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Grossman and Krueger(1991/1994)
Grossman and Krueger have studied the relationship between per capita income (PPP in $ 1985) and water and air pollution. Their studies are based on statistical data provided by GEMS (Global Environmental Monitoring System) and WHO (World Health Organization). The observations made by the authors concern air pollution, and cover 42 countries over the period from 1977 to 1988, and also water pollution, and cover 58 countries between 1979 and 1990. Grossman and Krueger affirm that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between air pollution and the level of per capita income for a threshold (turning point) of $ 5,000. So when the per capita income exceeds $ 5,000, economic growth in these countries translates into improved air quality. The same result is obtained for water pollution, but for a threshold equal to $ 8,000 per capita. Their main conclusion is that the inverted U-shaped relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth is confirmed and applies to all middle-income countries.
Add 3 other Favorable studies
Akbostanci and al. (2009)
Akbostanci and al. have examined the relationship between air pollution and economic growth for Turkey at two levels. First, they studied the relationship between the level of per capita income and CO2 emissions by time series analyzes using the technique of cointegration in a multivariate framework (the Johansen cointegration approach) for a period from 1968 to 2003. In the second step, they studied the relationship between the level of per capita income and SO2 emissions based on the estimation of panel data from 59 provinces between 1992 and 2001. Their empirical results show that there is no relationship in the form of a EKC between the selected environmental indicators and economic growth. Akbostanci et al. (2009) argue that air pollution for the case of Turkey will not automatically disappear with economic growth.
Add 3 other Favorable studies
1/ Describe some studies about EKC in Saudi Arabia.
Write one page about the sustainable development concept (How to meet the needs of present generations without compromising the ability to meet those of future generations.) and show the importance of studying the relationship between environmental degradation and economic growth in general
2/ Describe the economic and environmental situation in Saudi Arabia:
Evolution of real GDP per capita (graphic)
Costs of environmental damage in Saudi Arabia (for example, damage costs related to air pollution, Water and solid waste you should draw some graphics (Evolution of CO2 and SO2 emissions)
Give some policies implemented in the field of the environment and sustainable development in Saudi Arabia
Evolution of investment amounts in the field of environmental protection in Saudi Arabia
3/ Describe the problem statement and objective of your dissertation and give your methodology to solve it. Furthermore, you should give some convincing arguments: why do you choose Saudi Arabia as a case study in your dissertation? You can say that: Saudi Arabia appears to be an interesting case study given that it is one of the highest Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) in the Gulf Cooperation Council and (See the last part of the Introduction in Zaghdoud and Fodha article
– Pick and large firm like Walmart or Target and pick a single product from there for this assignment Essay– Pick and large firm like Walmart or Target and pick a single product from there for this assignment
-This should be an application paper primarily, rather than a research paper.
Writing and Submission Requirements
2.5 to 3 pages in length, not including title page or reference page APA Format
Determining the appropriate costs to use in a marginal analysis is often difficult; it may be easy to overlook certain costs, particularly those that are implicit costs or hidden costs. Additionally, some costs may be included that should not be, particularly sunk costs. Often sunk costs are even the central focus of a decision-maker when they should not even be considered (“We’ve spent so much on the development of this already, we have to get *something* out of it!”). But, to paraphrase a recent speaker (who was the CEO of a local company) on the Tiffin University campus, knowing when to discontinue the development or production of a good or service is a critical, but difficult, skill.
In this paper, you will practice your cost identification skills.
For this paper, choose a small local firm (that is, not a chain or branch of a larger firm) or a single product from a larger firm. Consider the establishment of that firm or product and identify and describe the costs associated with the firm or product.
In the descriiption of the costs, mention whether they are implicit or explicit costs and whether they are potentially ‘hidden costs’ or sunk costs.
How would you go about determining the amount of the costs, particularly for the implicit costs?
You may need to make several assumptions throughout the paper. Be sure to state those assumptions. Alternatively, analyze the different cases–for instance if capital has to be raised, that could be through a bank loan, from personal finances, or from finding business partners. Each one of these would have different costs that you could discuss (note that the money itself–the items it is used to purchase are costs and counting the money would result in a double count of money. But the interest paid or forgone would be a cost. And there would be other costs for bringing in business partners…what would be given up in that case?)
Writing and Submission Requirements
2.5 to 3 pages in length, not including title page or reference page
Analysis of UberEconomics Assignment Help InstructionsA Case Analysis of UberUber is a ride-sharing service started in 2009. If you are not familiar with Uber, you can learn more about the services it provides at Uber.com.
Construct an eight-page analysis of Uber using the following criteria.
Analyze the market before Uber’s entry. Describe the inefficiency Uber exploited.
Explain Uber’s surge pricing in the context of shifts in supply and demand.
Evaluate Uber’s surge pricing in the context of price discrimination.
Apply the concepts of economies of scale and economies of scope to Uber’s business model.
Apply the concepts of game theory to Uber’s market.
Assess Uber’s potential for international expansion and potential trade policy issues.
Explain the incentive pay model Uber uses and how it affects the principal-agent problem.
Discuss any asymmetric information issues with Uber’s business model.
Your essay must be at least eight pages in length (not counting the title and references pages) and include at least five peer-reviewed resources. Adhere to APA Style when writing your analysis, including citations and references for sources used. Be sure to include an introduction. Please note that no abstract is needed.
If you wish to include a supply and demand graph in your paper, view the video How to Graph in Word for some guidance. Also, not that any graphs you include in your paper should be placed in the Appendix of your paper.
AP Macroeconomics Multi-Part QuestionSuppose the following conditions describe the current state of the United States economy.
Real gross domestic product is growing at the rate of 3 percent.
The inflation rate is 9 percent.
The unemployment rate is 4.5 percent.
(a) Identify the main problem that the economy faces.
(b) Assume the Federal Reserve decides to remedy the conditions described above by engaging in open-market operations. Describe the action the Federal Reserve would take. Draw a series of graphs that shows how the open market operations results in changes in aggregate-demand or aggregate supply. Using the aggregate demand – aggregate supply model, analyze the impact of this policy on each of the following:(i) The interest rate(ii) Output and employment(iii) The price level
(c) Identify one limitation of the effectiveness of the monetary policy undertaken in (b). (In other words, identify one reason why this policy might not work as well to solve the problem that it was designed to solve.)
(d) Now assume instead that Congress votes to increase personal income taxes. Using aggregate demand – aggregate supply analysis, explain what effect this policy will have on each of the following.(i) Output and employment(ii) The price level(iii) The interest rate
(e) Would the monetary and fiscal policy differ in their effects upon long-term growth? Explain.
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