiterate individuals in the state.

Reducing the number of semi-illiterate
individuals in the state and more so around the country is essential towards
enhancing the country’s level of competitiveness as a global powerhouse for
innovation and technology (Stillman, 2009). Michael Bennett decision to shut
down Manual High school resulted in a backlash from
the community, students, and a section of administrators who opposed the
decision. Bennett should have held extensive talks with the local community and
other administrators to deliberate on the possibilities of closing the
institution before he took the step.

In addition, he should have provided the
students, administrators and community with an opportunity to provide insights
on the transition process before the closure of the institution (Stillman, 2009).
The author notes that Bennett and the members of the board made the decision to
close the institution without providing the community and other professionals,
who were stakeholders in the school, with an opportunity to provide opinions on
strategies that could have been used towards closure and reforming the
education sector in Denver.

            The author, in the
article, notes of the secrecy of the decision to close the institution. This
violates the rights of the community in terms of providing them with an
opportunity to provide insights and to be engaged in decision-making with
respect to the operation of the institution (Stillman, 2009). In addition,
Bennet should have ensured active engagement of the community through its
various vocal groups, as well as the students before deliberation on the need
to close the institution.

The failure to include groups that were
active in the community, and more so at Manual High school
such as The Black Education Advisory Council, shows that the Northeast
Community Congress for Education was ill-advised and contradictory to the
expectations of the law before making decisions that concern their welfare
(Stillman, 2009). The provision of a directive for community control for organizations
in Denver would
have been appropriate towards enhancing the level of education quality in the institutions.
This is because transferring poor performing students to other high performing institutions
was not effective towards solving existing problems in the area.

Bennett had good intention for public institutions
in Denver
despite the lack of appropriate communication of the goals and objectives of
restructuring public education in the area with the community (Stillman, 2009).
There was a need for adequate inclusion and deliberation of the appropriate
strategies to deal with the high level of poor quality education and dropout of
students in schools such as Manual
High School (Stillman, 2009).
In addition, the author also notes of the need for engagement of students
towards decision making on strategies that they would find as appropriate in
ensuring high performance in the public institutions.

Light notes that power in the hands of
government has the ability to enhance governance and service delivery as well
as pose threats to the liberty of people who put the governing faction in power
(Stillman, 2009). Bennett exercised a level of power that had the potency to
enhance the quality of education as well as deny students in the community a
chance to pursue education (Stillman, 2009). The power of the community and the
people of Denver
were poised to oppose the reforms that he instituted for the public
institutions in the area. Planning is essential towards ensuring and enhancing
the levels of participation in administrative reorganization for modern institutions
(Stillman, 2009). Bennett should have undertaken adequate and appropriate
measures towards planning for the reorganization of the institutions in Denver. This would have
ensured an inclusive approach for existing administrative and governance
structures in the region.

Adjusting existing administrative procedures,
practices, and institutions is essential to meet the evolving needs and
requirements of the public and of such institutions (Stillman, 2009). Administrative
reorganization involves a variety of activities such as consolidation of
existing agencies movement of power and authority from different offices to
others. Effective planning ensures effective and efficient implementation of
new structures of governance and administration within institutions. Effective
planning amounts to ensuring that all parties involved are provided with avenues
for decision-making towards developing the new structures.

Effective planning ensures minimal
contradictions and any other complaints are considered as part of the
decision-making process of reorganization of existing administrative duties and
structures (Stillman, 2009). Effective planning ensures that optimization of
the new structures takes place. This means that the planning towards the
closure of underperforming high schools would result in enhanced productivity
among instructors and more so, amongst the students who were transferred to new
learning institutions.

I find that planning ensures reliability of
results on tasks. For instance, planning and time management is an effective
means for me as a student to excel in my academics (Stillman, 2009). In
addition, I think that reorganization is becoming important for service
delivery in modern organizations as well as existing institutions of public
governance and administration. Furthermore, effective planning amounts to the
appropriation of existing resources for the new-administrative structures. This
provides a means of enhancing the reliability of the results of administrative reorganization.

In addition, reorganization of administrative
institutions in my county and state has been effective in ensuring streamlined
delivery of services to the public. In addition, it provides a means of reduction
of waste associated with bloated administrative structures. This provides funds
for various developmental projects such as enhanced public transport, education,
and training for the youth and provision of enhanced medical services.


Stillman, R. J. (2009). Public
administration: Concepts and cases. Boston,
Mass: Cengage Learning.

Academic Integrity Paper essay help




Integrity Paper

Academic integrity
amounts to acting in a manner that is deemed appropriate, ethical, and honest. Academic
integrity is the primary foundation of quality academic work and excellence in
an educational institution. Academic integrity is important for the university of Denver as it encourages, equality,
fairness, respect for diversity, morality, and ethical conduct amongst students
and university staff. Academic excellence is relative to adherence to regulations
and codes of conduct set out by the institution (University of Washington).
The University of
Washington provides in
the Student Conduct Code of the expected high level of individual conduct among
students in terms of professional integrity and honesty. In addition, the faculty
is tasked with the establishment and defining acceptable student conduct and
expected levels of integrity at the university. The University
of Denver notes that the student
conduct outcomes are aimed to being educational rather than punitive measures (University of Denver 4). They are driven to enhance a
high level of educational standards at the university. The code of conduct
ensures an equal playing field for students drawn from different cultures,
races, ethnicities, intellectual abilities and backgrounds. In addition, it
ensures that educational excellence is achieved appropriately and is beneficial
towards improving intellectual abilities and providing individuals with means
of sustaining themselves. The code of academic conduct and integrity at the Pepperdine University forms an important part of
the education process of the institution. In addition, the regulations and code
of conduct enhance the education process by improving the learning experiences
of students at the university. Education at the institution assumes a holistic
approach and includes enhancement of individual intellect, spiritual, physical
and emotional wellbeing, ethical, and moral conduct among students for an
upright society. The code of conduct at Seaver’s college ensures that the faculty
members, students, and administration are brought together through a spirit of
harmony and community towards development and enhanced learning for all (Pepperdine University).

John and Mark are
both liable for academic misconduct. John facilitated the academic misconduct,
which amounted to abetting plagiarism. John accepted Mark’s offer to have his
work used to develop similar content for an identical academic content. On the
other hand, Mark should bear the greatest responsibility of any punitive
measures that may be imposed by the instructor as result of plagiarized
content. It is important to note that John should have desisted from providing
Mark with assignment content given that it would have resulted in the two using
similar ideas and wording for the assignment. The instructor should verify
john’s intent by providing Mark with his content as a means of understanding
the role of the two parties in submission of plagiarized content. Mark solely
copied and used John’s content with an aim of gaining credit that the content
was developed by him through hard work. Furthermore, the instructor should
adhere to set out rules and regulations for punitive measures to be taken
against any student who submits plagiarized content. The instructor should
first revoke and disqualify Mark’s work based on the claims provided in the
case. To ensure fairness for both parties, John should be provided with the
opportunity to redeem himself by redoing the assignment. Mark should be
subjected to appropriate punitive measures. The two could have colluded to use
similar content for the assignment, which means that they could be both liable
as opposed to Mark being responsible for submission for plagiarized content.

databases and websites have become popular among students around the world
given that they provide immediate solutions to the various needs of students.
These sites can be termed as violations of existing codes of conduct for
universities given that they are based on providing falsified content for the students
for subsequent submission to universities boards. In addition, they are
unethical and responsible for the decline in the levels of educational standards
in the country given that a significant number of students around the world
rely on such sites for services such as completed academic assignments, dissertations,
and theses. These sites do not service a useful function given that they abet unproductive
behavior among students. Students are assured of services if they pay specified
amounts, to meet the amount of work entailed an academic assignment. This
results in graduation and release of students by institutions of higher
education who lack adequate knowledge, understanding, and skills on various topics
and fields of instruction. On the other hand, they may provide immediate
sources of information, which in turn enhances complacency among students
resulting in low skilled and undedicated individuals for modern entities. Thee term
paper databases seem to be conveying to students that money is sufficient to
enable them acquire educational success. They have encouraged poor standards of
education in modern institutions of higher education through provision of
second party assignments that may be inferior in quality.

I deeply regret my
actions as they indicate complacency and the lack of goodwill towards providing
credible and authentic academic content. I plagiarized a sentence in my essay,
which I would deem as unethical and immoral given that I did not provide
appropriate citations and credit for obtaining an excerpt of another author’s
work. I understand the consequences of plagiarized work given that it indicates
laxity and individual lack of will to adhere to set out regulations and
instructions for the assignment. I would kindly like to note that the inclusion
of the plagiarized section of my essay assignment was not intentional and may
have happened because of haste in completing my assignment. My actions were
deeply unethical and a contravention of the existing ethical and moral
standards of work at the university. I am intent on ensuring that I provide
quality work that is free from plagiarized content and is utterly authentic in
adherence to the existing regulations, moral and ethical standards of the
university.I will ensure that it I
provide high quality work, detest from jeopardizing my work by copying, and
using any words, phrases that may comprise the quality of my work. I will also
ensure that I provide appropriate citations for my entire academic from now
henceforth as a means of ensuring that credit is provided for any content or
sections of work that are excerpts from other authors. I think that in the
future I will ensure that I desist from unethical conduct in terms of
developing my academic content. This will ensure that I am able to accrue
appropriate credit for academic work. Plagiarized content results in disqualification
and denial of marks that reflect on my individual performance in the various
fields of may academic program. Thus, the need to ensure that I adhere to
appropriate academic code of conduct in developing academic content will ensure
my excellence in my program of choice.

I can term this
incident as unfortunate as it will reflect on my individual academic performance
in from a negative perspective. This incident will result in damaged reputation
as it will indicate and illustrate my resumed incompetence in providing
authentic and credible academic content to my instructors for evaluation. This
incident may also result in possible expulsion, suspension, or disqualification
from the program that am pursuing. In addition, plagiarism also includes a
damaged professional reputation post-graduation. This may be an impediment
towards acquisition and retaining professional status and reputable positions
in organizations as it indicates incompetence and lack of adherence to rules
and set out standards of ethical and moral conduct. Damaged academic reputation
is also among the many negative and considerable effects of plagiarism. It
results in the loss of opportunity to undertake successful publications in
academia because of possible fears of plagiarized content in any published
works. This is an impediment to my future anticipations of publishing academic
content and making a decent fortune. Consequences of plagiarism are also not
limited to legal repercussions as it may result in claims of infringement of
copyright on part of the owner of the content that has been used without proper
citations and credit.Plagiarism is
in itself a self-destructive undertaking that results in individual sabotage of
my learning process and education as a whole. In addition, it undermines
education for hardworking students in the institution who dedicate their time
towards developing appropriate and un-plagiarized academic content. It also
amounts to subversion of existing regulations, laws, and ethical standards of
developing academic content. This incident has had both positive and negative
impacts as it has provide me with an opportunity to desist from similar conduct
in the future. In addition, it has tarnished my academic and future
professional reputation as I seek to excel in my program of choice.


University of Washington. Addressing Academic Misconduct. University of Washington.
2010. Web. August 7, 2014. Retrieved from

University of Denver. University of Denver Honor
student conduct policies and procedures. University of Denver,
2013. Print.

Pepperdine University. Academic integrity. Pepperdine
University. 2014. Web. August
7, 2014. Retrieved from

Writing Project One: Rhetorical Analysis college admissions essay help




Writing Project One: Rhetorical Analysis


This essay analyzes the work of Kelly
Kevin on Understanding Technological
Evolution and Diversity in light of rhetorical appeals in order to gauge
the validity of the writer’s argument. In the article, the author emphasizes on
the role of technological advancements in cultural diversity. Technology has
played an integral role in transmission of cultures by enabling globalization. On
the other hand, it is important to note that human interaction has been the primary
form of transmission of cultures. People adopt new cultures, which they deem as
important towards enhancing quality of life resulting in the abandonment of
native culture. Thus, technology only enhances transmission of culture by
providing a medium for interaction between individuals drawn from diverse

Main point and other
pertinent details contained in the article

From the article Understanding Technological Evolution and
Diversity, Kelly Kevin bases his argument on the observed human cultural
changes. The article stresses on cultural diversity and how changes in technology
create, maintain or result into special behaviors exhibited among human
species. In the article, Kelly Kevin draws his major arguments from the notion
that human beings are extremely social animals and surprisingly, the largest
proportion of human time and behavior lean towards social aspects. On the same
account, the article maintains that the behavior of other animals is innately
evolved and changes with simultaneous changes in environmental conditions.

The only distinctive
characteristic between human behaviors and other innate animals is the general
argument that human beings are modest and socially motivated to learn and
acquire joint cultural practices of their close associates. In this connection,
the process of transmitting cultural information to other people either through
frank teachings or through regular social interactions is a characteristic that
can never be detached from human life. For example, human life is built on
mutual observations and impartial conversations. The combined forces of social
elements such as observation and conversation is like a mirror through which
individual believes and pertinent behaviors can be seen, intensively describes,
properly evaluated for the purposes of integrations.

The article’s
foundation is therefore considered one of the elliptical writings in the twenty
first century since it connects traditional cultures to the formal learning processes
as seen in modern societies. For instances, incorporating technology in today’s
learning institutions enhances social connection and children can learn through
observations following their active participation in various activities
touching on social relations. In addition to social emulation, incorporating
technology in learning processes allows students to have a prompt mastery of
complex skills and concepts since they learn from seeing and practicing. On a
lighter note, unless adults develop a sense of social belonging and be in
apposition to tolerate children’s participation in various social activities
and interact with other social groups, the need to spread and, or expand
cultural knowledge will not be fully met. The main idea in the article revolves
around the understanding of technological changes and how technology results in
diversification in human knowledge; the knowledge described under social
parameters like ethnicity, cultural values and practices as well as
individual’s code of conduct.

purpose of the essay

Through the article,
Kelly Kevin composes his idea on the relationship between technological
evolution and human diversification through good understanding of other
people’s ways of living. In other words, Kelly Kevin makes us believe through
his scripture that cultural diversity can only be attained through cultural
transmission using more relevant and modern channels. Through proper
understanding of social relations as the major theme of human existence,
emergence of modern means of communications and other methods of interaction
makes it possible for people with diverse ethnic backgrounds to meet and share
important issues in their cultural beliefs. Precisely, the article Technological Evolution and Diversity is
a work that drives the mind of readers towards believing on the cultural
variance and the role technology can possibly play in making the cultural
practices of a particular group known to other distinct groups.

appeals employed by the author in the text

Kelly Kevin’s
article uses the three major rhetorical appeals, ethos, logos and pathos to
sway the minds of readers and make the intended information to remain encrypted
within the minds of targeted audience. The article is built on credibility as
explained under ethos. For example, when the Kelly Kevin compares the social
lives of human beings with other animals, the basis of his argument is rated
genuine, comprehensive, convincing and therefore can be trusted. A credible
argument is logically planned, driven by the need to fulfill major objectives
and every conclusion made from such an argument must have a basis otherwise
known as the premise. Kelly’s comparison of the social life of human beings and
other animals is factual and is therefore credible. Other than being credible,
the article is consistent with observable changes in human social lives and
believes. A more practical aspect concerns the changes in gender roles and
other communal practices across the world.

The changes in
technology has made the world a global village and today people share in
various social sites on the best way to share responsibility between men and
their female counterparts. Even though other cultures recognize males more than
female, people have developed a culture of equal responsibility and recognition
for both females and males. With the same argument, people across geographical
divide are in a position to share and put in place the best form of governance
which would satisfy the entire global community.

All these are just
but some few areas a person would mention as being consistent with the
contemporary issues discussed in Kelly Kevin’s article. Finally, Kelly Kevin’s
article connects the minds of readers through emotional build ups. The article
is imaginatively written in the sense that it uses real life examples. For
example, the article discusses the social life before the introduction of
modern technologies and after the emergence of better improved means of
interaction. The modern ways of interaction for example through social sites
offer a platform that people use to compare and share their cultures and
historic lives.

From the
perspectives of major themes of this essay, one can accurately analyze the
writer’s intentions in his arguments using the mentioned rhetorical tools of
ethos, pathos and logos. Other than the areas already mentioned, the writer’s
intention to make his readers aware of the changes and the challenges
technology brings forth as far as ideology development is concerned becomes
evident for the purposes of analysis. The writer maintains a sound argument
when he states that cultural changes as observed in the recent past results
from emerging cultures that describes the complex forces considered helping in
increasing cultural diversity. For example, the writer’s intention of
explaining the constant spawns in new dialects perfectly matches the concepts
of technological changes as driving force in areas of communication and
exchange of information. Even though the writer tries to makes quantitative
inferences with an objective of ensuring that his ideas are relevant and known
to the target audience, the data collected on dynamics of cultural diversity
makes the author’s investigation easier and logical.  

In general, the idea
presented by Kelly Kevin finds  its full
backing from other related studies which foretells future split in genetics;
the major making of knowledge, practices and cultural beliefs. For example, the
discussion finds its strong support from the articles written concerning the
growth and spread of human population which is expected to have occurred
between 50 and 100,000 years ago. The various cultural features are classified
as functions of diversification in human languages, patterns of social
organizations as well as changes in subsistence systems. The cultural
diversification is therefore a making of various social classes, occupational
groups, religious faiths and castes whose actions and influence can be improved
by fast, efficient and effective means of communication and interaction. This
is the major relationship that Kelly Kevin tries to make clear within his
readers and other groups audience.

Writing Project Two: A Position

The argument
presented in the article Understanding
Technological Evolution and Diversity by Kelly Kevin is credible,
consistent and imaginative according to the analysis presented in section one
of this essay. The proposed relationship between technological changes and
human diversification in culture is something that one can observe and account
for as the whole truth. Therefore, the arguments raised in this section of
discussion supports the author’s tentative statements of cultural
diversification as a function of technological evolution since it relates to
changes in human knowledge, practices and behaviors. The argument by Kelly
Kevin highly fits into the twenty first century and can be used to identify the
challenges culture faces as a result of technological introduction and constant
rise in human needs to integrate and share in common beliefs.

Supportive arguments

As already mentioned
in the above paragraph, the argument by Kelly Kevin finds its support from the general
notion that human beings are creative, explorative and good inventors and
therefore will work within their powers to improve on their current social situations.
For example, people have always opted to be in a position to control their own
thoughts about beliefs and certain practices. From the article’s point of view,
the world in itself is like a village composed of people with various social
backgrounds, cultural relations, religious practices and personal behaviors.

From the initial
stage of human development, various studies infer to the origin of related
groups of people through the use of genes. The scientific approach of common gene
identification and coding is based on the evolutionary theories of species and
maintains an aspect of common origin before the split into other subgroups.
Majority of these biological studies are based on linguistic data and proposes
that the changes in human language is the main factor that must have
contributed immensely in creating the current ethnic groups with diverse
cultural practices. The split in human cultural practices is in most cases
caused by increasing migrations which other people do for the purpose
exploration or as a way of meeting their social needs in order to survive
adverse conditions. For either reason, technology has played an important role
in influencing peoples’ needs to move into or out of a particular group of
people. Today, people find it very easy to relocate to new places and establish
permanent homes in a very strange land due to changes in means of
transportation. In this case, technological advancement makes transportation
easier, fast, efficient and more secure than before. Such advancement is a
motivating factor towards human diversification in which case people from
different regions can meet face-to-face, share important ideas, influence the
lives of others and establish a more diversified social relations.

Other scholars
maintain the same argument that the impact of technology on cultural diversity
depends on language commonality between the people involved. Apart from other
contentious issues given prominence like the role environment plays in shaping
the life of a person to conform with the life of his or her mates, the
knowledge of commonality is a viral proces that determines the levels to which
people would be in a position to learn from each other, emulate and incorporate
the living styles of others within themselves. Important to mention is the
general argument that technological opportunities makes it easy for people to
develop a common language that shapes their learning experiences in existing
environments. Amid the arguments presented by different writers, the support
leans toward the agent-based simulation kind of investigation. The model of
agent-based simulation provides a frameworks in which people with each other,
share ideas and learn from one another. Through the process of interaction the
difference in patterns of living are shaped by individuals’ cultural
attributes. The amount of impact created in this case also depends on the
parametric space as defined by technological opportunities; the knowledge each
group has concerning its communal practices the need to learn from each other and
the reasons behind such interactions.

Human cultural
diversity is one important ingredient of technological innovation. The question
as to whether a particular people’s culture can face off and pave way for a
completely different cultural practice is not just a perception that beats
logic. A similar argument is brought forth by Brand Stewart on the changes in
the way people interact and share common ideologies through internet sites,
telephone and through other modern means of communication. This explains why it
is becoming more complex to differentiate the behavioral practices of one
ethnic group from the other. For example, the shared life experiences between
Africans and the western countries has led to cultural dynamism since most of
Africans abandon their culture and try to incorporate western culture in their
everyday encounters. The enhanced means of interactions has significantly led
into intermarriages between different ethnic groups. This makes it more
practical for the two parents to raise their offspring in a totally different
cultural setup from the original cultural environment. All these are attributes
attached to technological changes in areas of transportation and communication,
which are the major forces towards cultural union and reunion. People learn in
various ways and the more we perceive a specific culture as important in our
life the more we tend to copy and forget our own.


Even though the
article by Kelly Kevin relies heavily on the notion of technology as the main
driving force towards human diversification, other scholars view human
diversification from a completely different angle. The main opposing idea
presented by such scholars is the based on the fact that through human interaction,
people learn with an intention to change for the better (Julian 23). If an
individual abandons his or her culture on the basis of inconsistency with
current life experiences, then the abandoned culture will face off completely
and from two initial cultures a unitary and more befitting culture is
developed. This argument in summary makes us believe that technological
evolution does not give opportunity to cultural diversification but rather
allows people from various regions to learn through experience and emulate a
culture that fits all (Julian 23).

The second opposing view is based on
the notion that people are classified according to their culture depending on
their most preferred styles of living. The levels of preference here limit the
extent to which people can fully adopt the life styles of other ethnic groups.
Cultural adoption is therefore a complex issue and becomes increasing difficult
to explain (Andrew 34). This is because if people spend much of their time
scrutinizing the values contained in every cultural variant, there would be
high possibility of failing to meet some of the constraining factors like
effectiveness and efficiency in adoption (Andrew 37). On the same note, it
takes quite a while for a person to learn and be fully equipped with all the
information concerning the culture of a particular community. The time
difference between learning and full acquisition retards growth in a particular
culture and therefore makes people to retain their culture.


In general, human social
life could be thought of as a cultural tool and thus compels individuals to
build the capacity to acquire a highly sophisticated system of exchanging ideas
through proper channels of information delivery. This therefore means that
technological innovations is only a symbolic system used to identify and
categorize human population on the basis of dialect and other sets of
preferences based on cultural variances one choses to acquire. In relation to
this investigation, some of the opposing as per the concerns of Kelly Kevin’s
argument rest on the mentioned preferences such as religion, dressing styles
and parenting styles which are the only quick means through which people can
choose the cultural variant to acquire.

However, one fact
that we must recognize is the extent to which technology has created an open
space through which people can interact, learn from each other and acquire
various skills and knowledge. People can diversify in their personal knowledge,
individual skills and creativity. People can also diversify in their behaviors
without necessarily changing their cultural practices. On the contrary, culture
defines the way people or a person of a particular group lives and relate with
others. Depending on what factors motivates a person to adopt a particular life
style, technology still remains and integral part in behavior diversification.
With technological changes people with exhibit changing behaviors, behaviors
that reflect what people learn from the open environment.

Work cited

Andrew, Trusty. Technology
versus culture. Hamburg:
Diplomica Verlag Gmbh, 2011. Print.

Brand, Stewart. “Is
Technology Moving Too Fast?”

Steward. Environment, Technology and Culture. Dordrecht:
Springer, 1955. Print.

Kevin. “Understanding Technological Evolution and Diversity.”

Nike Case Study essay help online
Case Study



Case Study

1. Analyze the company’s current product portfolio and product

Nike is recognized as a company
dealing with athletic and sports footwear. It manufactures and sells different
types of sport shoes. It also deals with sports apparel and different
accessories such as armbands. The company has invested in research and this has
enabled it to come up with innovative products. It uses technological
development in its product design. The company has made associations with other
companies and it has wholly owned subsidiaries. It has formed mergers and
acquisitions with companies such as Starter, Umbro, Converse, Cole Haan, Bauer,
and Hurley. The associations have helped the company to diversify and increase
its products. For instance, Cole Haan deals with luxury shoes and handbags. In
addition to footwear, converse also deals with apparel and accessories. Hurley
specializes in different forms of footwear such as lifestyle footwear and
action sports as well as apparel. Because of such associations, the company is
able to expand its product portfolio.   

2. Identify the firm’s current pricing strategies

Nike takes advantage of its brand,
name, customers loyalty, place in the market, and the value that the customers
attach to its products to determine its prices. It utilizes psychological
pricing in its approach. The company charges a higher price because its
customers perceive they are of a higher value. It has a global brand and its clients
range from ordinary people to celebrity personnel in different sports. This has
enabled it to develop products that are priced differently in the market. The
company compares favorably to its nearest competitor in terms of financial
performance despite the high prices charged. This shows that the consumers are
more interested in the brand and the value of the product, than they are in its

3. Identify the company’s current distribution tactics

The company has worked hard to
establish global distribution channels. It uses just in time delivery. The
company uses retail stores to sell its products. It owns some of the stores and
it uses independent distributors. It also offers licenses to different entities
interested in selling its products. The company has taken advantage of
technology. It has its own website, which people can access, browse through the
available items, and select the products they want to purchase. The company
uses different methods to ensure that people learn about its products. It uses
celebrities in different sports to endorse its products. The company also
sponsors some sports events and this increases its brand exposure.

4. Based on comparative analysis, list Nike’s key internal strengths
and weaknesses

The company’s internal strengths lie
in its brand, marketing strategies, products, research, and development. Its
strengths include:

The presence of unique technological resources
which include its trademark the swoosh design and a patent of its air
technologyThe Nike brand which is recognized globally Encouragement and invention of innovation in its
product design.Adoption of technology through different media
forms as a way of raising awareness Unique and intensive marketing and sales
strategies Flexible management that is not rigid in its
approach. This enables the company to respond quickly to the emerging changes
in the marketLoyal customers throughout the world, who
continue to support the company

The company has several weaknesses,
which it could work on and improve its image. Some of the weaknesses include:

The company suffers from the reputation of
engaging in unethical business practices especially in manufacturing Although the company has other products, it
heavily depends on footwearThe company’s high prices on most of its
products discourage some customers and other potential clients.

The Sunflower argumentative essay help





Part 1:

The Sunflower: on the Possibilities and
Limits of Forgiveness is a novel by Simon Wiesenthal who recalls
forgiveness after the tragic events of the holocaust. It provides a vivid
recollection of the author’s experiences at the Nazi Lemberg Concentration Camp
by providing an overview of the various ethical issues that arose during his
stay the encampment. During a trip to the hospital in the company of other
prisoners of war and under tight security of the Nazi war to the hospital he
sights a cemetery for the Nazi soldiers. Each single grave has a sunflower
planted on top.

He is envious of
the dead soldiers as they get to experience freedom on another level. All the
soldiers had their respective sunflowers to connect them to the world of the
living. “Suddenly [he] envied the dead soldiers. Each had a sunflower to
connect him with the living world, and butterflies to visit his grave. For
[Simon] there would be no sunflower. [He] would be buried in a mass
grave…” (Wiesenthal 14). The sunflowers hold a significant value to his
life despite his lack of understanding of the relevance of the flowers to his

During trash duty
at the hospital, he encounters a nurse who takes him to a Nazi soldier by the
name Karl. Karl confesses of the heinous crimes he has committed against the Jews
and seeks forgiveness from Simon despite his failure to provide the soldier with
an answer. Simon has the opportunity of bringing the Nazi soldiers into court
to face charges for their war crimes. His questions as to whether he should
have forgiven the Nazi soldier remain unanswered as the novel concludes with
the author invoking questions aimed at the audience. The questions seemingly
mollify his decision to desist from providing the dying Nazi soldier with
answer while on his deathbed. 

Part 2:

Simon was faced
with a difficult situation towards forgiving people that brought him suffering
and humiliation as a human being. The author’s questions aimed at his
mollification are understandable for a person who is grieving after losing
people dear to him. The author’s failure to forgive has been influenced by the
nature of treatment that he and other Jews faced over the period of
incarceration in the internment camps. The novel evoked emotions of anger,
empathy and sympathy towards the Jews who lost their lives and more so for the
survivors who left without their loved ones.

Forgiveness is one
of the most difficult tasks as it involves complex decision-making despite
harboring hatred and anger towards a person who we deem as responsible for our
pain and suffering. I was once involved in an accident with a friend with whom
were driving in the same car. He was driving at the time, and as a result of
unknown events, we were involved in an accident. The results of this occurrence
included a few broken bones and some facial and bodily scars. I was angry given
that I termed his driving as reckless and blamed him for the accident. However,
I was able to understand that he was not at fault and that it was a case of bad
luck despite nursing numerous injuries that left me bedridden unable to attend
work or to any other personal businesses.

Part 3:

If it were you, would you have forgiven the Nazi
soldier on his deathbed?What reasons come to mind when you think of Simon’s
failure to answer the Nazi solider despite constant persuasion from the nurse
to forgive the solider and take his possessions?Do you think the author forgave the solider at the end
of the novel despite the solider having passed on?


Wiesenthal, S. (1976). The sunflower. New York: Schocken

Question and key writing essay help




Final exam, Last Name, First Name:

ESEM final exam: Summer 2014

Question and key by: Your Name

definitive features define a food desert.

A food desert is described as a geographic
area where residents have limited access to affordable and healthy food. It is
characterized by

Absence of grocery
stores within expedient distance.Limited or
unavailable transport means to food storesUnaffordability
of healthy food options.What is Life
Cycle Assessment and what processes are involved?

LCA is an assessment process conducted by
companies on their products to determine their impact on the environment from
raw material to the finished product. The stages involved are: 1. Scoping

Inventory Analysis

3. Impact Assessment

4. Improvement and interpretation analysis

3. (Critical thinking) What are some of the reasons for
conservation with regards to water footprint?

It is important to reduce water footprint to
avert problems such as the extinction of species, destruction of habitats for
species such as fish, price change of agricultural products ad eventual
collapse of some sectors of agriculture.

definitions for the following:Landfill

Is a means of disposal where unsorted waste
is dumped into large concentrated lined sites.


Recycling is the reprocessing of used
material into new and reusable goods.


Compost is the decomposing of organic matter
to make fertilizer.


Incineration is a means of disposal where solid
organic waste is burned to residue and gas emitted is only released into the
atmosphere if proven non-toxic or harmful to the environment.

What is the
theory of technological evolution and how do we manage emerging

Technological evolution is the gradual
development of technology where intellectual effort replaces manual labor and natural
systems are integrated with human and built systems. The only way for man to
control this is by putting in place ethical structures and taking
responsibility for their actions as well as for the actions of their inventions.

How can finite
resources be used to ensure their availability? What challenges are
encountered in the process?

If the finite resource is recyclable then it
must be endlessly recycled. This however poses challenges such as excess use of
energy that could limit economic growth. Some finite resources are not recyclable.

between energy conservation and efficient energy use.

Energy conservation is the reduction of
energy consumption by using less of a resource while efficient use of energy
refers to the use of less energy for a constant service.

Can waste
systems operate independent of their designs?

No. For successful disposal, waste should be
sorted so as to ensure proper disposal or recycling. This can only be achieved
by analysis of product designs and their suitability for use.

Note down the
advantages and disadvantages of process LCA.

Process Life cycle assessment gives detailed
information on processes. The data is accurate and can include all phases of
the life cycle. It however has complexities that could result in errors and it
ignores indirect effects. The results may not be reproducible.

(Critical thinking) Explore
the meaning of Sustainability according to the Brundtland report, “Our
Common Future” (1987)

The report states sustainability as the
meeting of the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their needs. This meaning explains how systems should
remain diverse and productive to be usable by future generations.

What is anthropogenic
age and how does it affect the environment?

This refers to the period marking the
radical change in the environment by man. From the industrial revolution to
present time.

12. What is Earth Systems Engineering and

Earth Systems Engineering  and Management is the capability to design,
engineer, and manage integrated built human natural systems that achieve desires
of humanity including at the least personal, social, economic, technological, and
environmental dimensions, within the constraints imposed by the states and dynamics
of existing complex adaptive systems.


The Bad Show college application essay help




Bad Show


The Bad Show is a Radiolab podcast
in which the hosts discuss the evil nature of human beings and discuss issues
such as violence and cruelty. The show particularly focuses on the reasons why
people do bad things and whether it is possible to distinguish good and bad
people. The podcast begins with an anecdote by Dr. David Buss in which he
narrates an experience that he went through with his friend, whereby the
companion went into a violent rage and threatened to kill his own wife. After
this experience, David carried out a study in which he discovered that
ninety-one percent of the males and eighty-four percent of the females in his
class had at one point in their lives fantasized about killing someone. Based
on this revelation, the hosts of the show discuss the violent tendencies that
run in most people and the ability of the average person to do harm to his or
her companion. Various issues such as Dr. Buss’s experiences and the Stanley
Milgram experiment guide the discourse in the podcast.


of the issues that I realized while listening to the podcast is the fact that I
can relate to the issues that the hosts discuss. The innocence that I had when
I was a child was shattered by the realization that violence is, sadly, a part
of everyday life for some people on this planet. Some regions of the world such
as Sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East are endemic to conflict. Even more
surprising is the fact that much of the violence is carried out by seemingly
normal people. One of the incidences that really struck a nerve with me was the
honor killing of an Indian girl and boyfriend by her family. In India, families
arrange most marriages for their children and they rarely allow them to marry
outside their social class. When I was sixteen years old, I read a newspaper
feature about honor killings in India that detailed the horrific murder of a
twenty-one year old Indian girl in Chennai because of having a relationship
with a boy from a poorer family. The most shocking aspect of the crime was that
her family had committed it. Her father and brother were two seemingly normal
people, who had never committed a crime in their lives, but somehow, they were
still capable of hacking their daughter to death. With this knowledge of how
violent seemingly normal people can become, I felt that I could understand the
problems the Dr. Buss was describing particularly concerning his violent friend
and the homicidal fantasies that normal people have.

knowledge of violent acts such as the honor killing incident also helped me
comprehend the some of the reasons why people commit violent acts. One of the
issues that the podcast considered was the reasons why people engage in violent
acts. To understand this, the hosts delved into the famous Stanley Milgram
experiment, in which the researcher tested people to see how much they would
obey their instructions even with the knowledge that their obedience caused
harm to others. The Milgram experiment helped to explain the reasons why people
commit crimes in the context of situations such as war, with an excellent
example being the conformity of the German citizens with the policies and
actions of the Nazi regime. Personally, I felt that the experiment’s findings
also helped explain the honor killing incident that I had read. In the incident,
the father and brother of the victim were guided by their cultural ideals and
acted accordingly without paying any thought to how their actions would affect
their daughter. This kind of obedience is similar to that which Milgram
observed in his experiment.

issues that the podcast discusses mostly delve into obedience and conformity.
The social nature of human beings makes them more likely to conform to various
norms and values. Studies such as the Stanford Prison Experiment show that
humans are willing to conform to various norms and obey instructions that they
know are wrong. The findings of the study were similar to the Milgram
experiment in the way that they showed how close your average person is to
doing bad things. Even though the studies seemed to show that your average
person is capable of causing harm just to obey instructions, I find that the
analysis of the results often overlooks certain key issues. For instance, the
participants of the two studies are likely to have committed the bad acts with
the awareness that they were taking part in experiments and that no real harm
would amount from their actions. Additionally, it is incorrect to assume that
the findings of the studies indicate a heavy inclination towards violence and
destructive obedience within the human race. This is because discussions of the
studies often ignore the significant percentages of participants that failed to
ignore orders blindly. Additionally, comparisons to the findings and historical
events such as the Holocaust also fail to account for many Germans who refused
to comply with the orders of the Nazi government. Erwin Rommel serves as a good
example of a German who refused to follow the orders instructing him to
exterminate Jews in France even though he was a willing participant in the
German Army and a competent general in the Second World War.


discussion that the podcast covered was interesting because it dealt with an
issue that is of concern to the human race. The fact that the human race
appears to be in a perpetual state of conflict makes it necessary to understand
why people commit violent acts. Studies such as Milgram’s and Zimbardo’s help
to explain some of the reasons why people are willing to engage in atrocities
in the name of warfare and in line with various cultural norms. Two key issues
stood out to me in the podcast. Firstly, the reasons why people commit violence
vary widely, but conformity and obedience are key contributors. Secondly, there
are still significant percentages of the human population that are not willing
to conform to orders, ideologies and cultures that compel them to commit
violent acts.

Week 5 Discussion and Content Review argumentative essay help
Week 5 Discussion and Content Review


Week 5 Discussion and Content Review

Week 5 Discussion

            According to King, Teplicky, King
and Rosenbaum (2004) the best way to deal with a family that has a child living
with cerebral palsy (CP) is to “involve, respect and empower” them (p. 84). The
first step should be to explain to the family what CP is and how it affects
them. The explanation should also involve the answering of any questions that
the family has concerning CP. The next step will create a plan for treatment
and care. With these steps, the Whitehorse family will understand CP and the
need for their child to attend the special school.

            One misconception regarding the
Perez family is that the parents do not understand the problem their daughter
has and are therefore not capable of properly caring for her. The solution to
this is to teach the family how to speak English and make it easier for them to
communicate with care professionals. An assumption about the Whitehorse family is
that they have backward beliefs and do not care about their son’s wellbeing. The
solution is to educate them about CP and help them join a support group. A
possible misconception about the Smiths is that they are abusing Micah, thus
leading to his aggression. This can be solved by explaining to them that Micah
needs special attention due to his health problems and assisting them by
helping them find a nanny.

Content Review


King, S., Teplicky, R., King, G. & Rosenbaum, P. (2004).
Family-centered service for children with cerebral palsy and their families: A
review of the literature. Seminars in
Pediatric Neurology 11(1), 78-86.

Reflection on IT Toolbox Website college essay help near me
on IT Toolbox Website



on IT Toolbox Website

has an executive yet attractive interface incorporating different colors and
images to highlight its contents. On the top right of the interface is the
search function opposite the website’s logo. Below it, there are four
navigation windows to the different topics and services offered by the
platform. The windows include the link to blogs, discussions, research, and
directory. The structure shows that the purpose of the website is to simplify
information sharing. After the windows, the site is divided into two sections
that use high graphic and color definition to direct the user to the latest and
trending topics. Slightly above the trend section is a search function where
the user can input a question and retrieve the answer. The bottom of the site
is full of links to various tools available in the platform. The simplicity of
the site suggests that the target audience is both novice and expert users. The
topics and tools in the platform address both working professionals and
students. The materials in the website are relevant to both scholars and
workers. The final identified targets are businesses that aim to advertise
products through the webpage or to interact with users. IT toolbox gives an
attractive appeal through its simplified and colorful interface.

benefits of the website outweigh its demerits. There exists a lot of relevant
information in and out of the platform. The structure of the site informs on
the qualities that a good web page should have such as simplicity, conciseness,
and good graphics (Duckett, 2011). Unnecessary or irrelevant materials are not
included in the platform. The contents in the site offer a wide base of
knowledge ranging from IT basics to modern trends. I can benefit through this
by becoming frequently updated on technological advancements, economic and
social factors affecting IT. The content additionally educates on the link
between technology and economics enabling the user to use innovations as
entrepreneurial tools (Breeland, 2014). The only demerit I could identify is
its disorganization of articles. The materials are not specified having
business articles together with ethical ones.

site is a useful addition as a professional resource. The information contained
within the site is sufficient to guide a learner on which professional
direction to take. The information depicts past, current and future benefits
and challenges facing various technology fields. The analysis may be applied to
show growing and falling professions (Bapple, 2014). The site gives a listing
of companies giving their size, operations, and connective links. The links
give recent updates concerning respective issues in the firms. The site will
not be useful when I am time constrained as it has a lot of information, some
that are poorly organized.

links that I found useful are group, blog, alert, and company windows that have
available IT experts who interact with the user to solve problems. C-Language,
Java, Code Sharp, Trend Micro Security links are examples of the human
interactive windows that provide timely guidance. The site is recommendable to
other people because it is not applicable only to students and professionals in
the technological field. Businesspersons, law administrators can use the
platform to get knowledge on how to apply innovations to streamline

think the site can be used as a scholarly example of a good website as it
contains all the desired properties. Furthermore, students and professionals
may integrate the information within the website to know which direction to
take in their respective career journeys. IT toolbox offers an available and
suitable platform for companies and individuals to advertise or interact with
clientele. Businesses can benefit through increased traffic and customer


Katie. (2014). What Programming Language Should I learn to get a Job. Emerging Technology and Trends. 4.
Retrieved from

Benjamin. (2014). Software Defined Networking and Network Functions. Networking and Infrastructure Emerging
Technology. 1. Retrieved from

J. (2011). HTML & CSS: Design and build websites. Indianapolis, IN:

Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen college essay help near me




Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen

Hedda Gabler by
Henrik Ibsen was first published in the year 1890. It received criticism for
its plot despite gaining worldwide acceptance in latter years as a classical
play depicting realism using the Nineteenth Century Theater. Hedda Gabler is
the main protagonist in the play. Her name is Hedda Tesman whereas the name
Gabler is her maiden name. Hedda Gabler is newly married and quickly losing
touch of her marriage and seeks to influence others to forget about her misery
as a married woman. Questions abound the play as whether Hedda Gabler is a
victim of societal pressures or a victim of her creative mind. Hedda Gabler is
a victim of societal pressures that drive her to develop her own machinations
as she yields to social influences such as the need to succeed and gain power.

Tesman and her new husband George Tesman arrive in their villa from their
honeymoon. It is assumed that she married George because of his social status
and the need for security in her later years. George is a reliable and average
academic who is constantly seeking to enhance his research works. Hedda and
George are seemingly incompatible individuals given their diversities in terms
of understanding the world. The play is enhanced by the presence of Eilert
Lovborg, who is Tesman’s rival in academia (Sturman 32).

is apparent that Eilert and Hedda are former lovers. Hedda actively seeks to
influence her husband Tesman, to improve his work similar to Lovborg’s wife, Thea
Elvsted who has influenced Lovborg to quit his heavy drinking and focus on his
work. Hedda is envious of Lovborg’s relationship with Elvsted and is driven by
jealousy to destroy the marriage between the two. It is evident that Hedda’s jealousy
towards Lovborg and Elvsted’s marriage influences her preceding decisions. She is
jealous of the love and the communication that Lovborg and Elvsted enjoy in
their marriage.

first example is the sudden disappearance of Lovborg’s manuscript that was to
be published. Hedda is influenced to steal the works to prevent Lovborg from
participating in the contest given that he illustrated brilliance in his work.
She is driven to such by the need to ensure success for her husband because of
jealousy. The loss of Lovborg’s manuscript was orchestrated in order to render
his work inadmissible. Gabler was focused on ensuring that Lovborg failed to
publish his work, which was revered, by his colleagues and audience as
exceptional. The protagonist, Hedda Gabler and the circumstances of her society
influence and ensure her predisposition to her character in the play. The play
provides an important characterization of women and the nature of the society
during the period of developing this play (Galens et al. 37).

second example is her desire to control and influence social outcomes through
deception. Hedda has an intrinsic desire to control the lives of others and influence
the course of nature. This is indicated by her marriage to Tesman, which was
based on the need to ensure that had gained security for her future as she
continues to age. She is a victim of her own machinations given that her
inherent desire to control others fuels he deep-rooted jealousy towards others
such as Lovborg and Elvsted’s marriage. Hedda comes out as a character who
demands condemnation from the society as well as sympathy given that she is
driven by some aspects of her culture towards her machinations. The author
provides an overview of the nature of woman hood and the meeting point of such
with societal expectations.

third example is her level of jealousy that is fueled by the happiness of
Lovborg and Elvsted, whereas her marriage lacks happiness and spontaneity. Hedda
is expected by many in her society to drive her husband towards academic excellence
but fails short of doing so do his lack of creativity and brilliance in his work.
On the other hand, Lovborg is a recovering alcoholic with a high level of
brilliance, which is attributed to his wife’s love and caring nature, as is
expected of a wife in society. It is also evident that not all women are
supposed to be mothers despite deep suspicions that Hedda could have been
pregnant after arrival from the honeymoon with her husband. In addition, the
author also affirms that women are passionate in nature and inherently afraid
of scandals. Hedda committed suicide after suspicions emerged that she owned
the gun that resulted in Lovborg’s death.

addition, women have a great desire to control the destiny of their husbands as
well as that of their friends. Hedda was driven by the need to ensure that her
husband was successful in his work as opposed to her rival Lovborg. The author sought
to highlight the differences in nature between men and women. Lovborg and
Tesman shared rivalry in the field of academics despite holding each other in
high regard from a personal perspective. Elvsted and Gabler had an inherent
sense of competition that is common among women. This is among the reasons that
informed Elvsted to control her husband by ensuring that he was reformed from
alcoholic abuse (Sturman 47).

Hedda is a victim
of both societal pressures and her own machinations. The societal pressures
play a bigger role in her life, which result in the need to devise means that
will ensure that she achieves the control that she desires. She envisions the
success of her husband a successful writer and researcher. It is assumed that
the success of Tesman’s publications as opposed to Lovborg’s works would result
in riches and fame for the newly wedded couple. Furthermore, Hedda is also
influenced by the possibilities of poverty given that Tesman had borrowed funds
to purchase the mansion for his new bride.

The societal
pressures induce her machinations and preceding creativity on means to ensure
that Lovborg does not succeed to publishing his works. Due to her competitive
nature as a woman, she ensures that she takes hold of her future and that of
her husband. She claims in the play that, “For once in my life, I want the
power to shape a human destiny” (Ibsen, Gosse, and Archer, 33). She is blinded
by the allure of power, fame and riches that would be abound in the event that her
husband succeeds in delivering his publications.

In order to
achieve this she would have to eliminate Lovborg and his work. She manages to
steal Lovborg’s work during one of their parties and destroys the manuscript to
ensure that his work is ineligible for publication. In addition, to seal
Lovborg’s fate as a failure, she manages to persuade him to commit suicide in a
bid to free himself from the pain of losing one of his works and more so from
being labeled as a social failure due to his alcoholism and ‘misplaced’


David, Lynn Spampinato, Ira M. Milne, Michael L. LaBlanc, Elizabeth Thomason,
and Jennifer Smith. Drama for Students: Presenting Analysis, Context
and Criticism on Commonly Studied Dramas. Detroit, Mich:
Gale, 2006.

Henrik, Edmund Gosse, and William Archer. Hedda Gabler: A Play in Four
Acts. Waiheke
Island: Floating Press,
2009. Print.

Marianne. A Doll’s House and Hedda Gabler: Notes. Lincoln, Neb:
Cliffs Notes, 2005. Print.

Services Operations essay help online free




There is a need
for alignment of both front stage and backstage operations at the organization.
This is vital towards tackling of the existing conflicts that arise between
product logical and delivering quality customer relationship. The backstage
operations are shrinking for a majority of organizations with the growth of
technology and expansion of outsourcing of backstage activities. The focus is
now on enhancing the front stage operations, which involves the interactions
with the clients. In essence, effective service design amounts to the alignment
of existing market objectives with the operations of the business. Thus, the
marketing activities for the hotel should be in line with its daily operations.

A service system
is defined as “a value co-production configuration of people, technology, other
internal and external service systems, and shared information (such as
language, processes, metrics, prices, policies, and laws)” (Spohrer et al. 2007). Thus,
the service system is as an outcome of the interactions of backstage and
front-stage encounters.

The hotel check-in
is an exemplary example of the functioning of a service system that consists of
various subsystems that are correlated. Such subsystems include hotel
employee-customer relationship, customer self service in the entity, employee
and hotel system, customer self-service and third party service interactions
and the hotel systems interactions with third parties.

Marketing Assets:

The assets of
the entity include the marketing knowledge with respect to the field of
operation, customer base, implementation skills and the brand input of the

Operating Assets:

The operating
assets owned by the entity include equipment, facilities, information
technology systems, skill and talent, cost structure and the labor.

operation assets and marketing assets contribute towards the overall success of
the entity in terms of delivery of services to the customers. With increasing
focus on customer satisfaction, it is important for entities to ensure that
their marketing assets and strategic objectives are aligned with the operation
strategies of the organization. New service development for the entity is
reliant in the alignment of the tow items, marketing and operations. The
factors of success in developing new products include market synergy,
organizational factors and market research factors.

Other strategies
that can be used in enhancing organization efficiencies include the need for
appraisal of the process design. This may result in process redesign as a means
of improving service delivery and customer experiences. It involves the
elimination of steps that do not add value to the business or service line. In
addition, it may also involve shifting to self-service, delivery of direct
services, bundling of services and redesign of the physical aspects of service
processes in the entity (Bitner, Amy, O. & Morgan, 2008).

deployment of automated check-in services at the hotel can enhance the
intensity of customer experiences. It is important to note that intensity of
service in terms of interactions with employees does not amount to provision of
quality service. Intensity can be provided through automated services such as
online service platforms and check-in systems at the hotel as opposed to employee

check-in models compliment and supplement the person-to-person interactions in
the business. The multi-channel business model provides both self-service options
and person-to-person interactions in the hotel. Studies indicate that the
quality of service associated with multi-channel platforms results in differing
customer expectations from the person-to-person interactions and the virtual
self-service platforms. In addition, customers are usually influenced by overall
levels of consistency and integration of the two channels of customer service. In
addition, integration and consistency of the two channels is becoming
increasingly essential towards effective customer service. Furthermore, this is
informed by the duplication of functions, reallocation of duties and functions
and adaptation as a means of alignment of the physical and virtual channels in
the business (Spohrer et al. 2007).

In addition,
focusing on service encounter involves the need to understand the contrast
between interactions of the customers with their providers. Service designers
should adopt a comprehensive approach that takes into consideration the tradeoffs
and existing relationships that exist between the front stage and backstage of
the business. However, there are challenges in that majorities of business tend
to focus on one of the two, either a front stage or backstage mindset.

Service designers
who usually possess a front stage mindset are motivated towards developing
services and products that their respective customers may deem as unique,
enjoyable, responsive to their needs, wants and preference, and satisfactory in
nature. In addition, front-stage designers are usually motivated towards using
techniques that focus on anthropology, human–computer interactions and
sociology towards user centered designs of services and products. They are
driven to communicate and capture their service designs by use of modeled artifacts,
which may include scenarios, personas and service blueprints with diversely
interactive prototypes.

On the other hand,
service designers with a back stage mindsets adhere to different techniques,
goals and objectives. They are usually driven towards enhanced operations
efficiencies, scalability, robustness and standardization as a means of
maintaining costs and predictability in the operations. Activities in the
backstage may be automated or operated by people despite the treatment of
people as simply abstract players in operations. The backstage designers focus
on identification and analyses of information and dependence to enhance
operations efficiency.

developers use techniques and concepts from information architecture, data
modeling and software development with an aim of enhancing their efficiency
levels in the business. Backstage design and fronts design are inherently
different which provides designers in both segments with a diverse
understanding of service and its various functions. In addition, there is a
growing concern over the communication and collaboration that exists between
the front and backstage developers.

Service quality is
based on alignment of both front stage and back stage activities. Customer
perceptions on quality of service are dependent on fulfillment outcomes by
measuring the quality of service through the online encounters. On the other
hand, measuring customer satisfaction using their online interactions and
encounters is insufficient because service should be viewed as an end-to-end
system. The concept of service quality is similar to the definitions of quality
control and movement in industrial processes. Quality of service is not
guaranteed in the actions of the front stage employees in the hotel. It is
based on the alignment of both front stage and back stage operations towards
achievement of set out strategic goals and objectives of the business.

Thus, it is
essential for the entity to ensure the training and education of the employees,
which is backstage activity, towards enhancing their efficiency levels. This
ensures that they are effective in service encounters. It also provides a means
of elimination of any variability that are unplanned for in their respective
actions. Furthermore, it is also vital to ensure that the front-stage employees
have an understanding of the other service functions in the system such that they
are able to make appropriate decisions independently and to align their respective
efforts with the entire organization (Verma et al. 2008).  

Service encounter
is an integral medium for information exchanges especially between the
customers and the employees of the organization. With technological
advancements around the world, web based and computer to person interactions
have extended service design to new levels. In addition, developing a new
service encounter in the hotel amounts to understanding the complimentary
nature of both front stage and back stage functions and service systems. In
addition, new service design approaches focus on addressing and appreciation of
design concerns and ensuring collaboration in addressing such concerns (Friesner,
&Rosenman, 2005).

In addition, the
focus should be on enhancing the front stage operations, which involves the
interactions with the clients. Furthermore, an effective service design is the
focus on the alignment of the existing market objectives and business operations.
Thus, the marketing activities for the hotel should be in line with its daily
operations. Additionally, it will demand the alignment and collaborative
efforts of all functions of the entity towards enhancing customer satisfaction
and attainment of entity goals and objectives (Tien, & Berg (2003).

 Functions, subsystems and activities such as hotel
employee-customer relationship, customer self service in the entity, employee
and hotel system, customer self-service and third party service interactions
and the hotel systems interactions with third parties should be aligned with
one another to focus on the attainment of strategic goals and objectives of the
business in a highly volatile market.


M. J., Ostrom Amy, & Morgan, F. (2008). Service Blueprinting a Practical
Technique for Service Innovation. California Management Review.

D. &Rosenman, R. (2005). The relationship between service intensity and the
quality of health care: an exploratory data analysis. Health Services
Management Research 18: 41–52.

J., Maglio, P., Bailey, J. & Gruhl, D (2007). Steps toward a Science of
Service Systems. IEEE Computer 40(1):

J. (2006). Service is Front-Stage. New York: Palgrave

J. & D. Berg (2003). A Case for Service Systems Engineering. Journal of Systems Science and Systems
Engineering 12(1): 13-38.

R., Plaschka, R., Hanlon, B., Livingston, A., & Kalcher, K. (2008).
Predicting customer choice in services using discrete choice analysis. IBM Systems Journal (47(1): 179-191.

Public Leaders essay help







Overview of the Leaders

Colin Powell is a retired general from the American Army and a former Secretary
of State under President George Bush. Born in 1937, General Powell served in
the United States army for thirty-five years. During his career, General Powell
served in various positions related to national security. These positions
include the National Security Advisor under President Reagan, Commander in
Chief, Forces Command and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff  (both under President George Bush) (Powell
& Koltz, 2012). In 2001, President George W. Bush appointed Powell the
Secretary of State, a position in which he served for four years. After the
September 11 attacks, General Colin Powell played a critical role preparing for
the War on Terror by building strong partnerships with other countries that
were potential allies in the operation. Since his resignation from the post in
2005, General Powell has led a private life (Powell & Koltz, 2012). During
his military and diplomatic careers, General Powell applied a transformational
style of leadership as he emphasized on issues such as motivation, integrity, charisma,
and behavioral influence (Powell & Koltz, 2012). Through this leadership
style, General Powell was able to gain a lot of popular support and he remains
a revered figure to this day.

Nooyi is the CEO and chairperson of PepsiCo, one of the largest players in the
consumer food industry. Nooyi was born in Chennai India in 1955 to an
accountant and housekeeper. She grew up in India where she acquired her college
education at a Roman Catholic School. While attending school, Nooyi was
involved in many extra-curricular activities as she learned how to play the
guitar, formed a rock band, solicited funding for the college paper, and played
cricket (McNary, 2010). After completing her first degree, Nooyi pursued her
post-graduate studies at the Indian Institute of Management, acquiring a
master’s degree in business administration. In 1980, Nooyi earned her second
master’s degree from Yale in public and private management. After acquiring her
second master’s degree, Nooyi worked for different American companies in
various capacities. During her early career, Nooyi held corporate positions in
the Boston Consulting group, Motorola and Asea Brown Boveri (McNary, 2010). In
1994, Nooyi joined PepsiCo where she rose through the ranks to eventually
become the company’s CEO. At PepsiCo, Nooyi built a reputation as a strong
leader, capable of revolutionizing a company. Her willingness to make risky
moves and adhere to her own ideals and standards make her a strong leader and
distinguishes her style of leadership as transformational (McNary, 2010).                    

Leadership Styles

leadership is a style of leading that is typified by a sacrifice of self-
interests for larger and more significant achievements. Leaders who practice
this style normally shape the attitudes and approaches of their followers with
great effect (Tourish, 2013). If they are successful in their methods, then
their followers normally feel the effects of their leadership even in their
absence. With transformational leadership, the leader is able to gain the trust
and influence of his or her followers and this helps them succeed (Tourish,

Powell and Indra Nooyi both exercise a transformation style of leadership.
Their approach to leadership relies heavily on the motivation and inspiration
of the people working underneath them. Indeed, both leaders are known for their
abilities to inspire their subordinates and help their organizations achieve
success. McNary (2010) explains that Nooyi inspires her staff by making sure
that she is visible and approachable to all of them. Similarly, General Powell
considers inspiration and motivation key aspects of his leadership. Some of his
thirteen rules of leadership typify exemplify this view of transformational
leadership. One of General Powell’s rules emphasizes the need to be kind and
remain calm when dealing with leadership situations. This rule typifies General
Powell’s ideals of motivating and inspiring subordinates as a way of making
them perform well (Powell & Koltz, 2012). Another rule that explains
General Powell’s approach states asserts the need to check small details. This attention
to detail is one of General Powell’s strengths as a leader and it contributed
to the significant success that he achieved while serving in the United States
Army (Powell & Koltz, 2012). Despite these similarities, Indra Nooyi’s
approach to leadership contrasts with that of General Powell in some ways. One
of the more distinctive features of Nooyi’s style of leadership is her
willingness to take risks. Indeed, after working at PepsiCo for three years,
Nooyi made the bold move of selling some businesses and divisions of the
company (McNary, 2010).

Strengths and Weaknesses

leaders have various strengths and weaknesses that define them and their
leadership styles. These key traits are normally key determinants of the
leader’s success and ultimately play a key role in determining whether they
succeed. One of General Powell’s most significant traits is his integrity.
General Powell’s integrity is visible in the way that he opposed the American
administration’s attempts to invade Iraq during the early years of his tenure
instead of simply conforming to the popular opinion of the country. General
Powell’s willingness to maintain his position in such circumstances was
indicative of his integrity, a key pillar of his leadership style (Powell &
Koltz, 2012). Another strength of General Powell’s leadership style is his
ability to inspire people. Transformational leadership normally depends on the
leader’s ability to inspire the people working under him or her. By inspiring
these subordinates, the leader is able to make them dedicate themselves to the task.
General Powell’s ability to inspire soldiers and officers as the Chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff helped him succeed during his tenure (Powell &
Koltz, 2012). The third significant trait of General Powell’s leadership style
is his attention to detail. It is important for leaders to pay attention to the
intricacies, and General Powell did so when required. The general’s ability to
pay attention to fine details was in part due to the time that he spent serving
in Vietnam, an experience that had left him with a better understanding of the
issues that surround warfare (Powell & Koltz, 2012). Through all of these
leadership traits, General Powell achieved significant success in various
positions, particularly as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. One of
General Powell’s greatest successes was the planning and execution of the first
Gulf War, a process in which he made valuable contributions (Powell &
Koltz, 2012).

all leaders, General Powell has various weaknesses that affect his leadership. Firstly,
while attention to detail is a positive trait of leadership, it may have a
negative effect on the subordinates. This may occur in instances when the
leader has the subordinates engage in many assignments because of his or her
need for fine details. Another weakness of General Powell’s leadership is his
charisma. While charisma can help a leader inspire and motivate followers, it
may become a negative trait when the person’s passion becomes more influential
than factors such as reality.

of Indra Nooyi’s strengths as a leader is her willingness to relate with her
subordinates closely. This helps her inspire them and make them more dedicated
to the work that they are doing, as they feel that she is one of them (McNary,
2010). Another key strength of Nooyi’s leadership style is her integrity. As a
leader in a consumer foods company, Nooyi has to make her own ideals come
together with those of the company. As a vegan, Nooyi has managed to start
strengthen PepsiCo’s position by balancing profit making with the health
concerns of the consumers. Such adherence to her own principles and values
makes her a better leader. A third strength of Nooyi’s leadership approach is
her willingness to take risks (Griffin & Moorhead, 2010). Soon after
joining PepsiCo, Nooyi engineered a restructuring of the company that helped
the firm increase its profits significantly. The risky nature of the process
made many industry experts praise Nooyi’s understanding of the sector and
corporate leadership (McNary, 2010). As the CEO of PepsiCo, Nooyi has achieved
significant success and made the company a major player in the consumer foods
industry. One of her most significant successes was increasing PepsiCo’s
revenue by more than seventy percent within the first six years of her tenure
(Griffin & Moorhead, 2010)

weakness of Indra Nooyi’s style is that her hands-on approach may sometimes be
exhaustive. While Nooyi’s willingness to mingle and fraternize with her
subordinates helps to inspire them, it may also exhaust her and make it harder
for her to focus on other tasks. Another weakness of Nooyi’s style is her risk
taking. While leaders are always encouraged to take risks, the technique increases
the likelihood of a significant failure occurring. Nooyi’s willingness to make
risky moves such as the restructuring of PepsiCo increases the likelihood that
the company will go through a crisis of some sort.

Key Strength Influencing My Leadership Ability

integrity is a key value that could help me become a good leader in future. The
analysis of General Powell and Indra Nooyi’s leadership styles show that integrity
is one of the most important traits that a leader needs to succeed. Powell’s
integrity is visible in the stances he took concerning the invasion of Iraq in
2003, while Nooyi’s adherence to her own values is seen through her attempts to
balance the company and introduce healthier foods. Having integrity as a leader
concerns various issues such as being loyal to your supervisors and
subordinates. Integrity for a leader also concerns loyalty to one’s own values
and principles. Through integrity, I would be able to become a better leader,
essentially by being a good servant to my subjects and subordinates.


Griffin, R. W., & Moorhead, G. (2010). Organizational behavior: Managing people and
organizations. Australia:
South-Western/Cengage Learning.

J. A. (2010). Indra Nooyi: A leader and a woman of substance. Retrieved from
Sample Papers/SAMPLE 3.doc.

Powell, C. L., & Koltz, T. (2012). It worked for me: In life and leadership. New York: HarperCollins.

Tourish, D. (2013). The dark side of transformational leadership: A critical perspective.
New York: Routledge.





Analysis Plan Outline

Analysis of Policy and Procedure

The organization
needs to evaluate and review all its written and electronic documents on the
network with respect to the security of its network. Updates may be needed on
obsolete and idle policies to enhance the security of information in the


This involves the evaluation
and review of existing frameworks used in the organization handle to movement
of information. This involves evaluation of all procedures and standards of
operation with respect to network security at the organization. Both technical
and procedural functions should be evaluated to identify gaps and threats to
the network security (Peltier, 2010, 41).

Technical Review

This involves
review of the technical functions of the network. It relies on evaluation of
the technical framework of the network rather than procedural aspects of the
framework. It also includes the verification of the existing technical controls
to ensure security of the network. In addition, provides an overview of the management
of vulnerabilities with respect to threats and risks in the network (Peltier,
2010, 41).

Summary of Findings

This involves the
provision of overall findings and proposed recommendations on remedies to
existing threats to the network. Also provides a plan for future appraisal to
meet changing security needs to the network.

Task no.

Task Description

Required Resources




Analysis of Policy and Procedure

Labor and access to information
on management of network security policy





Labor and access to existing
information on procedures and policies used in the entity with respect to
network security.


8 weeks


Technical Review

Labor and information on network




Summary of Findings





Peltier, Thomas R. 2010. Information
Security Risk Analysis. Boca Raton:
CRC Press. 

Career Planning best essay help





Question 1

The global market for finance and
accounting professionals is increasingly becoming aggressive due to the high
levels of competition among executives. Education will provide me with an opportunity
to develop my competitive nature in the employment market by enhancing my
skills and knowledge for use in the modern organization. Completion of the Master
Program of Finance and Accounting at Imperial
College will enable be to
pursue new heights in my career. I will be able to unlock my individual
potential as a finance professional for the international market that promises
a high level of diversity in terms of opportunity and exposure to new cultures.

attaining my Master of Finance and Accounting at Imperial College, I am seeking
to follow an international career path as a finance and accounting executive. I
want to gain exposure in working in an international organization or setting
which shall enhance my exposure to new cultures. Information technology will
provide me with a high level of competitive advantage over my peers holding
similar educational skills and qualifications. Technology has become an
integral part of our modern organizations. It is considered crucial in the
efficient delivery of services to clients (194 words).

Question 2

Balancing between my career
objectives and the need to enhance my professional competencies through new
skills will be one of my main challenges. Establishing a balance between
school, personal activities, and work could prove to be problematic. This will require
that I devise strategies for effective time management to balance the three
highly demanding activities. I will overcome my time management challenges
through the maintenance of a diary. The journal will provide me with clear
guidelines of daily activities and duties, which I am tasked with

Navigating though employment
opportunities and making an appropriate selection of a position that will suit
my strengths may also be a challenge. This is because of the high demand of
special and skilled labor. In addition, I am also concerned by my ability to engage
in successful interactions with people drawn from diverse cultures around the
world. Managing a department or organization with a high a level of diversity
is problematic in the sense that people have different ethnicities, language
barriers amongst one another and unique organizational cultures. I think that I
will take up new courses on public relations and communication as means of
enhancing my interpersonal relations skills (197 words).

Assessing the Global Criminal Justice System scholarship essay help
the Global Criminal Justice System



the Global Criminal Justice System

In overview, the
criminal justice structure comprises the judicial courts, law enforcement
agencies and a myriad of correctional departments. The main objective of this
particular system involves the provision of a secured and safe environment to
all citizens via the application of regulations, laws, and decrees. The
agencies ensure that the state impose regulations which will be highly
important especially in the control of criminal acts. In spite of the fair
nature and resolve of the criminal justice system, globalization has become a
considerable force specifically in marring the structure’s key objective.
Accordingly, globalization has influenced the progression of traditional
crimes, and simultaneously, established a platform for creating novel and
extended variants of felonies, not only in the United States. As such, an
assessment of the American criminal justice structure will also involve an
evaluation of the respective system within an international level.

The effect of
globalization especially on the temperament of crime has contributed
significantly to the manner in which individuals engage in wrongdoings and
contraventions. In America,
the degree to which criminal activities are undertaken has increased
significantly. This occurrence has influenced the citizens of the state to
protest against authorities for their approach towards the implementation of
regulations that can maintain their safety. The evaluation of the tendency
towards the respective criminal justice structure within an international scope
factors in the worldwide character of felonies within America.
Nonetheless, the American system has initiated a response and cooperated with
general efforts applied in restraining the frequency and amplifying degree of
global crimes. Interestingly, the alterations within the international scope of
criminal justice have caused greater implications for the American system currently.

The emergence of
globalization has also influenced various novel challenges for practitioners
and researchers. Currently, it has become difficult to find solutions that
befit the dynamic forms of terrorisms and crimes committed contemporarily. Concerning
this, the most vital aspects comprising such difficulties comprise the
international elements of criminal activities, technological impacts on
worldwide criminality, the effect of authorized and unauthorized immigration,
intercontinental organized crime, as well as the effect of a significantly diverse
American culture. Therefore, while attempting to curtail these dynamic
settings, the American criminal justice framework, which is comprised of the
police, the courts and correctional facilities, has been facing novel types of
criminality (Schmalleger, 2009). Nonetheless, the general effect of
globalization has imposed considerable pressure especially on the government in
terms of considering an alternative way of controlling such changes. Such ways
ponder over recognition and importance of global cooperation, the emergence of
security threats in America
and the amplification of new criminal techniques.

Recognizing the
significance of international cooperation in terms of crime requires
understanding the different forms of criminal justice systems that exist
internationally. The aim of this is to fathom and compare the disparate ways in
which such frameworks regulate crime and the gaps that they have regarding
their specific mandate. Civil law is among the first of this assessment. According
to Schmalleger (2009), it emphasizes on judicial interpretation especially in
establishing verdicts within courts. Through its direction, judges normally
interpret the statute in their appropriateness. Hence, the role of the judge
involves investigation of the case and decision-making. In contrast, common law
relies significantly on precedence. This is because such jurisdictions
emphasize considerably on past judicial decisions unlike civil law. Even though
statutes may provide terse statements of general principle, common law
possesses the definitions and boundaries of the law.

Socialist law,
alternately, is heavily based on the system of civil law. However, this
framework accentuates Marxist ideologies and as such, provides for ownership of
all property by the state. This is dissimilar since civil law as much as common
law struggles to define individual property irrespective of the method of
acquisition, transference or loss (Lyman & Potter, 2007). Hence, the
disparity between socialist law and other legal structures constitutes
possession of authentic property. Lastly, Islamic law, similar to most
religious laws, depends on a set of codes and values upheld and established by
a respective deity. Classically, this form of legal system did not establish
distinctions between worldly and religious life. Regardless, The Qur’an
functions as the first and vital reference point for jurisprudence among
Muslims (Schmalleger, 2009). However, the major disparity of Islamic law from
the mentioned legal systems lies in the role it assumes in the state. For other
countries, Islamic law defines the regulations and decrees upon which every
person should adhere. In other countries, especially those under common law, it
forms part of customary regulation.

In spite of these
international justice systems, the advancement of technology has posed a
significant on global law enforcement frameworks. For instance, as much as the
Internet fosters commerce, it also fuels criminal acts such as fraud and money
laundering. Cyber crime is consistently becoming a resonant phenomenon to the
progression of technology. Accordingly, while the Internet allows communication
for different people globally, criminal institutions are similarly exploiting
this capability by fueling illegitimate business enterprises via organized
crime (Lyman & Potter, 2007). As such, the impact on law enforcement is
significantly evident. Based on the rate at which cyber crime is occurring, law
enforcement activities are under the perception that they are insecure. Edward
Snowden is an illustration of the insecurity of law enforcement agencies due to
cyber crime. Through IT-related criminal activities such as eavesdropping and
spying, Snowden was capable of leaking confidential American government

Irrespective of
the laws set aside for combating cyber crime and other technology-related
crimes, law enforcement agencies still face a considerable challenge in
curtailing related misdemeanors. This is because of the advances in technology,
which have equipped individuals with the ability to commit crimes. In addition
to this, law enforcement agencies lack the resources to combat these forms of
crimes. Without the needed skills and facilities, the global justice system
will become more incapable of handling felonies related to the cyber space. In
the United States,
qualified persons are limited since the persons responsible for investigating
and assessing cyber-crime need to be trained immensely (Lyman & Potter,
2007). Moreover, they need technical and interrogative skills and extensive
information regarding a variety of IT devices and forensic materials.

Even though
policing systems all over the world share the common aim of curtailing criminal
activities such as cyber crime, the techniques applied, and the structure of
the police forces vary. For example, law enforcement is different across the Americas.
Before 2001, American police forces were considerably sovereign. However, after
the signage of the United States of America Patriot Act, the government
established the Department of Homeland Security (Lyman & Potter, 2007).
Through this, effective mergers of intelligence and assets of all the police
forces took place. Similarly, the countries within Europe
have fostered such organizational structures. The first framework, Europol, was
created as a replica of America’s
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Afterwards, the roles that the agency had to
assume were extended based on the effect of globalization. Currently, Europol
does not solely focus on considerable crimes such as drug trafficking, it also
covers cyber crimes, terrorism, and human trafficking.

Asiatic countries,
however, lack a solid institution in terms of policing. Nevertheless, most of
the agencies collaborate extensively with organizations based in the United States
especially in chief crime operations. For example, states such as Japan, South Korea, and Australia cooperate effectively with U. S.
agents specifically in the resolution of major misdemeanors comprising organized
crime factions located within most Asian countries. Concerning Africa, police agencies continue remaining sovereign.
Interestingly, an organization dubbed the African Police Resource Network has
attempted to assist the establishment of such organizations all over the
African continue.

The varying nature
of global criminal justice systems corresponds to the disparity evident in
crimes committed globally. Such major crimes have imposed a significant effect
on the framework and processes applied. For instance, the Holocaust influenced the
establishment of treaties specifically meant to bring justice to perpetrators
regardless of their nationality. Similarly, acts such as drug trafficking,
which has led to the demises of nearly fifty thousand individuals in Mexico,
have led to the establishment of organizations such as the United Nations
Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) specifically meant to
curtail intercontinental organized crime. Lastly, terror crimes such as the
9/11 Attacks committed in the United States
and underage prostitution rings in the Philippines have influenced
considerable cooperation between governments in order to curb such levels of
organized crime (Lyman & Potter, 2007). To this end, the global criminal
justice system has developed into a framework that consistently breaks physical
boundaries. With the effect that globalization is imposing especially in
establishing new forms of felonies, the United States criminal justice
framework does possess any alternative to resolution than working cohesively
with other countries in order to curtail the problem.


M. D., & Potter, G. W. (2007). Organized
crime. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Pearson.

F. (2009). Criminology today: An interrogative
introduction. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Pearson.

Discussion Questions best essay help





1.         Dibromochloropropane
(1, 2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane) (DBCP) was produced in the united states for the
first time in the year 1955 and used as a fumigant to control the spread of
nematodes. It is estimated that 14.7 million kilograms of this chemical was
used annually before it was suspended in the year 1977 in the united states,
Latin America, some African countries and the Philippines.

The entity failed
in providing a balance between its economic objectives and ethical
considerations. There was a strong causal link between sterility and exposure
to DBCP. The entity had not provided adequate hazard controls for the
pesticide. There was need for adequate controls on workplace concentrations of
DBCP and the provision of impermeable protective gear for the workers to
minimize or eliminate the possibilities of contact.

2.         The stakeholders of
the entity include the local communities, employees, customers, suppliers,
shareholders, financiers, pressure groups, and the government. The entity
treated its stakeholders differently based on the benefit accrued from its
relations with the various stakeholders. The stakeholders were treated
differently because they provide differing levels of benefits to the business.

The shareholders
have their interests upheld higher than other stakeholders do given that the
entity owes its sole existence to the capital and investments provided by
shareholders. On the other hand, the employees can be termed as disposable
given that they are compensated for their services through remuneration. Thus,
the entity gave little considerations over the wellbeing of the patients
despite concerns of chronic health effects from exposure of DBCP.

3.         Evidence indicated
that a majority of the tortuous cases that were instituted giants Dole on the
presumptions of negligence by the entity were based on fabricated information. There
is a need to balance the ethical responsibilities of the entity and the
existing need to maintain its financial status for the sake for the
shareholders. It is evident that the entity was negligent in part for the
tortuous claims brought against it by workers and users of DBCP in different
regions across the world.

It is imperative for
me to ask for substantiated claims on issues of entity compliance with respect
to industry standards to avoid the expensive claims of tort and negligence on
part of the entity. This would ensure that claims made against the entity are
made from facts and valid information as opposed to fabricated data with an aim
of propagating fraudulent proceedings to extort money from the business. In
addition, the entity could undertake a compromise of the disputed claims by
providing compensation in part for any wrongdoing whatsoever.

4.         Existing laws at
the time in Nicaragua did not provide citizens and entities with an opportunity
to undertake civil suits against foreign multinationals. It was asserted that
DBCP was safe for use without adequate studies and proof to confirm this
assumption. In addition, there is not proof that indicates that there were
adequate studies conducted on people. Adverse effects were evident on animals
during prior trials of the products whereas no studies were conducted on people
to understand the magnitude of effects on human beings.

The entity had a social
responsibility to ensure that products were fit for the purpose of which they
were produced. This means that they were to meet the merchantability needs of
their users. The entity failed in its compliance and ethical responsibilities
in the American and other Latin American societies despite the inadequacies of
legal provisions in Nicaragua
to allow for legal proceedings against Dole. The entity failed in ensuring the wellbeing
of its employees who were subjected to exposure that posed lifelong chronic
health effects (Carroll, and Buchholtz 622).

5.         Legal environments
and ethical considerations vary from one country, market, or region to another.
This provides a challenge to multinational entities that operate in a variety
of countries despite the need to consolidate and standardize operations and
culture of the entity. Entities operating in foreign markets are faced with
differences in legal environments from those of their country of origin. The
case study indicates that modern entities operating in foreign markets should
be equipped with information and understanding of such environments as a means
of navigating inconsistent and changing legal and ethical environments (Carroll,
and Buchholtz 622).

entities should recruit their workforces with respect to their understanding of
a foreign market. This means that the large part of the workforce should be
derived from local communities as a means of gaining adequate resources to meet
ethical and legal challenges that may be present in the new market. In
addition, an entity should also be aware of the variations in terms of social, cultural,
and legal expectations that are present in the foreign country as opposed to
the country of origin.

diversity and embracing it is important for entities seeking to ensure that
they excel in foreign markets. It amounts to accommodation of foreign ethical
standards, cultural practices and business standards with an aim of being
assimilated into the foreign markets. In addition, it also ensures that the
entity is able to adjust to a new legal environment in the foreign country as a
means of avoiding possible litigation that may arise from lack of
understanding, negligence, and ignorance with respect to different regulations
and legal frameworks in existence for guiding business conduct.


Archie B, and Ann K. Buchholtz. Business & Society: Ethics,
Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Australia: South-Western, Cengage
Learning, 2012. Print.

Illegal Drug Use, Illegal Prostitution, and Money Laundering essay help
Illegal Drug Use, Illegal Prostitution, and Money



Illegal Drug Use, Illegal Prostitution, and Money


            Since the beginning of the
nineteenth century, the human race has developed new technologies at a rapid
rate, effectively revolutionizing life on earth. These inventions facilitated
much of the fighting in the First and Second World Wars, while also greatly improving
the quality of life. Through these improvements, the human race has grown to much
larger than any scholar or expert from previous centuries would have expected.
This exponential growth has affected the human race in a number of negative
ways. Firstly, the development of technology appears to have made modern
society highly individualistic with many groups losing their communal values.
Secondly, syndicated criminal organizations have emerged in the world,
operating on a global and transnational scale by compounding different illicit
activities such as drug dealing, human trafficking, and extortion. Thirdly,
there has been an exponential increase in criminal activities on a smaller
scale. Three of the most prominent criminal activities in the world are illicit
drug use, illegal prostitution, and money laundering. These three criminal trades
pervade virtually every country in the world, affecting millions of people
around the globe and sponsoring crime syndicates that are worth millions of
dollars. Illicit drug use, illegal prostitution, and money laundering are
crimes that require a concerted international effort to end, because of the
scale in which they occur.  

Illegal Drug Use

            The consumption of various drugs has
always been a common activity of the human race. However, stricter regulation
of various intoxicants since the beginning of the twentieth century resulted in
the concept of illegal drug use. Illegal drug use refers to the consumption of
intoxicants that are deemed unlawful by the government (Grossman, Chaloupka
& Shim, 2004). The concept became prominent in the twentieth century when
governments around the world illegalized various intoxicating substances such
as cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. This created an underground universe
composed of people and criminal organizations that continued to deal with the
illegal substances even after various governments had banned them (Grossman,
Chaloupka & Shim, 2004). The resulting underground network has played a key
role in sustaining illegal drug use around the world.

            The illegal usage of drugs has
various negative effects on the affected societies. These effects are visible
in the economic and social spheres of life. Scholars estimate that the largest
impact of illegal drugs comes through the loss of lives. This loss of lives
occurs through a number of ways such as overdoses, abuse-related diseases and
accidents related to the drug use (Grossman, Chaloupka & Shim, 2004). Studies
indicate that illegal drug use also has affects the human race sociologically
in various ways. For instance, the loss of both parents means that many children
have had to grow up in difficulty as they live in foster homes, where they are
more likely to become the victims of abuse.

            Recent discourse on the use of
illegal substances has taken a new dimension as scholars start to question the
various wars on drugs that governments around the world are engaged in. In the
United States, scholars have mostly focused their discourse concerning illegal
drug use on the war on drugs. Waged since the 1980s, the war on drugs has
affected the United States drastically, with the nation feeling the impact
economically and socially (Grossman, Chaloupka & Shim, 2004). As of 2002,
the country was spending more than twenty-six billion dollars a year on the
war. The war on drugs also saw the United States acquire one of the highest per
capita imprisonment rates within the developed world. Accordingly, scholars are
now questioning whether legalization is a more effective way of dealing with
the illegal use of drugs and the criminal entities that deal with the

Illegal Prostitution

Like the illicit use of drugs, illegal prostitution is one of the
most popular and widespread criminal trades in the world. Prostitution refers
to the practice of offering sexual services in return for monetary
compensation. Accordingly, illegal prostitution refers to situations where the
activity occurs outside the law (Weitzer, 2009). Prostitution is only illegal
in some countries in the world, an issue determined by the specific laws in
different nations. Multiple nations around the world, mostly in Europe and
Latin America do not have laws that make prostitution illegal. However, even in
such countries various forms of prostitution, such as those involving minors,
are still illegal (Weitzer, 2009). Another dimension of illegal prostitution
around the world concerns the trafficking of humans from different parts of the
world because of the sex trade.

Even though prostitution is legal in many countries around the
world, the trade still adopts an illegal dimension all over the globe. This is
because many of the countries that allow prostitution have regulations guiding
the practice, in addition to the outlawing of various forms of the trade such
as the involvement of minors in the sex industry. Human trafficking is one of
the most serious global concerns revolving around illegal prostitution. Goodey
(2008) explains that trafficking is a key security concern for governments
around the world, particularly because of the lack of accurate and specific
knowledge concerning the trade. Various bodies have come up with different
statistics concerning human trafficking over the past decades. As of 2007, the
United States government estimated that between 600,000 and 800,000 people are
trafficked across international borders annually (Goodey, 2008). Of these victims,
the vast majority are women, trafficked to countries in Europe where criminal
networks forcefully engage them in the sex trade.


            Like illegal prostitution and drug
use, money laundering is an activity that affects every country in the world
through one way or another. Schneider and Windischbauer (2010) explain that
money laundering is an activity through which criminal elements convert
monetary gains from their illegal activities into legitimate cash and assets of
other natures. Money laundering is one of the most important concerns of law
enforcement authorities because of the manner in which it allows criminals to
hide the profit from their activities, gains that would essentially act as
evidence against them (Levi and Reuter, 2006). Indeed, law enforcement
authorities argue that tackling money laundering is one of the most effective
ways of dealing with most of the criminal entities that dominate illegal
trades, including illicit drug use and prostitution.

            Schneider and Windischbauer (2010)
state that money laundering exists through an international underground
economy. Various players and organizations from the criminal world formulate
the membership of this global underground economy. However, some legitimate
financial groups and entities are involved in the network as well, as they seek
to profit from the illicit activity by helping criminals legitimize their
earnings (Levi and Reuter, 2006). This illegal network is also supported by the
crimes of the members by effectively generating the revenue that sustains the
underground economy. Accordingly, money laundering is one of the most important
activities within the network. Schneider and Windischbauer (2010) note that
almost all of the activities carried out in the criminal world revolve around
cash transactions. The revenues that these activities generate are sometimes as
high as two trillion dollars, necessitating the need for a complex system used
to transfer the earnings from the illegal trades into the legitimate global
economic network. This process becomes particularly important for organizations
operating on a transnational platform. For such organizations, the players need
to legitimize the money so that they can transfer it to their home countries
for usage.

Link between Illicit
Drug Use, Illegal Prostitution, and Money Laundering

            Illicit drug use, illegal prostitution,
and money laundering are interconnected trades particularly because they are
linked to large criminal organizations in most of the world. These criminal organizations
facilitate these trades so that they can generate revenue from them. According
to Schneider and Windischbauer (2010), the activities of these criminal
organizations possibly generate as much as two trillion dollars a year. Even
more concerning is the fact that the revenue from these activities accounts for
almost five percent of the global gross domestic product (Levi and Reuter,
2006). The key to ending these illegal trades lies in money laundering. The
illegal trades that various criminal organizations engage in are primarily
sources of revenue for the crime syndicates. The fact that almost forty percent
of all the money laundered in Europe originates from drug trafficking is clear
evidence of these connections. Accordingly, the key to ending criminal
activities such as illicit drug use and illegal prostitution lies with money


            Illicit drug use, illegal prostitution,
and money laundering are all activities that affect virtually the entire world.
These illegal activities are normally sustained by criminal organizations that
profit from them, generating up to two trillion dollars from the illicit trades
per year. For some of the activities, such as illegal drug use, the effects are
also sociological, particularly because of the resulting loss of human life.
The fact that these trades are facilitated by criminal entities means that they
key to ending them lies in dealing with money laundering and making it almost
impossible for the organizations to legitimize their gains. Putting an end to
money laundering would mean that the criminal organizations no longer profit
from the illicit drug use of their clients or illegal prostitution.


Grossman, M, Chaloupka, F.
J., & Shim, K. (2004). “Illegal drug use and public policy”. Health Affairs 21(2), 134-145.

Goodey, J. (2008). “Human
trafficking: Sketchy data and policy responses”. Criminology and Criminal Justice 8(4), 421-442 

Levi, M. & Reuter, P.
(2006). “Money laundering”. Crime and
Justice 34(1), 289-375.

Schneider, F. &
Windischbauer, U. (2010). “Money laundering: Some facts”. Economics of Security Working Paper 25, 1-21.

Weitzer, R. (2009). “Sociology of sex work”. Annual Review Sociology 35, 213-234.

Currency Valuations argumentative essay help





Demand and supply for either the
American dollar or the argentine peso is the foremost factor that determines
the value of either currency. The value of the argentine peso against the
American dollar adheres to basic factors that influence demand and supply of
goods and services. Demand and supply is driven by a variety of economic factors
in the market such as price of other currencies in the market in comparison to
the argentine peso, the levels of inflation, which influence demand, and supply
of currencies in financial markets (Bloomberg).


It can be assumed
that the Argentine peso has witnessed a decline in its value as a result of
inflationary effects in the market. The levels of inflation in the United States differ from the levels of
inflation in Argentina.
has recently been associated with possible defaults on its debts resulting in
downgrading of its credit status. This has led to worries among investors of
possible defaults on its existing debts to international investors. Inflationary
pressures influence money supply.

This in turn
determines the availability and ability of consumers to purchase goods and
services that they deem as necessary for their use. Consumer activity is affected
by inflation in that consumers purchase more if the money they hold has a
higher value than when they hold money with which they are unable to make
purchase of basic goods. Curbing inflation is achieved through provision of
competition by enhancing the business environment via incentives such as low
taxes. This reflects on pricing for consumers who find that the incomes they
hold are valuable and can be able to purchase additional goods and services.
Providing relief for entities and the business environment enhances the
competitive nature of the country’s markets. This may lead to supply of foreign
currencies by international investors seeking to enjoy the incentives provided
by the government.

Interest Rates

Interest rates
form an integral part in influencing the movement of foreign and domestic
currency in foreign markets. Inflation, interest rate differentials and
exchange rates can be termed as highly correlated to one another. Central banks
through interest rates are able to manipulate exchange rates and inflation
levels in an economy. High interest rates usually lead to demand in domestic
currency, in this case the Argentinean peso, by foreign investors who
anticipate high returns from high interest rates. Low interest rates tend to
reduce exchange rates.


This is one of the
primary strategies used by investors in foreign markets. They may drive
increase or reduce the demand for a currency resulting in the decline of the
exchange of the currency with respect to other currencies in the international
market. The lack of a fixed exchange rate usually leads to speculation, which
influences fluctuations and rapid shits in the value of a currency with respect
to pricing of foreign currencies. Speculation is also influenced by other
factors such as inflationary pressures in the economy and economic recessions,
which undermine the central banks ability to provide a fixed exchange rate for
its local currency.

Public Debt

A country may
undertake significant debts from foreign investors as a means of stimulating
growth in their respective economies. However, such may result in overwhelming
public debts and deficits, which engage the image of the country to foreign
investors. This is directly related to Argentina’s woes as it seeks
avenues to meet existing debt obligations to international debts as a result of
passed maturity dates without payment of existing debts. The decline and
fluctuations in currency may be associated with enhanced money supply as part
of the government’s efforts to print money to finance its debt obligations.

Balance of Payments

Current account
values influence the balance of trade between exports and imports undertaken by
a country. Argentina
is seemingly importing more products than it sells to foreign consumers through
experts. This results in low demand for the Argentinean peso as compared to the
demand for foreign currencies such as the American dollar. The current account deficits
form one of the most important factors that influence the movement of
currencies and setting of exchange rates in any given economy. The country is
exporting less than it imports due to the economic slowdown and decline in
consumer activity in the domestic market for local products. The country should
seek avenues that would boots demand for goods and services of local businesses
in foreign markets as a means of enhancing reserves of foreign currencies.

Economic Growth/Slowdown

The effects of the
financial crisis in the year 2008 are still felt to date. The crisis resulted
in massive losses of employment as a result of closure of entities that reeled
from the domino effect of the recession. Argentina’s financial woes can also
be associated with the recent crisis given that the country undertook massive
loans to finance expenditures for new projects and existing government
structures. The Argentinean economy has experienced an economic slowdown, as the
truths on the financial debts owed to international investors become known. The
country has been looking for avenues to meet such obligations despite exhausting
its primary alternatives to meet the amounts owed.


Standard deviation


Argentinean Peso



American Dollar ($)








Currency: USD/ ARS







US Dollar-Argentine Peso Exchange Rate. Bloomberg.
19 August 2014.Web. 19th August, 2014.Retrieved from

Finance cheap essay help




The primary factor
that affects the price of exchanges, as such as in the case of the American
dollar and the Mexican peso, is the supply and demand for the two currencies. The
shifts in the currency values for the two currencies can be associated with the
changes in the levels of demand and supply of goods and services from both
markets. Mexico has the
highest per capita income in the whole of Latin America.


Inflation in the
two countries is a major cause of shifts in the value of the two currencies. The
differing levels of inflation can be traced to the levels of supply and demand
of basic goods and services in the two economies. The rise in terms of the rate
of exchange between the Mexican pesos to the American dollar can be attributed
to growing levels of inflation in Mexico. This can be associated with
reduced levels of domestic consumption driving up the need for exports (Wall
Street Journal, 2014).

Interest Rates

The value of the
Mexican peso was at a favorable position in the month may which may be
associated in the demand for goods and services in Mexico. This results in a high
valued currency. On the other hand, the currency value declined into the months
of July because of high imports and high interest rates, which reduced the country’s
ability to provide a favorable destination for investors to invest their funds
in Mexican banks (Wall Street Journal, 2014).


Speculation is an
activity that is widely practices by investors and other market players. They
use this technique to drive up their investments in foreign currencies. A high
currency value may promise both returns and losses depending on an investor’s


competitiveness of the Mexican peso in the world markets is indicated by the
shifts in its value since the month of May through to July. This can be
associated with a high demand for the Mexican peso as result of the competitive
nature of the Mexican economy. The Mexican economy has seen significant growth,
which has resulted in high demand for its currency by investors and consumers
around the world (Wall Street Journal, 2014).

Strength of other Currencies

The strength of
the American dollar has influenced in part that value of the Mexican peso’s
value. In addition, the fairing of the Mexican peso has been influenced by the strength
of the American dollar. The American dollar has experienced significant volatility
because of the recent financial crisis, with the effects still felt to date.

Balance of Payments

The deficits in
current accounts influences the value of the Mexican peso in that the balance
or value of imports versus the exports influences demand and supply of foreign
and local currencies for traders. High exports increase the demand for American
dollars, which is sued widely as currency for world trade whereas a high demand
for imports results in subsequent increase in the value of the Mexican peso.
Imports necessitate the need for American dollars to purchase goods and
services and in turn driving down the demand for domestic consumption of goods
and services (Wall Street Journal, 2014).

Economic Growth/Slowdown

The recent
financial crisis in 2008 had overwhelming effects on the global economies,
including the United States
and Mexico.
This resulted in devaluation of currencies as a resulted in decline in exports
and domestic consumption in large economies. The recovery of both Mexican and
American economies can be associated with the strengthening values of both


Standard deviation


Mexican Peso



American Dollar ($)




Street Journal. (19 August 2014). US
Dollar vs. Mexican Peso. Wall
Street Journal
Market Data
Center. Retrieved from
on 19th august 2014.

Nursing Management college essay help near me




The attitudes of
nursing managers in modern health facilities towards evidence-based practice
have a large influence on the uptake of best practices among nursing practitioners.
Nursing managers play a significant role in provision of opportunities to the
nurses towards access and application of evidence based practices (Blais &
Hayes, 2011). On the other hand, nursing practitioners are tasked with
enhancing critical thinking skills, building competencies for their teams as
they interact with their colleagues in their respective lines of duty to
identify issues, search for evidence, and analyze the same for use in the
nursing practice.

Nursing managers
are tasked with supporting and aiding evidence based practices to overcome the
various hurdles that may derail activities in this field. The support and
attitude of the nursing manager influences the enthusiasms and engagement
levels of the teams of the nurses to achieve their goals. Additionally, nursing
managers are tasked with ensuring staff engagement and satisfaction, appropriate
and healthy work environment, and focus on positive outcomes for all patients (Blais
& Hayes, 2011).

Nursing practitioners
are tasked with ensuring that they are in constant communication with the
nursing managers with an aim of communicating challenges experienced in
implementation of evidence-based practices. The practitioners are tasked with
research and finding evidence based bets practices that could enhance positive
outcomes for the patients. The nursing managers are tasked with providing a
healthy environment that promotes effective research and application of the
best practices among the practitioners (Blais & Hayes, 2011). Nursing
practitioners and managers share the responsibility of successful
implementation of evidence-based practices into standards that can be used to
improve client satisfaction, experiences, employee satisfaction, and positive
outcomes for the patients.


K., & Hayes, J. S. (2011). Professional nursing practice: Concepts
and perspectives. Boston:

Roads Furniture in Australia and its Negative and Positive Impact on the Road Safety cheap essay help
Furniture in Australia and its Negative and Positive Impact on the Road Safety






and State:


Furniture in Australia and its Negative and Positive Impact on the Road Safety


Australian transport network is an extensive system containing railways,
waterways, airports, and roads that link different locations within the
country. As with other nations, this transport network is an essential aspect
of the nation’s economy as it sustains different industries in the country and
links various locations, allowing a system of co-dependence within them. The
country’s mining industry is heavily reliant on the rail network for its
sustenance. Airports provide an essential link between Australia and the rest
of the world, while waterways are restricted to mostly recreational use.
Accordingly, the road is the most important element of the Australian network.
It provides essential travel for the bulk of the nation’s citizens and
industries and provides Australia with a level of connectivity of which other
systems are incapable. That the country has the second largest level of vehicle
ownership in the entire planet only serves to underline the importance of roads
to Australia. The extent of the nation’s road network suits Australia’s low
population density in some areas and covers for the rail transport in the
country, which is still underdeveloped. Because of the country’s extensive road
network and high car ownership, the Commonwealth government along with state
authorities works to regulate and control the way in which Australians use the
roads. This control takes place through various regulatory bodies found at the
state and national levels. These bodies develop rules and regulations for road
users and formulate policies regarding the further development and maintenance
of the network. Through these authorities, Australia is able to guarantee road
safety for the bulk of the users and ensure that the entire network continues
to develop in terms of quality and reach. The development of the Australian
roads normally coincides with their safety conditions. As engineers, continue
to maintain the highways and urban roads, they also have to come up with new
ways of ensuring that motorists are safe and pose the least risks to themselves
and others. Accordingly, safety is one of the main concerns of the Australian
authorities when it comes to the development of the country’s roads. This
report will analyze the Australian road network by first looking at its history
through various stages of development, then scrutinizing various technologies
used in the system. The report will also delve into the work that the
government has done improving the roads, including some of the failings of the
development process.

of the Australian Road Network

Transport in Australia’s Early History

history of road transport in Australia dates back to the arrival of the first
settlers. Before the Europeans first settled on Australia, aboriginal
communities populated the land. The Aboriginal people travelled mostly by foot
and had created a simple road network to suit their transportation needs. This
road network consisted of footpaths that were sufficient for the aboriginal
people because they only travelled by foot. The footpaths normally connected
settlements and vital resources that the communities used. Accordingly, these
paths linked settlements, waterholes and other areas that the communities
deemed to be valuable (Lay 1964). The first European explorers in Australia
noted the existence of these footpaths. According to them, the aboriginal
communities travelled using beaten tracks that were alike to the pathways found
in Europe. The fact that the users of the roads had removed stones from the
tracks and piled them by the sides provided clear evidence that these paths
were of regular use. In addition to linking communities to vital resources, the
pathways also facilitated the long distance trading that the indigenous people
carried out. The trade provided the communities with an important form of
social interaction and this resulted in the recognition of the importance of
the paths (Lay 1964). Travelers using these pathways could therefore travel and
pass through the territory of other communities without fearing for their
safety. After the first settlers arrived, the footpaths of the aboriginal
communities became the first roads that they used when travelling in the
country. The paths normally provided routes around obstacles such as rivers,
ponds, lakes, and swamps and even simplified the process of constructing actual
roads that would later follow (Lay 1964).

1977, the British government established its first colony in Australia (New
South Wales) and settlers from the Britain started to move into the island. In
addition to the movement of settlers, the British government also moved some of
its correctional facilities to the Island as a way of decongesting the prisons
in Britain and improving the conditions in which the prisoners were living (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2012). With the establishment of the colony, the
construction of Australia’s road network began. During the colony’s earlier
periods, the authorities did not carry out any planning to accompany the
construction of the new roads. Instead, the settlers constructed new roads when
they realized the need for them. In many cases, the road construction process
followed the trails and tracks that emerged from the movement of bullock teams
and drays along with the travelling done by the aboriginal communities. The
first road that the settlers built in Australia was in Sydney, the location of
the first colony that the British established inside the country. The road
linked Governor Arthur Phillip’s residence to Dawes Battery, a fortified
position in the colony (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). As new
settlements emerged, the settlers built roads linking them with existing towns.
This started with the construction of a road that linked the Parramatta
District with Sydney. The network expanded further in 1792, when the settlers
built another road that linked the Windsor District with Sydney and Parramatta.
The lack of planning for future construction was the norm during the colony’s
early years. The authorities failed to develop advanced plans for all roads
including the street system inside Sydney (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012).
Indeed, the colony’s surveyor-general developed a plan for the street system in
1788, but the authorities refused to implement it claiming that it was too majestic,
particularly because the colony was primarily a settlement for convicts at the

Figure 1.
Australia’s first road network. This map shows the simple road network in
Sydney’s initial years that connected Dawes Battery, Governor Phillips’
residence and the settlement called Parramatta (Lay 1964).

colony’s isolation from Europe, along with the lack of any planning for
construction, affected the road network. The roads and streets that the
settlers constructed were often short-lived and normally deteriorated after a
short while. As the methods of road construction in Europe and North America
improved, Australia’s isolation meant that the colony did not have the
knowledge to advance its network (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012).
Accordingly, the road network in the colony’s early years was primitive. The
lack of proper knowledge on road construction methods meant that the engineers
had to assume the easiest routes possible. In most cases, the explorers had
used these same routes. This resulted in long roads, especially because the
continent’s landscape was not friendly to the construction process. An
additional obstacle came in the form of the colony’s primary source of labor.
Though the prisoners on the island provided a large amount of free labor, their
unwillingness to work forced the authorities to supervise them constantly (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2012). As a result, cleared tracks with minimal surfacing
and no drainage composed the road network in the late eighteenth and early
nineteenth centuries. The bridges accompanying the road were also of a
primitive nature during these early days. The settlers completed the first
bridge ever to be constructed in Australia in 1788. The settlers used logs of
timber to construct the bridge, which travelers used to cross Tank Stream.
Sixteen years later, the authorities built a new bridge over Tank Stream (Lay
1964). The new bridge was more advanced than the one that it replaced, but only
in terms of the technology used. The new construction was a stone arch that
covered just over seven meters. However, the bridge was shaky and unstable and
the government had to replace it again a few years later (Lay 1964).

Governor Macquarie Era

colony’s policy towards the road network changed in 1810 when Governor William
Bligh retired, with Governor Lachlan Macquarie replacing him. During his term as
the governor, Macquarie was involved in several programs that improved the
quality of life in the colony. Some of his actions directly influenced the
architecture and infrastructure development of New South Wales (NSW). When
Macquarie arrived in NSW, the colony’s roads were underdeveloped because of the
policies and priorities of previous governors. None of the previous governors
had bothered to follow any plan in the construction of Sydney’s streets, leading
to their disorganization (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The streets in
the capital were in a poor state, with some properties encroaching on them. Additionally,
there were no paved roads outside Sydney, making travel outside the settlement
difficult. Macquarie initially acted on the road network by first improving its
state and then making it more organized. Months after his arrival, the
authorities opened toll roads leading from Sydney to two locations. Macquarie
also commissioned a plan to ornament and organize the streets of the capital.
However, the authorities were only able to execute this plan partially (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2012). An even more significant change in policy during Macquarie’s
term saw the authorities start planning for road development. This new way of
carrying out business meant that the colonial government planned the
construction of bridges and roads before the need arose. This allowed the road
network to develop in an organized manner.

most significant impact that Governor Macquarie had on Australian roads
concerned changes to policy issues, organization and planning. When Macquarie
became governor of NSW, the road network was stuck in a primitive state. The authorities
did not carry out any planning before construction, roads were disorganized,
and transportation did not seem to be a priority for the colonial government.
Under Governor Macquarie, the government started planning for the construction
and expansion of the network (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). This
planning considered future settlements and other key issues. The governor also
worked to improve the state of the roads that were already in existence. In
Sydney, the colonial government organized the streets and improved their
conditions drastically. The government ensured the paving and naming of the
streets in the capital, resulting in a system that had better coordination. The
authorities also adopted a town plan that ensured the future construction and
development of the network would be orderly. Lastly, Governor Macquarie also
instituted policies that dealt with the financing of the road network’s
expansion. The toll roads that the government constructed acted as a good
source of revenue (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). Along with government
funding and public subscription, the tolls provided the money that the colony
needed to expand the network and maintain the roads. The colonial government
would hire private companies that it commissioned to construct and maintain
roads for ten years (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). These firms would
then keep the profits that they made from the tolls. Even more important was
the government’s establishment of a standard that the contractors had to meet
when constructing roads. This ensured that the roads were of good quality as
well as durable.

attention that Governor Macquarie paid to the colony’s infrastructure meant
that the roads constructed during his time were of a higher quality than those
that previous governors had commissioned. However, the available technology
still limited the colonies and restricted them to constructing roads by simply
clearing paths that carriages could pass through. One example of such a cleared
pathway that Governor Macquarie commissioned was a one hundred and sixty
kilometer road that linked the Emu Plains to the Bathurst Region (Lay 1964).
This road was supposed to help Sydney access much needed water resources, an
issue that became urgent after a severe drought occurred in 1812. Thirty
prisoners and eight guards built the road by clearing the pathways. The road
had a width of six meters on average and was almost four meters wide in its
thinnest places (Lay 1964). The government expected the simple road to sustain
traffic from carriages and carts, as they estimated that its width would
provide sufficient room for vehicles to pass each other with ease.

expansion of the road network in New South Wales slowed down after Governor
Macquarie’s term ended. After Macquarie left office, subsequent governors
failed to prioritize road construction as much as he had. Eventually, the
conditions of some of the roads started to deteriorate. The rapid growth of the
country worsened the situation. The British government was establishing new
colonies in Australia and other settlements were emerging rapidly (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2012). This created the need for the authorities to link
all of the settlements and colonies by road. These factors placed a strain on
the road network in NSW, eventually forcing it to return to the state that it
had been before the Macquarie era. The new colonies on the island followed the
same development scheme as NSW when developing their networks, but with varying
success. Unlike NSW, the colonies did not have many prisoners to provide a
seemingly infinite source of free labor. Additionally, the discovery of gold
fields saw many people seek employment in mining (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). Accordingly, the new colonies in Australia were unable to
develop their road networks to match the one that NSW had.

state of disrepair in the colony’s roads ended when Governor Ralph Darling took
over the leadership of NSW in 1825. Like Governor Macquarie, Darling understood
the importance of the roads infrastructure to the colony’s success and he gave
the issue significant focus. One of Governor Darling’s most notable actions was
the introduction of regulations and policies that guided town planning (Lay
1964). These regulations influenced the construction of buildings, roads, and
streets in settlements inside New South Wales. Based on Governor Darling’s
regulations, building blocks had to be twenty meters wide and one hundred
meters deep. The regulations stipulated that reservations for roads in the
colony be at least thirty meters wide and those for streets to have widths of
twenty-six meters (Lay 1964). The residents of the colony followed most of
these regulations as much as possible and this helped streamline the
infrastructure. However, technology still lagged behind the increasing needs of
the colony in the field of road construction. This meant that many of the roads
in NSW still faced many of the problems that they had in the past. They had
unsealed surfaces, making them unsuitable for wet weather. The fact that the
roads and streets had poor drainage only served to worsen this problem (Lay
1964). The key difference, however, is that the streets and roads in the colony
were better organized, with Governor Darling’s emphasis on planning and
regulation within the transport sector playing a crucial role.

technology that the authorities were using to build roads was still primitive
when Governor Darling began his term. Initially, settlers used bridle paths and
blazed routes, with these being replaced with beaten and earthen tracks. By the
1820s, the roads were still in a poor state. Though the technology for
constructing roads was primitive, the fact that most of the travelers used
drawn carriages meant that the tracks were sufficient. The process of
constructing the roads in the colonies mainly involved the removal of
protruding rocks, stumps, and trees (Lay 1964). The primitive state of these
roads meant that many travelers experienced accidents. The roads were hazardous
for travelers because they had no sealing, and were only constructed by
clearing obstacles. In some cases, the workers failed to remove the obstacles
completely, leaving items that were capable of damaging carriages and carts.
The situation started to change in the 1820s when the government of New South
Wales started constructing roads using McAdam’s method (Lay 1964). In this
method, the workers would break stones down into small sizes, with their sizes
normally gauged by estimating whether they could fit in a person’s mouth. The
small angular stones were then spread on the road at a thickness of
approximately twenty centimeters. Their angular shapes meant that they
interlocked with each other. The constructors would then compact the stones to
make them interlock. In some cases, binding agents would help ensure that the
surfacing was firm (Lay 1964). The macadam roads drastically changed the nature
of transport because they provided the first smooth surfaces for travel,
increasing the comfort, speed, and efficiency of the process. Additionally, the
method allowed the roads to have a drainage system, improving the quality of
the roads as well as their longevity.  

Introduction of Road Authorities

             Though Governor Macquarie’s work came undone
in the following years through neglect and mismanagement, his legacy survived
because of the policy changes that he had made regarding infrastructure. The
introduction of toll roads during his era allowed the infrastructure in the
colony to continue to expand without relying solely on government funding.
However, the toll roads and government funds could not sustain the expansion
adequately (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). This forced the colonial
government to seek new ways of funding the road construction projects. The need
for the government to expand the road network in Australia increased greatly
after the gold rush resulted in a population burst. The government sought a
permanent solution to the roads issue in the 1830s and did so by establishing
road authorities (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). These organizations
had the responsibility of constructing and maintaining local roads. The
government established the authorities through legislation that created trusts
in towns such as Newcastle and Sydney as well as other government organizations
with similar responsibilities in smaller settlements (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). The road authorities had the authority to impose tolls on
various roads to raise funds for the maintenance and expansion of the road
network in the colony. Although the authorities could levy rates, the
government did not allow them to borrow money.

Figure 2.
Melbourne’s town plan. This map shows the plan that two engineers developed for
Melbourne in 1837. Implementation ended in 1850 when contractors completed
Princes Bridge (Lay 1964).

addition to the creation of road authorities, the mid-nineteenth century also
witnessed the centralization of the road construction function. This course of
action started in South Australia after the government set up the Central Board
of Main Roads in 1849. The authorities in Victoria took similar action between
1853 and 1863 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). After the centralized
boards came into existence, they attempted to increase their funding. One of
the courses of action that they took saw them increase the number of toll roads
within the network, with the agreement that the contracted companies would pay
higher license fees (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). This move allowed
the centralized boards to increase their effectiveness as the started to work
on smaller roads in the network. The boards achieved this by redistributing
some of their funds to boards operating on the district level. With the
centralized system, the road network in Australia started to improve greatly.

the 1830s and 1860s, developments in technology bolstered road construction in
Australia. This growth in the technology used to construct roads was most
evident in the types of bridges that the colonies started constructing in the
1830s. The first bridge ever built in Australia was made up of timber logs that
the settlers used to cross Tank Stream. When the authorities upgraded the
bridge sixteen years later, they replaced it with a stone arch bridge that was
unstable and presumably unsafe. The first good bridge in Australia was another
stone arch bridge that the government of New South Wales constructed in 1833
over Lapstone creek (Lay 1964). David Lennox, a Scottish stonemason, built the
bridge and several others in the colony. Another development in the process of
constructing roads saw the authorities start installing streetlights along the
city streets to illuminate them at night. The streetlights used gas lamps and
required frequent maintenance (Lay 1964). In addition to the improvements in
bridge construction and street lighting, the macadam roads were becoming more
popular in the country. More colonies were using the roads because of their
longevity and efficiency. By the 1830s, the Telford method was also gaining
support in some colonies. Similar to the macadam roads, the Telford method
involved the breaking down of stones into smaller sizes that the constructors
could compact to form a better road surface. The stones in Telford’s method were
normally broken into small cubic shapes that allowed interlocking and binding
in a manner similar to that of the macadam roads (Lay 1964). In the 1850s, some
governments of the colonies started to prefer the use of the Telford method in
the construction of city streets. Other colonies found the method to be more
suitable for the construction of roads that bore heavy traffic.

Figure 3.
Surfacing methods from the nineteenth century. This figure illustrates the
methods that the contractors used to surface roads during the nineteenth
century, including those that McAdam and Telford developed (Lay 1964).

combined effect of the formal authorities as well as the improvements in the
technologies available saw the condition of Australia’s roads improve significantly.
Exercising their responsibility, the authorities used the increased financing
to pave more roads, construct more bridges, and carry out better maintenance of
their respective networks (Lay 1964). Additionally, the road authorities helped
the transport network in Australia develop by emphasizing its importance. The
fact that various organizations existed with the sole purpose of constructing
and managing roads meant that the issue would not be ignored any further.

Impact of Railway Technology

the 1860s, the government’s focus on the expansion of road networks had
increased. This increase was partly because of the rising demand, as road
transport became increasingly important. The situation was changed by the
growing influence of railways in the 1880s. As the nineteenth century ended,
railway technology had improved significantly. This improvement meant that the
technology was becoming more prevalent in Australia. Since railways were faster
and cheaper, they would become the most popular mode of transport around the
world for the coming fifty years (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). This
popularity affected the development of the road network in Australia. The
priorities of the authorities shifted from the expansion of roads to railways.
The government started extending the network through the island, with roads
serving as feeders for the system. The authorities still constructed roads but
did so at low costs, using them to connect settlements to the railway network (Australian
Bureau of Statistics 2012). This auxiliary role did not mean that roads were no
longer important to the growth of the colony. By connecting settlements to the
railway network, roads still served an important purpose for the populace.
Additionally, the expansion of the railway network did not benefit all regions
in Australia and the government had to construct roads in some areas where they
were still the most important means of transport and communication.

influence of railways in Australia meant that the government’s approach to the
development of the road network changed significantly. The popularity of the
railways meant that traders and industries did not use roads as much as they
had in the past. Resultantly, the government abolished the tolls that it had
established along important roads. With the absence of tolls, the issue of
funding became problematic again and the erratic funding saw the roads fall
into disrepair (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). This decline only led to
the reinforcement of railways as the primary mode of transport for the colony.
Eventually, many roads in Australia became deep tracks that could not be used
effectively. Ironically, this some aspects of road development and construction
were aided by the popularity of the railways. The number of bridges in
Australia increased greatly as the authorities continued to expand the railway
network (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The government built bridges
for both railways and roads as it continued to develop infrastructure. The
authorities dealing with road construction also became increasingly
decentralized as a way of dealing with the neglect that the sector was
experiencing. With the state government focusing on the expansion of the
railways, the smaller councils were afforded greater responsibilities
concerning infrastructure development. These increased responsibilities saw the
streets inside various towns improve in quality (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). New South Wales also started providing funds for the maintenance
and construction work that the councils were undertaking, while also increasing
the freedom that they had to source further financing for the same cause.
However, the responsibility of constructing the arterial roads and bridges
remained with the state government.

though the process of developing railways attracted most of the attention of
the colonial governments, progress in road making technology meant that the few
roads the authorities constructed were of improved quality. Because of its isolation
from the rest of world, and Europe in particular, Australia tended to lag
behind other Western nations in terms of the technology that it had available
for road construction (Lay 1964). By the 1830s, governments in Europe and the
United States were already using tar and asphalt to construct their roads. This
meant that the other materials in the roads bound better, making the surface
smoother. However, the Australian authorities were skeptical about using tar
because it was slippery. Almost thirty years later, the colonial governments
found an adequate substitute for use in their roads. By combining coal tar and
macadam, the contractors formed a substance that they called tarmacadam and
used it to create roads that had forty-millimeter surfaces (Lay 1964).
Tarmacadam was not very durable, however, lasting only a year on average and
six months on roads that supported large volumes of traffic. Accordingly, the
substance was not used on its own when constructing roads. Some contractors
used tarmacadam when surfacing bridges, while others found it useful for
keeping the macadam surfaces intact along steep roads (Lay 1964). Even with
tarmacadam making smoother surfaces in some roads, the authorities and
Australian citizens still found railways to be the preferable form of transport
in the colony. However, the invention of the automobile would soon shift the
balance in favor of roads once more.

Influence of the Automobile

advent of automobiles changed the future of road transport in Australia and the
rest of the world. After the introduction of motor vehicles in Australia, the
balance between railways and road transport shifted in favor of the latter.
This shift necessitated the need for the authorities to change their approach
to the development of infrastructure in Australia as they started to focus on
the road network once more. The renewed emphasis on the country’s road network
saw the government establish various administrative structures that would deal
with roads in Australia. The first organization that the government set up was
the Country Roads Board (CRB) in Victoria in 1913 (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). The establishment of the board marked the beginning of the
state governments’ moves to centralize the maintenance and construction of
roads as they had done in the middle of the nineteenth century. The CRB served
an important role in the development of Australia’s road infrastructure because
of the growing pressure created by the increased traffic and usage of the mode
of transport (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). State governments found it
difficult to deal with roads along with other responsibilities and therefore
instituted boards such as the CRB for that purpose. The CRB shared its
responsibilities with the municipal authorities. As the central authority, the
board designated main roads across the country. However, the board engaged in
its funding, maintenance and construction responsibilities together with the
municipal authorities. As the CRB was an authority based in Victoria, other
states had to develop their own boards to serve similar functions. Queensland
led the way with the Main Roads Commission in 1920. The state of New South
Wales followed with the Main Roads Board in 1925 and while Western Australia
established the Main Roads Board in 1926 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012).

establishment of the centralized state road authorities occurred at a time when
the infrastructure needed a lot of improvement. The government’s focus on the
railways during the bulk of the nineteenth century meant that many roads in
Australia were in a poor state. These roads could not sustain the traffic that
the influx of automobiles had created. Many of the roads were made of gravel,
making them impassable when wet (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The
poor condition of the roads also meant that the motor vehicles did not move as
fast as they could, increasing the traffic significantly. These conditions
increased the need for the roads boards to act fast and improve the state of
Australia’s road infrastructure. One of the things that the boards needed to do
was to establish the standards that would apply to the design, maintenance, and
construction of the roads. These standards would help ensure that the roads
were of good quality since many of the municipalities lacked the engineers and
experts that the work needed (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The
standards would also help Australia obtain a road network that would last
longer than those from the past would. Though the process started in earnest in
the 1920s, the Great Depression slowed the process down. The influence of the boards
started to decrease because of a decline in revenue (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). However, the 1920s and 1930s still saw Australia’s road
network improve significantly, bolstered by the introduction of automobiles and
the development of new technology.

automobiles becoming more prevalent, asphalt and tar surfaces became a
necessity in many Australian roads. Lay (1964) explains that the governments
ignored the substances as options for surfacing for much of the nineteenth
century. The introduction of the automobile changed the situation by making it
necessary for the roads to have smooth surfaces that would suit the pneumatic tires
that the cars used. In response to this situation, the country developed the
seal coat technology, a major contribution to the global road-making methods
(Lay 1964). This method involved the use of bitumen to seal the basic
tarmacadam roads that the governments had been constructing in the country. By
using this method, the authorities were able to upgrade the tarmacadam roads
that Australia had been using the past with the modern motor vehicles by simply
coating them with bitumen (Lay 1964). This method also made the roads safer for
motor vehicle users because of the smooth and consistent surfacing. Accordingly,
seal coating became a popular method of constructing roads capable of handling
motor vehicle traffic in Australia as well as other parts of the world.  

Second World War and its Aftermath

the end of the Great Depression, the Second World War created circumstances
that forced the Australian authorities to make road construction and
maintenance a priority. The strategic considerations of the conflict meant that
the nation needed to have a high quality transportation network. This need
necessitated the construction of a network of key arterial roads to aid in the
mobilization of troops (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The authorities
also constructed various supply roads to help increase the connectivity in the
north for the purposes of the region’s defense. In 1942, the government created
the Allied Works Council and gave it the responsibility of constructing the
roads that would aid the war effort. The Allied War Council placed its emphasis
on the construction of major roads in the country (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). Along with civilian contractors, the council constructed
various major highways that still serve important purposes in Australia today.
Some of the roads that the Allied Works Council constructed include the Stuart
and Eyre Highways. Though the Allied Works Council improved the arterial road network
significantly, the emphasis that it placed on the main roads resulted saw it
neglect the conditions of the infrastructure in the countryside.

the war ended, the Allied Works Council transferred its responsibility to the
state governments. The authorities took over the responsibility of maintaining
the arterial road network in Australia as well as other roads that the council
had neglected during the war. During this era of progress and recovery, the
authorities began their work by constructing roads that they designated for
specific purposes. The authorities started developing roads to boost industries
such as tourism and livestock rearing (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012).
The highways that the Allied Works Council constructed retained their strategic
significance because of the role that they played connecting various sections
of the nation. In areas such as Tasmania, the authorities commissioned highways
with the intention of using them to aid other developments such as hydroelectric
system (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012). The post-war development of the
road network had a profound effect on the development of Australia. The roads
changed the radial pattern of growth that accompanied the railways as they
created a network that was more widespread (Australian Bureau of Statistics
2012). The rapid increase in car ownership increased the rate of this growth,
forcing the government to dedicate more funds towards the road infrastructure.

period following the end of the Second World War had added significant because
of the government’s decision to start applying an economic approach to the
issue of road construction. This occurred after the government created the
Commonwealth Bureau of Roads in 1964 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2012).
The organization was supposed to investigate various issues concerning the road
network and use the research to provide the relevant minister with reports
aiding his or her work. The ministry would then use the reports to determine
the allocation of financial aid to state authorities for the purpose of road
construction. In 1969, the bureau used economic criteria when analyzing the
needs of the nation’s road network. The report that the bureau released
estimated that the government would have to spend upwards of seven million
dollars on approximately eighty thousand road projects (Australian Bureau of
Statistics 2012). The bureau had applied economic criteria when determining the
roads that the government needed to renovate or construct. Because of the
important nature of the bureau’s work, the government instituted a new
organization in 1977, the Bureau of Transport Economics, which would focus
solely on the economic aspect of road development. This institution still
exists today as he Bureau of Transport and Regional Economics (Department of
Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005).

of the 1970s and 1980s

the 1970s and 1980s, various major developments took place concerning the
Australian road network. In 1972, the national government was considering the
establishment of a national highways system. This government wanted the system
to be similar to that of other developed nations like the United States and
Germany. The main idea was to expand the arterial road network and make it more
effective. The expanded network would link all capitals and principle regions.
The government’s intention was to make the network strong enough to serve
transportation needs that went beyond those of the states. These needs would
include long-distance travel, export oriented travel and other forms of
transportation that transcended the state borders. The highways system came
into effect in 1974, as the commonwealth government became responsible for the
maintenance of various roads that it designated as highways (Department of
Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). At the time of its
implementation, the system included some roads that had gravel surfacing and
that were in dire need of renovation if they were to serve their new purposes.
By 1989, the government had managed to improve the conditions of the new
arterial roads and make them good enough to serve as national highways. Originally,
the system was sixteen thousand kilometers long, linking regions and cities
such as Brisbane, Cairns, Hobart, Burnie, Sydney, Melbourne, and Hume
(Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005).

institution of the 1982 Australian Bicentennial Road Development Trust Fund Act
as well as the 1985 Australian Land Transport saw the commonwealth government’s
control over the development of the road network increase significantly. The
two acts added on to the responsibilities that the commonwealth government had
gained after the national highways system came into existence (Department of
Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). Through the 1982 legislation,
the commonwealth government was able to set the quality standards for all of
the highways in the country. With this power authority, the national government
instituted a six-year plan that was supposed to facilitate the upgrading of the
network before 1988 (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
2005). The Australian Bicentennial Road Development Program focused mostly on
national highways. To finance this project, the commonwealth government charged
a small levy on fossil fuels. Conversely, the government used the Australian
Land Transport act to source funding for the maintenance and construction of
roads across the country. The funds that the program generated also helped the
government sustain research on transport technology, road safety, the mainline rail,
and promotion. Both programs proved to be immensely successful as they helped
improve the road and rail networks in the country, significantly. The
bicentennial act was particularly valuable to the development of the roads in
the country. By 1988, the nation had spent more than five billion dollars on
various highway projects. In return, the nation had, for the first time in its
history, a complete network of modern highways that linked all of the major
locations in Australia (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
2005). In addition to sealing the existing sixteen thousand kilometers of
highway, the projects allowed the commonwealth government to extend the network
by four thousand kilometers. Lastly, the bicentennial and national highways
programs led to the construction of bypasses linking various towns as well as
the expansion of the country’s four-lane highways by up to one thousand, one
hundred and fifty-six kilometers (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development

in the 1990s and 2000s

beginning of the 1990s saw further changes in the way that Australia managed
the funding and management of her roads. After negotiations in 1990 and 1991,
the authorities in Australia decided to divide the responsibilities of funding
the roads between the commonwealth, state and local governments. The commonwealth
government retained the control of the national highways system and it would
continue to maintain them on its own. Territories and states in the country
would be in charge of the arterial roads that were not a part of the national
highways system. Like the commonwealth government, the states would bear full
responsibilities for their roads and manage their maintenance and construction
while sourcing for the necessary funds by themselves. Lastly, the local
governments received the responsibility of dealing with small community roads
(Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). Through the
negotiations, the national government was also able to extend the national
highways system by eighteen thousand, five hundred kilometers. This expansion
came through the inclusion of various roads. The negotiations saw the
Sydney-Adelaide and Melbourne-Brisbane interstates become a part of the national
system. In addition to the two interstates, roads linking Sydney, Adelaide,
Brisbane, Perth, and Melbourne became a part of the national highways system as
well (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005).

most recent change to occur in the organization of the road network in
Australia was the introduction of the AusLink program by the commonwealth
government. The government announced the plan to introduce the new system, in
2002. The AusLink system was supposed to replace the system that the commonwealth
government was using to fund the transport sector as per the 1991 negotiations
(Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). Some of the
changes in the AusLink system saw the government start funding road and rail development
together. The government introduced the AusLink program with the intention of
improving the planning of land transport across the country. The program also
improved the way that the authorities funded the infrastructural projects.
Through AusLink, the commonwealth government improved the processes of
long-term planning.

addition to the changes in the management of the national road network, the
1980s and 1990s also witnessed modifications in the way that contractors
constructed roads. The introduction of new technologies in the sector
facilitated these changes and allowed engineers to construct roads using
methods that were more effective than those from the past were. Some of the
improvements in the road transport technology included new construction
equipment and machinery, the use of computer systems in the design process and
in the introduction of better materials for use by the contractors (Department
of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). With the introduction of new
technologies and methods for constructing roads, the Australian government
started upgrading many of the roads that existed. These improvements allowed
the authorities to shorten the distance in some roads by constructing tunnels
and bridges. More roads were paved and sealed, particularly those that were a
part of the national highways system, as well as others that the government
considered nationally important. The number of freeways, motorways, and toll
roads that existed in Australia’s states and territories increased greatly,
increasing the connectivity in the country (Department of Infrastructure and
Regional Development 2005). The entire transport became more efficient and car
ownership continued to rise in the country.  

to the Australian road network in the 2000s have mainly involved expansions and
maintenance. The technology used to construct roads has not changed much over
the past decade and many of the roads in use in the country were already in
existence in the 1990s. The most significant changes in the Australian road
network during the period concerned the management of the construction and
maintenance processes, as the federal, state and local governments worked
together to streamline the process (Department of Infrastructure and Regional
Development 2005). The AusLink program that the commonwealth government
initiated in 2004 ended in 2009, with the Nation Building Program taking its
place. However, the program’s focus remained the same, as the commonwealth
government continues to provide most of the funding for most of the road
construction that takes place in the country. 

main highlight of changes to Australia’s road network between since the 1990s
had been the improvements in the safety record. Since the government introduced
stricter regulations in the 1970s, the safety records of Australian roads have
been improving steadily. However, a significant number of fatalities still
occur on Australian roads every year. Measures such as sealing roads and
installing streetlights have gone a long way towards improving this safety
record. Recent developments, aided by modern technology, have made Australian
roads some of the safest in the world. Highways, arterial roads, and roads in
urban areas have used a combination of basic methods and innovative technology
to reduce the number of accidents that occur along them. These methods and
technologies include wide sealed shoulders, audible edge-linings, over-taking
lanes, roundabouts, and traffic lights. While many of these innovations have
been in use since the 1960s, the modern roads are safer because they have found
ways of implementing all of them in a manner that allows them to complement
each other.   

of the Road Network

freeway and highway systems compose the complex and intricate road network in
Australia, along with the minor, urban, and rural roads. The road transport
network in Australia has three distinguishable levels. The first level consists
of the national highways network. These are roads linking major cities and locations
within the country. All of the roads in this network are sealed and paved. The
second level consists of arterial roads within the country’s different states
and territories. Arterial roads in Australia include the freeways, toll roads,
and motorways that the state governments have constructed to increase
connectivity within their jurisdictions. The third level of the transport
network in the country consists of minor roads. The responsibility of
constructing and maintaining minor roads in the country lies with the local
governments (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001). These roads
link minor locations within municipalities and counties. The minor roads also
include city streets and roads in rural areas. Some of the roads in this level are
not sealed, and cannot sustain high volumes of traffic.

National Highway System

              The Australian commonwealth government
instituted the national highways system in 1974 using the National Roads Act.
Under the National Roads Act, the Australian commonwealth government became
responsible for the construction and maintenance of any road that the
authorities designated a highway. After the introduction of the act, the
government declared all of the important roads in the country to be highways.
This included all roads that linked the capitals of states and territories in
Australia (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001). Having
designated various highways in the country, the commonwealth government then
undertook the responsibility of upgrading them so that they could be of the
required standards. The initial network of national highways consisted of
sixteen thousand kilometers of road. However, quality was a key problem as some
roads were sealed and paved, while others had loose surfacing (Department of
Transport and Regional Services 2001). When the commonwealth government
introduced the national highways system, only seventy percent of the roads in
the network were sealed. Accordingly, the government established that the
paving of the network was an immediate need to which it had to attend. The
process started in earnest and ended in 1989, when all roads in the national
highways system had been sealed (Department of Transport and Regional Services

the principle authority responsible for the maintenance and expansion of the
national highways system, the commonwealth government is responsible for the
funding these processes. Currently, the commonwealth funds the highways system
for three main purposes. Firstly, the funding of the system allows its
expansion to include new road into the national highways network. This
expansion also sees the authorities expand existing highways so that they can
support greater volumes of traffic. This expansion normally seeks to match the
growing population in Australia. In addition to the expansion of the national
highways system, the funding by the commonwealth government also sustains the
maintenance of the roads, thereby ensuring they do not fall into a state of
disrepair, as had happened in the past. Lastly, the commonwealth government
provides the funds that rehabilitate any roads in the network of national
highways that are in need of renovation or extensive work (Department of
Transport and Regional Services 2001). Since the commonwealth government
instituted the national highways system in 1974, it has spent more than
fourteen billion dollars funding the network’s construction and maintenance.
The process has been largely successful, as the network has grown steadily over
the past four decades, increasing the connectivity in Australia. Resultantly,
approximately eighty percent of the Australian population lives within forty
kilometers of a section of the highways network (Department of Transport and
Regional Services 2001). This means that the national highways system is a
crucial aspect of Australia’s road network and transportation sector as a
whole, playing an important role in the movement of goods and people.

Figure 4. The
national highways network in 2000. This map shows the national highways system
as it was in 2000, with the road corridors linking the largest and most
important cities and locations in the country (Department of Transport and
Regional Services 2001).

Toll roads and Motorways

the national highway system, the arterial roads serving each state and
territory are the most important aspect of the Australian road transport
network. These arterial roads include motorways, freeways, and toll roads that
mainly serve the transportation needs of the states in which they are located
(Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001). These roads serve an
important role by increasing the accessibility to the national highways system.
The responsibility of maintaining and expanding the arterial roads in each
state sits with the government of the region. However, the commonwealth
government is still responsible for providing the funding for this maintenance
and construction (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001). The
commonwealth government disseminates these funds through various programs that
it undertakes together with the state, territory and local authorities. The
commonwealth government has had this responsibility since the 1920s.
Approximately half of the budget that the government sets aside for this
purpose normally goes towards the national highways system, with the rest
helping to sustain the roads in the states, territories, and smaller
jurisdictions. For instance, in the 2000-01 budgets, the commonwealth
government set aside 1.45 billion dollars for the roads in the country. The
national highways system received just over seven hundred million dollars. An
additional one hundred and fifty million dollars helped sustain roads that are
of national importance (Department of Transport and Regional Services 2001).
These roads of national importance included some of the arterial roads in the
different states and territories. In addition to the money that the state
governments receive for their road networks, the authorities also generate
their own funding in various ways. One popular method that state governments
use to generate funds for their transport networks is the establishment of toll


addition to the arterial networks and national highways, a system of minor
roads also helps to support the transport sector in Australia. Minor roads
create an expansive transportation network that supports the transportation
needs of the Australian nation at a basic level. The local governments in
Australia are responsible for the sustenance of the majority of these roads.
Minor roads could include those servicing urban areas such as streets and
alleys. These roads are normally sealed and have low speed limits. Roads
servicing the rural areas in Australia also make up this network. Unlike the streets
in urban areas, many of the rural roads are not sealed and have loose surfaces
such as gravel. The local governments are also responsible for the construction
and maintenance of these roads. However, the commonwealth government and state
authorities are the ones that fund this work (Department of Transport and
Regional Services 2001).

Furniture Technologies

technologies and methods that the authorities use to construct the roads in
Australia serve the important purpose of making the transport network safer for
motorists and pedestrians. These technologies have evolved slowly over the
recent centuries, with their development and emergence depending on other
inventions. During its initial years, the road network in Australia was
primitive and basic in nature. There was no advanced technology available for
road making at the time and the roads were simple tracks that workers had
cleared. These cleared tracks were unsafe for travel because they contained
obstacles that could damage the carts and carriages that travelers were using
at the time. One of the first advancements made in the field saw a stone arch
bridge replace one that workers had constructed using timber logs over Tank
Stream. However, the new bridge unstable and unsafe and would remain so until
it was replaced with a similar one several years later. Safety on Australian
roads improved significantly when the government adopted the McAdam method from
Europe in the 1820s (Lay 1964). This methods helped contractors construct roads
that were firmer and safer for travel because of the relatively smooth
surfacing. Another crucial safety development emerged two decades later when
the government in Sydney installed streetlights along the city streets. The gas
lamps that the government used helped illuminate the streets making night
travel safer (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). Even
more significant about this development is the fact that it acted as a
precursor to the modern street lighting systems that play an important role in
improving roads safety at night.

introduction of seal coating as a method of paving roads started a new era in
road-making technology. Sealed roads became the norm in most locations, with
construction ensuring that they could sustain large volumes of traffic from
motor vehicles. To accompany the sealed roads, the authorities started to
introduce new technologies that were supposed to make travelling safer for
motorists and pedestrians. Some of the technologies that the governments introduced
in the early twentieth century were traffic lights (Department of
Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). These helped to control the flow
of traffic within cities and at intersections, while also reducing collisions. The
number of people owning and using motor vehicles started to rise and this led
to an increase in the incidence of road accidents in Australia. The situation
reached its peak in 1970 when the country recorded three thousand, seven
hundred and ninety-eight accidents. Accordingly, it became important for the
authorities to take measures to increase road safety as accidents were starting
to become a problem for motorists and pedestrians. One of the first courses of
action saw the authorities introduce regulations, with some making it
compulsory for travelers to wear seat belts when moving (Department of
Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005). Road conditions also started to
improve in ways that made it safer to travel. The government started to make
sure that all highways were sealed and that they had multiple lanes to make it
safer for drivers to overtake other motorists or join the main road from
feeders. Another development saw contractors start to widen and seal the
shoulders on the road. This process involved clearing obstacles that were on
the roadside and making sure that the motorists had enough room on the sides to
stop when necessary or avoid situations that emerge. Road markings also became
necessary for helping motorists stay in their lanes.

developments in Australian road technologies have made Australian roads even
safer as the country experiences the fewest number of accidents per year in its
history. These developments have seen the authorities take advantage of
progress in computing technology to set up cameras in various strategic
locations that capture images of reckless and careless drivers. These cameras
help capture images of drivers ignoring traffic lights as well as speed limits.
Sensitive traffic lights have also improved the conditions on Australian roads
as they can now help regulate traffic in intersections that are found in lowly
populated areas without inconveniencing motorists. Other advances are less
complex, as they involve the further development of technologies that already
existed. For instance, most major roads in Australia now have audible
edge-linings in addition to the sealed shoulders. These linings help by warning
drivers when they are veering out of their roads or lanes (Federal Office of
Road Safety 1998).

of the Network

Record of Australian Roads

the road network being the most important part of Australia’s transport system,
safety is a key concern for the authorities as well as the motorists. Territories,
states, and local governments play a fundamental role in developing the
policies and rules that help to keep the roads in the country safe by
minimizing the accidents that occur in Australia. Road accidents are a key
concern for all governments in the world because of the loss of life and
revenue attached to them. The Australian Transport Council (2011) estimates
that Australia has had one hundred and sixty three thousand fatalities due to
road accidents in its history. When compared to other causes of death, road
accidents in Australia are shown to cost the country more lives than all of the
wars that the country has fought since its formation. In addition to the loss
of life, road accidents also cost Australia a significant amount of money.
Estimates show that as of 1996, the country was losing fifteen billion pounds
per year because of road accidents (Federal Office of Road Safety 1998). For
these reasons, it is essential for the country to work on improving the safety
conditions on its roads. Doing so would reduce the money that the country
spends on dealing with the damage caused by the accidents to the
infrastructure, property, and victims’ lives.

safety became a problem for Australia in the twentieth century when automobiles
became popular and widely available. The introduction of automobiles changed
the country’s transport system in various ways. Firstly, road development
became an important issue as the government raced to upgrade the existing
network so that it could match new technologies. Secondly, the introduction of
motor vehicles shifted the balance in favor of road transport once more, as the
method became more effective than the use of railways. These changes increased
the amount of traffic that Australia’s roads were bearing and this affected the
nation’s safety record. Statistics show that the number of road accidents in
Australia increased steadily from the 1900s until the 1970s (Federal Office of
Road Safety 1998). The government recorded a few decrements in the number of
road accidents during the Great Depression and the Second World War. Statistics
comparing the registration of vehicles in Australia and the number of deaths
resulting from road accidents confirm this cause and effect relationship
between fatalities on the country’s roads and car ownership. Between 1925 and
1970, the number of vehicles registered in the country was directly
proportional to the fatalities from road accidents (Federal Office of Road
Safety 1998). The two periods that recorded decreases in fatalities also had
fewer vehicle registrations.

fatalities from road accidents becoming an issue of serious concern for
Australia, the state governments began to take action in a bid to solve the
problem. In 1970, Australia recorded 30.4 fatalities per one hundred people due
to road accidents. However, the actions of the states and territories saw the
rate decrease to 9.3 deaths per one hundred thousand people in 1999 (Australian
Transport Council 2011). The first step that state authorities took to curb the
rising number of fatalities was the introduction of laws guiding the
manufacture of motor vehicles. The rules stipulated that all cars sold in
Australia had to have seat belt fitted for every passenger. The laws also dealt
with other parts of the vehicles that could enhance safety such as the brakes,
headlights, tires, and indicators. With closer regulation, the states and
territories were able to ensure that the vehicles that Australians were using
were safer (Federal Office of Road Safety 1998). Other measures that the state
authorities took were targeting the motorists themselves. Starting with
Victoria and then NSW, the states introduced laws that made it compulsory for
people to wear seatbelts when travelling in cars. Additional regulations
concerned the processes of acquiring drivers’ licenses, with stringent measures
introduced to regulate the conduct of motorists.

Figure 5. Road
fatalities between 1925 and 1995. This graph shows the rates of fatalities in
road accidents between 1925 and 1995. The bold line tracks fatalities per ten
thousand people, while the dotted one tracks per ten thousand vehicles. As
vehicle registration increased, the rate of fatalities per ten thousand cars
decreased. However, fatalities per ten thousand people increased until the peak
in 1970 (Federal Office of Road Safety 1998). 

 Though many regulations affected the
manufacture of vehicles and the conduct of motorists, the authorities in
Australia also used technology to their advantage when trying to curb the road
carnage in the country. Some of the earlier technologies that the government
introduced included traffic lights and sealed roads in the early nineteenth
century. Recent years have seen these technologies match the state of the world
as they become more cutting-edge. Australian highways now use shock-absorbing
barriers, audible edge-linings and speed measuring devices to ensure that
motorists are driving safely and that the damage the accidents cause is
minimized (Federal Office of Road Safety 1998). Interestingly, the Northern
Territory records more than twice as many accidents per one hundred thousand
people than any other part of the country (Department of Infrastructure and
Regional Development 2014). This shows that the problem does not just lie with
the technology that the government is using to curb the problem, but also with
the attention that it pays to different parts of the country.  

between Australia and other OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development) countries show that the country’s road safety record is a problem
and could be considered a failing of the relevant department. Despite being one
of the largest economies and most developed countries in the world, Australia
has average rankings when its road safety record is compared to that of other
OECD nations. For instance, out of thirty-three nations, Australia had the
sixteenth lowest number of road accident fatalities per 100,000 residents, with
5.72 (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2014). This figure
is almost twice as high as that of the countries with safest roads in the OECD,
Iceland, and the United Kingdom. Another statistic showed that Australia
recorded the fourteenth lowest number of deaths for every ten thousand
registered motor vehicles, from a group of thirty countries in the OECD
(Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2014). While these
safety rankings show that Australia’s roads are safer than those in most of the
world, the average standings within the OECD shows that, the nation still has a
lot of work to do before its road safety records much up to those of other
countries that are in its economic class.  

Figure 6. Road
deaths per 100,000 people in Australian territories and OECD states. The graph
shows that Australia has average road safety rankings when compared to other developed
countries. Even more concerning is the fact that the Northern Territory records
more than twice the number of accidents per 100,000 people than any other state
or territory does (Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2014).


Australian road network started growing when the first settlers arrived on the
island in the 18th century. Using the trails and tracks that the
aboriginal people had created, the settlers started constructing primitive
roads that served their meager needs. Over the centuries, this road network has
developed steadily as developments in other scientific fields as well as
historical events contribute to this growth. Leaders such as Governors
Macquarie and Darling bolstered this development by instituting good policies
that left lasting legacies. Additionally, events such as the invention of the
automobile and the Second World War helped advance the road network to the
level that it has reached today. The development of the road network oversaw
the emergence of various features that helped make the roads. During the latter
years of the nineteenth century, paved roads and streetlights helped to improve
the safety conditions on Australian roads. These safety features increased in
the early twentieth century to include traffic lights and roads that were
sealed with bitumen. The process of modernizing Australia’s roads to their
current state began in 1974 when the commonwealth government took over various
funding responsibilities. Allowing with these modernization, various safety
features were introduced into many roads. These included safety barriers,
passing lanes, widened and sealed shoulders, and roundabouts. Further advances
in technology have allowed the authorities to come up with even better ways of
making the roads safer. Many Australian roads now have audible edge-linings,
sensitive traffic lights, red light cameras, and speed guns. Combined, these
features make Australian roads some of the safest on the world. The biggest
failing of the authorities responsible for Australian roads is the safety
record. Towards the beginning of the twentieth century, the country had a poor
safety record, with a large number of people dying from accidents. Ironically,
the development of road technology made traveling more dangerous for motorists.
This situation reached a peak in 1970 when the nation recorded more than three
thousand fatalities due to crashes. Even though the authorities were able to
reverse this trend using various regulations and technologies to make the roads
safer, there is still a need for the country to put in more effort so that it
matches the safety records of other nations that are developed as much as
Australia is.   


Bureau of Statistics 2012, History of
roads in Australia. 23 August 2014, <[email protected]/0/2e904c15091c39a5ca2569de0028b416?OpenDocument>.

Transport Council 2011, The national road
safety strategy, Australian Transport Safety Bureau, ACT.

of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2005, A history of Australian road and rail, 23 August 2014, <>.

of Infrastructure and Regional Development 2014, International road safety comparisons, Commonwealth of Australia,

of Transport and Regional Services 2001, Management
of the national highways system program, Commonwealth Government of
Australia, Canberra.

Office of Road Safety 1998, History of
road fatalities in Australia, 23 August 2014, <>.

MG 1964, History of Australian roads,
Australian Road Research Board, Victoria.

Business Research Methods essay help
Business Research



Table of Contents

1.0 Assignment One: A Learning Log. 2

1.1 Unit 3 – Learning Log (Searching and
Reviewing Literature) 2

1.2 Unit 5
– Learning Log (Data Collection and Analysis) 6

1.3 Unit 8 – Learning Log (Presenting
Findings) 9

Assignment Two: Assessment
Essay. 11

Introduction. 11

Background of the research. 11

Theoretical overview.. 12

Research model and hypotheses development 12

Research methodology & approach rationale. 14

Applied Methodology. 14

2.5.2. Advantages of the Quantitative Method. 15

2.5.3. Disadvantages of the Quantitative Method. 16

Analysis and Findings. 17

References. 18


1.0 Assignment One: A Learning Log

1.1 Unit 3 – Learning Log (Searching and Reviewing

Business Research Methods

Overall, the course on business research
methods course has revolutionized my way of thinking with regard to business
and research. Specifically, it has been a revelation with regard to the
changing role of the business research in the face of shifting global business
platforms. Business research methods have provided me with a means of understanding
the basic facets of business research. They illustrated a means of identifying
organizational opportunities, strengths, and weaknesses especially for modern
entities seeking to differentiate themselves from existing and new competitors.
Thus, for most of my work I heavily depended on my readings to acquire
comprehensive, organized and detailed information about the research stages, research
questions, hypotheses, quantitative approach, correlations, qualitative
methodology, and grounded theory, just to mention a few.

I realize the significance of reflection
logs and journal as part of my MBA. Based on this realization, I appreciate that
these elements will be very important in ensuring that I maximize the benefits
inherent within reflective learning. In addition to relying on reflective logs
and journals, I practiced experiential learning. Experiential learning was very
interesting since I had to search and explore business research databases to
identify appropriate articles and relate their relevance to my research. I
discovered that this process is the foundation of an effective learning that
can prepare a student to assume the responsibilities of a successful MBA

Consequently, this made me realize that understanding
the research stages is similar to having a map before going into an expedition.
Setting out tasks, activities, and procedures is a means of undertaking
successful research. It provides me with a blueprint in terms of my goals and
objectives with respect to the research I want to undertake. Based on the above
observations, this assignment will ensure the incorporation of a wide array of
literature as a means of undertaking a successful study. The use of extensive
literature provides one with a rich source of information to test the
hypotheses that inform this study.

Step 1

The first step into my research was to conduct
a literature search for suitable papers on stakeholder theory. The search
was conducted using Google Scholar to locate papers in this research area. The
following is an example of relevant papers, which were downloaded from the
Internet. The primary aim was to illustrate and develop and understanding of
the role of international stakeholders in influencing organizational policies
and decision making practices.

de Bakker, F., & den Hond, F.
(2012). Boomerang Politics: How Transnational stakeholders Impact Multinational
Corporations in the Context of Globalization. In A. Lindgreen, k. P., V. J.,
& M. F., A Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility:
Pressures, Conflicts, Reconciliation. (pp. 275-292). Aldershot:
Gower.Elango, B., Paul, K., Kundu, S., &
Paudel, S. (2010). Organizational Ethics, Individual Ethics, and Ethical
Intentions in International Decision-Making. Journal of Business Ethics,
DOI 10.1007/s10551-010-0524-z.Aronsson, M. (2004). Education
Matters—But Does Entrepreneurship Education? An interview with David Birch. Academy of Management Learning and
Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, 289–292.Forte, A. (2004). Business Ethics: A
Study of the Moral Reasoning of Selected Business Managers and the Influence of
Organizational Ethical Climate. Journal of Business Ethics 51(2),
167-173.Guba, E. (1990). The alternative
paradigm dialog. In: E. G. Guba (ed.), The Paradigm Dialog. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage.Hartmann, M. (2011). Corporate social
responsibility in the food Sector . European Review of Agricultural
Economics Vol 38 (3) , 297–324.Kuhn, T. (1970). The Structure of
Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Lincoln
, Y., & Denzin, N. (1994). The fifth moment. In D. N.K. , & L. Y.S. , (Eds.),
Handbook of qualitative research. CA: Sage.Punch, K. (2005). Introduction to social
research: quantitative and qualitative approaches. Londdon: Sage.Sauer , P., & Chao, P. (2005).
Shifts in Workplace Ethics: Opportunities for Conflict? In K. Seiders, & G.
Ross , Proceedings of the American Marketing Association Winter Educators
Conference, Vol. 16 (pp. 240-241). Chicago,
IL: American Marketing
Association.Steurer, R., Langer, M., Konrad, A.,
& Martinuzzi, A. (2005). Corporate, Stakeholders and Sustainable
Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business-Society Relations. Journal
of Business Ethics, 61, 263-281.Trevin˜o, L. (1986). Ethical
Decision-Making in Organization: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model. Academy of Management Review 11(3),

Step 2

The second step was to skim-read these
articles with the objective of narrowing the search in relation to my interest
in stakeholder theory in macro socioeconomic context. This would provide me
with an understanding of the role and importance of stakeholders in influencing
decision-making, policies, and direction assumed by an organization in both
local and international settings. This objective was realized by searching for
relevant materials using fundamental key words such as, “stakeholder theory and
sustainable development,” “stakeholder theory and macro economy,” and
“stakeholder theory and globalization.” I selected the paper that I deemed as
appropriate based on the quality and source of the publications.

The information provided in these articles
influenced my selections given that they all differed in terms of depth and
quality of content provided. Additionally, the level of insight and concluding
views or remarks provided in the article also influenced my selection. This is
because the authors provided a similar overview and summary on the role of
stakeholders in organizational decision by directly influencing organizational
culture, practices, and decision-making. Finally, I was satisfied with three
papers, which I considered relevant in terms of providing sufficient idea of my
topic of interest. The rating of these papers is as follows:




Stakeholders and Sustainable Development: A Theoretical Exploration of
Business–Society Relations

of Business Ethics


social responsibility in the food sector

Review of Agricultural Economics


Politics: How Transnational Stakeholders Impact Multinational Corporations in
The Context of Globalization

of Business Ethics


Steurer, R.,
Langer, M., Konrad, A., & Martinuzzi, A. (2005). Corporate, Stakeholders
and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical Exploration of Business-Society
Relations. Journal of Business Ethics, 61, 263-281.

this article, Steurer, et al (2005) argue that sustainable development (SD) can
be achieved through stakeholder relations management (SRM). According to the
authors, stakeholder relations management provides an opportunity for
organizations to address social, economic, political, and environmental
stakeholder claims and issues. In their study, the authors used an empirical
analysis to explore how questions related to SD can be addressed using SRM
within the context of stakeholder theory. In their findings the researchers the
inferred that importance of social guiding approaches such as SD and management
strategies such as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), are strongly
dependent on their stability in the community (Steurer
et al 2005).

This paper expands upon the relationship between
organizational sustainability and global sustainability. The theoretical
discussions have been inspired and deduced from theory on stakeholders and
sustainability, along with practical and theoretical implications of
stakeholder-oriented management in pursuit of organizational and global
sustainability. I have been to understand the importance of diversity of
literature as part of conducting successful research. Diversity provides one
with new ideas and understanding of an issue or topic under study through use
of examples, case studies, and research.

Hartmann, M.
(2011). Corporate social responsibility in the food Sector . European Review
of Agricultural Economics Vol 38 (3) , 297–324.

key focus of this paper was to investigate the implications of the stakeholder
theory in the food sector. My selection of this paper is based on the need to
highlight the importance of stakeholders in informing decisions on corporate
social responsibility in modern organizations. Corporate social responsibility
can be termed as an integral point of relation between an organization and its
stakeholders such as the community that is makes its primary customers, its suppliers,
and government.

(2011) discusses and explains in great detail the formulation of a
comprehensive approach to CSR for food companies, so they would be able to
neutralize the threats or exploit the opportunities due to public concerns in
terms of environmental and social issues relevant for internal and external
stakeholders. The author argues that CSR initiatives have become a core part of
business activities in the food sector. Hartman also added that this
development shows considerable promise in improving the corporate governance
and social responsibility of food companies (Hartmann, 2011).

de Bakker, F., &
de Hond, F. (2012). Boomerang Politics: How Transnationalstakeholders Impact
Multinational Corporationsin the Context of Globalization. In A. Lindgreen, , A
Stakeholder Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility:Pressures, Conflicts,
Reconciliation. Aldershot: Gower.

this paper, De Bakker & De Hond (2012) discuss and explain in great detail,
the specific application of stakeholder theory in terms of understanding of
corporate social responsibility among different stakeholders and the pressures
and conflicts that result from them. The core theme of this study was to
investigate boomerang politics as a means of understanding transnational
stakeholder interactions within the context of globalized implications. In
addition, the paper recognized that to counterbalance the pressures or exploit
the opportunities arising from public concerns, there is need for an
all-inclusive approach to CSR that addresses environmental and social concerns
relevant to both internal and external stakeholders.

basis of selecting this article was its perceived mutual impact in the business
sector, the economy, the environment, and the society owing to globalization.
Globalization has resulted to new methods of communication and it has similarly
created a new form of stakeholders ( de Bakker
& de Hond, 2012). The authors observe that the boomerang theory is an
applicable model that can help neutralize several shortfalls of the stakeholder
theory. Therefore, this source fully satisfies the evaluation and understanding
of CSR among different stakeholders as well as the challenges encountered by
stakeholders. I gained an understanding of the use corporate social
responsibility as a strategy for modern entities seeking successful engagement
with their different stakeholders in both local and international markets.    

Unit 5 – Learning Log (Data Collection and Analysis)

This exercise was aimed
at developing my capability of content analysis of my research, interview, and
opinion statements using valid analytical techniques. Therefore, I conducted a
search on the internet to locate a business related article that highlights on
an interview. After narrowing my choices, I selected the article entitled “Education Matters—But Does Entrepreneurship
Education”, which focuses on an interview with David Birch (Aronsson, 2004). 

Aronsson, M.
(2004). Education Matters—But Does Entrepreneurship Education? An interview
with David Birch. Academy
of Management
Learning and Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, 289–292.


David Birch, is
recognized as the first recipient of the International Award for
Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. In this article, he is
interviewed on the subject of “entrepreneurship education”. The key research
question; whether the entrepreneurship skills can be taught can be followed
throughout this article. In essence, the significance of this study is to
assess the impact of entrepreneurship education on the acquisition of the
entrepreneurial competence. Thus, this article is very elaborative on the effectiveness
of entrepreneurship education.

For instance, when responding to the
first question on whether education and culture can help entrepreneurship to
flourish and whether people can be taught to become entrepreneurs, Birch notes that
schools are teaching entrepreneurial skills in the right way hence, education
is fundamental in nurturing skillful and competent entrepreneurs. Further, Birch
elaborated that “teaching people to be an entrepreneur does not create a
Michael Dell or an Anita Rodrick. Teaching people to work for entrepreneurs is
quite different from teaching people to become entrepreneurs” (Aronsson, 2004).

Elaborating on the same research
question, Birch states that an entrepreneur requires three skills: selling,
managing people, and creating a new product or service, noting that, none of
them is taught in the business school. On the other hand, the interviewee
thinks that it is possible to learn by being an apprentice, but he does not
think this can be learned in the classroom. He proposed a rule that no one
should teach in entrepreneurship if they have not done it themselves. He added,
“the entrepreneurship faculties should feature people that have successfully
run their own companies.” Further, on the issue of the role of researchers and
scholars in promoting entrepreneurship, Birch confirms that they have little or
no role, but they can play a role in highlighting the importance of
entrepreneurship in society and the economy. He affirms that the role of
researchers is to educate the public and policy makers about the importance of
entrepreneurship, consequently, making the environment for entrepreneurs friendlier.

According to Birch, governmental efforts
to create ways of getting more people to become entrepreneurs and starting
their own companies, and the role of education as solutions, are not solid. He
notes that entrepreneurs are self-motivated and the only solution the
government can do is reduce the cost of doing business and create conducive
political atmosphere for businesses. As such, the best method to increase the
talent pool of potential entrepreneurs, Birch noted that cultural influence is
very important in this aspect and gave example confirming that the cultural
differences between the United Sates and Sweden influence the
entrepreneurial environments in different ways.

The authors in this journal provide an
important overview of the conduct of research with respect to the role of
education on enterprise among budding business owners. The author uses an
interview as the primary tool for providing the audience with an understanding
of successful interviews as sources of information on the issue under study. Additionally,
the author uses this to illustrate that interviews can be used as important
sources of information for successful research.

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

1.3 Unit
8 – Learning Log (Presenting Findings)

Research Design

null hypothesis is based on the fact that the company’s profit has the same
value as the average of the other competitors, whose distribution is assumed to
be normal with mean 1228 and standard deviation 104. Therefore, in
this case H1 is  u < 1228  while  H0 is  u
>= 1228When evaluating the test a
hypothesis, the main objective is to evaluate whether the p value is below or
above the alpha level. In this case, since the p value is high, then the null hypothesis
is valid. For instance, if it the alpha level was .05 and the p was found to be
below .05, the null hypothesis would have been rejected, and the alternative accepted.
Accordingly, the lower the p-value the
stronger the evidence against H0. P value = 0.405 given a significance level is
.05. Therefore, if we assume a 95% confidence level at a normal distribution, P
value is greater than the significance level or alpha value, hence, we accept
H0. Thus, the company is at least just as profitable as the industry standard
of £ 1228.From the z statistic
(1203-1228)/104, it is necessary to consult the table of the standard normal
distribution to determine the probability that the standard normal is less than
or equal to the z value that was earlier computed.Since the company is at least as
profitable as the industry owing to the fact that the standard is too strong,
and the P value is higher than the significance level 0.01, the null hypothesis
cannot be rejected since there is no sufficient evidence to conclude that the
company is less profitable.It should be noted that a false rejection
of the null hypothesis is called a Type I error.Lastly, by comparing the standard
normal with the standard deviation of a normal distribution for the competitors,
What does the null hypothesis say
about the distribution for the profits? Does it say that the average profit
per employee is normally distributed in the population; does it say that the
data comprising the sample are representative of the population?Does it say that the data comprising
the sample are statistically independent?

2.0 Assignment Two: Assessment Essay


The selected paper is titled “Organizational Ethics, Individual Ethics, and Ethical Intentions in
International Decision-Making.” by Elango et al. In their study the authors
discuss the effects of organizational ethics (OE), individual ethics (IE), and
ethical intention (EI). Accordingly, the introduction of this article is very
specific and sufficiently how the study distributed its research. It is clearly
stated, “ethical goal, or ethical behavior objective, is useful as a dependent
variable since it relates to behavioral characteristics that expresses value,
but also it is influenced by the structural and societal variables in the
organization.” ( Elango, Paul, Kundu, &
Paudel, 2010)

This justification is accepted because it is the
in-line that defines the criteria on how to choose the dependent variable and
independent variable to correspond to the research objectives. The study
focuses on EI effects in transnational business decision-making, for the main
reason that, the international business context provides great opportunity for
effecting ethical decisions. In this regard, both the organizational-level
variables and individual-level variables influences ethical decision-making,
research findings were based on studies that focused on one level to the exclusion
of the other need to be supplemented by studies that consider both types of

 2.2 Background of the

This study contributes to the business ethics
literature in several ways. Moreover, it places emphasis on ways to effectively
practice ethical decisions in an international business platform, which is an
area of considerable and contemporary interest. Generally, business ethics
research focuses on values and ethical judgments, and through this study, it is
revealed that various instruments are very significant when evaluating
international business ethics.

In echo of Sauer and Chao (2005), this study
demonstrates that the effect of both organizational and individual ethics on EI
and their combined effect, are moderated by several demographic variables.
Finally, these research findings can be used to support the development of
business ethics practices in organizations to enhance effective corporate
governance (Sauer & Chao, 2005).

Theoretical overview 

The objective of this research was intended to
evaluate the role of both persona value and organizational value on business
ethics. In this work, the author refers to the interaction of these two types
of values as value congruence. Subsequently, the article value congruence is very
important especially to business managers’ especially in resolving conflicts
and ethical dilemmas. In addition, the authors were objective to understand the
degree to which value congruence in the organization or in the individual,
influences the actual behavioral choices those individuals make when
confronting ethical dilemmas ( Elango, Paul,
Kundu, & Paudel, 2010).

This is a very strong foundation for one to research
on the association between value congruence and ethical decision-making in
business. The theoretical overview for this article is very systematic with
each paragraph usually included a discussion of the finding of a particular
literature. For instance, issues such as the evaluation of the consequences of
value congruence among co-workers and their outcome, and impacts of ethical
climates, is clearly introduced and conclusively discussed.   

Research model and hypotheses development

In this important part of the research process, the
authors identified the goals of the study, stating that “This article’s goal is
to test the relationship between IE and OE on the intention to behave ethically
by respondents (ethical intention or EI) (
Elango, Paul, Kundu, & Paudel, 2010).” It is noted that this
research heavily borrows from the 1986 ethical decision making model in an
organization by Trevin˜o. This model focuses on the observation that both
individual and situational variables project an organizations ethical decision
making system (Trevin˜o, 1986).

researchers approach on forming their hypothesis is much founded. The three
notable hypotheses are; H1- Individual ethics will be positively related to
ethical intentions (EI), an employee’s perception of high levels of OE will be
positively related to ethical intentions (EI), and the relationship between an
employee’s perception of OE and ethical intentions (EI) will be moderated by
the age of the employee. These are very strong hypothesis that matches the
objective of the research.

Hypothesis 1: Individual ethics
will be positively related to ethical intentions (EI)

This hypothesis is adequately supported and
justified. It signifies the intention of the study, which is to examine the
impact of the organization’s ethics on the individual’s intention of behaving
ethically. This is in the realization that organizational norms and practices
may either support or undermine an individual’s ethical standards. These
factors were nonetheless more theoretical than factual hence more research and
evidence was required to support or denounce them. In general the study
predicted that individuals experiencing an organization that behaves ethically
are more likely to express EI than will those individuals who report less
ethical behavior in their own organization.

Hypothesis 2: An employee’s
perception of high levels of OE will be positively related to ethical
intentions (EI)

Depending on earlier literature on this topic the
study notes that age to be a major that factor influences ethical norms. Older
employees are less likely to be vulnerable to influences that run opposite to
formerly internalized moral or ethical standards, and, they are more likely to
practice ethical choices than younger employees
(Forte, 2004).

Hypothesis 3: The relationship
between an employee’s perception of OE and ethical intentions (EI) will be
moderated by the age of the employee

Given that the main variables used in this study are
gender and managerial experiences, this hypothesis is very practical. However,
the relationship between the two has never been conclusive in any research. As
such, the predictions were left open in this research. The authors justified
why the selection of their control variables, gender, and managerial
experience, by stating that: “previous research on the impact of gender on
ethical decision-making has produced mixed results. …………”.

in this study, the
first type of analysis will be the initial descriptive analysis of the data on
variable-by-variable basis, using some statistical methods such as means,
standards deviation, and frequency distribution. The next step is done through
explaining the relationship between variables. (Punch, 2005: 124, 125)

Research methodology & approach rationale

2.5.1. Applied

In this study, the sample subjects were graduate
students enrolled in MBA programs. The study used this sample on the basis that
they were familiar with ethical issues that can arise in international
business. However, the study wanted to confirm that these differences did not
confound the study findings. Additionally, this study conducted a mean
comparison analysis considering the likelihood of ethical behavior in
international settings as dependent variable under various categorizations.

Moreover, this study recognized that importance of
statistical results hence, they were used to test whether the mean differences
across these demographic variables are statistically significant. The result
was that they were found to be insignificant.

In his claim, Guba (1990), argues
that when researchers set different paradigms concerning ontology and
epistemology, the research method will be critical to answer the research
questions (Guba, 1990). Accordingly, the
application of a quantitative method approach allows for generalization because
it utilizes a sample, which resembles the populations. Thus, the quantitative
method tends to be more objective and depends on statistics taken from a large
number of participants. Whereas, the qualitative method provides rich
descriptive data due to its subjective nature
(Kuhn, 1970).

essence, every researches needs sampling because no research, whether
quantitative, qualitative or both can include the whole population. Sampling is
more applicable in the quantitative method as the researcher analyses the data
collected from the sample in a step to make a statement about the whole
population. Hence, as is seen in this study a sampling plan must be related to
the research objectives and questions (Punch,

2.5.2. Advantages
of the Quantitative Method

The paradigm in the quantitative
method is based on measuring and analyzing relationships between variables (Lincoln & Denzin, 1994). The measurement
of this relationship between the variables in this study was done using a survey as a means of collecting primary data from a
sample population. Generally, this method is cost-effective hence the results
can be generalized on the rest of the population. In this study, the survey
method allowed the researcher to measure the relationship between the independent
and dependent variable in detail and more objective trend. The questionnaires
are practical as large amount of data on the research focus can be collected
from the bank clients in a short period of time. The representation of the
questionnaire results can be easily quantified and objectively analyzed to measure
the relationships and execute statistical and descriptive comparisons. 

The quantitative method is based on
descriptive, statistical, correlational, and experimental research (Kuhn, 1970). The quantitative method provides
sufficient information about the hypotheses variables.

Commenting on the
objective view of the quantitative method, punch (2005), stated that behavior
patterns in organizations can be viewed as regularities, which include various
cause and effect relationships, he argued that the aim of the quantitative
studies should be to produce theories that can be applicable on other cases
based on the quantitative analysis. In this study, the researcher aim was
focused on finding the relationship (if existed) between the manger-staff relationship
and the interpretation of service quality.

The quantitative method can be
administered and evaluated quickly as there is no need to spend time at the
bank prior to distributing the survey, and the responses can be analyzed within
a short time. The second advantage is the capability of conducting a comparison
through processing the numerical data. (Punch,

2.5.3. Disadvantages of the Quantitative Method

survey method used in this study provides less descriptive account of the staff
assessment in their relationship with managers. Similarly they are less
elaborative on the interpretation of service quality in the bank because the
questionnaires provide limited numerical data rather than detailed
comprehensive narrative data. In addition to that, the survey was biased and
applied a false representation as a large sample of the population must be
studied in order to be more accurate statistically ( Elango, Paul, Kundu, & Paudel, 2010). As such, the intention
measure the perception of clients towards the bank’s services, has been
reflected as being inadequate in helping one to understand changes of emotions,
behavior, and feelings, just to mention a few. Further,
another acknowledged when researchers use biased survey methods is that the
researcher may be subjective in determining the questions and their language
structure, besides the probability of having invalid answers from respondents (Punch, 2005).

Analysis and Findings

Descriptive statistics of the variables along with
correlation values are presented in the study. The review of the correlation
values between the various independent variables indicated that the likelihood
of multi co-linearity invalidating the study findings was minor. Additionally,
in each of the regression models, variance inflation factor (VIF) scores were
checked to ensure that assumptions of the models tested are not violated. The
researchers conducted sufficient analysis for means, standard deviations, correlations,
and standard deviation of the variables.

Results from this study conclude that both IE and OE
effect EI. Accordingly in the article ethical congruence is portrayed and
discussed to be as a positive influence of the results. Moreover, youthful
managers are highly influenced by OE than their older manager counterparts. Lastly,
these findings recommend the creation of a governance mechanism with the aim of
strengthening ethical congruence. In so doing, there is a high chance of
increasing the likelihood of managers practicing and applying ethical decision in
an organizational decision-making scheme. Therefore, in general this study is
very effective and it realizes the set objectives fully. The researchers have
been able to apply necessary skills and research methods hence the ability of
the study to have conclusive evidence in relation to the research topic and
provided hypothesis.

3. References

de Bakker, F., & den Hond, F. (2012). Boomerang Politics:
How Transnationalstakeholders Impact Multinational Corporationsin the Context
of Globalization. In A. Lindgreen, k. P., V. J., & M. F., A Stakeholder
Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility:Pressures, Conflicts,
Reconciliation. (pp. 275-292). Aldershot:

Elango, B., Paul, K., Kundu, S., & Paudel, S. (2010).
Organizational Ethics, Individual Ethics, and Ethical Intentions in
International Decision-Making. Journal of Business Ethics, DOI

ARONSSON, M. (2004). Education Matters—But Does
Entrepreneurship Education? An interview with David Birch. Academy of Management
Learning and Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, 289–292.

Forte, A. (2004). Business Ethics: A Study of the Moral
Reasoning of Selected Business Managers and the Influence of Organizational
Ethical Climate. Journal of Business Ethics 51(2), 167-173.

Guba, E. (1990). The alternative paradigm dialog. In: E.
G. Guba (ed.), The Paradigm Dialog. Newbury
Park, CA: Sage.

Hartmann, M. (2011). Corporate social responsibility in the
food Sector . European Review of Agricultural Economics Vol 38 (3) ,

Kuhn, T. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
Chicago: University of Chicago

Lincoln , Y., & Denzin, N. (1994). The fifth moment. In D. N.K.
, & L. Y.S. , (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research. CA: Sage.

Punch, K. (2005). Introduction to social research:
quantitative and qualitative approaches. Londdon: Sage.

Sauer , P., & Chao, P. (2005). Shifts in Workplace
Ethics: Opportunities for Conflict? In K. Seiders, & G. Ross , Proceedings
of the American Marketing Association Winter Educators Conference, Vol. 16
(pp. 240-241). Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association.

Steurer, R., Langer, M., Konrad, A., & Martinuzzi, A.
(2005). Corporate, Stakeholders and Sustainable Development I: A Theoretical
Exploration of Business-Society Relations. Journal of Business Ethics, 61,

Trevin˜o, L. (1986). Ethical Decision-Making in Organization:
A Person-Situation Interactionist Model. Academy of Management
Review 11(3), 601-617.

Business Research Report cheap essay help
Research Report



Executive Summary

Obesity is
increasingly becoming a major concern in both developing and developed nations
around the world. The governments of different regions in Australia have
been answering to public concerns over the promotion of consumption of
unhealthy foods by corporations, both local and foreign. This has been answered
by the promotion of health alternative foods as a means of enabling consumers
to make health choices in their food selection. This has been achieved through
a variety of measures such as legislation of mandatory display of food components
such as kilojoules in menu items.

consumers with accurate and reliable information on processed foods and other
items for human consumption enables the public to make informed decisions over
the foods that they consumer. This paper seeks to illustrate the role of such
policies and legislations in informing consumer decisions and attitudes over
various food items in the market. Such provides an important view of the role
of information availed to the public on their select decisions in terms of food
they consume.

Consumers usually
make predetermined choices in terms of items that they purchase based on prior information
that they possess over various products.

In addition, the report will
illustrate the correlation that exists between consumer decision-making
processes and government initiated legislation and policies towards enhancing
the availability of information to the public over the products they consumer. In
addition, the government interventions can be termed as inadequate in curbing
the obesity menace among the youthful population in the country.

This paper will
highlight some of the factors that have played a role in rendering the
government initiatives ineffective in curbing obesity in Australia. In
addition, the increase in the size of food packages and portions is deemed to
have resulted in increase in food intake especially among the youthful segments
of the population.

Business Research

Problem Statement and Research Objectives

The respective
sizes of different food packages and portions from various food processors may
influence the intake of an individual. The size of food portions and their respective
packaging has increased over the past decades. This is assumed to have had an
effect on food intake and overall consumption, resulting in profound effects
such as disease and worrying trends such as obesity. Portion and packaging size
may be deemed as relative to both perceptual and psychological factors. there
is need to provide an explanation through illustrations as to why large
packages and portions result in an increase in the consumption of foods given
that they are indications of high consumption norms (Madzharov & Block, 2010).

There is a need to
establish the visual cues that are relative to the portion size have the
ability to influence the volumes of intake without the alteration of the
estimated intakes and levels of satiation for consumers. The primary objective
of this research was to establish the effects of portion and packaging as part
of visual cues towards food intake and consumption. The objectives are
identified as:

To identify the various factors that influence
development of obesity among individuals aged between 22 and 47 yearsTo provide an overview of the effect of visual cues
such as portion and packaging size on the consumption and intake of consumers.To understand the level of effectiveness of legislation
an policies as initiated by the government in controlling the consumption of
packaged food

Ideas on the Problem and Decision

The articles used
for this paper are namely:

Madzharov, A.V., & Block, L. G. (2010). Effects
of product unit image on consumption of snack foods. Journal of Consumer Psychology 20:398-409. Raghubir, P., &Krishna,
A. (1999). Vital dimensions in volume perception: can the eye fool the
stomach. Journal of Marketing
Research, 36, 313−326 (August). Clement, J. (2007). Visual influence on in-store
buying decisions: an eye-track experiment on the visual influence of
packaging design. Journal of
Marketing Management, 23(9-10), 917−928 (November). Chandon, P., & Wansink, B. (2006). How biased
household inventory estimates distort shopping and storage decisions. Journal of Marketing, 70, 118−135
(October). Epley, N., & Gilovich, T. (2006). The anchoring
and adjustment heuristic: Why adjustments are insufficient. Psychological Science, 17, 311−31.

Conceptual Framework

Packaging is
recognized by manufacturers and marketers alike as an integral marketing tool
that provides a medium for communication with the consumers to indicate
positive aesthetic, functional, experiential, informational, and symbolic
benefits of a product. More than 90% of consumers around the world make
purchases after evaluation of the packaging and portion size of a product
without conducting a physical examination of the product that hey intend to
buy. Studies conducted on visual cues and consumer preferences indicate that
the biases that are in existence in product packaging without considerations of
product quantity, volume and quality.

& Krishna (1999) indicate that consumers make judgments of the volume and
quantity of a product in a container by its perceived height and level of
elongation. In addition, the Folkes & Matta (2004) provide that containers
that have a high preference among consumers are ones that the perceived to have
greater volume and content of a product than smaller containers despite both
having similar quantities. They also note that there is lack of consensus as to
the reason and basis for such biases among consumers.

It is assumed that
consumers make selections based on visual cues as a means of persevering mental
effort, which would have been otherwise used in the verification of product
quantity. Such studies were limited by the fact that they focused on structural
elements such as shape and size of packaging. Other elements such as the visual
nature of product packaging to include image and typography have a role in influencing
perceptions of the consumers.

Product Image on Packaging as a Visual Cue

A majority of
studies have illustrated the correlation that exists between product images and
consumer beliefs and attitudes about a given product. In packaging of products,
the product image plays an informational role which an integral part of
consumer decision making with respect to the attitudes and beliefs that may be
affirmed or disputed by the product packaging style (Larsen, Luna,
&Peracchio, 2004; Peracchio & Meyers-Levy, 2005; Yang,Zhang &
Peracchio, 2010). In addition, Underwood &Klein, (2002) note that the image
of product packaging can develop positive attitudes and beliefs on the
assumption of intrinsic attributes of the selected product with respect to
products that may be deemed as high experiential in nature such as foods and
luxury items.

addition, research also indicates that the picture of a product may result in
elicitation of sensory related information such as comfort, taste, and smell.
This may increase the respective cognitive associations such as positive or
negative attitudinal judgments (Underwood &Klein, 2002). In essence, the Underwood
& Klein, (2002) also indicate that product image is a diagnostic cue used
by the consumers in the sense that it provides a means of enhanced and rapid
judgement of product quantity and quality. On the other hand, there is
inadequate or lack of evidence that suggests and illustrates the number of unit
products that usually influence product inferences.

addition, in packaged foods for consumers, images for product units can vary
from one category to another. It is assumed that the numbers of product units
displayed on an image are aimed at systematically developing a biased judgement
on the part of the consumer. Consumers apply an anchor heuristic as a primary
strategy for estimating the quantity of an identified product in units that
depict more units in a single product for a consumer. In addition, consumers
anchor their consumption levels on the number of units that are displayed on a package,
which results in a higher consumption of the product.


Epley &
Gilovich, (2006) note that judgments are inclined to influence by first
impression, value and perspective. In addition, human judgments in climate of
uncertainty are influenced by prominent judgmental anchors. The anchoring
effects that result in such are usually defined as the consequences of
judgement that is assimilated into the anchor value of an individual as noted
by Wegener et al., (2010).

Anchoring is
termed as a psychological process within which salient and uninformative
numbers are presented to study participants which results in subsequent
influences on estimation of judgments of individuals in proximity to an
identified anchor. This was developed by Tversky and Kahneman (1974). The
research has been instrumental in illustration of the use of such heuristics in
developing judgments and providing solutions on estimation problems as noted by
Chapman & Johnson, (2002).

(2004) provides that Anchors can be internal anchors (self generated) or
eternal anchors (experimenter-provided). in addition other works by Mussweiler
& Strack (1999, 2001b) and Strack & Mussweiler (1997) highlights the
fact that the effects of anchoring differ on the type of anchoring used in a
study. Experimenter introduced anchoring factors are reliant on the present of
consistent information on an anchor factor. In the event that an anchor is made
salient for identified tasks or is deemed as relevant for judgement, the
participants of a study may select it as a primary standard for comparison. Subsequently,
the targeted values are usually assimilated towards the value of the anchor factor
to result in an anchoring effect (Wansink, Painter, &North, 2005).

are presented in various styles and active in differing paradigms and result
ion diver biased judgments in divergent domains. In various researches
conducted on consumer behavior, anchoring has been seen to have an effect on
the overall estimates of inventory, and influencing the product quantity
purchase decisions (Chandon & Wansink, 2006). Raghubir and

(1999) illustrated that consumers use dimensions of product packaging as a
primary technique for estimation of quantity of a selected item for purchase.

For instance,
small glasses are deemed to contain less quantity of a beverage than tall
glasses despite both having equal levels of volume. This indicates that consumers
use packaging cues as their anchors for inference of quantity, and quality of a
select product. In conclusion, it is assumed that visual cues and anchors can
unconsciously influence the quantity of food consumed in a single sitting.
However, none of the studies conducted on such visual cues and biases on food
consumption have evaluated the units on packaging as a biasing cue (Peracchio,
& Meyers-Levy, 2005).

Research Questions

Hypothesis 1:

Packages that
contain more product quantity or units displayed on the packaged may be
perceived to hold more product quantity as opposed to packages with fewer
displays of product units on the package despite both items having similar
quantity levels.

Hypothesis 2:

Individuals are
inclined to consumer more from items that are packaged more product units on
display than packages that have few product units that are on display

Secondary Data Evaluation

The study used in
this paper was drawn from Brian Wansink’s (2005) study on what he defined as “bottomless bowls”. The study incorporated
60 people who were offered free lunch meals and provided with 22 ounce
bowls of soup to half of the participants whereas the remainder were issued
with 22ounce bowls that were automatically refilled with soup as they
progressed with eating.


Mean Age

Mean BMI




Two primary visual or anchor cues:

Accurate visual cue (normal bowl) Biased visual cue (self-refilling bowl)

Figure 1: Consumption Levels per Ounce

Figure 2: Individual Monitoring of
food consumed

Figure 3: Presence of others and
individual Consumption Levels

Figure 4: Individual Biases on Satiety

Implications and Business Decision Making

This research was
effective in illustrating the role of visual cues and increased food
consumption with respect to sale of food products. Large size and food portions
contribute to an increase in the amount or quantity of food intake. Giving
consumers with adequate, accurate and reliable information on processed foods
and other items for human consumption enables the public to make informed
decisions over the foods that they consumer. This paper seeks to illustrate the
role of such policies and legislations in informing consumer decisions and
attitudes over various food items in the market. Such provides an important
view of the role of information availed to the public on their select decisions
in terms of food they consume (Chandon, & Wansink, 2006).

The research
affirms a variety of issues on visual cues and their role in increased
consumption of food. Firstly, the image of a product on its packaging front can
play a significant role in the development of positive beliefs and attitudes
based on the assumption of existing intrinsic attributes of the identified
product with respect to other  products
that may be deemed as high experiential in nature such as in this case,
processed foods.

The study also
affirms previous research results on the role of visual cues on heavy
consumption of packaged foods. It illustrates that the picture or image of a
product has the ability to result in development of sensory-related information
such as taste, comfort, and smell. This can result in an increase in cognitive
associations that may be either positive or negative attitudinal judgments (Underwood
&Klein, 2002). In essence, the Underwood &Klein, (2002) also indicate
that product image is a diagnostic cue used by the consumers in the sense that
it provides a means of enhanced and rapid judgement of product quantity and

Consumers usually
make predetermined choices in terms of items that they purchase based on prior
information that they possess over various products. In addition, the report
will illustrate the correlation that exists between consumer decision-making
processes and government initiated legislation and policies towards enhancing
the availability of information to the public over the products they consumer.
In addition, the government interventions can be termed as inadequate in
curbing the obesity menace among the youthful population in the country. In the
packaging of products, the images on a given product play an integral
informational role, which influences the consumer decision with respect to the
predetermined attitudes, and beliefs systems that can be affirmed or disputed
using a given product and its entire packaging style

The study was
successful in illustrating the role of packaging and other visual cues towards
aiding decision-making among consumers in selection of food products. From such
it is evident that a majority of entities use visual cues for developing
packaging that have high probabilities for succeeding in new markets. The size
and measurements of the various food packaging items have profound effects on
the intake and consumption levels of foods among Australia’s population (Clement,

Thus, government
intervention has been geared towards providing an accurate reflection of food
quantity in terms of packaging and other visual cues used as marketing
techniques. Consumers usually use packaging cues as their primary anchors for
future or immediate inference of the quality and quantity of a given product.
It is assumed that anchors and visual cues are able to unconsciously manipulate
the quantity of food that is consumed within a single sitting.


P., & Wansink, B. (2006). How biased household inventory estimates distort
shopping and storage decisions. Journal
of Marketing, 70, 118−135 (October).

J. (2007). Visual influence on in-store buying decisions: an eye-track
experiment on the visual influence of packaging design. Journal of Marketing Management, 23(9-10), 917−928 (November).

N., & Gilovich, T. (2006). The anchoring and adjustment heuristic: Why
adjustments are insufficient. Psychological
Science, 17, 311−31.

V., & Matta, S. (2004). The effect of package shape on consumers’ judgments
of product volume: attention as a mental contaminant. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(2), 390−401.

J., Alba, J. W., & Dahl, D. W. (2010). The good, the bad and the ugly: influence
of aesthetics on product feature judgments. Journal
of Consumer Psychology, 20(4), 419−430.

V., Luna, D., & Peracchio, L. (2004). Points of view and pieces of time: a
taxonomy of image attributes. Journal of
Consumer Research, 31, 102−111 (June).

A.V., & Block, L. G. (2010).Effects of product unit image on consumption of
snack foods. Journal of Consumer
Psychology 20:398-409.

L., & Meyers-Levy, J. (2005). Using stylistic properties of ad pictures to
communicate with consumers. Journal of
Consumer Research, n32, 29−40 (June).

P., &Krishna, A. (1999).Vital dimensions
in volume perception: can the eye fool the stomach. Journal of Marketing Research, 36, 313−326 (August).

B., Painter, J. E., & North, J. (2005). “Bottomless bowls: why visual cues
of portion size may influence intake.” Obesity Research 13:93-100

Statement of Purpose essay help




Statement of Purpose

Ever since I was a young girl, I
have always been curious about the existence of numerous microorganisms that we
as human beings are unable to see or perceive. Based on the countless
advertisements I saw regarding bacteria and how they affect our health, my
interest fueled by my curiosity continued to grow despite my youthful age. I
would try as considerably as possible to see whether these commercials were
true regarding the existence of organisms that were invisible to man’s naked
eyes. From that moment, I learnt that there are other micro species scouring
the same life that we live. Hence, in that instance, I immediately took an
interest in discovering more regarding these unseen creatures and the manner in
which they affect our daily lives. As such, my resolve has led me towards
applying for a Masters’ Degree in Clinical Microbiology in your university.

In spite of my background as a
doctor, I am convinced that pursuing this course will aid me further in my
prospective career and my life in general. Normally, the general perception of
people, in relation to my career, is that doctors are capable of curing all
forms of diseases and ailments. However, based on my practice, this statement
is just a mere stereotype. In order to satisfy my curiosity, I studied
throughout college to become a doctor. In my years of learning, I discovered
that microorganisms were the main reason for the illnesses that individuals
suffered. By working on cases involving numerous vector-borne and air-borne
diseases, I learnt that efficient treatment correlates profoundly with
understanding the root cause of the respective illness. Based on this epiphany,
I learnt that ensuring my patients were served better required me to possess
extensive knowledge regarding microorganisms, which have been the causative
agents of virtually all diseases.

Studying clinical microbiology in
your university will be a significant opportunity for me, to not only further
my life and career, but to also be more knowledgeable. Despite having a
Bachelors’ Degree in the same, I still believe that there is considerable
ground that I have not covered concerning this line of study. Over the years,
microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses are consistently evolving at a
rapid rate. Currently, microbiologists and physicians alike have discovered
that certain bacteria possess the unusual ability to create resistance to
contemporary forms of medications such as antibiotics. Hence, in this respect,
it is evident that the golden epoch of antibiotics has arrived at an abrupt end
due to the dynamic nature of microorganisms. Based on this fact, I am certain
that studying for a Masters’ Degree in Clinical Microbiology will further equip
me with the knowledge and the ability to serve my patients better and to grow
professionally as a physician.

To this end,
pursuing this course in your university will enable me to accomplish the previously
mentioned objectives. I believe that the school possesses an environment that
will motivate me to follow my interests personally and professionally.
Moreover, due to your interdisciplinary approach towards medicine and
microbiology complimented by your outstanding facilities, I am certain that
studying the course in your respective institution will provide me with the
knowledge to accomplish my studies and become an even better physician to my
patients. Even with my credentials and my desire to pursue this particular
course, it will still be impossible for me to become a great physician and person
without the necessary environment. In conclusion, your university will be the
perfect setting to aid me in successfully pursuing and completing a Masters’
Degree in Clinical Microbiology.  

Water Management Strategies of Contaminated Aquifer Water custom essay help




Management Strategies of Contaminated Aquifer Water

According to
various scientists, there is a probability of carbon dioxide (CO2) having being
stored in deep saline waters for hundreds and years. The possibility of the CO2
leaking from the ground is almost certain and different water management
strategies have come up with techniques through which they can solve such an
issue. In order to curb such geological issues, environmentalists have resolved
to geo-sequestration techniques, which involve injecting carbon emissions into
deep geological formations such as aquifers (Mills 44). A resultant cap-rock
feature will form above in order to prevent CO2 from escaping. Brine would then
be injected in the shallower aquifer in order to create hydraulic pressure that
prevents leakages. Thereafter, piping would be done to pump the water from the
aquifer, which is used for different purposes such as irrigation and cooling of
power plants.

order to utilize water from deep saline aquifers, the water extraction model
would be used. This framework calculates the amount of displaced volumes of
water after sequestering carbon monoxide. The treatment process involves designing
a methodology where the capacity factor, CO2 emissions, CO2 sequestered and CO2
capture are calculated against assumptions and the description of each water
use (Ranjith, Perera and Khan 193). Consequently, there are four methods used
in the treatment of water. Plan A involves no concentrate dumping, option B
relates to evaporation of 59.5 acre ponds for concentrate wastes, option C
involves injecting a 3000ft injection pipeline while the forth option, option D
involves utilizing brine concentrator and HERO (Wang et al. 56). Seemingly, all
these options have different treatment costs, where the first method would cost
$5.06, the second $7.24, the third $5.39 while the forth $5.31 per 1000gallons
of treated water. These steps are guided by regulations stipulating that the
water should undergo treatment before use and industries producing CO2 gas
should make an effort of finding ways through which the gas released into the
atmosphere is reduced.  


Robin M. Capturing Carbon: The New Weapon in the War against Climate Change.
New York: Columbia University
Press, 2011. Print.

P.G, M.S.A Perera, and E Khan. “A Study of Safe Co₂ Storage Capacity in
Saline Aquifers: a Numerical Study.” International Journal of Energy
Research. 37.3 (2013): 189-199. Print.

Lawrence K, Nazih K. Shammas, and Yung-Tse Hung. Advanced Biological
Treatment Processes. Totowa, N.J: Humana Press, 2009. Print.

LAND USE PLANNING essay help free





and State:


Use Planning

Currently, federal
and municipal governments manage development via statutory rule. The greater part
of regulations on land, nonetheless, originates from the functions carried out
by private individuals and developers. Within such conditions, judicial
verdicts and the imposition of personal land-use contracts can underpin public
regulation, and accomplish control levels and forms that zoning is incapable of
implementing. In spite of this, one cannot neglect the profundity of basic
planning tools especially in addressing the utilization of land. Without
ordinances such as zoning, conflicts and disputes concerning this particular
resource are irresolvable. This is because of the increasing demand for land
further complicated by the affixed rate of supply. In this context, it is
imperative to identify the importance of planning in terms of how land is
utilized. In addition to this, tools such as zoning cannot be rendered useless
based on the way they are commonly used throughout the state governments.
Moreover, it is still impossible to neglect the impact that basic planning
tools impose in establishing all-inclusive land use plans. As such, it is evident
that zoning and land use rules are imperative factors to discuss especially
regarding the control of land utilization. In this respect, the discourse will
center mainly on the use of land as well as how it is used within planning. In
addition, it will also focus on the technique of zoning and its efficiency in
the implementation of comprehensive plans. Lastly, the discourse will establish
the connection between zoning and land use.

Use and its Importance in Planning

Land use comprises
the human utilization of land. It constitutes the alteration and management of the
natural environment into structured settings. Examples of these comprise
habitats and settlements such as managed woods, arable environments, and
pastures. However, the manner in which land is used contributes considerably to
related conflicts. Accordingly, each human activity requires a platform to
undergo realization (Chapin 1979, p. 32). As the demand for land amplifies,
supply remains fixed. Because of this, land becomes significantly scarce. The
outcome of this incidence comprises a boost in the rate of land disputes as
well as the degree of violence within such conflicts. If consensus regarding
the use of land can be arbitrated by the involved disputing parties and be
legally bound, then it will be highly possible to circumvent such unfortunate
situations. However, avoiding such incidences requires planning. Planning,
based on land use, provides a development advance that adds to the
circumvention of conflicts and disputes. Ultimately, it develops the
prerequisites needed to attain a variant of land utilization that is
sustainable environmentally, socially fair and enviable and economically sane.
It, therefore, triggers the social procedures involved in decision-making as
well as consensus development regarding the safeguarding and use of private, community-based,
or public areas (Priemus, Button & Nijkamp 2007, p. 56). Moreover, land use
is imperative in planning since it constitutes the balancing of land
utilization among all involved stakeholders and the mutual recognition of these
exploits for which the greatest consensus can be attained.

and its Effectiveness in Establishing Comprehensive Plans

Nonetheless, land
use planning requires the utilization of basic tools that are essential in
governing how the previously mentioned resource undergoes usage. Zoning is one
of these mechanisms. Indeed, this tool is commonly applied in the regulation of
land use within the country (Fulton 1991, p. 86). Usually, communities that
carry out obligatory planning seldom possess a zoning law that divides the
society into divisions termed as use districts. The legal foundation for this
mechanism comprises the policing power of the local government. Similar to planning,
a zoning edict is required to safeguard the health of the public, safety and
its welfare. In addition to this, it has to ensure that it meets
comprehensiveness. In short, zoning should not solely focus on the
sustainability of the community; it should also be effective in the implementation
of comprehensive plans. In this sense, comprehensiveness means that the
regulation is required to cover every part of land within a particular jurisdiction.
Hence, as a legal mechanism, zoning is utilized to standardize and implement comprehensive
plans. The progression of a complete plan guarantees consistent and effective
zoning choices at the community level. In addition, comprehensive planning establishes
social end statements and objectives. Hence, in this line, zoning constitutes a
mechanism that is utilized to employ an inclusive preparation and to restrict
land utilization for the safeguarding of communal health, welfare, and
security. It carries out this via the separation of disputing land uses and
guarantees the direction of development within certain areas that are capable
of accommodating that specific land use.

Link between Land Use and Zoning

The main
connection between zoning and land use lies within its ability to control land
use. Accordingly, this form of ordinance is imperative in the shaping of land
utilization (Levi 2009, p. 141). Zoning can be relatively effective within a
developing location where the land utilization pattern is insufficiently determined.
At this point, the premise can alter the metropolitan pattern by prohibiting or
restricting growth within some areas. Zoning can also be effective in
moderating or circumventing that alteration. It segregates pieces of property into
use districts, which limit the form of development within a certain location. Additionally,
zoning is also imperative in controlling how land is utilized. This is because land
use planning possesses the ability to identify the areas required to undergo
separation for other forms of activity. For instance, zoning can enable
planning to recognize the areas that require afforestation or the protection of
forests (Andreen 2009, p. 56). Alternately, this tool can be effective in novel
urban vicinities where the land utilization pattern is not necessarily
established and the forces of growth are considerable. Nonetheless, zoning is
unable to address the issue of redevelopment, for controls cannot influence any
person to invest within a location.


As the need for
land increases, the supply remains fixed. This causes conflict among
stakeholders especially in terms of this resource. Hence, land use planning is
imperative in preventing and resolving such disputes. Additionally, it provides
a development mechanism that contributes essentially to the conflicts involved
in the use of land. However, certain techniques are used in the regulation of
land. These measures make land use planning possible. In this respect, zoning
and planning regulation establishes the manner in which land is capable of
utilization. Moreover, they facilitate decision-making to guide prospective
allocation as well as land development. Basic tools such as zoning constitute
tools that are used especially in the implementation of comprehensive plans and
the restriction of land use for safeguarding safety, wellbeing, and public health.
In addition to this, zoning constitutes a regulatory technique used to curtail
and implement comprehensive planning. Hence, based on the effect that zoning
imposes especially in land use and regulation, there is a connection between
these facets. In spite of the anti-competitiveness posed by zoning, it is
highly imperative in managing and regulating how land is utilized.  


J 2009, Land use and zoning law litigation, NBI, Eau Claire.

S F 1979, Urban land use planning, University of Illinois Press,

W 1991, Guide to California planning,
Solano Press Books, Point Area.

J M 2009, Contemporary urban planning,
Prentice Hall, Upper
Saddle River.

H., Button, K & Nijkamp, P 2007, Land use planning, Edward
Elgar, Cheltenham.

Wilson’s Fourteen Points a level english language essay help
Fourteen Points



Fourteen Points

was the president of the US
after the end of world war one. His fourteen points were his vision for what
would constitute international peace. He considered the points essential in
ensuring fair peace for all the countries involved. He believed that fairness
was essential in ensuring lasting peace as it would ensure that those who had
lost would not retaliate. The fourteen points were divided into two sections.
The first section of eight points contained mandatory points and the six points
in the second sections were recommendations, which Wilson felt, were necessary
though not mandatory.

The points
included open covenants of peace openly arrived at, absolute freedom of navigation
upon the seas in peace and war, the removal of all economic barriers to ensure
equality of trade, the removal of weapons except for domestic safety, and the impartial
adjustments of colonial claims. The last three points of the first section
comprised of recommendations concerning specific countries. They included evacuation
of all Russian territory and the welcoming of Russia
into the free nations society, evacuation, and restoration of Belgium, and evacuation and restoration of all
French lands as well as the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France (Murrin
et al., 2013 pp. 544).

The points in the
last sections included readjustments of Italy’s
frontiers along lines of Italian nationality, evacuation of Romania, Serbia,
and Montenegro and free
access to Serbia, and the
establishment of an independent Poland
with free and secure access to the sea. Wilson
also recommended self-determination for the former subjects of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, self-determination for the former subjects of the Ottoman Empire and secure sovereignty for Turkish
portion, and the establishment of a league of nations affording mutual
guarantees of independence and territorial integrity (Murrin et al., 2013 pp.


A. J., Edwards, R., & Self, O. R. (2012). America: A concise history, volume one: to 1877.
Boston, MA:
Bedford/St. Martins

J., Johnson, P., McPherson, J., Fahs, A., & Gerstle, G. (2013). Liberty, equality, power: A history of the
American people, concise edition. New
York, NY: Cengage Learning

Risk Assessment and Risk Acceptance college essay help online

Assessment and Risk Acceptance



Assessment and Risk Acceptance


assessment and acceptance are sub-processes in the risk management process.
Threat review is defined as a quantitative and qualitative measure of the value
of risk given its occurrence in a situation. The process is a mathematical
calculation that entails two components. These are the degree of potential loss
(L) and the possibility of occurrence (P). Threat acceptance is a countermeasure
given the existence and establishment of a risk within a system. Acceptance
follows assessment after the manager has evaluated whether a system can
continue with functionality after identifying a risk. Reception determines
whether the risk is tolerable within the system. The two processes of threat
analysis have a vast applicability ranging from safety engineering to public
health. Necessitated by law, threat evaluation and recognition are integrated
by firms as safety preventive measures for the work force and overall
productivity. Managers employ the procedures to safeguard a company, facilitate
continuity of functionality and to attain maximum production. Risk assessment
and acceptance are balance procedures between the desire to remove all risks
and the available resources in controlling threats.

Risk Assessment

process is a mathematical objective where uncertainties such as estimations and
assumptions are listed and presented in quantitative evaluation. The process
determines the best algorithm for approaching a system hazard as each risk has
a defined solution. Threats that possess huge amounts of possible loss but have
low occurrence probabilities are approached differently with those that have
low loss potentials but high occurrence probability (Aven, 2011). Financial
decisions are made with considerations of threat assessment making the
procedure vital for managerial tasks. Risk evaluation comprises of five steps
that are identification of hazards, identification of victims given risk
occurrence, precaution formulation, implementation, and update.

Identification of Hazards

phase aims at qualitative determination of adverse implications resulting from
the presence of a contaminant within a system. The procedure draws evidence of
the effects a threat can have on an operation as it categorizes them according
to their degree of consequences. According to Aven, most assessment methods in
system safety are effective in determination of physical hazards (Aven, 2011).
Though the procedures are effective, they highly identify threats arising from
human functions such as lone working and operation shifts. New methods in
hazard identification incorporate both organizational and physical factors. After
threat identification, the risk is categorized according to its degree of harm.
The categories in this procedure are no risk, slight risk, moderate risk, and
high risk. The methods of listing the threats are numerous ranging from
matrices to charts.

Identification of Victims

            For each threat, a
manager has to be clear on what and who might be in danger given a risk
occurrence in an effort to mitigate the damages. Victim identification is a
vital process in human relations as employment contracts necessitate a firm to
be responsible for the well being of its employees (Aven, 2011). Examples of
risks and their specific victims can be highlighted in heavy lifting and
pregnant mothers, fires and firefighters and slippery floors and cleaners.

Formulation of Precautions

refer to preventive and control measures formulated with consideration of the
nature of threat and available resources. It is vital to note that precautions
are only meant to reduce a risk given its occurrence, but not to fully control
the threat. This is because risks cannot be fully eradicated and full control lowers
functionality. According to Rausand, threats are prevented and controlled to
levels that are practically possible (Rausand, 2011). The measures are defined,
structured, and clear per level of personnel to ensure that each worker knows
his or her specific task.

Precaution Implementation

involves listing of the formulated countermeasures in a sequential manner and
putting them into practice. The process is a practical team effort that
involves staff delegation. The procedure cannot be effectively carried out if
it only entails high-level management, as risk mitigation is a bottom to top
process (Rausand, 2011). The implemented plan must fall within the project
budget, provide long-term solution, and protect the respective elements at risk.

Precaution Update

business workplace given it is in manufacture, retailing or technology is a
dynamic environment. Nothing remains the same as time passes by. The dynamic
nature of operation necessitates modifications and reviews on the implemented
precautions as risks similarly evolve rendering the controls ineffective
(Rausand, 2011). In addition, changes may result to the establishment of new
hazards. Updates are made through team brainstorming using data collecting
methods that identify shifts in the internal and external environment surround
a system. The shifts are then used to determine the relative risks that they
present to the system. Given the risks, adjustments on the established
countermeasures are made.

Example of a Risk Assessment Methodology

analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) founded by Jack Jones is an information
security process (Hart, 2011). The methodology follows the five steps in
assessment but in more detail and depth.

First Phase

its first phase, FAIR identifies the different components in the scenario of a
risk. The components normally involve the asset and the community surrounding
the hazard. The asset and the community represent the physical and
organizational factors in risk evaluation validating the method as up to date
with modern assessment methods.

Second Phase

second phase categorizes the effects and probability of occurrence of a threat.
In detail, threat implications are calculated in terms of magnitude and
capability. Probability is measured in terms of frequency. The overall measure
is determined by multiplication of the magnitude and the frequency (Hart, 2011).
The strength of required controls is also determined in this phase. The set
categories are very high, high, moderate, low and very low with 100>%,
10-100%, 1-10%, 0.1-1% and <0.1% respectively (Hart, 2011).

Third Phase

third stage marks an estimation class of probable cause stating the worst-case
scenarios and actual losses given risk occurrence. Refer to figure one. The
phase depicts the financial extent that a project needs to meet.

Fourth Phase

fourth phase is an articulation of the risks. Articulation is carried out by
multiplying the frequency of occurrence and magnitude of loss. The procedure
uses tabular and tree formats to depict the overall effect. Refer to figure two
and three.

Fifth Phase

methodology derives and updates the preventive and controlling measures in the
fifth stage. Similar to other risk assessment methods, FAIR formulates
precautions through team brainstorming from internal or external firms. Updates
are done through use of a safety checklist that ensures the system is up to
date and functional given new risks and changes in functionality (Hart, 2011).

Risk Acceptance

concept of threat acceptance determines the levels of risk that are tolerable
by an individual, system or firm. The criterion for threat acceptance is done
before risk analysis to safeguard a project from unnecessary expenses given
that a hazard is tolerable. In detail, a tolerable risk is one that can exist
within the set values of a society or enterprise (Rausand & Haugewn, 2011).
Threat acceptance does not necessarily mean that risk mitigation will not be
carried out. In an enterprise, risks that are identified are lowered to
acceptable levels if not completely removed. Hazard acceptance involves two
stages, understanding the threat and establishment of a hazard optimizing

Understanding the Threat

of a risk is the depiction of its behavior under different conditions and
identification of factors influencing the hazard. The process is quick and
rarely applied in the decision making process. According to Rausand &
Haugewn, modern trends in acceptance aim at the modification of human
perception towards a threat (Rausand & Haugewn, 2011). This is associated
to the fact that effective risk recognition is subjective instead of objective necessitating
deeper human behavioral changes (Rausand & Haugewn, 2011). The more an
individual is familiar with a threat, the more capable he or she is to accept
it. The cognitive process in threat recognition is a six-step process that
entails stimulus, perception, analysis, conclusion, character change, and
feedback. At each of the stated stages, the capability to accept risk can be

& Haugewn identified the factors that influence threat acceptance as space,
time, individual perception, and behavioral context (Rausand & Haugewn,
2011). The four factors affect the risk taking capacity of an individual thus
influencing the overall acceptance. Modern modes of measuring
threat-influencing factors integrate summary values such as injuries and damage
to depict the implications of risk recognition. The consequences of recognition
are distributed and arrived at through simulation and estimation. Professional judgment
is then made with consideration of the probable implications given risk
acceptance by the society, firm or individual. The use of expert opinion is to
remove personal bias caused by negative depictions by media and culture.

Establishment of a Hazard Optimizing Culture

first process carried out in the establishment of a risk optimizing culture is
the identification of cultural aspects that influence risk acceptance. These
aspects may include beliefs, attitudes, religion, norms, and practices. Differences
in culture are additionally identified in the workforce. To remove culture
influences, performance management is implemented to remove dissimilarity of
values by leaning behavior towards a common goal (Rausand & Haugewn, 2011).
Risk communication is then applied to inform respective personnel on change
advances. Communication allows individuals that feel threatened by the
modifications to have a platform where they can openly discuss their opinions.
In the process, discussions are held transforming the attitudes of the
discrepant employee. Team communication within sub groups is then integrated to
reduce conflict, environmental dangers, and operation inflexibilities (Rausand
& Haugewn, 2011).

Example of a Risk Acceptance Methodology

benefit analysis is a mathematical formulation that is only applicable where
the implications are quantifiable in terms of cost (Stephan & Stephenson,
2004). The method makes a comparison of the costs in optimizing a risk to the
introduction of threat precautions. Introduction of preventive and controlling
measures in the calculations include repair, lost revenue, environmental bills,
injuries, fatalities and temporary solution expenses. Billings associated with
optimizing a threat include investment and operational expenses (Stephan &
Stephenson, 2004). Refer to figure four to see the formula for the calculation.

benefit analysis can be applied to determine future benefits of optimizing and
introducing precautions in risk acceptance. In addition, losses can also be
depicted given the calculations present a negative value. There are two
different views when interpreting the results from a cost benefit calculation. The
first view by a company reflects on the limited costs, insurance coverage, and
tax effects. According to Stephan & Stephenson, the result of applying the
company view more often reveals that many measures are cost ineffective
(Stephan & Stephenson, 2004). The second view is the societal angle that
eliminates the effects of tax, ownership, and insurance making a vast
consideration of benefits and expenses. The societal view is the most applied


            Risk assessment is
a managerial procedure that uses mathematical formulations to give qualitative
and quantitative aspects of a threat. The aspects include probability, frequency,
and magnitude of a risk given its occurrence. The application of numeric data
in the evaluative process validates risk assessment making it more reliable, accurate,
and effective. Project and system managers should heavily integrate the concept
to facilitate task completion within the stipulated time and resource margins. Threat
acceptance is a managerial determination of the degrees in which an individual
or firm can tolerate a risk given its occurrence. The purposes of the process
are in the saving of unnecessary expenses in the introduction of precautions
and the modification of worker behaviors in accepting risks making the
workforce more flexible to external changes. Attitude transformation is the long-term
solution to risks arising from organizational factors while precautions are the
best answer to physical factors. Risk assessment and acceptance are vital
management procedures that require constant reviews and innovations to ensure
operational sustainability in an individual or firm in the dynamic business


T. (2011). Quantitative risk assessment: The scientific platform. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Sergiu. (2011). Comparing Risks by Acceptance and Rejection. Journal of Political Economy. 119. 4.

M. & Haugewn, S. (2011). Risk Acceptance Criteria. Risk Assessment. 1. 1-40.

M. (2011). Risk assessment: Theory, methods, and applications. Hoboken, N.J: J. Wiley
& Sons.

R. A., & Stephenson, J. (2004). System safety for the 21st century: The
updated and revised edition of System safety 2000. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley-Interscience.


Figure One

Figure Two

Figure Three

Figure Four

Case Study essay help




Question 1

            Circon’s Chairman
and CEO, Richard Auhl was motivated by the desire to manage his own subsidiary
in Applied Magnetics that gave rise to Circon Company. His interest was based
on the change of the product mix to products of surgical high-tech nature from
the miniature tools that were in the market at the time. Since he owned 55% of
the company at the inset, Auhl was driven in developing of the company’s
portfolio into bigger business development and achievement of the stakeholders
in general (Kim, Nofsinger and Mohr, 2010). The stakes in performance were not
entirely as smooth for both the management and employees. This even gave the
CEO more impetus to double the efforts.

financial incentives by Auhl were slightly different from the ones proposed by
the stakeholders. After the offer from Leon Hirsch who was the chairman and CEO
of United States surgical, the company was in a state of decline as regards the
performance of the takeover of the leading maker of endoscopes used in surgical
procedures. According to the income statements, the company had recorded losses
that translated into drop of the shares prices from $22 to $15 (Kim, Nofsinger
and Mohr, 2010). The company was due for takeover against the wishes of Auhl
while some of the stakeholders recommended the takeover due to the harsh
economic times faced by the company.

the annual general meeting with the stakeholders in October 6, 1997, a sharp contrast
was noted between the shareholders and the company’s chairperson. Some of the
stakeholders voiced their concern on the manner in which the company was run as
a private entity and treatment of the shareholders by the Chairman. They were
displeased with the rejection of the offer of takeover at a time the proposed
price of shares was at an all-time high. This was to enable them secure their
financial objectives while the chairperson was against any takeover in
protection of the employees and future of the company.

Question 2

            In response to the
telephone call from US Surgical’s Leon Hirsch, Auhl reacted by consulting a law
professor on protection of venture capital help in merger advisory. He also
formulated a poison pill that would compel the takeover firm to acquire more
than 15% stake in Circon Company. This would be devoid of approval from the
company’s board. Auhl also sort to institute an employee retention plan that
would require company’s change in control (Kim, Nofsinger and Mohr, 2010). This
was a strategy to gain the support of the company during the harsh economic
situation with the imminent takeover of the company threatening its existence.

CEO of Circon chose Bear Stearns & Co. as the lead financial advisors on
the issue of the takeover bid. With the advice sought, Circon Company
recommended the shareholders to reject the $18 price per share offer given by
US Surgical. Through the legal counsel consultations, Auhl decided not to
communicate with Hirsch or any other representative from the takeover firm. Auhl
considered the merits and demerits between both long term and short-term
interests of the shareholders while analyzing the impact of any takeover of the
company’s authority and rule. The nomination of Harold Frank into the company’s
board was significant in strengthening of the refusal to the takeover despite
the poor economic performance of the company.

Question 3

poison pill by Circon presented a strong barrier to a hostile takeover by US
Surgical’s Company. The poison bill was to make it quite expensive for a
takeover company to acquire above 15% stake in the Circon Company. This would
not require approval by the board and it was agreed upon just two weeks before
the launching of the bid. The US Surgical’s analysts had gone through the
shareholder’s consent. They were aware of lack of the poison bill. This was
quickly sneaked into the content by authority of Auhl through an action of the
bylaws. It was filed with resolution to protect the company’s interests in the
takeover bid.

a hostile bidder had triggered the poison bill, Circon’s price could have been
higher than the default stake of the company’s shares (Jensen, 1988). This is because;
the shareholders’ warrants would be distributed in order to buy common stock at
less than the price in the market from the company. This results from a
takeover bid, which is supposedly of higher percentage than the consented
amount given by the shareholder’s resolution in the company’s bylaws. According
to the statistics, this would require a percentage of greater than 15%, which
US Surgical’s were only aware of before the poison bill. The stake would then
eventually make it possible for the takeover company to gain substantial
control of the company’s stock. Other shareholders would be compelled to give
up their percentages in the company.

Question 4

the end of the case, the company’s options were limited to selling the stocks
to Tyco company for a friendly acquisition, surrendering of the company to US
Surgical’s takeover or remaining defiant with the company’s stocks in hope of a
better performance in the market and increased profitability with revival of
the company’s fortunes. Of the three choices, all had merits and demerits
especially in protection of the shareholders’ needs and that of the employees’
future. Allowing for the friendly acquisition of the company by Tyco Company
was the most attractive option, in light of the market demands, performance of
the company’s operations and the future of employees and the management.

company had agreed to be acquired in a $55billion conglomerate by Tyco
International Company. The price shares for Circon were tumbling after every
takeover bid from US Surgical’s and this depicted a negative outlook of the
firm’s prospects. There was increased pressure by arbitrageurs who were
demanding quick sale of the company in order to obtain quick cash from the
proceeds. The arbitrageurs owned nearly 50% of the company’s stake. The tender
offer from the takeover company had expired and this had opened up an
opportunity in Circon’s hope of reviving performance sales without the strain
of a possible lawsuit. According to Jensen (1988), the tender had not been
renewed since other bidders had joined the fray.

a matter of concern for the employees that Circon had employed, the acquisition
by Tyco International would have seen the majority of them retained. There was
need to reserve the employee turnover and considering the needs of customers
and shareholders. Due to the freefall of the stock, a slated dissident launched
by the arbitrageurs would have easily brought the company to its knees without
immediate action. The loyalty towards Auhl by the board had to be broken in
order to salvage the company’s fortunes. It would also ensure the revival and
subsequent competition in the market with emerging rivals as the market share
by the company had decreased significantly.


M. (1988). Takeovers: Their Causes and Consequences. Journal of Economic Perspectives. 21-48. <>

K. A., Nofsinger, J. R., & Mohr, D. J. (2010). Corporate governance.
Third Edition. Boston: Prentice Hall.

Global Commerce and Corporate Governance best essay help
Commerce and Corporate Governance



Global Commerce and Corporate Governance


article The Trans-Pacific Partnership: This Is What Corporate Governance Looks
Like narrates on the
American business exploits in Asia from early
2008 to 2012. In November 2008, the American trade representative formulated
the Trans-Pacific partnership as a bridge towards greater Western and Eastern
economic integration. The treaty involves eleven nations that include U.S.A, Canada, Mexico,
Brunei, Peru, Chile,
Singapore, Malaysia, New
Zealand, Australia
and Vietnam.
Using the article, this case study will highlight key issues in corporate
governance and global commerce concepts that are being vastly applied in modern
international business activities. Global commerce is a worldwide business
concept integrated by large firms that have the objective of expanding into new
markets. To allow successful penetration into the virgin markets, the firms
employ corporate governance ideologies to streamline internal and external
relationships. Corporate governance and global finance depict successful and
failing managerial functions as well as diversified work forces.

Employer-Employee Relationship in
Organizational Performance

late June 2012, a significant number of lobbyists filed a motion against the
Trans-Pacific partnership claiming the agreement was filled with poor
transparency urging consultations as revolts against corporate mergers in Asia
increased (Marshall,
2012). Workers under employment in American firms in Asia
highly protested on poor policies and wages that had resulted in poor human
resource productivity. Equally, local natives in the regions cried foul over
lack of employment opportunities are segregation to low-level jobs. In the same
year, U.S.A president, Barrack Obama addressed the issue calling for improved
employer-employee relationships to aid Asian penetration as the country looked
upon the relationship to recover from its economic crisis (Marshall, 2012). The leader called for
structured discussions and consultations with trade unions in attempts to find
common points.

to shore, there are two relationships within an employer-employee (EE). The
relationships are between an individual worker internally and the association
of the employee and the firm (Shore, 2012). Managers and administrators require
identifying the different attributes in the associations and implement suitable
policies to address the differences. First, the employee has an individual
objective. Second, the worker has a goal to attain for the firm. The employee
needs to align the two goals to remove any probability of interpersonal and group
conflicts. The employee likewise has to align company objectives to meet labor
goals. Managers align the two desires through training, mentoring, salary
reviews, incentives, promotion opportunities and benefits such as health care
and insurance (Shore, 2012). Employees meet the two objectives through
adherence to policies, guidelines, increased performance, good conduct and
moral modifications. Workers employ behavioral transformations and cognitive
development while firms integrate structured appraisal and rewarding
methodologies (Shore, 2012).  

Human Resource Management

urging by the president in shaped employer-employee relationships falls under
human resource management. The Trans-Pacific trade agreement marked the biggest
international business relationship meaning it also represented the largest
human resource field (Marshall,
2012). Corporations venturing into new markets had to seek local labor for
production. The lobbying and protests by local workers highlights a failure in
the human resource management. HRM is the process of recruiting, developing,
structuring and guiding workers within an organization. The function deals with
issues that revolve around performance management, safety, training,
motivation, administration and communication. All processes under human
resource management have a well-defined strategy for initiation and implementation.
The difference arises in the measurement metrics applied to evaluate the
efficiency and effectiveness of management.

trends and methods in HRM attempt to identify or answer the question on the
best metric to apply in the measurement of human resource. The question is
necessitated by the numerous functionalities under the human resource
department. It is also impossible to quantify every task an employee performs (Hill & Jones, 2010). In the
choosing of the measurement metric, an analyst has to consider the type of
product or business a firm deals in, the organizational structure, resources
available and external influences such as governmental regulations (Hill & Jones, 2010). A secondary
option could be that the analyst considers only the relevant and critical areas
necessary to ensure production success. The option identifies the jobs that
cost the firm most and least expenses allowing the rater to recommend expense-trimming
policies (Hill & Jones, 2010).
The critical area approach also facilitates identification of the best method
to develop skills in employees. After choosing of any of the stated options,
the analyst should formulate a human resource checklist that highlights key
performance and vital efficiency indicators to establish ground goals that each
measurement should go to evaluate (Hill
& Jones, 2010). The process is gradual and consistent throughout the
production process; it should not be hurried to remove errors from labor

Strategic Management

counter the lobbying in the Trans-Pacific contract, American and Asian parties represented
by trade representatives held negotiations embedded with foreign policies to
facilitate equal content (Marshall,
2012). Each party presented respective corporate grievances, deliberated on
them and formulated a precedent agreement that streamlined the manner in which
international business would commence and how firms would treat workers. Representative
negotiations are part of strategic management in mergers as depicted by the
article. Strategic management involves the derivation and implementation of
objectives and initiatives set by top-level administration to represent and
meet client needs with a consideration of the available resources. The process
evaluates the external and internal business environment in which a firm
operates to formulate the objectives (Hill
& Jones, 2010). The form of management is applied to provide
direction to an enterprise highlighting the best algorithm to move towards goal
attainment. Managers integrate the practice to resource allocation and decision
making processes.

article The Trans-Pacific Partnership: This Is What Corporate Governance Looks
Like narrates on a couple of
strategic procedures. The first element is the use of party representatives in
merger agreements. Negotiations facilitate conflict resolution and improve
transparency between partners bound by a contract (Hill & Jones, 2010). The
second element is identification of weaknesses. Flaws in the treaty manifested
through the lobbying and the reduced production levels. Similarly, the poor
penetration into the Asian market is a weakness. The formulation of operational
guidelines controlling employee treatment and business functions is the last
element of strategic management. The process marked the derivation of the best
algorithm towards productivity as necessitated in the structured management
process (Hill & Jones, 2010). As depicted, the approach in management
facilitated decision making by the representatives improving resource allocation,
human resource management, conflict resolution and productivity in general.


in business are trade contracts between individuals or enterprises in attempts
to progress mutual interests. In recent partnerships, two or more owners cost
share labor, losses and profits (Andersen, 2008). The treaties are formulated
to increase resource allocation in terms of finances, expertise, geographical
and political advantages among many other reasons (Andersen, 2008). The
agreements assist firms to navigate in the market even with the existence of
independent weaknesses as partner corporations offer-cushioning platforms. The
Trans-Pacific agreement had the mutual interest of expanding firm operations to
new markets. Asian companies explored the west while American enterprises
toured the East. Asian firms attained new production methodologies while
American companies got cheaper production territories (Marshall, 2012). An example of one
partnership in the article is between Pfizer and American International Group.


business standardization is a modern trend vastly applied to facilitate
international trade. Global integration occurs because of the difference in worldviews,
ideologies, cultures and products (Jaffe, 2006). Factors influencing the
concept include advances in the transportation sector, telecommunication and
the presence of the internet as a transaction media. International trade is the
largest revenue generator for most nations. Advantages appear when a country
has monopoly in the production of a given commodity in the market. This is
referred to as absolute trade (Jaffe, 2006). The nation has to export the
product while import raw materials creating an interdependence of processes.
The same is applied to other enterprises in the global market.

its application, globalization is advantageous in increasing the standards of
living through maximum revenue generation. Individuals and enterprises are
rewarded with a larger scale of customers (Jaffe, 2006). Another advantage is
the penetration into new markets allowing operational expansion and profits. Employment
is also minimized as the international firm either out sources or gains local
labor that is easily accessible, readily available and cheaper (Jaffe, 2006). The
firm can additionally acquire new methodologies and technology present in the
new areas. The production process reduces costs through improved availability
of raw materials, cheap labor and close proximity to markets. Negative implications
arise from the pressure to reduce labor, integration of local government
policies and taxes, competition and external costs.

of the Trans-Pacific Partnership: This Is What Corporate Governance Looks Like highlights vividly negative implications of
globalization. The Rolls Royce Company moved to China
where car parts and labor are accessible at cheaper pricing (Marshall, 2012). The lean management
methodology applied in automobile manufacture necessitates employee recruitment
at minimal levels. First, lean manufacture led to local protests in an outcry
for employment opportunities. The Chinese people associated the relocation of
the firm’s factory with jobs. Second, the firm faced intensive competition from
rival Toyota
and low imitation companies that produced cheaper vehicles at higher
quantities. Another negative aspect is the difference in government regulations
and policies. Companies have to invest extra capital to comply with individual
state standards. The dissimilarity in regulations led to conflicts that were
lobbied by the Asia-Pacific Economic Corporation Group (APEC) (Jaffe,
2006). The group called for tariff
reductions and passing of world tax standards. The group argued for the World
Trade Organization to address beyond border issues through standardization.

Social Innovation

Trans-Pacific article depicts how the treaty lacked social innovation having
high degrees of tyranny and democratic unaccountability. The treaty was
formulated through writing of twenty-six guiding articles but only two involved
trade that possessed public oversight and consultations properties. The
agreement was made a quiet process with governments overlooking leadership
undermining corporate functions. The United States
and China used the platform
to monopolize trade suppressing the operations of Japan
and the Philippines (Marshall, 2012). Instead
of a global rate of development, the two superpowers were independently growing
at fast rates at the expense of other countries in the agreement. In low level,
locals suffered from lack of employment opportunities, hikes in domestic
products and poor living standards. Social innovation is a modern business
function that necessitates firms to meet societal requirements such as health,
education and community progression. The concept integrates society focus as
the main purpose of external business operations.

Trans-Pacific trade should employ social entrepreneurship to elevate issues
arising from poor human resource management, strategic management and
organizational performance. Social training involves structured recruitment of
local people, training and then out fielding them (Saul, 2011). The company
does not necessarily have to employ the locals on a permanent basis. Communal
cognitive development empowers settlers with creativity and information
processing that adds up in the innovation capability. It is important to know
that the training and education employed by firms are centered on community
disciplines (Saul, 2011). The cognitive developments follow the connected difference
theory that emphasizes on three criteria. First, education should consider the
existing surrounding. Second, education should cut across organizational and
cultural differences. Third, learning should develop a relationship between the
divergent cultures (Saul, 2011). In this, social innovation equips locals with
sufficient skills to earn a living and improve their interacting environment.


fields of corporate governance and global commerce are dynamic with modern
trends and technological innovations influencing the direction they take.Company administration centers on
regulating the relationship between a firm and its employees, the firm and
other firms and the company with secondary parties like the government. Inside
the administration process, we depict human resource management, strategic
planning and socials innovations. Global commerce focuses on streamlining
international trade through formulation and implementation of standardized
policies and procedures. The worldwide trade platform addresses cultural,
functional and regulatory differences present in the business market to
facilitate equality and success of company expansions.


N. A. (2008). Partnerships: Machines of possibility. Bristol, UK:
Policy Press.

C. W. L., & Jones, G. R. (2010). Strategic management cases: An
integrated approach. Mason,
OH: South-Western

E. D. (2006). Globalization and development. Philadelphia: Chelsea House.

Marshall, G. M. (2012). The Trans-Pacific Partnership: This Is What
Corporate Governance Looks Like. Occupy
News Analysis for 2012. 1. 1-2.

J. (2011). Social innovation, Inc: 5 strategies for driving business growth
through social change. San
Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

M. L. (2012). The Employee-Organization Relationship: Where do we go from here?
Human Resource Management Review. 17.

Police Organizational Chart essay help online free
Organizational Chart



Police Organizational

Description of the Organizational Chart

The City
Commission is comprised of five members. They constitute the
mayor-commissioner, and five city commissioners. As part of the Commission,
each member is required to coalesce and elect a City Manager. Based on the
council form of government, the members of the City Commission have an
obligation to appoint the respective position. The individual in charge of the
City Manager position will also possess other important roles. The first of
these roles constitutes the position of the Chief Administrative Officer. As a
CAO, the City Manager will be in charge of managing and handling the affairs of
his or her respective municipality. Additionally, the City Manager will also
function as the Chief Executive Officer. Since the municipality aims at
providing public services to the community, then it is the role of the City
Manager to be in charge of business.

The appointment of
the City Manager will be crucial based on the roles aforementioned. While
exercising this authority, the City Manager will be tasked with appointing the
Chief of Police. Based on the population of the metropolitan area, security is
an issue that needs to be addressed competently. As such, the Chief of Police
will be in charge of supervising and managing the security affairs of the
municipality. One of the responsibilities that he or she will be tasked
involves the provision of police services. Accordingly, the Chief of Police
will be tasked with ensuring that the city is safe via the recruitment and
dissemination of police officers throughout the city. Furthermore, the Chief of
Police will not only be liable for the provision of police services.
Additionally, he or she will be accountable for providing facilities that will
cater to the police personnel and furthermore, assist them in fulfilling the
goals and objectives of the city’s security.

Corporate Social Responsibility Practices (Recycling in Saudi Arabia) college essay help online
Corporate Social
Responsibility Practices (Recycling in Saudi Arabia)

by (Name)




City and State:


Corporate Social
Responsibility Practices (Recycling in Saudi Arabia)

Currently, Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) has gained strategic importance within the global business
setting, specifically for governments and organizations alike. States that
focus on the establishment of imperative economies perceive CSR as a means
towards value creation based on the positive implications it poses. Gradually, scholars
and institutions have asserted a connection between this particular practice
and national development. For them, both aspects are critically intertwined.
Undeniably, it is also apparent that developing states will be incapable of
progressing if they fail to integrate corporations in the area of capacity
building. Without the objective participation of organizations in various
social affairs, it will be impossible for such countries to recognize the
dynamic contribution that such firms will provide in relation t capacity
building. Moreover, the competitive stance, national position of a country and
the welfare of its people are connected inextricably to challenges within the
environment, technology and competence. As such, these gradual challenges can
only undergo management via corporate initiatives within partnerships formed
with the government. In relation to this reality, Arab states such as Saudi Arabia
are also no exception to this westernized practice.

Background of CSR

Prior to the start of CSR,
businesses based in the 19th century raised concerns regarding the
wellbeing of their workers and their effect on the general community. With the
ascent of labor movements and slums due to the Industrial Revolution,
organizations became keen on the provision of social welfare, though on a
limited level (Aras & Crowther 2009, p. 90). These activities also included
the establishment of bath houses, hospitals and food coupons (Carroll 2008, p. 116).
Within this particular period, business philanthropists such as Cornelius
Vanderbilt and John D. Rockefeller became involved in such activities within
the American setting. Even though the justification of philanthropy was
unknown, the privileges provided by these individuals became recognized by
communities and a myriad of social factions. According to Carroll (2008, p.
117), the tenet which underlined these actions was mainly depicted by religious
organizations, with the key example being the Young Men’s Christian Association
(YMCA). Furthermore, the occurrence of the Great Depression in the early 1930s
underpinned this trend based on the management of public trusteeship. As such,
considerable engagement in organizational philanthropy was responsible for
spearheading the progression of the CSR perspective.

The 1950s officially inaugurated
the conception of the ideology of CSR. Howard R. Bowen, as one of the scholars
of this concept, delineated CSR as the duties that businessmen perform in order
to follow their policies, engage in decision-making or even, follow actions
that are desirable in relation to social values and objectives (Rahman 2011, p.
167). In this respect, Bowen claimed that businesspersons were accountable for
the outcomes of their activities within a circle much larger than
organizational financial performance. Simply, Bowen indicated the significance
and existence of corporate social responsibility. Additionally, Keith Davis
referred to social responsibility as the actions and choices performed by
businesspersons for reasons exceeding the organization’s technical or economic
interests (Rahman 2011, p. 168). As such, Davis
presumed that socially responsible business choices could undergo justification
based on the firm’s economic gains, hence reimbursing its socially responsible
activities.  Throughout the 1960s and
1970s, CSR underwent further definition due to the increased activities of
public movements that advocated for labor rights, customer protection and the
preservation of the environment. As such, various approaches based on the
conjectures of Woodward Clyde, Rich Strand and Carroll such as stakeholder
theory and corporate citizenship became established from that point henceforth
(Aras & Crowther 2009, p. 90).

Different Types of CSR

CSR comprises an expansive array of
activities that are employed by organizations based on the numerous
responsibilities they need to sustain. Relating to this, the main types of CSR
practices constitute environmental protection and sustainability, ethical work
practices and philanthropy.

Environmental Protection and Sustainability

One established focus of CSR
constitutes the life of the environment. Regardless of their size, every
business possesses a significant carbon footprint (Zoltáni 2013, p. 56). The
activities that the organizations can carry out in order to decrease the
footprints are deemed as positive for the organization and the general
community. In addition to this, organizations also possess a genuine obligation
towards the conservation of the environment. This is because such settings are
responsible for providing them with raw resources. Hence, companies can engage
in various practices in order to safeguard the environment and augment its
sustainability. These comprise recycling, water management, utilization of
renewable energy, waste management, utilization of recyclable resources,
development of eco-friendly supply chains, the use of digital technology and
the establishment of buildings based on the Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design (LEED) guidelines (Zoltáni 2013, p. 77).

Ethical Work Practices

Apart from the protection of the
environment, organizations also possess an obligation to their employees.
Indeed, employees as stakeholders are the most important assets of any firm (Carroll
2004, p. 116). Because of this, they pose a considerable impact on the success
or failure of any organization. Moreover, the ethical treatment of employees
correlates with the direction of the organization (Mason & Simmons 2013, p.
60). Usually, firms establish goals and objectives that employees are guided by
in order to realize profit maximization. Hence, by managing employees ethically
and justly, organizations can demonstrate CSR and benefit financially from such
practices. Moreover, the demonstration of CSR by organizations is important
especially in foreign locations that possess disparate labor laws. In this
respect, organizations need to ensure that their employees are managed fairly
in order to avoid the implications that may arise from unethical treatment.  


Aside from environmental
sustainability and ethical responsibilities, organizations are also capable of
achieving philanthropic responsibilities. Based on the gains that companies
receive from selling their products and services to the society, it is also
responsible for them to engage in acts that support the community.  Philanthropic practices are several and
differentiate depending on how the organization seeks to pose an effect on the
society (Uyan-Atay 2014, p. 35). One of the activities may be the raising for
finances for community-based choices. Other practices comprise the facilitation
of social volunteerism, sponsorship of local events, employment of individuals
from a particular society, facilitating the economic growth of a community, and
engagement within fair trade operations (Fallon, 2014).

Recycling as Part of
CSR Practices

Recycling is among the common
practices that organizations engage in for the purpose of protecting the
environment and amplifying its sustainability.  Normally, majority of the waste that is
generated arises from the industry rather than the domestic setting. As a
practice involved in environmental conservation, recycling enables
organizations to modify waste into novel products. As such, the waste materials
that companies emit after production can be utilized as a means of preventing
pollution of the overall environment. Additionally, as a social responsibility
practice, recycling also enables organizations to not only curb pollution, but
to also safeguard the safety and wellness of the occupants of the society. Through
the reuse of products, companies can avoid engaging in practices that are
harmful to individuals and other creatures. For instance, the practice of
recycling can prevent air pollution by curbing incineration. In addition, the
practice can also restrict the pollution of water by decreasing the demand for
disposal via acts of landfilling (Gonzalez-Perez & Leonard 2013, p. 89).

Apart from the positive
implications that recycling imposes on the society and environment, the
respective practice also allows organizations to cut down on the costs involved
in activities such as the purchase of raw materials. Based on the definition of
CSR according to Bowen, socially responsible activities should contribute to
the financial performance of the organization. In this respect, the practice of
recycling allows companies to cut down the expenses generated in non-compliance
of eco-friendly standards. Even though the amount of benefits realized depends
on the effectiveness of an organization’s recycling program, it is impossible
to not perceive the general positive implications that the practice
contributes. In addition to this, organizations that take part in this practice
are capable of avoiding legal damages that arise from the impact of factory
processes and by-products on the health of individuals (Bagley 2013, p. 103).

CSR in Saudi Arabia

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
has implemented efforts geared towards the development of CSR practices
throughout its region. Accordingly, the state has espoused certain aspects of
CSR. Currently, the government of Saudi Arabia has shifted towards
increasing its emphasis on activities involving environmental sustainability,
the conservation of water and healthy lifestyles for its inhabitants. Based on
the information provided by environment forums in the Arab countries, it became
imperative for Saudi Arabia
to focus considerably on the protection of the environment due to mounting
challenges arising from less conservatory practices and policies. The country
has applied plans that focus on the expansion of basic services usually
provided to civilians, protection of the environment, wildlife as well as
natural resources (Emtairah, Al-Ashaikh & Al-Badr 2009, p. 330). These
current plans do not solely prioritize capacity building; they also ensure that
they fortify the competitive stance of the country by enabling it to deal with
a dynamic global environment.  

The inclination towards recycling
as a CSR practice by Saudi
Arabia has been motivated by the defects imposed
on the country’s economy by lack of environmental conservation. Accordingly, the
Arab Forum for Environment and Development (AFED) underscored environmental
issues as one of the main problems that Arab nations encounter on a daily
basis. In addition to this, the only way that countries such as Saudi Arabia
can avoid these implications is via transition towards a comprehensive Green
Economy (Ali & Al-Aali 2012, p. 44). Over the years, Saudi Arabia
has experienced considerable losses due to poor conservation practices. By
2012, the kingdom was losing nearly SR 40 billion each year due to insufficient
recycling practices (Arab News, 2012). Therefore, in order to avert these
issues, the country began investing considerably in garbage sorting projects.
The objective of these projects was to enable significant discovery and
recycling of recyclable products in order to reduce the costs involved.


Indeed, Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR) has become an imperative aspect to consider especially
within the global business setting. Apart from the implications it poses on the
financial performance of organizations, CSR practices function as factors that
are significant towards the attainment of competitive advantage against other
states and organizations. In relation to Saudi Arabia, there is still much
room to be covered regarding the conservation of the environment. Since CSR
involves activities other than those geared towards environmental sustainability,
the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia can integrate practices
geared towards capacity building in order to ensure that the social and
environmental welfare of the Saudi society is strong.


Ali, A J & Al-Aali,
A 2013, ‘Corporate social responsibility in Saudi Arabia’, Middle East
Policy, vol. 19, no.
4, pp. 40-53.

Arab News 2012, Lack of recycling costs Kingdom SR 40 bn a
year, Arab News, viewed 28 August 2014, <>.

Aras, G &
Crowther, D 2009, Global perspectives on corporate governance and CSR,
Gower, Burlington.

Bagley, C E 2013, Managers
and the legal environment: Strategies for the 21st century, South-Western
Cengage Learning, Mason.

Carroll, A B
2004, ‘Managing ethically with global stakeholders: A present and future
challenge’, Academy of Management Executive, vol.18, no. 2,
pp. 114-20.

Carroll, A B 2008,
‘A history of corporate social responsibility: Concepts and practices’, In The Oxford Handbook of Corporate Social
Responsibility, ed C Andrew, Oxford University Press., Oxford, pp. 19-46.

Emtairah, T,
Al-Ashaikh, A & Al-Badr, A 2009, ‘Contexts and corporate social
responsibility: The case of Saudi
Arabia’, International Journal of
Sustainable Society, vol. 1,
no.4, pp. 325-346.

Fallon, N 2014, What is corporate social responsibility?
Business News Daily, viewed 28 August 2014, <>.

Gonzalez-Perez, M
A & Leonard, L 2013, International business, sustainability and
corporate social responsibility, Emerald Group Publishing, Bradford.

Mason, C &
Simmons, J 2013, ‘Giving as good as they get? Organization and employee
expectations of ethical business practice,’ Business and Society
Review, vol. 118, no. 1,
pp. 47-70.

Rahman, S 2011,
‘Evaluation of definitions: Ten dimensions of corporate social responsibility’,
World Review of Business Research,
vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 166-176.

Uyan-Atay, B
2014, Corporate community involvement: A visible face of CSR in practice,
Ashgate Publishing Ltd, Farnham.

Zoltáni, T A
2013, ‘Carbon as an emerging tool for risk management’, International
Journal of Applied Logistics, vol.4,no.
4, pp. 51-69.

The Effect of Violent Media on Child Behavior college essay help online




Effect of Violent Media on Child Behavior

time, claims between the relationship between violent media and child behavior
have been made. It is supposed that media such as television, video games, and movies
with violent content have an effect on children depending on the time spent on
them and the type of violence shown. It is feared that video games have worse
influence as they place the children as first hand oppressors. Studies however
have proved that there are no casual relationships found between violent games
and violent behavior just correlations. This could mean there are other things
that may be involved (Beresin & Schlozman 1).

content has too little to do with child behavior to form the conclusion that
media violence causes children to be violent. Statistics on the homicide rates
in the world rank America in first place. It is expected therefore that if there
is a direct relationship between the consumption of video games and homicide
rates. Quite contrary, the highest consumers of video games happen to be Japan
who has among the lowest homicidal rates in the world. Children exposed to violent
games and movies do show a significant level of desensitization but not enough
to inspire a monkey see monkey do effect. The child’s environment however has
much to do with how they perceive violence. If a child lacks guidance on proper
ways to address their emotions then they are likely to look up to the role
models depicted in the media. The only direct link between media and child
behavior is the level of isolation and addiction they induce. Parents however
are advised to take keen interest on the content of the media accessed by children,
as a small percentage of children particularly with aggressive behavior may be
susceptible to violent behavior induced by media influence (Beresin and
Schlozman 1).


Schlozman. “Violent Video Games and
Movies Causing Violent BehaviorResearch Finding and Tips for
Parents” Psychology Today: n. pag.
Web. 22 December 2012.

Emile Durkheim: Crime Serves a Social Function essay help




Durkheim: Crime Serves a Social Function

sociology of law proposes that crime is a normal part of society as it serves a
standard function. He argued that crime was simply deviant behavior that goes
against social norms. He stated that crime, primarily its consequences, has
positive social functions. If strict laws were put in place to suppress the occurrence
of criminal activity, the society would be so repressive that it would have no leeway
for individual social contribution. Therefore, the consequence of crime is that
it allows society to be flexible and adaptable to change. He believed that
since crime went against social norms, some of the beliefs would transform to
bring about social change. Crime also brought together likeminded individuals against
the violation of the norm thereby bringing together and concentrating upright
consciences. Durkheim was of the opinion that the purpose of punishment was not
to rehabilitate or deter the offender but to strengthen social cohesion through
reaffirmation of moral obligation among the compliant people who witness the affliction
of the criminal.

relevance of this theory can be viewed in light of the happenings in Ferguson, St.
Louis County.
After the fatal shooting of 18-year-old Michael Brown, the people of Ferguson took to the
streets to protest the injustice involved. The boy was killed after being
suspected for taking pert in a robbery at a store. The protests were against
the unlawful treatment of the young man who at the time was unarmed. The series
of crime that followed the killing were enough to warrant the judicial systems attention,
the FBI took charge of investigation, and the attorney general is dispatched to
the area. The happenings in Ferguson
opened the countries eyes to police tactics in certain states and led to the review
of police tactics in the country especially after the manner in which
protestors were handled.






and State:



trends in software projects necessitate rapid and concise development.
Procedures are more defined in structure facilitating project comprehension and
flexibility (Brewer & Dittman 2013). Software development nowadays is
collaborative integrating functional teams that are diverse in expertise in
order to create an agile program. Agility is the central point of software
project as the aspect encourages system adaptability, flexibility, and
evolution (Kostic & Josimovic 2013). Past methodologies in software system
were predictive, while current algorithms are adaptive. The procedures use
scheduled planning, consequently leaving windows for flexibility through
modification given the occurrence of new requirements. Modern projects employ
system testing at all stages of the development process as opposed to waterfall
testing in past procedures where evaluation was carried out on the final stage.
In a manner similar to testing, documentation is done throughout the project.
Process recording has become a development standard worldwide and is applied for
reference, educative and protective purposes. Trends in system creation
necessitate code reuse in order to ensure quality and fast delivery.

software project characteristics are more defined, applicable and effective in
practice as compared to past development traits. Functional teams facilitate
method tailoring that is adaptable to individual client requirements that are
unique (Forselius 2009, p. 3). The focus on agility increases customer and
developer satisfaction through timely project completion and delivery. The
final product is easy to comprehend and apply because of high-quality levels. In
addition, agility improves system flexibility by allowing avenues for software
modification and review. The recoding capability facilitates effective software
maintenance and updating. Equally, it facilitates compliance given the occurrence
of unexpected user, developer, or working environment requirements. Sequential
testing in all stages allows early error detection and removal, consequently
improving rate of development through timely verification and validation. The
structured manner of development improves expertise, software design, management,
and integration.


JL & Dittman, KC 2013, Methods of IT project management, Purdue
University Press, West Lafayette Ind.

P 2009, Software Development Program Characteristics, ICT Project Management, vol. 1, no.2, pp. 1-7.

B & Cotterell, M 2006, Software Project Management, McGraw-Hill,

SA 2009, Software Project Management: A Concise Study, PHI Learning, New
Delhi, India.

D & Josimovic, L 2013, ‘Basic Management Characteristics of Software
Engineering’, Fascicle of Management and
Technological Engineering, vol. 2, pp. 107-111.

T & Hansmann, U 2009, Agile Software Development: Best Practices for
Large Software Development Projects, Springer, Heidelberg.

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