Get help from the best in academic writing.

Role Of Social Media In E-Commerce Essay Help

Role of Social Media in E-Commerce

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Role of Social Media in E-Commerce

The advancement in technology has come about with various transformations in society across almost the entire sector involving the different critical sectors in the organization. Social media application is a constituent of the advancement in technology which interests the various platforms of engagement and communication such as WhatsApp, Instagram, and Twitter. Social media, as defined to include the computer-based technologies which enable faster engagement between the various individuals through the sharing of ideas and information hence the incorporation of virtual networks and communities. Since social media involve internet-based, it facilitates quick electronic sharing of content, making it a key aspect in its utilization in e-commerce, where it enables the marketing of various products. This paper hence aims at exploring the role of social media in commerce as detailed below.

Study Description

Due to the vastness of social media, it reaps along with various advantages in the society as it reaches a larger audience, nurtures and facilitates the engagement with the target audience depending on the platform in which it was posted irrespective of the location in which it was published. In the business world, social media is utilized today to engage the potential target customers, generate brand awareness for the particular business, provide leads within the industry, and improve revenue (Chong, Lacka, Boying, and Chan, 2018). It is an essential tool when used in the business as it provides more qualified leads for the industry, aids in the building of the business community, creation of the brand reputation for the industry, as well as utilization of the advanced targeting position in such a faster manner within the business. Although the trend is new in the business world, it has got various advantages that can facilitate business success within the particular organization if well utilized.


Social media have a significant role in E-commerce. It facilitates the various companies to establish a relatively more robust web presence, generating multiple leads and increment of the data traffic, which enables a faster potential market reach via the online platforms. The various well-analyzed social media strategies are essential in improving the development, and the growth of any commerce business as social media usage continues to grow daily to reach vast popularity in addition to the commercial industry. The various companies use social media for advertising their business activities through the different social media platforms (Lin,  Wang, and  Hajli 2019). Social media platforms have also been used due to their viability in providing the various efficient mechanisms that aim to attract large audience markets.

Social media has been a critical pillar in the business world as it facilitates the creation of various brand awareness and engagement with multiple customers. For instance, Twitter performs the role of encouraging numerous customers to purchase innumerable products through hashtag campaigns as they provide the much available information concerning the products to the customers. Chong, Lacka, Boying, and Chan (2018) argue that the YouTube platform also provides the various customers with various excellent choices through the multiple videos in which the content developers utilize to promote the brands, hence the increment in the visibility. Besides, the disinterests are essential of the various platforms in which it is exalted in the merchandise offering, hence the dream of providing multiple products early in advance to meet the customer demands.

Social media in E-commerce is essential in the motorization of customer behaviors as social media platforms engage in business activities. The neglect of social media in marketing presents a looming calamity as it leads to a loss of control of the solid customer base previously built up. The various engagement with the customer ensures that the arrangements monitor the changes in trends with the market, hence the storms’ signal (Chong, Lacka, Boying, and Chan, 2018). According to the various recently constructed complex, over 701% of the potential customers make up their decisions based on the reviews obtained from the social media platforms. The use of social media ensures the continuous flow of the information gained from social media to increase the number of customers. This strategy has led to the build-up of the traffic within the channel, leading to an increased number of sales.

The use of the social media platform in E-commerce is essential as it aids in the engagement of the business with the targeted audience. Some of the social media platforms such as Instagram and LinkedIn have various customer engagement, which offers an opportunity for the customers to interact and share with the customers (Kwahk and  Ge, 2012, January).  In the end, customer engagement leads to the addition of the value to the certain as more sales are witnessed due to the coercive nature of the language used in the engagement.  Besides, the content shared during customer engagement reflects how the business entails the business.

Social media platforms play a significant role in searching for new customers, making sales, and setting up various marketing campaigns to increase sales to the particular company. Through the engagement with the customers, social media aid in understanding the market structure and designing the various market campaigns according to the demands and needs. (Kwahk and  Ge, 2012) Through the easy access to the customers, social media also offers an opportunity for the customers to obtain immediate feedback from the company websites through the immediate feedback as incorporated through the immediate reply by the customers. Besides, the company influencers can provide almost instantaneous feedback to any query by the customers through social media.


The use of social media platforms in E-commerce improves the customer base within the society. The social media usage in the –Commerce is essential as it undertakes the various roles in the E-commercial such as; provision of the engagement of the new customers and employers, the establishment of a relatively stronger web nation, effective creation of the brand awareness as well as the monetarization of the customer behavior to help in the prediction of the future changes in the market structure. When incorporated in social media, it aids in creating engagement with the customers and the search for new customers, consequently improving the sales. Social media use in the E-Commerce has been brought about as a result of the advancement of the technology in the modern society. The social media use has also improved of the business operations as it has been used in the provision of the leads in the business hence resulting in the improvement of the business operations as detailed above. The modern trend has increased of the revenue generated by any particular company as the various products of the company are sold to a vast market through the aid of the social media as dictated above.


Chong, A. Y. L., Lacka, E., Boying, L., & Chan, H. K. (2018). The role of social media in enhancing guanxi and perceived effectiveness of E-commerce institutional mechanisms in the online marketplace. Information & management, 55(5), 621-632.

Kwahk, K. Y., & Ge, X. (2012, January). The effects of social media on e-commerce: A perspective of social impact theory. In 2012 45th Hawaii international conference on system sciences (pp. 1814-1823). IEEE. 2019

Lin, X., Wang, X., & Hajli, N. (2019). Building e-commerce satisfaction and boosting sales: The role of social commerce trust and its antecedents. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 23(3), 328-363.

Leadership styles best college essay help
Student’s Name




Leadership styles

Question 1

Leadership: GolemanExampleRationale/justificationWas it an appropriate leadership style for the circumstance? Justify your answer.1. CommandingInstructing people into following the various instructions you offer them to the latter. For instance, “do as I say.”The sense of trust and authenticity does not call for the commanding of individuals into undertaking any responsibility and role ( 2021). The threats are applicable when initiating specific changes, although its application should be used to certain limitations or temporary based.Threats work in the various instances where there is a need to instill specific initiatives to the organization’s workers, which would not have been adopted if not forced, especially during new changes. The commanding style is also appropriate for the organization to initiate a specific change within the organization hence acting as the foundation basis ( 2021). The style is also effective when used to help mitigate the various problems that might have occurred to the employees and require an immediate solution applicable only through command.2. VisionaryThis style is exemplified in creating a bond between the various parties that one is engaging with through trust. Like for instance, the “Come with me” phrase.This style works based on instilling trust in the various individuals on which one is tasked to leading. This aids in instilling confidence among the people by demonstrating their competence to the individual they intend to show ( 2021). Therefore, this style entails the self-confidence in the leaders to create self-confidence, and the workers empathize with you into initiating the change.This leadership style is appropriate and effective for making changes within the organization, especially if there is a need for a clear and new vision to follow (Han et al., 152). The style is also effective in installing the guidance in which a particular direction is to be followed as per the chain of command as observed in the military, where soldiers follow their leader ( 2021).3. AffiliateThis leadership style is exemplified in creating harmony and the composition of emotional bonds between the various individuals they lead. The leaders use this style based on people come first.This leadership style calls for empathy as the individual creates bonds with the various individuals within their command hence facilitating effective communication.This style is appropriate in initiating healing within a team, especially if there were instances of some differences developing along ( 2021). The style is also effective when motivating the various employees during different stressful occasions. However, the application of the technique should be limited to the various instance into which the leader can initiate specific commands and make tough decisions.4. DemocraticThis style is exemplified in modern society, where it seeks to create consensus among the people through their participation in the decision-making process.This leadership style is effective when applied in a more collaborative manner in which parties within the decision-making panel agree with each other in the various rationales they adopt in the decision-making process ( 2021). This leadership style also calls for team leadership. The various individuals within the administration in the various departments are called upon in making the decision-making process as it is always faster.This leadership style is effective when using in the building of a consensus within the organization. The application of the leadership style within an organization facilitates installing the employees’ valuable input as part of the decision-making process. Hence, this acts as a motivation to employees and depicts the various aspects that need attention.5. PacesettingThe management initiating some changes at setting the ace in which the employees within such organization should work exemplifies this leadership style. This leadership style only works upon the setting of empathy and compassion in its application (Han et al. 156). The pacesetter must also understand the backload of the various individuals within the leadership to set that accommodative pace for all individuals. The style of leadership is effective if it initiates the drive to achieve within the administration.This leadership rationale is adequate when instituted to receive the best positive results from a motivated and competent team within the organization who can achieve specific set goals.6 CoachingThis style is exemplified with the leaders nurturing the various employees’ talents through coaching hence bettering of skills got future.This leadership works on using empathy to nurture the various individual talents. This is usually through understanding what they need to learn and initiating the learning process ( 2021). The coaching process should not be governed by the period that individuals need to learn as it creates misunderstanding (Han et al. 158). Selecting the most appropriate learning moments in which the leader understands the right question and feedback demanded and created the right mindset for coaching.This leadership style is effective in developing the employees’ skills and talents as it consequently improves the overall performance of the workers within the organization ( 2021). The particular leadership style is also influential within the organization as it aids in developing the long-term strengths of its employees.

Question 2

How communication, leadership, and group dynamics influence the outcomes


Communication within the business organization influences the decision-making process within the business organization. The various groups making the similar decision within the workplace attest to this. The decision-making process within an organization entails multiple individuals airing their views concerning the particular context in which the communication is adopted. This might influence the various individuals to change their minds and hence make a similar decision, which consequently affects the group’s operations (Ruben et al. 15). Besides, the various low-status individuals are likely to influence each constituent group member’s private beliefs, which consequently affects the outcome decision hence influencing the business operations.

Leadership style

The leadership style adopted within any given organization influences the overall outcome for the various decision-making as well as the organization of the organization. This is because the leadership style influences the interaction between the employees and the management and their co-workers and how they undertake their duties. The various studies have proven the various successful leaders embracing the different emotional intelligence competencies in their leadership. Self-awareness and self-regulation in addition to motivation as well as social skills constitute of the emotional intelligence competencies (Baltaci 45).

The various six leadership styles incorporate each of the four emotional intelligence in different proportional applications. Authoritative leadership is the most positive influential positive impact on the climate in which it is applied, with affiliative, democratic, and coaching being also significant in such decreasing order. The choice of leadership also influences the job satisfaction of the employees, especially if they feel they are valued in the decision-making or even in cases when value is added to their skills through coaching (Baltaci 42). The leadership style also influences the route of command and reliance on the information within the organization. This consequently affects how the employees are managed within the organization with a democratic calling for the formation of a team, for instance.

Group dynamics

The group dynamics influence the organization’s performance and the initiation of the decision-making process. This is because the status, power govern the relationship between the various groups in any organization, control, and the role and function of the group (Ruben et al. 15). The choice of the group adopted within the organization influences the overall running of the business through the decision-making process, as evident in the various instances where the various leaders within each group are involved in the final decision-making process within the organization hence the group dynamics influencing of the overall management of the business. Besides, the group dynamics also control the chain of command and the efficacy of the leadership.

Question 3

Case study analysis

The Mount Everest tragedy, which culminated in the death of five individuals, is linked to have been contributed by the poor leadership styles adopted by the various leaders. As documented in the tragedy, the various leaders can be described as working on the cognitive biases that could have culminated in the disaster.

Hall and Fischer acted unethically during the tragedy, as described by the sunk-coast effect. They overvalued their commitments to the particular hiking program in which they had devoted much of their work and resources with the inclusion of time (Rak and Julie 178). For instance, they had incurred a total cost of $70, 0000 in addition to their years of training being incomparable to the 18hours they were remaining with to reach the peak. The remaining part called for more oxygen cylinders, in addition to them getting caught in the dark upon return ( (a) 2021). The devotion to their works was so much obsessed with the project compared to their future choices, which consequently led to the poor decision to follow their dream. This illustrated the leadership’s unethical principles in recognition of the cognitive biasness.

The overconfidence is evident in the minds of Hall, who is confident of reaching the peak of the mountain eve before sunset. As a leader, he firmly believed he could not fail to achieve his mission (Lindgren and Björn 2017). This was unethical since he did not factor in the various dangers to which they were exposed to. He also ignored the fact that he would be caught in trouble as he firmly believed in the return before sunset ( 2021). As a leader, he could have weighed on the dangers with the procession of the journey in contrast to retreating from the trip for a second attempt.

Hall and Fischer also failed, as detailed in the description of the recency effect. As described in the tragedy, they relied on the available information and evidence. They assumed the calm behavior and were in agreement that they would peak before dawn ( 2021). Therefore, the leaders are required to account for all information with also emphasis on the pressure by those under their leadership. They had also failed to control their anxiety and help their sick partner as demanded for a leader.

Works Cited

Baltaci, Ali, and Ali Balcı. “Complexity leadership: A theoretical perspective.” International Journal of Educational Leadership and Management, vol. 5, no.1, 2017, pp. 30-58.

Han, Soo Jeoung, et al. “Shared leadership in teams.” Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 24, no. 3-4, 2018, 150-168

Lindgren, Björn. “Into Hot Air-: Exploring the Link Between Embodied Cognition and Reality Framing to Explain Escalation During an Everest Emergency Event.” 2017.

Rak, Julie. “The Afterlife of a Disaster: Everest 1996 Memoirs as Gendered Testimony.” Inscribed Identities. Routledge, 2019, pp. 172-190.

Ruben, Brent D., and Ralph A. Gigliotti. “Communication: Sine qua non of organizational leadership theory and practice.” International Journal of Business Communication, vol. 54, no.1, 2017, pp. 12-30. 2021. Before you continue to YouTube. [Online] Available at: <>Accessed 16 May 2021. (a). 2021. [Online] Available at: <> Accessed 16 May 2021.

Information Security Management college admissions essay help
Student’s Name

Tutor’s Name



Information Security Management

Businesses while entering new markets or establishing new ventures need to consider various critical components, including security measures that would safeguard the firm’s systems and networks. The firm should rely on an effective information security management system that outlines key controls and policies to manage risks and security appropriately and systematically across the entire company. The paper pays attention to Zaitun Group of United Arab Emirates that seeks to establish a hypermarket in the UAE. The company’s mission is to offer superior quality goods, food and agro services, healthcare provisions, technological products, and fashion products among others (Zaitun Group). The group also aspires to use advanced technology that; the firm would prefer for their workers, buyers would recommend to their friends and family, workers are contended with, and customers choose or advocate for their clients (Zaitun Group). However, Zaitun would be able to effectively employ the advanced technology it seeks to use in all its activities if while establishing the hypermarket the company pays attention to infrastructure management to effectively maintain purchased devices and assets. The management process should pay considerable attention to server security controls, controls, and assets. The group must also develop a robust computer data centre and virus controls system that would strengthen how it handles fire prevention, environmental security, and physical security. Zaitun would serve quite effectively in the hypermarket business, and adequately maintain consumer database for their daily credit card/debit card transactions to safeguard all operations by focusing on network security management, and all its core features. The firm’s management must also consider the possible corporate governance challenges that could interrupt the process and embrace best practices that would increase information security while venturing into the hypermarket industry.

Infrastructure Management

Overall, infrastructure management refers to the planning, designing, execution, and control of the vital services, IT, equipment, structures, and facilities that function as a basis for economic activities. However, from an organisation’s IT point of view, infrastructure management entails managing vital operation aspects such as processes, policies, HR, data, and influential external components (Verlaan and Schoenmaker 4). IM can break further into storage management, network management, and systems management.

Zaitun while focusing on IM should pay close attention to assets, controls, server security controls. Regarding the assets, the firm should acquires software and hardware that support all organisational practices. All assets or integral components should meet required standards, and should not be subject to unexpected failure. Venturing into the hypermarket business, for example, requires the company to manage an effective platform that allows consumers to place their orders and monitor the delivery progress. All computers, modems, routers, servers, and various IoT (Internet of Things) devices should work flawlessly, and must contribute towards achieving business goals (Lemer and Wright 17). The team must also focus on security controls when handling IM to minimize or alleviate the risks to available assets. Consequently, the company should come up with effective procedures, policies, techniques, actions, and solutions designed to help achieve targeted objectives (Lemer and Wright 18). For example, the company would establish a surveillance system to monitor online transactions, and to ensure that no disruptions occur. More fundamentally, the company while entering the hypermarket business need to consider how it handles its server security controls. The group should enact measures to ensure the information held on the servers are safe secure, and this is only possible by installing features that help avert possible cases of intrusion, violations, or other destructive activities.

Computer Data Centre and Virus Controls

The company while expanding its businesses into should allocate adequate resources into forming a computer data center that would give guidance on how to accomplish other key security measures. The data center should centralise the company’s share information technology equipment and operations with a purpose of storing, analysing, and using data and related applications (Shin, Lee, and Kim 160). The data center, being a critical part of daily operations at the anticipated establishment, should have the capacity to give guidelines on how to enact physical security measures aimed at protecting the business facilities and structures from possible harm. The center, for example, should ensure that the company is secured using good locks that possibly use technology, and the compound is surrounded by CCTV cameras (Susanto and Almunawar 58). The video surveillance would require a well-established and secure server room with uninterrupted Internet connection to achieve proper physical security. The data center should go ahead to give guidance on how to achieve environmental security, which entails the prevention and mitigation of inappropriate interaction with the environment, and other environmental risks and connected threats that directly impact on organisational operations and how it relates with buyers (Susanto and Almunawar 60). Also important, the center should have the capacity to give guidelines on how to prevent possible cases of fire that could threaten health and safety of employees. The center should go ahead and give guidelines on how to prevent computer viruses that usually cause serious implications on information security management. Some of the possible tips would be to embrace install antiviruses, discourage password-sharing, and reviewing systems as frequently as possible (Reddy and Reddy). Thus, the management should support the establishment of a computer data center that is in a position to enhance how the new venture handles information security management.

Network Security Management

Entering into the hypermarket business requires Zainut to be able to handle network security management in the most effective manner. An effective way to do this develop a computer networking policy to safeguard the security to its organisation hardware, software, and assets resources (Chopra and Chaudhary 39). Paying considerable attention to network security management encourages the company to pay much stress on controlling and monitoring misuse or unauthorized misuse or adjustment in the networking platform (Chopra and Chaudhary 39). Focusing on network security management presents an opportunity to stop unclear loss of data, and makes it possible to identify insider threats (Chopra and Chaudhary 40). Nevertheless, Zainut may not handle its online activities and other related information security management practices if the group does not dedicate much resources to network security management.

Corporate Governance Challenges

Installing and benefitting from the security features is not easy, and the company’s management should be ready to experience some challenges in the course of the entire process. Even though the management could enact measures to prevent any possible violation, hackers are increasingly embracing sophisticated mechanisms to propagate their heinous acts, which make it very challenging for firms to enact equally proportionally force to counter threats. Cases of IoT attacks, cryptocurrency and blockchain, AI and machine learning attacks, and cloud attacks among other forms of violations are on the increase (Chopra and Chaudhary 56; OECD 30), and business leaders must be knowledgeable and flexible to enact proper measures to counter any threat or infringement (Chopra and Chaudhary 57). The other corporate governance challenge that the firm and its leaders can encounter is difficulty in formulating a resilient information security program. It takes great proficiency to formulate an information security policy that has all the essential elements such as purpose, scope, information security goals and objectives, access control and authorisation framework, and policy for categorisation of data (Chopra and Chaudhary 59). Developing an information security plan that is flexible and suitable for running a large company that aspires to conduct most of its operations over the Internet requires the management to be conversant with concepts of data operations and support, and security awareness issues that are becoming a major concern (Susanto and Almunawar 90). All these requirements may be overwhelming, and could affect effective implementation of an information security management plan. The organisational management is likely to witness a scenario where some workers lack adequate knowledge on information security management, something that could affect effective implementation of all features (Susanto and Almunawar 92). It is apparent that failing to train members of staff affect their safety, productivity, and the overall organisational well-being. Consequently, Zaitun’s management should find possible remedies to the challenges that could affect a significant part of the whole process.

Finally, the management may have difficulty financing the budget required to achieve all the required information security components. Typically, it is costly to acquire some of the software and hardware necessary to develop an effective and reliable information security management plan (Reddy and Reddy). It is also expensive to manage the systems, and recruit experts who give insight into how to achieve the best outcome when relying on technological innovations.


Zaitun’s management should consider several factors that would help to overcome the governance challenges that could derail effective practice of information security management. The management can embrace a wide range of options that may help to counter possible attacks when practicing information security management in the new area of operation. Team leaders should encourage IT personnel to continuously update vital systems and software, as well as ensure endpoint protection. Team leaders should encourage those handling data to form the habit of backing up the information, and to regulate access to the company’s systems (Dorn and Webb 23). More fundamentally, the management can deal with possible cyberattacks by embracing Wi-Fi security, installing firewall, and ensuring endpoint security (Dorn and Webb 23). The company’s administration can enhance how it comes up with an effective and flexible information security management by being knowledgeable on what makes a strong information security system. The management should acknowledge that a proper cybersecurity plan begins with a strong basis of actions (Conteh and Schmick35). The management increases the chances of developing an effective information security management plan by taking control of key software and hardware assets, and by performing regular evaluation of controls and vulnerabilities (Conteh and Schmick35). The management can deal with the issue of lack of adequate skills and knowledge by encouraging employee training, both within and outside the business premises. The management can identify a suitable training facility where employees can undergo training on how to achieve advanced information security management practices, or alternatively invite trainers into the facility to give proper guidance on what ought to happen to attain the best outcome. Concerning the issue of high cost of implementing information security management plans, Zaitun can find financial supporters or cut spending on areas that are not very essential.


The study pays attention to the critical information security components the Zaitun Group must consider when contemplating venturing into the hypermarket business. The management must acknowledge that the hypermarket sector requires an integrated information security management system that has the capacity to handle all operations without significant hurdles. Thus, the firm should allocate enough resources into infrastructure management, and increase how it safeguards its assets and control measures. The company must protect its servers from possible violations, and take precautions to thwart any invasion. The group should allow for the formation of a data center that steers key security matters such as preventing fire outbreak and enhancing physical and environment security. Equally essential is for the firm to handle network security management in the most suitable manner. The group while entering into the new area of operation should be wary of the corporate governance challenges that could deter effective installation of an information security system. Team leaders must embrace proper mechanisms to prevent or overcome possible cases of cyberattacks that are increasingly becoming sophisticated in the way they emerge and impact on companies. The company should also develop a resilient information security plan after acquiring information from various sources and knowing what it takes to form an effective management structure. Finally, Zaitun can overcome the issue of lack of qualified manpower by encouraging employee training, and ensuring that IT personnel are competent enough to serve in various capacities, and deal with the issue of high cost of implementation by cutting unnecessary spending and finding financial supporters.

Works Cited

Chopra, Abhishek and Chaudhary Mukund. Implementing an Information Security Management System: Security Management Based on ISO 27001 Guidelines. Apress, 2019.

Conteh, Nabie and Schmick Paul. “Cybersecurity: Risks, Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures to Prevent Social Engineering Attacks.” International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, vol. 6, no. 23, 2016, pp. 31-38.

Dorn, Walter and Webb Stewart. “Cyberpeacekeeping: New Ways to Prevent and Manage Cyberattacks.” International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, vol. 9, no. 1, 2019, pp. 19-30.

Lemer, Andrew and Wright Jeff. “Developing a Comprehensive Infrastructure Management System.” Innovations in Urban Infrastructure, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 13-33.

OECD. “Reducing Systemic Cybersecurity Risk”. IFP/WKP/FGS (2011)3.

Reddy, Nikhita and Reddy Ugander. “A Study of Cyber Security Challenges and Its Emerging Trends on Latest Technologies.”

Shin, Young, Lee Jae and Kim Myungchul. “Preventing State-Led Cyberattacks Using the Bright Internet and Internet Peace Principles.” Journal of the Association for Information Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, 2018, pp. 152-181.

Susanto, Heru and Almunawar Mohammad. Information Security Management Systems. Apple Academic Press, 2018.

Verlaan, Jules and Schoenmaker Rob. “Infrastructure Management: Dynamic Control of Assets.”Conference: Institute of Public Works Engineering Australasia – 2013 Conference at Darwin.

Zaitun Group. “Zaitun Group.” Zaitun Group, 2021, Accessed 13 May 13, 2021.

Seizure Disorders college admissions essay help

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Young children are prone to various health complications such as Seizure disorders, characterized by the sudden and uncontrolled disturbance within a child’s brain, which consequently affects the behavioral changes, the emotional feelings, and the adjustments in the consciousness levels. This paper expounds on seizure disorders and the various types of disorders as per the classification. The report also explores the causes of the particular disease among children below eight years, the treatments, and the diagnosis based on the signs and symptoms. The paper examines the treatment options as clearly illustrated below. 

Seizure Disorders

Seizure disorders are a common disorder described as the sudden, uncontrolled electrical disturbance within an individual brain that can affect any individual within the human race. The Seizure experienced by an individual within the human race culminates in the modifications in the behavioral changes, the various emotional feelings, as well as the adjustments in the consciousness level. The seizures last on different alternating periods, with some seizures being documented to occur at least two or more within a 24 hour time difference hence the description of epilepsy. Seizures exist in various forms depending on the symptoms and the severity (Chaudhary et al., 2017). They also differ depending on the particular originality within the brain and the related extension of the specific Seizure. The length of the seizures has been described to take approximately 30 seconds to two minutes with a relative extension of more than two minutes, demanding extreme emergency medical care. Seizure cases have been related to occur frequently following a stroke, the closed-head injuries in addition to the various infections such as meningitis. Although the multiple seizures are controllable within controllable through medication, the management has been associated with multiple significant impacts on an individual’s health. However, an effective remedy has been associated with the effective linkage between the Doctor and the patient as they help manage the medication effects. This paper, therefore, explores the seizure disorders among children within the age bracket of birth and eight years.

Seizure Disorders among Children

The seizure disorder in children has been associated to occur following the burst of abnormal electric signals within the brain, which interfere with the standard brain cell signals. The various signs affecting the brain signals include high fever, high and low blood sugar levels as well as withdrawal in addition to alcohol, and brain concussions (Chaudhary et al., 2017). Brain seizures are classified into two main categories depending on the part of the brain as well as the consequent pain levels experienced by the individual, in addition to what happens during the Seizure.

Focal (partial) seizures

This type of Seizure has been associated with abnormal electric brain functions occurring in more than one specific area of the one side of the brain. The child suffering from this type of disorder has been linked to present the various signs described as aura, which entails the child feeling impending doom, fear, and euphoria, consequently associated with hearing abnormalities and the defects in smell (Chaudhary et al., 2017). This particular type of disorder is also described into two types;

Simple Focal Seizure.  This particular type of Seizure is concerned with the part of the brain affected. For the cases where the abnormal electrical brain affects the child’s vision, interfering with the occipital lobe leads to altering the child’s eyesight. Various muscles have been linked with the disorder, although the muscles are limited to the isolated muscle groups (Chaudhary et al., 2017). The child diagnosed with this particular disorder has also been associated with sweating, nausea, and in some cases, the pale nature of the baby. The child’s loss of consciousness is, however, not postulated for with this particular Seizure.

Complex Focal Seizure. This particular type of Seizure is documented to occur with the specific part of the brain, which is associated with emotion and memory function. This particular type of disorder is linked to causing consciousness loss, implicating the child not passing out but exhibiting various unusual behaviors such as lip-smacking, running, crying, and laughing. This is therefore described as the postictal period.

Generalized Seizure

This particular type of disorder has been documented to occur on both sides of the brain; hence the child loses consciousness in addition to the tiredness feeling following the postictal state. Various seizures are, however, documented;

Absence Seizure. This type of Seizure is also described as a petit mal seizure in which it is a shortchanged state of consciousness and starring as exhibited in an average child. This, therefore, implicate the child maintaining posture, and hence the mouth twitches or eyes blink more rapidly. This type of Seizure has been linked to last for a more relatively more minor period of fewer than 30 seconds and leaves the children unable to explain the occurrence; hence may go in with regular activity (Chaudhary et al., 2017). These particular types of seizures occur between 4-12 years and are usually confused with the learning issue.

Atonic Seizure. This particular Seizure is witnessed with a sudden loss of muscle tone; the child might fall suddenly from a specific position, hence its description as a drop attack. The child is unresponsive during the seizure period.

Myoclonic Seizure. The particular Seizure occurs in instances that cause the quick and abrupt jerking of the various muscles, which might happen in the form of a cluster. Hence, the implication of their ability to occur severally within a day or days within a week (Chaudhary et al., 2017).

It generalized Tonic-Clinic Seizure.  The particular type of Seizure, commonly referred to as grand mal seizure, is classified in five phases. Hence this can be described in the order of the arms and leg muscle contraction, the extension and tremor, which are simultaneously followed by the muscle contraction and relaxation as well as postictal period (Chaudhary et al., 2017). The postictal period is described by the child being sleepy in addition to developing visionary and speech challenges, which might be accompanied by headache and fatigue.

Causes of Seizure

The Seizure is caused by the imbalance in the nerve-signal brain chemicals and the brain tumors, which causes the various chemical release in the brain. The seizures are also linked to having been caused by stroke and brain damage due to injury or illness.

Signs and Symptoms

The diagnosis of Seizures among the children is through the various evident symptoms such as body stiffening, arms, leg jerking movement, and loss of consciousness. The child also exhibits breathing challenges and the failure to control the bladder and bowel and the sudden falling, inability to respond to any movements, and confusion among children (Kozlowska et al., 2018). In addition to the neurological exams, blood tests, imaging tests, and electroencephalogram, these signs are used to diagnose Seizures where the blood test checks for sugar levels and blood clots.


The various children diagnosed with Seizures are treated with multiple types of medication in which one should give her child the right prescription as per the Doctor’s prescription. The medicines should be checked regularly by the Health professional since they have side effects. In addition, in ketogenic diets, vague nerve stimulation also aids in treating Seizures (Leung, Hon, and Leung, 2018). The ketogenic diets have high fats and low carbohydrates with the addition of some protein to promote growth. The diet is essential in stimulating the body to make more ketones as the brain and heart have been documented to work best when using the ketones as the energy source. Kozlowska et al. (2018) attest that a lot of carbohydrate intake stops ketosis. Valgus nerve stimulation is used to send the small energy pulses to the brain from the various vague nerves.


Ultimately, children below the age of 8 years encounter a variety of health complications such as Seizures. The Seizure occurs in two main modes; generalized Seizure and focal seizures, as detailed above. The various modes are managed through medication in consultation with the health professional due to the complications associated with the prescription. Children exhibited different signs to signal the disease, as detailed above.


Chaudhary, N., Gupta, M. M., Shrestha, S., Pathak, S., Kurmi, O. P., Bhatia, B. D., & Agarwal, K. N. (2017). Clinic demographic profile of children with seizures in a tertiary care hospital: a cross-sectional observational study. Neurology research international, 2017.

Kozlowska, K., Chudleigh, C., Cruz, C., Lim, M., McClure, G., Savage, B., … & Gill, D. (2018). Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in children and adolescents: Part II–explanations to families, treatment, and group outcomes. Clinical child psychology and psychiatry, 23(1), 160-176.

Leung, A. K., Hon, K. L., & Leung, T. N. (2018). Febrile seizures: an overview. Drugs in context, 7.

Personality Case Assessment essay help site:edu
Personality Case Assessment

Student Name:

Institutional Affiliation:

Personality Case Assessment

Hypothetical Case Assessment

The case considered here to warrant a personality assessment is an adult suffering from borderline personality disorder, which is undermining normal functioning at the workplace.  

Demographic and Personal Information

Ann (not her real name) is a 38-year old woman that has been divorced twice, is currently single and has no child. She possesses a university degree in marketing and is currently pursuing a postgraduate course in the same field. She works as a sales executive in a retail firm and is in charge of a sales team comprising 70 employees. She has risen through the ranks from a sales person to the managerial level currently, through shear hard work, although she is not a consistent high performer. Therefore, she is well remunerated, earning $300,000 annually along with a medical cover, fully paid annual holiday, and workplace flexibility, which enables her to work from home sometimes.  Ann has a history of depressive disorders characterized by mood swings, for which she has to take medication, particularly when she feels hyperactive, angry, and aggressive or depressed and sad. In addition, she is slightly overweight, a condition she has had since childhood, but has no history of drug-taking, apart from the resent repeated use of prescribed medicine to calm her mood swings. While at the university, Ann demonstrated self-image and self-identity issues due to her being overweight, and was once treated to depression and suicidal ideation.

Nature of Presenting Problem

Ann’s depressive disorders and mood swings have worsened following her two divorces, which have eroded her self-worth significantly.  At one moment, she can be loving, caring, and understanding, and in another, she becomes sarcastic, irritable, and even bitter and angry. She is social drinker, although recently, she occasionally binges on alcohol and food to ease her anxiety. She has developed difficulty in maintaining long-term cordial relationships with others due to her divorce experiences.

Instrument of Personal Assessment

The most appropriate instrument for personality assessment of an individual displaying borderline personality disorder is the McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder (MSI-BPD), developed by Dr. Mary Zanarini and colleagues from McLean Hospital. It I a 10-item screening instrument that accurately identifies the presence of Borderline Personality Disorder in individuals scoring 7 and above and conforms to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) criteria for the disorder. It demonstrates good psychometric properties, such as reliability, validity, and consistency, alongside specific and sensitivity across all age groups, with its diagnostic accuracy increasing with reducing age of the subject. It can also be used with other screening tools, such as clinical interviews to improve the accuracy and specificity of the results. 

Strengths and Limitations of the Tool

McLean Screening Instrument for Borderline Personality Disorder draws its robustness from its ease of use, making it applicable by experienced and novice clinicians and healthcare practitioners. This is because it has few items that the client responds to, and does not take time to administer, thus saving time and resources. For this reason, it can also be used to screen a large groups of participants, and thus suitable for population screening to determine the prevalence of borderline personality disorder prevalence and risk. In addition, due to its high rating in validity, reliability and consistency, it is considered to be better than clinical interview tools particularly in assessing symptomatic feelings and distortions in candidates demonstrating the onset of the borderline personality disorder. This is because its brevity and large sample standardization makes it applicable in diverse clinical and research settings and reduces incidences of defensive responses from participants. However, it is limited in lacking sufficient application by non-English speaking countries due to translation difficulty. For this reason, it is challenging employing it in diverse cultures.

Concerns or Issues That Might Arise in a Workplace Setting With an Individual Presenting this Personality Disorder

People exhibiting borderline personality disorder are problematic at the workplace because their behaviors and mental orientation makes it difficult for them to relate consistently and predictably with their colleagues. They are prone to fomenting conflicts because of their extreme mood swings. They do not trust others and therefore often blame their colleagues for trivial issues, to cause unrest and discord at the workplace. Administratively, such individuals are disruptive because they cause repeated conflicts at the workplace, which consume and waste valuable management time, and can dampen employee morale and instigate turnover (Meinert, 2015).  These effects worsen when the afflicted individual is in a leadership position, because all colleagues strive for avoidance, which may worsen the individual’s feelings of isolation and self-loathing. In this regard, individuals with borderline personality disorder make poor team players because they lack interpersonal skills, emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence, thus creating a working environment that is unconducive for harmonious coexistence, productivity, and teamwork (Dahl, Larivière, & Corbière, 2017).

Pre-employment integrity testing


Pre-employment integrity tests are assessments of jobseekers’ tendencies to be responsible, trustworthy, reliable and honest. They are a form of personality test used to assess the suitability of a prospective employment candidate for working in an organization by assessing the likelihood of a candidate to engage in counterproductive behaviors like absenteeism, violence, theft, sabotage and other disciplinary problems (Fine, 2013).  Therefore, the main purpose of pre-employment integrity tests is to screen and select suitable employees based on their personality qualities that underpin honesty, reliability and ability to be responsible at the workplace, and to predict their job performance.

Differences between Overt Integrity Tests and Personality-Based Integrity Tests

Overt integrity tests assess the attitudinal tendency to engage in dishonest behavior at the workplace. Contrastingly, personality –based integrity tests assess the personal character related to the behavioral tendencies of a prospective job-seeking candidate (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2016). Although both tests measure the attitudinal and behavioral suitability of a prospective job candidate, they differ fundamentally in their focus and approach. For instance, overt integrity tests focus on the opinions of a candidate towards counterproductive behaviors while the personality-based tests focus on the character traits of the individual that are related to counterproductive behavior, inferentially. Therefore, while overt integrity tests measure counterproductive tendencies directly, personality-based tests measure these behavioral tendencies indirectly, thus their covert nature.

Fairness and Adverse Impact from Integrity Tests

Although integrity tests are commonly used by organizations to gauge the suitability and predict the suitability of a prospective employee, they are controversial because they raise concerns related to their fairness and adverse impacts. They can be misused to violate the personal rights of an individual and favor some individuals over others based on the value attached to test scores from a biased or rigged assessment exercise. The fairness concerns associated with these tests emanate from the ability of the candidate to manipulate the answers to his or her favor, thus giving the candidate undue advantage over others though lying rather than objective merit (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2016).  In the same breath, integrity tests can produce adverse effects when they violate ethical and legal standards by seeking information in an invasive or illegal manner. Invasive questions and those that seek protected personal information are likely to lead to litigations when the interviewee seeks legal redress at the courts for questions deemed to violate the rights and liberties of an individual (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2016).  

Compare and Contrast What Makes Certain Countries Successful in Customer Service

Customer service is about providing advice and assistance to client that purchase and use goods and services by a business entity. It is about relating well with customers, which requires a high level of people skills and competencies. Good customer service is a hallmark of a successful business because it indicates the priority attached to customer experience in its interaction with the customers. Firms that are proficient in and are ranked highly in their customer service provide superior customer experiences through their interaction, services, and support to their customers before, during and after a business transaction. Countries, like companies, also provide customer service to clients that do business or purchase goods and services therein. Good national customer service is an indicator of the business climate in a country and the importance attached to making customer happy and satisfied with the goods and services provided therein. It is also an indicator of how highly a country regards customers and users of its products and services. National customer service orientation is a characteristic of the national culture demonstrating the focus on clients and the value attached to their patronage. Therefore, countries with a customer service oriented culture exhibit emphasis on responding to and meeting the customers’ needs and requirements swiftly and efficiently, to promote customer satisfaction.

With customers demanding exceptional customer experiences with brands, countries have developed national brands that position them ahead of others in providing exceptional customer service to clients within and beyond their borders. Countries like New Zealand, Canada, Norway, Australia, and Denmark are positioned as the top five countries in exemplary customer service provision, with New Zealand topping the list with 92% rating while Denmark is rated at 89 % (Business Chief, 2020). National customer service reputation is related directly to the national culture and business culture of its citizens. In this regard, the dimensions of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory are often used to assess the orientation of a country towards serving its customers well and delivering exemplary customer experiences to ensure customer satisfaction. This theory categorizes national culture into six dimensions, namely power distance, individualism, masculinity, long-term orientation, indulgence and uncertainty avoidance. Various aspects of these dimensions are directly correlated to the customer service orientation of a country because they indicate a national culture of people willing to make other happy and satisfied by interacting with them positively and helpfully (Garvey, Momsen, & Steinberg, 2016). Specifically, some countries, like New Zealand, are consistently ranked the highest in customer service with their customer service orientation being explainable using these national culture dimensions. For instance, high national customer service orientation is associated with low power distance, low uncertainty avoidance, low masculinity, low individualism, long-term orientation and indulgence (Shobeiri, Mazaheri, & Laroche, 2018).

Countries with low power distance indicate that its people as being equally distributed rather than acknowledging some cadres of people should have more power than others. These countries have less hierarchical societies where power is more fairly distributed in the populace. The people therein are thus more trusting and cooperating, critical elements towards customer service orientation.  Similarly, nations with low uncertainty avoidance indices are less hesitant to change and more flexible and therefore, willing to experiment with and explore new things and approaches of doing things. Such people are innovative in finding new ways of making and keeping customers happy and satisfied through customer service activities. Countries with low masculinity exhibit more feminine characteristics in their social orientation because they prize highly caring, modesty and cooperation rather than competition, material success, heroism, and personal achievement. In this regard, customer service is promoted by caring, modesty and cooperation attitudes. States with low individualism among its citizenry means that they value collectivism more that individual satisfaction. Collectivism is an indication of high level of societal integration and communal concern rather than individual aggrandizement. Business conduct in such countries is associated with a high concern for other members of society and a tendency to please others, thus prioritizing customer service. Countries that have long-term orientation have societies that seek to satisfy long-term goals and therefore, with be thrifty with resources to save for the future and persevere the challenges they meet in the process. Therefore, in their business conduct, such societies discourage steady and quick business wins favoring to cultivate lasting customer relations instead. Lastly, countries with people that rank highly in indulgence has social norms freedom that focus on free and easy gratification of human desires rather than delaying gratification. Such societies are fun-loving and free-spirited, thus choosing happiness rather than with-held emotions, which is a critical characteristic for offering high-quality customer service (Shobeiri, Mazaheri, & Laroche, 2018). The combined effects of these national culture dimensions produce a country that values making customers happy, and therefore, better success in customer service.  

Masculinity index and the hiring/selection process

Masculinity index is a measure of masculine characteristics in a society, as described by Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. Individuals and societies ranking highly in the masculinity index are highly competitive, aggressive in business and prefer the acquisition and accumulation of wealth rather than quality of life and relationship-building. An organization’s masculinity index is indicative of is value for competitiveness in its business approach and desire to higher competitive employees to make it weather and navigate through a highly-competitive business environment successfully, profitably, sustainably.  In other words, such companies endeavor to create an organizational culture that can thrive in a competitive business environment. Therefore, masculinity index influences an organizations orientation towards masculine characteristics in its strategies, processes and activities.

Masculinity index influence the hiring and selection approach employed by organizations, which is a reflection of the organsational culture. It influences hiring and selection processes, including invitations of applications,  screening of the applications, employee tests and interviews, verification of information and references, physical examination and the final hiring decision. Therefore, a hiring and selection process that is premised on the masculinity index seeks out employees with competitive, innovative, and results-oriented focus (Ahlawat, 2016). In the screening process, masculinity orientation seeks out brief and concise applications that outline performance abilities and competencies succinctly. Similarly, in the interview phase of the hiring and selection process, a masculinity-orientated interviewer will unearth information related to the competitiveness, business aggression, innovativeness, desire for career progression, a drive for personal and organizational achievement, and perceptions about equitable rewarding of performance. In the final hiring decision, candidates that indicate a strong desire to work hard and be remunerated for it, to advance in career and profession, rise through the organizational ranks to leadership positions, and achieve personal and organizational success are likely to secure the position in an organization ranking highly in the masculinity index.

Relationship between respect, power, and personality

Respect, power and personality as critical characteristics that are descriptive of members in an organization. They underpin how individuals relate with their peers, subordinates and superiors at the workplace.  These dimensions define the interpersonal relationship orientation of an individual and are related in various aspects, which can be explained using personality as a basis. Respect is a feeling of high regard for an individual or something while power is the capacity to perform something in a particular manner or to influence others to submit to one’s will. On the other hand, personality is a set of characteristics that consolidates ones emotional patterns, thoughts, and behaviors, thus defining one’s identity.

From a constructivist perspective, people develop and live within socially constructed realities that influence their interpersonal relationships. These realities define the sources of power in a social setting and the attitudes towards respecting others. Similarly, the symbolic interactionist approach explains the mechanisms that generate and perpetuate power and respect (Carter & Fuller, 2016). Power and respect are two sides of the same coin because they characterize an individual’s relationship with others. Although they are often used interchangeably and controversially, power and respect have distinct differences in their determining the nature of interpersonal relationships. While power views interpersonal relationships from a platform of inequality, respect flattens the platform by being premised on equality in the interpersonal relationships. For these reason, power is exhibited as domination over others often through intimidation, coercion, and manipulation, while respect is practiced through honesty, trust, listening to others and creating a relationship that emphasizes equality (Minton, 2017). However, respect can be a source of power when well applied to influence others to accommodate the views of a respectful person. In this regard, the personality of an individual dictates how he or she perceives power and respect and how they are employed to influence the individual’s interpersonal relationships. Therefore, and individual’s search for validation of self-worth will dictate the levels at which power and respect are source in interpersonal relationships. People with different personalities exhibit disparate ways to validate themselves using power and respect. Some individuals that score highly in personality traits such as agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, will tend to treat other with respect without overtly demanding it from others, and will use power positively, thus avoiding harming others. Contrastingly, individuals considered to have a neurotic personality have a high propensity for seeking respect from others and using power to validate their self-worth, without due regard to the feelings of others. Such people are likely to misuse power and not be respected by others as much as they would like.


The contemporary workplace is increasingly challenging employers and employees because of its fluid nature occasioned by the rapidly changing working and labor market conditions and environment. Mobile labor and high competitiveness in the labor market challenges recruiters and jobseekers, with personality assessments growing in importance. This discussion has demonstrated the psychological disorders can be disruptive at the workplace, but can be assessed correctly to facilitate timely interventions. However, organizations have embraced pre-employment assessments to prevent recruiting problematic employees, which remain controversial to date.   


Ahlawat, R. (2016). Culture and HRM-application of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in hospitality HRM. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 5(12), 130-139.

Business Chief (2020). Top 10: Countries in the world for customer service. Retrieved from

Carter, M. J., & Fuller, C. (2016). Symbols, meaning, and action: The past, present, and future of symbolic interactionism. Current Sociology, 64(6), 931-961. doi:10.1177/0011392116638396.

Dahl, K., Larivière, N., & Corbière, M. (2017). Work participation of individuals with borderline personality disorder: A multiple case study. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 46(3), 377-388. doi:10.3233/jvr-170874.

Fine, S. (2013). Practical guidelines for implementing pre-employment integrity tests. Public Personnel Management, 42(2), 281-292.

Garvey, M. J., Momsen, B., & Steinberg, H. (2016). Strategic Customer Service, Cultural Differences, & the Big 5 in Canada, China, Switzerland, Taiwan, and the United States. Allied Academies International Conference: Proceedings of the Academy of Strategic Management (ASM), 15(2), 32–36. 

Meinert, D. (2015). Heads Up! HR Magazine, 60(5), 88.

Minton, H. L. (2017). Power and personality. In The social influence processes (pp. 100-149). Routledge.

Shobeiri, S., Mazaheri, E., & Laroche, M. (2018). Creating the right customer experience online: The influence of culture. Journal of Marketing Communications, 24(3), 270-290. doi:10.1080/13527266.2015.1054859.

Viswesvaran, C., & Ones, D. S. (2016). Integrity tests: A review of alternate conceptualizations and some measurement and practical issues. The Wiley handbook of personality assessment, 59-73. doi:10.1002/9781119173489.ch5.

Assessing for Level of Care and Diagnosis a level english language essay help
Assessing for Level of Care and Diagnosis

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Assessing for Level of Care and Diagnosis

Co-occurring drug abuse and mental disorders are challenging to diagnose and treat, particularly among young adults experiencing tremendous changes in their growth and development (Morgen, 2017). Ji-woo exhibits symptoms of opioid dependency and trauma-related disorders following a near-fatal road accident that saw her taking prescription opiates for chronic pain. This paper explains her diagnosis and proposes the level of care for her condition.  The discussion commences by describing the appropriate assessment tools for diagnosing her condition, how they fit in the differential diagnostic approach and the resulting provisional diagnosis. The positive and negative influences of opiate addiction on the family system are analyzed, culminating in a summary of the overall assessment of Ji-woo’s mental and substance use disorders.


Ji-woo likely has an opioid use disorder considering that she habitually consumes opiate medications that her physician prescribed to manage her back and leg pain long after she had healed from these injuries. Therefore, a urine drug test and the DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosis of Opioid Use Disorder are selected as the assessment tools for determining the presence and severity of the suspected opioid use disorder in Ji-woo.

Likewise, Ji-woo could be suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder following the traumatic experience from the motor accident that severely injured Ji-woo’s back and legs and the subsequent demise of her friend. Therefore, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (CAPS–5), a structured diagnostic interview, is selected for the assessment of the presence and severity of the effects of the trauma experienced by Ji-woo.

Applicability of Assessments to Diverse Populations

The selected substance abuse and mental health assessment tools have been used widely across the world and have proven applicability in diverse populations.  For instance, urine drug tests are commonly used as noninvasive tools to ascertain drug and substance abuse in individuals across different fields and disciplines, accommodating diverse populations. According to Palamar, et al. (2019) urine tests are the gold standard for testing for drug use in the short and long term, only being surpassed by blood tests. Their noninvasive nature, high reliability and accuracy, and cost-effectiveness enable effective frequent monitoring of recent drug use and abuse, usually within the last 1-4 days (Palamar, et al., 2019). Besides, although they may not be more efficacious than blood tests, they are more effective than self-reported substance use and abuse approaches, which are used widely in clinical practice within healthcare settings. However, their accuracy is often complemented by blood tests. The high accuracy of urine tests emanates from the biological approach employed, which detects the active ingredient or its metabolites, determined qualitatively and quantitatively. Focusing on the analyte of interest makes urine drug tests applicable in diverse populations because the results are not affected by race, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, disability, and preexisting health conditions. Similarly, the DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosis of Opioid Use Disorder tests drug use using 11 criteria. It also determines the severity level of opioid use by categorizing the symptoms as mild 2-1 criteria), moderate (4-5 criteria), and severe (6 or more criteria). While it captures the scenarios across diverse populations by identifying common and cross-cutting symptoms, DSM-5 Criteria must be administered in a culturally and emotionally intelligent manner to make them applicable across all populations. For instance, De Nadai, et al. (2019) demonstrated the applicability of this tool across multiethnic populations in diverse sociocultural settings across the United States using National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III participants comprising 36,309 individuals.

In the same vein, CAPS–5 is a 30-item structured interview that has been standardized and updated to conform to DSM-5 for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder across diverse population. It has simplified and standardized administration and scoring protocols the help eliminate discrepancies across individuals from different races, ethnicities, cultures, socioeconomic status, and occupations. Weathers, et al. (2018) demonstrated that CAPS-5 exhibited high interrater reliability, good test-retest reliability, and high internal consistency across diverse individuals, and in some cases, gave more reliable results compared to other tools, like the life events checklist (LEC), patient health questionnaire (PHQ), PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), and PTSD checklist – civilian version (PCL-C) (Weathers, et al., 2018). Likewise, Kaplow et al. (2020) revealed that CAPS-5 has a child and adolescent version, which makes it appropriate for diagnosing Ji-woo’s case.

Differential Diagnosis

The concurrence of social withdrawal, isolation, recurrent traumatic memories, and sleeplessness indicates diverse mental health and substance use disorders. However, differential diagnosis helps narrow down to the specific disorder while ruling out the closely-related ones (American Psychiatric Association, 2014). Detecting opiates in the urine followed by any two criteria in DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosis of Opioid Use Disorder and a score of 2 in CAPS-5 would help narrow down Ji-woo’s condition to PTSD and OUD.

Systemic Approach

Addiction to opioids has short and long-term effects on the family system. According to the family systems theory, family members are interconnected, thus influencing the behavior of each other (Erdem & Safi, 2018). In the short term, families that witness a member struggling with substance abuse and mental disorder suffer emotional damage. This emanates from a feelings cocktail comprising guilt, compassion, self-blame, regret, hopelessness, and self-doubt. Crowley and Miller (2020) noted that family conflicts escalate due to communication and trust breakdown as parents struggle to communicate among themselves and with their addicted child. Similarly, families suffer financial burdens as they finance the treatment of the member with the drug and mental disorder, escalating the family disharmony. Siblings may suffer from poor academic performance and adopt substance abuse to cope with the deteriorated home environment. Relatives may stigmatize the family with a disordered individual, and withhold their assistance. In the long term, the family may become dysfunctional.

However, from a positive perspective, the addictive condition may benefit the family system by improving its bonding and closeness. Reiter (2019) noted that the addictive disorder in one of the members might be an opportunity for the family to reconsider their relationships, parents to review their parenting styles, and family members to be more supportive of each other. In this case, Ji-woo’s family may be more involved in her life after the accident and lend her more support to facilitate her return to normal life.  

Provisional DSM Diagnosis

Ji-woo may be diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder. Her prescription of opiates to manage her pain developed into an opioid disorder manifested as uncontrolled use of opiate medications to suppress traumatic memories emanating from the motor accident experiences even when her injuries had healed and pain subsided.

Assessment Summary

Ji-woo demonstrates a high potential for withdrawal symptoms and may need detox services, considering that she is exhibitive depressive disorder and anxiety whenever she is not under the influence of opiates.  However, more information on the frequency of opiate use is critical to determine the severity of the opioid use disorder.

Ji-woo’s case presents a classic example of the correlation between PTSD and OUD (López-Martínez et al., 2019). In this case, opiate prescription was meant to address the chronic and intense pain from the injuries on her back and legs and the surgery she underwent as treatment. However, the recurrence of traumatic memories extended her use of the opiate prescriptions, worsening her PTSD and developing her opiate dependency. Nonetheless, Ji-woo needs to provide more information about the recurrence frequency of the traumatic memories, self-blame, and suicidal ideation. Likewise, her family should provide information regarding her changed behavior, functionality, school performance, interactions with siblings, parents and friends, and general sociability. They should also inform about the occurrence of self-harm behavior and other deviant behavioral tendencies that Ji-woo may have exhibited since the motor accident.

Cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy will be recommended to Ji-woo. In addition, a pharmacological intervention, such as the use of methadone to reverse opioid dependency and addiction, will be recommended to her. However, the efficaciousness of these therapeutic approaches is premised on her acknowledgement that she has mental and medical disorders that are undermining her normal functioning and impairing her growth and development as an adolescent (World Health Organization, 2020).  Therefore, the assessment of Ji-woo’s readiness to change is premised on her recognition of the problem and desire to return to her former life. To assess this readiness, more information regarding her aspirations in school, career and life is critical. Similarly, her level of fit in the American society and perception of the Korean and American cultures is important in assessing her social, emotional, and psychological disposition following her traumatic experiences. It is critical to establish whether her perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs have changed since the motor accident.

Ji-woo has loving family and friends willing to support her recovery and a therapist ready to assist her. Despite having indications of PTSD and OUD, these conditions are in their early stages and yet to reach critical or severe levels. Therefore, while Ji-woo needs psychiatric care to address her medical and mental issues, self-help, psychotherapy, and outpatient psychiatric levels of care are not sufficient to address her problems. Similarly, residential and residential treatment levels of care are too intensive for the moderate conditions of Ji-woo (Morgen, 2017). What Ji-woo needs is an intensive daily program that focuses on managing her medication adherence and drug cessation alongside individual and family psychotherapeutic interventions (Morgen, 2017). The cultural and diversity risk factors confronting Ji-woo include intergenerational differences, acculturative stress, peer pressure, perceived racial discrimination, and a conflict in values (Cornejo, et al., 2019). Contrastingly, protective factors comprise acculturation to the United States, cultural individualism, strong ethnic identity, and cultural tolerance (Cornejo, et al., 2019). The risk factors need to be considered to prevent failure and protective factors would facilitate the efficaciousness of the pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. However, Ji-woo needs to divulge information related to her self-esteem, perceptions of the Asian American culture, and acceptance of racial diversity.

The family system surrounding Ji-woo has two identifiable family roles enacted by family members. The caretaker role, also known and the primary enabler role, is played by Ji-woo parents, while the lost child role is played by one of her cousins. Incidentally, Ji-woo’s parent and cousin also assume the hero role to help hold her family together to hide their guilt, shame and fears. These roles are consistent with the Wegscheider-Cruse’s theory of family roles (Erdem & Safi, 2018). However, the discernment of these roles can be enhanced from information about the feelings of Ji-woo’s siblings, if any, the dispositions of her parents, uncles, aunts, and grandparents regarding the family burden and their level of involvement in Ji-woo’s wellness. 


Successful diagnosis and treatment of co-occurring mental and drug use disorders require the differential diagnosis approach using proven assessment tools consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Family systems are critical to the diagnosis and treatment of adolescent patients suffering from opioid use disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder by providing the much-needed support system.


American Psychiatric Association (2014). Differential diagnosis by the trees. In DSM-5 Handbook of Differential Diagnosis (pp. 17-156). Arlington, VA: Author.

Cornejo, M., Agrawal, S., Chen, J., Yeung, A., & Trinh, N. H. (2019). Cultural risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms in Asian American college students. Adolescent Research Review, 1-13.

Crowley, J. L., & Miller, L. E. (2020). How people with opioid use disorder communicatively experience family: A family systems approach. Journal of Family Communication, 20(4), 298-312.

De Nadai, A. S., Little, T. B., McCabe, S. E., & Schepis, T. S. (2019). Diverse diagnostic profiles associated with prescription opioid use disorder in a nationwide sample: One crisis, multiple needs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(10), 849-858.

Erdem, G., & Safi, O. A. (2018). The cultural lens approach to Bowen family systems theory: Contributions of family change theory. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 10(2), 469-483.

Kaplow, J. B., Rolon-Arroyo, B., Layne, C. M., Rooney, E., Oosterhoff, B., Hill, R., … & Pynoos, R. S. (2020). Validation of the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-5: A developmentally informed assessment tool for youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 59(1), 186-194.

López-Martínez, A. E., Reyes-Pérez, Á., Serrano-Ibáñez, E. R., Esteve, R., & Ramírez-Maestre, C. (2019). Chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and opioid intake: A systematic review. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 7(24), 4254-4269.

Morgen, K. (2017). Substance use disorders and addictions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. ISBN:9781483370569

Palamar, J. J., Le, A., Guarino, H., & Mateu-Gelabert, P. (2019). A comparison of the utility of urine-and hair testing in detecting self-reported drug use among young adult opioid users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 200, 161-167.

Reiter, M. D. (2019). Substance abuse and the family: Assessment and treatment. United States: Taylor & Francis

Weathers, F. W., Bovin, M. J., Lee, D. J., Sloan, D. M., Schnurr, P. P., Kaloupek, D. G., … & Marx, B. P. (2018). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM–5 (CAPS-5): Development and initial psychometric evaluation in military veterans. Psychological Assessment, 30(3), 383-395.

World Health Organization (2020). International standards for the treatment of drug use disorders: Revised edition incorporating results of field-testing. World Health Organization.

SOCI 4301 A3 scholarship essay help
SOCI 4301 A3





Due Date

SOCI 4301 A3

Question: Where does the idea of (generally un-paid) domestic and caring work as mainly female come from? How do stereotypes about female and male work get reinforced? How do these ideas affect the work and status of women in society?

The chief objective of the assignment is to find out the beginning of unpaid work. It reveals that the issue of unpaid work mostly relates to women. It also explores how stereotypes about male and female work get emphasized in the society and cultures, and how such misguided perceptions affect women’s place in the society. The problem is that the concern that women should perform most of unpaid labor is spreading across the globe despite existing attempts to achieve equality. Thus, various scholars perform researches with the objective of understanding why many women than men spend much time performing unpaid duties, particularly at homes, a position that degrades their economic advancement and derails gender equality (Warren, 2011). The paper asserts that women are equally competent to perform paid work, an opportunity that would help to ease the evident economic imbalance between the two genders.

The notion that women should perform unpaid jobs is reinstated by various factors in the society. Discrimination at the place of work, social norms, biased policies and regulations, and directives that do not emphasize on women’s empowerment are some of the factors reinstating that women should perform unpaid jobs. More fundamentally, the traditional perception that women are responsible for domestic chores further reinstates the notion that women should stick to their place rather than striving to access paid work (Warren, 2011). The failure to incorporate many women in paid labor still prevails despite ongoing calls to empower women and give them the chance to express their capabilities in different areas. Consequently, only few women get the opportunity to play active and influential roles that allow them to earn from their work. Further evidence by Warren (2011) indicates that women may spend as thrice as much time as their male counterparts offering childcare and performing house chores than men, which calls for more action to achieve equality between men and women with regard to participating in paid labor. The inability for women to get equal reach to paid labor as men affect the latter group because men must work harder to fetch for their families, but women face more agony not being able to meet their financial aspirations. The situation is worse in low-income families and societies where men dominate the few available economic operations.

The effects of women participation in unpaid chores are disturbing and calls for effective mitigation. Warren (2011) acknowledges that existing policies and regulations have not effectively addresses the need to improve how women have access to paid jobs. Furthermore, the unpaid works mostly performed by women do not feature prominently in policy framework, which makes it much harder to develop both the gains and challenges of unpaid work (Edwards, 2017). Some of the repercussions of more women indulging in unpaid tasks than men encompass lowering engagement in the labor force, overreliance on men, and gender imbalance. Edwards (2017) finds an unequal and unsustainable relationship between the time women use performing unpaid work and that dedicated to performing paid work. Findings reveal that when women use at least five hours every day in duties like performing house chores, their labor productivity goes down (Edwards, 2017). It also means that women lose a vital opportunity to enhance their lives economically.

The other aspect is that as more women focus on unpaid jobs, more men get the chance to serve in income-generating areas. Consequently, men emerge as the leader of the family and their views and decisions become final. Women in this scenario have no option but to be submissive to their husbands, and sometimes emerge as less significant and economically non-viable. The misguided perceptions have affected the status of women, and has exposed them to a series of unpleasant experiences, including stereotyping, violence, abuse, and discrimination. The disenfranchisement women face in the hands of men and the larger society leave them with no choice but to accept the situation. Ultimately, they do not only accept prevailing inequality, but also regard the work men perform as being the most important.


The Canadian society presents some challenges that give men more opportunities to perform paid labor while denies women similar chances. The imbalance affects women so much that they accept their position as people who should only perform unpaid labor. The inequality that deters some women from performing paid tasks result in a situation where some women agree that males are superior to them because of their work that earn them some income. The findings of the research is a call to action calling on people to consider women as equally competent and capable of performing work that earn revenue. Otherwise, continuing to disregard women as only being qualified to perform unpaid jobs could widen the already worsening pay gap and overall gender imbalance.


Edwards, S. (2017). News: Radical change needed on unpaid care work, report finds. Retrieved 31 August, 2021, from

Gutierrez-Rodriguez, E. (2014). Domestic work-affective labor: On feminization and the coloniality of labor. Women’s Studies International Forum, 4645-4653. doi:10.1016/j.wsif.2014.03.005

Warren, T. (2011). Researching the gender division of unpaid domestic work: practices, relationships, negotiations, and meanings. Sociological Review, 59(1), 129-148. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.2010.01993.x

Question: How have recent changes in the job markets due to globalization and global capitalism affected Canadian families? How have they affected the gender division of labor?

Globalization and global capitalism have increasingly become dominant because many corporations and governments advocate for these forms. The study elaborates how the emergence of both ideologies presents many Canadian families with the opportunity to secure employment, while others fail to fit into highly competitive job markets. Globalization impacts gender division of labor because both men and women now have the opportunity to focus on activities that suit their resources, capabilities, and interests and not social norms and cultural directives. Globalization and global capitalism brought mixed reactions on Canadian families regarding job markets although they contributed towards the easing gender differences that hindered some people from performing particular duties because of their gender.

Effects of globalization and global capitalism on Job Markets

Globalization and global capitalism are recent phenomena that have had substantial impact on job markets. World economies, populations, and cultures are increasingly becoming interdependence as a result of cross-border trades in technology, services, goods, information, and other resources (Bhorat & Lundall, 2004). All forms of globalization, cultural, political, and economic globalizations, impact job markets differently. Global capitalism, on the other hand, refers to capitalism that goes beyond national borders (Robinson, 2008). It is an approach where people have the freedom to venture into privatization and foster a free market structure where corporations are free to generate profits without government interference. These two concepts increasingly transform how things happen at the global level, including determining the nature of job markets.

Evidence suggest that globalization and global capitalism have significant impact on job markets for Canadian families. A good thing that some Canadian families have got the chance to work in foreign markets either as business people or employees. Global capitalism, on the other hand, provides many Canadians with the chance to venture into private practice, thus creating some form of self-employment. Thus, globalization and global capitalism could be perceived as possible remedies for expanding job markets for Canadian families. However, globalization makes job markets highly competitive because highly qualified people move from one country to the other in quest for jobs. For example, a Canadian may fail to secure a working position at a firm when a foreign applicant presents better qualifications. Consequently, globalization and global capitalism have both positive and negative effects on job markets for Canadian families.

How Globalization and Global Capitalism Impact on Gender Division of Labor

Both globalization and global capitalism have impacted on gender division of labor in Canada. Robinson (2008) describes gender division of labor as the distribution of different works or types of duties to men and women. Often, the institutional and societal practices, perceptions, norms, and rules that regulate the distribution of tasks between men and women also form part of gender division of labor, which appears as a variable over space and time and constantly under scrutiny. Gender division of labor across various cultural groups in Canada vary and constantly affected by historical, economic, and societal transformations. Many societies and cultures expect their men and women to perform certain roles depending on their gender but the emergence of globalization and global capitalism transformed such perceptions. Both men and women now get the chance to perform the duties of their choice in foreign nations, and not have to be restricted by societal norms and cultural values. The concept of globalization, for example, allows women to secure working positions in technical stations outside the country, positions that were earlier dominated by men. Similarly, global capitalism now allows women to venture into privatization locally and internationally and to compete with male-owned corporations. Thus, the emergence of globalization and global capitalism have significant impact on gender division of labor.


The paper identifies both globalization and global capitalism as both a blessing and a burden to Canadian families. Canadians now have the opportunity to seek employment in foreign countries and ton venture into private operations, which directly boost job markets. On the other hand, foreigners come in to compete with locals as a result of globalization, thereby making it hard for people to secure employment. Finally, the study illustrates how the development of globalization and global capitalism impacted gender division of labor in such a way that men and women do not have to stick to predetermined roles by the society and culture. Men and women now have the chance to venture into practices that suit their interests and resources, either locally or internationally.


Bhorat, H., & Lundall, P. (2004). Employment and labour market effects of globalization:

Selected issues for policy management. Retrieved 31, August 31, 2021, from—ed_emp/—emp_elm/documents/publication/wcms_114330.pdf

Robinson, W. (2008). Understanding global capitalism. Retrieved 31, August 31, 2021, from

Leadership Learning Experience   online essay help
Leadership Learning Experience  

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Leadership Leaning Experience 

The nursing profession has struggled perennially with understaffing in healthcare institutions. The number of nurses hardly matches the patients that need their services at any one time, and nurses are forced to provide care to more than one patient at a time. Besides, the distribution of nurses varies across units and departments in individual healthcare facilities, across different regions in a country, and different countries. This issue should be regarded as a policy problem requiring a policy solution. The ensuing discussion delves into the high nurse-to-patient ratios in trauma intensive care units in the United States and formulates a policy solution to address it. After the issue is explained sufficiently, the contributors to the issue are identified and a policy solution proposed. After that, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted, and an implementation approach is devised. Finally, a reflection on how the graduate registered nurse acted as a scientist, detective and manager of the health healing environment is given.  

Problem or Issue

Nurse staffing is a complex and controversial issue at the HCA Houston Healthcare Northwest in Houston, Texas and in the United States healthcare system. The registered nurses (RNs) at the 423-bed acute care healthcare facility and across the country are not sufficient to provide high-quality and individualized care to all the patients in the country, a situation replicated elsewhere across the world. According to a fact sheet published by National Nurses United (n.d.), because no federal mandates regulated the number of patients an RN should care for at any one given time in hospitals in the United States, RNs were consistently caring for more patients than was safe, impacting patient outcomes negatively and undermining patient care. Similarly, Haddad, Annamaraju and Toney-Butler (2020) predicted that 11 million additional registered nurses would be required to forestall the worsening nursing shortage in the United States by 2020.

More so, trauma patients in the United States lack adequate nursing attention, undermining their healing process and quality of care during and after hospitalization. This problem has worsened during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, in which the available registered nurses are concentrating on patients with the novel coronavirus, leaving trauma patients with fewer nurses to take care of them (Davidson & Szanton, 2020). Besides, attempts to provide trauma and covid-19 patients with adequate nursing attention have led to increasing cases of fatigue, burnout, leaving intentions, and turnover of registered nurses.  


Observational and documentary evidence gathered from the intensive care unit (ICU) at the HCA Houston Healthcare Northwest in Houston, Texas, where I work, indicated that the nurse staffing was inadequate for the available bed spaces. Specifically, the ICU trauma unit at the acute care hospital has 14 beds and 7 RNs assigned, meaning that when trauma patients occupy all the beds, 1 nurse would serve 2 patients, at least, yielding a staffing ratio of 1:2. Besides, staffing shortfalls worsened when trauma patients arrived into the unit from emergency rooms (ERs) and operating rooms (ORs) because these arrivals were unpredictable and did not allow prompt rescheduling of nursing assignment to patients and shift allocations. The only patients that were accorded a dedicated registered nurse throughout their hospital stay included those that had undergone a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), hypothermia,  and life gift procedures like heart, liver, kidney, pancreases, or lung transplants. Notably, the maximum staffing of 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratio was achieved when volume range has a minimum and maximum of 4 nurses working in 12-hour shifts, providing 13.429 total productive hours per volume with a full-time equivalence (FTE) variance to target being 2.07, as illustrated in appendix 1. This means that many other trauma patients were denied individualized and personalized nursing care at the facility.

Overall, individual states and healthcare facilities were being forced to deal with the worsening problem of rising nurse-to-patient ratios because there was not standard safe nurse staffing laws at the federal or state levels, except in California, which implemented a policy mandating unit-based minimum nurse-to-patient ratio in 1999 (Olley, et al. 2018).


Nursing shortages and the lack of nursing standards in the United States were contributing to suboptimal patient care outcomes. With nursing shortages being a global issue, Haegdorens et al. (2019) revealed that low nurse staffing levels were associated with higher patient mortality, especially deaths following unplanned admission into the ICU and those the followed cardiopulmonary (CPR) administration.  

At the facility level, nurse understaffing was caused by high turnover rates, which were prevalent among nurses in their first two years of practice (Davidson & Szanton, 2020). Besides, nursing training institutions had not expanded their facilities to match the increased demand for registered nurses. Therefore, nursing professional supply lagged behind demand, creating the ever-rising shortfall. In the same vein, many experienced nurses were due for retirement while youngsters in generation X and Z were not taking to the profession as expected to plug the expected natural attrition rates (Marć, et al., 2019).

Proposed Solution or Innovation

The proposed solution to nurse understaffing in trauma units and centers is a statewide policy that mandates a 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio. This means that all states in the United States should be required by state law to have a minimum of one nurse assigned to one trauma patient. This would improve the provision of personalized patient-centered care to trauma patients, improving health outcomes and overall health-wellbeing of such patients across the nation.  Eales (2019) noted that there was abundant evidence indicating that protected emergency nursing ratios were critical for departmental efficiency and patient safety.

Resources and Cost-Benefit Analysis

Several resources are required to remedy the current situation of the high nurse-to-patient ratio and implement a standard safe nurse staffing law. They include include finances and human capital for training, promotion, expansion and equipping of hospitals. Also, internship, coaching and mentoring of novice graduate registered nurses is critical for fast-tracking their acclimatization to the department. These resources are expected to confer several benefits to the critical care unit despite incurring costs.  A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is summarized in table 1.

Table 1. Cost-benefit analysis of the proposed intervention

Cost Benefit ItemAmount ($)ItemAmount ($)Employing 7 nurses (salary)560,120Reduced workload per nurse$0Compensating 7 nurses (excluding salary)196,490Reduced onboarding costs for 7 nurses$207,800Orienting 7 new nurses152,929Reduced absenteeism$0Equipping 7 new nurses39,900Workflow changes$0  Reduced orientation time$0  Reduced overtime claims$511,000  Reduced medication administration errors$0Total949,439 718,000

A newly graduated registered nurse in Houston expects to earn an initial salary of about $80,160 annually, with addition benefits worth about $28,070, which include paid leave, insurance, retirement and savings, supplemental pay  (Nursing Process, 2021). The orientation costs per new nurse averages $21,847 and nurses supply take up $5,700 for every new nurse employed, annually. Similarly, overtime costs the healthcare institution $50 for every nurse, and some nurses can put up to 4 hours of overtime in a day. Although the costs appear to outweigh the benefits in monetary terms, the nonmonetary benefits are worth much more than their money equivalents. For instance, the reduced workload would improve the quality of nursing care patients receive, improving patient and nurse satisfaction while reducing nurse fatigue and burnout. Similarly, reduced absenteeism would reduce the need for overtime by nurses to cover the shifts of their absent colleagues, reducing fatigue and burnout.


The implementation of the safe nurse staffing policy is time-consuming because it requires the involvement of several stakeholders, beginning from training more nurses and assigning them to trauma ICU units across the state or nation, providing resources to improve their working conditions, and implementing strategies for retaining registered nurses to avoid burnout, sudden exits, and high nurse turnovers. Table 2 summarized the implementation timeline for the proposed intervention.

Table 2. Implementation schedule

ActivityMonths123456789101112Enactment of legislation            Expansion of training facilities            Recruitment of new graduate nurses            Rearrangement of shifts            Evaluation of outcomes            

Importance of Key Stakeholders or Partners

The key stakeholders in safe nurse staffing standardization across the United States include the hospital and healthcare facility administrators, nurses, physicians, health insurance providers, state and federal governments, politicians, patients and their families, and communities. The importance of each of these stakeholders in implementing the 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio in ICU trauma units is summarized in table 3.

Table 3. Importance of stakeholders in implementing safe nurse staffing proposal

StakeholderImportanceFacility AdministratorsAllocate resources at the facility level to engage more registered nursesProvide training support through tuition reimbursementsDetermine the success level of theFederal and state governmentsAllocate finances at the federal and state level to healthcare facilities that meet the safe nurse staffing requirementsNurses Involvement in implementation processProvide feedback about the performance of the interventionPhysiciansInvolvement in the implementation processProvide feedback about the performance of the interventionHealth insurance providersProvide health coverage to registered nursesReimburse facility for insurable services provided to patientsNurses labor unionEncourage nurses to buy in to the policy interventionPoliticiansFormulate and vote for safe staffing regulationsMobilize and allocate resources for nurse training and recruitment by voting for state and federal budgetsPatients and their familiesCreate demand for nursing careProvide feedback about satisfaction with nursing services being providedCommunities and the publicSupport facility’s brand through positive word of mouthProvide social license to operate to the healthcare facility


Implementing the safe nurse staffing proposal should be systematic and meticulous, requiring an elaborate plan. The implementation plan begins with firstly, ensuring that there are adequate graduate registered nurses to post to the healthcare facilities across the states and country. Therefore, more nursing students should be encouraged to pursued graduate level studies to increase their professional knowledge.

Secondly, healthcare administrators should have resources to accommodate higher nurse numbers in their facilities. These recourses are to be directed towards remunerating nurses and improving their working conditions.

Thirdly, there should be a monitoring system that helps identify whether there are any improvements in health outcomes that can be associated with the intervention. Key performance indicators that have measurable metrics are critical for the proper monitoring of the performance of the intervention. The KPIs should include length of hospital stay, number of medication errors, frequency of patient falls and slips, patient satisfaction levels.

Nurse Roles

As a Scientist

The graduate registered nurse acted as a scientist by seeking out the latest information related to safe nurse staffing already available from research. The graduate RN gathered evidence from peer reviewed journal articles, organsational publications, and expert opinions available over the internet and in several databases. The graduate RN prioritized evidence obtained from scientific research across the world to broaden the scope of the issue beyond the borders of the United States.

As a Detective

The graduate RN acted as a detective by investigating and detecting the subtle changes and deviations in patients outcomes when different nurse-to-patient ratios were used in different ICU conditions. This involved the comparison of the patient outcomes for different ICU staffing levels and nurse-to-patient ratios.

As a Manager of the Healing Environment

The graduate RN acted as a manager of the healing environment by identifying the aspects of advanced nursing care that facilitate teamwork in a multidisciplinary and multi-professional healthcare environment.


This leadership learning exercise provided valuable insights into the problem of unsafe nurse staffing in trauma intensive care units in healthcare facilities across the United States. After identifying safe nurse staffing through patient-to-nurse ratio intervention as the appropriate policy intervention required to improve the patient outcomes in trauma ICU units, an implementation plan was formulated, which required the participation of all the key stakeholders. The cost-benefit analysis helped justify the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, while an implementation timeline helped schedule the implementation of the intervention. Finally, the graduate RN reflected on the roles of scientist, detective, and manager of the healing environment that facilitated the investigation of the staffing policy issue and formulation of a pragmatic intervention.


Davidson, P. M., & Szanton, S. L. (2020). Nursing homes and COVID‐19: We can and      should do better. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1-2.

Eales, T. (2019). Unsafe nursing ratios incapacitate EDs, endanger patients. Emergency Medicine Resident’s Association. Retrieved from

Haddad, L. M., Annamaraju, P., & Toney-Butler, T. J. (2020). Nursing shortage. StatPearls. Retrieved from

Haegdorens, F., Van Bogaert, P., De Meester, K., & Monsieurs, K. G. (2019). The impact of nurse staffing levels and nurse’s education on patient mortality in medical and surgical wards: an observational multicentre study. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1-9.

Marć, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzyńska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2019). A nursing shortage–a prospect of global and local policies. International nursing review, 66(1), 9-16.

National Nurses United (n.d.). Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act: Fact Sheet. Retrieved from

Nursing Process (2021). 2021 Texas registered nurse salary + job outlook. Retrieved from

Olley, R., Edwards, I., Avery, M., & Cooper, H. (2018). Systematic review of the evidence     related to mandated nurse staffing ratios in acute hospitals. Australian Health Review, 43(3), 288-293.


Appendix 1. Staffing grid department data report: HCA Houston Northwest

Leadership Learning Experience  

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Leadership Leaning Experience 

The nursing profession has struggled perennially with understaffing in healthcare institutions. The number of nurses hardly matches the patients that need their services at any one time, and nurses are forced to provide care to more than one patient at a time. Besides, the distribution of nurses varies across units and departments in individual healthcare facilities, across different regions in a country, and different countries. This issue should be regarded as a policy problem requiring a policy solution. The ensuing discussion delves into the high nurse-to-patient ratios in trauma intensive care units in the United States and formulates a policy solution to address it. After the issue is explained sufficiently, the contributors to the issue are identified and a policy solution proposed. After that, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted, and an implementation approach is devised. Finally, a reflection on how the graduate registered nurse acted as a scientist, detective and manager of the health healing environment is given.  

Problem or Issue

Nurse staffing is a complex and controversial issue at the HCA Houston Healthcare Northwest in Houston, Texas and in the United States healthcare system. The registered nurses (RNs) at the 423-bed acute care healthcare facility and across the country are not sufficient to provide high-quality and individualized care to all the patients in the country, a situation replicated elsewhere across the world. According to a fact sheet published by National Nurses United (n.d.), because no federal mandates regulated the number of patients an RN should care for at any one given time in hospitals in the United States, RNs were consistently caring for more patients than was safe, impacting patient outcomes negatively and undermining patient care. Similarly, Haddad, Annamaraju and Toney-Butler (2020) predicted that 11 million additional registered nurses would be required to forestall the worsening nursing shortage in the United States by 2020.

More so, trauma patients in the United States lack adequate nursing attention, undermining their healing process and quality of care during and after hospitalization. This problem has worsened during the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, in which the available registered nurses are concentrating on patients with the novel coronavirus, leaving trauma patients with fewer nurses to take care of them (Davidson & Szanton, 2020). Besides, attempts to provide trauma and covid-19 patients with adequate nursing attention have led to increasing cases of fatigue, burnout, leaving intentions, and turnover of registered nurses.  


Observational and documentary evidence gathered from the intensive care unit (ICU) at the HCA Houston Healthcare Northwest in Houston, Texas, where I work, indicated that the nurse staffing was inadequate for the available bed spaces. Specifically, the ICU trauma unit at the acute care hospital has 14 beds and 7 RNs assigned, meaning that when trauma patients occupy all the beds, 1 nurse would serve 2 patients, at least, yielding a staffing ratio of 1:2. Besides, staffing shortfalls worsened when trauma patients arrived into the unit from emergency rooms (ERs) and operating rooms (ORs) because these arrivals were unpredictable and did not allow prompt rescheduling of nursing assignment to patients and shift allocations. The only patients that were accorded a dedicated registered nurse throughout their hospital stay included those that had undergone a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), hypothermia,  and life gift procedures like heart, liver, kidney, pancreases, or lung transplants. Notably, the maximum staffing of 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratio was achieved when volume range has a minimum and maximum of 4 nurses working in 12-hour shifts, providing 13.429 total productive hours per volume with a full-time equivalence (FTE) variance to target being 2.07, as illustrated in appendix 1. This means that many other trauma patients were denied individualized and personalized nursing care at the facility.

Overall, individual states and healthcare facilities were being forced to deal with the worsening problem of rising nurse-to-patient ratios because there was not standard safe nurse staffing laws at the federal or state levels, except in California, which implemented a policy mandating unit-based minimum nurse-to-patient ratio in 1999 (Olley, et al. 2018).


Nursing shortages and the lack of nursing standards in the United States were contributing to suboptimal patient care outcomes. With nursing shortages being a global issue, Haegdorens et al. (2019) revealed that low nurse staffing levels were associated with higher patient mortality, especially deaths following unplanned admission into the ICU and those the followed cardiopulmonary (CPR) administration.  

At the facility level, nurse understaffing was caused by high turnover rates, which were prevalent among nurses in their first two years of practice (Davidson & Szanton, 2020). Besides, nursing training institutions had not expanded their facilities to match the increased demand for registered nurses. Therefore, nursing professional supply lagged behind demand, creating the ever-rising shortfall. In the same vein, many experienced nurses were due for retirement while youngsters in generation X and Z were not taking to the profession as expected to plug the expected natural attrition rates (Marć, et al., 2019).

Proposed Solution or Innovation

The proposed solution to nurse understaffing in trauma units and centers is a statewide policy that mandates a 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio. This means that all states in the United States should be required by state law to have a minimum of one nurse assigned to one trauma patient. This would improve the provision of personalized patient-centered care to trauma patients, improving health outcomes and overall health-wellbeing of such patients across the nation.  Eales (2019) noted that there was abundant evidence indicating that protected emergency nursing ratios were critical for departmental efficiency and patient safety.

Resources and Cost-Benefit Analysis

Several resources are required to remedy the current situation of the high nurse-to-patient ratio and implement a standard safe nurse staffing law. They include include finances and human capital for training, promotion, expansion and equipping of hospitals. Also, internship, coaching and mentoring of novice graduate registered nurses is critical for fast-tracking their acclimatization to the department. These resources are expected to confer several benefits to the critical care unit despite incurring costs.  A cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is summarized in table 1.

Table 1. Cost-benefit analysis of the proposed intervention

Cost Benefit ItemAmount ($)ItemAmount ($)Employing 7 nurses (salary)560,120Reduced workload per nurse$0Compensating 7 nurses (excluding salary)196,490Reduced onboarding costs for 7 nurses$207,800Orienting 7 new nurses152,929Reduced absenteeism$0Equipping 7 new nurses39,900Workflow changes$0  Reduced orientation time$0  Reduced overtime claims$511,000  Reduced medication administration errors$0Total949,439 718,000

A newly graduated registered nurse in Houston expects to earn an initial salary of about $80,160 annually, with addition benefits worth about $28,070, which include paid leave, insurance, retirement and savings, supplemental pay  (Nursing Process, 2021). The orientation costs per new nurse averages $21,847 and nurses supply take up $5,700 for every new nurse employed, annually. Similarly, overtime costs the healthcare institution $50 for every nurse, and some nurses can put up to 4 hours of overtime in a day. Although the costs appear to outweigh the benefits in monetary terms, the nonmonetary benefits are worth much more than their money equivalents. For instance, the reduced workload would improve the quality of nursing care patients receive, improving patient and nurse satisfaction while reducing nurse fatigue and burnout. Similarly, reduced absenteeism would reduce the need for overtime by nurses to cover the shifts of their absent colleagues, reducing fatigue and burnout.


The implementation of the safe nurse staffing policy is time-consuming because it requires the involvement of several stakeholders, beginning from training more nurses and assigning them to trauma ICU units across the state or nation, providing resources to improve their working conditions, and implementing strategies for retaining registered nurses to avoid burnout, sudden exits, and high nurse turnovers. Table 2 summarized the implementation timeline for the proposed intervention.

Table 2. Implementation schedule

ActivityMonths123456789101112Enactment of legislation            Expansion of training facilities            Recruitment of new graduate nurses            Rearrangement of shifts            Evaluation of outcomes            

Importance of Key Stakeholders or Partners

The key stakeholders in safe nurse staffing standardization across the United States include the hospital and healthcare facility administrators, nurses, physicians, health insurance providers, state and federal governments, politicians, patients and their families, and communities. The importance of each of these stakeholders in implementing the 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio in ICU trauma units is summarized in table 3.

Table 3. Importance of stakeholders in implementing safe nurse staffing proposal

StakeholderImportanceFacility AdministratorsAllocate resources at the facility level to engage more registered nursesProvide training support through tuition reimbursementsDetermine the success level of theFederal and state governmentsAllocate finances at the federal and state level to healthcare facilities that meet the safe nurse staffing requirementsNurses Involvement in implementation processProvide feedback about the performance of the interventionPhysiciansInvolvement in the implementation processProvide feedback about the performance of the interventionHealth insurance providersProvide health coverage to registered nursesReimburse facility for insurable services provided to patientsNurses labor unionEncourage nurses to buy in to the policy interventionPoliticiansFormulate and vote for safe staffing regulationsMobilize and allocate resources for nurse training and recruitment by voting for state and federal budgetsPatients and their familiesCreate demand for nursing careProvide feedback about satisfaction with nursing services being providedCommunities and the publicSupport facility’s brand through positive word of mouthProvide social license to operate to the healthcare facility


Implementing the safe nurse staffing proposal should be systematic and meticulous, requiring an elaborate plan. The implementation plan begins with firstly, ensuring that there are adequate graduate registered nurses to post to the healthcare facilities across the states and country. Therefore, more nursing students should be encouraged to pursued graduate level studies to increase their professional knowledge.

Secondly, healthcare administrators should have resources to accommodate higher nurse numbers in their facilities. These recourses are to be directed towards remunerating nurses and improving their working conditions.

Thirdly, there should be a monitoring system that helps identify whether there are any improvements in health outcomes that can be associated with the intervention. Key performance indicators that have measurable metrics are critical for the proper monitoring of the performance of the intervention. The KPIs should include length of hospital stay, number of medication errors, frequency of patient falls and slips, patient satisfaction levels.

Nurse Roles

As a Scientist

The graduate registered nurse acted as a scientist by seeking out the latest information related to safe nurse staffing already available from research. The graduate RN gathered evidence from peer reviewed journal articles, organsational publications, and expert opinions available over the internet and in several databases. The graduate RN prioritized evidence obtained from scientific research across the world to broaden the scope of the issue beyond the borders of the United States.

As a Detective

The graduate RN acted as a detective by investigating and detecting the subtle changes and deviations in patients outcomes when different nurse-to-patient ratios were used in different ICU conditions. This involved the comparison of the patient outcomes for different ICU staffing levels and nurse-to-patient ratios.

As a Manager of the Healing Environment

The graduate RN acted as a manager of the healing environment by identifying the aspects of advanced nursing care that facilitate teamwork in a multidisciplinary and multi-professional healthcare environment.


This leadership learning exercise provided valuable insights into the problem of unsafe nurse staffing in trauma intensive care units in healthcare facilities across the United States. After identifying safe nurse staffing through patient-to-nurse ratio intervention as the appropriate policy intervention required to improve the patient outcomes in trauma ICU units, an implementation plan was formulated, which required the participation of all the key stakeholders. The cost-benefit analysis helped justify the cost-effectiveness of the intervention, while an implementation timeline helped schedule the implementation of the intervention. Finally, the graduate RN reflected on the roles of scientist, detective, and manager of the healing environment that facilitated the investigation of the staffing policy issue and formulation of a pragmatic intervention.


Davidson, P. M., & Szanton, S. L. (2020). Nursing homes and COVID‐19: We can and      should do better. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 1-2.

Eales, T. (2019). Unsafe nursing ratios incapacitate EDs, endanger patients. Emergency Medicine Resident’s Association. Retrieved from

Haddad, L. M., Annamaraju, P., & Toney-Butler, T. J. (2020). Nursing shortage. StatPearls. Retrieved from

Haegdorens, F., Van Bogaert, P., De Meester, K., & Monsieurs, K. G. (2019). The impact of nurse staffing levels and nurse’s education on patient mortality in medical and surgical wards: an observational multicentre study. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1-9.

Marć, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzyńska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2019). A nursing shortage–a prospect of global and local policies. International nursing review, 66(1), 9-16.

National Nurses United (n.d.). Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act: Fact Sheet. Retrieved from

Nursing Process (2021). 2021 Texas registered nurse salary + job outlook. Retrieved from

Olley, R., Edwards, I., Avery, M., & Cooper, H. (2018). Systematic review of the evidence     related to mandated nurse staffing ratios in acute hospitals. Australian Health Review, 43(3), 288-293.


Appendix 1. Staffing grid department data report: HCA Houston Northwest

Intervention and Capstone Reflection a level english language essay help
Intervention and Capstone Reflection

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Intervention and Capstone Reflection

The report up to now identifies surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy as suitable interventions for mitigating the patient’s cancer. The study in this case presents the intervention to the patient and family to familiarize these parties with what the plan entails. The presentation helps the patient and family to understand why the approaches are the best and how they are likely to enhance quality of life. Part 2 of the report is my reflection of the practicum experience, the formation of my capstone project, and my personal and professional advancement over the duration of my RN-to-BSN program.

Part 1 – Presenting the Intervention Plan

The most suitable treatment for the patient’s breast cancer is to undergo surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. The primary objective of combining the treatment methods is to ensure that all cancer-causing cells die. Concerning surgery, the patient would either undergo lumpectomy or mastectomy depending on the severity of the infection (Tinoco et al. 2013). The surgeon may perform a lumpectomy if the cancer cells have not affected other parts of the breast, but may have to perform a mastectomy if the cancer has tampered with nearby tissues (Tinoco et al. 2013). The following is a description of why each of the intervention approaches are essential as well as their possible side effects;


Reduce the possibilities of cancer reemergence to between 1% and 3%.Prolonged lifespan

Side Effects

PainBleedingWound infectionsEpidermolysis bullosa (EB), which is characterized by blistering of the skin around the breast or nearby areas.Hematoma (collection of blood outside blood vessels)Seroma (fluid build-up below the skin surface)


Reduces the possibility of the cancer reemerging in nearby tissues and lymph nodes.The therapy kills cancer cells.Helps to relieve pain emerging from the disease.Minimizes the chances of dying due to breast cancer.Radiation reduces possibility of dying from the disease by about 34%.

Side Effects

Skin irritation around the treatment areaItchy and dry skinSwelling of the breastFatiguePeeling of the skinRednessMouth complicationsHair loss


Reduce the effects of infection on the lymph nodesReduce the possibility of reemergenceSlows growth of cancer cellsProlongs life

Side Effects

DiarrheaNauseaVomitingWeight lossLoss of appetiteHair lossMouth soresNail complications

Nevertheless, the intervention will also give the targeted goals if parties into the treatment plan consider several essential factors. Effective team leadership is essential to achieve the targeted goals. Leaders must give adequate guidance and engage others in the whole process to create an opportunity where everyone contributes towards the treatment process (Johnson et al. 2020). Engaging all stakeholders offers a better chance to get new ideas that help to manage the condition more effectively (Johnson et al. 2020). All parties into the treatment plan should work towards protecting patient safety because this contributes towards achieving quality of life. The health practitioners overseeing the surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy need to adhere to all protocols, which makes it possible to realize the best results. Making use of health care technology presents a better chance for the patient to benefit from appropriate services that would help to manage the condition. Technology makes it possible to get quality services and improves the likelihood of averting errors that could affect the whole process (Fleming 2017). More fundamentally, taking advantage of community resources such as health specialists and hospitals increases the probability of attaining the targeted intervention goals.

Part 2 – Reflection

Use of Evidence and Peer-Reviewed Literature

I give evidence and use peer-reviewed literature to plan and implement the capstone because I know that effective use of supporting material convinces the audience and create a basis for further analysis. I know that utilizing supporting materials is important in building preciseness in any analytical work. The supporting materials offer essential information and facts that can make work more precise and easy to comprehend. Using evidence and peer-reviewed literature deepen my awareness and enrich my knowledge and understanding. I try to focus on peer-reviewed literature that are credible and that give information that are useful in completing the capstone project. I begin with identifying the author’s integrity, which include identifying his or her other works and whether they have significant influence in pedagogy, learning, research, and project planning and implementation. I use the Internet to search and retrieve the relevant sources because the platform provides a wide range of literature to choose from. I know that not all supporting materials are appropriate only if they help to convince the audience. I knew that using appropriate supporting materials would be essential during oral presentation because they help to clarify my idea, emphasize it, make my views more appealing, and to form a basis that allows others to believe the points I put across. More fundamentally, using necessary literature helps the target audience to recall key concepts, and help to prove my claims and assertions.

Leveraging Technology

Technology is fast changing how health workers relate with patients and this compelled me to leverage heath care technology in the capstone project with the objective of enhancing outcomes and elevating communication with all parties into the treatment plan. Caregivers use electronic health records (EHRs) to facilitate the provision of all facets of patient care, encompassing sameness, effectiveness, communication, patient safety, satisfaction, and awareness (Fleming 2017). Nevertheless, relying on less effective information systems that are slow in their capacity to share and move patient information could affect how the patient receives services and treatment. Other than EHR, the intervention employs telemedicine to enhance communication with all parties into the treatment process. The intervention considers telemedicine as an essential aspect of the intervention because it minimizes the trips the patient has to make to the hospital, especially when it is not very essential that she has face-to-face interaction with the practitioner (Fleming 2017). Telehealth presents a cost-effective option of communicating. Besides, health technology offers the opportunity to utilize modern treatment devices and tools that permits the provision of quality health services appropriate for treating breast cancer. Nevertheless, I acknowledge that using health technology could present certain challenges that require much attention to avoid any inconveniency. For instance, practitioners need to be conversant with how the various technologies work and prepare for possible mishaps that could occur when using the different forms to attend to the cancer patient. However, failing to consider the possible constraints associated with using health care technology could affect proper use of techniques that make treatment and service delivery more effective.

Impact of Health Policy in Planning and Implementing the Capstone Project

Health policy played key roles in the planning and implementation of the capstone project that contributes significantly to policy formation. The project adheres to the provision of Medicaid that advocates for equal access to care through provision of health cover to as many Americans as possible. In addition, the intervention plan follows the guidelines of the Affordable Care Act that advocates for the provision of affordable health services to Americans regardless of their status or impact on the society. Adhering to such regulations presents a chance to attend to the cancer patient with the objective of improving health outcomes while ensuring that she does not spend heavily on the treatment. The plan, on the other hand, significantly impacts on policy development. For example, it reminds policy developers on the need to formulate regulations that give clear guidance on how to use health care technology in treating various conditions. The project also reminds policy developers to create policies that give more health coverage to patients who suffer from chronic ailments such as cancer.

Whether Capstone Outcomes matched Predictions

The outcomes achieved from the project matched my initial predictions about how things would turn out. Before planning and implementing the project, I knew that it would result in a suitable framework that would help to treat the patient. I was confident that effective planning would require other team players to be part of the intervention to reach the best results. I also knew before developing the plan that technology would be inevitable to achieve the best results. I spend at least three hours conversing with the patient and her family to gain valuable insight into developing the intervention.

Personal and Professional Growth

I have recorded significant growth, personally and professionally, which attribute to the completion of the capstone project. Personally, I now understand much about breast cancer and how it affects patients and close relatives. I now know that offering the best care to a patient care requires an integrated approach rather than relying on a single technique. The project has helped me to appreciate the need to conduct adequate research about a subject before taking any practical steps. Professionally, I have learned the need to engage all the relevant stakeholders in the mitigation process to realize the best results that do not evoke criticism or opposition. Completing the capstone also helps me to understand why proper leadership is necessary when working with a cancer patient. More fundamentally, the project reminds me to maintain effective communication with all parties to handle the whole process effectively.


The first part of the transcript is a presentation of the intervention plan to the patient and family and the second section is a reflection of my completing the capstone project. Presenting the treatment plan to the patient and family provides clear guidance to the target audience what the solution to the breast cancer entails and creates an overview of what to expect. The presentation is very important because it prepares the patient and family psychologically and financially. It also helps to prepare the necessary resources that would make the treatment plan successful. The reflection addresses how I have considered various key factors in planning and implementing the capstone project. It illustrates how I carefully select relevant literature for the project, and I incorporate health care technology as part of the intervention. It illustrates how I leverage health care technology and how health policy plays important roles in guiding the formation of the plan. Besides, the report shows how the project outcomes match my initial predictions and how it impacts on my personal and professional life.


Fleming, J. (2017). Usability is key to unlocking health IT’s full potential. Retrieved 30 June, 2021, from

Johnson, R., Edwards, R., Rivers, A., Patil, C., & Walsh, S. (2020). Evaluating literacy levels of patient education materials for a sickle cell transition group education programme. Health Education Journal, 79 (3), 253-265.

Tinoco, G., Warsch, S., Gluk, S., Acancha, K., & Montero, A. (2013). Treating breast cancer in the 21st century: Emerging biological therapies. Journal of Cancer, 4 (2), 117-132. doi:10.7150/jca.4925


Student’s Name



Agenda Setting- Public Policy Analysis and Management

The public has many needs and concerns that requires the attention of administrators to avoid much public pressure. However, it is important to follow a definite approach that would ensure the public’s concerns get considerable audience and relevant authorities take proper mitigating actions. An effective way to address the needs of members of the public is to follow the agenda-setting theory, or the agenda-setting model that describes the capacity of various stakeholders or lobbyists to impact the significance placed on the issues of the public agenda. The concept of agenda-setting outlines the way lobbyists or other interested stakeholders attempt to persuade leaders or the target audience. Cobb, Ross and Ross (1976, 126) describe agenda-setting as the behavior or process to address social problem or issue as a policy concern. In the agenda-setting process, social problem or issue is selected as a governmental issue. The term also refers to a process by which public issues and possible remedies gain or lose elite and public attention. Birkland (2011, 60) defines agenda setting as the process by which the requirements of different groups in the population are changed into items competing for more attention of public administrators and officials. In other words, it is a procedure that outlines or determines whether public concerns get on the government’s list of priorities and about how issues that were previously on the agenda get eliminated.

Agenda-setting is part of public policy making together with other aspects such as policy formation, policy adoption, policy implementation, and policy assessment. Group or stakeholder competition to set the agenda is aggressive because no political or societal system has the institutional strength to mitigate all possible options to all emerging concerns that emerge at any given time. The originators of the agenda must thus struggle to earn their issues’ priority among all other concerns sharing the restricted space on the agenda or to wait for the right time when a pressing matter makes their wants more likely to gain a more dominant position on the agenda. Birkland (2011, 62) writes that because the agenda setting process is finite, interested parties must strive to get their concerns across and their desired alternative regulations, on the agenda. Some issues may achieve priority on the agenda while others may not get much attention. Thus, it is essential to consider several critical factors when addressing public concerns to receive adequate attention and not just belated or cursory attention.

One way to ensure that the concerns of a public group receive the attention they deserve is to ensure that the issues fall within the major types of agenda that deserve attention. An agenda should be systemic to warrant attention. These includes all the issues or concerns that people or citizens of a particular country think require government attention. Such issues could be about health problems or issues of crime. An agenda is also likely to gain considerable concern if it falls under the formal or institutional category. The category comprises of items that the government gives much attention and is likely to give audience among the many other issues raised. While some concerns may shift from systemic to institutional agenda, others may not get this privilege. Thus, the agenda setting process can be perceived as shifting matters from the societal or informal agenda to the formal agenda of the political administration. Issues that do not fall under either of the two options is not likely to get proper audience from the government. Nonetheless, an issue may receive considerable audience if it displays other key elements of agenda setting. The matter could receive audience if it fits Birkland’s description of agenda universe. Similar to Cobb and Elder’s systemic agenda, Birkland’s agenda universe entails all aspects that could possibly be identified and addressed in a political or societal system. Also, the matter could receive considerable attention if it falls within the notion of decision agenda that is it includes ideas or presentations that are forwarded and addressed by a governmental institution such as regulations, laws, policies, court cases and rulings, and bills. Therefore, presenters of different agendas must ensure their concerns fall within a category that warrants audience from public authorities.

Other than ensuring that the agenda falls within a category that deserves attention, a matter is likely to get on the government’s policy agenda if the presenter gets the backing of effective agenda setters or if it has the backing of global factors. Dye (2017, 56) define agenda setters as different groups that have the capacity to approach or address the government on matters impacting the public. Agenda setters according to Dye (2017, 56) could be protestors or demonstrators, organized interest groups such as business partners and trade unions, party leaders, newspaper editors, and media. Other factors such as crises that influence public interest and lobbying can also increase the likelihood that a matter receives public audience. Certain global factors or support could also increase the probability of getting audience when setting an agenda. It is imperative to note that some countries may consider the global influencers when determining whether an agenda requires attention or not while other countries may not pay much attention to such regulations when determining the importance of an agenda. These often relate to certain global agreements or treaties created to deal with particular challenges in the world in connection to culture, the environment, child rights, culture, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Some examples of global conventions that could persuade public officers to prioritize certain agendas over others, include but not limited to MDGs that emphasizes on addressing issues pertaining to gender equality, health care, education, and poverty, the UN Convention on Child Rights, and SDGs that advocate for quality education, zero poverty, gender sameness, sanitization and clean water, economic growth, and well-being and good health (Dye, 2017, 70). Thus, any agenda that seeks to alleviate any of the identified public concerns in the SDGs is likely to receive more attention by the government. Other examples of global directives that could warrant audience, include the Kyoto Protocol that provides guidelines on how to protect the environment from adverse emissions, and Intellectual Property Rights that offer protection against piracy. An agenda may also proceed to get top priority if it receives the backing of World Trade Organization agreements or other regulations that protect the elderly or forbids corrupt dealings. Nonetheless, failure to enjoy the support of either of the identified groups could derail the attempts to get an individual or group’s agenda through the agenda setting process.

The idea of non-decision is essential in determining whether an issue gets to proceed through the agenda setting process or not. Dye (2005, 39) describes the notion of non-decision-making as happening when influential groups or individuals or the political itself functions to keep matters out of the political sphere. Examples of non-decision-making, include sex education, availing condoms in learning institutions, and gambling in casinos. A non-decision is a choice that results in the thwarting or suppression of latent constraint to the interests and values of the decision-maker (Capella, 2016, 670). Thus, political leaders or public officers may perceive such matters as not being serious social issues that may require considerable attention. Non-decision making, therefore, is likely to suppress the opportunities that an agenda will proceed to acceptance or consideration. The same concept applies to the idea of mobilization of bias, which refers to a set of predominant institutional guidelines, rituals, beliefs, and values that function consistently and systematically to the advantage of others. MOB is about the institutionalized or entrenched actions or merits that particular groups or people have over others in transforming public policy and accessing public amenities. Such individuals or groups often comprise of influential or wealthy people who have connections, politically and socially (Dye, 2017, 39). MOB also means being connected to the right people in the correct place to make sure that a particular issue or concern gets priority and attention of public officers. MOB according to Capella (2016, 680) have the ability to contact-it, which means that one takes advantage of the contacts and connections he or she has with government officers and departments to facilitate audience for their ideas. It is apparent from the explanation that those who enjoy the protection or support of non-decision-making and MOB have a higher chance of their agendas receiving more attention and response in real time. On the other hand, agendas that do not enjoy the support of such groups may not easily excel with selling their agendas, which could be disregarded or even rubbished away if they do not contain weighty issues that really matter to both the government and the public.

An agenda could receive the audience it deserves from government officers when the presenters adhere to all the theoretical structures for agenda setting process. Cobb, Jennie-Keith and Marc (1976 127) identify four critical phases that one must follow in the transmission of an issue from an informal to formal or government agenda. Adhering to what Cobb, Jennie-Keith and Marc (1976 127) also term as an agenda setting continuum ensures that one adheres to the most appropriate framework in getting their agenda heard by the targeted authorities. An effective way to go about it is to consider the first phase called initiation where the public agenda or concern is first identified and expressed. The matter, as already explained should be weighty enough to grab the government’s attention. The problem can be about the need to address human trafficking, child abuse, or corruption. The presenter of the idea should then go through the second phase known as specification where different teams presenting their complaints are welcome to give their views on how to address the problem. The presenting team at this phase may decide to call for the termination of ministers who do not perform their duties as required of them or for their resignation. The group or individual presenting an agenda may also call for increased accountability, effective law enforcement, transparency, and accountability. It is then advisable to transit to the third phase, which Cobb, Jennie-Keith and Marc (1976 127) term as expansion. The phase requires the presenters of the problem to call for external support to make the matter appear weighty and one that deserves quick and proper audience and intervention. A group, for example, may call out to the political groups, trade unions, workers unions, the media, civil society groups, and international groups. For example, inviting Transparency International to intervene the matter could present a better chance to get the agenda through considering the reputation the agency has at the global front. The fourth and final phase is entry where after weeks or months of protests and pressure, the matter gets priority as an agenda that requires consideration. However, it is essential to remember that while some issues may shift from the informal to formal agenda, may be withheld on the informal agenda and may never get the audience or receive action from state authorities. Thus, progressing from the informal to formal agenda may not be obvious. The explanation also shows that it is difficult to get audience when an individual or group does not follow the four key steps for presenting an agenda.

Besides, it is important to follow the various agenda setting models that offers guidelines on how to present agendas more effectively, and in a way that may receive audience. The various models that Cobb, Jennie-Keith and Marc (1976 135) discuss in their book are related to various political regimes or structures. The first one is the outside initiation model that relates to democratic and pluralist societies. The model works in such a way that a civil society or part of the government garners support from other factions to urge the government to address a particular matter, which is of public interest. However, the model does not provide guarantee that the issue will receive the audience it requires. Another suitable model is the mobilization structure where the government is the source of an issue or problem and seek support from the public and other influential groups (Cobb, Jennie-Keith and Marc, 1976, 135). The third possible model is the inside initiation model where individuals or groups close to the government initiate a problem but do not require government support. The model is common in more authoritarian states such as Libya and Russia. Following either of the models may increase the chances of receiving audience because these framework tend to follow a definite outline.

Finally, whether an agenda receives audience or not will depend on whether a party or individual considers policy streams and policy windows. Policy stream means the work of policy analysts and experts who assess the nature of the problem and give possible suggestions for addressing them. The analysis offers a better chance to understand whether the call deserves audience, or whether it does not deserve the attention it seeks. On the other hand, the presenters of an agenda may choose to take advantage of policy window, which refers to an opportunity that may enhance how the government attends to an agenda. However, failing to consider these two factors may deny one the chance to get their agenda through.


The paper shows that several factors must exist for an agenda to get an opportunity to progress through the target audience. An essential requirement is that an agenda should fall either within the systemic or institutional categories to receive attention. An agenda that falls within the two categories are more likely to address the requirements of citizens and their concerns. The study shows that an agenda may receive audience from public officers when it meets other relevant qualities. Such qualities are represented using terms such as decision agenda and agenda universe. Whether an agenda gets the audience it deserves will determine whether it receives the support of global factors or parties that propel its progress. The paper identifies agenda setters as playing essential roles in promoting the agenda and ensuring the target audience gets the message. Global treaties and directives also give some level of pressure to the government, which creates the urge to adhere to the demands of certain public agendas. Some of the essential international regulations that may compel the government to give audience to a public policy, include the Kyoto Protocol, SDGs, MDGs, the UN Convention on Child Rights, and piracy laws. A person’s or group’s agenda may also get necessary audience when it enjoys the influence of non-decision-making and MOB, which refers to external influences and individuals who have the power to impact how the government or public officers attend to a particular agenda. It is also essential when advocating for a public agenda to consider the appropriate framework for setting an agenda and the different agenda setting models. More fundamentally, taking into account the concepts of policy windows and policy streams may determine whether an agenda gets the audience it deserves or not. 


Birkland, Thomas. “Focusing Events, Mobilization, and Agenda Setting.” Journal of Public Policy, vol. 18, 1998, pp. 53-74.

Capella, Ana. “Agenda-Setting Policy: Strategies and Agenda Denial Mechanisms.” Organizations & Society, vol. 23, no. 79, 2016, pp. 675-691.

Cobb, Roger, Jennie-KeithRoss and Marc Ross. “Agenda Building as a Comparative Political Process.” American Political Science Review,vol. 70, no. 1, 1976, pp. 126-138

Dye, Thomas. Understanding Public Policy. Pearson, 2017.

Howlett, Michael, Ramesh Mart, and Perl Anthony. Studying Public Policy: Policy Cycles and Policy Subsystems. Oxford University Press, 2009.  

Learning Gender Differences through Non-Verbal Communication essay help
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Learning Gender Differences through Non-Verbal Communication

Non-verbal communication is a way of passing signals or messages via a non-verbal avenue. Often, people transmit non-verbal communication through facial expressions, body language, posture, eye contact, and posture. However, it is possible to communicate non-verbally through writing. Writers and authors communicate non-verbally through books, articles, newspapers, web-based materials, and other written substance. The study focuses on Megan Fulcher and Amy Roberson Hayes’ paper and examine how it adds onto non-verbal communication with regard to factors contributing to gender differences. Fulcher and Hayes examines the effects of the color of bricks on male and female children who play with building tots such as LEGO. The authors perform a qualitative research involving male and female children and discover that toy type and color can influence how children play and interact with toys. The study shows that it is possible to transmit information without necessarily using speech sounds. The paper illustrates how it is possible to learn the variation between male and female children, which reflects to how genders vary by exploring the body orientation, facial expressions, and gestures of children when interacting with LEGO bricks. It also examines how artifacts and appearance determine children’s reaction to certain aspects, which also give some information about young ones without expressing the message or feeling through speech sound.

The Authors’ Contribution to the Field of Non-Verbal Communication

The primary contribution of the author to the field of non-verbal communication is that it shows the possibility of transmitting information or message without necessarily utilizing speech sound. The authors choose to use print media to explain their point, which is that males and females vary in terms of their behaviors and preferences. The chief intention in such a scenario is to get the message across, which happens appropriately in this instance. The authors choose a diction that many people can understand to effectively express their ideas. Fortunately, readers do not experience any hurdle when reading the paper, which serves as an excellence example of how non-verbal communication happens.

Furthermore, the paper helps to understand that body orientation, facial expressions, and gestures play vital functions in relaying messages from a particular transmitter. The authors learn from the children’s interaction with the different-colored bricks that males tend to prefer certain constructions and colors over others. The authors, for example, are examine the facial expression of both male and female children when constructing particular shapes or when using certain colors and determine whether the children, based on their gender, are comfortable or uncomfortable forming particular models and using certain colors (Fulcher and Hayes 278). The study also shows much about eye gaze and haptics or touch, which is part of non-verbal communication. The study reveals that whereas male children focused their gaze and mostly touched blue bricks despite the fact that the bricks were counterbalanced across all participants (Fulcher and Hayes 278). Girls, on the other hand, mostly gazed and touched pink brinks, which communicate a lot about the nature, behavior, and way of thinking of males and females.

The paper reveals that the type of artifact and appearance give much information about the way males and females view things even without using speech sound to illustrate the difference. Fulcher and Hayes (275) inform that when a child in forming shapes with LEGO bricks, despite the fact that they are utilizing particular instructions or their personal imagination, there are two categories to their play. First, they construct an object or shape (by adhering to instructions or forming an original item, and second, they interact through playing with the formed object. The authors refer to the sociocultural theory, which suggests that children’s games and the plays that toys evoke are symbolic artifacts that carry both cultural meaning and physical function (Fulcher and Hayes 275). Thus, the paper illustrates how children’s interaction with the artifacts they create give more information about them and their perception towards such items. Besides, Fulcher and Hayes (275) write that when choosing toys with which to indulge in their environments, children identify information about whether a particular toy suits them or does not, which mostly depend on the appearance. Children, Fulcher and Hayes (275) explain, are not likely to engage or approach toys that they think or believe are for the other gender. Thus, it is possible to learn about males and females and how they vary based on they select things depending on the nature of the artifact and their appearance.

Basic Concepts, Articulation, Argumentation, and Conclusion

The paper’s chief argument is that children would select LEGO bricks when playing the game depending on their color, and would build things that reflect their gender. Fulcher and Hayes (277) assert that playing with building toys such as LEGO develops spatial learning in young children. The paper explores the impact of the color of bricks (either blue or pink) and the masculinity/femininity of the object created on girls’ and boys’ play with LEGO. The researchers choose a sample of 116 children aged 5-10 years old. All the children get the chance to build with LEGO bricks, both free play tasks and under instruction (Fulcher and Hayes 277). For the guided (instructed) task, the nature of object (dinosaur to indicate masculine and cat to signal feminine) and color of bricks (blue and pink) were spread evenly among participants. The plays were coded for correctness of adhering to time and instructions to perform the task. In the free play game, the color of bricks was spread evenly among participants and all structured marked for masculinity/femininity and the number of bricks utilized (Fulcher and Hayes 277). Overall, children spend longer to form a feminine object using blue LEGO bricks than when using pink. In the free play game, boys created more masculine objects than their female counterparts, despite of brick color. Findings showed that toy type and color can influence how children play and interact with toys.

The articulation approach helps to understand how male and female children vary in their perceptions and preferences. Fulcher and Hayes choose to use toys as the base of their argument considering that variations in toy preferences is one of the early indicators of the differences between males and females. Cherney et al. (96) inform that how children select their toys is one of the early contributors of gender stereotypes that many societies may not overcome in the near future. Cherney et al. (96) argue that boys would select toys that emphasize power, building, or aggression. Girls, on the other hand, tend to settle on toys that emphasized domesticity, appearance, and love. Klemenovic (187) shows that gender became a vital determinant of how toy companies develop their toys starting from the 1980s because prior to that during most developed toys were gender neutral. Selecting toys and how they influence gender perception appears to be an effective articulation approach because Klemenovic (188) also thinks that toys play several other functions in understanding how males and female differ starting from a young age. Klemenovic (188) contends that some toys imply that muscullinity or being a male is good while femininity or being a female is not as good as the former. The variation appears in the nature of jobs that people appear performing in toys and the kind of toy cars associated with either male or female children. Klemenovic (189) also informs about how toys can be classified based on the skills they impart on male and female children. For example, Klemenovic (189) describes how masculine toys would foster spatial and visual competence while feminine toys build social and communication skills. Thus, the articulation approach Fulcher and Hayes use to express their argument increases their chances of getting audience and passing their message across.

Fulcher and Hayes conclude that forming more girl-targeted and color LEGO games for girls may be a vital milestone to enhancing girls’ indulgence and competence with LEGO, while at the same time restricting the types of play and structures in which they indulge. Thus, Fulcher and Hayes (283) think that forming a different category of LEGO sets for girls, even though it may be targeted to be a different-but-same indication, may be failing short of attaining the objective of advancing girls’ confidence and skills in an area that is key for a broad category of careers. Fulcher and Hayes (283) call on future researchers to explore, as an option to forming more pink and boys-themed toys, other ways to indulge and inspire girls in spatial plays.

Critique of the Article

Even though Fulcher and Hayes develop a paper that is informative about the matters under investigation, it is possible to identify certain issues that require considerable attention. One of the primary limitations in the article is that it does not give tangible description on how to engage both male and female children without making them feel different. Instead, Fulcher and Hayes (283) suggest the creation of LEGO bricks that differentiate boys and girls to encourage the latter to participate in such games. Unfortunately, the recommendation contradicts the views by Weisgram (75) who thinks that creating unisex toys and other artifacts is instrumental in achieving gender balance. Besides, the article does not use a lot of theories to explain the factors that cause differences among male and female children. Davis and Hines (380) for example, pay considerable attention to how various theories that fall into three main categories; cognitive, socialization, and biological, impact on gender preferences at childhood. Nevertheless, the article still passes valuable information that can be applied elsewhere regardless of the identified issues.

How to Apply Key Concepts to a Communication Situation

The articulation approach can be applied to other similar studies that seek to understand the factors that contribute towards gender stereotypes during childhood. Other scholars and researchers can examine a group of children or even adults to understand how they respond to various factors or stimuli depending on their appearance, feeling of touch, and how they express their feelings through certain gestures or facial expression. Embracing the approach would help to gain more helpful information about factors contributing to gender variations and possibly the factors that give one gender priority over the other.


The paper shows how gender differences commences at an early age when children select their toys. An examination with Fulcher and Hayes with LEGO sets shows that children would select bricks and construct buildings depending on their gender. The paper contributes towards non-verbal communication in the way it shows the possibility of gaining a lot of valuable information about the preferences of male and female children without necessarily using speech sound. Observation is all one needs to get certain information. Despite the limitations in the paper, it serves significant roles in showing how gender variations commence at an early age and how it is possible to learn about how children differ by examining how they interact with toys rather than engaging them in conversations.

Part II – Presentation

Situating the Article

The article by Fulcher and Hayes uses non-verbal communication to illustrate gender difference at childhood.

The authors’ intention is to address the societal problem of gender variation.

Reading the article helps to understand some of the origins for gender imbalance.

The article’s findings influence other researchers to conduct studies in the same line to gain more understanding of the subject under study.

Identifying and Defining the Basic Concepts

The paper by Fulcher and Hayes identifies gender differences as an evident aspect of the society.The authors explore the variations using toys.The study shows that when playing games children create or relate with what they think match their gender or how they perceive the society relates with masculine and feminine aspects.The authors acquire concrete data by performing a qualitative research where they engage as many children as possible (116) to allow them gather necessary data to complete the study.The researchers adhere to a suitable research framework to arrive at findings that would give valuable hints about the nature, feelings, and perceptions of male and female children without using speech sound, or in other words using non-verbal communication.

Main Findings and Conclusion

The authors discover from conducting a qualitative study that toys have significant impact on children who tend to be choosy in the way they select their toys.Boys identify with toys that match masculinity and girls associate with toys that reflect their feminine nature.The study finds that with regard to LEGO sets, boys select and associate more with blue bricks while females prefer pink bricks.The paper reveals that children hardly choose or relate with toys that do not reflect their gender.The findings show that gender stereotypes commence at childhood.The author conclude by reiterating the importance of finding ways for indulging girls is such spatial games.

Limitations and Criticism

The following are the main limitations and criticism of Fulcher and Hayes’ paper;Does not give convincing suggestions on how to achieve gender balance starting from an early age.The authors only suggest creating a distinct set of brick colors for girls to encourage them to participate in spatial games.The recommendation only appears to reinforce gender indifference.Other scholars think that developing unisex toys present a better chance to reduce gender differences at a young age.Nevertheless, the paper could guide other scholars on how to gather relevant information about factors influencing gender stereotypes using non-verbal communication.

Works Cited

Cherney, Isabelle, Kelly-Vance Lisa, Glover Katrina, Ruane Amy and Ryalls Brigette. “The effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.” Educational Psychology, vol. 23, no. 1, 2003, pp. 95-106.

Davis, Jac and Hines Melissa. “How Large are Gender Differences in Toy Preferences? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Toy Preference Research.” Archives of Sexual Behavior, vol. 49, 2020, pp. 373-394.

Fulcher, Megan and Hayes Amy. “Building a Pink Dinosaur: the Effects of Gendered Construction Toys on Girls’ and Boys’ Play.” Sex Roles, vol. 79, 2018, pp. 273-284.

Klemenovic, Jasmina. “How do Today’s Children Play and with which Toys.” Croatian Journal of Education, vol. 16, no. 1, 2013, pp. 181-200.

Weisgram, Erica. “Reducing Gender Stereotypes in Toys and Play for Smarter, Stronger, and Kinder Kids.” American Journal of Play, vol. 12, no. 1, 2019, pp. 75-88.

Public Health Program Proposal essay help free
Final Project: Public Health Program Proposal

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Final Project: Public Health Program Proposal

STDs is a serious concern in the U.S. and other parts of the world that requires effective intervention to help infected people and to contain the fears that come with being infected with an STI. The study pays attention to the problem of STD in Indiana where despite the enacted measures, rate of infection, particularly for certain STDs continue to escalate. The paper outlines statement of the problem by assessing the rate of infection in Indiana and explaining why there is need to take effective mitigating measures. The research reiterates the importance of addressing the social determinants that put people at risk of contracting STIs. It advocates for informing the public about effective ways of preventing possible infection through effective communication techniques. The research encourages campaigners to determine whether the processes is headed towards the right direction, and to deal with attribution. The argument in the paper is that it is possible to reduce the rate of STI infection in Indiana by informing people how to become infected, testing target populations, and enacting proper treatment techniques.

Statement of the Problem

Indiana is one of the U.S. states where cases of STDs are on the rise, which requires relevant stakeholders to embrace measures that would avert further infection and help infected individuals. Data from the Indiana Department of Health (2021) reveals that rate of STDs expanded for the fifth year straight, reaching the highest rate in 2018. Approximately 34,920 people are infected with chlamydia, a figure that has expanded by more than 20% in the last seven years. More than 12,000 people have contracted gonorrhea, which has increased by more than 65% since 2014. Cases of P&S syphilis have also expanded exponentially within the same period with at least 365 people living with the condition as of 2021. At least 2 newborns are born with syphilis, although this is a 76% decrease since 2014. The residents of Indiana must protect themselves from HIV/AIDS because more than 632 people lived with the condition as of 2015 (CDC, 2021). It is imperative to pay particular attention to those at high risk, including teenagers and young adults aged 15-24, bisexual and gay men, and pregnant women (Indiana Department of Health, 2021. The high risk of contracting an STI requires active participation from all stakeholders to prevent an escalation of the problem.

Social determinants

An effective way to mitigate the problem is to consider the social determinants of health and social justice-related inequalities that influence the spread of this health problem in the community. Ott and Santelli (2019) identify lack of adequate education among some people as a crucial social determinant of health in Indiana that determines whether an individual contracts STDs. Ott and Santelli (2019) inform that the majority of those who contract STIs have not progressed to higher levels of education, which deprive them valuable information about how to prevent one’s self from exposure and ultimate infection. Furthermore, lack of adequate information denies some people valuable skills they can use to manage an infection after becoming sick. Other than lack of adequate knowledge and information, socioeconomic status is another social determinant that increase the risk of some people to contract STIs. Some people, for example, may indulge into unprotected sex with the aim of generating income due to lack of a proper job, thus increasing their likelihood of being infected. Unfortunately, some people who engage in irresponsible sexual behaviors do not take adequate mitigation measures to protect themselves. In addition, racial inequalities is a substantial social justice-connected disparity that influences how infected individuals access treatment. The discrimination put expose some people to the risk of experiencing the undesirable effects of contracting STD, especially if one does not access treatment in good time (Ott & Santelli, 2019). Effective management and prevention of STIs requires interveners to mitigate the social determinants and disparities to increase the likelihood for everyone to access the necessary services.  


The objective of the study is to propose a preventive program rather than a treatment approach that would prevent people from contracting STIs. The plan is to educate people and create awareness about the need to protect one’s self against STIs. The awareness will inform people about the need to talk openly to each other about STDs and how to prevent possible infections. The awareness will remind people to perform necessary tests with their partners before indulging in sexual activities (Shannon & Klausner, 2019). Furthermore, the education process will notify people about the need to seek medication upon realizing that one is infected with an STI. Besides, the public awareness initiative will encourage people to protect themselves and their partners by using condoms, especially when engaging in sexual activities with a partner whose status is unknown. Effective awareness processes will be helpful in averting more cases of infection, but this requires effective planning by all stakeholders to achieve the targeted goals.

Assessment of Needs

Critical evaluation of the situation in Indiana shows that those affected by the health problem would gain from enhanced treatment initiatives. Health practitioners and officers can perform local awareness programs to recognize those who need treatment for STDs and give guidelines on how to reach the required health care. Interveners may have to make visits from one house to the other because this provides an opportunity to recognize those who need quick assistance and long-term attention to appropriately manage possible infections (Shannon & Klausner, 2019). Nevertheless, the initiative will only excel through effective collaboration with other stakeholders because this provides the opportunity to serve more people to make the intervention practice more effective.

Project Methods

The attempts to create awareness and recognizing and treating infected individuals requires those handling the situation to use appropriate project management initiatives that would facilitate the realization of the targeted aspirations. Focusing on a particular sample is helpful because this permits the group to handle particular groups or populations before proceeding to other equally affected individuals or groups (Benjamin et al., 2019). However, it is essential when using sampling to avoid a situation where some people get more attention during intervention than others because this could foster discrepancy. It is imperative that interveners analyze available data because this provides the chance to understand the kind of approach and information needed to mitigate the issue. It is essential to utilize effective measurement mechanisms to analyze the condition and assess data to realize more satisfactory results. Nonetheless, the attempts to employ any method would be prosperous if interveners identify and use suitable analytical measures and measurement techniques to stay away from possible errors that could affect proper progress.

Literature Review

Scholarly research reveals that STIs are a major concern that requires concrete planning to achieve the targeted goals. Ibragimov et al. (2019) perform a study using quantitative data while applying the multivariable hierarchical linear model, which makes possible to understand why some people are at higher risk of developing STIs than others. The authors argue that even though many states in the U.S. now employ effective measures to prevent farther escalation of STI cases in the country, but still some states have to deal with the escalating numbers. Ibragimov et al. (2019) think that relying on traditional techniques to address the matter may not yield the anticipated results, exposing many people to STDs. Keller (2020) who uses a mixed-method by gathering quantitative and qualitative data acknowledges the need to overcome hurdles that deter some people from accessing relevant information and care related to STDs. Scholars share the view that STDs require proper attention to deal with the health problem.

Examination of various secondary sources reveal that other states in the U.S. are equally trying to develop mechanisms to prevent more cases of STDs. Whereas a state like Vermont records insignificant cases of STDs, states such as Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Alabama among others record higher levels of infections that most states in the U.S. (Ibragimov et al., 2019). Vermont manages to maintain low levels of STIs because it has invested in informing members of the public about the need to be cautious when indulging in sexual behaviors, especially with unknown partners. The government of Vermont through the Vermont Department of Health has initiated various programs with the hope of preventing possible infection, particularly among high risk populations (Ibragimov et al., 2019). The Department runs a website where people learn about so many things and get the chance to interact with experts on health issues affecting their well-being. Even though the rate of STIs is considerably higher in South Carolina, the state government is committed to maintain rate of infection within certain limits and stakeholders in this region hope that it would be able to manage the trend in the near future (Ibragimov et al., 2019). South Carolina now emphasizes on telling people, young and old, the importance of staying away from acts that put one at higher risk of contracting STDs.


The findings show that Indiana should act very fast to address the issue of STDs that is increasingly becoming a significant health threat. Those in responsible for addressing STDs in Indiana should be more focused in the way they handle the issue because it appears that cases of infections continue to climb regardless of the measures that are already in place to contain farther spread. The study shows the need to come up with more proper mechanisms for addressing and educating members of the public about the importance of taking extra measures when planning to have sex such as taking necessary tests and using protection. The awareness process would be prosperous through the expansion of treatment centers and programs where affected people get the opportunity to have direct conversation with educators and specialists. Awareness should also happen at the community level and in learning facilities to reach out to as many people as possible. The education and awareness process should address as many issues as possible regarding STDs and cover each topic without hiding anything from the audience to equip them will every information they need to know. Nevertheless, Shannon and Klausner (2019) assert that the campaigns may have a significant impact on target populations when teams work collaboratively without secluding key partners. Working closely with other partners makes it possible to gain a wide range of valuable information and concepts on how to address the matter, and offers the chance to reach out to a broader audience base. Engaging different parties makes it easier to reach out to specific populations and handle their cases on individual basis.

The public campaign would be more effective when responsible teams use effective technical and professional communication techniques. Embracing proper communication methods makes it possible to deliver the message to the targeted audience without any hindrance. Reddy and Gupta (2020) recommend the need to pay attention to the problem at hand rather dwelling on matters touching on individuals. Communicators need to be direct and straight to the point when addressing the public instead of beating about the bush and emphasizing on talks that may not solve the problem at hand. Educators need to give other the opportunity to give their views and contribute towards the awareness process because it is possible to acquire useful tips on how to handle the initiative by allowing others to express their opinions. An essential factor to consider when communicating with stakeholders is to eradicate or overcome barriers that could affect verbal communication. Communicators should identify disturbances that could hinder effective listening, including avoiding making other speakers feel inferior or interjecting when they talk. Instead, it is wiser to focus on what other speakers say while allowing them enough time to express what they want to say. Another way that Reddy and Gupta (2020) as being effective for avoiding obstructions to listening is to avoid distractions, encompassing those emerging from emotional or external forces. Emotional noise according to Reddy and Gupta (2020) include the responses communicators give in reaction to the listeners’ gestures and expressions. External noise, on the other hand, comprise of audible noise that could obstruct how a person expresses his or her ideas. Thus, by employing different communication techniques, educators can enhance appropriateness of the messages issued to enhance public awareness.

Relying on communication theories increase the chances for achieving the targeted goals in the campaign. A relevant communication theory in this instance is the social learning theory, which holds that it is possible to gain new ways of looking at things by following what others do (Reddy & Gupta, 2020). Following the theory encourages the target audience to aspire leading a life that is free from risks of contracting STIs. Adhering to the theory inspires the target audience to want to lead a life where they understand how to protect themselves from STDs and are knowledgeable about preventive measures as it happens with the educators.

It is essential to adopt effective evaluation techniques to assess whether the public awareness program is heading towards the right path, or whether more needs to happen to alleviate the situation. The team needs apply strategic evaluation, which involves gathering certain information about how appropriate the strategic plan works (Fynn, Hardeman, Milton, & Jones, 2020). Strategic evaluation aims at determining the efficacy and appropriateness of the implemented techniques in achieving the intervening team’s aspirations and embracing remedies whenever required (Fynn et al., 2020). Therefore, an appropriate evaluation technique is to assess the rate of turnout for those who come for tests, medication, and education. The practice would be a successful when a lot of people respond positively to the exercise and play active roles in making the exercise successful. The practice would also be a success when many people turn up for medication because this means that the level of threat will have dropped. Low response, on the other hand, would mean that the intervention process is not heading towards the right direction and interveners need to adjust the approach to achieve more impressive results. Unfortunately, low response may affect the attempts to mitigate the problem and the rate of infection may not go down as anticipated. Another effective evaluation technique is to examine the amount of money the intervening team uses to facilitate the exercise. Fynn et al. (2020) inform that the cost for running the exercise should not be so high such that the team cannot afford to finance the budget until the end of the whole experience. However, failing to identify and use suitable evaluation techniques could derail the attempts to assess then effectiveness of the adopted mitigation measures.

The teams leading the campaign process should pay considerable attention to attribution so that the practice’s objectives do not get mixed up with other issues happening at the same time the program takes place. A suitable way to ensure that other factors don not disrupt the achievement of the targeted goals is to have a plan that allows for the completion of a particular task before transiting to another activity. An effective plan is suitable in this instance because this presents the chance to avoid disruptions by other happening taking place at the same time during the campaign process. Other than developing a reliable work plan, it is imperative to develop a checklist that helps to determine whether the team handles activities to their completion before transiting to the next practice. Furthermore, a checklist offers the chance to complete activities in a particular order rather instead of skipping vital practices that could disrupt the whole exercise.


The study identifies STDs as a serious health concern in Indiana that requires considerable attention from all stakeholders to effectively suppress farther infection. The study identifies STDs such as HIV/AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia as some of the STIs that require considerable attention from interveners. An effective approach to deal with the issue is to initiate a public awareness process that inform members of the public about the need to be cautious when indulging in sexual affairs, especially with unknown partners. Communicators should address the matter as directly as possible to transmit the message clearly and without taking much time. Educators should ensure that they eradicate or avoid factors that could affect their expression of ideas and distract how others listen. It is imperative to follow effective communication models and theories that give guidance on how to communicate effectively while ensuring that every person receives the targeted information. The paper urges those in charge of creating public awareness to use effective evaluation techniques to assess whether the initiative helps to reduce rate of infection. The report also emphasizes on the significance of addressing attribution to avoid other disturbances that could affect effective progress of the intervention process.  


Benjamin, G., Kizer, K., Pane, G., Gimson, W., & Sofaer, S. (2019). The STD epidemic in America: The frontline struggle. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration.

CDC. (2021). Indiana – State health profile. Retrieved from

Fynn, J., Hardeman, W., Milton, K., & Jones, A. (2020). A scoping review of evaluation frameworks and their applicability to real-world physical activity and dietary change programme evaluation. BMC Public Health, 20(1000),

Ibragimov, U., et al. (2019). States with higher minimum wages have lower STI rates among women: Results of an ecological study of 66 US metropolitan areas, 2003-2015. PLoS ONE, 14(10): e0223579.

Indiana Department of Health. (2021). STD data. Retrieved from  

Keller, L. (2020). Reducing STI cases: Young people deserve better sexual health information and services. Guttmacher Policy Review, 2,

Ott, M., & Santelli, J. (2019). Sexually transmitted infections, public health, and ethics. Retrieved from

Reddy, V., & Gupta, A. (2020). Importance of effective communication during COVID-19 infodemic. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 9(8), 3793-3796. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_719_20

Shannon, C., & Klausner, J. (2019). The growing epidemic of sexually transmitted infections in adolescents: A neglected population. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 30(1), 137-143.

Organizational Culture and Leadership Performance college admissions essay help
Organizational Culture and Leadership Performance

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation


Businesses need proper guidance from leaders, but also require the establishment of effective organizational culture that provides people with the opportunity to excel and achieve individual and organizational goals. The study examines the connection between leadership performance and organizational culture on employees’ job satisfaction, trust, and confidence. The study reveals that employers who develop appropriate organizational culture and embrace measures that allow them to perform well as leaders have a better chance for enhancing job satisfaction, trust, and confidence. A quantitative study helps to gather relevant data and to understand how organizational culture and leadership performance influence performance.

Organizational Culture and Leadership Performance


Overview of the Study

As the importance of leadership has become extensively comprehended, so requires an encouraging systematic environment to enhance employers and organisational effectiveness and job contentment, as well as the overall outcome and value for their firm (Deetz & Simpson, 2000; Grunig & Dozier, 2002). In addition, research studies have broadened conversation about effectiveness with regard to leadership and organizational performance into leadership. Recent researches have also acknowledged the critical aspects of leadership and affirmed that good leaders are important to enhance the strategic impact and value for the company (Aldoory & Toth, 2004; Choi & Choi, 2009; Meng & Berge, 2013).

While supportive organizational culture and leadership are perceived to enhance effective values at then organizational level, restricted research has been performed on the specific repercussions, such as trust and engagement) and traditional worker outcomes, such as employee satisfaction, that such situations could produce at the individual practitioner level, let alone the wider effects. It is important to choose how organizational culture and leadership prosperity will influence level of commitment, job satisfaction, and confidence among practitioners to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Participation and confidence happen to be the chief drivers of advanced work contentment among professionals, among other outcomes, when business environments are satisfactory and positive. Following the intricate aspect of the case, it is essential to embrace a balanced perception of all probable elements or partnerships.

Research Objectives

The primary focus of the study is to examine positive organizational culture and excellent leadership proficiency ad two related components for enhancing work confidence, dedication, and employee satisfaction. The two chief objectives in the research are:To evaluate the outcomes of two interrelated organizational conditions; supportive work environment or community and effective leader performance, on how professionals engage in their duties and on the level of confidence on the organization.To assess the implications of participation and trust on members of staff’s level of job satisfaction (Macey & Schneider, 2008; Macey et al., 2008).

Research Questions

What are the possible effects of active participation and trust on practitioners’ job satisfaction as a classic worker outcome?What are the outcomes of two related organizational factors (excellent leader performance and supportive community) on workers’ work participation and level of confidence in their firms?

Literature Review

Before paying much attention to how organizational culture and excellent leadership practices influence organizational performance, it is essential to acquire valuable insight into some of the terms that have significant impact on how work culture and leadership determine job satisfaction and overall performance. The first concept is organizational culture, which The School of Life and Botton (2020) describe as guidelines describing the most effective approach to behave within the firm. Organizational culture comprises of shared perceptions and values formulated by organizational leaders and then communicated and reinforced through particular approaches, finally influencing worker views, behaviors, and knowledge. The School of Life and Botton (2020) describe organizational culture as a group of internal desires and behaviours in a firm. It encompasses ways of thinking, experiences, future aspirations, and beliefs. Organizations mostly focus forming cultures that fosters effective communication, effective leadership, and partnership. Another important term in this case is leadership performance, which refers to the strategies organizational leaders use to achieve impressive performance. Leaders need to form opportunities for feedback, allow time for self-reflection, and assess the clarity of the organizational vision to achieve impressive outcomes in leadership performance. Another term is job satisfaction, which refers to a feeling of enjoyment or fulfilment that employees achieve from their work (The School of Life and Botton, 2020). Organizational leaders need to understand the meaning of employee engagement, which refers to the length to which workers feel passionate about their duties, are dedicated to the firm, and put adequate effort into their duties. Employee engagement goes beyond taking part in events, games, or organizational activities, and requires considerable attention because it promotes performance. Another important term that is relevant to the study is turnover intention, which refers to a worker’s intention to willingly change organizations or jobs (The School of Life and Botton, 2020). Poor leadership practices is usually a major cause of turnover intention in many organizations. Finally, it is essential to pay considerable attention to organizational trust, which refers to a workers feeling of confidence that the company will perform activities that are advantageous, or not harmful to them.

Theory of Organizational Culture

            Various studies have been conducted to understand the association between strategic strategy, interpersonal behavior, business relations and organization culture (Ouchi, 1981; Tsui et al., 2006; van Riel & Fombrun, 2009). According to Pettigrew (1979), studies on organizational effectiveness must recognize the critical position that internal organizational meaning may play. Internal organization background refers to the general and generally stable categories of organizational characteristics such as composition, community, authority and the political environment in which organizational operations are carried out. Moreover, differences in corporate success may be explained by the fit between organizational culture and policy (Pettigrew, 1979).

Another study indicates that organizational culture is characterized as a collection of shared beliefs, principles, and assumptions among an organization’s members (Schein, 1990). These shared beliefs affect corporate participants’ actions when they depend on the values to direct their judgments and activities, impacting the organization’s success (Barney, 1986; Tsui et al., 2006; van Riel & Fomburn, 2009). Organizational participants create a collection of mutually accepted ideas and beliefs about what is true, what is relevant, and how to react by seeing organizations as social- and rational-structural structures (Trice & Beyer, 1984). In addition, Schein (2010) builds on the concept of corporate culture by defining its features as a typical learning style of actions that can be passed down from one generation to the next.

            Existing research suggests that corporate culture and productivity have a favorable association. Adaptability, continuity, commitment, and task are four dimensions of organizational culture that Denison and Mishra (1995) defined and validated as positively contributing to organizational effectiveness. The value of a responsive culture and system in promoting a sharing and collaborating culture across organizational borders was verified by Gold, Malhotra, and Segars (2001). A transparent and welcoming corporate community, according to Grunig et al. (2002), also increases communication practice efficiency.

            In general, corporate culture theory asserts that it affects organizational activity by influencing its participants’ behavior (Schein, 1990, 2010). As a result, organizational culture emerges as a critical organizational prerequisite for increasing job participation and success among organizational participants. Organizational participants’ confidence in the association would be strengthened. The relationship between corporate culture and the actions of organizational participants is the theoretical foundation for our claim. With this basis, we also expect commitment and confidence to create a collective mediating impact when linking to professionals’ work satisfaction. Therefore, our first collection theories is:

H1a: Supportive corporate atmosphere can improve employee participation.

H1b: Supportive corporate culture can improve organizational confidence among professionals.

H1c: Work dedication and confidence of professionals in the company have a mutual mediating impact between positive corporate culture and overall employee satisfaction.

Public-Related Leadership

            Leadership is another significant organizational condition when leaders significantly influence their organizations’ direction and decision-making (Porter & Nohria, 2010). Previous literature in management, organizational studies, and sociology have discussed leadership in details (Northouse, 2012). For example, some studies showed that preferred leadership styles among employer and employees differ by gender (Aldoory & Toth, 2004). Others find that many professionals favor transformative leadership (Werder & Holtzhausen, 2009). Zerfass and Huck (2007) noted that leadership contact could include affective, emotional, conative, and social aspects. Waters (2013) proposed using stewardship techniques to forecast leadership-building orientation.

            Other studies have established the core characteristics and features of excellent leadership and built a seven-dimensional, interconnected model of excellent leadership (Meng et al., 2012; Meng & Berger, 2013). Another study by Berger and Meng (2014) extended leadership analysis into a global perspective to explore how outstanding leadership abilities should handle new challenges and how the discipline should help train communications executives for a complex, unpredictable future.

            Work further underlines the connection between leadership and corporate culture. Porter and Nohria (2010) said executive leadership is the crucial shaper and creator of the corporate culture. Kouzes and Posner (2012) also stated leadership’s role in transferring the organization’s ethos and ideals from generation to generation and from leaders to followers. Research has reported related findings; a transparent and participatory contact mechanism promotes excellent leadership and practice (Berger & Heyman, 2007; Meg, 2014). Based on this and a similar study, we expect that when a contact leader displays outstanding realistic leadership, it makes organizational practitioners improve job participation and organizational confidence. In other terms, exceptional leader success directly affects the commitment and confidence of practitioners. Similarly, we expect that commitment and confidence mediate the impact of excellent leader success on work satisfaction. Our second collection of theories are:

H2a: Outstanding leadership success can improve employee motivation.

H2b: Outstanding leadership success can increase competent corporate confidence.

H2c: Role of commitment and confidence in the company’s employees would have a mutual mediating impact between excellent leader success and overall employee satisfaction.

Commitment, Loyalty, and Work Satisfaction

 Employee engagement has gained much coverage in industrial analysis (e.g., Gallup’s Q12 Employee Engagement Survey). Academic studies associated employee engagement with corporate participation and citizenship activity (Saks, 2006). Empirical involvement studies established psychological issues such as meaningfulness, protection, and availability correlated with job engagement (Kahn, 1990). Job commitment is often linked to critical work-life areas such as workload, power, acknowledgment and compensation, contact and social encouragement, perceived justice, and appreciated work (Maslach et al., 2001). Schaufeli and Bakker (2004) indicated that workers are likely more loyal to their employer and less inclined to abandon their company. Results indicated that involvement is critical in forecasting employee success, corporate efficiency, and credibility (Gruman & Saks, 2011; Saks, 2006).

Engagement has recently become a standard paradigm in leadership sciences. Research has discussed many aspects of involvement and its connection to leadership, including the essential function of corporate social responsibility programs (Wang & Chaudhri, 2009). In addition, other studies have evaluated the impact of leadership characteristics, such as, CEO legitimacy and role on organizational integrity and employee engagement (Men, 2012). Thus, we will assess whether professionals’ contributions can be positively related to their confidence and overall work satisfaction.

H3: Job participation can favorably impact the trust of professionals in the enterprise.

H4: Work commitment can positively affect career satisfaction for practitioners.

            Confidence is one of the primary markers of recognizing the public’s views of an organization’s partnership (Hon & Grunig, 1999; Morgan & Hunt, 1994). Confidence is considered not only as essential enabler of good relationships (e.g., Yuan, Feng, Lai & Collins, 2018) but also a weapon to create durable strategic advantages for alliances both internally and externally (e.g. Weber, Bauke, & Raibulet, 2016; Weber, Winder, Kroeger, & Wallace, 2017). The central function in building confidence has been verified in different contact contexts (e.g., Ki & Hon, 2007; Kin & Shin, 2006). Thus, we expect that confidence can directly influence the work satisfaction of professionals.

H5: Corporate confidence can have a positive effect on job satisfaction.

            Lastly, recent research on employee engagement presents inclusive findings of building a welcoming community and climate inside the company to affect engagement (Saka, 2006) favorably. Moreover, the author’s argument stated the reasons to support supportive relationships between corporate culture, leadership success, and professionals’ perceived job involvement. Furthermore, this research proposes that improved involvement may motivate greater confidence and work satisfaction for practitioners. Given the forecasting functions of perceived work involvement, engagement can further mediate the relationship between professionals’ confidence and overall job satisfaction. This position was established in previous studies on employee engagement and job outcomes (e.g., Saks, 2006; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). We suggest the final hypothesis as follows.

H6: Work participation could further mediate the beneficial partnership between organizational confidence and overall job satisfaction.

Method – Methodology

Research Design

            The current study employed a quantitative methodology to evaluate how organizational culture and leadership performance is influenced by employees’ trust, job satisfaction, engagement, and turnover intention. A qualtircs design will be used to address the research problem. The advantage of using quantitative approach is to facilitate objective analysis through hypothesis testing. In addition, quantitative methods are less susceptible to researcher bias. The independent variables in the study will be employee turnover intentions, job satisfaction, trust and engagement, while the dependent variable are organizational culture and leadership performance.


            The participants will include (125) employees. An online sample of the respondents would be used to assess these study theories. Participants were selected using snowballing techniques where information about the study was sent to any employee who wanted to be part of the study. Targeted individuals were asked to transmit the message to others. All participants will give their consent before taking part in the survey.  


            All measurements that will be included in this study will be taken from existing earlier studies and specifically modified and customized for employees to accurately reflect their understanding and expectations of organizational culture, excellent leader success in leadership, work commitment, organizational confidence, and overall job satisfaction. The scale is based on a 5-point Likert scale: 1=Strongly disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Neutral, 4=Agree, and 5=Strongly agree.

Organizational Culture

            Hofstede’s organizational culture questionnaire will be used to measure the employees’ perceptions of their company’s organizational culture. Hofstede’s (1990) organizational culture questionnaire addresses six dimensions of organizational culture, including process oriented vs. result oriented, employee oriented vs. job oriented, parochial vs. professional, open system vs. closed system, loose control vs. tight control, and normative vs. pragmatic. The scale is based on a 5-point Likert scale: 1=Strongly disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Neutral, 4=Agree, and 5=Strongly agree. The scale has acceptable internal consistency as shown by the Cronbach’s alpha value (0.798) (Zeqiri & Alija, 2016).

Outstanding leadership Efficiency

            The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) will be used to measure the employees’ perceptions about their company’s leadership performance. The questionnaire is based on a 5-point Likert scale: Not at All=1, Once in a While=2, Sometimes=3, Fairly Often=4, and Frequently if not always=5. The scale has a Cronbach’s alpha of .872, indicating that it is reliable (Miao et al., 2012).

Employee Engagement

            Work engagement will be assessed using Mensah employee engagement questionnaire. The questionnaire is based on a 5-point Likert ranging from Strongly Disagree=1 to Strongly Agree=5. The scale has adequate internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of over 0.70. 

Employee Turnover intention

            The participants’ turnover intentions will be measured using Roodt’s Turnover Intention Scale (TIS-6) (Roodt, 2004). The questionnaire has different 5-point Likert scales ranging from Never-Always, No Extent – To a Very Large Extent, and Highly Unlike – Highly Likely.

Job Satisfaction

            Job satisfaction will be evaluated using Mensah job satisfaction survey. The survey is based on a 5-point Likert ranging from Strongly Disagree=1 to Strongly Agree=5. The survey has a Cronbach’s alpha value of over 0.70, indicating adequate internal consistency.


            Employees; trust will be measured using Shockley-Zalabak, Morreale, and Hackman’s (2010) organizational trust index. The scale is based on a 5-point Likert Scale ranging from Strongly Disagree=1 to Strongly Agree=5. The scale has been validated to have adequate internal consistency.


            Conceptually based model to represent the relationships between critical institutional environments (organizational culture and leadership performance) and their implications (engagement, confidence, and work satisfaction) to achieve these goals. Then, to assess the suggested partnerships, specified online survey would be performed on employees in the identified companies taking part in the study (n=100). A holistic model conducted to show specific complex interactions based on empirical experiments after introducing the statistical study’s methods and findings. The results of the study are discussed as well as their functional consequences.

The snowballing techniques allows for the attraction of employees who have time to be part of the study and who are willing to give information that will help to respond to the research questions. The likelihood of making participants feel like they are being forced to be part of the study is likely to go down because only those who have interest in the study get to respond to available questions. Main demographic variables that will be collected include age, gender, years of experience, and education level.

            Data analysis would play a significant part of bringing the actual structure and meaning of the information or data that will be collected during the survey. Since the collected data would be both quantitative elements, I will use SPSS and Excel Software to bring the correlations that exists between the collected variables. There are other various tests that would be conducted on the availed data to ensure that the objective of the research is met by answering all the research questions (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). For example, the study will perform a t-test, which is a kind of inferential statistical approach utilized to determine whether there is substantial variation between the means of two factors, often the independent and dependent factors. The study will find the standard deviation (SD), which is a statistic that examines the dispersion of the dataset in relation to its mean. The evaluator will examine whether the data points are away from the mean, because this would mean there is significant deviation within the set. Thus, coming up with a data set that is more spread, the higher the SD.


The findings give valuable insight that help to understand the possible effects of leadership excellence and organizational culture on work satisfaction and confidence in the organization. The study reveals that employees are more committed in their tasks when leaders embrace certain leadership approaches. Participants strongly agree that they feel committed and confident when the organization constantly encourages workers to give their best in their duties, and when the organizational culture is in such a way that it sets new challenges for workers. Most workers, regardless of their age and educational level, strongly disagree with the claim that the organization only cares for employees who perform well. Most participants regardless of their gender, age, education level, and years of experience either strongly disagree or disagree with the notion that the organization does not care much about the personal problem of the workers. A similar number of employees do not agree to the claim that the organization does not pay adequate attention to the working environment. The study reveals that more females than males with lower education qualifications think that the organizational management focuses more on operational matters and less on managerial factors. On the other hand, the number of employees who strongly agree and agree the organization ensures that confidence and cooperation between departments is at an acceptable level is higher across the variables. However, not every worker shares the same perception because even some highly learned and highly skilled employees think that the group does not put much effort into building cooperation and confidence between departments. A majority of employees strongly agree and agree that their management teams try to support members of staff through promotion, and also agree that the firm ensures they receive feedback for supervisors on their performance. Overall, the participating employees strongly agree and agree that their organizations embrace organizational culture that restores confidence and encourages one to work harder.

The study reveals valuable information about how leadership influences employees’ perception, and how this impacts confidence and satisfaction. A majority of the participants regardless of their age, gender, level of skill, and education reported that once in a while their supervisors instill pride in them for being associated with the leader. However, those who agreed that their supervisors frequently if not always was considerably low. Most participants, both female and male and highly and lowly experienced employees recorded that their supervisor sometimes goes beyond self-interest for the group’s goodness. Furthermore, most participants across the variables feel that their supervisors fairly often act in a way that build their respect, and think their leaders fairly often show a sense of confidence and while executing their functions. Furthermore, the data shows that a significant portion of the participants across all variables strongly agree and agree that they care about the prosperity of the organization, although some female and male employees of different ages remain neutral about whether communication is good across all levels at the organization. Participants give a positive impression about their organizations in the way learned and qualified employees agree that they are proud of their companies and have developed a sense of belonging to the organization. However, the ratio between those who agree that the organization rewards employee loyalty and those who remain neutral is almost the same. A significant number of workers also disagree to this claim. A majority of female participants and highly qualified workers in terms of education and experience hope to build their career with the company.

An overview of the collected data reveals that a majority of the employees do not see themselves leaving the organization in the near future. Most participants have never considered leaving the job, although some have had the perception once or twice. Most of the participants agree that they have become frustrated at least 1-2 times or 3-4 times when they lack the opportunity at work to achieve their personal work-related aspirations. A significant portion of participants always dream of getting another work that would better suit their needs, but this could only happen when the current employer becomes less appealing in terms of providing needed provisions and creating a work environment that attracts workers. The high level of commitment workers, especially female employees show towards their work is evident in the way they report that they 3-4 times look forward to another day at work similar to more qualified workers in terms of education and years of experience. Further evidence from the data reveals that most employees agree their immediate supervisor talks positively about members of staff in lower positions such as subordinates, and agree with the organization’s overall efficiency of operations although some disagree with the claim. More males and high qualified workers feel satisfied with the organization’s position while others do not agree. Most workers agree that they are affiliated to the organizations where they serve because of the many privileges and opportunities that are part of the organizational culture in their companies. A majority of the participants regardless of their gender, age, education, and years of experience think that their companies allow them adequate time to interact with their peers, and give them the opportunity to share with the supervisor when things do not work as planned. However, a significant number of female patients disagree that they have the opportunity to disagree with their supervisor, and that they have significant say in decisions impacting their work.


The study gives valuable information about the factors that improve employee performance, especially when they feel that the working environment is conducive. The main question employers need to ask is whether they have all the qualities that workers need, and which are likely to enhance how everyone performs. Being able to demonstrate effective leadership requires employees to examine the various leadership styles and settle on one that receives praise from different scholars and workers (Aldoory & Toth, 2004). However, leaders should first understand what leadership entails before proceeding with the practice. They should know that leadership is the act of motivating a group of individuals in order to realize a common objective (Aldoory & Toth, 2004). Leaders need to know that leadership emanates from social influence, rather than strict seniority or structure. Thus, leaders can allow others to play leadership roles knowing that any person with the necessary skills, regardless of their place in the organization, can be a leader (Aldoory & Toth, 2004). Leaders need to know that successful stewards usually possess a combination of different leadership techniques, such as empathy, vision, motivation, and skillfulness (Aldoory & Toth, 2004). Nevertheless, the most prosperous leaders are flexible enough to adjust to the requirements of different contexts, applying their expansive set of leadership competence in order to attain their aspirations.

Leaders who want to achieve trust from their subjects and who want to build employees’ level of confidence and job satisfaction need to focus on particular leadership styles and disregard those that may not appear to be as effective and appreciated by scholars. It is imperative to embrace the democratic leadership style, which is also known as participative leadership. The approach entails the manager soliciting input from all team members, taking into account every person’s view before arriving on the final choice. Alternatively, a leader can embrace transformational leadership approach, which is characterized by the leader’s desire to transform the organization they work for. Competent and effective leaders who use transformational style aim at empowering their team members to advance company operations. Leaders who use servant leadership put the contentment of their workers above everything else, and believe that the personal and professional satisfaction of their team members will result in advanced quality of work. However, a leader is less likely to instill confidence in learners and may not create a satisfying environment when they practice autocratic leadership where the leader makes choices without consulting others. Even though the approach could be handy in circumstances where quick choices must be made, the technique could be scary to workers who may feel omitted in making organizational decisions. A leader who uses the laissez-faire leadership style may effectively engage workers and give them the confidence that they can work and handle operations with minimum supervision, but the problem with the technique is that it hampers the cohesiveness of the team, and create room for leaders to avoid their oversight roles. Therefore, leaders who want to build confidence, trust, and job satisfaction must identify and use the necessary leadership styles.

Achieving job satisfaction requires employers to consider several factors to achieve the best results. Workers are more likely to be happier to serve at the organization when they feel that its culture is one that fosters good relations with everyone regardless of their age, gender, education, and experience. The culture should be one where the management focuses on all matters on equal terms rather than paying much attention to certain areas while disregarding others (Barney, 1986). The organizational culture should be one that values promotions and employee growth because this is likely to facilitate the establishment of programs that empower members of staff and make them more competent and efficient (Adkins, 2015). A company that acknowledges the importance of promoting workers value the concept of self-actualization, which implies that workers reach a time when they want to explore their capabilities and make use of what they have gained from their working experience to elevate their lives and well-being. Members of staff prefer to be part of an organization where the group accepts new workers who do not encounter any hurdle fitting into the team. Employees have a higher chance of becoming more productive when they find it easier to fit into the organizational culture than when they find it hard to adjust to the working environment (Pettigrew, 1979). An organization that aspires to encourage good performance from employees need to foster an environment where employees are proud to be part of the company, and where their sense of belonging to the firm is strong. However, when employees disagree with the organizational attempts to reward loyalty, they may become less responsive and may not deliver as much as they would do when the group appreciates commitment and good work.   

Organizational leaders may develop a work culture that promotes job satisfaction and confidence when they embrace measures that enhance trust at the workplace. Leaders should lead by example by always telling the truth and encouraging members of staff to also stick to the truth. Leaders need to create an environment where workers find it easier to admit when they do not know something rather than hiding, a decision that could worsen the case when one does not know their weakness and even if they know does not want to share it get help. Building trust offers the opportunity to share many things regardless of hierarchal patterns, and makes workers feel that they have a leader who caters for their needs and well-being.

Limitations of the study

Even though the study reveals valuable information about the possible connection between work culture and leadership and confidence and job satisfaction, it has several limitations that impact on its outcomes. One of the challenges is that I had to change the nature of my study due to unavoidable circumstances. I was supposed to perform a case study for a governmental organization in Dubai, but failed to proceed as planned due to absence of permission from relevant authorities and as a result of long communication processes. I had to make some adjustments to target any employed person, which resulted in prolonged submission for ethics application and the verification also came much later, which shortened the time for getting more employee responses. Another evident limitation in the research is that not every participant completed the study because whereas I got 182 responses, only 125 participated in the practice until the end. The primary reason for the unexpected response is that the survey was considerably long, and one had to take at least 8 minutes to complete the whole exercise. Another limitation I encountered in completing the survey is that the SPSS posed some significant challenges. I took time to understand how the analytical approach works by inquiring from different sources and interacting with various individuals who proficient in their use of SPSS. However, I put every effort in mastering how the analytical tool works to achieve the best result from the exercise. Despite the challenges, I still managed to achieve convincing results. Nevertheless, the limitations did not create much constraint into the process and despite the problems I still managed to complete the research. I hope to be keener when performing my next research to overcome similar challenges.


The study explains that significant relationship exist between effective organizational culture and proper leadership and job satisfaction and confidence. Furthermore, the study reveals that substantial relationship exist between trust and engagement on professionals job satisfaction. The study draws information from various scholarly works that give valuable insight into the possible effects of trust, organizational culture, and leadership on individual and overall performance. Various sources help to understand what organizational culture entails and how it influences employees’ perception towards their duties. The literature reveals that supportive organizational environment can enhance employee engagement, and that a supportive culture can elevate organizational confidence among members of staff. The study also shows that impressive leadership styles and success can enhance employee motivation and strengthen competent organizational confidence. Analyzing different literary works show that the level of commitment, loyalty, and job satisfaction improve when the organization embraces a culture that everyone appreciates and when leaders use approaches that results in mutual relationship. The study uses qualtircs to gather the relevant data from employees across Dubai working in different sectors. The employees give their perception on whether they agree or disagree with impact of the organizational culture and leadership on their performance, which gives a clear image of what factors employees appreciate and what elements increase the likelihood for achieving individual and organizational aspirations. Even though the study has certain limitations, it passes valuable lessons to both organizational leaders and employees who acquire valuable tips that may help to enhance to practices. However, failing to embrace some of the recommended measures could result in substantial failures and oppositions because some workers may feel that the organization does not offer the right conditions for effective work.


Adkins, A. (2015). U.S. employee engagement reaches three-year high. Gallup Business Journal. March 9, Retrieved from

Aldoory, L., & Toth, E. (2004). Leadership and gender in public relations: Perceived effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership styles. Journal of Public Relations Research, 16(2), 157–183.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423.

Bagozzi, R., & Fornell, C. (1982). Theoretical concepts, measurements, and meaning. In C. Fornell (Vol. Ed.), The second generation of multivariate analysis: Measurement and evaluation: Vol. 2, (pp. 24–38). New York: Prager.

Barney, J. B. (1986). Organizational culture: Can it be a source of sustained competitive advantage? The Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 656–665.

Berger, B. K. (2014). READ MY LIPS: Leaders, supervisors, and culture are the foundation stones of strategic employee communication. September, Retrieved from

Berger, B. K., & Meng, J. (Eds.). (2014). Public relations leaders as sense makers: A global study of leadership in public relations and communication management. New York:Routledge.

Berger, B. K., Reber, B. H., & Heyman, W. C. (2007). You can’t homogenize success in communication management: PR leaders take diverse paths to the top. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 1, 53–71.

Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, G. D., & Klesh, J. R. (1983). Assessing the attitudes and perceptions of organizational members. In S. E. Seashore, E. E. Lawler III,

P. H. Mirvis, & C. Cammann (Eds.). Assessing organizational change: A guide to methods, measures, and practices (pp. 71–138). New York: Wiley.

Choi, J., & Choi, Y. (2009). Behavioral dimensions of public relations leadership in organizations. Journal of Communication Management, 13(4), 292–309.

Deetz, S. A., Tracy, S. J., & Simpson, J. L. (2000). Leading organizations through transition: Communication and cultural change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Denison, D. R., & Mishra, A. K. (1995). Toward a theory of organizational culture and effectiveness. Organization Science, 6(2), 204–223.

Diamantopoulos, A., & Siguaw, J. A. (2000). Introducing LISREL. London: Sage.

Fornell, C., & Larker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.

Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(1), 185–214.

Gruman, J. A., & Saks, A. M. (2011). Performance management and employee engagement. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 123–136.

Grunig, L. A., Grunig, J. E., & Dozier, D. M. (2002). Excellent public relations and effective organizations: A study of communication management in three countries. Mahwah, NJ: LEA.

Hon, L. C., & Grunig, J. E. (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationships in public relations. Gainesville, FL: Institute for Public Relations.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692–724.

Ki, E.-J., & Hon, L. C. (2007). Testing the linkage among the organization-public relationship and attitude and behavioral intention. Journal of Public Relations Research, 19(1), 1–23.

Ki, E.-J., & Shin, J.-H. (2006). Status of organization-public relationship research from an analysis of published articles, 1985–2004. Public Relations Review, 32, 194–195.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2012). The leadership challenge: How to make extraordinary things happen in organizations (5th edition.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 3–30.

Macey, W. H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K. M., & Young, S. A. (2009). Employee engagement: Tools for analysis, practice, and competitive advantage. Malden, WA: Wiley Blackwell.

Maslach, C., Schaufelli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 397–422.

Men, R. L. (2012). CEO credibility, perceived organizational reputation, and employee engagement. Public Relations Review, 38, 171–173.

Meng, J. (2014). Unpacking the relationship between organizational culture and excellent leadership in public relations. Journal of Communication Management, 18(4), 363–385.

Meng, J., Berger, B. K., Gower, K. K., & Heyman, W. C. (2012). A test of excellent leadership in public relations: Key qualities, valuable sources, and distinctive Leadership perceptions. Journal of Public Relations Research, 24(1), 18–36.

Miao, Q., Newman, A., & Lamb, P. (2012). Transformational leadership and the work outcomes of Chinese migrant workers: The mediating effects of identification with leader. Leadership, 8, 377-395. doi:10.1177/1742715012444055

Mishra, K., Boynton, L., & Mishra, A. (2014). Driving employee engagement: The expanded role of internal communications. International Journal of Business Communication, 51(2), 183–202.

Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20–38.

Northouse, P. G. (2012). Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Ouchi, W. G. (1981). Theory z: How American business can meet the Japanese challenge. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Pettigrew, A. M. (1979). On studying organizational cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(4), 570–581.

Porter, M. E., & Nohria, N. (2010). What is leadership? The CEO’s role in large, complex organizations. In N. Nohria, & R. Khurana (Eds.). Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. 433–473). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Robison, J. (2012). Boosting engagement at Stryker: How a New Jersey plant changed its culture in less than a year. Gallup Business Journal. January 5, Retrieved from

Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement. Report 408Institute for Employment Studies April.

Roodt, G. (2004). Turnover intentions. Unpublished document. Johannesburg: University of Johannesburg.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293–315.

Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture, Vol. 45, American Psychological Association109 No. 2.

Shockley-Zalabak, P., Morreale, S. P., & Hackman, M. Z. (2010). Building the high trust organization: Strategies for supporting five key dimensions of trust. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

The School of Life & Botton, A. (2020).  How to think more effectively: A guide to greater productivity, insight and creativity. New York, NY: The School of Life.

Trice, H. M., & Beyer, J. M. (1984). Studying organizational cultures through rites and ceremonials. The Academy of Management Review, 9(4), 653–669.

Tsui, A. S., Zhang, Z., Wang, H., Xin, K. R., & Wu, J. B. (2006). Unpacking the relationship between CEO leadership behavior and organizational culture. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(2), 113–137.

Van Riel, C. B. M., & Fombrun, C. J. (2009). Essentials of corporate communications: Implementing practices for effective reputation management. New York: Routledge.

Verčič, A. T., & Vokić, N. P. (2017). Engaging employees through internal communication. Public Relations Review, 43(5), 885–893.

Wang, J., & Chaudhri, V. (2009). Corporate social responsibility engagement and communication by Chinese companies. Public Relations Review, 35, 247–250.

Waters, R. D. (2013). The role of stewardship in leadership: Applying the contingency theory of leadership to relationship cultivation practices of public relations practitioners. Journal of Communication Management, 17(4), 324–340.

Weber, C., Bauke, B., & Raibulet, V. (2016). An empirical test of the relational view in the context of corporate venture capital. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 10(3), 274–299.

Weber, C., Weidner, K., Kroeger, A., & Wallace, J. (2017). Social value creation in inter-organizational collaborations in the not-for-profit sector-give and take from a Dyadic perspective. Journal of Management Studies, 54(6), 929–956.

Werder, K. P., & Holtzhausen, D. (2009). An analysis of the influence of public relations department leadership style on public relations strategy use and effectiveness. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21(4), 404–427.

Yuan, Y., Feng, B., Lai, F., & Collins, B. J. (2018). The role of trust, commitment, and learning orientation on logistic service effectiveness. Journal of Business Research, 93, 37–50.

Zeqiri, J., & Alija, S. (2016). The Organizational Culture Dimensions – The Case of an Independent Private University in Macedonia. Studia UBB Oeconomica, 61(3), 20-31 doi:10.1515/subboec-2016-0002

Zerfass, A., & Huck, S. (2007). Innovation, communication, and leadership: New developments in strategic communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 1(2), 107–122.


What is your gender?



What is your age? 

Below 35



Over 65

What is your education level?

Less than high school

High school degree or equivalent

High Diploma

Bachelor’s degree

Master’s degree or above

Other (please specify)

How many years of experience in your current organization? 

Less than a year

1-2 years

3-5 years

Over 5 years

 Strongly DisagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly AgreeThe Organization always encourages employees to give the maximum in their duties.     The Organization always set new challenges for its employees.     The organization cares only for the work that the staff performs.     The organization cares very little about the personal problems of the employees.     The Organization pays little attention to the working environment.     The management pays more attention to operational issues and less on managerial issues.     The Organization insures that Cooperation and confidence between departments is at an appropriate level.     The Organization takes into consideration that Changes are implemented in coordination with the staff requirements.     Our management attempts to support staff in further promotion.     The organization makes sure We always get feedback from supervisors on our performance.     The organization’s supervisors are mostly interested in the undertaken initiatives than the result.     The organization is open for the new employees and for the jobseekers.     The organization provides all the possibilities for the new employees to quickly find support so that they can adapt at work and within the team.     Organization’s new employees need only a few days to adjust to the working environment.     Organization’s employees come late at during the appointed time of the meetings.     Organization’s employees very rarely bring to mind the work costs (materials, equipment, etc.)     The organization does not give very significant contributions to the society.     Organization’s employees are more pragmatic than dogmatic.      Not at AllOnce in a WhileSometimesFairly OftenFrequently if not alwaysMy supervisor instills pride in me for being associated with him/her.     My supervisor goes beyond self-interest for the good of the group.     My supervisor acts in ways that build my respect.     My supervisor displays a sense of power and confidence.      Strongly DisagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly AgreeI care about the success of this organization.     Communication across all levels in this organization is good.     I am proud to tell others that I am a member of this organization.     I am prepared to put in a great deal of effort beyond what is normally expected in order to help this organization to succeed.     I feel a strong sense of belonging to this organization.     This organization recognizes and rewards employee loyalty.     I plan to build my career with this organization.     My supervisor creates a motivating and supportive work climate.     My supervisor recognizes and values my ideas, suggestions, and opinions.      Strongly DisagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly AgreeThe working conditions in my organization are good and safe.     The organizational structure facilitates team work, which enhances effective accomplishment of tasks.     Management has created an open and comfortable work environment.     My superiors make themselves easily accessible to discuss issues pertaining to my job and personal needs.     I receive recognition or praise for doing a good work.     My performance is appraised and my progress discussed with me from time to time.     Management treats me like a professional and allows me to use my discretion in my job.     I am fully able to utilize my skills, abilities and experience in my present position.     I have a clear understanding of performance standards and expectations to successfully perform my job.     My work gives me a feeling of personal accomplishment.     I can work autonomously on my work assignments.      Never1-23-45AlwaysHow often have you considered leaving your job?     How often are you frustrated when not given the opportunity at work to achieve your personal work-related goals?     How often do you dream about getting another job that will better suit your personal needs?     How often do you look forward to another day at work?      Highly Unlikely1-23-45Highly LikelyHow likely you to accept another job at the same compensation are level should it be offered to you?      To no extent1-23-45To a very large extentTo what extent is your current job satisfying your personal needs?      Strongly DisagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly AgreeMy immediate supervisor speaks positively about subordinates in front of others.     I am highly satisfied with the organization’s overall efficiency of operation.     I am highly satisfied with the overall quality of the products and/or services of the organization.     I am highly satisfied with the capacity of the organization to achieve its objectives.     I am highly satisfied with the capability of the organization’s employees.     I feel connected to my peers.     I feel connected to my organization.     I feel connected to my immediate supervisor.     My values are similar to the values of my peers.     My values are similar to the values of my immediate supervisor.     I can tell my immediate supervisor when things are going wrong.     I am free to disagree with my immediate supervisor.     I have a say in decisions that affect my job.     My immediate supervisor keeps confidences.     I receive adequate information regarding how well I am doing in my job.     I receive adequate information regarding how I am being evaluated.     I receive adequate information regarding how my job-related problems are handled.     

Epidemiological Analysis: Chronic Health Problem college essay help
Epidemiological Analysis: Chronic Health Problem





Due Date

Epidemiological Analysis: Chronic Health Problem

People suffer from different health conditions, which makes it necessary to identify the possible ways of dealing with threatening concerns that require fast and effective remedies. The paper emphasizes the importance of embracing effective measures to deal with the problem of pharyngeal cancer. The study gives valuable information about the possible causes of pharyngeal cancer and describes the various possible diagnosis techniques that health workers may use to identify whether a patient suffers from pharyngeal cancer. It also compares the rate of pharyngeal cancer in Kentucky and nationally whereby it emerges that the issue raises much concern at both levels. The report advocates for using primary, secondary, and tertiary techniques in mitigating the problem because the approaches offer a better chance for dealing with the issue. Besides, interveners should use effective surveillance and reporting approaches to give clear information about the spread of the disease. Effective and timely intervention will help to combat pharyngeal cancer that is a problem regardless of one’s age and background.

Identification of the Health Problem

Pharyngeal cancer, which is also called throat cancer, refers to cancer that develops in tissues of the pharynx, which is the hollow tube in the neck that begins behind the nose and ends at the topmost part of the esophagus and windpipe. Pharyngeal cancer could attack the upper area of then throat just behind the nose, which is known as nasopharynx, or could attack the middle section of the pharynx thereby known as oropharynx (Kumara, Kakanahali & Nijagal, 2017). Pharyngeal cancer could also attack the hypopharynx (the bottom area of the pharynx), and sometimes cancer of the larynx is regarded as pharyngeal cancer (Kumara, Kakanahali & Nijagal, 2017). The condition (pharyngeal cancer) often starts as thin cells resembling fish scales. Even though scholars and scientists still continue to identify the primary causes of pharyngeal cancer they are yet to find the real cause. However, evidence by Kumara, Kakanahali, and Nijagal (2017) reveal that people beyond the ages of 50 to 60 are at higher risk of developing the condition, although a person can get the disease at any age. Kumara, Kakanahali, and Nijagal (2017) further reveals that more men than women suffer from pharyngeal cancer. Kumara, Kakanahali, and Nijagal (2017) also show that one is at a higher risk of developing pharyngeal cancer when they are exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus. Huang, Valentino, Wyatt, and Gal (2008) also find that alcohol consumption and tobacco use are likely to cause pharyngeal cancer. A person who develops the condition or suspects that they are suffering from the disease need to seek medical attention as soon as possible to avoid developing worse conditions associated with the health problem.

Background and Significance of the Health Problem

A person who develops pharyngeal cancer is likely to experience certain signs and symptoms that could help both patients and practitioners to know the problem. Being able to identify the signs and symptoms early enough is imperative because this offers the chance to begin medication before the condition gets out of hand. American Cancer Society (2021) inform that in many instances, then initial symptom of pharyngeal cancer is a lump on the upper part of the neck, which is usually not harmful. Even though some people may not develop any evident symptom of pharyngeal cancer it is usually common to experience signs such as pain in the facial area, prolonged headaches, blocked nose, swelling at some parts of the neck, and nose bleeding (American Cancer Society, 2021). A person suffering from pharyngeal cancer may also develop problems with their hearing, or may develop a condition known as tinnitus, which is characterized by constant ringing in the ears. However, not every person develops evident signs and symptoms of pharyngeal cancer, which creates the need for regular checkups.

Kentucky, a state in the Southeastern part of the U.S. has some cases of pharyngeal cancer, which calls on both affected individuals, health workers, and other interveners to embrace measures that would mitigate the problem. Overall, 30,270 people live with different cancers in Kentucky, and approximately 10,090 people die from the different forms of cancer each year. However, Huang, Valentino, Wyatt, and Gal (2008) reveal that the overall incidence of pharyngeal cancer in Kentucky was 12 cases for every 100,000 people. Huang, Valentino, Wyatt, and Gal (2008) settle on the rate after examining data from the Kentucky Cancer Registry starting from 1995 to 2004. Huang, Valentino, Wyatt, and Gal (2008) argue that the rate is considerably high than the level witnessed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data of 11 cases for every 100,000 people. Most of the reported cases in Kentucky are attributed to the higher level of smoking among residents. Stakeholders need to act very fast to alleviate the situation by possibly looking into ways of mitigating the high prevalence of tobacco use in the state. Nationally, the American Cancer Society (2021) reveals that about 53,000 people in the U.S. develop pharyngeal cancer annually. More men than women in the U.S. live with pharyngeal cancer, although the level of occurrence is the same among Caucasians and African Americans. However, more Whites have a higher chance of surviving the cancer than African Americans with a rate of 68% and 50%, respectively. Comparing data at the national and state levels reveals that pharyngeal cancer is a major concern that requires effective mitigation.

Current Surveillance and Reporting Methods

Interveners at the state and national levels have embraced various surveillance and reporting techniques that they believe will help to identify as many affected people as possible and offer appropriate care. Health officials at the state and national levels have embraced various surveillance approaches to monitor the problem and effects of the disease over a period of time. Surveillance also helps to detect possible transformations in disease development, and also helps to determine the risk factors for the condition and populations at highest risks. Furthermore, effective surveillance at all levels guide public health initiatives for the community and individual patients. Officers in Kentucky and in other parts of the country use both passive and active surveillance approaches. The passive approach starts with laboratories or health officials conducting researches to gain some information about the condition. The teams also engage in active surveillance, which happens when local or state officials actively gather information by working together with organizations, nursing homes, learning institutions, health facilities, and laboratories.

However, health officers use other surveillance techniques to gather relevant information about pharyngeal cancer. Officers use syndromic surveillance to identify disease clusters early enough even before confirming and reporting a diagnosis with the primary objective of mobilizing fast response. Syndromic surveillance usually describe different forms of syndromes associated with pharyngeal cancer. It is also possible to use sentinel surveillance that is helpful when the objective is to gather information on disease trends instead of individual incidences. For instance, a network of healthcare workers or health facility is hired to constantly report specific health problems related to pharyngeal cancer or issues that disproportionately affect certain communities, individuals, or populations. Finally, it is possible to conduct a risk factor surveillance that may help to identify possible increase in risks of illness because of certain biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. All these surveillance techniques help to gather relevant data about the condition and to take suitable mitigation measures.

Successful surveillance leads to proper reporting of the findings. Reporting in this instance is a data-driven process of benchmarking the progress and performance of certain functions and processes, with then main objective of enhancing efficiency, minimizing errors, and enhancing healthcare metrics. The reporting approaches offers a suitable chance to know what measures to take in dealing with the problem, which increases the chances for reducing rate of infection.  

Descriptive Epidemiological Analysis of Health Problem

An epidemiological analysis provides the chance to understand the distribution in terms of determinants and patterns of a health condition within a targeted place. The present incidence rate of pharyngeal cancer in the U.S. is 2.75 cases annually per 100,000 people, which implies that the rate is lower at the national level than in Kentucky (Nocini, Molteni, Mattiuzzi & Lippi, 2020). The prevalence rate for condition is 14.30 cases/year per 100,000 inhabitants, while the mortality rate is 1.64 deaths/year per 100,000 people, which reflects to 3.28 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) annually (Nocini, Molteni, Mattiuzzi & Lippi, 2020). The study already identifies older people and smokers as being at high risk of developing the cancer, but younger people could also develop the disease. However, socioeconomic factors also help to determine whether one develops the cancer and gets effective remedies. Nocini, Molteni, Mattiuzzi, and Lippi (2020) identify factors such as food, transportation, income, and housing as some of the social determinants of health that could determine whether a person develops pharyngeal cancer or not, and whether they get medication in time or not. Evidence by Pandula (2012) reveals that the chances of survival when suffering from throat cancer affecting the oropharynx is lower, especially among males than for cancers affecting the tongue and other parts of the oral cavity. The chart below offers a comprehensive overview of rate of survival for throat cancer compared to those affecting other parts of then oral cavity;

Pandula (2012)

Screening, Diagnosis, and Guidelines

Effective screening and diagnosis helps to manage pharyngeal cancer effectively. Even though no definite screening technique for pharyngeal cancer would minimize the risks of succumbing to the condition, the approach offers the chance to look for the cancer before a person develops signs and symptoms (Nocini, Molteni, Mattiuzzi & Lippi, 2020). Doctors make physical observation as part of screening for the condition, although they may conduct some blood tests and tissue tastes to identify whether a person has pharyngeal cancer. Some of the tissue-testing techniques, include toluidine blue stain, fluorescence staining, and brush biopsy that employ different mechanisms (Nocini, Molteni, Mattiuzzi & Lippi, 2020). Alternatively a doctor may perform a diagnosis to determine whether a person has the cancer. A doctor, for example, may examine the oral cavity using a special mirror to examine the areas that are likely to be affected by the disease (Nocini, Molteni, Mattiuzzi & Lippi, 2020). Nevertheless, it is imperative to adhere to the stipulated guidelines to avoid errors and to increase the chances of achieving the best results.

Plan of Action

Pharyngeal cancer requires effective mitigation to address the problem that may become uncontrollable if nothing significant does not happen to alleviate the situation. Thus, practitioners who still undergo training need to have a proper plan on how they will deal with the concern once they graduate. A suitable technique to address the problem would be to embrace primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions. A primary intervention that would help to address the health problem would be to advocate for adoption of proper health behaviors that does not increase people’s risk of developing the cancer (Mark, 2019). A suitable approach in this case, for example, is to urge high risk individuals to avoid alcohol consumption and tobacco use that increase one’s likelihood for developing the condition. Another primary intervention that will help to contain the problem is to advocate for legislations that regulate the use of substances that facilitate one’s chances of developing pharyngeal cancer (Mark, 2019). For example, the government should put more restrictions on alcohol and tobacco use because this could deter many people from using these substances, thus saving them the risk of developing the cancer. A graduate should embrace secondary prevention, which aims at reducing then effects of harm or disease that has already happened. Some of the suitable techniques to excel in this area is to perform regular screenings and exams to identify the disease in its earliest phase. Another effective secondary intervention technique would be to facilitate the development of an environment where patients feel like part of the community and have higher chances of getting necessary help (Mark, 2019). Finally, a grandaunt may use tertiary intervention that seeks to lessen the effects of ongoing health problem. It is possible to achieve the most suitable results in this area by helping affected people manage long-term effects and problems with the objective of achieving significant progress and to enhance quality of life (Mark, 2019). Nevertheless, it is only possible to achieve satisfying results in these areas by creating and following a practical framework.   


The study pays attention to pharyngeal cancer, which is a threatening health condition in the U.S. The paper reveals that a person could develop pharyngeal cancer that may affect the upper section of the throat, the middle area of the pharynx, the voice box, and the bottom are of the pharynx. Older people are likely to develop the disease, but this does not mean that younger people cannot get pharyngeal cancer. Other factors that increase one’s chances of contracting the disease, include exposure to certain viruses and prolonged use of alcohol and tobacco. Comparing rate of infection in Kentucky and nationally reveals that the condition is a concern at both levels. The situation calls on interveners to act very quickly to alleviate the situation before things get out of hand and it becomes difficult to address the problem. The paper describes how health officers embrace various surveillance and reporting techniques methods, which helps to know the level of progress in dealing with the problem. The study describes how assessors use both active and passive surveillance techniques, and use other approaches such as sentinel, syndromic, and risk factor methods. The study advocates for effective diagnosis techniques that help to identify the problem and take proper remedies to restore good health. Finally, the report urges training practitioners to use primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention techniques to address the issue of pharyngeal cancer. All these approaches differ, which requires the intervener to acquire significant information about how the techniques work before embarking on implementing the various techniques.  


American Cancer Society. (2021). Kentucky. Retrieved 13 August, 2021, from!/state/Kentucky

Huang, B., Valentino, J., Wyatt, S., & Gal, T. (2008). Incidence of oral cavity and pharynx cancer in Kentucky. Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association, 106(8), 355-360.

Kumara, C., Kakanahali, N., & Nijagal, B. (2017). Study on Prevalence of throat cancer and its association with various risk factors. International Journal of Zoology Studies, 2(6), 106-109.

Mark, A. (2019). Oral and throat cancer. The Journal of the American Dental Association, 150(4),

Nocini, R., Molteni, G., Mattiuzzi, C., & Lippi, G. (2020). Updates on larynx cancer epidemiology. Chinese Journal of Cancer Research, 32(1), 18-25. doi: 10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2020.01.03

Pandula, D. (2012). Throat cancer: Causes, symptoms and treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Retrieved 13 August, 2021, from

Disease Research Paper essay help free
Disease Research Paper

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:





Covid-19 has infected about 209.6 million people and caused almost 4.4 million fatalities across the world, most of which are in the United States. The outbreak occurred in China at the end of 2019 and spread rapidly across the world. This transmissibility is attributed to its flu-like characteristics in which spreading is more rapid during winter. The secular trend indicates that three waves of Covid 19 have occurred, and a fourth one is imminent. However, vaccines that are being administered currently may help protect people, especially those aged 50 and above and those with underlying health conditions, from being severely ill and dying.  


Covid-19 is a highly-infectious viral disease that is ravaging the entire world, currently. The disease, which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly across the world and led to a global public health crisis due to its epidemic status. Although several vaccines have been developed and a global vaccination campaign is ongoing in many countries, including the United States, Covid-19 continues to cause massive fatalities and unveil debilitating long-term damages to the lungs and other vital organs in the body. In addition, although several people have recovered from the disease, it is yet to be ascertained the kind and nature of the long-term effects that Covid-19 will have on them. This disease has inspired this descriptive epidemiological analysis because of its epic proportions of infectiousness, rapidity of spread, and global coverage, that is only comparable to the H1N1 Swine Flu of 2009, Asian Flu of 1957, and the Spanish Flu of 1918, which are known to have infected and decimated a significant proportion of the global population (Morens et al., 2020). Besides, the source of the disease has been controversial and marred with conspiracy theories ranging from synthetic production to accidental lab leaks and wet market practices. Moreover, the outbreak of diseases from the sarbecovirus group to which SARS-CoV-2 belongs was predicted in 2007 following the discovery of a large concentration of the viruses in horseshoe bats. Hardly 18 years passed after this warning before a global coronavirus pandemic broke out. The analysis is structured along three parameters: person, place and time, also known as the epidemiologic variables (Fleming, 2015).


A secondary research was conducted in which data was collected from secondary sources. This approach was preferred because it adhered to the public health protocols of reducing unnecessary travel, maintaining social distance, and avoiding unnecessary crowding. The researcher opted to use secondary sources rather than human participants as the sources of data to avoid occasions that would facilitate the spread of the virus. Besides, secondary sources, like peer-reviewed journal articles, books, news items, organsational publications and expert opinions, provided diverse and comprehensive information about Covid-19 disease. Also, random sampling of the sources was based on the inclusion criteria; relevant to Covid-19, published within the last five years, published in English, and obtained from credible sources. Online search engines, like Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic, were used to query online databases, using search words like, origin of covid-19, infection rate and deaths from covid-19, at risk population for covid-19.  

Results and Discussion

The results obtained from the secondary sources are presented and discussed topically, according to the three epidemiologic variables; person, place and time.


Some people are more vulnerable than others to diseases and may have characteristics that make them to be more at risk (Fleming, 2015). Covid-19 is a respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, which can infect persons across all age groups. So far, of the total 209.6 million cases and 4.4 million fatalities across the world that are Covid-19 related, 37.9 million cases and 640,100 deaths are in the United States (Worldometers, 2021).

The elderly and those with underlying conditions are the population segments most at risk of contracting covid-19, experiencing its severe effects and dying from it. This population segment has low immunity due to advanced age and numerous health complications that require regular medication administration. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2021), people at the age of 50 years and above are most at risk of adverse outcomes from Covid-19, such as being severally sick, hospitalized in intensive care and under ventilators, and dying. Similarly, people with medical conditions, like cancer, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, diabetes, heart disease, liver disease, Down syndrome, dementia and HIV are likely to being severely sick because of Covi-19 (CDC, 2021). Likewise, people with a long history of using immune-weakening medications, like corticosteroids, those with genetically –inherited immunodeficiency, and those that are obese and overweight risk experiencing severe Covid-19 effects and outcomes (CDC, 2021).

However, it is not yet known whether a pregnant woman can pass the virus to her unborn baby as no active viruses have been found in the amniotic fluid or breast milk, to date (World Health Organization, 2020). Similarly, there are no indications that a mother with Covid-19 can infect her baby during childbirth or the newly-born baby during contact and breast feeding so long as the prescribed respiratory etiquette is practiced.


Diseases often break out at a particularly place and spread in specific geographical location within a country or across the world (Fleming, 2015). The first case of Covid-19 was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan City, in Hubei province in central China, hence the name coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).

However, there are reports that the coronavirus causing Covid-19 may have originated from animals slaughtered at the wet market at Huanan seafood market in Wuhan and underwent a zoonotic transfer to a human that later infected others (Van Dorp, et al., 2020). Specifically, bats and Malayan pangolins, which harbor coronaviruses very similar to SARS-CoV-2 have been suspected to be the source (Andersen, et al., 2020). Similarly, there are suspicions that the virus may have leaked from the Wuhan Institute of virology in Wuhan, (which is renowned for conducting research with coronaviruses and bats), and spread to the wet market, from where it infected humans (Chaturvedi, Ramalingam & Singh, 2020). There have been suggestions that the virus was synthetically developed and accidentally leaked from the virology laboratory. Nonetheless, the source of the novel virus has not been ascertained and remains unknown to date.

Although the entire world has been ravaged by the disease, some countries are experiencing high infection rates than others. For instance, African countries, Russia, south-ease Asia and some Baltic countries are experiencing high infection rates, as illustrated in figure 1.

Figure 1. Rates of Covid-19 infections per country across the world

Source: Source: Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (2021)

In the United States, the virus appears to have entered with people coming into the country through airports. This may explain why the highest number of cases and fatalities were registered in urban areas with busy airports, particularly in New York. However, the first fatality from Covid-19 was a man in his 50 residing in Washington State, which occurred on 29 February 2020. While the death toll from Covid-19 has surpassed the half-a-million milestone in the United States, some18 states have death tolls that exceed 200 people per every 100,000. New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts Mississippi, Rhode Island, and Arizona are the top six states in the country with fatalities exceeding 250 deaths per 100,000 people (Elflein, 2021).


The infections and fatalities caused by a disease change over time (Fleming, 2015). Covid-19 has flu-like characteristics and is therefore expected to behave like other flu viruses regarding their seasonal infectiousness. In this regard, the fact that the coronavirus disease emerged during the winter of 2019 may have propelled its rapid spread across China and into other countries in the northern hemisphere. In the same vein, the outbreak in china came when the Chinese were celebrating the Chinese Lunar New Year, which is the largest celebratory event in china characterized by my massive human movement and interaction. Notably, 5 million people left Wuhan during the early times of the pandemic before travel bens were instituted by the Chinese government on 23 Jan 2020 (Chen, et al., 2020). These people traveled mainly to the rural areas and to other countries outside China and are associated with the rapid spread of the Covid-19 disease in China. Besides, 430,000 people traveled from China into the United States using the 1,300 direct flights into 13 American cities before President Trump placed travel bans (Eder, et al., 2020). It is also thought that these entrants may have brought the covid-19 disease into the United States. In addition, the spread of the pandemic in the United States may have been propelled by the presidential campaigns at the end of 2020. Notably, President Trump held public rallies across several states, like Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania, which were thought to have been super spreader events due to the large number of huge crowds of people on close proximity and the non-observance of the public health protocols, such as mask wearing, social distancing, and an hand washing.

The infection rates and death toll from Covid19 has occurred in waves and spikes. For instance, figure 2 illustrates the three main peaks of high fatalities from Covid-19; between April and May of 2020, in July of 2020 and in January of 2021. In addition, a fourth wave is in the offing, considering that the daily death rate is in an upward trend currently and has surpassed 30,000 daily fatalities experienced in the previous peak. The latest secular trend is associated with the emergence of the more virulent mutants of SARS-CoV-2.

Figure 2. Secular trend of Covid-related fatalities globally

Source: Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (2021)

Currently, high infection rates and fatalities are being experienced in India, Mexico, Russia, Africa, some Baltic countries and parts of Brazil. This current trend is attributed to the emergence of the more virulent variants, such as the Delta variant from India, Gamma from Brazil, Alpha from the United Kingdom and Beta from South Africa (The Economist, 2021). Figure 3 compares the transmissibility of the coronavirus variants and shows that the delta variant from India can be 4 times as transmissible as the original SARS-CoV-2, which explains the high rate of Covid-related infections and fatalities experienced in India recently.  

Source: The Economist (2021)


The ongoing pandemic due to covid-19 disease has no end in sight because SARS-CoV-2 is still mutating to produce more virulent variants and the death toll is still climbing, with a fourth wave being envisioned. Although the virus was first reported in China, it found its way into the United States through the global airline network. With the United States having experienced the highest death toll so far, it is hoped that the discovery and mass administration of vaccines with bring an end to the public health crisis. However, possible similar outbreak from coronaviruses should be expected in future and measures of preparing better for the next outbreak are critical to prevent such massive fatalities in future.


Andersen, K. G., Rambaut, A., Lipkin, W. I., Holmes, E. C., & Garry, R. F. (2020). The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2. Nature Medicine, 26(4), 450-452.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2021). Covid-19 risks and vaccination information for older adults. Retrieved from

Chaturvedi, P., Ramalingam, N., & Singh, A. (2020). Is COVID-19 man-made?. Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment, 3(2), 284.

Chen, S., Yang, J., Yang, W., Wang, C., & Bärnighausen, T. (2020). COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year. The Lancet, 395(10226), 764-766.

Eder, S., Fountain, H., Keller, M. H., Xiao, M. & Stevenson, A. (2020). 430,000 people have traveled from China to U.S. since coronavirus surfaced. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Elflein, J. (2021). Covid-19 death rates in the United States as of August 13, 2021, by state. Statista. Retrieved from

Fleming, S. T. (Ed.). (2015). Managerial Epidemiology: Cases and Concepts. Health Administration Press.

Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) (2021). Estimation  of excess mortality due to Covid-19. Retrieved from

Morens, D. M., Breman, J. G., Calisher, C. H., Doherty, P. C., Hahn, B. H., Keusch, G. T., … & Taubenberger, J. K. (2020). The origin of COVID-19 and why it matters. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(3), 955-959.

Van Dorp, L., Acman, M., Richard, D., Shaw, L. P., Ford, C. E., Ormond, L., … & Balloux, F. (2020). Emergence of genomic diversity and recurrent mutations in SARS-CoV-2. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 83, 104351.

World Health Organization (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Pregnancy and childbirth. Retrieved from

Worldometers (2021). Coronavirus. Retrieved from

Economic Policies a level english language essay help
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Economic Policies

Banking and Tariffs Policies by Andrew Jackson

After assuming office as the President of the United States, Andrew Jackson announced the government’s termination in using the second bank of the United States as the country’s national bank. He affirmed the American system plan on high tariffs and centralized economic development to introduce decentralized economic policies. He argued of the banks being monopoly protectors and special privileges. President Andrew’s declaration of the inability of the states to rightfully nullify his decision led to the demand for authority from congress to allow for the collection of tariffs by force if necessary (“King Andrew and the Bank”). The Congress Force bill, in alignment with President Andrew’s policy, allowed for the relocation of custom houses and cash payment for customs duties (“Jackson’s fight with the ‘Money Power’ | AMERICAN HERITAGE”). Therefore, he successfully removed all the federal funds from the bank and deposited them in state banks in the final through his executive power. He used this strategy to finally settle his ambition to pay off the national debt as the land sale revenues increased.

Impacts of Banking and Tariff Policies on American System.

Andrew’s policies adversely affected the American economy through the destruction of the protective tariffs and internal improvements. This led to the reduction in the economic activities in the United States and the consequent creative energy of the federal government. The policies further led to the development of the American democracy through expansion of the Presidency power and accountability in the economy since the banks were not powerful as the President who represented the ordinary people controlled the economy, unlike banks which were answerable to private investors (“King Andrew and the Bank”). The state realized her dreams in the infrastructure projects as the federal surplus were to be distributed to the state in four payment modes.

Works Cited

“King Andrew and the Bank.” The National Endowment for the Humanities, 2021, Accessed 18 August 2021

“Jackson’s sight with the ‘Money Power’ | AMERICAN HERITAGE.” Americanheritage.Com, 2021, Accessed 18 August 2021


By (Name)




City and State


Word Count: 3619

Care of the Surgical Patient


Surgery is a critical medical procedure that requires substantial care and attention to ensure that the patient walks out of the process safe and sound. The paper encourages those in charge of the operation to be careful when caring for such patients to give the most desirable outcome. A suitable way to care for a surgical patient in the operating room is to follow a Checklist developed by WHO to guide surgical procedures with the goal of promoting patient safety. Other than caring for the patient while undergoing the operation, it is critical to give the necessary care and attention once the person leaves theater. The study also elaborates on the need to observe ethical guidelines when caring for surgical patients because this ensures that a practitioner acts in the right and acceptable manner that satisfies all parties into the operation.

Using the WHO Checklist

Effective care of a surgical patient requires different teams to come together towards helping the patient regain better health as soon as possible. Practitioners such as anaesthesia professionals, surgeons, technicians, and other operating room groups engaged in surgery need to identify the most suitable approach for offering care to surgical patients (Vickers 2011). Much as an aircraft pilot must depend on air traffic regulators, flight personnel, and the ground crew for a prosperous and safe flight and landing, a surgeon is a vital but not solitary party of a team responsible for offering patient care (World Health Organization 2021). A team destined to give the most appealing care for a surgical patient should comprise of everyone involved, each of whom serves a role in promoting the success and safety of an operation and the care one receives after the procedure.

In addition to forming a robust team that will offer the necessary care throughout the surgical process, it is vital to adhere to a suitable care plan that would ensure the patient undergoes procedure while exposed to minimum harm. A suitable guide in this instance is the World Health Organization (WHO) Surgical Safety Checklist that was developed in 2008 with the objective of enhancing the safety of those undergoing surgery (World Health Organization 2021). The guide came after the formation of the Safe Surgery Saves Lives program that was formed by the World Alliance for Patient Safety as an attempt by WHO to minimize the number of fatalities occurring from surgical practices globally. The goal of the project is to harness clinical will and political commitment to address the need to maintain safety, as well as inadequate anesthetic safety measures, inadequate and improper communication among team members, and preventable surgical infection (World Health Organization 2021). The identified issues have proved to be rampant, severe, and preventable concerns in all settings and nations. To help operating teams in minimizing the emergence of these incidences, the World Alliance for Patient Safety – in collaboration with patients around the globe, patient safety experts, surgeons, nurses, and anaesthesiologists – has recognized a set of safety measures that could be carried out in any surgical room. The objective of the resulting Checklist is to promote enhanced collaboration and communication between teams offering surgical procedure and care (World Health Organization 2021). It is imperative to understand that the regulatory is not a component or element of official policy; instead, it serves as a tool for utilization by clinicians aiming at enhancing the safety and outcomes of their activities and lowering inappropriate surgical mortalities and complications.

The WHO Checklist serves as the most suitable guide for completing the assignment and for offering guidance in real-life practice because offers suggestions taking into account that different settings will embrace their own approaches. Each guideline is included depending on expert or clinical evidence that its inclusion will minimize the likelihood of preventable surgical adversities and that adherence to is not likely to cause injury or unbearable costs (World Health Organization 2021). The Checklist is a suitable guide for the team caring for surgical patients because it is created for preciseness and simplicity. Many of the suggested guidelines are already used as regular practices in health institutions across the globe, though they are hardly adhered to as recommended by WHO (World Health Organization 2021). Each member of a surgical team, therefore, should examine and practice with the manual and know how to adequately and effectively incorporate these critical safety and care measures into normal workflow of the operation and care.

The ultimate aspiration of WHO’s Checklist is to help make sure that teams relentlessly adhere to a few safety phases and thereby reduce the most rampant and avoidable threats endangering the well-being and lives of surgical patients. An appropriate way to ensure implementation of the Checklist when offering care to a surgical patient is to mandate a single person with the duty of checking boxes in a list that the team can create to ensure it focuses on all areas (World Health Organization 2021). A checklist coordinator can take the responsibility for checking the boxes, but any other health professional or clinician participating in the care of the surgical patient can play the function.

Offering an effective care to a surgical patient requires team members to focus on the three phases that the Checklist identifies as being crucial at the different times of the procedure. The first phase is the period prior to the induction or provision of anaesthesia, commonly referred to as the Sign In stage (World Health Organization 2021). The second stage is the time after induction and prior to the surgical procedure or the Time Out phase, and during and immediately after closing the wound but before removing the patient out of the theater, also called the Sign Out phase. In each category, the Checklist coordinator must be allowed to confirm that the group has completed its roles and responsibilities before moving to the next step (World Health Organization 2021). As operating groups become more acquainted with the phases of the Checklist, they can infuse the checks into their regular work patterns and verbalize their successful completion of each phase without constant intervention of the Checklist coordinator (World Health Organization 2021). Adequately and properly incorporating the Checklist into one’s practice allows one to achieve heightened efficiency and reduce disruptions, while aiming to fulfil the steps appropriately.

Sing In

Before providing an anaesthesia, the one in charge of the checklist will verbally engage with the patient whenever possible to verify his or her identity. The one in charge of the checklist also ensures whether the procedures guiding the operation are properly outlined and that the site is identified, and also whether the location for the procedure is clearly set out (World Health Organization 2021). In addition, the one in charge of the checklist must ensure that the consent is available to proceed with the surgery. The coordinator will ensure that the pulse oximeter is in place and functions appropriately. The coordinator must also confirm with the anaesthesia professional that the patient is not is not at the risk of developing allergic reactions, experiencing airway problems, or blood loss (World Health Organization 2021). Typically, the team overseeing the surgery will be available for sign in, as the practitioners may not be available for sign in, as the lead doctor in them operation may have a clearer perception of projected allergies, blood loss, or other factors complicating things for the patients.

Time Out

For the Time Out phase, each member in the mitigation process should introduce themselves by their name and roles. If already partway through the operative procedure as a team, the unit can confirm that everyone handling the process are known to each other. The team must pose for some moment before commencing the operation to ensure that they are conducting the right procedure to the correct person, and that they are in the right site (World Health Organization 2021). The team would verbally converse with each other and assess their critical features of their plans and for the procedure utilizing the Checklist elements for direction (World Health Organization 2021). The team must also verify that prophylactic antibiotics have be provided with the past sixty minutes and that critical imaging is shown as appropriate.

Sign Out

For the Sign Out stage, the team in charge of the process will collaboratively review the operation they conducted, as well as perform instrument and sponge count, and label all the specimen obtained from the procedure. The team will identify any issues or equipment problems that should be addressed (World Health Organization 2021). Ultimately, the team should review the primary concerns and plans concerning postoperative recovery and management before moving the person receiving care to the operating room.

Having one person take responsibility of the checklist process is important for the success of the process. In the intricate setting of a theater, any of the procedures may be overlooked during the hurried pre, intra, or postoperative procedures. Assigning one person to verify the completion of each stage of the checklist can ensure that safety measures are not left out in the rush to proceed with the next level of the operation (World Health Organization 2021). Until members of the team are familiar with the phases involved, the coordinator will probably have to guide the entire intervening team through the process. The main merit of putting the duty of marking the checklist on one person is that an antagonistic connection may be formed with other members of the operating team. The coordinator’s responsibility is to prevent the team from moving to the next level of the procedure until each step is adequately mitigated, but in doing their work may irritate or leave out other members of the team (World Health Organization 2021). Thus, health facilities must carefully take into consideration which member of staff is adequately placed to serve the role. As identified, for most facilities a circulating nurse will play the role, although any practitioner can take the responsibility.

Care Outside the Operating Room

The care a surgical patient receive should extend to outside the operating room to adequately ensure that they get over the condition quite effectively. Usually a patient must spend some time at the wards after undergoing surgery to allow medical practitioners to assess their progress. Nurses should perform postoperative nursing care by constantly monitoring the vital signs such as heart rate (pulse), blood pressure, body temperature, and respiratory rate (breathing rate) usually marked as RR or BP (Macron & Dexter 2006). Nevertheless, depending on the patient’s condition, the health worker may have to take other measurements, which could either be the fifth or sixth vital sign (Macron & Dexter 2006). The caregiver must ensure that the patient is free from complications in order to move from the post-anesthesia care unit to their home or clinical unit (Macron & Dexter 2006). Nevertheless, the probability for developing problems moves beyond the immediate postoperative care and continuous nursing valuation is required in the postoperative nursing practice as well.

An effective postoperative care requires the team caring for the surgical patient to pay attention to three crucial phases. Phase one is immediately the patient leaves the operation room also called post-anesthesia period where the patient requires one-on-one attention and care. The caregiver at this stage should monitor muscle strength, blood pressure, consciousness, heart or cardiac rhythm, and any respiratory complications (Macron & Dexter 2006). The second phase is continued recovery when the consciousness of the patient returns to normal and the patient’s renal, cardiac, and pulmonary functions stabilize (Macron & Dexter 2006). The second phase seeks to help the patient to transit to wellness in the most suitable manner. The caregiver in the third phase should continuously monitor the patient to ensure they completely get over the effects of the anesthesia and are able to care for themselves (Macron & Dexter 2006).

Care for Patients who undergo Bypass Surgery

Additional care is needed to effectively care for patients who undergo coronary bypass surgery, a procedure that seeks to improve blood flow to the heart. The primary intention of the procedure is to alter the flow of blood flowing around the area of a blocked artery in the heart. Patients who undergo this kind of specialized surgery require equally special care and attention to achieve the best results and quick recovery (Kulik, Ruel, & Jneid 2015). Soon after leaving the hospital, it is essential to have someone stay with the patient at home for about the first one or two weeks after the surgical procedure (Kulik, Ruel, & Jneid 2015). The caregiver should ensure that the patient does not stand for unnecessarily longer period, particularly on the same position. The caregiver should engage in regular walking because this helps the heart and lungs to restore their operations effectively after the medical procedure (Kulik, Ruel, & Jneid 2015). Climbing is a good exercise for those who have undergone bypass surgery, but it is essential to be keener because such patients have problems with maintain balance for longer. Such a patient should not engage in active house chores such as folding clothes and setting the table for meals or after eating. The caregiver should advise those who have undergone bypass surgery to halt or desist from any activity when they feel pain or become dizzy because this could aggravate the condition. Nevertheless, the one offering care should recommend further medical intervention if the patient faints, develops persistent cough, gains unexplained weight, develops relentless headache, or if the wound produces secretions or is opened or damaged in any way (Kulik, Ruel, & Jneid 2015). Disregarding such forms of care expose patients who have undergone bypass surgery to significant threats that may require more time, resources, commitment, and perseverance to overcome.

The Need to Observe Ethical Theories

The team caring for surgical patients should observe the ethical theories that guide health care practices to achieve the best outcome. Being conversant with the different theories can have various advantages, which have the capacity to inform and impact the care of patients, discard or refute inappropriate practices and lead service providers to be become better informed about areas of ethical disagreement. In addition, ethical theories offer part of the decision-making basis because the theories depict the viewpoints from which team members seek guideline as they make resolutions (Varkey 2021). Besides, ethics serve the basis of values which vary from one culture or community to another. Applying medical ethics provides a suitable opportunity to examine a particular health issue, often a clinical problem, and using logic and facts to decide what the most appropriate course of action. It is essential to follow ethical guidelines because practitioners may experience a number of disturbing of confusing ethical issues even in a small medical practice or matter (Varkey 2021). Some of the common issues that adhering to ethical theories may help to address when caring for a surgical patient, including restricting treatment to achieve an organization’s budget or due to insurance regulations, accepting money to proceed with care, engaging in romantic affairs with the patient or members of the family, and covering a blunder (Varkey 2021). Furthermore, following ethical theories present a better chance to avoid violating patient confidentiality, or making decisions based on individual perceptions.

It is essential for those offering care to a surgical patient to apply the four basic ethical components or guidelines to decide issues they encounter while attending to the patient. The first is the need to observe autonomy whereby the caregiver acknowledges that patients primarily have the right to influence their own health practice (Varkey 2021). Thus, those offering care should seek the patient’s views and opinions in handling some matters to avoid taking actions that could contradict the patient’s interests and desires. Practitioners while attending to the surgical patient should observe the ethical principle of justice, which entails distributing the gains and complexities of care across the community or society (Varkey 2021). Caregivers should not disregard the patient based on their color, religion, education status, gender, political affiliation, or socioeconomic status, and instead regard everyone as being equal and deserving equal attention. The group attending to a surgical patient should practice beneficence as an ethical guide because this offers an opportunity to do good for the patient. It ensures that the patient overcome the condition without much harm or psychological discomfort (Varkey 2021). More fundamentally, the team offering care should observe the ethical guideline of nonmalfeasance, which guides practitioners not to harm the patient.

Nevertheless, ethical values are not restricted to the four principles alone. There are other key guidelines to consider, such as being transparent and accountable, being truthful, being respectful, and showing reverence for other people’s values. Besides, medical ethics is not just a simple process. It requires one to use skills, such as collecting the facts required to make a choice and presenting the decision in a manner than convinces or all other parties (Varkey 2021). The team attending to the surgical patient should practice listening skills as an essential aspect of medical ethics. Often, ethical disagreements emanate from not being conversant will all facts, or not offering all the necessary information to the patient (Varkey 2021). In addition, health workers who can express their ethical concerns and utilize effective negotiation skills may be have a chance to transform organizational procedures and policies that do not advocate for effective care of surgical patients or any other client receiving care at the facility.

Several other factors should prompt health practitioners to take medical ethics seriously when offering care to a surgical patient. Effective application of medical ethics presents a good chance to address the disputes between physicians, patients, family, or other stakeholders (Varkey 2021). It is essential to acknowledge that the participating parties are most likely acting based on their emotions, which make it hard to arrive at a fair and logical decision without considering ethical guidelines. Referring to ethical values presents a better chance to maintain a positive conscience bearing in mind that all health practitioners want to ensure that they do the right thing at the right time (Varkey 2021). It is essential to acknowledge at this point that being an ethical service provider is more essential than seeing as many clients as possible or making money. Another reason why the team taking care of a surgical patient needs to observe ethical guidelines is to avoid looking uninformed, especially in the way they may make uninformed decisions because they either did not bother to consider ethical guidelines or did not comprehend what their role requires of them.

Practitioners handling a surgical patient increase their likelihood of adhering to ethical when they follow the phases of ethical decision-making. Each team members should be conversant with the problem, which entails knowing the nature of ethical concern and the circumstances surrounding it. Practitioners should proceed to gather the necessary information regarding how to handle such ethical situations (Varkey 2021). Caregivers at this stage may refer to ethical codes, health manuals, position papers, declaratory statement, and recorded evidence based practices. The team should review the collected data to understand the possible cause of the problem, and to know what mitigation approach is likely to yield the best results (Varkey 2021). The team should proceed to select the most suitable option and use it to address the ethical concern. Finally, it is essential to review the intervention and find out if it leads towards the targeted objectives.


The study identifies the need to follow the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist when offering care to a surgical patient to achieve the best results. The model requires team members to focus on the key areas of the three phases that caregivers must follow keenly to achieve the best outcome. It is essential to ensure that the patient confirms identity, site, procedure, and consent at the Sign In stage. The coordinator must also ensure that the site is marked, anaesthesia safety check is complete, and the pulse oximeter functions appropriately. It is also essential to verify at this phase whether the patient has any form of allergy, airway problem, or is at risk of losing blood. The caregivers while handling the second phase (Time Out) should ensure team members introduce themselves, communicate verbally, anticipate critical occurrences, and ensure timely admission of antibiotic prophylaxis. The team in the last phase (Sign Out) needs to record the procedure, identify instrument and sponge count, label any specimens, identify possible problems with equipment, and review the process. In addition to following the recommended steps for offering care at the surgical room, it is essential to consider measures that would ensure the patient continues to enjoy the services that would help him or her get out of the situation more effectively. The study informs about the need to ensure that those who undergo bypass surgery engage in the right activities while at home to avoid exposing themselves to serious threats that could affect their recovery and possibly their wellbeing. The caregiver should monitor the activities of such people, and ensure that they do not engage in activities that require them to strain or use a lot of effort. Practitioners in charge for caring for surgical patients need to follow the guidelines of medical health theories that give direction on what way to act when offering care to achieve the best results. The paper identifies the need to observe basic ethical principles such as autonomy, justice, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance as well as other ethical values that ensure the caregivers act in the most appropriate manner throughout the care process. Caregivers are in a better place to apply the ethical guidelines in their daily practice by following the recommended steps of the ethical decision-making process that requires the team offering care to understand the nature of the problem before finding the most effective solution.

Reference List

Kulik, A, Ruel M, & Jneid, H 2015, ‘Secondary prevention after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, vol. 131, vol. 10, pp. 927-964.

Macron, E, & Dexter, F 2006, ‘Impact of surgical sequencing on post anesthesia care unit staffing,’ Health Care Management Science, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 87-98.

Varkey, B 2021, ‘Principles of clinical ethics and their application to practice,’ Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 30, pp. 17-28.

Vickers, R 2011, ‘Five steps to safer surgery,’ Annals, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 501-503.

World Health Organization 2021, Implementation manual surgical safety checklist. Available from: <> [25 June 25, 2021]

Researching Education Beyond School Walls cheap essay help
Researching Education Beyond School Walls

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Researching Education Beyond School Walls


The study focuses on education as the professional context and examines two websites of significant help in the field. One of these websites is Rethinking Schools, which is relevant for the study because it provides information on the organization’s attempts to promote access to quality education for every learner. The website is also appropriate because it offers valuable information regarding what the organization aspires to achieve to meet its aspirations. Other than addressing the publishing activities that appear to be the major work for the institution, the website notifies about the various programs it has initiated to encourage learning practices in the U.S. and other countries. The GLSEN website is also relevant because it shows what needs to happen to achieve increased access to education. It illustrates the need to consider learners belonging to the LGBTQ population as being equally human beings who deserve the same access to quality education as the rest. Both articles serve to reiterate the importance of undergoing education for all learners without discriminating against anyone.


Rethinking Schools started in 1986 following a meeting by education activists from Milwaukee. The activists comprising community members, instructors, and teacher educators congregated to address how they would strengthen the call into the talks about libraries and private learning institutions (Rethinking Schools, 2021). The founding editors for Rethinking Schools wanted to transform the curriculum used in many learning institutions deemed flawed with textbooks produced by corporates, conservative, and inadequately structured. The founders learned that unnecessary standardized testing was expected, and racial segregation affected nearly all levels of learning. The founders established Rethinking Schools as an avenue to express possible alternatives (Rethinking Schools, 2021). The group commenced as a producer of quarterly magazines offered to schools around Milwaukee free of charge and has continued to publish without ceasing from 1986. Today, Rethinking Schools functions as a leading publisher of materials on social justice education in the U.S. The group’s quarterly magazines attract subscribers from all states in the country, at least ten provinces in Canada and around the globe. Books published by Rethinking Schools are now part and parcel of teacher education initiatives, classroom instructors, educators’ unions, social groups, and tutor education programs worldwide (Rethinking Schools, 2021). The agency established and manages the Zinn Education Project that is steered by the Teaching for Change and has approximately 100,000 members who have subscribed to receive the organizational materials called “People’s History” (Rethinking Schools, 2021). More than three decades after establishing Rethinking Schools, the foundation continues to serve as a not-for-profit advocacy group and publisher committed to maintaining and upholding public education via education activism and teachings on social justice (Rethinking Schools, 2021). The published materials also continue to foster racial justice and equity in the classroom setting, which offers a chance to achieve democracy in the learning process and improve all learners’ well-being.

The primary objective of GLSEN is to make sure LGBTQ learners have the capacity to learn and grow in a learning environment free from harassment and bullying. The agency believes that when people work as a team, it is possible to change U.S. schools into a positive and safe learning environment for everyone. GLSEN’s aspiration is that each learner has the right to access supportive, secure, and LGBTQ-engaging K 12 education (GLSEN, 2019). The organization brings together educators from different parts of the U.S. The group also manages GLSEN Chapters that operate locally and students to enhance the possibilities of achieving the targeted goals. Research by GLSEN has shown that centering on four key areas presents a chance to promote the formation of a supportive and safe learning environment for all learners, not considering their expressions, gender, and sexual orientation (GLSEN, 2019). The team acknowledges the need to promote the development of supportive instructors who understand the needs and perceptions of their learners and are willing to provide the needed support. GLSEN advocate for comprehensive policies that protect vulnerable populations such as learners belonging to the LGBTQ population (GLSEN, 2019). The agency also supports developing an inclusive curriculum that does not seclude learners based on different factors, including their sexual orientation. Moreover, GLSEN believes that supporting student GSAs offers a reasonable chance for learners to express their views and opinions on various topics and help build confidence that it is possible to engage in learning practices and other activities without displaying any form of seclusion (GLSEN, 2019). Since its establishment in 1990 by a group of instructors, GLSEN has developed to include more than 1.5 million members who share the same view that LGBTQ students deserve an equal chance to learn and grow in a learning environment.


The Rethinking schools’ website provides valuable information that could help to improve learning practices in institutions across the U.S. and the world. An outstanding feature of the website is that it focuses on an activity that promotes learning practices, especially for groups and individuals who are not likely to achieve unrestricted access to education because of different constraining factors (Rethinking Schools, 2021). Focusing on publishing is a good idea because it provides educators, researchers, and learners with a chance to learn new ideas that would assist at different levels. One major strength of the organization is that it comprises educators who understand the needs and aspirations of their learners and who know what it takes to achieve particular goals. Engaging educators as the primary stakeholders present rich content for the published materials and gives a reasonable chance to develop remedies to some of the problematic issues that affect learning. Besides, serving as a not-for-profit organization depicts the organization as one that is committed to improving the level and quality of education for all learners rather than making personal gains (Rethinking Schools, 2021). The organization manages to sell itself as one that focuses on improving the well-being of learners as they pursue education and transform into independent adults. The group is doing well in its donation initiatives that have helped many people undergo formal and quality education. Rethinking School portrays itself as being accountable and transparent in its dealings by expressing how donations play fundamental functions in helping it conduct its operations (Rethinking Schools, 2021). Nevertheless, the organization needs to engage in more programs to assist learners in achieving their aspirations by focusing on all groups without any form of segregation. In addition, the agency may have to make some adjustments to the website to permit increased interaction with all stakeholders.

Similarly, the information presented by GLSEN is equally essential in ensuring that learners have a fair chance to pursue education despite some of the factors that make them different. The initiative by the organization is significant, taking into account that members of the LGBTQ group have continued to experience substantial hurdles in accessing education on the same levels as their heterosexual counterparts. The institution appears to be committed to overcoming the perception that heterosexuals are the only people who deserve better learning opportunities and seeks to create an environment where everyone has equal reach to the vital requirement. Another factor that makes the website effective is that it clearly outlines and expounds on the four principles guiding its practice (GLSEN, 2019). The audience can acquire valuable information about the different ways learning schools can facilitate a supportive and safe learning environment for all learners, regardless of their background and affiliations. The organization has made significant strides in promoting the various GLSEN programs through the website. The audience gets the chance to read about the different projects and understand how they are likely to impact the learning process. For example, adopted initiatives such as Changing the Game, Day of Silence, Solidarity Week, and No Name-Calling Week serve vital functions in creating sensitization to embrace learners not considering their sexual orientation (GLSEN, 2019). However, the group should consider exploring globally and inform through the website some of the global initiatives it supports to champion the rights of LGBTQ learners in accessing education. However, the agency is doing great in its activities and hopes to help more LGBTQ learners enjoy uninterrupted and unobstructed reach to learning opportunities.


The information presented on the Rethinking Schools’ website could be of significant value to educational institution, the government, and the entire society. One of the ways in which the information on the website impact on learning institutions is it shows the need to rely on well-published researches that are likely to give valuable tips about various concepts. The information encourages the government to promote the publication of books that would help learners understand various concepts with ease, which is likely to change individuals’ perceptions of different issues. In addition, the content of the website encourages the government to invest significantly in education because the process prepares learners as competent people in the future. More fundamentally, the website’s content impacts the entire society because it shows the need to pursue and offer free access to knowledge. Now that I know the website’s content, I would encourage others to read and understand its contents to appreciate effective education practices equally.

Similarly, the provisions on GLSEN’s website are equally essential in determining how schools embrace LGBTQ learners and how society perceives such individuals. The website’s content could be of great significance to learning facilities that learn the need to accept all learners without considering their sexual orientation. In addition, the website shows the need for schools and the government to formulate policies that outlaw possible discrimination based on sexual orientation and be clear on the penalties for violating the set rules and regulations. The website creates the impression that secluding some learners because of their sexual orientation increases fear among such students and puts them at the risk of recording poor performance or quitting schooling for fear of facing alienation. Besides, the website shows the government and learning institutions the need to develop various programs that make LGBTQ learners feel like part of the organization and see themselves as people who can contribute to the activities happening within the learning facility. Finally, the website has a significant impact on society, which learns the need to support the education of all learners regardless of their sexual orientation. Society knows that it is incorrect to deny some people the chance to learn because everyone is the same. The information I pick from the website will help me champion a society where sexual orientation does not serve as a criterion for determining who accesses education and who does not. Now that I know what the website advocates for, I will notify as many people as possible about it and reiterate on why they need promote or support what they read.


The paper focuses on two websites (Rethinking schools and GLSEN) that advocate for increased learning opportunities for all learners despite their background or characteristics. Rethinking schools functions as a publisher for valuable education materials and functions as a team of competent educators who understand the needs and problems of their learners. Rethinking schools shows its strength in the way it ventures globally and in the way it solely focuses on promoting education rather than making profits. It is why the agency relies on donations from well-wishers to run its operations and meet its expenses. GLSEN, on the other hand, supports education for learners but pays considerable attention to those who are likely to face discrimination and alienation because they belong to the LGBTQ group. The organization runs various initiatives across the U.S. that it believes will provide more learning opportunities for the targeted population. The information in both websites has a substantial impact on different stakeholders, encompassing learning facilities, national administrators, and society.


GLSEN. (2019). GLSEN. Retrieved from Schools. (2021). Rethinking Schools. Retrieved from

Global Population Health Needs Analysis a level english language essay help
Global Population Health Needs Analysis

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Global Population Health Needs Analysis

Syrian women, particularly the women refugees within and outside the country suffer untold health problems that are considered a global concern and have attracted attention from the international community. With the 10-year-old Syrian Civil War reaching critical proportions, of the estimated 22 million Syrians, women carry one of the heaviest health burdens upon displacement from their homes and seeking refuge in formal and informal refugee camps in neighboring countries, such as Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, and Jordan (United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) (2014). It is estimated that the female Syrian refugee population is about half of the entire refugee population from the country, which is approximately 5.5 million (Siegfried, 2020). Numerous health issues that are undermining its health wellbeing and causing premature fatalities afflict this substantial subpopulation of the Syrian population. This analysis focuses on the heath needs of female Syrian refugees as a significant global population, the services addressing their health issues, the current health status, the gaps in health services, and the proposed additional initiatives that would help address the health crisis faced by this subpopulation.

Health Issues

Female Syrian refugees constitute a significant proportion of the global vulnerable population ad risk of dire health outcomes due to the myriad of challenges they face that undermine their health wellbeing.  Firstly, female Syrian refugees face disproportionate physical injuries from the physical violence from violent encounters with their spouses and other men in the camp, and injuries from the vagaries of war, such as explosions, gunshots, and beatings by insurgents. Secondly, they are prone to sexual and gender-based violence from their spouses, humanitarian workers, and other men in the refugee camp (Amiri, et al., 2020). Secondly, some of the Syrian women are at risk of female genital mutilation, which requires medical attention for the inflicted injuries to the genitalia. Geraci and Mulders (2016) revealed that the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) could be ordering Kurdish Syrian women to undergo FGM to preserve their purity and beauty, attributing it to a fatwa issues in 2013 by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the group’s leader. Thirdly, this population is prone to the adverse effects of the covid-19 pandemic, including contracting the disease and not having access to healthcare. Besides, the ongoing pandemic has worsened the already dire situation related to mental health with the female refugees registering a three-fold escalation of psychological issues (Mahmood, et al., 2019). Syrian women in refugee camps are financially handicapped to adhere to the public health covid-19 prevention protocols, including regular hand washing, wearing of facemasks, and maintaining social distance. Fourthly, Syrian female refugees are exposed to the risk of contracting communicable diseases, including HIV and AIDS due to lack of protection during intercourse, considering that many young Syrian girls have been married off early as a protection strategy. Fifthly, Syrian women with no communicable and chronic disease are likely to suffer dire consequences for their inability to access frequent healthcare services…

Services Addressing Health Issues

The services provided to this vulnerable population segment include primary health and preventative care related to immunization and treatment for highly infectious diseases, like polio and HIV-AIDS. Cash transfers to the most venerable refugees unable to access employment and facilitation of asylum acquisition to exit the refugee camps are also undertaken by these agencies. These services are provided by governmental agencies in the respective countries hosting the refugee camps. Governments use their budgets and emergency funds to support the services. In addition, local and international nongovernmental organizations, charitable organizations, and volunteers help address the health issues. The international bodies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Bank (WB), and the International Monetary Fund, and charitable organization and foundations use subscription finances and donations to fund the health-related services (Breakey, 2015).    

Current Health Status

About 50% of Syrian refugees are women. Over 300,000 of them have taken refuge in turkey, with the rest distributed in neighboring Middle East countries, while asylum seekers target North America and Europe. Besides, maternal birthrates are high in refugee camps compared to those on the host countries, due to increased number of early marriages and rape cases, and the lack of adequate reproductive health services (Çöl, et al., 2020).

Gaps in Health Services

There are serious gaps in the health-related services provided to the female Syrian refugees in the refugee camps. These women are unaware of the health issues they face and therefore are unable to take protective measures. Access to information and education is limited at the refugee camps, and many women are oblivious of the risks they are exposed to and how they can mitigate them to avoid adverse health outcomes. For instance, the high rate of early marriages exposes the young girls to early births, which could be injurious to their reproductive system. Early marriages are rooted in the longstanding cultural practices in Syria, which needs to be addressed to change the deeply-rooted perspectives.

Proposed Additional Initiatives to Address the Health Issues

The first additional initiative is the implementation of an awareness program to educate the Syrian women refugees about the health risks they face and the measures they need to take to prevent the onset of diseases. Many Syrian women are oblivious of the culturally-ingrained beliefs that endanger their health wellbeing and lives, such as early marriages, female genital mutilation, and intimate partner violence, which are generally accepted practices in some Syrian cultures. In the same vein, the awareness program would target empowering the women refugees about their reproductive health and the need to use contraception to avoid unwanted and unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV-AIDS.

The second initiative is the implementation of a counseling program to attend to the mental health needs of the traumatized women and girls. Syrian women refugees are traumatized by witnessing war, being injured during the war, losing loved ones, leaving their homes, being separated from their families, living in isolation of foreign countries, and losing their livelihoods and economic empowerment. High prevalence of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress among these Syrian female refugees persists and this intervention would ameliorate the situation, helping improve the mental health and resilience of this vulnerable group.

The third initiative is the increased interprofessional, interdisciplinary, interorganizational, and international collaboration between the key stakeholders to improve the outcomes of the intervention programs. Many humanitarian and healthcare efforts are fragmented across governments, healthcare organizations, countries, and even health specialties. Such lack of cohesion undermines the overall efficaciousness of health-related interventions, particularly during global pandemics, such as the Covid-19 one.

The fourth intervention is increased research and data collection about the plight, needs, and intervention efforts directed towards Syrian female refugees. Currently, there lacks accurate data concerning the health situation in this population segment, considering that many of them are scattered in different refugee camps across the world, making data consolidation challenging. Comprehensive, complete and accurate information about the Syrian women refugee situation would inform better interventions aimed at improving their health status.  

The fifth intervention the adoption of a women-initiated program approach rather than the existing top-down approach that is spearheaded by humanitarian agencies to address the plight of the women refugees. The Syrian women refugees are best placed in understanding their health issues and developing programs that suit them best rather than having humanitarian organizations make plans and programs for them.

Governments that host the refugees would primarily fund these additional initiatives, although assisted by other entities. Individual governments are key stakeholders in the welfare of refugees within their borders because of the implications the refugees have to their economies and the burden they place on national and local healthcare institutions. Funding these alternatives would help combat and prevent adverse effects, which if left unaddressed, would jeopardize the social, political, economic wellbeing of their countries. Humanitarian organizations led by UNHCR, WHO, and the WORLD bank, which access finances from subscribing member countries would also provide the funding critical for implementing these interventions. Finally, charitable organizations and well –wishers would donate money to the host governments or humanitarian agencies to supplement their finances. Besides, these private entities could donate their skill and personnel instead of cash, saving the governmental and nongovernmental agencies significant finances.

The efficaciousness of these additional interventions should be gauged to ascertain their success levels. Each intervention has specific key performance indicators directed towards alleviating the health issues of the Syrian women refugees. For instance, the measurable parameters for  the awareness creation program includes the level of health related knowledge gained by the participants, change in health prevention and seeking behavior, and change in traditional attitudes regarding early marriages, intimate partner violence, and female genital mutilation. The counseling program should yield a reduction in psychological problems and improved coping mechanisms. Likewise, increased interprofessional, interdisciplinary, interorganizational, and international collaboration can be measured using the number of teams and the number of organizations collaborating in the working teams. Increased research and data collection intervention can be measured by determining the amount of data, its availability, and accessibility, and its application in informing program development. Finally, the adoption of women-initiated program approach can be measured by determining the number of women refugees incorporated in the program planning and steering committees and work teams, the number of programs initiated by the women refugees, and the degree of change in the health wellbeing of the refugee women following their increased participation in program formulation and decision-making processes.

These parameters can be quantified from the data collected from the stakeholders through surveys. The surveys could collect data using questionnaires, interviews, focus group meetings, and observations. The analysis of the qualitative data can yield quantifiable information then the textual data is converted to numerical data using Likert scales, which can then be fed into a computer program for in-depth analysis.


Female Syrian refugees are numerous and undergo untold adverse effects on their health wellbeing. Having fled their countries to escape the vagaries of the 10-ya old civil war, these women suffer several physical and psychological problems, that undermine their health, dignity, and functionality as human beings. Various governments and humanitarian agencies have addressed the physical injuries afflicted by physical abuse and assault, and the psychological problems experienced from witnessing violence, loss of loved ones and separation from their families, with suboptimal results.


Amiri, M., El-Mowafi, I. M., Chahien, T., Yousef, H., & Kobeissi, L. H. (2020). An overview of the sexual and reproductive health status and service delivery among Syrian refugees in Jordan, nine years since the crisis: a systematic literature review. Reproductive Health, 17(1), 1-20.

Breakey, S., Corless, I. B., Meedzan, N. L., & Nicholas, P. K. (Eds.). (2015). Global health nursing in the 21st century. Springer Publishing Company.

Çöl, M., Aykut, N. B., Mut, A. U., Koçak, C., Uzun, S. U., Akın, A., … & Kobeissi, L. (2020). Sexual and reproductive health of Syrian refugee women in Turkey: a scoping review within the framework of the MISP objectives. Reproductive Health, 17(1), 1-12.

Geraci, D., & Mulders, J. (2016). Female genital mutilation in Syria? An inquiry into the existence of FGM in Syria. Pharos, Centre of Expertise on Health Disparities, Utrecht.

Hajjar, M. S., & Abu-Sittah, G. S. (2021). The multidimensional burden of COVID-19 on Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Journal of Global Health, 11.

Mahmood, H. N., Ibrahim, H., Goessmann, K., Ismail, A. A., & Neuner, F. (2019). Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees residing in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. Conflict and health, 13(1), 1-11.

Siegfried, K. (2020). The refugee brief – 11 March 2020. Retrieved from 

United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) (2014). Woman alone: The fight for survival by Syria’s refugee women. Retrieved from  

Native American women online essay help
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Native American women

Overall, women played household tasks in various Native American societies before the contact with Europeans. They cooked, washed, cleaned, and took care of children. However, the roles varied depending on political, cultural, and social structures and own belief systems. Furthermore, traditional roles among Native American women tend to differ significantly by community and region (Peterson 16). For instance, women in the traditional Apache worked on leather skin, but this was not the case among women in eastern woodland societies. Instead, women in these places owned homes, especially among plain Indians. Etis and Engerman reveal how women in the Lenape community joined men in agricultural activities as well as in hunting depending on their age and ability (315). Women among the Narragansett people differed from those in other Native tribes in the way they participated in clearing fields for agriculture, a practice that men played in other Native groups. Thus, the evidence shows that women played a wide range of functions in Native American groups.

Question 2

The roles European women played at the time of contact with Native Americans did not have much difference with that of Native societies. Women from both groups were responsible for household tasks, including taking care of the sick. Furthermore, women from both sides oversaw their tribe’s agricultural activities, and were tasked with the duty of cultivating and harvesting vegetables and other produce for their people. The primary variation is that women in some Native American communities were offered honorable positions. Women among the Cherokee, for instance, controlled and managed certain elements within the community, with many making significant economic choices for the whole tribe. Europeans, on the other hand, subjected their women to house duties and childbirth only (Fischer and Morgan 198). The variation reveals that both groups perceived their women and the roles they play differently.

Works Cited

Etis, David and Engerman Stanley. “Fluctuations in Sex and Age Ratios in the Transatlantic Slave Trade.” The Economic History Review, vol. 46, no. 2, 1993, 308-323.

Fischer, Kristen and Morgan Jennifer. “Sex, Race, and the Colonial Project.” The William and Mary Quarterly, vol. 60, no. 1, 2003, pp. 197-198.

Peterson, David. “Intermarriage and Agency: A Chinookan Case Study.” Ethnohistory, vol. 42, no. 1, 1995, pp. 1-30.

Globalization as a Process college essay help online
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Globalization as a Process

Globalization that is technically defined as the international influence of a given locality to business or the onset of the business operations within the specified region to the global scale is tentatively confused to be either a process or a project. The term globalization incorporates the various activities initiated by the various key stakeholders in constant interaction within the transforming locality. It entails the companies, government, individuals, and the various goods, services, and data and technology. Although globalization can be argued to be a project due to the multiple goals it is initiated to achieve or the various achievement it projects, it is not satisfactory evidence to warrant the description of globalization to be a project rather than a process. Therefore, based on the interaction of the various forces as detailed in the essay below, it will be viable to prove that the globalization of any geographical location to be a process rather than a project initiated by either government or a specific group of individuals.

Events occurrence

Globalization of a specific geographical location is skewed to be supported by the fact that it is a process. This is due to the chronological order of events as they occur within the transformational area’s locality. This is attributed to the fact that globalization is ultimately destined to improve the lives of the various individuals living within the geographical location. Besides, globalization occurs concurrently as a biological process in which the activities occur at different intervals until the ultimate maturity when the benefits are enjoyed within the locality. In addition, the ultimate goal of globalization is kept alive for each individual, although the scope of transformation is experienced at relatively various intervals (Ietto-Gillies and  Grazia, 2019). The globalization process has been driven by the technological revolution, occurring at somewhat different timelines based on geographical location. The various places that are quick to adsorb the technological innovations have revolutionized their activities such as communication and transport. Some countries like the United States, which are quick to innovate the various technologies into their systems, have remained critical areas in which the globalization process occurred and spread to different locations through communication and transport. Hence the interaction process during trade, communication, and transport aiding to spread of the globalization process, with the various places being a matter of time before they experience the transformation. Besides, the innovator’s experience of the first change is compared to the different individuals who also understand the difference in life improvement at later stages through interactions (Ietto-Gillies and  Grazia, 2019). This is opposed to globalization being a project in which innovation is controlled in a specific direction in which the particular activity in question is headed but rather a process in which innovators are all seeing the transformations to improving the lives of the whole globe as a whole hence the interactions culminating to the changes.

Social-cultural processes

As defined, globalization is highly supported to be a combination of the various processes such as the social and cultural interactions within a society which occur alternatively. Since these interactions are core fueling factors in globalization, they occur within a defined process in which the international integration culminates in the interaction of the various individuals hence the cultural exchange of the different ideologies and cultural aspects within the different socio-cultural settings (Ergashev, Ibodulla, and Nodira 447). This leads to the various individuals within the less globalized areas to acquire the ideologies from the advanced states who appreciate the benefits of globalization and their counterparts achieving the various concepts embraced on the other communities to help improve the living standards. The exchange of the various principles and ideologies occurs at relatively different times as the doctrines are being sold, explaining that globalization is a process (Ergashev, Ibodulla, and Nodira 447). However, the interaction process might spark various negative or positive impacts in society, like an outbreak of the disease or the medical breakthrough being experienced across the globe. The spread of the ideologies and the cultural aspects is thus ruled as a less controllable process than the case of a project in which the flow is guided through a specific plan.

Economic integration

The economic integration incorporated in the globalization definition accounts for the globalization process being a process rather than a project. Economic globalization describes the various techniques adopted in the international market and business. There is a relatively increasing interdependence of the different world economies, attributed to the vastness of cross-border trading. Cross-border trading is also a process in which the various parties within the business interact with each other hence the function of the interaction as they negotiate the business impact of the international capital inflow to the specific community, which therefore the spark of the technological revolution within the community setting (Ietto-Gillies and  Grazia, 2019). Since economic globalization is a process initiated by the discovery of the trading commodity within the geographical location. It attracts traders to the area and, consequently, the various investors that transform society, culminating in integrating the new market frontiers into the market new locality. The transformation process and the integration of the various technological advancements within the locality in which the business activities are taking place occur over a relatively more extended period, and the traders incorporate the best technology that can improve the business rather than it being a project.

Political globalization

As the various aspects in the community transform each day in alignment with globalization, there is constant interaction between each of the different activities with the laws and policies initiated thereby. Implementing the various procedures and regulations within the transforming society is a gradual process that incorporates the multiple stakeholders that are likely to be affected by the guidelines. Trade and commerce are the key factors that drive globalization where the different international traders align with the locals in which they are conducting business. They also require the adoption of various international laws. (Bocka, Jelena and Dujmović 1209) attest that international law adoption is a process since the local community might not be aware of such laws. Hence, the onset of the various trading activities is initiated with the first compliance of specific homogenous policies and regulations favorable for both parties. This process is usually followed by creating awareness of the various parties in which the community is taught of the various law applications either by traders, government, or the community can learn as the business operations become intense. The international traders retaliate by applying the different policies and laws that meet the international standards aligned with the governing authorities in the trading country. These internationally recognized policies are usually within the postulations of the various institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Trade Organizations (Bocka, Jelena and Dujmović 1215). The adoption of the policies is also managed by the engagement between the country and the traders as well as the international organization relations. The various policies as per institutions are constantly under review following the attention of the multiple stakeholders, which is usually a process with various meetings; hence this accounting of the globalization to being a process rather than a project as institutions are involved at such later dates (Bocka, Jelena and Dujmović 1218). This process of adopting international laws by the countries invalidates the globalization process being a project but rather a process.


Ultimately, the term globalization is defined with the various transformation changes within a given locality to match the different international standards and relations while improving the lives of the multiple nationalists; it can be described as a process rather than a project. This is because the various fueling factors are process driven with each transformation interacting with each other in a harmonious manner which accounts for the globalization process. For instance, the trade and commerce activities that interact with policies to spark political globalization according to the various international bodies governing the trading operations as described above. The trading activities are also acts of interaction between the different individuals as they exchange goods, resulting from the exchange of ideologies and cultural aspects. Besides, the various order of events that happen at different timelines but are in alignment with the overall goal of transforming society and the economic integration process accounts for globalization being a project rather than a project.

Works cited

Bocka, Jelena Dujmović. “Public/Private Dimension and Its Reflection on the Croatian Higher Education System with Regard on the Globalisation Process.” EU and comparative law issues and challenges series (ECLIC) vol. 4, 2020, pp. 1204-1227.

Ergashev, Ibodulla, and Nodira Farxodjonova. “Integration of national culture in the process of globalization.” Journal of Critical Reviews vol. 7, no. 2, 2020, pp.477.

Ietto-Gillies, Grazia. “The role of transnational corporations in the globalisation process.” The Handbook of Globalisation, Third Edition. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2019.

Health, Cultural, and Safety Assessment essay help free

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Health, Cultural, and Safety Assessment

The paper uses a cultural assessment tool and a safety assessment tool to gain a visual overview of a community, including the conditions and trends in the region that could influence the health and well-being of the population. A cultural assessment tool offers a systematic approach to identify the values, beliefs, behaviors, and meanings of people in the community while taking into account their physical and social environments, life encounters, and history. A safety assessment tool, on the other hand, help find areas in which the community is at risk, and how the risks relate to the physical, mental, and social well-being of then people in the community. The study uses both tools to assess the situation in Florida and give concrete description of the community.

Community Health Assessment

The name of the county under assessment is Marion County, ZIP code 34470, Ocala. The county ranks 52nd out of the sixty seven counties in Florida for overall health status based on a report released by a joint study by key stakeholders.The county ranks 27th in life span, 51st in economic and social factors, and 18th in clinical services (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). The years of potential life lost before age 75 per 100,000 population stands at 7442 as of 2021, an increase from 6758 in 2020 and 7186 in 2019 (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). Marion ranks 34th among the 67 counties as of 2021, which is a drop from 2020 when it was ranked 11th overall in Florida (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). The county had only insignificant cases of adults reporting poor or fair health but the rate shot to 11% as at the beginning of 2021 (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). The mean number of physically unhealthy days reported in past thirty days in the county is four, while then mean number of mentally unhealthy days reported within the same period is also four among adults.

Several other information provide valuable insight into the health situation in Marion County. The rate of low birthweight below 2,500 grams has maintained within the 5% category, but 2021 witnessed a surge to 6.4% (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). In terms of health factors ranking compared to other counties in Florida, Marion ranks 42 out of 67, a drop from its 31st position in 2020. Marion ranks 58th in health behaviors compared to other counties in the state (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). Currently about 20% of adults are smokers, and the rate of obese adults age 20 and above is 40%. Approximately 27% of adult age 20 and above are physically inactive, and about 19% indulge in binge drinking. The number of deaths from accidents drunk driving in the county is 14% (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). However, stakeholders continue to enact more measures to avert more problems.

KHI provides other valuable information about the health status of Marion County. The rate of STI infection per 100,000 population in the county is 209, an increase from 134 in 2020, while the number of births per 1,000 female population ages 15-19 has remained at 15 for the past three years. In terms of clinical ranking, Marion ranks 43 out of 67 (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). The percentage of population below age 65 without health cover in the state is 10%. Regarding ratio of health worker to patient per 100,000 people, the county scores as follows; ratio of population to primary care physicians (17%), ratio of population to dentists (25%), and ratio of population to mental health providers is 50% (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). Concerning the percentage of female Medicare enrollees ages 65-74 that got a yearly mammography screening currently stands at 44%, while 42% of fee-for-service Medicare enrollees have had a yearly flu vaccination as of 2021 (Kansas Health Institute, 2021). The comprehensive health assessment of the county offers valuable information about the health status of people in the county.

Cultural Assessment

Biophysical Considerations

The dominant age group in Ocala falls between 20-29 years, which constitutes about 73% of the entire population. A significant portion of the population relates ageing with wisdom and depreciation in health stability. The community regard those who have attained 18 years as adults, and a person who comes of age is accorded respect, and starts to assume some responsibilities. The gender ratio in the city is 95 men for every 100 women, but this does not have a significant impact on acceptability of health care providers (Ocala, 2021). Some of the evident genetically determined physical features and physiologic differences is that people differ in terms of their skin color, sex orientation, gender, personality, and interests, which may have some impact on health. Members value those who work hard, honest, and cooperative. Some genetically determined illnesses present in the community are high blood pressure, cancer, obesity, and heart disease.

Psychological Considerations

Members of Ocala have an individualist perception, which compel members to prioritize individuals and their families. The residents of Ocala experience stress, and many people employ mechanisms to help them cope with the problem. Stress emanate from work-related complications, family issues, and illness, but members seek therapeutic intervention, take medication, and engage in physical activities to avoid stress. More fundamentally, members know change is inevitable and are flexible in the way they respond to change.

Physical Environmental Considerations

Members are conscious about the environment and take measures to achieve environmental sustainability. The residents of Florida and Ocala to be specific have witnessed the effects of climate change depicted by changing weather patterns. Some of the environmental changes impact on members’ health.

Sociocultural Considerations

Members acknowledge the presence of supernatural forces and respect the force. Some members, for example, believe that spiritual powers can restore good health. The family is a crucial part of the community, as well as cultural influence (Ocala, 2021). Both parents make decisions in the family, but in many situations the father has the final decision.

Safety Assessment

Safety Hazards in the Natural Environment

Pollution is a matter of concern in Ocala, but the relevant authorities continue to enact measures that would maintain the levels. However, cases of natural radiation are not a matter of concern in the state. Nevertheless, the community experiences other forms of pollution such as soil and land pollution. The weather is not problematic, unless when it is winter. Animal reserves try as much as possible to contain wild animals to avoid conflict with humans, and ensure they do not transmit diseases through proper vaccination.

Safety Hazards in the Built Environment

The local authority enforces stiff measures to prevent the emergence of commercial and residential units that pose safety hazards. However, it is still possible to find structural defects in area buildings (Ocala, 2021). The local industry also pose some safety hazards, but try as much as possible to prevent fatal consequences.

Safety Hazards in the Psychological Environment

Many residents feel safe, thanks to enhanced security by officers and CCTV cameras. However, certain environmental conditions such as lack of jobs, natural calamities, and sickness contribute to stress.

Safety Hazards in the Sociocultural Environment

The overall rate of crime in Ocala is going down, but it is still possible to witness criminal activities such as murder, rape, robbery, and assault. The police respond relatively fast to incidences of crime, and members of the community also take part in prevention (Ocala, 2021). Even though gang violence is relatively low, ethnic difference still creates some tension among members.

Disaster Potential

The likelihood for flooding in Ocala is considerably high, with about 100,000 people at risk of flooding in the coastal region (Ocala, 2021). However, the community rarely experiences cases of earthquakes.


Kansas Health Institute. (2021). Marion County. Retrieved from

Ocala. (2021). Ocala. Retrieved from

A Critical Discourse Analysis college admissions essay help
A Critical Discourse Analysis

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




A Critical Discourse Analysis

The United States has been embroiled in a protracted war against terrorism since the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, which killed almost 3000 people and injured over 6,000 others. In pursuit of the leader of Al Qaeda and its operatives that conducted the four well-coordinated terrorist attacks on critical and monumental infrastructure on American soil, President Bush declared the war against terrorism and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, who were allegedly harboring Osama Bin Laden and the terrorist group Al Qaeda. Subsequently, the United States and its NATO allies commenced a military offensive in Afghanistan to rid the world of Al Qaeda and defeat the Taliban; an effort that has persisted to date, despite the deviation from the original mission. American Presidents, including Bush, Obama, Trump, and now Biden, have made momentous speeches that elucidate the mission and direction of the war on terror in Afghanistan. These speeches incorporate several linguistic strategies that are meant to endearing the support of Americans and its allies, while depicting Afghanistan as the cradle of terrorism and the Taliban as the terrorists’ protectors. While previous administration has hinted about an end of the United States military presence in Afghanistan, since the elimination of Osama bin Laden and the defeat of the Taliban thereafter, President Biden is the one overseeing the actual withdrawal of American troops from that country.

President Biden gave a speech on august 16, 2021 regarding the status of the withdrawal of the United States military from Afghanistan, which was to be concluded by the end of August. This speech was laced with several critical linguistic strategies that communicated the perspective of the American government and its citizenry towards the military presence in Afghanistan and the longstanding war against terror. This speech came amid the extension of the date for the withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan by the previous Obama and Trump administration and the political and socioeconomic effects of the eventual withdrawal effort commenced during President Trump’s administration. This speech invites a critical discourse analysis that interrogates the power play between the United States and Afghanistan within the sociocultural context in the two countries that is encompassed in the deliberate use of language to communicate the political and policy position of the American government and its citizens in international military engagements (Liu & Guo, 2016). The discourse projected by President Biden’s endeavors to redeem  the image and reputation of the United States following the social and political chaos that erupted after the exit of the United States military from Afghanistan. The United States has suffered a reputation crisis continuously since the Vietnam War, with many Americans questioning the justification of protracted wars undertaken by the country in foreign lands far away from home. The presence of the American military in the gulf region and the Levant, particularly with the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, has been criticized immensely by several observers, including policymakers, media, citizenry, and international commentators. Nonetheless, the United States has always sought to assert its authority and articulate its hegemony in social, economic and political spheres in international discourses, and its political leadership has used language designed to express explicitly its intention to dominate and control global geopolitics. Presidential speeches, such as that by President Biden, present the American ideologies and political standpoints, which depict the grandiosity of the United States as a model nation state and the derogation of other countries and groups of people outside the United States that hold divergent views or uphold different cultures.     

Background Information

American presidents make significant speeches to communicate the positions of their administration related to pertinent international issues and justify their current and future actions to forestall any public backlash and damage to the image of the United States as an ethical super power and guardian of global security (Graham, 2018). These speeches have been made during moments when critical political issues have caused or accompanied the actions of the United States government. The United States military has a longstanding history of engaging in various wars in foreign countries since the First World War. The United States has always justified its foreign military engagements by evoking the need to protect its national security in foreign lands before the violence permeates into the country. However, this foreign policy ideology has often invited harsh criticism from those that feel that the United States used this justification to violate the sovereignty of foreign states and pursue selfish American interests. Therefore, American presidents have often given speeches that aggrandize the United States and derogate other countries and their actions.  

The speech made by President Biden on the status of the ongoing withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan and the turmoil the ensued, which has precipitated a security and humanitarian crisis, demonstrates the used of linguistic and discourse features in speech that are often used to communicate certain political messages by powerful countries, like the united states. President Biden was witnessing the effects of withdrawing American troops from Afghanistan, which apparently left more turmoil that the projected political stability in a fragile country that is still influenced by the Taliban. Although the United States falls short of declaring failure in its mission in Afghanistan; leaving a politically and self-ruling stable country devoid of the political influence from the Taliban, the withdrawal process is chaotic and perilous to innocent Afghanis and international workers in the country, as the Taliban promptly moved to fill in the void left. The critical problem addressed by the speech is that America needs to save its face amid the embarrassing perceptions of the failure of its military occupation of a foreign country for an elongated period. This problem is exacerbated by the waning perceptions of an all-powerful United States as the self-declared moral protector of the world against evil individuals, groups and governments that use terrorism to destabilize societies and nations.  


Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a research tool that is used to interrogate the use of language as a form of social practice within specified contexts eliciting extant social relations. In this regard, social discourse analysis focuses on the enactment, reproduction, legitimization and resistance of texts and talks, collectedly known as discourses, within political and social contexts (Amoussou & Allagbe, 2018). Formation and interpretation of discourses when conducting critical discourse analysis are interrogated using historical contexts, inter-discursivity and intertextuality. Because the primary focus of critical discourse analysis is political issues and social problems instead of merely discourse structure, this analytical methodology employed in this analysis addresses the political issue encompassed by the presence and withdrawal of military forces in foreign countries. 

The theoretical underpinning of this critical discourse analysis is that of Van Dijk, a renowned textual linguistic scholar from the Netherlands. In his theoretical framework, Van Dijk views the critical discourse analysis as the study and analysis of spoken and written texts to unearth the discursive sources of power, dominance, inequality and bias (Liu & Guo, 2016; Van Dijk, 1998). He notes that discursive sources are maintained and reproduced within contexts with specific historical, political and social dimensions. In other words, critical discourse analysis is about the interrogation of the interrelationship between power and social structure and mediated by social cognition (Liu & Guo, 2016). In his explanation, the most valuable significance of discourse depicting the relationship between discourse and social structure, as presented in speeches and texts, are preserved in semantic representations that underpin social cognition (Van Dijk, 1998). Van Dijk introduces the social cognitive approach, which is a triangular model in which society, discourse and cognition intersect and become formulated (Van Dijk, 2006).  

This framework is commonly used to analysis political texts and speeches made by powerful leaders targeting their citizenry, leaders of weaker nations, and the international audience (Waugh, et al., 2016). These kind of political texts and speeches are often made in national and international forums targeting a wide audience in which the speakers makes powerful statements using several linguistic strategies aimed at delivering critical political messages. Often, manipulation is a critical component of the critical discourse analysis of political discourses often delivered through speeches delivered by political leaders of dominant groups. Van Dijk (2006) argues in his triangulated approach that manipulation has social, cognitive and discursive dimensions. Specifically, manipulation, from a social perspective, encompasses illegitimate domination that confirms social inequality, while from a cognitive dimension, manipulation comprises mid control that interferes with comprehension processes and promotes the creation of biased mental models and social representations of ideologies and knowledge. From a discursive aspect, manipulation enacts ideological discourse by highlighting the good in the in-group and the bad in the out-group, thus creating polarizing ideologies (Najarzadegan, Dabaghi & Eslami-Rasekh, 2017). Analyzing manipulation using the critical discourse analysis through the triangulated linkage between society, discourse and cognition expose the abuse of power employed by political manipulators to the disadvantage of the powerless group. Van Dijk, T. A. (2006) explains that the distinction between manipulation and persuasion is vague and highly dependent of the context of the discourse.  While persuasion is considered to be legitimate because the speakers are free to believe and act as they wish, manipulation has a negative connotation because the recipients are often passive and hence, victims (Flowerdew & Richardson, 2017). For instance, governmental discussion about war and military occupation in foreign countries is often blamed on national security threats rather than inappropriate government policies. This analysis exposes the manipulative and persuasive tactics employed by President Biden in his speech and explains the power play between the United States and Afghanistan, and the domination that the United States strives to perpetuate under the guise of combating terrorist groups in its war on terror.  

The concepts used in this analysis include negative lexicalization, ideological square and rhetorical strategies, which are employed in the speech by President Biden.

Negative Lexicalization

Lexicalization is the acceptance of words and phrases into a language to economize the use of words. Lexicalized words are often new words that become accepted in a language and often comprise of reconstructed words whose individual elements to not deliver their original meaning in the new words or phrases. In linguistic analysis, lexicalization is about the choices of words employed to confer meaning to ideologically controlled discourse (Al-Saaidi, Pandian & Al-Shaibani, 2016). This approach is premised on the semantic macrostructure theory by Van Dijk, which explains political discourse as a social phenomenon with linguistic, cognitive and sociocultural dimensions (Al-Saaidi, Pandian, & Al-Shaibani, 2016). From Van Dijk’s explanations, political discourse can be analyzed at the macro-level to unearth the sentences or clauses that represent independent meanings in though and language (Al-Saaidi, Pandian, & Al-Shaibani, 2016).  Political discourse can also be analyzed at the micro-level to discover the lexical structures that are used to strategically position an identity of frame a situation (Al-Saaidi, Pandian, & Al-Shaibani, 2016).  Altogether, words can be carefully selected and deftly used in political discourses to advance the distinction between the in-group and out-group. In this case, negative lexicalization are the carefully selected words used to depict and highlight the negatives, faults and flaws of an out-group for the political mileage of an in-group.  This analysis focused on the negative lexicalization used in President Biden’s speech to derogate and discredit the Afghanistan and Taliban administrations.

Ideological Square

The ideological square is an analytical framework that interrogates cognition as a component of critical discourse analysis using the socio-cognitive approach advanced by Van Dijk. Society, cognition and discourse are the three component of critical discourse analysis, with cognition mediating the mediating the linkage between society and discourse, and illustrated in figure 1(Flowerdew & Richardson, 2017).

Figure 1. Discourse-cognition-society triangulation

In this framework, society presents the context within which the production and comprehension of discourse is interrogated while discourse is the encapsulating of language to deliver certain ideologies held in the cognitive layer, as illustrated in figure 2. Therefore, the ideological square analyses the cognition layer as characterized by polarized discourse representations demarcating in-groups ideologies from out-group ones (Najarzadegan, Dabaghi & Eslami-Rasekh, 2017). The linguistic dimensions presented in the ideological square are positive self-representation and negative other-representation, creating the ideology of us versus them, also presented as boasting and derogation, respectively. The descriptive features of the two representations are summarized in table 1.

Table 1. Ideological Square proposed by Van Dijk

Overall strategyGroupsFeaturesEmphasisDe-emphasisPositive self-representationIn-group (us)PositiveNegativeNegative other-representationOut-group (them)Negativepositive

Ideologically-laden terms aimed at evoking certain psychological feelings, such as greatness, comfort, dependability, trustworthiness, superiority in the audience are commonly found in political discourses. These terms are often used to create discourse of the dominant ideology in a persuasive manner. They are also employed to subliminally seduce people toward the in-group political and social ideas. Ideologically-laden terms are also deployed to justify power inequalities by manufacturing the consent of the recipients and propagating the ideologies through mass-media coverage. This analysis analyses the ideologically-laden words, phrases, sentenced and paragraphs that are used to project the ideologies of the Biden administration and the American society.

Rhetorical strategies

Rhetoric strategies or devices are words or phrases used to deliver meaning, encourage response, and persuade an audience during a communication episode. They are carefully selected words and phrases used to manage the views of listeners and persuade them to think or act in a particular manner desired by the speaker (Unvar & Rahimi, 2013). Van Dijk argued that rhetorical strategies are used to promote the effectiveness of communicative interaction between the speaker and the audience, and ultimately, the effectiveness of the discourse to facilitate the realization of the speaker’s goals (Van Dijk & Kintsch, 1983). Politicians often use rhetoric devices to influence the ideologies of their constituencies and international audiences, particularly during national and international crises. Rhetoric devices are employed to appeal to the logic, credibility, emotion and a sense of timeliness in the audience sufficiently as to be persuasive. Euphemism, metaphors, anadiplosis, rhetorical questions, hypo hora, asterisms and procatalepsios and anaphora are rhetoric devices employed by politicians in their speeches often to persuade their audiences and leave a lasting impression. This analysis unearths the various rhetoric stratifies and devices used to manipulate the speech recipients and persuade them to accept certain ideologies advanced by President Biden. 


A contextual overview

President Biden made this speech on August 16, 2021 following the collapse of the elected the United States-backed Afghani government and the abandoning of posts and surrendering of the United States-trained and equipped military personnel during a week-long insurrection by the Taliban. The speech was the first on the situation in Afghanistan delivered by President Biden, since the withdrawal of American troops occasioned the taking over of Afghanistan’s government by the Taliban. It was also the first remarks made publicly in over a week following the escalation of the evacuation crisis. The speech was hurriedly arranged to be delivered from the White House’s East Room and the President had to interrupt a summer vacation at Camp David. The speech was delivered in front of media reporters only, and even it was televised live across major news networks across the globe, President Biden did not take any questions from the reporters present, which limits communicative interaction. President Biden targeted not only the American citizens but also the global audience, and especially the Afghanis s the recipients.

President Biden was facing his first foreign policy crisis following the chaotic evacuation of American military personnel and workers, leaving a trail of confusion and panic among expatriates and Afghanis that worked with the United States government and others eligible for immigration into the United States. The speech sought to promote the image of President Biden as a meticulous planner and dependable leader to the American public, who have continuously questioned the rationale of the prolonged presence of the military in Afghanistan after Osama bin Laden had long been eliminated and Al Qaeda dismantled. The speech also addresses pertinent issues related to the American policy on military involvement in civil strife in foreign countries, the promises made to the American public, and the role of the United States as the global guardian of human rights and liberties for the marginalized sections of society, like girls and women. The speaker intended to make his audience to regard him as a man of commitment and promise, and a national leader ready to face internal and external criticisms for the sake of the safety of the American citizenry. Although he confesses that his administration was taken aback by the rapid deterioration of the situation in Afghanistan following the withdrawal of American troops, President Biden blames previous administrations for not having ended the war sooner and evacuated the war theatre, and particularly, former President Trump for striking a deal with the Taliban, which not only obligated him to uphold but also created the environment conducive for encouraging the rise of the Taliban. He uses several linguistic devices to articulate his firmly-held beliefs, sound judgment, and patriotism, while promoting the perpetuation of the United States hegemony in international politics.

Negative Lexicalization

President Biden’s speech is characterized by several negative lexicalizations that derogate the Afghanistan’s government and the Taliban. One negative lexicalization is directed towards Al Qaeda, which is juxtaposed negatively against the United States. When explaining what the United States had achieved in Afghanistan in the last 2 decades, President Biden said that:   

We went to Afghanistan almost 20 years ago with clear goals: get those who attacked us on Sept. 11, 2001, and made sure Al Qaeda could not use Afghanistan as a base from which to attack us again. We did that. We severely degraded Al Qaeda in Afghanistan. We never gave up the hunt for Osama bin Laden and we got him (Biden, 2021, 16:02).

This statement was used to downgrade Al-Qaeda, which was a terrorist group, whose leader was based in Afghanistan. Al Qaeda is depicted as powerless and nonexistent, at least in its original form, although it may have morphed into ISIS, a terrorist organization that is against the presence of the American military in the Muslim world. 

Similarly, in a statement that demonstrated the weakness of the Afghanis military, President Biden observed that, “Afghanistan political leaders gave up and fled the country. The Afghan military collapsed, sometimes without trying to fight.” In another part of his speech, President Biden observed that:

…if Afghanistan is unable to mount any real resistance to the Taliban now, there is no chance that one year — one more year, five more years or 20 more years — that U.S. military boots on the ground would have made any difference (Biden, 2021, 16:02).

President Biden continued with derogating the Afghani government and military by adding that, “The political leaders of Afghanistan were unable to come together for the good of their people, unable to negotiate for the future of their country when the chips were down” (Biden, 2021, 16:02),

These statements depict the Afghanistan government and armed forces as incompetent, cowardly, weak and hopeless because they did not defend their country against the Taliban despite having been trained and equipped by the United States.

Ideologically-laden terms and phrases

President Biden’s speech was laden with words and phrases expressing his personal ideologies and those of Americans and the free world. Two main ideological strategies are apparent in this speech; the polarizing words and statements that depict the president and United States in positive light, and Afghanistan and al Qaida in negative representation. In this speech, the speaker highlights the deeds, achievements, policies and consideration of the American president and society in appositive manner while derogating Afghanistan by depicting the Afghanis government and the Taliban negatively.

Positive self-representation

According to Van Dijk’s ideological square, a speaker can achieve positive self-representation by stressing the self-positive and minimizing self-negative representations of himself, his country, and the western society that he represents. President Biden is a democrat, and therefore embodies the ideologies of humanism, patriotism, liberalism, Christianity and democracy. He selects topics that depict positive meanings of describing himself, the United States and the western world, which include tolerance, goodwill and diligence of himself and the American people, equality in the United States, and the protection of the rights of women and children.

The instances that the speaker used positive self-representation include when he says that:

When I hosted President Ghani and Chairman Abdullah at the White House in June, and again when I spoke by phone to Ghani in July, we had very frank conversations. We talked about how Afghanistan should prepare to fight their civil wars after the U.S. military departed. To clean up the corruption in government so the government could function for the Afghan people. We talked extensively about the need for Afghan leaders to unite politically. They failed to do any of that. I also urged them to engage in diplomacy, to seek a political settlement with the Taliban (Biden, 2021, 16:02).

In this excerpt, the speaker communicates the ideology of goodwill by inviting foreign leaders to a round-table talk and phone call conversations premised on openness and frankness. In this regard, the speaker projects himself as a tolerant and liberal leader able to shepherd reconciliation among leaders in troubled countries. The speaker goes on to state that:

I will not repeat the mistakes we’ve made in the past. The mistake of staying and fighting indefinitely in a conflict that is not in the national interest of the United States, of doubling down on a civil war in a foreign country, of attempting to remake a country through the endless military deployments of U.S. forces. Those are the mistakes we cannot continue to repeat because we have significant vital interest in the world that we cannot afford to ignore (Biden, 2021, 16:02).

In this part, the speaker projects himself as a considerate and patriotic leader who would not want to endanger the lives of his citizenry by constantly engaging them in military offensives and occupations in foreign land that does not service the national interests of his country. The speaker also noted that, “I’ve worked on these issues as long as anyone” (Biden, 2021, 16:02). In this statement, the speaker highlights himself as a diligent leader and worker, which characterized the pillars and ideals of the American society. Altogether, the three excerpts depict the speaker in positive light as a human being and a patriotic leader and a diligent individual who places the interests of his country and society above his own, which are ideologies upheld by his society. 

In highlighting the positive aspects of his country and the western world, the speaker said:

We will continue to support the Afghan people. We will lead with our diplomacy, our international influence and our humanitarian aid. We’ll continue to push for regional diplomacy and engagement to prevent violence and instability. We’ll continue to speak out for the basic rights of the Afghan people, of women and girls, just as we speak out all over the world (Biden, 2021, 16:02).

This statement advances the ideologies of diplomacy in resolving international conflicts, humanism by helping other people in distress, and human rights by seeking to protect the rights of women and children. 

Negative other-representation

In the ideology square advanced by Van Dijk, negative other-representation emphasizes the other-negatives, while curtailing other-positives. In this strategy, the weaknesses, mistakes and inadequacies of others are exaggerated while the positive accomplishments are ignored and avoided. In this regard, President Biden selects topics relating to the weakness of the Afghani government and military, and the rise of the Taliban, whose doctrine is premised on suppressing the rights of women and children. He adopts an accusatory stance when he blames the incompetence and cowardice of the Afghani government and military as the cause of the humanitarian crisis, chaotic withdrawal of civilians and deteriorated security in Afghanistan.

Examples of the use of negative other representation to define the Afghanis government and the Taliban can be discerned from the speech. For instance, the speaker noted that, “…the Afghan government and its supporters discouraged us from organizing a mass exodus to avoid triggering, as they said, a crisis of confidence (Biden, 2021, 16:02). The speaker also said that, “The events we’re seeing now are sadly proof that no amount of military force would ever deliver a stable, united, secure Afghanistan, as known in history as the graveyard of empires” (Biden, 2021, 16:02). Besides, the blame game continues when the speaker said:

To clean up the corruption in government so the government could function for the Afghan people. We talked extensively about the need for Afghan leaders to unite politically. They failed to do any of that. I also urged them to engage in diplomacy, to seek a political settlement with the Taliban. This advice was flatly refused (Biden, 2021, 16:02).

These three excerpts demonstrate the negative light shed on the Afghani government and military.  The speaker blames the Afghanis for the developing political and humanitarian crisis in their country and portrays then as being beyond help because they has not used the American assistance over the last two decades to rebuild their society.

Rhetorical strategies  

Several rhetoric strategies are evident in President Biden’s speech.

Rhetorical Questions

The speaker used rhetorical questions to provoke the thoughts of his audience and encourage their acceptance of certain ideologies.  For instance, when the speaker said:

How many more generations of America’s daughters and sons would you have me send to fight Afghanistan’s civil war when Afghan troops will not? How many more lives, American lives, is it worth, how many endless rows of headstones at Arlington National Cemetery? (Biden, 2021, 16:02)


The speaker also used repetition to emphasize the importance of the day the American troops should have withdrawn from the United States and the undesirable effects this would have yielded. Specifically, the speaker said, “There would have been no cease-fire after May 1. There was no agreement protecting our forces after May 1. There was no status quo of stability without American casualties after May 1.”   In this example the sentences end have after May 1 as a repeated ending, to emphasize the how ill prepared Afghanistan and the Biden’s administration were to ensure a peaceful withdrawal of the American military personnel.   


Euphemisms and dysphemisms are expressions used to control the sensitivity of effect of language to make it socially acceptable or repulsive, respectively. In political discourse, euphemisms and dysphemisms are used persuasively and idiomatically to placate or exacerbate the feelings, emotions and actions of the audience or at least create a significant mental image of the references issue or item (Felt & Riloff, 2020).  One examples of euphemism in the speech is the phrase “over-the-horizon capability”. Contrastingly, and example of dysphemism found in the speech is the phrase “gut-wrenching”. In this context, “over-the-horizon capability” is used to depict the use of military capacity outside the theatre of war using advanced technologies, in a non-alarmist manner. In turn, “gut-wrenching” is used in the speech to exaggerate the feelings evoked by the worrisome incidences being observed following the occupation of the government by the Taliban. 


Metaphors are rhetorical devices used to strengthen figurative speech and create mental imagery to increase the persuasive power of a discourse. The speaker uses metaphors such as, cold reality, stand squarely, and learned the hard way, laser focus, and graveyard of empires to make the language more expressive and persuasive.


Pronouns are used to advance the discrimination between the in-group and out-group. Therefore, pronouns seek to appeal to the recipients to adopt the views and ideologies of the speaker and ignore those of other entities in the communication.  In this regard, the speaker used the pronouns “I”, “we”, “us”, and “our” to persuade the listener to accept the speaker’s perspectives and accommodate his ideologies because they are supposedly better that those of other people. In turn, the speaker used the pronoun “they” to differentiate the inferior others from the superior ideologies of the person of the speaker, his country and his society.


The findings from President Biden’s Speech exhibit various aspects of discourse, which are discussed along the themes of textual structure, social structure and social cognition. In this discussion, these three dimensions of discourse contain the various linguistic strategies described in the results. However, using these themes contextualizes the application of diverse linguistic devices in a national and global society that is witnessing the unfolding of a political and humanitarian crisis following the withdrawal of foreign military personnel from a global hegemony and the resurgence of an insurgent group considered to have terrorist tendencies and extremist Islamic ideologies.  

Text, processing and social analysis

Text analysis focuses on the social structure of a speech or text as the corpus used to support a political discourse. The speech has several words used to communicate the difference between ‘us’ versus ‘them’, where ‘us’ stands for the Americans and ‘them’ depicts the Afghanis and Taliban’s. The findings of the critical discourse analysis revealed that the speaker employed various textual strategies to uphold the polarization of the American and Afghani societies. However, although pronouns were extensively used in the speech to differentiate the two societies explicitly, ideologically-laden phases were used particularly to highlight the positives of the American and western societies as the holders of power and derogate the Afghanis as the subjects in the power equation. However, the speaker was careful to avoid the use of strong language that would undermine his intension of communicating his ideologies, which are more subtle and reconciliatory compared to those of his predecessors from the republican party, especially President Bush and Trump. 

Power Balance

The results indicated that President Biden’s speech was rich with depictions of power, with the United States being portrayed as a global hegemony while Afghanistan and the Taliban were described as powerless entities heavily reliant on the presence of the American military personnel for peace to reign. However, from the findings, the speaker made concerted efforts to appear more persuasive than manipulative when steering the political discourse. In other words, although the speech was laced with ideologically-laden linguistic representations, the words and phrases selected were more subtle than scathing, and hence not intended to evoke aggressive resistance rebellion among the recipients.


From the findings, the speaker manipulated the cognitions and mental models of the recipients by employing rhetoric devices that appealed to the logic and emotions of the recipients (Van Dijk, 2006). The findings demonstrate extensive use of societally-acceptable language rather that the aggressive and coercive kind. The manipulative linguistic strategies targeted universal ideologies, such as humanism, freedom, consideration of others over self, and a regard for the marginalized in society.


The findings indicated a heavy deployment of persuasive language rather than manipulative one. The speaker was intent of striking a reconciliatory note without losing the power advantage as a hegemony. The use of negative lexicalization was limited and placated by the promise of help in the future. Similarly, the speaker focused more on aggrandizing himself to emphasize his moral stature rather than the moral authority of his country and western society. Besides, the speech exhibited limited indications of domination as the speaker endeavored to project himself as an ethical leader that used power responsibly and militaristic coercion sparingly.  


The speech has several implications to the perceptions of the withdrawal of the United States military by the current administration, particularly by the American citizens and the global community. The speech sought to secure the buy in of the withdrawal of the American troops by making emotional appeals. In the same vein, makers of the American foreign policy have critical lessons to learn from the speech, which could guide their future efforts. Although their current approach to foreign policy has not changed dramatically by this speech, the communication of the policy takes a subtler approach compared to that used by previous administrations, such as that of Presidents Bush and Trump. There is a deliberate effort to avoid using strong words and language yet the speech delivers a powerful message of the authority of the United States in international affairs, and communicates that the country is not ready to abandon its hegemonic position in international politics and security. Persuasion is central in political language, particularly when addressing controversial issues. In this case, the exit of the American military from Afghanistan is associated with the upsurge of the Taliban and their filing of the political void therein. The speech treads carefully in this dilemma by seeking to blame the Afghanis for their incompetence and failure despite receiving enormous support from the United States. This is a reflection of the no confrontational stance policymakers are likely to use in the future.  

Likewise, researchers can draw valuable lessons regarding language use presented in this speech. Researchers can learn how language in political discourses is employed to perpetuate dominance and power inequalities between states and political structures without being overly forceful and repugnant. Besides, the speech demonstrates that the language used in political discourses camouflages the hegemony of the United States by using terms and phrases that hide the intension to dominate the cultural, social and political structure of societies without sounding offensive and combative. 


Political speeches are often full of rhetoric and negative lexicalization when addressing sensitive and complex international matters. In this case, President Biden’s speech addressed the withdrawal of American troops from Afghanistan and justifies this action despite the political and social turmoil it delivers in its wake.  Unlike the speeches of his predecessor, that of President Biden had measured undertones of the resolve to exit the Afghanistan war theatre while conceding that the military occupation had not succeeded entirely as expected. Although President Biden encountered an embarrassing situation, he transferred the blame to previous administrations adeptly without damaging the reputation of himself, his country or the dominating society he represents. 


Al-Saaidi, S., Pandian, A., & Al-Shaibani, G. (2016). The semantic macrostructures and lexicalizations in Osama bin Laden’s speech of incitement. Academic Research International, 7(3), 288-300.

Amoussou, F., & Allagbe, A. A. (2018). Principles, theories and approaches to critical discourse analysis. International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature, 6(1), 11-18.

Felt, C., & Riloff, E. (2020, July). Recognizing euphemisms and dysphemisms using sentiment analysis. In Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing (pp. 136-145).

Flowerdew, J., & Richardson, J. E. (2017). The Routledge handbook of critical discourse studies. Taylor & Francis.

Graham, P. (2018). Ethics in critical discourse analysis. Critical Discourse Studies, 15(2), 186-203.

Jasim, R. M., & Mustafa, S. S. (2020). A semantic and rhetorical study of manipulation in two English and Arabic political speeches. Arab World English Journal, 11(4), 426-444.

Liu, K., & Guo, F. (2016). A review on critical discourse analysis. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 6(5), 1076-1084.

Najarzadegan, S., Dabaghi, A., & Eslami-Rasekh, A. (2017). A Critical Discourse Analysis of Iran and US Presidential Speeches at the UN: The socio-pragmatic functions. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 7(9), 764-774.

Unvar, S., & Rahimi, A. (2013). A critical discourse analysis of discursive structures in a political text. International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology, 3(3), 12-20.

Van Dijk, T. A. (2006). Discourse and manipulation. Discourse & Society, 17(3), 359-383.

Van Dijk, T. A., & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. Academic Press.

Waugh, L. R., Catalano, T., Al Masaeed, K., Do, T. H., & Renigar, P. G. (2016). Critical discourse analysis: Definition, approaches, relation to pragmatics, critique, and trends. In Interdisciplinary studies in pragmatics, culture and society (pp. 71-135). Springer, Cham.

Building the Profession of Nursing best college essay help
Building the Profession of Nursing





Due Date

Building the Profession of Nursing

The paper falls into parts. The first section examines the history of nursing identifies how Nightingale contributed to the profession through the selfless services she offered during the war. Her activities inspired others who saw the need to develop nursing as a profession. The second part evaluates two professional health organizations (AAPA and AMA) and examines their importance in nursing practice. The second part also elaborates on professional health organizations’ important roles in enhancing how practitioners perform their services. The development of nursing practice has offered nurses the opportunity to be part of professional organizations that help them to boost their service delivery. 

Part I – History of Nursing

Nursing practices enjoy a special place in American society. Nursing as a profession has prevailed throughout history, although it has changed significantly over the years. Modern nursing started with the actions of Florence Nightingale. She offered services to wounded soldiers during the Crimean War that happened in the 1850s and served a crucial function in transforming the course of the nursing profession in the whole of the 19th century (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2016). During this period, the role and obligation of nurses continued to widen due to the demand for their availability in the front lines of battles, where substandard hygiene often resulted in severe infections (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2016). Nightingale proceeded even further to advocate for better hygiene standards in the health facilities attending to the injured fighters, which significantly lowered mortality from infections. The opening of nursing schools in the 1860s further promoted the development of nursing practice (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2016). The solid foundation offered a better chance for nursing practice to undergo substantial changes. 

Nursing education and support from other influential people helped facilitated the growth of the nursing practice. More individuals aspiring to be nurses got the chance to gain relevant knowledge and skills from nursing institutions that sprang across America and Europe during the final half of the 19th century (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2016). Nursing programs were initially restricted to learning how to conduct primary skills and avoided the inclusion of science. However, progress in the field prompted the adoption of more sophisticated approaches that enhanced growth. Another aspect that promoted the growth and development of nursing practice is the support various influential people provided in different capacities (Mackey & Bassendowski, 2016). Other than Nightingale, Clara Barton played a significant role in developing nursing practice. She offered nursing services during the Civil War, and through her calls to increase medical supplies to medical facilities, she established the American Red Cross during the early 1880s. The influential events and people ensured nursing emerged as a crucial aspect of society.  

Part II – Professional Organizations

The Organizations and why they are Important to Nursing

The two professional health organizations important to nursing are the American Academy of PAs (APAA) and the American Medical Association (AMA). APAA is important to nursing because it educates and advocates for the profession and patients that physician assistants (PAs) serve (American Academy of PAs, 2021). AAPA operates to ensure PAs’ professional development, recognition, and personal development and to better their ability to increase the cost-effectiveness, reach, and quality of patient-centered health services (American Academy of PAs, 2021). On the other hand, AMA is important to nursing because it lobbies for medical students and physicians across the country (American Medical Association, 2021). The organization aspires to enhance the science and art of medicinal practices and health improvement (American Medical Association, 2021). The descriptions indicate that both AAPA and AMA play fundamental functions in enhancing nursing practices in the U.S. 

Resources they Provide to Members

Both AAPA and AMA provide valuable resources that help their members to perform their activities most effectively. The identified organizations provide education and training for their members, which equip them with valuable skills and knowledge. In addition, the organizations offer relevant information that informs nurses about emerging trends and changes in the field (American Academy of PAs, 2021). Moreover, both AAPA and AMA offer countrywide professional networks that allow their members to interact with others on issues influencing their operations. Providing these resources boosts nursing practices significantly. 

Cost of Membership and Available Members

Both organizations try as much as possible to attract more members who join the groups at a designated fee. AAPA has a membership of more than 150,000 affiliates (American Academy of PAs, 2021). The PAs come across all surgical and medical fields in all American states. A practitioner wishing to join AAPA must pay a membership fee of $100 annually to enjoy available services and benefits (American Academy of PAs, 2021). AMA, on the other hand, has more than 240,000 members affiliated with the group. Members pay an annual fee of $420, although it emerges that not every member can afford the entire fee (American Medical Association, 2021). Members of the respective professional organizations are entitled to all benefits. 

Current Issues

Both AAPA and AMA are presently working on certain issues that they think are important. AAPA, for instance, presently pays much attention to providing its members with the support they need to access expert advice on certification, licensing, resident life, and contract terms and conditions (American Academy of PAs, 2021). AMA, on its part, currently focuses on providing exclusive network connections for its members to ensure that affiliates connect with like-minded professionals (American Medical Association, 2021). Each firm dedicates enough resources towards the issues it currently works intending to realize targeted goals. 

Why Professional Organizations are Important to Nursing

Several factors make professional organizations important to nursing. Such institutions usually promote excellence in health practice, which contributes towards better service delivery. Matthews (2012) writes that the organizations are important for generating a flow of ideas, proactive work, and necessary energy required to maintain a healthy practice that calls for the needs of its nurses and clients. Besides, the organizations seek to build trust between health workers and society by advocating for health issues on different platforms. Matthews (2012) further informs that affiliation to a professional nursing organization offers health workers progressive education, opportunities, and certification needed to perform their activities proficiently. Matthews (2012) thinks that joining a professional health organization is important because of the ever-transforming nursing field and because nurses get relevant information and resources to conduct their activities. Thus, professional nursing organizations play fundamental roles in developing nursing practices. 


The study addresses how nursing developed and examines two professional health organizations and how they impact health practices. The paper credits the beginning of nursing practice to Nightingale, who was instrumental in developing the profession even though they received the support of other inspirational people. The second part of the paper evaluates the impact of AAPA and AMA in the nursing field. It emerges that these organizations support nurses in different capacities, and joining them presents a better chance for practitioners to conduct their operations. Finally, the research shows the important roles professional health organizations play in boosting the nursing profession. 


American Academy of PAs. (2021). American Academy of PAs.Retrieved 4 September, 2021, from

American Medical Association. (2021). American Medical Association. Retrieved 4 September, 2021, from

Mackey, A., & Bassendowski, S. (2016). The history of evidence based practice in nursing education and practice. Journal of Professional Nursing, 33(1), 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2016.05.009

Matthews, J. (2012). Role of professional organizations in advocating for the nursing profession. OJIN, 17(1), doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol17No01Man03

Sustainable Cultural Development online essay help
Student’s Name:




Sustainable Cultural Development

The role of a government in supporting a cultural economy in its country is critical. Government create enabling environment in which cultural activities can thrive and contribute to the national economy. Similarly, it has been demonstrated that sustainable development in countries can be advanced by incorporating cultural development into the national growth agenda. This requires viewing culture as an economic asset or activity that can contribute to the national wealth. Cultural diversity is one key issue of concern for the cultural economy and sustainable development, considering that contemporary nations have increasing multiethnic populations due to human migration, and in turn, becoming more multicultural. With dominant cultures being enriched, diluted and adulterated by other minority cultures to produce hybrid cultures, especially in urban areas where multiethnic groups intermingle, creating a cultural economy becomes more challenging amidst a rapidly evolving popular culture. Notably, high-income and highly developed nations have managed to leverage their cultural assets for economic development. Many countries in the west are renowned for their architecture, museums, and historical sites, which attract paying tourists, generating income for the local communities and national coffers. In these countries, well-thought out policies by national leaders have facilitated the realization of sustainable development using cultural capital as a production factor like labor, finances, and land. This discussion addresses the policies for supporting cultural economies in multicultural societies and sustainable development that focuses on cultural inclusivity. Brazil is used as a case for understanding government policy for advancing a cultural economy and delivering sustainable development in a multicultural setting through cultural creativity.

Key Issue

Cultural economy is a concept gaining prominence in the wake of increased emphasis on sustainable development. Although sustainable development has traditionally focused on prudent use of existing resources to ensure that future generations can also benefit from them and from the environment in which they were produced, it has traditionally excluded the cultural aspects of these resources. Normally, development has been viewed for a long time as the use of resources to modernize life such that people have access to better housing, food, and other basic requirements, are gainfully employed, and have resources that shield them from unforeseen adverse eventualities like economic downturns and natural disasters. When split to its constituted dimensions, development adopts economic, social and environmental aspects. In addition, sustainable development has reemphasized the importance of the environmental dimension in the economic and social aspects of development, which have characterized many sustainable development agendas and initiatives. During its early conceptualization, sustainable development was viewed exclusively as development that utilizes resources without destroying the environment, so that the resources and environment remain usable by future generations.

However, this ideology is changing, as has been demonstrated in many international conferences on sustainable development that have been conducted in the 20th and 21 centuries, amid growing concerns about global warming, globalization of culture and decimation of indigenous ones, especially those from marginalized communities. This is because there is a notable paradigmatic change from deemphasizing development discourses to perceiving culture as a critical component of development (De Marchi 199).  De Marchi noted that previous sustainable development discourses focused on industrialization and modernization of indigenous cultures as the accepted perspective of economic growth. However, with the growing appreciation of cultural assets, especially after the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the advent of globalization, creative industries became accepted as a strategic means of yielding fairer international trade benefits (198). Unfortunately, creative industries are still nascent in emerging and underdeveloped economies, believing that intense industrialization is the sure path to economic development. The problem is that the administrations in these countries do not realize the cultural wealth held by their nations or the developmental benefits that can be accrued from exploiting the national cultural capital.  

Cultural capital is now a recognized factor of production similar to labor, land, and finances. More recently, the need to conserve culture has gained prominence similar to that accorded to environmental conservation. In this regard, sustainable development is not only about utilizing resources in developmental activities sustainably, but also employing cultural resources for the benefit of the present and future generations (Nocca 1882). The United Nations (UN) has played a critical role in promoting the cultural dimension of sustainable development as part of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Although culture has been mentioned marginally in the sustainable development discourse and documents; only once in Target 11.4 of the UN’s sustainable development goals, that recognition has ignited a robust discussion about the applicability of cultural capital in national development (Nocca 1886).

Nonetheless, despite these impressive developments, these conceptualizations have not found their way into national policies on development in many countries. The critical issue is that while many of the countries that are members of the United Nations attend international conferences and reach consensuses about lending prominence to cultural issues when conducting development discourses and formulating development policies. Consequently, development in many countries continues to be skewed towards those with access to the traditional factors of production, disenfranchising those that have culture as their only capital and resource.      

Contemporary Paradigms

Cultural elements have always been delegated to the background during development discourses. In fact, culture has been considered a backward aspect that characterizes an uncivilized society. Mason and Turner (83) narrate how the American society has transformed its culture since the days of the settlers and colonizers of the 18th century. In this case, the culture of the indigenous American communities was viewed to be backwards, barbaric, and in need of modernization. Similarly, slaves imported into the Americas had to be civilized, by teaching them European cultures and discouraging their indigenous ones. The colonizers often used various tactics, like positive reinforcement though gifts, for those that denounced their culture and adopted those of their masters. Other tactics included, punishment following criminalizing certain indigenous cultural activities and practices, such as religion, language and attire. Therefore, cultural creativity, production, and performance have been viewed from a traditional and leisurely lens. Specifically, it has been widely accepted that culture does not hold or add any value in the economic, social and environmental dimensions of development (Mason and Turner 83). This established and longstanding perception has perpetuated the social injustice, and economic inequalities observed in the contemporary societies of the world today.  

However, this paradigm is changing quickly, with cultural issues featuring more in development discourses. For instance, Mason and Turner 83) contends that culture has an equal importance like the social, economic and environmental aspects of development. They continue to not that development is not sustainable when the four component do not converge, that is the cultural, economic, social and environmental components of development. Wiktor-Mach (6) refines this explanation by revealing that cultural expressions are considered alongside social equity, economic health and environmental responsibility as the four pillars of sustainable development. Specifically, cultural expressions in the form of songs, dress, language, architecture, and many others, promote social equity. In other words, people with access to cultural assets have an equal opportunity with those with other forms of assets, to contribute to development sustainably. Likewise, people with cultural assets can generate wealth and improve their economic health. Similarly, people possessing cultural assets can exhibit environmental responsibility in similar ways to those with material assets.

In turn, Mason and Turner (83) contend that technological advancement and changes in the value system alongside the economic growth that comes with domination, has characterized the recent changes in the world. This means that the activities societies and nations engage in to gain control of others and the resources they have, especially during wars or violent encounters, have often been used to promote dominant cultures while obliterating the marginal ones. Similarly, globalization, which has been facilitated by technological advancements, has propelled dominant cultures of the west to the rest of the world, a notion that has been associated with the modern definition of civilization and development. In turn, many indigenous cultures, especially those in the theatres of war, like Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan, have been threatened by the destruction of invaluable and ancient cultural artifacts, and the criminalization of cultural practices. Therefore, Mason and Turner (83) argue that were it not for the efforts of organizations, like UNESCO, many traditional cultures and cultural artifacts would have been obliterated by the forces of development. This organization is responsible for declaring certain cultural artifacts as heritage sites requiring protection and preservation. Interestingly, many of these sites are located in western countries and are used to generate huge amounts of revenue for the local communities and governments.  

The limited use of the term culture in international strategic and sustainable development discourses and documents is indicative of its ambiguity and the controversy it generates. In other words, culture has an indefinite and imprecise definition, which limits its understanding, particularly in development discourses. The application of culture in development is rare and fraught with inaccuracies, ambiguities and contextual issues, thus undermining the understating of the nexus between the cultural, and the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of development. However, understanding the approaches used in exploring culture-sustainability relations may aid in the incorporation of culture in sustainable development initiatives. The approaches are the interpretation of culture as one of the pillars of sustainable development (fourth dimension, after economic, social and environmental pillars), culture as a mediator dimension of the three sustainable development pillars, and culture as the petiotization of sustainable development (Soini and Dessein 170). In turn, inclusion and actualization of culture in sustainable development is facilitated by cultural policies as part of the political agenda of the political administrations in a country. Duxbury, Kangas and De Beukelaer (221) argued that cultural policies for sustainable development could be formulated along four strategic pathways; a) protecting and sustaining cultural rights and practices, b) greening the activities and effects of the players in the cultural industry, c) raising environmental awareness through cultural activities and artifacts, and d) fostering ecological citizenship worldwide and tackling sustainability as a universal issue. Nonetheless, several examples of the integration of culture into developmental issues exist, especially in highly-developed and high-income countries. Noonan and Rizzo (96) note that cultural tourism is the incorporation of cultural aspects of a destination into its tourism experiences. In this regard, countries protect their cultural heritage and artifacts, and showcase them to tourists willing to travel along the cultural journey. They note that cultural tourism takes various forms, from pilgrimages to medical tourism and ecotourism (Noonan and Rizzo 96). Altogether, sustainable cultural development should incorporate culture alongside the economic, social and environmental dimensions, and include culturally-related strategies in sustainable development policies. 

Case Study

The Secretariat of the Creative Economy plan by the Ministry of Culture in Brazil is an apt example of the policy initiatives promoting the nexus between culture and sustainable development. The policy is a product of the reconceptualization of culture in Brazil in the 1990s, which explained culture as a symbolic expression, a citizen’s right, and a potential component for sustainable economic development (De Marchi 206). This paradigm change transformed the focus of protection and promotion of indigenous cultures, to using culture as a means of economic empowerment. In addition, this policy has promoted the commercialization of Brazilian carnivals that showcase indigenous cultures in the form of dress, song, art, food, and other cultural artifacts (De Ulhoa, Azevedo and Trotta 19). Besides, Albornoz and Leiva 191) noted that Brazil has internationalized its musical rhythms like the Samba using the exposure from global networks of mass and social media and technology. This exposure has not only fused the Brazilian culture with other international cultures in music, but has also brought much economic success to the creative Brazilian musical artists.

However, Brazil’s case demonstrated the central role played by political players and regimes in defining the development agenda of a country and in turn, the integration of culture into the formulation of development policies. Culture has been lent different levels of prominence by different regimes. Interestingly, the authoritarian regimes in Brazil have valued culture more that the democratic ones. Apparently, the authoritarian regimes have used culture to gain legitimacy and popularity among the Brazilians. These regimes have used tokenism to reward Brazilians with cultural benefits and recognition for being obedient and subservient. Specific rewards included the support for private cultural enterprises by the federal government provided the enterprises could popularize the regime through their corporate communicative messaging (De Marchi 202). Contrastingly, the democratic regimes downplayed cultural issues. Therefore, Brazil’s case presents example of discontinuity in cultural policies, which undermine the realization of the full potential of culture as a contributor to national development.      

Critical Evaluation

The policy outlined by Brazil’s Ministry of Culture, through the Secretariat of the Creative Economy demonstrates the ability of national policies in redefining the role of culture in countries. Brazil presents a country that has championed the formulation of cultural policies among emerging economies across the world; a fete that had always been associated with first-world countries like Britain and Australia. Notably, Brazil has tinkered with cultural policies since its first, in in 1973, dubbed the National Plan for Culture. Since then, the Brazilian government has incorporated culture in its policymaking, which culminated with the creation of the Ministry of Culture. The Brazilian example demonstrates that political regimes are increasingly recognizing the economic value of cultural creativity and its products as a source of national wealth. Cultural goods can be consumed as exported artifacts or domestic experiences, which can generate handsome revenues when well-packaged and promoted. In turn, such initiatives support a secular economy and sustainable development, considering that culture is an inexhaustible and immaterial resource that can contribute to sustainable development like other social, economic and environmental activities.  


Cultural creativity can deliver economic prosperity alongside sustainable development to nations with rich cultural resources. The development delivered by cultural capital and creativity is sustainable because it often involves the minority community members without other forms of capital. In turn, cultural economies are suitable because they support the efficient use of economic, social and environmental resources while considering future generations.  

Works Cited

Albornoz, Luis A., and Ma Trinidad Garcia Leiva. Audio-visual industries and diversity: Economics and policies in the digital era. Routledge, 2019.

De Marchi, Leonardo. “Analysis of the Secretariat of the Creative Economy Plan and the transformations in the relation of State and culture in Brazil.” Intercom: Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Comunicação, vol. 37, 2014, pp. 193-215.

De Ulhoa, Martha Tupinamba, Cláudia Azevedo, and Felipe Trotta. Made in Brazil: Studies in popular music. Routledge, 2015.

Duxbury, Nancy, Anita Kangas, and Christiaan De Beukelaer. “Cultural policies for sustainable development: Four strategic paths.” International Journal of Cultural Policy, vol. 23, no. 2, 2017, pp. 214-230.

Mason, Michael Atwood, and Rory Turner. “Cultural sustainability: A framework for relationships, understanding, and action.” The Journal of American Folklore, vol. 133, no. 527, 2020, pp. 81-105.

Nocca, Francesca. “The role of cultural heritage in sustainable development: Multidimensional indicators as decision-making tool.” Sustainability, vol. 9, no. 10, 2017, pp. 1882-1910.

Noonan, Douglas S., and Ilde Rizzo. “Economics of cultural tourism: issues and perspectives.” Journal of Culture and Economics, 2017, pp. 95-107.

Soini, Katriina, and Joost Dessein. “Culture-sustainability relation: Towards a conceptual framework.” Sustainability, vol. 8, no. 2, 2016, pp. 167-189.

Wiktor-Mach, Dobrosława. “What role for culture in the age of sustainable development? UNESCO’s advocacy in the 2030 Agenda negotiations.” International Journal of Cultural Policy, vol. 26, no. 3, 2020, pp. 312-327.

Culture Analysis Paper   college admissions essay help
Culture Analysis Paper  

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Culture Analysis Paper

The Montgomery County government is a public entity whose primary role is to serve the people of the Montgomery County. As a public institution, which does not generate profits, but instead relies on public resources to run it and fund its activities, the Montgomery County government is expected to deliver high-quality services to its residents. The county government shares many attributes with other governmental agencies, in which the quality of services superseded profits. In other words, although county governments are expected to generate their own revenue to reduce their reliance on state and federal funds, they are not expected to make profits from the services they deliver within their jurisdiction.

Nonetheless, the success of public entities, such as the Montgomery County government, is pegged on the strategies they formulate and the leadership that formulates and oversees the actualization of the strategies, and cultivates a conducive organizational culture. This analysis delves into the organizational culture of the Montgomery County government to help understand how it influences the quality of the service delivery to the county residents and explains its performance as a public organization. The analysis addresses the three dimensions of organizational culture; artifacts, values; and underlying assumptions.

Research Question

This analysis sought to characterize the organizational culture of the Montgomery County government. Therefore it aimed at answering the question; what are the artifacts, values, and underlying assumptions that characterize the organizational culture of the Montgomery County government?

Data Collection Approach

Data was collected from secondary sources obtained online. The secondary sources comprised archived publications found online, including peer-reviewed journal articles, the official website of and press releases from the Montgomery Country government, organizational publications, news items, and expert opinions (Largan & Morris, 2019). Google, Google Scholar, and Microsoft Academic were the search engines used to query the internet for relevant publications. The keywords used in the search included, organizational culture of The Montgomery County government, organizational culture of county governments in the united states, and organizational culture in the public sector. In the same vein, the inclusion criteria for selecting the appropriate secondary sources for the analysis were; i) publications were published within the last 5 years (since 2016), and ii) the publications are published in English, unless they contain relevant historical information or theoretical models and frameworks. This ensured that the data was current and relevant to the topic of analysis (Largan & Morris, 2019).


The Montgomery County is located in the state of Maryland in the eastern United States. The organization has more than 10,000 employees working in its more than thirty agencies and departments that perform activities and offer services ranging from law enforcement to education. Marc Elrich heads the executive leader of the county, which is the most populous and one of the wealthiest in the state of Maryland (The Montgomery County Government, 2021). Despite being elected, he enjoys significant autonomy compared to those leading counties established by the state’s general law. Also, the Montgomery country government ranks the sixth-best government companies to work for in the state of Maryland based on employee diversity, financial health, and salaries (Zippia (2021). In turn, the Montgomery County has a unique corporate culture that influences how its labor force delivers services to its residents. 


The Montgomery County government is run as a council or executive government based on the Montgomery County charter approved by the county’s voters in 1968 (The Montgomery County Government, 2021). This means that the county government has the autonomy to run its affairs based on the spelled out structures, duties, and powers of the government and the rights of its citizens. The charter enables the Montgomery county government to dictates how it organizes its human capital and institutes an administrative code stipulating the policies, regulation and procedures to be followed in administration, provided the state law and the constitution of the United States are not violated.

The Montgomery County government’s jurisdiction covers over 1,300 square kilometers and a population of just over a million residents (United States Census Bureau, 2021). In its administration, the Montgomery County Government’s vision is actualizing ‘a more equitable and inclusive the Montgomery county’, by delivering a growing economy, a greener county, safe neighborhoods, affordability, thriving youth and families, and an effective and sustainable government (The Montgomery County Government, 2021). In turn, its mission is, “to provide for the peace, good governance, health, safety, and welfare of the County in accordance with, and under the authority of, the constitution and laws of Maryland, and the Montgomery County charter” (Zippi, 2021). However, delivering these aspirations are challenging for a county government serving a large and wealthy population.

The organizational structure of the Montgomery County Government is hierarchical, which is characteristic of the United States government and its agencies and departments, or any other government. An elected chief executive heads the government and therefore, their allegiance is to the electorate, the residents, and the political party that sponsored and endorsed their election bid. The chief administrative officer oversees various administrative and operational departments and agencies (The Montgomery County Government, 2021). The organizational structure is illustrated in figure 1.

Figure 1. Organizational chart of the Montgomery County government

Source: The Montgomery County Government (2021)

This organizational culture is characteristic of traditional organizations that are top-heavy in their decision-making processes. 


The Montgomery County government values interpersonal relationships more than it does task performance. People orientation supersedes outcome orientation because the government is more concerned about how it is perceived by the human capital and residents of the county rather than how well it realizes its strategy. For instance, one employee of the county government noted that, “I am always welcomed by the staff and feel part of the team’ (Indeed, 2021). Similarly, a former administrative assistant at the county government commented that, “a typical day of work consisted of customer service and organization. Management was easy to work with and very helpful when needed” (Indeed, 2021).

Underlying Assumptions

The Montgomery County government’s employees stay for an average of 5.6 years (Zippia, 2021). However, most employees (89%) are affiliated with the Democratic Party (Zippia, 2021). These facts are derived from the critical role that politics plays in the strategy formulation and execution at the county government. A critical assumption is that the county government will always exist and will not go out of business, which breeds complacency in service delivery. Also, county employees feel that they should please their superiors rather than display competence and creativity, to retain their jobs. Therefore, the employees should always support the county government, even when it fails in its mandate. Indeed. Many employees at the county found politics to be overbearing over decision-making. For instance, several county legislators felt that the state government denied them the opportunity to serve the diverse county’s population with inclusive vaccine distribution targeting the most vulnerable and minorities (Bass, 2021).  


This analysis was structured according to Edgar Schein’s factors influencing an organization’s culture; artifacts, espoused values and basic underlying assumptions (Schein & Schein, 2016). The analysis of these factors revealed that the Montgomery County government has a hierarchical organizational culture in which the top executives possessed the decision-making authority while the employees felt powerless and undervalued (Slack & Singh, 2018).

The top leadership was responsible for the creation and perpetuation of this culture because they were heavily influenced by politics (Schein & Schein, 2016). The leaders’ decisions and actions were influenced by their allegiance to the Democratic Party and political expediency. In turn, the county employees cared more about adhering to the political demands rather than delivering high-quality services, making them complacent (Haider, et al., 2019). This explains why the well-designed policies and initiatives were not realized, despite being highly-publicized.


This study used the Montgomery County government to provide insights into the organizational culture in public/governmental institutions in the United States. Although the Montgomery County government was established by a charter that gave it greater autonomy compared to non-charter country governments in the United States, its independence in decision-making was eroded by political interference and allegiance. The top-heavy approach towards decision-making disempowered the country employees and hindered the country government from being a high-performing organization, despite proclaiming that it was people-centered.


Bass (2021). “Where’s the damn plan?” The montgomeryCo. Leasers frustrated by state government. Retrieved from

Haider, S., Bao, G., Larsen, G. L., & Draz, M. U. (2019). Harnessing sustainable motivation: A grounded theory exploration of public service motivation in local governments of the state of Oregon, United States. Sustainability, 11(11), 3105-3135.

Indeed (2021). The Montgomery County government culture reviews. Retrieved from

Largan, C., & Morris, T. (2019). Qualitative secondary research: A step-by-step guide. Sage.

The montgomeryCounty Government (2021). Official website. Retrieved from

Schein, E. H. & Schein, P. A. (2016). Organizational culture and leadership. EBSCO Publishing.

Slack, N. J., & Singh, G. (2018). Diagnosis of organizational culture in public sector undertakings undergoing reforms. Public Organization Review, 18(3), 361-380.

United States Census Bureau (2021). Maryland. Retrieved from

Zippia (2021). Working at The Montgomery County government. Retrieved from

Adolescent Physical Development Newsletter writing essay help
Adolescent Physical Development Newsletter

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:

Adolescent Physical Development Newsletter

Understanding Adolescence and Adolescents

The appearance of secondary sex characteristics is a challenging phenomenon for children as they transit into adulthood. It marks the onset of sexual maturation, and characterized by a plethora of biological, cognitive, emotional. And psychosocial changes that are often strange and confusing to adolescents. Understanding puberty sheds light on how the sexual maturation process influences adolescents’ behavior and academic performance in school. Your role would be to create a conducive environment that enables students to explore, experiment and learn appropriately through scaffolding and support as they journey into adulthood (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2019). You need to comprehend the puberty phenomenon to help your children cope with the enormous and forceful changes without interfering with their studies at school. 

Puberty over the Last 100 Years

The common knowledge and belief are that puberty occurs earlier now than a century ago. According to the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019), the last century has been characterized by an increased biological and social mismatch in the construct of adolescence, in which children were attaining physical maturation at a younger age and social maturation at an older age in the contemporary society compared to medieval times. Several studies have indicated that while the age of puberty has reduced over time, girls have experienced a greater reduction than boys (Farello, et al., 2019). Notably, in western cultures, the age of menarche had reduced from 16-17 years to 12-13 years old, while boys were commencing puberty at the age of 11 rather than 10 (Hernandez, 2018). The changes in the environment and diet are attributed to the early onset of puberty today. Although the environment was severe 100 years ago, leading to physical stress and malnutrition, the contemporary one is characterized by improved health and nutrition, promoting faster development (Lewis, Shapland & Watts, 2016).

Early and Late Onset Puberty

Puberty that occurs earlier or later than the normal age can influence the physical and psychological development of students significantly. Often, any abnormal changes cause adverse effects in adolescents, considering that self-image and relationships become more pertinent to the individuals (Simmons & Blyth, 2017). Early onset of puberty is accompanied by rapid body growth, especially of the secondary sexual characteristics, while late puberty onset delays the physical growth of the individual.

Figure 1. Changes during puberty

In the same vein, children that are outliers in the normal physical development during puberty are often mocked, bullied, and isolated by their peers for looking different. Such exclusion causes the students experiencing early or late puberty to have poor social and emotional relationships with their peers. With time, this may lead to maladjusted personalities that may hinder the normal functioning and academic performance of the afflicted students (Simmons & Blyth, 2017).   

Physical Development, Cognitive Processing, and Decision-Making

The physical changes occurring during adolescence, at particularly puberty, influence cognitive processing and decision-making of the adolescents significantly. Specifically, adolescents undergo significant growth (remodeling rather than physical expansion) of their brains, accompanied by the release of hormones and awakening of the senses (Leshem, 2016). Although the development of the prefrontal cortex is ongoing, its involvement in decision-making is limited but developing during adolescence. Consequently, adolescents still exhibit impulsive decision-making using their amygdala while displaying increased logic, emotional awareness, and abstract thinking in their decision-making processes (Leshem, 2016). 

Role of Technology

Students are in a growth and development phase in which relations, connectedness, and belongingness are prioritized. Students seek friendships that accommodate their uniqueness while making them feel wanted, loved, and accepted. Technology eases the means of relating by removing the time and space barriers. Digital technologies have impacted significantly, the interaction between peers, changing the connectedness concept (Mark & Nguyen, 2017). Notably, social media, which is popular with teenagers, has expanded the reach and shrunk the distance of friends. Similarly, it has created a new sense of connectedness in which the physical component has lost prominence. For instance, through Facebook, students can feel connected to their peers and friends virtually as well as meet new friends online and relate with them virtually without having to meet them face-to-face. Also, students can follow their heroes, people they admire and celebrities, on Facebook and Twitter, and therefore feel connected.   

Safe, Ethical, and Responsible Use of Technology

Technology, and especially digital technology, opens new and unchartered horizons for students and the education sector. Digital technologies can be used beneficially, although they also present new risks and detriments when used inappropriately (Mark & Nguyen, 2017). Safe, ethical, and responsible use of technology by students ensures that they reap the benefits without suffering the detriments of technology use (Mark & Nguyen, 2017). In this regard, you need to ensure that the technology equipment is available at specified times and safe locations in the school where their use can be monitored. In addition, you need to equip your students with the skills and knowledge for ethical use of technology, and especially social media. This would prevent students from engaging in cyberbullying of others. Besides, you should teach your students how to use technology responsibly for academic and entertainment purposes while discouraging them from using technology for antisocial activities, like watching violence and pornography. This will help your students discriminate between reality and virtual reality. 


Take time to understand puberty and how it interacts with digital technology among adolescent students. Puberty is accompanied by tremendous physical and psychological changes that influence the thinking and decision-making of students, while digital technologies expand these horizons further. Your role should be to help your adolescent students navigate their puberty while employing technology safely, ethically, and responsibly.


Farello, G., Altieri, C., Cutini, M., Pozzobon, G., & Verrotti, A. (2019). Review of the literature on current changes in the timing of pubertal development and the incomplete forms of early puberty. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 7, 147.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2019). The promise of adolescence: Realizing opportunity for all youth. National Academies Press.

Hernandez, D. (2018). The decreasing age of puberty. Retrieved from

Mark, L. K., & Nguyen, T. T. T. (2017). An Invitation to Internet Safety and Ethics: School and Family Collaboration. Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 23, 62-75.

Leshem, R. (2016). Brain development, impulsivity, risky decision making, and cognitive control: Integrating cognitive and socioemotional processes during adolescence—an introduction to the special Issue. Developmental Neuropsychology, 41(1-2), 1-5, doi: 10.1080/87565641.2016.1187033

Simmons, R. G., & Blyth, D. A. (2017). Moving into adolescence: The impact of pubertal change and school context. Routledge.

Lewis, M. E., Shapland, F., & Watts, R. (2016). The influence of chronic conditions and the environment on pubertal development: An example from medieval England. International Journal of Paleopathology, 12, 1-10.

Childcare college essay help online
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name




EBP and how it Informs Practice

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an approach nursing practitioners use to solve problems by incorporating the most appropriate proof from research within the area of practice. The practice allows nursing practitioners to incorporating expertise, client values and conditions related to client management. Nurses can rely on the concepts of EBP to offer the most appropriate care that is available, with the goal of enhancing client outcomes. Thus, clients expect to get the most appropriate care depending on the most suitable available proof. EBP can inform nursing practice because it entails changing evidence into practice, also called knowledge translation, and ensures all nursing practitioners know and utilize research evidence to impact on their knowledge. Moreover, making decisions based on evidence allows nurses to make informed decisions that are not subject to opposition or criticism. Besides, EBP allows practitioners to engage in thorough analysis of a particular concept or issue. Instructors get an opportunity to ask questions, acquire different issues, appraise a particular concept, apply the information, and assess its impact. However, nurses may experience certain challenges when it comes to using EBP in their practice. A major concern could be lack of adequate knowledge of how the approach works, which could be attributed to lack of knowledge in this area. Another possible challenges of implementing EBP is lack of time, which deny practitioners an opportunity to perform adequate research on a particular field. However, EBP plays fundamental roles in influencing the practice of individual practitioners despite existing challenges that are possible to overcome.

Scope and Legal Status of EYFS


The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is an educational curriculum suited for children aged 0-5 years. The program was initiated in 2006 following the enactment of the Childcare Act, and all childminders and centers registered by Ofsted must adhere to its directives. The EYFS curriculum outlines the guidelines for children learning, development and care. It is the initial phase of a child’s education, and ends when one proceeds to Key Stage One (KS1). One primary objective of the EYFS is to promote children’s learning and development. It directly aspires to support childminders and the teaching staff. The policy falls into distinct phases of development, so one can easily identify information and guidance for a specific age group that they require. The structure does not only outline anticipated developmental achievements but also help those working with learners within the required age limit in offering relevant needs, learning environment, and support.

Legal Status

Concerning its legal status, the EYFS is statutory, which means that it is a compulsory need for all registered child care givers to follow in their organizations. The target group must adhere to the provided guidance, rules, and regulations surrounding the welfare of learners to encourage a good beginning in life.

Overall Structure of EYFS

 The structure of the EYFS falls into seven different categories of learning and development.

First Element: One of these areas is communication and language development, which asserts that offering an environment for young learners to express their ideas as well as speak and listen in a range of contexts permit them to enhance their language and communication proficiency.

Second Element: The other aspect is physical development, which advocates for active engagement in physical activities, which play fundamental roles in making children active.

Third Element: The third aspect is personal. Emotional, and social development, an area that seeks to influence children’s social competence and builds respect and awareness of their different perceptions and feelings.

Fourth Element: The fourth aspect is literacy development, which aims at familiarizing learners with phonemic features, which include the capacity to hear and recognize different sounds and words, and also to commence reading and writing.

Fifth Element: The fifth aspect is mathematics, which aims at equipping children with relevant skills to handle numbers and a wide range of calculations.

Sixth Element: Understanding the world entails engaging learners in getting sense through observation and assessing everything.

Seventh Element: Expressive arts and design, on the other hand, entails actions such as drawing, painting, and using technological apparatus. All these aspects constitute the structure of the EYFS.

Inspection of Early Settings to Check Delivery of EYFS

Ofsted often conduct regular inspections to assess the overall condition of early year providers once they are included on the Early Years Register. The primary objective of the assessment is to ensure that the early setting meets recommended guidelines and standards. Presently, nursery facilities will have their settings assessed by Ofsted at least once after every four years, but this can usually result in an eight-year difference between assessment visits. Inspection often happens during the first thirty months after registration, followed by single assessment during each round of inspection. However, inspection is also likely to occur in case someone brings forward concerns about the childcare they are offering. For childminders already enlisted with Ofsted, their evaluation will be subject to grades. Ofsted evaluation will pay attention to the child’s education as well as their emotional and personal development and the development children record during learning. Ofsted would then publish the outcome of graded inspection on its website. The assessment plays fundamental roles in ensuring all centers function in accordance with issued guidelines.

Implications of Safeguarding and Welfare Requirements within EYFS

The safeguarding and welfare requirements are formulated to ensure that childcare providers encourage the welfare of children and ensure their safety and well-being. The EYFS calls on all early providers to consider various areas of safeguarding and welfare stipulated under the policy’s framework. The regulation calls for child protection by being alert to any concerns in a learner’s life and following recommended safeguarding procedures and guidelines. The other safeguarding and welfare requirement is to recruit suitable people who are capable of handling children in the most suitable way. Consequently, it is imperative to ensure instructors have adequate training, skills, and support needed to perform their activities. In addition, safeguarding and welfare requirements call for increased maintenance of records and information with professionals and parents as effectively as possible to meet pupils’ needs. The EYFS considers the safeguarding and welfare requirements as important because of the implications associated with the practice. For instance, the practice helps to boost health of learners as well as play fundamental functions in managing behaviours. Moreover, emphasizing on safeguarding and welfare requirements is important because this helps to protect the safety and suitability of learning facilities and the environment.

EYFS Outcomes

The EYFS learning outcomes are designed to help teachers make meaningful assessment and observations and ensure learners are advancing in each facet of development. Concerning improving social and personal development, the EYFS recommends making stable relationships and gaining awareness and self-confidence. Moreover, the framework aspires to help learners manage their behaviors and feelings. Besides, the EYFS seeks to help learners improve their handling and moving capabilities and to help them take good care of their health and practice self-care. The developers of EYFS hope to improve learners’ use of language and communication by improving their listening and attention skills, developing their speaking capabilities, and enhancing their understanding. In addition, the EYFS aspires to build learners’ reading and writing skills, which are very important when transforming children into proficient people. The policy also aspires to change how learners interact with numbers, space, measurements, and shapes that are all important in mathematics. More fundamentally, the EYFS aims at improving how learners understand the world by equipping them with relevant technological skills as well as information on how people and communities relate with each other in the world. The EYFS outcomes play crucial roles in guiding instructors who gain insight into the effects of their practices. Every teacher be conversant with the outcomes to focus their services towards targeted objectives.

Diversity, Equality, Inclusion

Equality, diversion, and inclusion ensures fair opportunity and treatment for everyone. The concepts aspire to overcome discrimination and prejudice on the level of an individual or group of individual’s safeguarded or protected characteristics. Some of the protected characteristics according to the Equality Act 2010, include age, gender reassignment, disability, sex, race, and religion or belief among other factors. Discrimination or prejudice on the basis of any of these features is unlawful. Thus, equality, diversion, and inclusion aim at preventing adverse effects that could befall anyone as a result of violating the protected characteristics. Diversity means acknowledging, respecting an appreciating each other dissimilarities. A diverse setting or environment is one with a broad range of mindsets and backgrounds, which permits for an empowered team and culture of innovation and creativity. Equality, on the other hand, refers to the fairness, which requires everyone to treat everyone equally. Finally, inclusion refers to forming an environment where every person feels valued and welcomed. It is only possible to create an inclusive environment when people are more aware of their unconscious differences, and have learned how to handle them.

Value of Child-Centered Model of Assessment

A learning institution that embraces a child-centered approach will always put the young learner at the center of all learning activities and meet the requirements of each individual child. A child-centered approach means looking at activities from the child’s view, permitting them to take part in planning operations and events within the community and society. A central attention on a child can entail looking at their experiences and interests, and listening to their perceptions. A child-centered approach forms the basis of child-centered model of assessment, which entails offering learners with various options of learning activities, with the instructor serving as the facilitator of learning processes to assess the learners’ competence and limitations. The model of assessment ensures learners interact with activities and problems that they can easily solve rather than giving them hard time such that they lose interest in what they do. Instructors should embrace a child-centered model of assessment because this presents them with an opportunity to offer activities that learners can handle effectively, but also challenging at the same time to equip them with critical thinking skills.

Assessment Techniques Relevant to the Present Early Education

Teachers in charge of early education can choose from the various available assessment techniques and settle on the ones that suit their desires and ability to use without much problem. An effective assessment in this case is observation, which involves watching how learners perform particular assigned tasks. The teacher observes whether leaners follow all instructions and whether they work towards achieving defined goals. Another form of assessment that could be suitable in this case is one to one interactions, which entails conducting purposeful and structured discussion with young learners. The approach can be beneficial but this would depend on the tutor’s level of experience. Besides, it is important to acknowledge that discussions are highly subjective so are subject to bias. Nevertheless, some kind of interaction with children is necessary for an effective assessment. Another possible form of assessment is creating group discussions that can offer vital information on areas of engagement with others and personal competency. All these approaches are appropriate in their own unique ways, and teachers must assess them carefully to settle on the one that meet their needs. Otherwise, failing to use the right assessment technique could lead to misinformation about the learners’ strengths and weaknesses.

Importance of Parental Involvement in Observation and Assessment

Parental involvement plays fundamental roles in observation and assessment. When parents assess and observe children, they pay attention to their phases of development, achievements, interests, and needs. By playing an active function in the early childhood learning process, parents can help ensure that their children have all the needed support to build their full potential. Parent engagement helps to take learning outside of the class, and forms a more positive encounter for children, which enable them to perform better when in class. Parents who play active roles in observing and assessing what their children do in school are able to create a link between what is learned in school and what happens at home. The relationship is a fundamental aspect of a child’s upbringing and future learning. It is important to encourage parental engagement in observation and assessment because this extends the encounters that a child has in the class to real-world operations that take place in the home. A parent who knows what their child is doing at preschool has a better perception of their child’s strengths and weaknesses and which aspects they need to work on to increase their ability and confidence.

How Goals and Targets Support the Achievement of Positive Results

Children can set their target, which can facilitate realization of positive outcomes if guided properly. Goal-setting for young children is essential because it provides them a sense of purpose that can enhance their confidence and improve their self-esteem. Goal-setting allows children focus and arrive at better resolutions. Along with this, goal setting can be utilized to motivate young ones by ensuring that they realize smaller objectives on regular basis. Goal and target setting may be new concepts to kids, but just like mastering other social practices, they master them over time. So, because they are just beginning, it is essential to have it in mind that tutors should provide necessary support and guidance that would help them to achieve their goals. The idea with goal setting for children is to get them started in the life-long process of mind, planning thinking, and taking measures in order to realize objectives. Teachers need to guide children towards creating goals that are realistic and that they believe they can attain. Besides, tutors should guide children towards setting the goals they want and are within their abilities and competence to attain.  

Action Plan for Improvement for Areas of Own Communication

Listening skills together with speaking abilities are significant aspects of effective communication. The area I seek to develop is my listening skills that would improve my interaction with others, including younger children. I know that listening proficiency is an important component of effective and robust communication.

Being a keen listener – I understand that when I am a keen listener, I can start to enhance relationships, make choices more effectively and reach conclusions with others fast enough.

Strategy One: I plan to incorporate a series of measures that would help me improve my listening skills. The plan is to maintain eye contact with others and avoid interrupting speakers.

Strategy Two: The framework also involves focusing on nonverbal cues and trying to deduce their meanings.

Strategy Three: The action plan entails providing necessary feedbacks and visualizing what the conveyer of the information says.

Suitability: The action plan is suitable because it is easy to create and follow.

Possible Areas for Improvement: However, it may require some adjustments, including the use of communication models and theories that explain how to improve one’s listening skills. I am confident that the action will contribute towards the achievement of targeted results when implemented properly.

Areas for Development

The five areas of development is a holistic framework to learning that seeks to break down the components of education and promote the development of a learner in all specified areas. Instructors and caregivers should aspire to improve learners’ physical aspect as well as their social and emotional feelings. Besides, teachers and parents should also develop learners’ spiritual and cerebral aspects, which are equally important in creating a holistic person. Through the approach of development, both teachers and parents hope to inspire children and empower them with the processes and skills that will assist them interact with and understand new information and challenges that the future might bring. An effective way to ensure realization of targeted goals with all the five areas is to create a learning or home environment that fosters targeted behaviors and perceptions. For instance, learners should have an opportunity to engage in physical exercises because this boosts their physical and emotional aspects. Besides, learners should acquire much information about what happens in the community and the larger society to grow socially. More fundamentally, learners should not be subjected to depressive and stressful conditions because this could affect their emotional well-being.

Action Plan to Improve Skills, Practice, and Subject Knowledge

A suitable action plan to improve skills, practices and subject knowledge equips puts one at a better position to applying what they know in a way that impacts on others.

Skills Development – Strategy One: An effective way to enhance my skills is to acquire information from various relevant sources that give insight into different concepts.

Strategy Two: It is essential to identify sources that give information about specific questions under investigation and those that are credible enough to aid the learning process.

Practice Development – Strategy One: On the other hand, a suitable way to improve one’s practice is to interact with others and share with them their views and perceptions about handling different tasks. Constant interactions with different people will equip me with helpful skills and information that I may utilize to elevate my practice and the approach I give it. However, I may have to carefully select those who I interact with to ensure that I relate with those who are masterful in what they do.

Subject Knowledge – Strategy One: I will improve my subject knowledge by conducting researches from different avenues and consulting with others who may have necessary information about the topic.

Effectiveness of Own Early Years Practice with Children

I am lucky I joined early childhood education setting with the needed skills and knowledge; otherwise the task would present significant challenges. Even though I had necessary skills and information, I had to improve how I practice patience with the young learners. Some learners took much time before mastering a concept, which forced me to repeat the concept over and over again. However, I learned that being patient is all it requires to engage such learners and get them along with others. Henceforth, I was patient with all learners knowing very well that rushing over things could deny some learners the chance to grasp key concepts and ideas. Another challenge that I overcame with continued interaction with learners is use of concepts and approaches that learners can relate to at their level. I knew that bombarding children with difficult-to-understand terms and activities would not do them any good, which forced me to identify a teaching style that everyone appreciates and finds easy to relate with. I attribute my effectiveness of early years of practice with children to the success I achieved during the time in transforming young learners into more competent people. My encounter reveals that a teacher may encounter some hurdles during their early years of practice, but they ultimately achieve impressive results when they are patient, and rely on available evidence and knowledge. Thus, teachers should not give up when they encounter possible constraints during early years of practice with children.

Physical Care Routines which may be Carried Out

Creating and planning the safe physical care routines for children and making sure that the developed patterns are sustained is important during early education. Childcare workers must know the significance of safe physical care routines. A teacher or childcare, for example, may engage children in oral care skills by informing them how to brush teeth and explain the importance of the practice. The one teaching or guiding learners can also engage children in hand washing exercises by informing learners how to wash hands properly using enough soap and water. The teacher may also inform learners the merits of wiping hands after washing and inform about how this contributes towards better hygiene. Moreover, a teacher can indulge children in skincare practices by informing them how to take proper care of their skin through regular bathing, adequate wiping with towels, and enough use of body oil or cream. A teacher should also develop a plan for equipping learners with toilet using skills by telling them the importance of flashing each time the use a toilet and praising those who use lavatories appropriately. Developing and implementing effective physical care routines boosts children’s cognitive, emotional, and social abilities, which are important in everyday life. Moreover, an instructor who equips learners with these kind of knowledge prepares them to be responsible individuals who can take care of their cleanliness and hygiene. Consequently, instructors need to understand the kind of information they need to inform their learners regarding physical hygiene.

Potential Dilemmas between Rights and Choices of Children, Health and Safety Requirements

Children learn new concepts buy trying out new activities and making decisions, but they lack the competence and ability to always pick safe choices. Consequently, caregivers have the duty to find out potential threats in any condition and to determine when it is safe to permit a child to choose to engage in particular actions. For instance, an epileptic child may be confined to play within the home environment because his parents may fear that the child could experience a fit. However, in a well-regulated environment the child can be motivated to try new ideas and skills. If there if evident threat that the child might injure themselves, a caregiver would simply take away the objects and obstacles rather than directing the child on how to make their way. It is worth noting that some children require the freedom to explore available risks more than others, which despite exposing them to some level of threat equip them with skills they may use elsewhere and also facilitate their growth and development. Therefore, parents should not restrict their children from exploring what may appear risky but should be cautious at the same time to protect them from what could cause harm or presents potential threat.

Role of Practitioners in Keeping Children Safe and Secure

An important role of all childcare practitioners is to safeguard children from potential harm and threat and to ensure their well-being all the time. The need to offer adequate care and safety to children compel many childcare practitioners to undergo some of the CPD programs, created by early years training firms and specialist institutions. Parents need to be sure that a practitioner is competent enough to look after their children and be able to safeguard personal data. Practitioners understand the anticipations parents have on them and make adjustments that they believe will improve how they keep children safe and secure. Using customised identification badges is a suitable technique to visually know who is permitted to be in the group. It means that one can easily recognise a new person and other members of staff. ID badges also depict a sense of professionalism to parents, who become happier knowing that a practitioner works hard to build a safer environment for those under their care. Another way practitioners use to ensure safety of children is keeping main doors and gates closed. Letting doors open welcome strangers, which puts children at significant risk. These and many other approaches help practitioners to provide safe and secure care to children. The many roles practitioners have to play suggests that one must conduct adequate research to understand what their roles require of them. More fundamentally, instructors may learn about possible theories that may improve their practice because such guidelines are critical in understanding what it takes to offer security to young learners.

Own Responsibility in relation to Health and safety

I have a responsibility to promote a healthy and safe environment for others, especially those under my care. I inform others about tips of staying healthy, especially now that COVID-19 demands high level of hygiene. For example, I remind learners to wash their hands after touching many objects and encourage them to use soap if available. My responsibility is also to offer necessary guidance to learners who require some medical attention due to health-related complications. I encourage them to seek specialist attention when they think it is necessary, and advise them to take their medication on time. My responsibility is also to teach about simple techniques of avoiding sickness such as avoiding much cold, having adequate sleep and rest, taking balanced diet, and engaging in physical activities. Concerning safety, my responsibility is to inform about ways of avoiding and preventing potential risks and threats. I particularly inform learners the importance of walking or doing things in groups or pairs to minimise the risk of attack or molestation. I ask my learners to report any issue that they think could tamper with or threatened their safety at home or within the learning environment. I know it is my duty to promote better health and safety that is why I put much effort towards these responsibilities.

Awareness on Risks and Hazards

People at the workplace where I work are made aware about risks and hazards through different approaches and also get the encouragement to work safely, which contribute towards a safer and secure workstation. The management is aware that when employees know their safety and health risks they can mitigate risks that could affect their well-being. Overall, most employees at the organisation are aware of possible occurrences of risks and hazards, and know that handling certain elements and materials could result in exposure. Many workers are conversant with techniques for dealing with risks and hazards because the firm holds regular meetings where team members share a lot of information about how to prevent such adverse outcomes. Besides, the company organise trainings on how to deal with potential risks and hazards, which contribute towards preventing adverse eventualities at the place of work. Employees get the chance through provided training programs to acquire tips that they can use to safeguard themselves and the company from risks and hazards that could disrupt business practices. The management also releases timely memos to all members reminding them the importance of maintaining safety at all times. The organisation makes continuous transformations on how it creates awareness on risks and hazards hoping to keep everyone safe and secure. The many approaches the management uses to create risk awareness illustrates the need to pay considerable attention to this area as an organization. The management should understand methods that have significant on target audience and emphasize on them. Nonetheless, workers may be at considerable risk if nothing happens to equip them with relevant information.

Importance of Maintaining Precise and Coherent Records and Reports

Maintaining precise and coherent records and reports is important for any practitioner handling such tasks. Maintaining records and reports accurately allows one to assess the progress of whatever they do, and presents a better chance to create flawless financial statements. One should focus on maintaining records and reports as precisely as possible because this allows one to keep track of all other important activities influencing how an organisation operates. Furthermore, good report and record keeping saves time because the practice prevent duplication of tasks, which are likely to occur when handling large volumes of data. It is important to embrace proper ways for managing records and reports because this minimizes errors and presents a staff who is competent enough in the way he or she does their duties. Instructors should understand how to maintain records and reports because their work entails a lot of documentation. Practitioners handling reports and records know they are on the right path of good record and report keeping by achieving preciseness and organising their works and reports well. Achieving conciseness is also a show of effective record and report maintenance practices.

How to Maintain Records and Reports

Using the right record and report keeping techniques is important because this helps to avoid confusion that could thwart all attempts to present a good work or report. Technology today presents a wide range of options that educators can use to improve their maintenance of records and reports. A wide variety of software exist in the market that improve data maintenance and effective production of reports that practitioners can use. Alternatively, it is still possible to use the traditional form of keeping records and reports, which entails storing information in files and storing them in cabinets. However, one must arrange the files in a systematic order that does not present any challenges retrieving particular information. For instance, one may choose to arrange the documents in a chronological order, which depends on date of arrival, or may choose an alphabetical arrangement. However, the approach could present some challenges if documents are not in order and one must retrieve a particular file within limited time. Such challenges is the reason why some firms or employers advocate for use of a combination of both techniques. Nevertheless, effective maintenance of records and reports is only possible when data handlers know what it takes to handle large volumes of data. Consequently, practitioners should perform adequate research to acquire information that would enable them practice effective record keeping. Effective record keeping is also only possible when those in charge interact with others to gain necessary skills and information.

Legal Requirements and Guidance Relating to Safeguarding Children

When one works with children around them at any level safeguarding them must be a priority of their practice. Safeguarding means keeping children safe both at home and care setting such as a learning institution. Safeguarding is a matter which is significantly serious in childcare institutions, which could be as a result of existing legal requirements and guidelines. In England, for instance, the Department of Education defines legal measures for safeguarding children, while in Ireland the Department of Health takes charge of child protection. The Social Services and Wellbeing Act 2014 provides much guidance on child protection in Wales. However, several other regulations in the UK provide legal frameworks that define safeguarding of children. For instance, the Sexual Offences Act 2003 that was initially structured to bring justice to people with mental complications who become victims of sexual offenses, now offers valuable guidelines that protect children from harm. Another regulation is the Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 that was formed to bar unqualified people from working with children, especially in care settings. The Independent Safeguarding Authority was formed to oversee implementation of the Act and ensure all target audiences adhere to its provisions. All the existing legal frameworks play fundamental roles in promoting the safety of children. The existence of such laws indicate that children’s safety is paramount and deserve uttermost attention. Besides, the attempt to create various laws that protect children in many aspects reiterate the need for learning institutions to create measures that safeguard the interests and welfare of young learners.

Impact of Legal Requirements and Guidance

Legal requirements and guidance are the local, federal, or state principles, policies, statues, or laws developed or enacted to guide how particular activities or factors happen. Working in accordance with provided laws and regulations go hand in hand with offering the best care possible to every child. Every worker must know that laws are formulated to safeguard every person’s rights and safety, and also serve as the framework of the policies and guidelines that workers must adhere to when they provide their services. Besides, adhering to legal requirements and guidance enables workers to work ethically, which is very important when offering one’s services. Instructors who do not follow stipulated guidelines may indulge in practices that go against school regulations or child care requirements. Such teachers may also be defiant and not loyal to their call for duty. Thus, all employees should follow legal requirements regardless of their profession and position. They must understand that they have an obligation to adhere to defined regulations to avoid adverse legal repercussions.

Why it is Important to Protect Children from Harm

All work environments with children should create and maintain a safe and secure environment and deal with issues that could possibly harm the young ones. Through their safeguarding procedures and policies for protecting children, settings where minors are present have an important obligation in the identification and prevention of actions or circumstances that could result in harm. It is important to protect children from harm in workplaces because not many people at young age have the ability to make wise decisions that could protect them from harm, especially in high-risk areas. Besides, various laws and regulations exist that advocate for safeguarding children in all circumstances, including work stations. However, failing to embrace effective measures could expose children to significant harm, which affects them emotionally, physically, and psychologically. Learners who do not receive adequate protection could also perform poorly in their academic activities because of the threatening learning environment.

Importance of Observing and Reflecting on Changes

Observing and reflecting on changes in children’s behaviour is important because this helps to know whether enacted remedies work or more need to happen to improve the situation. The most fundamental reason for following up each child’s changes in behaviour is to find out if their development is on the right direction. It is essential to take quick measures if there are indications of possible behavioural malpractices because early mitigation is so essential for enhancing child’s conduct. However, failing to observe and reflect on changes could result in behavioural maladjustments that become difficult to rectify when it is too late.

Own Performance in Giving Advice to Parents

I am confident I am competent in the way and give advice to parents and carers. I always address parents and carers with respect and give advice on issues that I know based on my knowledge, skills, and experience will help both the parent and learner. I do not rush into giving ideas, but rather express everything in an orderly manner to avoid creating a bad impression about myself. Besides, I do not engage in unnecessary talks once the conversation is over as a show of professionalism. The techniques I use in giving advice to parents have helped me build strong parent-teacher relationship, which other teachers should consider achieving. My performance in the various approaches I use to advice parents suggest that I am on the right path and I only need to make further inquiries on how to improve. However, I must not be reluctant because I have to learn many other techniques and ideas that could make me proficient in how I relate to parents.

Action Plan for Improvement in Giving Advice to Parents

My action plan for improving how I give advice to parents is multi-faceted to achieve the best results.

Strategy One: I plan to address all parents properly when advising them on issues pertaining to their children. For instance, the plan requires that I address them using their surname rather than using first names.

Strategy Two: the action plan requires that I select whatever I want to say carefully to avoid upsetting them or introducing topics that could make them uncomfortable. For instance, I would not discuss bad behaviours or overly sensitive matters with the child present or when I feel it is not the right time.

Strategy Three: The plan requires that I do not come to judgements or conclusions when advising parents because this could result in misleading perceptions that could interfere with the entire process.

The Judgement of Thamus and Peer Replies best essay help
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name

Course Title


Theuth presented his exhibition to Thamus, who was the king of Upper Egypt. Theuth explained the aspects of his innovations to Thamus, who either approved or disapproved accordingly. Theuth, while presenting his idea of writing, told Thamus that the invention would have a long-lasting impact and stands as his accomplishment. However, Postman asserts that Thamus’s answer to Theuth has an instructive error (1). Postman says that the error is not in arguing that writing will destroy memory and build false wisdom (1). Instead, the error Thamus claims are in his perception that writing will be a heavy task to society and nothing but an additional job. Postman argues that for all Thamus’ wisdom; he does not imagine what writing’s advantages might be, which, as it stands, have been beneficial (1). Thamus uses different references to develop his work to give readers a more comprehensive perception of the concepts and ideas he tries to create in his article.

Reply to Post One

The author presents a clear view of what transpired during the presidential debate between John Kennedy and Richard Nixon on September 26, 1960. The author makes the narration appealing by describing how audiences had different perceptions about who won the debate. For example, the writer describes how television audiences thought Kennedy was victorious while radio audiences supported the opposing candidate. The masterful narration is an example of how to report a historical event.

Reply to Post Two

The author creates a visual impression of what happened during the 1960 debate through his elaborative description. The description shows how technology has transformed over the years when the author mentions Nixon’s gray suit blending with the background, particularly with black and white TV screens that were available during that time. The comic effect makes the writing appealing and reminds readers of how things have transformed significantly over the years to achieve what people see and interact with today.

Work Cited

Postman, Neil. “The Judgment of Thamus.” Technolopoly: The Surrender of Culture to

            Technology, Knopf, 1992.

Strategies and Actions in Response to Changing Conditions and Emerging Opportunities essay help online
Unit 4: Application Assignment  

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Unit 4: Application Assignment

Strategies and Actions in Response to Changing Conditions and Emerging Opportunities

Western Healthcare Systems runs five autonomous healthcare facilities spread across the four health facility planning areas (HFPAs) in Western County; Pleasant Valley Hospital in HFPA 1, Clearview Rehabilitation Center in HFPA 2, Kettering Memorial Hospital in HFPA 3, and Western Community Hospital and William Francis Stair Community Hospital in HFPA 4. This fragmented healthcare facility system is operating in changing conditions in Western County, including an increasing number of the elderly population alongside a dwindling children population, changes in the healthcare professional reimbursement policies because of the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in 2010, increased competition, increasing proportion of the ethnic minority population, and the burgeoning number of retiring physician partners. In turn, the diversified Western Healthcare Systems suffers from a slow decision-making process, lack of integration between the medical, financial and administrative systems, and dwindling revenues and profits. However, there are emerging opportunities in expanding service the continuum and interorganzational collaboration to improve the delivery of quality health services, rationalize operational costs and streamline network management.

The proposed overarching strategy is network integration. This approach would deliver strategic integration of the Western Healthcare Systems network of five healthcare facilities. Strategic integration involves deploying an integrated information system to facilitate information flow between the facilities and among the decision-makers. It also includes centralizing and aligning operational activities, like administration, procurement, and decision-making across all facilities and levels of care. In turn, this strategy would yield enhanced efficiency based on horizontal and vertical integration, health territory integration, streamlining of the different levels of care, and economies of scale, resulting in single governance and operational system across the entire network (Santos, 2017).  

The specific actions for delivering the strategy are anchored on the findings of a process mapping activity. Process mapping identifies the activities and their flow in sufficient detail to unearth improvement opportunities (Antonacci et al., 2021). Two areas that require process mapping are the management and healthcare service delivery of the healthcare facility network. The actions include implementing a network-wide information management system, coordinated care, and healthcare protocols. Firstly, implementing a network-wide information management system will facilitate information capturing and sharing across the healthcare facilities in the network. The information will be drawn from patients, treatment interventions, and telemedicine activities captured in the five facilities in the network. The information captured in the information management system will promote swifter and cohesive decision-making that is devoid of conflict, which is critical for the delivery of patient-centered quality care, centralized procurement, which lowers supply expenses through bulk purchases, and the establishment of a referral system that directs patients to facilities providing specialized services. Coordinated care is the synchronized and harmonized delivery of healthcare services in and across different facilities and healthcare professionals in the network (Almeida, Oliveira & Giovanella, 2018). Coordinated care would promote teamwork among healthcare professionals and promote efficient continuity of care across the five facilities in the healthcare network. Standardize healthcare protocols would evaluate the provision of healthcare services across the facilities in the network and evaluate their performance, to identify areas that require improvement or restructuring (De Regge, Gemmel & Meijboom, 2019). The 5 healthcare facilities in the network would have uniform admission, transfer, discharge, referral and services provision procedures. This would facilitate the rationalizing of human resource, delivering significant savings to the network.   

Outline of the Risks on the Proposed Strategy and Steps to Overcome Them

The proposed network integration strategy runs the risk of resistance from stakeholders, including healthcare administrators, professionals, patients and suppliers. This is because it threatens the existing divergent organsational cultures in the 5 healthcare facilities in the network while creating anxiety among the healthcare facilities’ administrators and personnel (Waddell et al., 2019).  Specifically, the strategy risks being rejected by individual facility administration and healthcare professionals, who seek to maintain autonomy while in the network. Similarly, some patients and community member may reject being referred to other healthcare facilities in the network other than those they visit habitually. Likewise, some suppliers may reject this move because it portends some of them being ousted for their inability to supply a large network of healthcare facilities. Therefore, complete buy-in of all stakeholders is critical to the success of this strategy.

Implementation Plan and Timetable

The outlined strategy would be implemented systematically to ensure its successful deployment. The plan would be implemented within one year, with several activities being spread out in different months. The plan and implementation schedule are summarized in table 1. Some activities in the plan will be implemented sequentially while others will be done concurrently, as demonstrated in table 1.

Table 1. Gantt chart of the strategy implementation plan and schedule

ActivityMonths123456789101112Planning meeting for all stakeholders            Establish work teams to implement the 3 components of the strategy            Establish roles, responsibilities and relationships            Delegation of tasks and duties            Procuring and installing the information system            Designing and rolling out the continuum of care            Preparing, piloting and rolling out healthcare protocols            Monitoring progress and performance            Assessing outcomes            Providing support for institutionalization of changes            

Any Other Critical Issues

The proposed strategy will be implemented as a project involving the entire Western Healthcare Systems network of 5 healthcare facilities. As such, it involves a network-wide organsational change that is complex and resource-intensive. For this reason, clear communication channels need to be established to ensure a coordinated and cohesive planning and implementation (Waddell et al., 2019). Horizontal and vertical communication channels will ensure that work teams and the senior management of the Western Healthcare Systems are continuously informed of the implementation progress and performance.


Almeida, P. F. D., Oliveira, S. C. D., & Giovanella, L. (2018). Network integration and care coordination: The case of Chile’s health system. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 23, 2213-2228.

Antonacci, G., Lennox, L., Barlow, J., Evans, L., & Reed, J. (2021). Process mapping in healthcare: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 21(1), 1-15.

De Regge, M., Gemmel, P., & Meijboom, B. (2019). How operations matters in healthcare standardization. International Journal of Operations & Production Management. International Journal of Operations & Management, 39(9/10), 1144-1165.

Santos, L. (2017). Healthcare regions and their care networks: an organizational-systemic model for SUS. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 22, 1281-1289.

Waddell, D., Creed, A., Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2019). Organisational change: Development and transformation. Cengage AU.

FNP: Vaccine Hesitancy in African Americans in a Metropolitan City essay help free
FNP: Vaccine Hesitancy in African Americans in a Metropolitan City

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

FNP: Vaccine Hesitancy in African Americans in a Metropolitan City

Vaccine hesitancy is one of the critical barriers hindering the rollout of successful mass vaccination against Covid-19 in the United States and across the world (Machingaidze & Wiysonge, 2021). Recent statistics indicate that the number of people reluctant to receive recommended vaccinations was rising in the United States, despite the overwhelming evidence of their safety and efficaciousness (Elflein, 2021). This reluctance has extended into the Covid-19 mass vaccination drive in the United States, and especially among minority American, largely due to mistrust and misinformation (Rungkitwattanakul et al., 2021). Notably, although the initial vaccine uptake topped 3.3 million doses per day, that number has dwindled significantly in recent days (Durkee, 2021). Authorities and healthcare professionals are worried that acquiring hard immunity could be elusive if the proposed 70% of the American population is not vaccinated against Covid-19, thus prolonging the vagaries of the coronavirus pandemic, considering that the United States has a vaccine acceptance rate of 56.9% (Mandavilli, 2021; Sallam, 2021; Savidge, Barajas & Waldrop (2021). The ensuing discussion delves into the vaccine hesitancy among African Americans in the city of Jackson in Mississippi to provide insights into the intervention measures that could be undertaken by advanced nursing practitioners.

Prevalence of Vaccine Hesitancy among African Americans

Vaccine hesitancy among African Americans, as a minority ethnic and racial group in the United States, is higher than that of Caucasian Americans. Southern states have been identified as having a higher vaccine hesitancy rate compared to northern states in the country (Savidge, Barajas & Waldrop, 2021). For instance, Savidge, Barajas & Waldrop (2021) reported that although the national average for vaccination was close to 40%, that in Mississippi was just about 30%. In the end, it is paradoxical that a section of the American population that has been most ravaged by the Covid-19 pandemic is the one most hesitant about vaccination against it.

Reasons for Vaccine Hesitancy among African Americans

African Americans have several reasons for being hesitant about vaccination against Covid-19. Some of these reasons are shared with other people in the United States and across the world, while others are unique to this minority group. For instance, misinformation regarding vaccines is prevalent among African Americans like it is among other people in the country and across the world. Specifically, social media is responsible for broadcasting erroneous information to people that rely heavily on it to form their opinions and make decisions (Laughlin & Shelburne, 2021). Misinformation comes in the form of unverified information related to the propensity and severity of side effects. Some Americans think feel that the safety and efficaciousness information provided by vaccine developers and official sources is exaggerated, while the cases of adverse effects are given little prominence and often termed as being insignificant (Soares, et al., 2021). In this regard, many people feel that the vaccine development was too fast and subsequent efficacy and safety tests have not been conducted sufficiently, thus leading to inconclusive evidence. Others feel that the insistence of the use of the developed vaccines benefits the pharmaceutical companies that are keen on making profits at the expense of health wellbeing of Americans. Another form of misinformation relates to the conspiracy theories surrounding the vaccination development and distribution, which is targeted against the federal and state governments. For instance, minority Americans believe that the federal government is keen on vaccinating minority groups to monitor them and the unknown adverse effects of the vaccine or even decimate them to reduce their numbers, which have been rising recently and upsetting the political landscape of the country (Savidge, Barajas & Waldrop, 2021). In the City of Jackson, where African Americans influencers, such as religious leaders, politicians, educationists and doctors, have been used to promote the vaccination drive in their communities, are viewed with suspicion of working with the government rather than for the interest of their community members (Tram, eta l., 2021).

Many others are skeptical of the rush by government agencies, like the FDA and CDC to accelerate the approval of the vaccines before sufficient evidence on their efficacy and safety has been gathered and ascertained. Many African Americans site the Tuskegee Experiment, in which study African American participants were denied healthcare and other promises despite being assured by the government (Rozier, 2021). This event eroded the African American’s trust for the American government, which persists to date, and contributed to their resistance towards of any government-funded healthcare programs (Coustasse, Kimble & Maxik, 2021). From a different perspective, few African Americans have participated in vaccine clinical trials despite being at a higher risk of or contracting and dying from Covid-19 (Warren, et al., 2020). In this regard, studies indicates that although African American made up 13% of the American population, and accounted for 21% of the fatalities from Covid-19, only 3% of them participated in Covid-19 vaccine trials (Warren, et al., 2020). Therefore, there lacks sufficient support for vaccination among the African American participants of vaccination development efforts.   

Implications of Vaccine Hesitancy among African Americans on Advanced Nursing Practice

Vaccine hesitance among African Americans has critical implications for family nursing practitioners (FNPs). Covid-19 has ravaged individuals, families and communities in the United States, and now family nursing practitioners are being called upon to promote vaccination in among these families and their communities. Firstly, family nursing practitioners have a critical role in debunking the myths about vaccination harbored by African American communities in the City of Jackson, the state of Mississippi and across the United States. As part of their mandate to providing counseling and education services to underserved and vulnerable members of society related to the prevention and management of covid-19, the family nursing practitioners are expected to create awareness and promote Covid-19 vaccination among African Americans to reduce the high infection rates and fatalities among their members. Secondly, family nursing practitioners have a key role in translating research findings related to covid-19 vaccines to prevent misinformation among African Americans. In this regard, they should explain in simple terms the novel vaccine development process employed in Covid-19 vaccines, and explain the benefits and risks of vaccination to those with chronic diseases.    

Thirdly, the family nursing practitioners have a role in developing culturally-sensitive vaccination strategies that are designed uniquely for the African Americans. These strategies should integrate the special needs of African Americans, including limited access, religious inclinations, and historical stereotypes regarding government initiatives.  


Family nursing practitioners are in the forefront in addressing the pervasive vaccine hesitancy among African Americans. Considering that African Americans bear the biggest burden of Covid-19, family nursing practitioners should endeavor to reduce this burden by employing evidence-based strategies, including the accurate interpretation of research findings related to the Covid-19 vaccine efficacy and safety. Besides, they are best placed to address vaccine hesitancy in a culturally-sensitive manner that would reverse the reluctance displayed by many African Americans.   


Coustasse, A., Kimble, C., & Maxik, K. (2021). COVID-19 and vaccine hesitancy: a challenge the United States must overcome. The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, 44(1), 71-75.

Durkee, A. (2021), Here are the states with the greatest Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy, poll says. Forbes. Retrieved from

Elflein, J. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy in the U.S.-statistics & facts. Statista. Retrieved from

Laughlin, N. & Shelburne, P. (2021). In a number of states hit hard by the latest wave, vaccine skepticism has barely budged. Morning Consult. Retrieved from

Machingaidze, S., & Wiysonge, C. S. (2021). Understanding COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Nature Medicine, 27(8), 1338-1339.

Mandavilli, A. (2021). Reaching ‘heard immunity’ is unlikely in the U.S., experts now believe. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Rozier, A. (2021). ‘We’re failing minority communities’: Why black Mississippians are receiving fewer Covid-19 vaccines that white Mississippians. Mississippi Today. Retrieved from

Rungkitwattanakul, D., Yabusaki, A., Singh, D., Lawson, P., Nwaogwugwu, U., Iheagwara, O. S., & Mere, C. (2021, March). COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy among African American hemodialysis patients: A single‐center experience. In Hemodialysis International. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis. Wiley-Blackwell.

Sallam, M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy worldwide: a concise systematic review of vaccine acceptance rates. Vaccines, 9(2), 160.

Savidge, M. Barajas, A. & Waldrop, T. (2021). Vaccine hesitancy in Hinds County, Mississippi, is a story shared elsewhere. CNN. Retrieved from

Soares, P., Rocha, J. V., Moniz, M., Gama, A., Laires, P. A., Pedro, A. R., … & Nunes, C. (2021). Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccines, 9(3), 300.

Tram, K. H., Saeed, S., Bradley, C., Fox, B., Eshun-Wilson, I., Mody, A., & Geng, E. (2021). Deliberation, dissent, and distrust: Understanding distinct drivers of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the United States. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Oxford University Press, pp. 1-13. Retrieved from

Warren, R. C., Forrow, L., Hodge Sr, D. A., & Truog, R. D. (2020). Trustworthiness before trust—Covid-19 vaccine trials and the Black community. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(22), e121.

It is Difficult to Change People’s Beliefs essay help online free
Student’s Name




It has likely occurred repeatedly: A person uses a lot of time and energy to persuade someone that their perception of a particular matter is incorrect. One puts all the effort they can to ensure their argument is convincing. However, rather than arriving at the targeted objective, the other party into the conversation fails to give in, still convinced that they are right. The description only illustrates how it is difficult to change people’s beliefs and perceptions. Beliefs do not always rely on facts, but still, they are the most challenging components to transform in a person. The thoughts that change into ideas repeatedly occur so that it forms a particular framework in the brain. Two scholars, Rosalie Ham and Arthur Miller, use literary styles to illustrate how it is difficult to change people’s beliefs through their literary works, The Dressmaker and The Crucible, respectively. Ham’s The Dressmaker is a 2000 novel set in the fictitious country town of Dungatar. The novel explores how love and hatred intertwine and shows how it is hard to change people’s beliefs from the protagonist, Myrtle Tilly Dunnage. On the other hand, The Crucible is a 1953 play that takes audiences back to 1692. It develops a story of a fictitious place called Salem where witchcraft and dark powers are on the increase, prompting local authorities to launch a search for suspected witchcraft. Even though Ham develops her ideas through a novel and Miller sets a play, both authors use diction and create themes that help understand how it is hard to change people’s beliefs. 

How The Dressmaker Shows how it is Difficult to Change People’s Beliefs 

Ham in The Dressmaker create the perception that it is hard to alter people’s beliefs in the way then people of Dungatar fail to embrace Tilly after returning to visit her ailing mother and possibly settle in her former hometown. Tilly left Dungatar as a child after locals launched false accusations against her that she murdered a fellow child of almost the same age. However, she returns to her hometown as a skillful dressmaker, and many people become envious of her. She tries to be good to everyone and let past actions fade away as she focuses on her dressmaking and ailing mother, who later succumbs to her condition. However, local folks in Dungatar do not seem to appreciate Tilly’s actions sincerely and seem to cling to past incidences that led to her vanishing from the community. They all progressively ceased to make orders and stopped coming to her shop. The retrieval forces her to start making clothing for women in neighboring towns to sustain her income. Her decision causes town-based conflicts, which further rekindle past atrocities. The description shows how most people in Dungatar believe that Tilly is evil and does not deserve to be part of them. The many years Tilly has been away do not seem to have had any impact on changing the people’s beliefs that the protagonist did not commit the crime that was alleged she did. The many years she has secluded herself from Dungatar do not seem to transform people’s beliefs that she is now a changed girl if it is true her actions caused the death of Stewart Pretty man. Because of the adamant beliefs the people of Dungatar have about Tilly lead her to orchestrate and implement an act of revenge against the people of Dungatar whom she feels do not wish her well.

How The Crucible Shows how it is Difficult to Change People’s Beliefs 

On the other hand, Miller develops the notion that it is not easy to sway people’s beliefs in the way the residents of Salem believe that the escalating cases of strange happenings are a result of witchcraft. Act One shows how 10-year-old Betty Paris, the daughter of Reverend Samuel Parris, a local preacher, lies motionless. The incident comes after Betty, in the company of other girly reportedly went dancing naked in a forest while participating in ceremonial acts. The incident attracts a large crowd to Reverend Samuel’s house, with people speaking in hushed voices about the possibilities of witchcraft. Soon afterward, finger-pointing starts with some people believing that Abagail, among the girls who escort Betty to the forest, is part of the team propagating witchcraft. Another resident of Salem, Mrs. Putman, believes that witchcraft is responsible for Betty’s tribulations and her problems that resulted in the death of her family members. Soon, several people, including Abigail, Sarah Osborne, Tituba, Sarah Good, Elizabeth Proctor, Bridget Bishop, and George Jacobs, become the talk of the town for indulging in witchcraft and black magic. The firm belief that these people engage in witchcraft result in their apprehension by local authorities. Some are even sentenced to death because the locals believed their practices that led to harm and death deserve the most painful punishment. The developments in the play and how they ultimately result in arrests, detention, and death of culprits illustrate how the people of Salem believed that witchcraft was responsible for their atrocities. The best way to deal with the problem is to make necessary arrests and charge those found guilty accordingly. 

How The Dressmaker Present Ideas, Issues, and Themes

Ham chooses to present her ideas that show how it is hard to change people’s beliefs through the development of a novel. Choosing a novel requires the author to tell her story in prose fiction that describes a story or particular human encounters over an overall length. The approach allows readers to interact with a lengthy narrative instead of a brief description. However, the approach the author chooses to develop her ideas does not prevent innovation, which plays fundamental role in creating a well-formulated story. 

Besides, Ham chooses a diction that shows the community’s resentment towards the dressmaker, reiterating people’s beliefs that Tilly is evil and does not deserve to be part of the community. For example, the author creates scenes where people gossip about Tilly and even talk about the incident where a little boy lost his life in unclear circumstances. Besides, readers can identify the ironic talks between Tilly and some of her customers who pretend that they are happy for her return yet wish she never returned or leave the place altogether. Proper selection and use of diction that could develop the beliefs of the people of Dungatar is essential because this provides an opportunity to convey the needed message to the target audience. Besides, choosing the proper diction allows the author to utilize the right words at the right time and avoid improper use of words that could deter the development of the desired information or impression. Moreover, proper selection of diction in this instance allows Ham to effectively convey her ideas on how difficult it is to change people’s ideas and at the same time drive her point of view.

Ham develops themes that help understand how difficult it is to change people’s perceptions and beliefs about particular issues. For example, the theme of non-forgetfulness develops in the story in the way the people of Dungatar cling to an incident that happened many years ago where Tilly was accused of killing a fellow child. Developing the theme helps understand how people may cling to their beliefs regardless of how much time passes. Besides, the author develops the theme of revenge, which emanates from the community’s failure to forget what happened many years ago and focus on future happenings. Tilly chooses to revenge against the community by setting a fire that engulfs the whole town after learning that people will not come over their belief that she committed the murder. Such themes that point towards certain aspects further help to understand how people may cling to their beliefs regardless of how much things change. 

How The Crucible Present Ideas, Issues, and Themes 

Miller chooses to develop his ideas and themes through a play, which differs from a novel. Rather than offering lengthy statements and explanations, a play uses relatively shorter statements to develop concepts. Using a play allows Miller to develop his ideas using the first-person point of view, which helps readers get insight into individual characters’ perceptions. Using a play, in this case, helps to understand the claims and beliefs of each character and makes it easy to identify those who believe that the atrocities in Salem are a result of witchcraft. 

Like Ham’s The Dressmaker, Miller uses diction and develops themes that make it possible for readers to learn how it is difficult to change people’s beliefs. Miller uses diction that includes direct accusations and suspicion, which help to understand who the community thinks is part of the group that causes trouble through black magic. Using diction that allows readers to understand what characters think and desire shows that people’s beliefs vary, but this does not create an opportunity to change or adjust them. On the other hand, Miller develops witchcraft as a significant theme, which helps understand how people believe that witchcrafts are responsible for the emerging unexplained trends in the community. 


The study illustrates that it is difficult to change people’s beliefs through the eyes of The Dressmaker and The Crucible. Ham describes how the people of Dungatar fail to welcome Tilly back into the community as appropriately as possible with the belief that the past accusations against her still make depicts her destructive and inhumane nature. The idea that Tilly is evil because of the allegations that she killed Stewart leads residents to refrain from buying her clothes, which forces Tilly to seek a market in neighboring towns. Miller, in his play, illustrates how it is difficult to persuade the people of Salem that emerging strange incidences are not a result of witchcraft and black magic. Ham chooses to tell her story in a novel while Miller develops his ideas in the form of a play. However, both authors use diction and create themes that allow them to bring out their ideas effectively. 

International Journal of Cultural Property scholarship essay help
Student’s Name:




GPP 196 Op-Ed

Cover letter

Journal editor’s [Name]

International Journal of Cultural Property

Date:[ ]

Dear Dr. [ ],

I would like to submit the manuscript titled “creating wealth from cultural property” by [author’s name] to be considered as a brief communication in the International Journal of Cultural Property.

The communication focuses on the ways of addressing economic disempowerment and social injustice of minority communities through cultural property enterprises. Such enterprises, when mediated by intermediaries keen on fair trade, ethical business, and property rights practices, can deliver economic and social benefits to the owners of cultural properties. I believe this communication will interest the readers of your journal

This communication is original and has not been presented for publication before. I confirm that there is no conflict of interest. Please address all correspondences to me though [email address].

Looking forward to your favorable consideration


[Author’s name]



Cultural appropriation and other business malpractices undermine the economic wellbeing of minority groups and could decimate the cultures of less dominant population segments across the world. Entrenched capitalistic tendencies have created business practices that undermine producers while rewarding middlemen who have no input into the design and production of cultural goods. These practices sustain and perpetuate power imbalances and social injustices in which the owners of cultural goods are continuously disempowered while those able to leverage the structure of capitalism benefit the most from the system (Mackenzie and Yates 248). Initiatives, such as the Orjana Project from where I gained immense practice experienced as an economics scholar, seek to dismantle the unjust commercial structures that perennially disenfranchise and disempower communities with enormous cultural capital. Culturally-rich communities can reap from their cultural capital though social enterprises that preserve their cultural heritage and generate revenue when the repressive and capitalistic institutional barriers are dismantled by initiatives like the Orjana Project (Gutierrez 13). I will demonstrate that being an ethical intermediary that adheres to fair trade practices can help empower impoverished by culturally-wealthy communities and preserve their cultural heritage as wealth.  

Business Environment

In the commercial activities related to cultural goods, the producers of these goods are often exploited by the shrewd intermediaries who capitalize on the social weakness and economic disempowerment of the producers and caretakers of the cultural goods. Unfortunately, such practices perpetuate the social and economic inequalities and breed discord against and conflict with the dominant groups in societies ((Mackenzie and Yates 249). The predominant contemporary business environment favors players with great financial, political and social influence at the expense of those that possess rare cultural wealth. Minority groups, especially in poor and developing countries, are economically exploited for their cultural capital, which is rare and unique, by those with access to mass production, markets, and marketing resources. Unfortunately, few organizational and national policies protect such communities from the unethical and unfair business practices within the beyond their national boundaries. Therefore, such groups are perpetually locked in a vicious cycle of poverty in which their cultural wealth is plundered by elites that continue to enrich themselves with it, unfairly. Orjana is an experimental project that seeks to reverse this trend by ensuring that communities across the world reap their rightful worth of economic returns for their cultural property, including high revenues and acknowledgement as the rightful owner of the goods. Although the project is experimental, it demonstrates that cultural wealth and heritage can be a source of economic and social empowerment when facilitated by ethical and socially just business practices and organizations.

Mediating a cultural enterprise holds great promise to the owners of cultural capital, yet it is prone to numerous challenges. Orjana employs a model that augments the value of cultural property from being simply goods that can be traded but experiences that can be shared and still yield decent economic and social returns. By accompanying cultural artifacts with narratives, cultural goods can converted to cultural experiences that yield higher economic and social benefits to the owners. The producers of cultural goods can expose their cultures to the rest of the world through their goods and narratives, while reaping revenues, and subsequent economic empowerment (Murzyn‐Kupisz and Działek 41). In the end, the cultural heritages of diverse communities can be preserved while the cultural goods can be a source of economic and social empowerment.

However, the downside of this approach is that the cultural narratives are often not presented to the market by the owners but by the intermediaries, such as Orjana. Consequently, authentic cultural voices are masked by the distortions introduced by the intermediary business people who aim at making the presentations market-friendly for better financial returns. In the same vein, this approach does not empower the communities to link directly with the market and other cultures, as would be expected of a cultural broker (Lixinski 10). In turn, by controlling the networks, intermediaries like Orjana are unable to deliver the optimal financial return because some of the revenue is used to run its operations, despite being a not-for-profit organization.

Nonetheless, despite these limitations, the business model for trading in cultural goods employed by Orjana is empowering to the owners of the wealth for several reasons. Firstly, it exposes the cultural wealth owners to networking as a critical aspect of business. Secondly, communities can leverage on their cultural heritage to access economic empowerment and social justice (Ghahramani, McArdle, and Fatorić 2). This introduces inclusive-growth and promoted social cohesion and stability into societies bedeviled with economic and social injustices of minority groups.


The practice experience gained from Orjana revealed the possibility and viability of using cultural goods to gain equitable economic and social returns in marginalized communities. The business model used by the nonprofit organization reveals the viability of creating a vibrant economy for marginalized groups using a combination of cultural goods and narratives, and supported by international networks, ethical labor tenets and fair trade practices. However, this model can be improved when the owners of eh cultural goods can interact directly with their market, in the absence of an intermediary, who may distort the presentation of the goods and mask the original voices.  

Works Cited

Ghahramani, Ladan, Katelin McArdle, and Sandra Fatorić. “Minority community resilience and cultural heritage preservation: A case study of the Gullah Geechee community.” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 6, 2020, pp. 1-16.

Gutierrez, Stephanie. An Indigenous Approach to Community Wealth Building: A Lakota Translation. 2018, Democracy Collaborative.

Lixinski, Lucas. “International cultural heritage regimes, international law, and the politics of expertise.” International Journal of Cultural Property, vol. 20, no. 4, 2013, pp. 407-429.

Mackenzie, Simon, and Donna Yates. “Trafficking cultural objects and human rights.” In The Routledge international handbook of criminology and human rights. Routledge, 2016, pp. 246-256.

Murzyn‐Kupisz, Monika, and Jarosław Działek. “Cultural heritage in building and enhancing social capital.” Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 3, no. 1, 2013, pp. 35-54.

English as an International Lingua Franca custom essay help
Student’s Name:




English as an International Lingua Franca

Language is a uniquely human capability that enables people to communicate and is one of the cultural identities of a community or society. However, several languages exist in the world as there are cultures, which challenges the communication between people from diverse cultures. English is the only language that enjoys global use even among people who do not consider it a first language. As a global lingua franca, English has permeated several aspects of human life, including politics, law, medicine, business, and science, thus overcoming the communication barriers placed by national borders and geographies. English became an international lingua franca by design rather than default, spurred by unique political forces in the 18th and 19th centuries, and later, globalization (Michaud and Colpitts 125). Therefore, the contemporary international lingua franca stature of the English language is not accidental but rather a product of a well-choreographed strategy spurred by the singular drive of dominating the world in commerce.

The ensuing discussion delves into how the English language has become the international lingua franca, despite having developed much later than languages with longstanding histories, such as Latin, Greek or Chinese. The discussion begins by explaining the conditions required to make a language be termed as lingua franca, before tracing back how English was spread across the world to become the most dominant language of official communication. The discussion also provides an assessment of whether Chinese has the potential of becoming an international lingua franca in the future able to exist alongside or replace English over time. Understanding lingua franca formation and sustenance is a critical indicator of the positions of economies of the world and can be used to predict which cultures will dominate over others in the future.

Lingua Franca

Lingua Franca is a language that is used widely by people from diverse cultures that do not use it as the first language or do not share a common native language (Murray 319). Therefore, lingua Franca plays the functional role of enabling communication between people of different mother tongues. It helps diverse people to circumvent the communication barriers presented by their native language differences, and therefore is often considered a neutral language (Cogo 99). In the olden days, lingua francas developed to facilitate commerce between distant communities. For instance, Chinese was commonly used along the Silk Road to facilitate trade with ancient China. However, in the contemporary world, lingua francas’ functionalities have increased to include scientific instructions and reporting, marketing, instructional medium in education institutions, and international meetings. The world has seen the development and interchanging of several languages as the global lingua franca. For instance, Latin was the lingua franca of Europe in the middle ages, while Spanish was the lingua franca of the newly discovered Americas in the 1600s and 1700s. However, English has replaced these two languages as the global lingua franca.  

However, lingua francas threaten indigenous and native languages because of their dominance and assimilation speeds across generations. This phenomenon has been experienced in many countries where indigenous languages are at risk of becoming extinct due to the domination of lingua francas that have been adopted by the majority of a population. The risk of demise is worsened when the lingua franca accommodates certain worlds and linguistic devices from a mixture of native languages, making the original languages unrecognizable. Nonetheless, the benefits that human beings derive from lingua francas outweigh the detriments they present. Indeed, lingual francas instill a sense of cohesion among people from diverse cultures, thus promoting global understanding and peace.

Global Spread of English

English is a language used by people of Anglo-Saxon descent in the British Isles. Its origins can be traced to the Germanic languages of the Indo-European language family, which was spoken predominantly by Anglo-Saxon settlers of medieval England. It has a complex structure and syntax, rich inflectional morphology, and fixed work orders, making it difficult to learn. Despite being used originally by a small group of isolated people in Western Europe, the two factors that facilitated its spread and adoption across the world include the global dominance of Great Britain and the United States, and its ease of learning. The British Empire is perhaps the most powerful political dominion whose remnants are still found in the contemporary world to date. These helped propel English from being a language underdog to gain prominence and surpass French, Gaelic, and Latin, which were prominent languages in Europe in ancient times (China Simplified para 3). Notably, the British Empire expanded exponentially in the 16th century when it began establishing overseas colonies. The empire colonized virtually every continent in the world and imposed the English customs, traditions, and more importantly, the English language, which was taught to the local communities to facilitate their service to the English settlers and masters. The English people leveraged their military might and technological advancement to dominate the colonial world at the time. Following the collapse of the British Empire and the subsequent declaration of independence for most of the British colonies, which followed the end of the Second World War, the United States emerged as the global superpower, taking over the global hegemony from the British Empire.  Like the British, the Americans maintained the language influence across the world by using English in all their international engagements and forcing other parties to follow suit. Its influence on the operations of international bodies, such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, has seen the adoption as the official language in the corporate world.  For these reasons, the English language easily supplanted French as the predominant European language to gain international recognition and dominance as a global lingua franca.

English as an International Lingua Franca

English is currently the most commonly used language across the world. It has permeated across diverse cultures to become the most commonly used second language in the world. The native speakers of English, who are about 378 million, are outnumbered by the number of nonnative speakers who have reached 743 million, which is almost twice the number of speakers of English as a first language (Yadav para 2). This means that the largest number of English speakers is found outside the United Kingdom and the United States, which are the traditional English-speaking countries, or within these countries by among immigrants that use English as a second language.  In addition, English is the language most commonly used on the internet, in scientific and technical communication, and as an official language in several countries. For instance, 54% of the online content is in English, while over 50% of technical and scientific publications are in English. Besides, the English language is used in international communication, and therefore is widely applied in international conferences and meetings, international trade, international law and international education.

The adoption of English across the world has been facilitated by localization or nativization of the language by other non-English cultures. Nativization is the process by which a language is modified structurally in the absence of the original native speakers to create new ones (Jenkins 51). It yields versions of a language that are divergent from its original form, which in this case, are known as Englishes (Jenkins and Leung 1608). For instance, the indigenization of English in Southeast Asian countries has yielded Malayan English and Singaporean English, while in Africa, there is Nigerian English and Ghanaian English, among many others. These versions of the English language may have unique intonations, elements from local languages, and other differences that make the language more acceptable to the local people (Kaur 216). This is because while English is domiciled mainly in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia and New Zealand as the first language, there are no hard rules that govern its usage in non-English cultures.


Chinese is the language given to the collection of linguistic dialects spoken by the majority of people in China, and especially those of the Han descent. However, mandarin is the most common Chinese dialect in mainland china because it is spoken by the Han people who comprise 95% of the population in the country (Choi and Adamson 263). Other common dialects include Cantonese, which is spoken mainly in south-eastern China and in Taiwan. In this case, mandarin is considered as the Chinese language (China Simplified para 6). 

Why Chinese Can Become a Global Lingua Franca

Chinese can become a globally used lingua franca in the future if the following conditions prevail to its advantage. Firstly, the interest in Chinese across the world is immense and growing rapidly and china progresses as an economic powerhouse. The recent economic growth of China since the 1980s is because of the opening up of the country to the outside world and increasingly engaging in international commerce since the ascension to the country into the world trade organization in 2001. During this period, China has rapidly grown from an agrarian economy to an industrialized country that produced plenty of goods for its domestic consumption and export. Therefore, business people are keen on learning Chinese to enable them to conduct business with the Chinese. If the global trade of China were to continue with the current trend, it is likely that China will become the next economic superpower, replacing the United States. This would expand the demand for Chinese language proficiency across the world. Secondly, Chinese has enjoyed the lingua franca status before when it dominated the Sinosphere in the 1800s. During this time, East Asian nations communicated with each other in Chinese, a situation that persisted even after the Mongols conquered China (China Simplified para 6). With the rise of China as an economic and military power, Chinese can be adopted as the lingua franca in East and South East Asia, setting the stage for its spread to the rest of the world. Thirdly, the Chinese are leaving and migrating out of China in large numbers owing to the opening up of the country to outside ideologies, increased participation of global trade and affairs, and overpopulation inside urban China. For instance, the ongoing Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has seen an immense increase in the participation of China in the infrastructural development of other countries to facilitate trading networks with China. In turn, Chinese employees are spread across the world and especially middle-income and low-income countries where they handle projects taking a couple of years to complete. In turn, the local people are increasingly interacting with the Chinese at the construction sites and picking up the Chinese language while at it. In the same vein, these projects have increased the demand for proficient Chinese speakers in countries under BRI who would make workers that are not constrained by language or who act as translators between the Chinese engineers and local employees. As such, China has offered many scholarships to international students and opened language centers in foreign countries to promote expertise in the Chinese language (Choi and Adamson 263). Besides, tools for learning Chinese, such as applications like Pleco, alongside online lessons, ease the learning process. More people are likely to learn Chinese if they apply the digital learning tools that are currently available readily in the market. Consequently, if this trend continues at its current rate, Chinese speakers would spread across the world, making the language a global lingua franca

Why Chinese Cannot Become a Global Lingua Franca

The possibility of Chinese becoming a global lingua franca is faced with several hurdles that might make this outcome elusive. Firstly, Chinese is a difficult language to learn. Chinese uses a complex set of logograms, about 3,500 commonly used ones, which are difficult to memorize and write (China Simplified para 6). It also employs four complex tones and intonations that confer different meanings to similar words (China Simplified para 6). The unique characteristics of the Chinese language are absent in the English language, making the learning of Chinese a more arduous task than learning English. Secondly, China is not a globally dominant power and therefore cannot influence the adoption of the Chinese language by other countries. Thirdly, Chinese speakers are concentrated inside China, unlike English speakers who are spread across the world despite having almost similar numbers. Notably, there are 1.121 billion English speakers against 1.107 billion Chinese speakers (Yadav para 2). In the same vein, Chinese has fewer second language speakers compared to English, which has more second language speakers than native speakers. As such, fewer than 20% of Chinese speakers are second-language speakers, while only 4% are likely to be native English speakers (China Simplified para 7). Besides, despite being one of the six United Nations official languages, Chinese is spoken as an official language in China and Singapore, unlike English, which is spoken in 170 countries across the world (China Simplified para 15). Therefore, Chinese is yet to be adopted across different cultures and attain the lingua franca status. Fourthly, less people are studying Chinese compared to those studying English across the world. According to Reuters, the number of students from the United States studying in China have been decreasing whole Chinese students studying in the united states have been increasing. Considering that the instructional language in china in Chinese while that in the United States is English, then fewer new Chinese speakers are being created compared to new English speakers (China Simplified para 4).  

Possibility of Chinese Replacing English or Existing Alongside It as a Lingua Franca

The possibility of Chinese existing alongside English or replacing English as a global lingua franca is minimal considering the current entrenchment of English in the global society. It has taken over 200 years for English to reach its current lingua franca status, in circumstances that favored it but not Chinese in contemporary times (Jenkins, Baker and Dewey 28). For instance, China is unlikely to dethrone the United States as a global superpower because it will most likely not engage in a world war to dominate the world like Great Britain did. Secondly, Chinese is used as an instructional language in education circles in China only, unlike English, which has been institutionalized as a global language and international educational institutions employ it as the language of instruction (Sung 179). Therefore, it is unlikely that Chinese would replace English as an instructional language in education institutions across the world. In the same vein, Chinese has the potential to become the regional lingua franca in East Asia, but unlikely to become a global one (Plumb 49). This is because although China’s influence in Asia is dominant and potent, its position in the global arena is still in its nascent stages.


The creation of a lingua franca requires a confluence of factors ranging from military and economic might, to the dispersal of language users across vast geographies. The ease of learning a language also contributes significantly in establishing a language as a lingua franca. English has met these conditions, reason why it is the global lingua franca currently, courtesy of the mighty British Empire and the United States as the current superpower. Therefore, it is unlikely that Chinese will replace English as the global lingua franca if China cannot displace the United States as the global superpower. However, if china continues expanding its global influence at the current rate, it is likely that Chinese can exist alongside English as a global lingua franca.    

Works Cited

China Simplified. “Will we all be speaking Chinese in the future?” 3 April 2015.

Choi, Tae-Hee, and Bob Adamson. “China’s belt and road initiative: Opportunities and linguistic challenges for Hong Kong.” Multilingualism and Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2020. 261-284.

Cogo, Alessia. “English as a lingua franca: Concepts, use, and implications.” ELT Journal vol. 66, no. 1, 2012, pp. 97-105.

Jenkins, Jennifer, and Constant Leung. “English as a lingua franca.” The companion to language assessment 4 (2014): 1607-1616.

Jenkins, Jennifer, Will Baker, and Martin Dewey. The Routledge handbook of English as a lingua franca. Routledge, 2018.

Jenkins, Jennifer. “Repositioning English and multilingualism in English as a Lingua Franca.” Englishes in Practice, vol. 2, no. 3, 2015, pp. 49-85.

Kaur, Paramjit. “Attitudes towards English as a lingua franca.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 118, 2014, pp. 214-221.

Michaud, Matthew, and Bradley DF Colpitts. “English as a lingua franca: Globalisation, ownership, and the diversification of English.” Kwansei Gakuin University Humanities Review 20 (2015): 125-131.

Murray, Neil. “English as a lingua franca and the development of pragmatic competence.” ELT journal 66.3 (2012): 318-326.

Plumb, Christopher. “On the Possibility of Mandarin Chinese as a” Lingua Franca”.” Journal of Educational Issues, vol. 2, no. 2, 2016, pp. 48-59.

Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew. “English as a lingua franca and its implications for English language teaching.” JALT Journal, vol. 35, no. 2, 2013, pp. 177-194.

THE CORRESPONDENCE PACKET college essay help near me




Project 2: The Correspondence Packet

Situation #1: The Negative Announcement E-mail

To: Traveling Executives


From: M. Juhasz, Travel & Meeting Services

Subject: Travel Budget Cuts Effective Immediately

Dear Traveling Executives,

We all know the company’s tough times, which calls for better mitigation approaches to avoid overspending. A possible solution is to reduce the travel budget as much as possible to allow the firm to focus on other key areas. A key objective is to cut travel budget spending by at least 50% as the company reviews the matter further. Consequently, the Department recommends the following factors as possible remedies to the situation;

Videoconferencing: Videoconferencing is increasingly applicable in many contexts, and applying it in our case will provide significant relief. The approach to conducting meetings allows workers to engage in business affairs at the comfort of their offices or homes.

Affordable Hotels and WiFi charges: The group urges all members, especially those having to attend work-related assignments and spend the night, to consider less costly options. Similarly, the company encourages all employees to regulate their use of WiFi, especially when it is unnecessary, because this may also help the firm minimize travel costs.

Low-cost carriers: The team recommends reshuffling air traveling plans to save on transportation. A suitable option would be to arrange for cheaper flights and considering more affordable airlines. Another practical approach would be to use less costly suburban airports when it is not compulsory to travel via expensive stations.

Wise use of rented cars: The firm understands the need to hire vehicles for easy movement and quick delivery when performing company assignments. However, the management calls on all traveling executives to consider fuel usage when using these automobiles because the company remits a lot of funds to renting companies, especially when the rate of fuel use of high.

The group highly appreciates the commitment you put in when you move from one place to the other performing organizational duties and does not mean discriminating against anyone by making these recommendations. It only hopes to salvage the current financial situation to secure a better future for everyone. Kindly understand and make an effort to implement the guidelines as well all move together in this journey.


M. Juhasz, Travel & Meeting Services

Black & Decker

Situation #2: The Policy Change Memo

To: All employees 

From: H.R. Head

Date: October 3, 2021

Subject: Change in policy 

Dear Employees, 

The firm decided to evict Craig Wilson from his position as a show of how it safeguards the safety and well-being of everyone. Considering his steadfast performance over the time he has served for the company, the tough decision to lay him down compels the management to take further measures to ensure such incidences do not reoccur and that the firm remains safe against possible legal proceedings. 

Everyone should understand that the company did not act out of the bad will in terminating Craig, so all workers should remain calm and know that the company cares for their safety. We are all aware of the regulation forbidding staff members from acting the way Craig did, and disregarding the matter would be setting a bad precedent. Therefore, the firm seeks to be fair in all its decisions while aiming for the best for each worker. 

Even though regulations are clear concerning using office computers for personal and unlawful reasons, I take this opportunity to reaffirm that every employee should try to adhere to this directive. The company would not want to lose any of its members because it values the contribution of each one but would not hesitate to take stern actions against anyone who contravenes the directive. 

I take this opportunity to remind everyone that the management has decided to conduct random searches on company computers to prevent a recurrence of this kind of breach. Consequently, each employee should practice caution at all times to avoid being in the wrong. 

I wish you the best as we all try to adhere to these guidelines. 


H.R. Head


Situation #3: The Statement-of-Concern Email

To: Susan Monk


From: Vice-President 

Subject: Concern about nonperformance in the past a dealing 

I appreciate your promotional opportunity and acknowledges it as your company’s desire to attract its customers and show that it values their needs. However, I am concerned that entering into another deal may not yield anticipated results as in the past encounter. 

I would be more obliged to accept the current offer if the Chamber of Commerce provided a better deal to address the past misgiving. Warren Enterprises felt that the $1000 it paid to sponsor the town’s Patriot Days parade did not work well because the outcome did not meet the firm’s expectations. Specifically, my team felt that the work would be more impressive if the construction happened more perfectly and developed a true presentation of the firm’s logo. Following these realizations, I ask whether it is possible to get a refund of the last payment or whether the Chamber of Commerce would enact a reduction in current contribution to support the erection of a sign at the ball field.

Kindly understand that I will give further views on your proposal upon receiving feedback on this request. 



Warren Enterprises

Texas Struggle for Independence a level english language essay help
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



Question 1

In the struggle for independence in Texas, slavery was highly rooted in Texas as administered under Mexican rule. The Mexican power was so ruthless during the Santa Anna tenure who ordered the shooting of more than 350 Texans who had surrendered to Mexican forces after defeat. However, Santa Anna denounced the Texas order of bringing more slaves into their regions by rebranding them as apprentices, hence circumventing the Mexican law. According to the Mexican rule, slavery was unheard of, and thus the individuals captured should be set free. Mexico highly condemned the Texas rule and the nature of continuing with the slavery acts. The Mexican government viewed this as the critical period to end such inhumane acts in unison (Sang et al., 201). The Mexican government advocated for liberal policy in their rule. They further viewed that slaves were driven by fear and that the United States did not trust the black race’s freedom. The Mexican government also felt that the mistrust between the master and the slaves would ultimately result in the freedom of the individuals subjected to slavery in Texas. They further had the feeling that the Texas government would hence drive the slaves into the Mexican territory. Therefore the country should be prepared to ultimately comprise of colored races within their population in the future.

Although the Mexican congress passed a law abolishing slavery, Tejano leaders favored the slavery continuity in Texas as it was crucial to the development of the whole region. Tejano leaders felt that slavery would introduce the men of property into the area. Tejano leaders based their arguments on the passed laws such as article 8 of the general colonization law, which guaranteed the foreigners security for both the person and the property in Mexican nation and willing to establishing themselves in Texas (Sang et al., 201). Therefore, based on this law, the Tejano leaders felt they could not deprive of the property to these inhabitants due to their contribution to agriculture within the region. Besides, they could not undertake such contributions in cattle keeping and farm without the labor contribution from the negroes who suffered slavery. The slaves, as per the Tejano leaders, had been offered as commerce items, and that neither the government nor inhabitants were responsible for making them slaves. They were provided with labor contribution and therefore granting them freedom contravenes with the public welfare. They further questioned the slave’s liberty and their master’s property as the law prohibits the deprivation of personal property without following the due law process.

The Anglo immigrants’ population threatened the future of the Mexican control in Texas as their population ratio had increased to one to ten proportions. The new Anglo immigrants were taking control over Texas as they maintained English schools. Their children had access to better education at the Mexicans’ expense through the colonization as settlers (Flomen and Max 1837). The Anglo immigrants are increasing population and their settlement in the cultivation areas where they settled as settler hoped for the continuity of the slavery as they were assured of continuous cheap labor in the farms. Besides, they had settled in the lands for months, and the earlier inhabitants could reclaim their land since there were no magistrates to settle such claims.

Question 2

The Texas revolutionary war is historically categorized as a struggle between cultures among the parties involved. The three parties, Anglo- Texans, Tejanos, and Anglo-Americans, had first differed on their perceptions of the leadership model adopted by each group. The Anglo-Texans suggested ethnic hostility as stated by Stephen Austin and Austin, who also documented the Texas revolution being a Spanish- Indian and Negro race against the civilization as argued by the Mexicans who opposed the slavery and Anglo- American race (Stafford et al., 295). The Tejanos regarded the slave-grown cotton as the drive to achieve the region’s prosperity as the form of civilization culture. At the same time, Mexico viewed civilization as the abolition of slavery and entitlement. The Texas revolutionists also repealed against immigration from the United States as they cited the improvement of the court system and lower tariffs. This was due to the influence of the United States into their culture as they maintained English and managed to secure good education centers for their children. This was a threat to the culture among the Texas natives. The three groups hence soared to have significant control of the community. Texas families were also divided in the fight for independence depending on the cultural influence of each individual (Stafford et al., 299). Besides, the Anglo- Texans threatened the Tejanos’ imprisonment until the southern Texas border was set, and anti-Mexican sentiment also soared following the Texas gaining of independence in 1836.

Question 3

The Mexican and Texan revolutionists had a divergent idea concerning the outbreak of the Texas war. The Mexican had enjoyed a vast control of Texas by acquiring land on which they could farm through the various individuals who had invaded the land. The Mexican used the empathy rule on Texas. They campaigned against forced slavery, which resulted in the majority of the energetic individuals being flown into the country to provide cheap labor. They argued that slavery was inhumane and viewed it as a threat to their future as the foreigners from the North had secretly invaded Texas and would force slaves to settle south in Mexico (Flomen and Max 1839). In addition, the Mexicans wanted to have equal control over the slave trade, which was seen as a cheap labor source for the various plantations in the region. They viewed the Northern immigrants as their ultimate enemy in controlling Texas as they thought Texas inhabitants could side by their side. The Mexican hoped to still win in control over Texas. Mexicans also questioned the slaves’ entry into the region under questionable contracts by their masters, a decision to be accessible according to the laws. The Mexicans also desired to continue ruling the Texans through treachery mode as they had started resisting their rule.

The Texans viewed both the Anglo- American and Mexican rule to be a threat to the future of their nations. The immigrants from North America were bringing along the foreign slaves who worked on their farms and had a better education system which they also yearned for (Flomen and Max 1840). The North American nature of forced labor also inflicted fear among the Texas who wanted to be a free society and enjoy their freedom. They had also been fed up with the Mexican rule, which had earlier colonized them. Tejanos also believed that forced cheap labor would contribute to the farms and better the region. Hence, they aimed to utilize the African slaves to better their economy after gaining independence rather than under control by new migrants. Texas had the zeal to overthrow the dictatorship rule imposed by the Mexican forces, who treated the Texan forces as prisoners and killed them.

Works cited

Flomen, Max. “The Long War For Texas: Maroons, Renegades, Warriors, And Alternative Emancipations In The Southwest Borderlands, 1835–1845”. The Journal Of The Civil War Era, vol 11, no. 1, 2021, pp. 36-61. Project Muse. Https:// doi:10.1353/cwe.2021.0003.

Sang, Nguyen Van et al. “Independent Or Annexation: The Texas Issue In The British-American Relations (1836 – 1846)”. Academic Journal Of Interdisciplinary Studies, vol 10, no. 5, 2021, p. 201. Richtmann Publishing. Https:// doi:10.36941/ajis-2021-0134.

Stafford, Kevin et al. “Unconfined Hypogene Evaporite Karst: West Texas And Southeastern New Mexico, USA”. International Journal Of Speleology, vol 47, no. 3, 2018, pp. 293-305. University Of South Florida Libraries. Https:// doi:10.5038/1827-806x.47.3.2166.

Human Rights Act Impact on English Law college admissions essay help
Human Rights Act Impact on English Law

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Human Rights Act Impact on English Law

English law has great influence over countries that were formerly British colonies. The study examines application of English law in the UK and the U.S. The paper begins by describing the meaning of English law and highlights on its application in the U.S. the UK. The section shows how despite the similarities in common law in both countries, application of the law in the U.S. has some differences with its application in the UK. The UK follows a parliamentary system while the U.S. follows a constitution. The research shows how the English law in the UK increased its emphasis on protecting individuals’ rights and freedoms after the enactment of the Human Rights Act in 1998. The law became more comprehensive in its protection of rights and freedom and it is now unlawful to violate any of the stipulated rights and freedom. However, the introduction of the Human Rights Act in the UK did not have much impact on the U.S. English law because the Bill of Rights that defines protection of individual rights and potential impact for violation was formed many years before the Human Rights Act. The two guidelines that safeguard individuals from potential threats have similarities because they address key areas. The paper argues that the introduction of the Human Rights Act had significant impact on the nature and scope of the English law in the UK but did not have much influence on the U.S. law that also takes the form of English law.

Describing English Law

English law or common law is the common legal structure of England and Wales. The law falls into civil and criminal law. English law is also effective in former British empires, including New Zealand, Australia, the U.S., and Canada.[1] A distinguishing feature of English law is that it functions based on the application of legal precedents to present and future judicial decisions. Applying legal precedents means a judge must adhere to legal decisions passed by higher courts but not those by lower courts. Another distinguishing feature of the UK English law is that it does not follow the guidelines of a constitution and laws are not codified. The American common law differs from UK’s framework because the U.S. has power to pass rulings on the conformity to legislations and laws and constitutional norms.[2] Throughout the twentieth century and beyond, many aspects of U.S. law and regulations were constitutionalized by heightening exercise of judicial power. Another feature distinguishing the U.S. law from that of the UK is the intricate federal structure of the American law and its presidential system as opposed to parliamentary structure applicable in the UK. English law in the UK directs that parliament has the authority to form laws which become valid automatically and may not be altered by courts. Only the parliament has mandate to alter a law. English law is based on various reliable sources. Legislations (both primary and secondary), parliamentary conventions, case law decisions and rules, and general customs provide valuable information that serve as basis for the law. The U.S. today applies common law throughout the country except Louisiana, which adheres to the French civil code.

Describing Human Rights Act

The Human Rights Act came into force in 2000 following assessment in 1992. The objective of the Act of Parliament was to add into UK law the provisions stipulated in the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which is an international body committed to safeguard individual’s rights and freedoms across Europe.[3] The Act allows courts in the UK to try cases about violation of individual rights without having to proceed to the Strasbourg-based European Court of Human Rights.[4] The Act makes it unlawful for any public agency to serve in a way that does not comply with the ECHR, unless directed or provided for by another primary legislation.

Impact of the Act on Common Law

The introduction of the Human Rights Act in 1998 changed the nature of the English law, particularly in the UK where the need to protect everyone, rich and poor, young and old gained momentum. Establishing the Act offered many people the chance to uphold their rights and get justice each year. The Act requires the law to defend the right of all citizens in court and obliges public entities, encompassing local councils, police, and the government to treat every person fairly, respect, and dignity.[5] The Act now enshrined in the English law may be used by every person in the UK not considering whether or not they are British nationals or foreigners. The Act also applies ton prisoners and children. The Act as enshrined in the English Law directs that members of the jury must read and offer effect top other laws and regulations in a way which in in line with Convention recommendations and rights.[6] Furthermore, the introduction of the Act made the law to forbid public authorities from acting in a manner that is not compatible with provided rights and freedoms.

Based on the provisions of the Human Rights Act, the English law in the UK offers protection in many areas that would improve the safety and well-being of those residing in the region. The law now allows everyone to enjoy their right to life. The directive compels the state to make necessary investigations on cases involving suspicious death, especially those that occur in custody. The English law as recommended by the Human Rights Act forbids all forms of torture and inhumane treatment.[7] It directs that no one should ever be tortured or handled in a degrading or inhumane manner, regardless of the situation. Besides, the Act provides protection against forced labor and slavery. English law in the UK as provided for by the Human Rights Act directs that no one should be handled like a slave or be forced to work without their wish, especially when the task requires much effort and energy. The law also reprimands anyone or entity that violates individual’s right to freedom and liberty because everyone has the right to be free and the state can only confine one with a very convincing reason, for instance, when one is convicted of a crime. People in the UK enjoy the right to a fair trial and no reprimand without law, thanks to the provision of the Human Rights Act that became law after undergoing Royal assent in 2000.[8] The law directs that a person is innocent until proven guilty and that one has the right to hear presented evidence in court. Another way in which the Human Rights Act impacted the English law is that it introduced a directive advocating for respect for family life and respect and the right to marry. Today in the UK, it is unlawful to engage in unnecessary intrusion or surveillance into people’s lives. Each person is free to marry and enjoy the company of their family members.

Residents in the UK enjoy other rights and freedoms because of the implementation of the Human Rights Act that influenced the nature of the English law. No authority and whichever circumstance, unless indicated by law has the authority to interfere with one’s freedom of belief, religion, and thought. A person as provided by law van practice their beliefs and religion and believe what they want. Every person in the UK is allowed by law to enjoy free speech and engage in peaceful protests by speaking freely and joining with others appropriately, to express one’s views. The Human Rights Act influenced the English law to include protection against discrimination directing that every person enjoys equal rights. The law directs that a person should not be treated unfairly because of their personal features such as age, religion, sexuality, disability, race, gender, or socioeconomic status.[9] Besides, the Human Rights Act shaped English law such that it offers protection of property, and allows everyone to enjoy right to an education and the right to free elections.

The introduction of the Human Rights Act impacted English law because the law gives clear directives on what needs to do in case of violation of their rights and freedoms. The law informs that if a person can prove that a public entity or authority has tampered with any of the rights acknowledged by the Convention they can take action by communicating to the public authorities involved to remind them of their legal task under the Human Rights Act and urge them to take suitable remedies. Another directive of the Human Rights Act that became law is going to court, which may verify that a particular conduct of a public officer is or would be illegal.[10] The court can direct the public authority to cease from interrupting with one’s right or to take measures to safeguard the right. Nevertheless, if a court is contented that a law is not compatible with a Convention right as stipulated in the Human Rights Act, it may make a decision of that mismatch. This is a formal legal declaration that the specific law affects human rights. It does not have immediate impact but strongly recommends that parliament repeals or amends the law in question.

Rights and Freedoms in the U.S.

Human Rights Act may have not impacted the inclusion of human rights and freedoms in the common law the U.S. follows because whereas the Act was developed in 1998, the Bill of Rights, which comprises of the first ten amendments to the Constitution was developed in 1791. The Bill of Rights defines the rights of Americans with regard to their government. It also guarantees civil liberties and rights to people – like freedom of religion, press, and speech.[11] The Bill of Rights sets for the guideline for law and reserves powers not allowed to the Federal Government to the state or people. The English law in the U.S. that is based on the constitution directs in the First Amendment that every person has the right to express their thoughts, ideas, and to gather and assemble with others to protest for various reasons and to urge the government to address social issues. The Bills of Right also offers protection to religious practices and beliefs and prevents the state from favoring particular religions.[12] The Second Amendment protects the right to keep and bear firearms while the Third Amendment prevents the government from forcefully dispatching soldiers to other people’s homes.[13] However, British troops had unregulated access to private homes before the Revolutionary War. The Fourth Amendment forbids the government from unreasonable search and seizure of a person’s private property. The Fifth Amendment of the Bill of Rights offers several protections for those accused of offenses. It proclaims that major criminal charges should be determined by a grand jury, and further directs that it is unlawful to charge a person twice for the same crime or to practice what the law terms as double jeopardy or have property seized without fair compensation. Moreover, the Fifth Amendment declares that people have the right to be free from self-incrimination and cannot be detained without going through due process of trial.

The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth, Ninth, and Tenth Amendments are equally essential components of the Bill of Rights that safeguard the rights and Freedoms of American citizens. The Sixth Amendment offers additional guidelines to people charged of crimes, such as the right to fast public trials by an impartial jury in all cases, and to be notified of allegations.[14] Besides, the Sixth Amendment asserts that witnesses must present themselves before the accused and the accused is permitted their witnesses and to be represented by an attorney. The Seventh Amendment provides more protection during court proceedings in federal cases, and the Eight Amendment prevents excessive fines and bail and harsh punishment.[15] The Ninth Amendment directs that listing particular rights in the Constitution does not imply that residents cannot exercise other rights not highlighted. Finally, the Tenth Amendment of the Bill of Rights directs that the Federal Government only has those mandates and authorities outlined in the Constitution.


The study indicates that whereas then Human Rights Act had significant impact on the nature of the English law in the UK that was not the case in the U.S. that had already developed a structure to protect the rights and individuals of its people. The introduction of the Human Rights Act in 1998 changed the nature of the English law in the UK because it became more vocal on the issues affecting individual rights. However, both guidelines are fundamental in ensuring people go about their activities without possible disruptions.

However, even though the Human Rights Act may have not contributed to the nature of the U.S. English law, the development or existence of guidelines that protect the rights and freedoms in both forms of English law reiterates the importance of protecting individuals’ rights and freedoms. Human rights are fundamental rights that belong to everyone based on the fact that they are humans.[16] Human rights embody fundamental values in the society such as respect, equality, esteem, and fairness. In addition, the rights give people the power and allow them to address their concerns and to counter improper treatment from a public officer or authority. Both jurisdictions embrace guidelines that protect individual rights and freedoms and refer to them as norms that aspire to safeguard everyone from improper social, legal, and political maltreatment. Both jurisdictions acknowledge that the rights are based on shared values such as respect and independence such as the right to equal access to social services. The shared values on human rights and freedoms is the reason why both the UK English law and the U.S. common law include the right to freedom from torture, freedom of expression, right to life, and right to education and work as common features that every person should enjoy.[17] International and national bodies should oversee effective implementation of laws safeguarding individual rights and freedoms. For example, the UN Security Council, should play a leading role in ensuring effective protection of human rights take place. The UN Security Council should offer guidelines on how to deal with serious human rights breaches, particularly in conflict-prone areas. The UN Security Council is in a better place to mitigate in case of violation because the UN Charter offers the Council the mandate to investigate and report, deploy a mission, mandate conveys to handle particular issues, and to request the Secretary-General to dispatch resources to deal with particular cases. Nationally, the government should ensure effective application of laws that protect individuals’ rights and freedoms by working with courts to get violators to book.  


Analyzing the application of the English Law in the UK and the U.S. suggests that the Human Rights Act (1998) had significant impact on the UK-based common law. The common law in the UK did not have clear directives prior to the Human Rights Act on how to protect individual rights and freedoms but this changed with the introduction of the Act. The Human Rights Act impacted on the English law in the UK because the law now provides clear guidelines on human rights and factors that amount to violation. The current English law in the UK forbids attempts or acts that violate right to life and prohibits torture and inhumane treatment. The study reveals that the Human Rights Act introduced an element in UK English law that disregards slavery, discrimination, and punishment without law.[18] The law allows people to enjoy freedom and liberty and to undergo fair treatment. The UK English law also allows for respect for family life and privacy and allows every person to form a family. Every person in the UK is protected by law to enjoy freedom of belief, thought, and religion and any person or entity violating the right may face legal penalties, thanks to the ratification of the Human Rights Act. The study shows that today, because of the Human Rights Act, people in the UK enjoy the right to speak the way they like provided they do not contravene the rights and freedoms of others.[19] On the other hand, the U.S. adopted a framework to protect the rights of its people much earlier before the formation of the Human Rights Act. The Bill of Rights was adopted soon after the formation of the U.S. Constitution and has always guided protection of individual rights in the country. The English laws in the UK and the U.S., however, have certain similar features in the way they protect the rights and freedoms of their people. Both include structures that protect individual rights (Human Rights Act in the UK and Bills of Right in the U.S.) and both guidelines contain similar features.


Badhur, Gulam. “The Human Rights Act (1998) and its Impact on Reproductive Issues.” Human Reproduction, vol. 16, no. 4, 2001, pp. 785-9. doi:10.1093/humrep/16.4.785

Bove, Marion and Laurence Francoze-Terminal. How Common is the Common Law? Some Differences and Similarities in British and American Superior Court Decisions.” Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, vol. 1, 2005, pp. 59-82. doi:10.14198/raei.2015.28.04

Donald, Alice, Jenny Watson and Niamh McClean. Human Rights in Britain since the Human Rights Act 1998: A Critical Review. Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2009.

Lee, Jack. “Interpreting Bills of Rights: The Value of Comparative Approach.” International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol. 5, no. 1, 2008, 122-152. doi:10.1093/icon/mol042

“The Bills of Rights: What Does it Say?” National Archives, 2021,

 “The Human Rights Act.” Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018,

[1] Bove, Marion and Laurence Francoze-Terminal. How Common is the Common Law? Some Differences and Similarities in British and American Superior Court Decisions (Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses, vol. 1,. 2005) pp. 61

[2] Boye and Francoze-Terminal. “How Common is the Common Law?” p. 63

[3] “The Human Rights Act.” Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018, Accessed 1 Nov. 2021. 

[4] “The Human Rights Act.” Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018, Accessed 1 Nov. 2021. 

[5] Ibid

[6] Ibid

[7] “The Human Rights Act.” Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2018, Accessed 1 Nov. 2021. 

[8] Ibid

[9] Badhur, Gulam. “The Human Rights Act (1998) and its Impact on Reproductive Issues (Human Reproduction, vol. 16, no. 4, 2001) pp. 787.

[10] Ibid, 788.

[11] Lee, Jack. “Interpreting Bills of Rights: The Value of Comparative Approach (International Journal of Constitutional Law, vol. 5, no. 1, 2008), pp. 126.

[12] Ibid, 127.

[13] Ibid, 127

[14] “The Bills of Rights: What Does it Say?” National Archives, 2021, Accessed 1 Nov. 2021. 

[15] Ibid

[16]  “The Bills of Rights: What Does it Say?” National Archives, 2021, Accessed 1 Nov. 2021. 

[17] Ibid

[18] Donald, Alice, Jenny Watson and Niamh McClean. Human Rights in Britain since the Human Rights Act 1998: A Critical Review (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2009), p. 17.

[19] Ibid, 40.

Future Hybrid Offices college application essay help
Future Hybrid Offices

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:





Hybrid offices are being considered as a viable office configuration of the future, particularly in the post-Covid era. Current experiences from various organizations across the world are that work can be performed virtually to overcome the limitations placed by the public health protocols controlling the spread of coronavirus. However, as the pandemic ebbs of and economies open up, it is unlikely that organizations will maintain the same office structure and models they had before the pandemic. This study has revealed that hybrid offices are viable and present numerous advantages if the concerns associated with virtual working can be addressed.

Table of Contents

Contents                                                                                                                     Pages

Introduction. 4

Literature Review.. 5

Research Questions. 6

Methodology. 7

Findings. 8

Perceptions of Employees. 8

Influencers of Shift towards Hybrid Offices. 9

Advantages of Hybrid offices. 10

Disadvantage of Hybrid Offices. 10

Discussion. 11

Viability of Hybrid Offices. 11

Concerns about Hybrid Offices. 11

Conclusion. 12








Future Hybrid Offices


Who would not like to select his or her own working environment and conditions? This question is increasingly prevalent among employees in contemporary workplaces as they seek more autonomy in selecting their work conditions, such as location, time, and mode of task delivery. Central to this paradigm shift is the proliferation of digital technologies, which demonstrates different ways of performing work. Besides, the current generation of millennial workers places a high premium on work-life balance in which they want to work productively and attend to their personal issues in a flexible manner. Large technology companies like Google, Inc. are championing a workplace, which gives the employees more autonomy in defining their working conditions to facilitate superior performance. The company combines work-schedule flexibility and work-location flexibility with personalized workspaces to sustain the interest and creativity of the high talent, expecting it to translate to innovation, productivity, and retention of employees. Additionally, the ongoing coronavirus pandemic has transformed the world of work due to lockdowns, travel restrictions and social distancing. The current office structure has undergone a fundamental transformation, with employers experimenting with working-from-home (WFH) formats to sustain their companies and avoid total shutdowns. However, some form of collective physical presence among employees is critical, especially in sectors such as research, where researchers need to work together physically as teams or in construction sites where the physical presence of the worker on site is critical. To this end, the notion of hybrid offices is increasingly being explored as a possible workplace format for the future, alongside virtual offices and traditional physical offices. Companies like Adtrak in the United Kingdom, have experimented with hybrid offices, which have more social spaces and fewer desks (Johanson, 2021). Therefore, there is a need to determine the existing evidence that indicates the viability of hybrid offices as the workplace formats for the future.

Literature Review

Fortune (2021) trace how the workplace has transformed since the advent of the industrial age in the 19th century. They note that employee compensation changed from focusing on work done to hours worked, thus necessitating offices to control employee output centrally. However, the Covid-19 pandemic had changed all these by dismantling the traditional centers of power at workplaces and giving employees more control over their workspaces. Flexibility is central in these transformations of the office setup.

Digital technologies are revolutionizing workplaces and have the potential of transforming them into smart offices. Aryal et al. (2019) explored how the internet-of-things and machine learning could be used in smart office desks to customize the work environment according to an employee’s preferences. They noted that such a possibility would promote the comfort and health of an employee, thus boosting his or her productivity and satisfaction. Such technologies could be used by individual employees to control the microclimate, lighting, acoustics, air quality and ergonomics, using sensors and actuators on the work desk (Aryal et al., 2019).  

The topic of hybrid offices and other unconventional office formats have pervaded research activities and publications recently, especially due to the ongoing covid-19 pandemic.  According to Workspace Design & Build (2021), Google Inc. is a champion of unconventional workplace design to motivate its workforce. Its innovative offices across its locations across the world are designed to encourage social interaction between the employees at all levels and stimulate creativity. Besides, the working spaces in these offices are employee-friendly by creating spaces with easy access to food and snacks, promoting casual collision between employees of diverse cadres, while eliminating single-occupancy spaces. Pham (2021) argued that the ongoing covid-19 pandemic had changed the thinking regarding how technology and demographic shifts were transforming the workplace to whether organizations would select in-office, remote, and hybrid offices and the most suitable workspaces post-Covid. He noted that although companies were forced to adopt virtual offices suddenly at the onset of the coronavirus pandemic back in 2020, attention had shifted to creating workspaces that went beyond remote working and fulfilling employees’ needs by enhancing employee performance as well. Pham (2021) reported that three-quarters of businesses worldwide had introduced flexible working since the Covid-19 epidemic, and in turn, had witnessed a rise in employee performance levels. However, he noted that the future workplaces would be defined by roles and types of work rather than location and contractual working hours. In this regard, flexible workspaces that could accommodate different employee needs and working formats at different times were attracting much attention from business executives who agreed that no one office solution fitted all workplace circumstances.  

Bloom (2021) revealed that 70% of firms planned to adopt hybrid working arrangements after the end of the covid-19 pandemic to enable employees to collaborate with their colleagues while working from home. He noted that hybrid offices could promote organizational culture-building, innovation and collaboration, while helping employees to avoid commuting to work and working quietly from home. However, Bloom (2021) argued that companies could start by selecting days that employees could come to the office and work from home, to instill the culture of flexible workplaces after the coronavirus pandemic is over.

Research Questions

The aim of this study is to assess the viability of hybrid offices as a future workplace format that can be deployed to overcome the limitations experienced by employees, employers and organizations, currently. For hybrid offices to be viable, they must present clear benefits that outweigh the challenges. In this regard, this study sought to answer these two questions.

How viable are hybrid offices as the future work environments?What benefits would hybrid offices deliver to workers and organizations?


A qualitative study was conducted using the secondary research approach. Secondary research involved retrieving data from previously published and archived materials and analyzing it to reveal new insights into a specific topic of interest. This strategy was preferred because it was compatible with the ongoing public health conditions placed by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, which made it difficult to collect primary data from diverse sources due to travel restrictions, social distancing requirements, and discouraging physical gatherings to stem the spread of Covid-19. Besides, it was cost-effective and time-effective, thus did not impose extreme resource demands on the researcher.

The secondary sources used included peer-reviewed articles, news publications, expert opinions, and organizational publications retrieved from World Wide Web. Google Scholar and Microsoft Academic were used to query the online databases for sources that met a preset inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusions criteria included that the sources were to have been published in the last 5 years and published in English. In turn, sources whose publication exceeded 5 years were ignored unless they provided critical historical information. Similarly, sources that were published in languages other than English, and had no English translations, were also ignored. Altogether, the relevance and currency of the sources, alongside the credibility of the authors and publishers were held in high regard to help yield high-quality data.   


Perceptions of Employees

A survey conducted by the institute for economic policy research at Stanford University revealed that 31% of employees drawn from various organizations across the United States would prefer to have 5 paid workdays after the covid-19 pandemic ends. However, the fewest employees opted to have either 1 or 4 paid working days in a week to work from home, as illustrated in figure 1.

Figure 1. Preference for number of paid working days for working from home after Covid-19

Similarly, the survey revealed that most employees would prefer working from home on Mondays and Fridays and least on Wednesdays. However, twice as many women would prefer working from home full-time compared to men. The days preferred for working from home are presented in figure 2.

Figure 2. Days employees would prefer working from home

Influencers of Shift towards Hybrid Offices

The secondary sources revealed that there were several forces influencing the transformation of the contemporary office configurations and promoting hybrid offices. The main factors included the effects of the ongoing coronavirus-pandemic, technological advancements, and cultural shifts. Specifically, the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic had forced employees to work from home or become jobless during lockdowns. Similarly, technological advancements had created new avenues for communication and task performance, which did not require the presence of a physical office. Technology had made virtual working possible. Also, the secondary sources revealed that Millennials, whose proportion in the labor marked was burgeoning, valued work-life balance than those born before them. They preferred to have more say on when they could come to work and when they could work from home. They also preferred to have more opportunities for attending to their life obligations and preferences beyond work.   

Advantages of Hybrid offices

The secondary sources revealed that hybrid offices presented employees, employers and organizations with several advantages. Specifically, hybrid offices deliver more employee satisfaction and productivity as the biggest advantages compared to conventional ones or virtual offices only. Other advantages included increased creativity, reduced absenteeism and higher employee retention. In addition, organizations could benefit by eliminating or reducing real-estate costs of renting or building office spaces and reducing immigration issues related to international talent. Similarly, employees could benefit from reduced commute time and costs and improved work-life balance.

Disadvantage of Hybrid Offices

The secondary sources revealed that hybrid offices had several limitations that disadvantaged employees, employers and organizations. These disadvantages were associated with the disadvantages of virtual offices. The most significant disadvantage of hybrid offices revealed by the secondary sources was the lack of face to face interaction, which lowered the quality of communication, decision-making, mentoring, performance evaluation and data security (Choudhury, 2020). Although hybrid offices provided some opportunities for face-to-face interactions in a physical office alongside technology-aided communication, such as teleconferencing for virtual interactions, these modes reduced the opportunities for experiencing non-verbal communication to augment verbal communication, thus lowering the quality of interactions and engagements with colleagues and superiors. Also, employees working in hybrid offices were likely to miss promotion opportunities, considering that those working in virtual settings suffered this eventuality compared to those working in-office.


Viability of Hybrid Offices

Hybrid offices are viable as the office configuration for the post-Covid era. International Labour Organization (2020) has projected that a blended form of teleworking and offices with physical distancing measures are likely to be the most workable return-to-work office configuration after the pandemic. The viability of hybrid offices as the future workplace configuration depends on the forces driving this transformation. The most significant forces that would promote the adoption of hybrid offices include the covid-19 pandemic effects, technological advancements, cultural transformations, and cost implications. The Adecco Group (2021) noted that blended offices could be tailored and adopted to accommodate diverse cultures in organizations. 

The availability and accessibility of technologies that can assist employees work virtually whenever they need to. However, Kakkad et al. (2021) noted that non-routine jobs in the service sector and not the routine ones in traditional industries like manufacturing, were the ones most likely to benefit from the hybrid office model because they could be performed from anywhere across the world. Similarly, Lund et al. (2020) revealed that the highly-educated, proficiently-skilled and well-paid minority workforce would benefit the most from hybrid office models. In the same vein, allowing employees to work virtually some of the time would enhance the efficient use of office space thus reducing operations costs, considering that office buildings incurred about 90% of the operating costs in firms (Cordero et al., 2017).     

Concerns about Hybrid Offices

Hybrid offices present several concerns at the workplace that need to be addresses before full adoption. The concerns of these office configurations are related to the concerns associated with working remotely rather than working in-office. Specifically, working distractions from unfixed routines, technical problems and communication breakdowns are critical concerns that may hinder the adoption of hybrid offices. Wang et al (2021) revealed that loneliness, procrastination, ineffective communication, and work-home interference were the key challenges affecting remote working, which could be experienced by hybrid offices.


This study sought to assess the viability of hybrid offices as the future workspaces and identify their potential advantages. The study revealed that hybrid offices, which combined physical spaces with virtual ones, were viable office configurations that were likely to take root after the end of the covid-19 pandemic. The advantages hybrid office would deliver would surpass those from physical offices and virtual offices separately. The ongoing covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the experimentation with hybrid offices, helping many companies visualize how they could be implemented in their workplaces in the post-Covid era.


Aryal, A., Becerik-Gerber, B., Anselmo, F., Roll, S. C., & Lucas, G. M. (2019). Smart desks to promote comfort, health, and productivity in offices: A vision for future workplaces. Frontiers in Built Environment, 5, 76.

Bloom, N. (2021). Hybrid is the Future of Work. Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research (SIEPR): Stanford, CA, USA. Retrieved from Choudhury, P. (2020). Our work-from-anywhere future. Harvard Business Review. Cordero, A. C., Rahe, U., Wallbaum, H., Jin, Q., & Forooraghi, M. (2017). Smart and sustainable offices (SSO): Showcasing a holistic approach to realise the next generation offices. Informes de la Construcción, 69(548), e221.

Fortune (2021). The hybrid office of the future. Retrieved from International Labour Organization (2020). Teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond: A practical guide. Retrieved from—ed_protect/—protrav/—travail/documents/instructionalmaterial/wcms_751232.pdf Johanson, M. (2021). Hybrid work: What the office could look like now. BBC. Retrieved from Kakkad, J., Palmou, C., Britto, D. & Browne, J. (2021). Anywhere jobs and the future of work. Vox. Retrieved from 

Lund, S., Madgavkar, A., Manyika, J. & and Smit, S. (2020). What’s next for remote work: An analysis of 2,000 tasks, 800 jobs, and nine countries. McKinsey Global Institute. Retrieved from

Pham, Q. (2021). The future of work: Remote, hybrid and in-office. Forbes. The Adecco Group (2021). The traditional office is changing. What will the future office space look like? Retrieved from Wang, B., Liu, Y., Qian, J., & Parker, S. K. (2021). Achieving effective remote working during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A work design perspective. Applied Psychology, 70(1), 16-59.

Workspace Design & Build (2021). What can we learn from Google’s offices about workplace design? Retrieved from

Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy best essay help
Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy


Dyadic developmental psychotherapy is a fast emerging psychotherapeutic intervention targeting children with attachment disorders. It is a family-based intervention that seeks to rebuild secure relationships between children and their parents following the children’s traumatic experiences with their parents or caregivers. It is based on the attachment theory and employs the concepts of developmental trauma and intersubjectivity to help children and their caregivers deal with the traumatic experiences of children and their manifestations in behavior and cognition. Nonetheless,  dyadic developmental psychotherapy is challenged for its lack of scientific rigor and theoretical support, which can be addressed through evidencing efficacy using scientific studies.


Psychotherapy is undergoing a continuous transformation as scientists, and healthcare professionals gain more knowledge on mental health and the workings of the human brain. Children remain an enigmatic cohort regarding mental health because they are still developing fast and still too young to interpret their feelings and perceptions about the issues they may be facing. In many cases, parents and caregivers are critical companions of children undergoing mental health treatment because they help the therapists interpret the efficaciousness of the intervention or treatment approach. Dyadic developmental therapy (DDP) is one recently developed mental health intervention targeting children. Although it was developed for children traumatized by separating from their familiar caregivers, it is increasingly being used to treat other emotion-related mental health issues that children face. However, this psychotherapeutic approach elicits much controversy from mental health experts, scientists, and other physiatrists because it does not seem to have established scientific foundations based on evidence, has an inconsistent theoretical grounding, and lacks sufficient evidence of its efficaciousness among mental health practitioners (Hughes, Golding, & Hudson, 2015). In the ensuing discussion, what is known about dyadic developmental therapy is presented. After presenting an overview of the therapeutic approach, the theories founding Dyadic developmental therapy are discussed alongside the practice techniques and procedures employed in real life to treat mentally ill children. In the end, an evaluation of its effectiveness as demonstrated in practice is put forth to help gauge its utility as a psychotherapeutic tool for treating children. Indeed, dyadic developmental therapy indicates that children’s psychotherapy is advancing well because psychiatrists working in a multidisciplinary team are discovering new techniques for approaching children’s mental health issues using dyadic approaches.

Overview of Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy

Dyadic developmental therapy (DDP) was advanced by Daniel Hughes, a renowned and accomplished clinical psychologist in the United States. It was inspired by his initial interest in the traumatic experiences of children separated from their primary and most familiar caregivers, which often occurs during adoption or abandonment. He reasoned that when children are separated from their parents or caregivers, they experience trauma that influences their growth and development. Such traumatized children develop coping mechanisms that involve behavioral and cognitive processes (Hughes, Golding, & Hudson, 2015). Specifically, the traumatized children may cope with their trauma by developing rigid self-reliance alternatives to avoid similar traumatic experiences in the future. They avoid relying on their caregivers as protectors and assurers of emotional comfort. Therefore, Dyadic developmental therapy seeks to dismantle these maladjustments and return the emotional wellbeing of the traumatized child to a balanced state.   

Dyadic developmental therapy employs cognitive-behavioral strategies in addressing the development maladjustments occurring in children that have experienced trauma. It is considered a dyadic approach because it primarily involves the relationship between the child and the caregiver (child-parent dyad). However, although it also leverages the relationships between the child and the therapist (child-therapist dyad) and the patient and the therapist (parent-therapist dyad). In other words, although this psychotherapeutic approach focuses on the child’s mental state and the associated cognitive and behavioral responses, dyadic developmental therapy recognizes the importance of the parent or caregiver in the therapeutic process.

In the end, dyadic developmental therapy seeks to reestablish the emotional connection between caregivers and children in their current families and promote attachment security in children that had been traumatized previously by neglect, abuse, and separation. The reestablished parent-child relationship is illustrated by the child exhibiting certain cognitions and behaviors that indicate that the psychotherapy intervention is successful. These include, the child reducing exhibiting controlling behaviors such as throwing tantrums, crying, dominating play with other children, and disobeying parents and caregivers. Also, the child demonstrates improved bond and relationship quality, enhanced stress-coping and emotion-regulating abilities, improved interpersonal relationship skills, improved insight into emotional experiences, and an enhanced sense of security and safety and caregivers.

Theories supporting Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy

Attachment theory is the foundational theoretical framework underpinning dyadic developmental therapy. Although the attachment theory explains the effects of separating infants from their parents, it is used to elucidate the psychological impact of separating children and their familiar caregivers, especially their cognitive and behavioral reactions to such detachment. The theory posits that children feel secure when they relate with caregivers that cater to their emotional needs through availability and responsiveness, thus allowing them to venture out into the environment (Ackerman, 2021). John Bowlby, who advanced this theory, explained that children exhibited a set of behaviors in their attachment behavioral system when returned to parents from whom they had been separated previously. These newly-developed behaviors aim to prevent a similar separation from primary caregivers in the future and cement the child-caregiver relationship. In turn, Bowlby hypothesized that children demonstrated three reactions upon reuniting with their parents, with a fourth one being advanced thereafter (Ackerman, 2021). The first is secure attachment, in which the child is easily comforted by the returned parent without much display of any emotional distress or exaggerated behavior. The second in anxious-resistant attachment, in which the child is easily comforted while engaging in behaviors targeted towards punishing the parent for leaving. In other words, children exhibiting this response are easily reconnected by the separated parents but also engage in behaviors that intend to penalize or rebuke the parent for having left in the first place. The third is avoidant detachment, in which the child exhibits no reaction or stress towards the separation from or reuniting with a parent. In this case, the child demonstrates emotional detachment from the parent since being separated. The fourth is the disorganized-disoriented detachment, in which the child exhibits unpredictable behavior responses upon reuniting with a previously separated parent. In essence, this theory explains that the children’s attachment style depends on the caregiving style the children received from their caregivers. Therefore, children that reviewed consistent love and support became secure, while those that had traumatic relationships with their caregivers developed insecure relationships and maladjusted behavioral responses. 

Dyadic developmental therapy also employs learning theories that suggest that children learn about relationships through experiencing emotional connections in their environment and learning how to regulate their emotions through conscious and deliberate efforts.  In this regard, children that have had traumatic experiences involving relationships with or attachment to caregivers can learn how to regulate their cognition and emotions to develop socially-acceptable behaviors. In turn, the learned emotional regulation strategies are employed deliberately to develop and advance healthy relationships between the children and other members of society.  

In addition, dyadic developmental therapy leverages the principles of developmental trauma and intersubjectivity (Hughes, 2017). Specifically, the concept of developmental trauma explains how trauma in early childhood directly impacts the physical and emotional development of a child’s brain. According to this concept, children struggle to cultivate secure relationships with their caregivers because they are a source of both safety and fear. In turn, such children undergo a confusing development of relationships that influences their self-perception and worldview, resulting in an incoherent self-narrative (Hughes, 2017). Similarly, the concept of intersubjectivity explains how sharing of mutual experiences results in a dynamic reciprocal relationship. In turn, in reciprocal relationships, one individual influences the experiences of the other (Hughes, 2017). Therefore, the experiences of a traumatized child influence the therapist’s experiences when facilitating the development of secure child-parent relationships. The therapist then employs these experiences to help parents improve their parenting skills and strategies, and children to regulate their emotions, develop secure relationships with their caregivers, and give new meaning to their life experiences. 

Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy Practice

Psychotherapy practice of the practitioners employing dyadic developmental therapy is progressing towards establishing protocols that should be followed to deliver the desired outcome in traumatized children. The fundamental principle of dyadic developmental therapy is that the active presence of parents or caregivers supports the child’s growth and development. In this regard, the psychotherapeutic intervention adheres to established parenting principles that incorporate playfulness, acceptance, curiosity, and empathy (PACE) (Hughes, 2017). Therefore, the relationship between the child and therapist is critical for the success of the dyadic developmental therapeutic intervention. Consequently, the therapeutic approach employed in DDP is family-based rather than individual-focused (Hughes, 2017). The success of the intervention relies on the involvement of the entire family rather than on the traumatized child only.

The psychotherapists recommend certain procedures when developing the child-therapist relationship that would facilitate the efficaciousness of DDP. The therapeutic procedures are phased in the relationship development strategy by first seeking to establish a trusting relationship with the child before incorporating the parents or caregivers into the therapy. Besides, the dyadic developmental practice is premised on the principles of attunement, synchrony and empathy in their deployment by therapists (Hughes, 2017). Specifically, nonverbal attunement establishes a sense of safety in children and caregivers by exploring emotions, experiences and memories using nonjudgmental and reflective conversation. Similarly, synchrony helps attend to the child and parents or caregivers simultaneously to create a common understanding of the underlying issues affecting the child’s mental health wellbeing. Likewise, empathy helps the therapist relate to the child’s experiences and place them into context (Hughes, 2017). In turn, parents and caregivers are taught to be empathetic to their child’s circumstances, experiences, and interpretations of their satiations in relationships.

 Therefore, the psychotherapeutic approach is phased during execution because it focuses first, on the child before incorporating the parents and other caregivers into the treatment process. Since the therapeutic process is structured, it progresses in phases while commencing with establishing a secure relationship with the traumatized child first, then the parents and caregivers next. The therapist endeavors to understand the experiences underlying child’s trauma and behavioral displays. After that, the therapist facilitates the child and parents or caregivers to forge a secure relationship.  Once these relationships are well developed, the child can be taught how to interpret his or her traumatic experiences, regulate emotions and display positive adaptive behaviors. Similarly, the parents and caregivers are taught how to interpret the thoughts and actions of their children, and explore underlying themes associated with the childhood tremor constructively and safely.

Effectiveness of Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy

Dyadic developmental therapy is recognized as an efficacious intervention for reactive attachment disorder under DSM IV criteria. Some evidence indicates that this therapy is useful in treating children diagnosed with complex trauma or complex post-traumatic stress disorder, which are considered as manifestations of reactive attachment disorder, according to the DSM IV criteria. Studies by Tsappis et al. (2021) revealed that attachment difficulties in children could be treated effectively using parenting interventions. Using a systematic review of 61 published studies, Tsappis et al. (2021) established that dyadic developmental psychotherapy was a commonly used intervention in the United Kingdom because it had demonstrated appreciable efficaciousness in treating children suffering from attachment problems, specifically insecure attachment and disorganized attachment. Similarly, a survey conducted by Wingfield and Gurney-Smith (2019) involving 12 adoptive parents undergoing dyadic developmental therapy with their children. The study revealed that the adoptive parents felt that they had developed increased understanding of their children’s situation, mental condition, and behavioral displays. The parents appreciated the Dyadic developmental therapy as a shared experience involving them and their children, in which they provided better support after gaining more insights into the minds of their children. In the same vein, they appreciated the dyadic approach of the intervention because it facilitated trust-building, provided a sense of security, and co-regulation of emotions and co-creation of acceptable coping mechanisms. These findings support those of Hewitt, Gurney-Smith and Golding (2018), who after interviewing 8 adoptive parents with between one and four children, indicated that the parents found the dyadic developmental therapy as being supportive through theoretical knowledge empowerment, transformative because of mediating perspective shifts in parenting skills and strategies, enhancing parents’ confidence, and transforming traumatic experiences into secure attachments. These findings support those derived from a primary research reported by Becker-Weidman (2010) indicating that there was a significant difference child behavior checklist scores between children that had undergone dyadic developmental therapy and those that had not.

However, some critiques have argued that dyadic developmental therapy lacked sufficient theoretical backing to support the observed outcomes and that its outcomes cannot pass the rigor of scientific findings and therefore cannot be termed as evidence-based, sufficiently to influence clinical practice (Bowmer, 2021). For instance, Mercer (2014) argued that dyadic developmental therapy fell below the standards of a research-supported treatment because it employed questionable metaphors and was premised on dubious assumptions. Similarly, Tsappis et al. (2021) indicated that there was a significant disconnect between research and clinical practice related to dyadic developmental therapy because of the large variations in research findings. This means that although research had established a proof of concept using theoretical approaches, there lacked sufficient studies to back these assertions.


Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP) is a child-focused, relationship-based mental health intervention seeking to solve attachment problems in traumatized children. Since its advancement by Daniel Hughes over two decades ago, it is gradually gaining popularity among psychotherapists in the United States and United Kingdom. It is now appreciated as an additional tool for helping children with attachment disorders resulting from traumatic experiences such as, separation, abuse and neglect involving primary caregivers. However, despite being adopted widely in western countries, many continue to questions its evidential support and theoretical foundations. Nonetheless, as evidence of its efficaciousness accumulates and theoretical frameworks are reflected in clinical practice outcomes, dyadic developmental therapy is likely to gain a distinguished place as a psychotherapeutic intervention of choice for addressing children with attachment disorders. Therefore, the establishment of Dyadic developmental psychotherapy as a psychotherapeutic strategy that meets scientific rigor and quality is pegged on increased accumulation of evidence of its efficacy.


Ackerman, C. E. (2021). What is attachment theory, Bowlby’s 4 stages explained. Retrieved from

Becker-Weidman, A. (2010). Dyadic developmental psychotherapy: Essential practices and methods. Jason Aronson.

Bowmer, G. (2021). How effective is dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP)? The Child Psychology Service. Retrieved from Hewitt, O., Gurney-Smith, B., & Golding, K. (2018). A qualitative exploration of the experiences of adoptive parents attending ‘Nurturing Attachments’, a dyadic developmental psychotherapy informed group. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 23(3), 471-482.

Hughes, D. (2017). Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP): an attachment‐focused family treatment for developmental trauma. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 38(4), 595-605.

Hughes, D., Golding, K. S., & Hudson, J. (2015). Dyadic developmental psychotherapy (DDP): The development of the theory, practice and research base. Adoption & Fostering, 39(4), 356-365.

Mercer, J. (2014). Examining Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy as a treatment for adopted and foster children: A review of research and theory. Research on Social Work Practice, 24(6), 715-724.

Tsappis, E., Garside, M., Wright, B., & Fearon, P. (2021). 1147 Routinely used interventions for improving attachment in infants and young children: an updated systematic review and comprehensive UK survey.

Wingfield, M., & Gurney-Smith, B. (2019). Adoptive parents’ experiences of dyadic developmental psychotherapy. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24(4), 661-679.

Application of Knowledge Management in the U.S. Air Force essay help site:edu
Application of Knowledge Management in the U.S. Air Force





Due Date

Application of Knowledge Management in the U.S. Air Force


Many organizations acknowledge the significance of applying knowledge management (KM) and are enacting measures to apply the concept in their practices. Scholars use different words to describe KM but they all arrive at the same meaning. The report by the Department of the Air Force (2019) defines KM as a discipline focusing on integrating people and processes facilitated by technology in the entire information life cycle to foster organizational performance, shared understanding, and decision-making. KM serves as a facilitator for information dominance – an efficiency achieved from the capability to gather, control, use, and safeguard information to augment decision-making and improve the warfighting techniques.  The study pays attention to the application of KM in the U.S. Air Force. The case study examines the Air Force’s goals in applying knowledge management as well as analyzes the model system and components at the organization. The paper also addresses KM roles and responsibilities at the firm and assesses implementation of knowledge sharing. The study also highlights challenges that AF encounters in implementing KM and gives recommendations that may improve implementation of the practice. Adherence to effective guidelines allows USAF to apply KM concepts effectively and appropriately.

Research Method

The research method is a case study, which entails conducting in-depth analysis of a single entity, group, or individual. Crowe et al. (2011) define a case study as an investigation into an individual circumstance. Crowe et al. (2011) assert that the investigation entails gathering in-depth information about an individual group or entity by applying various collection techniques. Often, observation and interviews are the most common ways of data collection utilized, but it is also possible to conduct a literature review. The case study approach that was first applied in the field of medicine has expanded significantly to other research areas.  The entity in this case is the U.S. Air Force. The case study approach is favorable in this case because it turns one’s assessment and observation into usable information. Crowe et al. (2011) inform that case studies provide verifiable information from assessment or observation of the individual entity under scrutiny. Another reason why the case study approach is suitable is that it transforms opinions into facts because the researcher looks at data that was produced in real-time (Crowe et al., 2011). The method allows researchers to transform their views into verifiable information that can be proven as fact. The benefits that come with using the case study approach is the chief reason it serves as the research method for this study.Organizational Overview

The U.S. Air Force (USAF) is part of the U.S. Armed Forces focusing on air services. Initially established as part of the U.S. Army in 1907, the division was formed as a distinct arm of the Armed Forces in 1947 following the enactment of the National Security Act (1947). The Air Force (AF) comes fourth in the ranking of precedence and among the latest formed braches of the Armed Forces. The USAF demonstrates its core objective as improving reconnaissance, enhancing commands, achieving air superiority, and promoting surveillance. USAF is a military branch falling within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three main divisions of the Department of Defense (DoD). The Secretary of the Air Force assumes the highest rank in the AF and is responsible for supervising units. Directives by the Secretary of the Air Force and the Secretary of Defense guide combatant commands in how they perform their functions. Besides, the Chief of Staff of the Air Force play fundamental roles in terms of administration, which is very essential when handling the key aspects of the military branch. Overall, the U.S. Air Force operates like any other organization that must consider key corporate factors when conducting its operations to achieve targeted goals.U.S. Airforce Knowledge Management Goals

The USAF has enacted goals that it wishes to achieve in its implementation of KM. The Department of the Air Force (2019) report informs that the objective of KM is to enhance shared knowledge and understanding, and quicker, and more appropriate decision-making and implementation. The goal of implementing KM at USAF is to support learning and innovation and to focus on people and processes allowing the decision cycle of the commander (Department of the Air Force, 2019). The goal is to manage what the commander should know, and to facilitate information and knowledge flows within organizational lines and to make sure the products of information are sequenced effectively and present to enhance common awareness and situational understanding of what the commander intends to do (Department of the Air Force, 2019). The goal of implementing KM is also to minimize operational risks and improve effectiveness of mission operations by offering a better a better awareness of the appropriate balance of force to allow commanders to restructure and re-plan activities and operations as effectively as possible. However, USAF has other related goals that would improve how it handles knowledge and information. For example, the objective of information management (IM) at USAF is to facilitate timely reach and distribution of needed information (Department of the Air Force, 2019). IM encompasses managing records and pays attention to the use of regulations and tools to handle the cycle of information. Both KM and IM improves how the USAF conducts its operations.

KM Model, System and Components

USAF follows a KM structure with a definite model, system, and components. USAF’s KM model offers the context for knowing KM, its significance, and role in how the commander makes decisions. The commander’s decision cycle phases encompasses monitoring, assessing, planning, and executing, usually referred to collectively as observation, orientation, deciding, and acting loop. In the monitoring phase, the staff researches and gathers the data to assemble facts. Next, in the assessment stage the staff arrange the data into information to determine what happened. Then the staff interacts and exchanges information amongst members to build knowledge and create courses of actions in the planning phase. Ultimately, the commander based on his wisdom chooses what happens next and gives directives for execution. The model portrays an elevated perception of the decision life cycle to assist communication and comprehension within the firm. The knowledge management layer fosters the interaction and engagements that generate courses of action that permit firms to deal with repetitive or unseen challenges. Adhering to the model allows USAF to work towards meeting its goals and objectives and ensures that each person adheres to particular structures and ideologies while applying KM in their practice.

U.S. Airforce KM Roles and Responsibilities

Various commanding groups are responsible for handling KM practices within the force. The Office of the Secretary of the Air Force Deputy Chief Information Officer (SAF/CN) is in charge for the AF KM program. Specific responsibilities encompass establishing and overseeing AF KM processes and governance structure (Department of the Air Force, 2019). The SAF/CN also serves as the HQ USAF representative in the Program Objective Memorandum processes to facilitate funding for institutions encouraging KM (Department of the Air Force, 2019). The Air Combat Command (ACC), on the other hand, serves as the AF lead command for KM, to encompass information life cycle management and organizational information services technologies as a part of a strategy to enhance Cyber Defense (Department of the Air Force, 2019). ACC also maintains IT systems within Department of Defense and industry measures to adequately enhance the information life cycle. Another role of the ACC is to ensure the force’s KM business practices and mission are in consistent will all relevant cybersecurity instructions and directives. The Air Force Knowledge Management Capability Working Group (AFKM CWG) also plays fundamental roles in enhancing KM practices at AF (Department of the Air Force, 2019). The group meets each month to review AF KM training plans, program, and other achievements and also represent the KM interests and requirements of the organization on all KM-affiliated issues. The roles each team play contribute significantly towards apply KM at AF.Knowledge Sharing Implementations

The USAF shares its knowledge with key stakeholders knowing that it is important to embrace the practice. The agency shares information with its leaders and members of the public. It also shares information with all Air Force officers. Sharing knowledge provides room for active contribution by all stakeholders and allows members to know the organizational plans, aspirations and challenges.Challenges and Recommendations

The team must overcome challenges if it wishes to advance its application of KM concepts. The military branch acknowledges that effective implantation of KM requires incorporation of all stakeholders and their proactive engagement. However, the force does not enjoy needed support from all members because of lack of knowledge on how the concept works. Consequently, the USAF has embarked on training authoritative personnel on how the practice works and how the organization can benefit from it. Training covers various areas, including how to incorporate advanced technology in the process. The group emphasize on training because Omotayo (2015) inform that knowledge is a vital aspect of KM. Omotayo (2015) further assert that without adequate knowledge to manage, knowledge management would not exist. The argument also implies that information is embedded in the processes, forms, and theories of KM. Despite the challenges, USAF can still achieve its objectives of implementing KM by sourcing reference from literacy materials that address similar topics. It may also be important to seek guidance from KM professionals and specialists because they are in a better position to offer solutions to some of challenges that deter the group from achieving all of its goals.


The study examines USAF’s application of KM concepts and ideologies. It illustrates that the branch of the U.S. Armed Forces adheres to particular goals in its application of KM and is committed to achieve stipulated objectives. Besides, USAF adheres to a KM model that has critical components guiding relevant authorities on how to handle the process. Certain individuals and groups play fundamental roles and responsibilities in promoting effective implementation of KM guidelines and procedures. USAF promotes knowledge sharing and encourages knowledge sharing knowing the benefits the practice has on KM implementation. However, the group must deal with its challenges if it expects to achieve targeted goals and objectives. The military branch should embrace provided recommendations to record significant advancement in its application of KM.


Crowe, S., Cresswell, K., Robertson, A., Huby, G., Avery, A., & Sheikh, A. (2011). The case study approach. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11(100),,particularlyinthesocialsciences.

Department of the Air Force. (2019). Knowledge management. Retrieved October 20, 2021, from 

Omotayo, F. (2015). Knowledge management as an important tool in organisational management: A review of literature. Library Philosophy and Practice,

Article Review: Sustainable Funding Strategies for Storm Water Infrastructure Management best college essay help
Article Review: Sustainable Funding Strategies for Storm Water Infrastructure Management

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation



Due Date

Article Review: Sustainable Funding Strategies for Storm Water Infrastructure Management

Abebe, Adey, and Tesfamariam published the article titled ‘Sustainable funding strategies for stormwater infrastructure management: A system dynamics model’ in the Sustainable Cities and Society journal in 2021. The article addresses the pervasive issues of funding challenges experienced by municipalities and public entities because they relied on government collections exclusively. However, the authors explore the possibility of charging service fees to fund public infrastructure maintenance, upgrade, and expansion, considering that urban residents are not charged for some services. The authors use stormwater infrastructure in an urban city as the setting in which to test their funding model.

Problem formulation

The City of Vernon in Canada lacks sufficient funds to manage its stormwater. The municipality in charge of stormwater infrastructure depends on the provincial and federal government for its financial needs, as it does not charge the city citizens for stormwater services (Tassony & Conger, 2015). However, although the municipality of the City of Vernon is struggling with maintaining and upgrading the current stormwater infrastructure, this problem is expected to escalate in future, as climate change causes an increase in rainfall, the population of the city increases, stressing the capacity of the infrastructure, and the existing stormwater infrastructure ages (IPCC 2014). Therefore, there was a need to develop a funding strategy to ensure that the city has sufficient finances to develop and manage its stormwater infrastructure. To this end, Abebe, Adey and Tesfamariam (2021) developed a systems dynamic model that can be used to make strategic decisions related to the introduction of stormwater fees in the city of Vernon. This model is expected to help build a business case for implementing proactive programs stormwater asset management in the city, which can be replicated in other municipalities across the country, because they face problems similar to those of the City of Vernon.

Methods and Means

The mixed-methods approach comprising a qualitative and quantitative component was employed in a study by the authors of the article. The qualitative part investigated the influence of the social, economic, and environmental factors, and the physical stormwater infrastructure on the service fee that would ensure comprehensive and effective stormwater management at the city of Vernon. The qualitative study sought to determine the causal relationships using causal loop diagrams and systems thinking. This methodology was used to discuss the factors that influenced the condition of stormwater infrastructure and the outcomes of introducing a service charge for stormwater infrastructure management. It explored the relationship between housing types, household adaptation efforts, willingness to pay the service charge, and customer satisfaction about the stormwater services by the municipality. Contrastingly, the quantitative part explored the mathematical formulation needed to assess the influence of physical stormwater infrastructure, urbanization and climate change on the findings strategy needed upon the introduction of a stormwater service fee.

The qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to study the city of Vernon as a case study to determine the applicability of the stormwater services financing strategy. This city was selected because its population was rising while its stormwater infrastructure was old and dilapidated, having been installed as far back as the 1950s (CIRC, 2019). Besides, the stormwater management expenditure was expected to require CAD 4.36 million every year up to 2022. Therefore, the city presented an example of the funding challenges being experienced by other cities in Canada, and therefore, the findings from this city could be applied in any other Canadian city.


The study revealed that the condition of the stormwater infrastructure in the city of Vernon had not been inspected fully and therefore remained largely unknown. Therefore, the findings of the study are based on two hypothetical scenarios due to the lack of adequate information regarding the current condition of the city’s stormwater infrastructure. This means that the researchers came up with two sets of findings based on the two hypothetical scenarios they formulated. The first set of findings are based on the assumption that the city had a relatively new stormwater infrastructure in which 50% and 30% of the stormwater assets were in conditions G1 and G2. The second set of findings are based on the assumption that the city has stormwater infrastructure in which 75% of the stormwater assets were in condition G3 or worse. The systems dynamic model developed for the two scenarios indicated that the expenses for maintaining and upgrading the stormwater infrastructure would increase gradually over time. However, the expenses in the first scenario would increase at a faster rate than those in scenario 2. In the same vein, the service fee collected in the second scenario would increase sharply in the first year before slumping dramatically by the second year, after which it would remain constant until the 9th year before increasing marginally thereafter until the 50th year, which is the lifespan of most stormwater management fittings (Infrastructure Canada, 2016). This trend is different for the first scenario, in which the revenue collected would increase gradually for the entire lifespan of the stormwater infrastructure.  In turn, the revenue collected using scenario 2 would exceed that using the first scenario by approximately CAD 800,000. Also, the fund balance average for every year would be close to zero. Nonetheless, the cumulative expenses had a significant difference that would keep rising for the first 15 years before stabilizing at approximately CAD 35 million.  However, these results did not incorporate the effects of population growth and climate change, because they focused on the type of stormwater infrastructure and he nature of the residential infrastructure in the city. Nonetheless, the model developed in the study indicated that the city had the potential of introducing service fees for managing the stormwater infrastructure and expanding it in the future as dictated by the changing conditions.  


The systems dynamics and geographical information system model developed by the authors of the article provided a conceptual and mathematical representation for simulating the most significant elements for financing stormwater infrastructure management initiatives in the city of Vernon. Abebe, Y., Adey, B. T., & Tesfamariam, S. (2021) concluded that this model could facilitate strategic planning in cities to accommodate the challenges on the stormwater system presented by population growth, stormwater infrastructure deterioration and climate change. However, they confess that their study was not conclusive because it did not incorporate factors such as climate change and population growth, which strain public infrastructure. Therefore, they recommended further studies that would develop mathematical relationships between elements, such as willingness to pay, customer satisfaction and adaptation efforts by households, which were discussed in the qualitative model but omitted in the quantitative one. 


The article is well laid out, using plenty illustrations to demonstrate difficult concepts and relationships between numerous variables and parameters related to the funding of stormwater infrastructure. Similarly, the authors take time to explain complex concepts to enhance the readers understand of the issues in the topic. However, the paper uses complex mathematical equations for demonstrate the relationships between the various parameters involved in stormwater management, which average readers without expert mathematical knowledge would find difficult to follow.


Abebe, Y., Adey, B. T., & Tesfamariam, S. (2021). Sustainable funding strategies for stormwater infrastructure management: A system dynamics model. Sustainable Cities and Society, 64, 1-12.

CIRC. (2019). Canada infrastructure report card. 

Infrastructure Canada. (2016). Average expected useful life of new publicly owned stormwater assets. Retrieved from 

IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC.

Tassony, A. T., & Conger, B. W. (2015). An exploration into the municipal capacity to finance capital infrastructure. The School of Public Policy Publications, 8(30), 1-30.   

Ethical Dilemma in Accounting Career cheap essay help
Student’s Name

Professor’s Name



All professionals have accountability, responsibility, and obligations towards their work and its affiliates. Amponsah et al. suggest that protecting information about a client is a vital role for a psychologist. In the same way, being part of a highly professional organization, accountants have a sense of duty to the firms in which they work (43). Certainly, their obligation extends beyond themselves and their organization to their work and members of the public expects that they maintain the highest ethical behavior measures. Accountants need to be responsible for their maintenance of confidentiality and their own competence, and should be watchful of how they maintain unquestionable ethical standards. The study addresses the issue of mishandling consumer data among accountants, which is an ethical concern. Whereas many organizations have guidelines that forbid inappropriate use consumer data, cases still emerge, which calls for increased concern and better remedies. The study describes how violation of consumer data by accountants affect key stakeholders and how the issue is a major concern among professionals and consumers. The study proposes following ethical theories, adhering to existing legislations, and abiding by a code of ethics as possible ways of preventing misappropriation of consumer information. Following a well-planned code of ethics proves to be an effective approach because it reminds accountants the possible negative effects of violating customers’ confidentiality. Organizations hiring accountants can adequately address the ethical issue of mishandling consumer data by creating a clear and easy-to-understand code of ethics that highlights potential repercussions for contravening customers’ confidentiality through misuse of personal information.

Identifying an Ethical Issue

Like legal and health practitioners, accountants usually dedicate much of their time relating with confidential information. Utilizing that information in a wrong way of failing to take precautions to safeguard confidential data is an ethical concern that generates much debate among stakeholders (Amponsah et al. 46). An accountant or accounting firm, for example, may be compelled to utilize confidential information to benefit from an upcoming expansion or depreciation in the firm’s worth and value (Amponsah et al. 46). Another form of inappropriate access to information that amounts to confidentiality issue involves sharing knowledge of the firm with a rival company, or facilitating outsiders’ reach to confidential data.

Identifying Stakeholders and Effects of Ethical Issue

An accounting firm or any other organization that hires accountants have stakeholders that play fundamental roles in determining organizational aspirations, practices, and performance. Shareholders are vital stakeholders in a business. They take part in general meetings where they make important decisions and examine reports and other important organizational information. Customers are also part of an organization’s stakeholders. Buyers are beneficial to an organization because they show loyalty to the brand, thus signifying that they appreciate quality and other services. Moreover, buyers are key pillars in an organization because they generate needed revenue. Customers are also important because they boost brand popularity and reputation. Employees are also part of an organization’s stakeholders who play fundamental functions in getting the job done. The crucial roles employees play in an organization is the reason why firms strive to motivate them using different approaches, including offering child care reimbursement, meals, life cover, and discounts among other benefits. Each firm should try to satisfy its stakeholders, lest the organization fails.

Violating consumer data and vital information could affect stakeholders significantly. Shareholders are likely to become increasingly worried that the firm is not committed to maintain transparency and integrity in its operations. Some shareholders may be compelled to withdraw their shares while others may consider selling or transferring their investment, a move that could derail the firm’s financial position and stability. Withdrawal of some shareholders due to lack of trust caused by mishandling of consumer data may also deprive a firm of key decision-makers (Amponsah et al. 49). On the other hand, violating consumers’ personal data could scare customers who may consider taking legal actions against the enterprise. A company may also suffer damaged reputation when many customers choose to relate with other organizations for not being able to trust a violating firm with vital personal information. A considerable damage the firm may encounter when accountants mishandle consumer data is decreased revenue production when customers are not able to purchase goods and services any longer due to mistrust (Amponsah et al. 49). Decreased consumer trust could jeopardize the firm’s plans and could deter it from achieving its mission and vision. Other workers are also likely to suffer when particular accountants engage in mishandling of customer information. Tensions could emerge among some members of staff that the group is not doing enough to safeguard consumer data and confidentiality. Such a mentality could destruct some workers from putting enough effort into their duties to achieve the firm’s goals and objectives (Amponsah et al. 50). Consequently, it is imperative for an organization hiring accountants or for individual accountants to refrain from misusing customer data because this could have adverse implications on stakeholders.

Nature of the Ethical Dilemma and why it Matters

An interesting thing about the ethical dilemma is that it still prevails yet various ethical regulations exist that define how accountants should perform their activities. For instance, the Ethics Committee that changed its name to IESBA produced a refined version of Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants that outlines a conceptual guideline for all accountants to ensure adherence with five chief principles of ethics. One of these is integrity, which requires accountants to be honest and transparent in all business relationships. The second aspect is objectivity, which requires professional accountants to avoid bias and conflict of interest. The guideline further requires accountants to practice professional competence in all they do, as well as to practice confidentiality. Professionals have an obligation to maintain professional skill and knowledge at the level needed to ensure that customers get professional services. More fundamentally, the Code requires practitioners to practice professional behavior by adhering to relevant policies and laws. However, whereas some accountants adhere to these provisions others do not, which causes concern among operators and key stakeholders.

Potential Alternatives and Pros and Cons

It is possible to embrace certain measures that could help to prevent possible violation of personal information and data. A possible approach to dealing with the matter is strict adherence to ethical theories while performing one’s work as an accountant. Professionals can follow the guidelines of utilitarianism that advocates for practices and behaviors that promote happiness and contentment and disregards practices that result in harm or unhappiness (Rachaels and Rachaels 121). When faced with an option to make a decision, an accountant who adheres to utilitarianism would aim for the benefit of the entire group or community (CrashCourse). Utilitarianism implies that an action is only right, ethical, and acceptable if it leads to happiness and satisfaction of the greatest number of people (CrashCourse). Consequently, an accountant who ascribes to the teachings of utilitarianism would not want to infringe upon personal data because this may result in undesirable outcomes. Another possible ethical theory that may help accountants to stay away from ethical practices such as inappropriate access to personal information is deontology that is based on duty to ethical practice. Thus, a professional’s conduct and actions rather than their outcomes become the attention of ethical reasoning. According to deontology, an accountant is ethically bound to function in accordance to stipulated guidelines (Goia 285). The main advantage of following ethical theories is that they help professionals to choose what is right and suitable for a particular situation, thus enabling one to make the right decisions and choices. However, ethical theories are limited because they entail some form of abstraction from reality. Therefore, it is imperative to consider both positive and negative sides of ethical theories when using them to avoid moral violations.

Another related approach to addressing concerns of inappropriate access and use of personal information is adhering to a well-drafted code of ethics at the workplace. A code of ethics is a set of principles and guidelines created to assist professionals perform their work with integrity and honesty. A code of ethics also known as ethical code would provide guidelines on how accountants should approach problems while basing ethical regulations on the firm’s values, and the measures to which the work is held. An effective code of ethics emphasize on fundamental principles such as integrity, professionalism, professional conduct, objectivity, and more important confidentiality. Confidentiality in this case involves respecting customers’ opinions and rights and safeguarding their personal information. Thus, creating a suitable code of ethics may help to avoid possible incidences of misuse of personal data that could have far-reaching implications. The benefit adhering to a code of ethics is it helps to achieve targeted behavior. A code of ethics reminds workers of their obligation to always act rightfully. However, a code of ethics may heighten the public’s anticipations for organizational standards to unreachable levels. Such expectations may create a more disturbing workplace as workers struggle to uphold performance regulations while learning new regulations. Despite the limitations, a code of ethics may go a long way into avoiding possible violation of personal data.

Accountants may also cease from inappropriate use of personal data by adhering to existing laws and policies that forbid businesses and individual workers against mishandling clients’ personal information. Currently there is no one major data protection law in the U.S. Instead, a variety of laws and regulations enacted on both state and federal levels seek to safeguard the personal information of residents in the U.S. A suitable legislation that may guide accountants against infringing upon personal data is the Federal Trade Commission Act that mandates the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enact actions to safeguard customers against deceptive and unfair actions and to enact data and privacy protection guidelines (ICLG). The FTC acknowledges deceptive actions as those including the organization’s failure to abide by its published privacy convictions and its incapacity to offer enough security of personal data, in addition to its utilization of misleading marketing practices (ICLG). Another legislation that could guide accountants in state departments of automobiles is the Driver’s Privacy Protection Act (DPPA) of 1994, while accountants working in organizations that deal with children affairs may follow the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), which forbids the gathering of any data from a child below 13 years old (ICLG). Accountants in insurance and financial institutions can adhere to the Gramm Leach Bliley Act that regulates the protection of personal data in the hands of these organizations (ICLG). The primary merit of adhering to enacted laws and legislations is that it deters accountants from mishandling personal data for fear of facing stipulated repercussions. However, laws and legislations could be disadvantageous, especially when relevant authorities do not work towards their implementation. Nevertheless, adhering to available laws may be instrumental in regulating how accountants mishandle patient data.

Preferred Alternative 

A suitable alternative among the three is to follow a code of ethics that guides workers, including accountants on how to perform their duties without indulging in ethical issues. The management should create a code of ethics that applies to all members regardless of their position or influence at the company (Lee et al.). An effective code of ethics is one that emphasizes on integrity that takes many forms in the workplace, but mostly refers to having upright character traits and work ethics encompassing good judgement, dependability, and transparency (Lee et al.). The code of ethics should encourage all workers to tell the truth and avoid abusing their position.

It is important to consider other significant factors while developing a code of ethics that would guide accountants to practice ethics while handling consumer data. The code of conduct should be written for the audience, which means that it should be easy to understand and does not include complex words (Lee et al.). The code of conduct should also be comprehensive by covering all important information that may influence the daily lives and practices of accountants and offers solutions to ethical issues that could arise. Administrators or developers of the code of ethics should get managerial support by getting the code approved by the firm’s senior management team to ensure that it addresses the issue of data handling and confidentiality more effectively (Lee et al.). It is also essential to create a code of ethics that is accessible to all workers, consumers, and potential and existing investors to allow them assess whether the company is committed to handle personal data in the most ethical manner (Lee et al.). Moreover, it is easier for workers or accountants in this case to follow guidelines on the code of ethics if it is visually attractive and adheres to a style that is reflective of the firm and is clean.

Accounting firms or organizations that hire accountants should emulate the code of ethics of some leading corporations that include key aspects that may deter workers from violating personal data. Google, for instance, follows a code of ethics that underpins the significance of speaking up and acting against misconduct while complementing the organization’s mission and vision (i-Sight). Google’s code of ethics guides its accountants to handle consumer data efficiently and in the right manner. Another firm that follows a code of ethics worth imitating is Coca-Cola. The Code of Business Conduct at the organization signifies a clear aspect – integrity (i-Sight). The theme serves as the basis of every aspect of the Code of Conduct, encompassing regulations about the use of consumer and organizational information. Coca-Cola’s Code of Conduct also outlines disciplinary action measures and additional features that help to promote consumer safety (i-Sight). Another firm worth imitating is the Hershey Company that follows an appealing and attractive Code of Conduct. In addition to its visually appealing nature, Hershey’s Code of Conduct, the code is adequately organized and well-drafted. The directive defines what it implies to be part of the organization and how each worker can add to the values of the firm by complying with the measures of conduct (i-Sight). Hershey’s Code of Conduct is clear about mishandling information, and creates an impression that violation may attract harsh consequences. Such companies provide valuable insight into how to develop a code of ethics that addresses key concerns such as misuse of consumer data.


Accountants may be tempted to mishandle customer data by accessing personal information and using them without permission, thereby indulging in ethical malpractice. The study identifies access to information and confidentiality as an ethical concern in the field of accounting that requires significant attention to prevent stakeholders from suffering the effects such violation. The issue is a matter of concern because various regulations and directives exist that define how accountants ought to perform their work in line with ethical frameworks. Failing to adhere to regulations that guide ethics in the field of accounting harm stakeholders such as customers, shareholders, and other workers who lose trust in how the firm protects confidentiality of its clients’ information. The study recommends following ethical theories, adhering to a code of ethics, and following the directives of existing laws and regulations. However, the study identifies adhering to a code of ethics that an organization develops to guide how workers relate to each other and perform their work as a suitable alternative among the three proposals. An institution that hires accountants should ensure that the code addresses key concerns including confidentiality.

Works Cited

 “18 of the Best Code of Conduct Examples.” I-Sight, 2021, Accessed 12 Oct. 2021.  

Amponsah, Emmanuel, Peter Boateng and Luke Onuoha. “Confidentiality of Accounting Academics: Consequences of Nonconformity.” Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 7, no. 3, 2016, pp. 43-54.

CrashCourse. “Kant & Categorical Imperatives: Crash Course Philosophy #35.” YouTube, November 15, 2016, Accessed 12 Oct. 2021.

Goia, Dennis. “Pinto Fires and Personal Ethics: A Script Analysis of Missed Opportunities.” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 11, 1992, pp. 379-389.

Lee, Wanbil, Wolfgang Zankl, and Henry Chang. An Ethical Approach to Data PrivacyProtection.” ISACA Journal, vol. 6, 2016,,legalrighttothedata.

Rachaels, James and Stuart Rachaels. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. McGraw-Hill Education, 2011.

“USA: Data Protection Laws and Regulations 2021.” ICLG, July 6, 2021, Accessed 12 Oct. 2021.

Family Business Assignment argumentative essay help
Family Business Assignment





Due Date

Family Business Assignment

The 2021 University of St. Gallen and EY Family Business Index indicates that leading family-owned corporations are essential to the health and stability of the global economy. These firms collectively generate USD 7.2 trillion in terms of revenue and offer employment to more than 24 million people (Center for Family Business, 2021). Stability and longevity have gained prominence in the past couple of years with every group trying to embrace approaches that would give them competitive advantage over competing companies (Center for Family Business, 2021). Many leading family businesses have aligned their long-term business forecast with a capacity to bounce back rapidly regardless of a crisis. The study is a report detailing factors that would help the senior executive team Jeronimo Martins, a family businesses founded in 1792 improve in various key areas. The company aspires to be more aggressive in its innovative approaches and also seeks to involve more non-family members at the same time go public. The report, therefore, will offer valuable information that will help the corporation that serves in the food sector to make practical and effective decisions. Specifically, the report examines why some family businesses are slow in the way they innovate and provides information that may help such companies to improve their innovation level considering the benefits of being innovative. The paper argues that effective innovation and leadership structures provide family businesses with an opportunity to succeed in their operations.

Whether Family Business are Slow on Uptake of Innovative Processes

Businesses, family or non-family should work towards being innovative to be increasingly competitive. Clinton et al. (2018) inform that innovation can vary from developing new services and products to creating novel production practices and marketing approaches. An analysis of innovative practices in most family businesses reveal that most firms focus on upgrading existing products’ performance and appearance. Actually more innovative practices in most family businesses focus on enhancing the appearance and performance of existing products. A considerable number of family business emphasizes on developing new products as part of their innovative practices, while an equally substantial number of family businesses dwell their innovative practices on marketing approaches and techniques. Data by Clinton et al. (2018) indicate that more family businesses indulge in innovative practices aimed at investing in new R&D stations to achieve competitive advantage than they innovate in production processes. However, fewer family businesses focus their innovative practices on producing specialty products. However, innovation is important in a family business regardless of the fact that companies do not pay equal attention to all aspects. Such companies focus on innovation because of the merits that come with the practice. Innovative family businesses record improved productivity as well as reduced costs. Moreover, family businesses that innovate witnessed enhanced competitiveness and increase their chances of improving the value and recognition of the brand. Besides, innovation is important in business because it provides opportunity for enhanced relationships and partnerships, which are all important when running a business. More fundamentally, companies that innovate effectively are at a better position of generating more profits. Consequently, family businesses, especially those that seek to dominate their sector or better their operations, put emphasis on innovative practices.

However, several factors make family businesses slow in the way they innovate. A common assumption is that family businesses embrace a long-term perception to growth and innovation and thus, are risk-averse and slow to create new ideas, concepts, and practices. The concept of long-term orientation (LTO) helps to understand why family businesses tend to be slow in the way they innovate. Clinton et al. (2018) define LTO as the tendency of a company to prioritise essential aspects of their business that emerge only after prolonged timeframe. LTO according to Clinton et al. (2018) is usually evident in corporations with a clear organizational framework and can be viewed in the organisation’s strategic decision-making. A family business is more likely to be quick in its innovative practices when it embraces an LTO mindset focused around futurity, which means that the firm prioritise long-term goals and strategies over short-term plans. Family businesses that focus on long-term objectives imply that the group aspires to achieve longevity, continuity, and sustainability as they as they hand over the firm to the next generation. Such a company is likely to be highly innovative because it understand that the only way to achieve future goals and aspirations is to indulge in practices that make the company stable in its field. Moreover, a family business is also likely to be more innovative if it embraces the continuity aspect of LTO, which means that the company values decisions and actions that promote long-lasting stability and relevance. More fundamentally, family businesses are likely to be innovative when they adopt the perception of perseverance, which is also an aspect of LTO, which is the belief that approaches and efforts enacted today will be helpful in the future because of their value in achieving long-term impacts. Nevertheless, family businesses that do not embrace the aspects of LTO may not be quick in the way they innovate, which may render the firm less competitive and influential.

Fortunately, Jeronimo Martins embraces all the three LTO aspects, which means that it is not slow to innovation as it happens with many family businesses. The company sets an example that other family businesses should embrace considering the important roles innovation play in any business. The company should stick to the three elements of LTO, including futurity, continuity, and perseverance that are critical in guiding businesses in developing practices that make them more competitive. Jeronimo Martins seems to understand that being a slow innovator may give competitors an opportunity to dominate the sector while the firm struggles to attract buyers and expand business operations. However, Jeronimo Martins can embrace other factors that would make it more innovative despite the common belief that family businesses are slow in the way they innovate. The company as well as other family business may become increasingly innovative by increasing investment in concept generation and implementation because high costs and lack of adequate funds are some of the reasons some family businesses are slow in the way they innovate.

How to Involve Non-Family Members without affecting the Balance

The governance structure of family businesses need to be clearly identified and structured to achieve effective operations. Proper leadership in business is important because this offers guidance on what ought to happen and helps team members achieve morale in whatever they do. Besides, strong leadership is important in business to ensure effective use of communication practices and to ensure that workers access needed resources. Organizations that enjoy proper leadership and where leader employ effective leadership approaches have the capacity to thrive with transformation. Hao and Yazdanifard (2015) inform that any organisational leadership practice should include adequate education about enhancing, surviving, and excelling through changes. Changes can be major factor that could either promote success or failure for both small and big businesses. Instead of being fearful for transformation, focused companies rely on effective leadership to find suitable remedies to obstruction. Hao and Yazdanifard (2015) further argues that proper leadership allows an organisation to practice suitable resource management considering that business establishments are rely on constant supply of resources. Managing the valuable resources is one of the fundamental roles leaders play so that the firm can progress effectively with its practices. Thus, the important roles leaders play compel many organizations to create effective leadership structures that define how things happen at the workstation. Companies that do not make any effort to improve their leadership structures are bound to fail and may not compete as effectively as those that clearly outline their governance model (Hao & Yazdanifard, 2015). Often, family businesses strengthen their governance structures by enacting workable Boards of directors, family councils or assemblies, yearly shareholder meetings, and creating top management teams. Members in all these governance bodies must be adequately vetted to ensure that they are competent enough to serve their functions.

The board of directors in many family businesses are restricted to family members to regulate liability. However, it is not uncommon to witness scenarios where advisory boards with independent outsiders help conduct the operations of internal board of directors. Nonetheless, it is recommended that the make of family business board should comprise of independent outsiders to achieve fairness and avoid possible case of biasness. It is recommended that the board comprise of five to nine members and the majority should comprise of non –family members. Then board should comprise of competent people who are not friends of the family. Besides, such members should not be service providers to the business and should not comprise of any managers apart from CEOs. It is sometimes difficult to choose non-family members to be part of the board, which requires effective analysis and assessment of all potential candidates before assigning them the task. Assigning non-family members should happen in a way that it does not disrupt the balance within the family business.  

Adding non-family members to the board requires the management consider several factors to promote balance and effective operations. It is important to ensure that the addition of non-family members does not surpass the recommended five to nine members because this could deny some family members the opportunity to be part of the board. Taking into account all other factors that family businesses consider when composing their boards is equally important when instituting independent outsiders. For instance, bringing in friends of the family into the board could affect balance, especially when some family members aim at being part of the board. Furthermore, it is only possible to achieve balance when everybody agrees that selected individuals are competent enough to decide key issues about the company. For instance, every family member should be convinced that independent members are successful peers. Moreover, each family member should be convinced that non-family members joining the team are able to work as a team to allow broad generation of ideas.

Allowing outsiders to be part of the board while ensuring the family remains balanced is important because a board has vital benefits to a family business. Allowing outsiders to serve while ensuring balance is beneficial because non-family members offer unbiased objective opinions about essential factors. Besides, ensuring harmony prevails while bringing in outsiders is important because such a team comes with newer, broader perspective to business practices. Besides, reaching a consensus on which outsider deserves to serve in the board is important because such members come with vast and valuable contacts that may help the company excel in many areas.  

Whether Family Businesses have been Successful

Evidence suggests that family businesses have recorded positive trend in terms of success over the recent past. Information by the Center for Family Business (2021) and Robertsson (2021) reveal that family businesses play fundamental roles in developing global economy as well as offer job opportunities to millions of people across the globe. Robertsson (2021) despite the challenges the corporate sector has witnessed in the past two years, family-owned businesses have showed their resilience in offering jobs that restore hope to their communities and other key stakeholders. Robertsson (2021) further asserts that together family business form the third largest economic impact in the world after America and China in terms of revenue regardless of the drop in economic performance by 3.4% in 2020. Robertsson (2021) also informs that family businesses are essential to the future and growth and health of every nation’s economic stability and recovery during the post-COVID-19 recovery. The ability to cope with changing times and still record better results is an indication that family businesses have become successful.

Family-owned enterprises have achieved impressive success in many other areas. Family businesses, for example, have made significant strides incorporating advanced technology in their operations. Robertsson (2021a) identifies increased indulgence in corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives suggests how much family-owned businesses have excelled in the recent past. Robertsson (2021a) writes that family-owned enterprises understand that their fortunes are closely attached with the communities they serve. For example, Hong Leong Group, a Singapore-based conglomerate, acknowledges that what forms the basis of its business prosperity is the philosophy that businesses should “pay back by giving it forward.” Family businesses have also exceled in the field of innovation and technology knowing that most prosperous businesses are dedicated to innovation. Robertsson (2021a) offers an example of Intra Lighting in Slovenia that manufacturers light fixtures that illuminate shopping centers, public spaces, and restaurants all over the globe. Intra has invested in the latest technology in its modern laboratories in Slovenia and other parts of the world. The group also invests in research and development (R&D) where it gets an opportunity to interact with numerous construction designs and test materials (Robertsson, 2021a). Thanks to its increased focus on fine details and considerable investment in innovation, the modern fittings by Intra are some of the most technologically superior in the industry and the market and get credit for its energy efficiency. However, family businesses have succeeded in several other areas, including use of talents of the next generation, which is increasingly becoming influential in the corporate world and environmental protection (Robertsson, 2021a). Increased calls to safeguard the environment from devastating effects of climate change prompt family business to implement effect approaches to achieve environmental sustainability. The progress illustrates that family businesses are increasingly succeeding.


The study emphasizes the need for family businesses to consider various factors to be prosperous. The study asserts that family businesses are usually slow towards innovation, although this is not the case in all organizations. The paper implies that family businesses are slow to innovate, but this is not the case in all incidents. Family businesses that focus on the three aspects of LTO (futurity, continuity, and perseverance) are more likely to be more innovative than companies that disregard these key elements. The study urges family businesses to increase investment in innovation because the practice presents a better chance to compete effectively and solidify the company’s position in the sector. The study also shows the importance of including non-family members in the boards of family businesses. It shows then need to maintain balance within the family while including outsiders by ensuring that those who get the opportunity to serve have necessary requirements and do not deny family members the chance to be represented in the board. However, the paper shows that it is important to allow non-family members to serve in the board because they bring in new and unbiased views about how the organisation should run and handle certain operations. The final part examines whether family business have recorded significant success. It shows that many family businesses have made steady strides and now get satisfying returns from their operations. The paper gives examples of family businesses that have recorded significant success to exemplify how such firms have exceled. The senior executive team at Jeronimo Martins can gain vital insight into dealing with current concerns by reading the report. The findings provide hope to the company and other family businesses that seek to improve their level of innovation and structure of the board of governors.


Center for Family Business. (2021). How the world’s largest family businesses are proving their resilience. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

Clinton, E., Diaz, V., Brophy, M., & Gamble, J. (2018). Long-term thinking in UK family business. An IFB Research Foundation Working Paper.

Hao, M., & Yazdanifard, R. (2015). How effective leadership can facilitate change in organizations through improvement and innovation.” Global Journal of Management and Business Administration and Management, vol. 15, no. 9, 2015, pp. 1-5.

Heimonen, T. (2012). What are the factors that affect innovation in growing SMEs? European Journal of Innovation Management, 15(1), 122-144. doi:10.1108/14601061211192861

Robertsson, H. (2021). How the world’s largest family businesses are proving their resilience. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

Robertsson, H. (2021a). Seven success factors of the most inspiring family enterprises of 2020-2021. Retrieved October 7, 2021, from

Team Reflection college application essay help
Team Reflection

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Team Reflection

Question 1

Organizational leadership is fundamental as it incorporates the organization’s structure, process, and individual and group behavior. The administration involved determines the engagement between the organization members, hence determining the overall organization performance. Good governance promotes teamwork among the employees, therefore, ensuring the success of the organization’s operation. My first-time engagement in leadership was filled with fear of probably not being good enough or being too aggressive to my fellow employees (Greathouse, 2013). This nature of leadership affected my overall performance as I struggled to set up the level of dominance and clear boundaries with my fellow employees, which involved the team performance as the team productivity significantly reduced.

However, my subsequent leadership improved, which significantly improved the overall team performance, especially at the restaurant where I was attached. Under my leadership, communication was critical among the workers as well as between them and me. The crucial messages were communicated on time, avoiding confusion that is prone to occur due to short notices. My leadership also allowed workers to cover for each other when one could not make up for their shifts, with the unavailable employee notifying early in advance for record-keeping. The creativity improvised by introducing the weekly themes enabled the employees to match uniforms with the pieces, improving the overall performance as monotony was reduced.

Leadership goes in handy with employee empowerment as a means of improving employee productivity. Therefore, my leadership empowered the employees to participate in administration by allowing for freedom of expression to air their views through the employee suggestion box (Greathouse, 2013). This was an easy mechanism of understanding the employee feelings on the leadership and the manner of operation, which consequently improved the performance. My administration also empowered the employees to switch duties depending on one’s schedule provided there is early communication, improving the employee’s performance. The short team-building exercises empowerment also improved the interrelations and overall productivity.

 Question 2

The success of an organization is defined by the cohesion and motivation of the employees through the leadership style improvised. The mutual trust influenced the team cohesion within my team embraced among the team members. All the team members welcomed confidence in undertaking any duties delegated unto them as we also trusted in each providing the best results, hence the harmonious working relations (Delano and Kasztelnik, 2020). The communication amongst the team members was outstanding as each individual was treated with the utmost courteous manner. Besides, the team managers were constantly learning new skills and gaining more knowledge on mechanisms of undertaking various activities within different environments, which motivated the other teammates (Greathouse, 2013). The managers also trained the team members on the benefits of customer service and the various mechanisms of undertaking their duties, motivating the team members, and promoting team cohesion. Regular team-building activities organized every week also acted as a source of motivation for the team members to improve their services and undertake their duties more diligently.

The performance-based rewards and promotions also drove the team’s motivation. The employees developed a sense of belonging; hence they diligently performed their duties with passion. They dedicated themselves to improving their customer service, which was a tool in evaluating their rewards (Castillo and Hollinger, 2018). Besides, the salary system and the transparent gradient had created a healthy completion. The desire for higher job levels and higher remuneration motivated the employee’s performance and elevated the restaurant’s customer service. 

Question 3

Conflicts are common whenever there a team is involved. The team within the Haidilao company experienced conflict among the service team members, although the company boasts excellent customer service. The conflicts experienced within these teams arise from meal dissatisfaction and assistance. The constant dispute was resolved by meeting with the service team members on which each member has delegated their role. This allowed less time to resolve problems arising from the group as it was easy to identify the origin and solve (Gaines, 2010). The company also placed the customer review option on the company website. The company also introduced an assessment plan on which the team members were expected to reflect on their outcome by the end of every week. Upon success, they are rewarded through the group leader, while failure invokes the group members, including the leader, to reflect on themselves.

The conflict among the employee can also be constructive or pervasive. The task conflicts within the Haidilao restaurant have often not led to a positive outcome on the team due to suppression of the member’s creativity and innovation. The opinion conflicts have also been occurring periodically within the organization. Still, they have promoted innovation as the members of the team reason further for more effective mechanisms of undertaking such a task (Evje, 2013). The periodic task conflicts have led to the team becoming overloaded, hence the teams’ inability to arrive at a coherent solution (Castillo and Hollinger, 2018). In order to inspire goodwill among the employees, the company is advocating for human nature, which is good and hence invokes the team members to avoid conflict.

The employee’s participation within the company has been paramount in ensuring the success of the company. This is driven by the ability of the company to retain and nurture talents. The employees often develop attitudes and emotions, which consequently affect their performance as it reduces morale. However, this conflict of emotion is solved by rewarding shares to the store managers and the various managers and well-performing employees, consequently improving participation.

Question 4

The various challenges and opportunities that one faces act as building steps for the future self. As a leader, my work history has remodeled my relations with my co-workers within the workplace. Leadership, as learned from the experience in Haidilao, is based on the authentic relations developed among the employees. The fear or intimidation developed among the employees leads to negative working space, consequently reducing overall productivity (Evje et al., 2013). Therefore, this leads to unmotivated employees and low customer satisfaction, hence negatively affecting the company operations. My leadership role has also improved my communication skills as every individual during the teamwork duties undertaking is an employee irrespective of hierarchy. In addition, the leadership role enabled me to understand the ability to accomplish all functions and duties regardless of how tedious they might look. Therefore, the duty roster rescheduling should be aiding in assigning the employees roles based on the company interests.

Working as a team has various challenges that come along, especially to the leader. My leadership role was not exceptional as I faced the challenge of separation of the hierarchy and team roles as well as the setting of boundaries. Consequently, the typical relation challenged my delegation of duties since most had worked with me and viewed my assignments just like their normalcy, hence low productivity and command power (Frontiera 2012).  The constant task conflict also played a significant issue in teamwork since some individuals had constantly confronted ideas that delayed the execution of duties.

Based on the experience gained during the supervisor’s role in Haidilao, some specific skills and strategies should be improved. Leadership is something an individual walks into and what the leader decides to implement in their leadership quest. According to the behavioral theory, I should learn the steps to implement in my pursuit of leadership (Evje, 2013). Good leadership ultimately produces student leadership on which they are continuously learning rather than bad leaders passing on their previous leadership to their mentees. Student leadership is developed through attending seminars and workshops to improve the leadership models. Some leadership attributes are built with a practical understanding of the excellent man leadership theory in which leadership skills are inborn (Castillo and Hollinger, 2018). I will change my mentality on the leadership just naturally coming along, but leadership including the skills learned.

My leadership role needs some replenishment in setting clear boundaries with the fellow employees attached to me. Overfriendliness cost my delegation of duties hence the need to set up boundaries. I would also join hands with my fellow employees in employee education as it increases productivity and intercommunication with fellow employees within the workplace (Frontiera et al., 2012). I will also advocate the elimination of unhealthy competition amongst employees. Hosting the various team members and working environment will constitute my new leadership style. I will also hold regular meetings and seminars on leadership matters.


Ultimately, leadership is an inborn talent as well as a learned style of running organizations. Skills enable one to improve the leadership style depending on the current trends. Regular training is also fundamental in helping leaders understand the leadership style to embrace.


Castillo, F. A., & Hallinger, P. (2018). A systematic review of research on educational leadership and management in Latin America, 1991–2017. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 46(2), 207-225.

Delanoy, N., & Kasztelnik, K. (2020). Business Open Big Data Analytics to Support Innovative Leadership and Management Decision in Canada. Business Ethics and Leadership, 4(2), 56-74.

Evje, B. (2013). 9 leadership myths and how to overcome them. Lead Inc.

Frontiera, J. (2012). The leadership challenge 25 years later. The Washington Post.

Gaines, P. (2010). First Monday.

Greathouse, J. (2013). Don’t wait for the starting gun. The Wall Street Journal.

Golensky, M., & Hager, M. (2020). Strategic leadership and management in nonprofit organizations: Theory and practice. Oxford University Press.

Introducing the Client custom essay help
Skills analysis

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Skills analysis

Introducing the Client

The client is a 15-year-old student. He is a Hispanic-white student who was born and grew up in the U.S. The male, Christian interviewee is not married and currently has no job. The client provides much information that helps me to understand him and his background. He says that he comes from a family of a single mother who battles diabetes and hypertension. He reports that his mother has also experienced substantial financial constraints in the recent past after losing a well-paying job and having to cater for hospital bills. The client says that due to his young age and lack of job he cannot support his ailing mother. However, the interviewee is confident that through schooling he will be able to get a better job and help her mother meet the family needs. The tribulations at the client’s home may be the reason why he cannot focus on class lately. He displays inability to concentrate in a recent reading class, which makes it difficult for me to catch his attention during a significant part of the lesson. DS said that inability to sleep in time caused him to lose focus and made it difficult for him to concentrate during the lesson. Further inquiry reveals that the client is not open in his responses because he says that he could not just sleep. I tried to tell him that it is normal to encounter such situations, and further inquired about what may have deterred him from sleeping. The interviewee was quiet and never gave any response. Noticing his body language, I noticed that something must be troubling him and opted to address the issue further during our next meeting.

Statement about My Work with the Client and Context of Interview

I have met the student on several occasions. I meet him in class where we have one-on-one conversations on many issues. I often meet the student over class-related issues, especially when he needs guidance. I take him through certain concepts and encourage him to inquire from others and perform more research on the topic. We sometimes meet outside the classroom during weekdays and weekends where we talk about general topics, including talking about sports, politics, history, religion, gender rights, and academic work. We sometimes meet at my office we share so much about his well-being at the school and at home. It is his nature to always seek guidance and help from me whenever he has some problems. He confines in me and I always do my best to offer assistance where I can. I always encourage him to approach me any time he feels he needs help, and always direct him to places where I know he can get further assistance. My meetings with the student may either be planned or without prior planning. We plan to meet when I realize that he has a problem that requires further attention or when he approach about a disturbing academic or non-academic issue. However, we may still engage in a talk or a meeting without plan when an issue is more demanding or when a concern emerges abruptly. Overall, I have met the respondent more than twenty times on different circumstances.

Skills used During the Interview

Tuning In

An example of a social work skill that Shulman and Summers recommend as being effective when interacting with others is tuning in. The approach entails a worker’s attempts to get in touch with potential and actual feelings, values, beliefs, and concerns that a client seeks assistance (Shulman, 2009). Psychologically and physically tuning in to others develops a sense of presence and it is an expression that reaffirms to the client that the intervener is with them (Shulman, 2009). I used tuning in in my interaction with the client by first generating empathetic responses by asking sensitive questions during the session to indulge the clients. I directly and clearly ask D whether he wants to tell me what is happening that prevents him from staying focused. The question plays fundamental roles in getting in touch with the client’s feelings.

I applied various approach to build empathy during my interaction with DS. An approach that I used is to make listening a priority because Hammer (2015) argues that before connecting with the client, it is important to recognize the feeling. Hammer (2015) further asserts that listening is essential but not always different. I listen to all that the client tells me and gives them time to express his feelings and desires. I also prioritize listening because Hammer (2015) writes that the beginning of empathy is when one is able to listen for emotions. Besides, my emotions can place a significant constraint when it comes to identifying what others feel. When having a conversation while only focusing on my feelings and how I convey them, I might not be able to pay enough attention to what others say. Making an effort to listen actively, therefore, can assist me enhance empathy and understanding towards others. Another technique I used to enhance my empathy during the interaction with the client is sharing my feelings. Hammer (2015) informs that once one recognizes emotion in others, empathy allows one to share other people’s feelings. I also made myself vulnerable to the client’s emotions and feelings as a way of increasing my empathy towards others. Hammer (2015) contends that being vulnerable strengthens one’s empathy in two aspects. The first is to feel the value of empathy when reflected back can enhance my dedication to being empathetic with others.

Building Trust

I also applied the concept of building trust that Shulman and Summers identify as effective communication skills. Shulman (2009) informs that the way people communicate with others is an essential way to build trust. Shulman (2009) further asserts that along with particular actions and behaviors, communication acts as the channel for enhancing trust in any relationship. According to…what people say, how they say it, and how they react to what other say can either build or break trust. However, I applied certain mechanisms that helped to build trust throughout the communication process. I always communicated with transparency without having any hidden agenda. I tried to be as transparent as possible because being dishonest could escalate mistrust. I also behaved consistently throughout the communication by avoiding stirring emotional disturbance that can make the client to doubt me. For example, I do not rush into conclusions as to why the client sleeps in class. However, I approach the issue in clever way to avoid causing emotional disturbance. I say that “I’ve noticed yesterday during reading you have a hard time staying focused, and it’s hard to get your attention. If I do get your attention it’s only for a very short period of time and you go right back. Do you want to tell me what is happening that prevents you from staying focused?” However, I do not state the issue in a way that could cause the client to feel intimated and unable to participate in the engagement process. The approach would be more provocative if I told the client that “I think you have a problem from the way you lose focus lately. I think you are losing track and require close monitoring to assess your situation.” The latter approach would evidently upset the interviewee and disrupt the entire interaction process. The other way that I used to build trust with the client is that I dwelt on the truth rather than saying what I do not mean. More fundamentally, I focused in intentionally seeing the best in the respondent because Hammer (2015) argueS that people want to interact with those who make them feel good and important. On the other hand, people may avoid those who make themselves feel superior or special and disregard what others say or think. Besides, I asked for and received feedback because Shulman (2009) consider this technique as a vital communication skill. I inquired whether the client has any problem that hinders him from focusing on academic work. I ask “Thank you D, but what happened that you were not able to get proper sleep?” hoping to find why DS sleeps in class.

However, there are points where I did not use the skills Shulman and Summers recommend but I feel they would have been helpful. My tuning in skills would be more effective and influential if I considered and applied other concepts that I did not apply during my interaction with DS. I learned that I did not conduct enough research prior to the interaction on why someone may lose focus and feel sleepy in class. I know that performing the study would allow me to gather adequate information that would improve how I share in the client’s emotions and feelings (Shulman, 2009). Another factor that I did not apply but would go a long way in improving my tuning in skills is to challenge myself by getting out of the comfort zone. For example, I would try to put myself on the client’s shoes and imagine what I would do if I am not able to concentrate in class. Challenging myself by understanding why the client reacts the way they do would guide me to ask certain questions and to disregard those that may not be helpful in dealing with the situation. Another factor that could improve my tuning in skills in dealing with the case would be to take action and offer assistance. I choose to postpone the matter to another day, which does not give much reprieve to the client. A better way to deal with the issue would be engage DS further and find out how to prevent him from losing focus and feeling sleepy while in class.

I realized that I did not employ some techniques to build trust in my interaction with the client but they would be of significance in improving my communication. One areas that could improve level of trust is offering much information about my side of the story (Strier et al., 2012) that could make DS feel like he is not the only person going through difficult times. Narrating my own side of the story and showing that I sometimes encounter issues that make me feel detached and not interested in other things would make the client open up and give as much information as possible that may help to identify the problem. However, I plan to consider these factor during my subsequent meetings and communication with those requiring help.


The study examines the social work skills I deployed while interacting with DS and inquiring about why he felt tired and sleepy during a class session. My interaction with the client uses tuning in and building trust as key approaches for engaging the client. Tuning in allows me to understand the client’s feelings and emotions while building trust allowed me to win the client’s trust and confidence. I applied a variety of techniques to improve my application of tuning in and building trust approaches and I attribute the outcome to effective application of both concepts. However, I learned that I omitted certain helpful tips that would improve how I apply tuning in and building trust. Nonetheless, omitting these factors does not mean that I would not be able to apply them in my next interaction with the client and with others who may require similar intervention. Overall, I term my strengths in working with the client as involving effective use of both tuning in and building trust approaches, but my weakness is the omissions I made when applying the two social work skills. I plan to conduct more research on how to effectively use tuning in and building trust to engage troubled people. I also intend to interact with those who are conversant with how both aspects work to increase my chances for success.


Hammer, B. (2015). Developing empathy. Journal of Psychology & Clinical Psychiatry, 5(1), doi:10.15406/jpcpy.2016.05.00240

Shulman, L. (2009). The skills of helping individuals, families, groups, and communities. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Strier, R., Feldman, G., & Shdaimah, C. (2012). The construction of social class in social work education: A Study of introductory textbooks. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 32(4), 406-420. doi:10.1080/08841233.2012.667753

NPM Effects Shaping the UAE Public Sector college application essay help
NPM Effects Shaping the UAE Public Sector

Students Name/Number:

Due Date:

NPM Effects Shaping the UAE Public Sector


The United Arab Emirates has embarked on an ambitious reform journey that seeks to apply the concepts of new public management in modernizing its economy. The leadership of the country is responding to the forces of globalization and technological innovation, and the looming risk of depleted oil reserves, which have been the country’s economic mainstay. The UAE government has set Vision 2021 as the driving policy in its immediate transformation journey, with technology being a significant component in this strategy of managing public service. Although the country has made significant strides in improving performance management, public-private partnerships, risk management, and results-orientation in public administration, it still experiences skill deficiency in its indigenous labor force, lacks a thriving indigenous private sector to partner with government, and struggles with traditional public administration remnants from the tribal and patrimonial system. Therefore, focus should be on creating awareness and upgrading the skill level of indigenous labor to enable the reforms yield the desired results.

Table of Contents

Contents                                                                                                                     Page

Introduction. 4

The UAE Public Sector 5

Impact of New Public Management in UAE Public Sector Reforms in Recent Years. 5

On Performance Management 6

On Public-Private Partnerships. 7

On Risk Management 8

On Results-Orientation. 9

Recommendations. 9

Conclusion. 11















New Public Management is a concept mooted in the west, specifically in Britain in the 1980s. Its concepts have been adopted widely across the world in nations that are intent on creating thriving economies and passing the benefits to its citizenry. However, many countries that have had traditional public administration setups have attempted to introduce new public management concepts in their administration, with the hope of modernizing the management of public affairs in the wake of changing environments (Meier, 1993). Indeed, new public management concepts address the deficiencies of bureaucracy emerging in dynamic environmental changes experienced in contemporary times (Rahman, Naz & Nand, 2013). The United Arab Emirates has embarked on ambitious administrative reforms that focus on placing the country on the global map as a critical member of the international community. It has instituted new public management practices in its focus on technology and innovation through smart government applications in diverse public sector operations aimed at positioning the country as the technology hub in the Gulf region and one of the most innovative governments in the world (UAE Government, 2015). However, it suffers from the legacy of the traditional tribal patron-client system in its hybrid public administration system. Therefore, the successes of the reforms are varied and marked with some limitations, which deny the country of maximizing the benefits of modern public governance systems.

This discussion delves into administrative reforms that the United Arab Emirates government has embarked on recently, and their effectiveness and impact on the public sector. The discussion focuses on the government’s prioritization of science, technology, and innovation as stipulated in the UAE Vision 2021, advanced by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the UAE Vice President, Prime Minister, and Ruler of Dubai. The impact of technology adoption in public management is assessed using the new public management elements, specifically, performance management, public-private partnerships, risk management, and results-orientation. After that, recommendations on how the reforms can be made more creative and effective, based on the challenges and successes discovered in the assessment, are provided.

The UAE Public Sector

The United Arab Emirates was administered using a traditional public administration system at its inception in 1971, when the country gained independence. Before then, the country had a tribal patron-client system that took the form of separate emirates that were government autonomously by renowned family and clan leaders. Therefore, upon independence, the individual emirates coalesced to form the United Arab Emirates and superimposed a modern public administration system over the traditional one, to create a hybrid with traditionalism and modernity characteristics (Peters, 2018). While this system has worked well in the country, enabling the Emiratis to enjoy free public services from the oil wealth managed by the government, recent forces of globalization and the threat of the fast-depleting oil reserves have inspired the UAE government to adopt new public management practices in a reform initiative that was introduced in the late 20th century and are still ongoing. Specifically, the UAE’s leadership, led by its Vice President, Prime Minister, and Ruler of Dubai, launched Vision 2021 and introduced the science, technology, and innovation (STI) policy as the vehicle of propelling the country into a post-oil economy through economic diversification (UAE Government, 2015). This initiative is highly-focused on turning the government into a smart government that can facilitate the turnaround of the UAE’s economy into a knowledge-based and service-oriented one, aligned to the current economic environment across the world.      

Impact of New Public Management in UAE Public Sector Reforms in Recent Years

Recent public sector reforms in the United Arab Emirates have focused heavily on integrating digital technology in the provision of government services.  The reforms are aimed at promoting technology-based innovation by installing specialized infrastructure for supporting technology-based services and activities. These reforms seek to improve the delivery of government services to its citizenry, especially in the areas of public health, education, water and waste management, alternative energy, and smart cities. 

On Performance Management

Performance management practices are still evolving in the United Arab Emirates, as the government modernizes its administrative systems to support the new focus on the services sector, in its economic diversification initiatives. The Emirati government realizes that the oil reserves are finite and therefore cannot be relied upon to provide endless resources to the public sector. When this is coupled with the low oil prices, running an efficient government becomes critical, and has been prioritized in the United Arab Emirates.

The federal government has reformed its performance management practices by introducing efficiency as a critical aspect of public sector administration. Notably, the government has spearheaded the introduction of technology in public service management through its e-government initiative. Digital technology has enhanced the efficiency of service delivery by reducing the time taken to obtain government services, increasing the visibility of government services, thus promoting accountability and transparency, improving the quality of decisions, and placing the country as the regional hub of new technology innovation and adoption (Rahman, AlBalooshi & Sarker, 2016). In other words, the introduction of digital technology in public governance has strengthened the citizen-state relationship by enhancing citizen engagement in government, openness, and service integration (Rahman, AlBalooshi & Sarker, 2016). This has made the government adopt service-orientation and customer-centric actives in the delivery of public services, such as education, health, security,

On Public-Private Partnerships

The United Arab Emirates is the destination and market for public-private partnerships (PPPs) among the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. The federal government has enacted a law that favors PPPs by encouraging private investors to develop large-scale projects by bridging the financial gap left by declining oil prices (Almarri & Abu-Hijleh, 2017). The UAE government has used this public financing approach to develop large-scale projects in the energy, transportation, education, housing, and healthcare sectors, and produced a guiding manual in 2017. For instance, in Dubai, the government has facilitated PPPs by enacting the PPP Law No. 22 in 2015, which provides the legal framework for entering into partnership contracts between the government agencies and private investors (Department of Finance, 2019). This law superseded the previous one, which required that foreign investors must enter into partnerships with local ones before engaging in commercial business in the country, and that the Emirati partner should own a stake of at least 51% (Sarker & Rahman, 2020). Consequently, the current regulatory framework does not encourage private citizens to enter into private-public partnerships with the government, but favors foreign investors instead.

Nonetheless, several public-private partnerships have fast-tracked the development of technology infrastructure in the country. They have also been used to provide essential services to the Emiratis that are backed by and actualized through applying digital technologies. Notable PPP projects in the country are summarized in table 1.

Table 1. PPPs in the United Arab Emirates

SectorProjectPurposeEducationEducational and administrative supervisionManage kindergarten and primary school services in Abu DhabiInfrastructureMasdar solar and wind projectsProvide renewable power in Abu Dhabi Union SquareRoad network project in Dubai Route 2020Rail network in DubaiWaste managementBee’ahWaste management and recycling in SharjahHuman resourcesTasheel centersEmiratization Tawjeeh centersAwareness campaigns about employers and labor laws Taqieem centersInformation of trade licensesEnergyAbu Dhabi Distribution CompanyElectricity and water distribution in Abu DhabiOthersGeneral Directorate of Residency and Foreigners AffairsTyping services in Dubai  ZajelMail and postal services Dubai e-supply platformElectronic procurement in Dubai government

   Source: Telecommunications and Digital Government Regulatory Authority (TDRA) (2021a)

In addition, the UAE government has made significant advancement in providing services online, thanks to the PPP between the government and Etisalat, a large Emirati multinational telecommunications company based in Abu Dhabi. This partnership has enabled the government to create several portals though which government services can be accessed.

On Risk Management

The federal government is aware about the risks the country faces if it does not manage the public sector efficiently and effectively. Recently, the government has spearheaded the economic diversification process by creating a conducive regulatory framework and policies for private investors and assessing the risks of shifting from an oil-based economy to a service-oriented one. In turn, regulating the emerging financial services, technology development, tourism, and retail sectors has required that the government accurately assess the risks in such ventures. In this regard, the UAE government is using digital technology to collect huge volumes of data across several sectors ranging from weather patterns to demographic changes. Big data analytics enable the huge amounts of data collected from diverse data collection points to be analyzed and converted into useful information. Besides, technology-assisted risks assessment facilitates making of risk-informed and risk-based decision-making in government in addressing security, safety and hazard related issues, such as cybercrime, natural disasters, and terrorism. 

However, the United Arab Emirates is yet to attain collaboration across different agencies and governments in the different emirates in assessing nationwide risks presented by the threats of terrorism, weather-related hazards, and cybercrime. There is still a level of mistrust and lack of autonomy across the different government agencies and employees, who on the directions of the royal family. This is a remnant of the traditional tribal patron-client system, which characterized the governance structure in the country and public service.  

On Results-Orientation

The public service reforms have managed to increase the focus on results rather than just delivery. The impact of government services on the economy and Emiratis is central to the federal Emirati administration, despite operating under new-patrimonialism (Sarker & Al Athmay, 2019). The Emirati leadership has outdone itself by transforming its mindset and worldview on public administration by spearheading many reform projects and ensuring that they deliver the desired results. It sets deadlines by which public projects should be completed and formulated policies with an expiry date, such as the UAE vision 2021 and the Centennial Plan 2071, which are nationwide, and other emirate-wide plans, such as the, the Abu Dhabi Police Centennial Vision 2057, the Fujairah 2040 Plan, Dubai Industrial Strategy 2030, and Smart Dubai 2021, among others, which have a heavy technology component (Telecommunications and Digital Government Regulatory Authority, 2021b). .  


The United Arab Emirates has enjoyed some successes from adopting the new public management practices, but has also fallen short of deriving the full benefits of such adoption. While the UAE government has been innovative and bold in adopting progressive and modern approaches, it is held back by the legacies of the remnants of the traditional patron-client and tribal administrative systems. Besides, it continues to rely heavily on expatriates, thus diluting the new impact of public administration policies of the Emiratis. Therefore, the following recommendations are made to promote more effective and creative reforms in the country’s public sector.

Firstly, the government should invest heavily in workforce professional development in the public sector. While the government has built superb technology infrastructure, is lacks sufficient human capacity to manage it due to their low skill-levels. The reliance on expatriates is still high in the country, and technology transfer in the Emiratization process is still ingoing. However, the government can improve the quality and expertise of its human capital by entering into PPP’s with a significant technology transfer component.

Secondly, in relation to the first recommendation, the government should device strategies of making the public sector attractive to Emiratis, who are used to huge social benefits from the government. There are many foreign and highly-educated Emiratis working outside the country, who should be incentivized to come back home and work for their government. This would ensure that the government has a high-caliber workforce comparable to that of other high-income countries. It would also reduce the country’s heavy reliance on expatriate labor.

Thirdly, the government should encourage the formation of private enterprise in the country and promote their entry into public-private partnerships with it. Etisalat is an example of the benefits of the government partnering with the local private sector to implement large infrastructural projects. There are numerous opportunities for such projects, many of which are taken up by foreign-owned private companies. This trend has increased since the law requiring local partners in foreign-owned companies was repealed to attract foreign direct investments into the country. However, this policy change has been disadvantageous to the local private companies who may not have the expertise and financial muscle of foreign-based multinationals and therefore, cannot compete equitably for large infrastructure government projects.  


The Emirati government has prioritized technology in its economic reforms. The country’s leadership has identified digital technologies as the pillar for adopting new public management practices in government. Consequently, it has created legal frameworks to facilitate the adoption of new public management practices that are anchored in digital technologies. The Emirati government has made significant progress in identifying and deploying technology in public service delivery. Notably, many government services can be accessed online seamlessly, enhancing the business environment in the country. This is critical in the transition from an oil-based economy into a service-based one as the country depletes its oil reserves, which were the major source of revenue.

However, the country’s public sector reforms are hampered by the lingering traditional administrative approaches, which stifle innovation and adoption of new technologies that could threaten the established national culture. Consequently, some Emiratis still view technology-assisted public services with suspicion because they are used to face-to-face interactions. Besides, the country is heavily reliance on expatriate labor, and therefore, lacks sufficient local private entrepreneurs to enter into public-private partnerships with the government.  Therefore, the Emirati government has the arduous task of creating awareness among its populace on the benefits of an efficient government that deploys technology widely and the advantages of conducting business with the government through technology-assisted systems. Indeed, a technology-assisted UAE government would realize its economic diversification and transformation agenda faster, positioning the country favorably in the international arena. 


Almarri, K., & Abu-Hijleh, B. (2017). Critical Success Factors for Public Private Partnerships in the UAE Construction Industry-A Comparative Analysis between the UAE and the UK. Journal of Engineering, Project & Production Management, 7(1), 21-32.

Department of Finance (2019). Public private partnership (PPP) guidelines. Government of Dubai.

Meier, K. J. (1993). Politics and the Bureaucracy: Policymaking in the Fourth Branch of Government. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks.

Peters, B. G. (2018). The politics of bureaucracy: An introduction to comparative public administration. Routledge.

Rahman, M. H., AlBalooshi, S. A. Y. A., & Sarker, A. E. (2016). From e-governance to smart governance: policy lessons for the UAE. Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, Springer, Basel, 1-13.

Rahman, M. H., Naz, R., & Nand, A. (2013). Public sector reforms in Fiji: Examining policy implementation setting and administrative culture. International Journal of Public Administration, 36(13), 982-995.

Sarker, A. E., & Al Athmay, A. A. A. (2019). Public sector reforms in the United Arab Emirates: antecedents and outcomes. Public Administration Quarterly, 43(3), 330-371.

Sarker, A. E., & Rahman, M. H. (2020). Social engineering and Emiratization in the United Arab Emirates. Public Administration and Policy.

Telecommunications and Digital Government Regulatory Authority (TDRA) (2021a). Public private partnership. Retrieved from

Telecommunications and Digital Government Regulatory Authority (TDRA) (2021b). Future. Retrieved from

Adverts Analysis essay help
Adverts Analysis

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation




Adverts Analysis

Sandu, B. (2018, June 26). Nike print magazine ads that boosted the brand’s popularity. Retrieved from

The article has been designed as a blog comprising a majority of pictures alongside the various outlines of the history of the Nike Company. The outlining alongside the images describe the transformation in the company advertisement with the inclusion of the various popular television advertisements and the transformation over the years, all of which were designed in an appealing and attention-seeking manner. The content is designed logically through the introduction, which gives an overview of the originality and originality of the company advertisement before incorporating the pictorial and video adverts. The content is also lengthy to include the achievements that the company has achieved over the past.

The pictorial inclusion in the blog has some brief descriptions accompanying them, enabling the reader to understand the picture and the advert better. For instance, some pictures are accompanied by a description of the players that the company has sponsored over the past. The article concludes with immense Nike advertisement pictures attached, which invokes the reader’s curiosity to scroll to the last picture due to their high resolution. The article uses minimal prose and more visuals to outline the benefits of the pictorial advertisement’s significance to the company’s success over the past. The article concludes with the relevance of the company building a good relationship with such excellent advertisers. Hence, the ideal relationship bore Nike’s adage “Just Do It,” which has been the famous analogy driving the sales.

Schauer, M. (n.d.). “The man in the Hathaway shirt” ad by David Ogilvy.Retrieved from

This advert characterized most of the famous adverts in the 20th century. The advert was designed by David Ogilvy, who used the eye patch to draw attention from the public. The print-like advert is dominated by a senior man dressed in a white shirt, a tie, and trousers, with the shirt taking a vast space within the picture. The white-haired man has a left hand on his waist, which looks like taking a measure of the trousers’ length. Alongside the picture is an accompaniment of a brief paragraph that explains the advert. The patched eye is the attention-seeking part of the advert as individuals will try to read the short illustrations below the picture to get a clear description of the advert; hence the aim of the advert is achieved, which was promoting the Hathaway shirts which had been less famous.

The description of the short explanation attached to the advert promoted the sale of the shirts by psychologically challenging the reader on the importance of shirts which are rarely given attention, unlike their suits accompaniment. The paragraph further stresses the comfortability of an individual upon wearing a Hathaway shirt which even made them look more masculine and younger. The section also illustrates the reputation it has earned over the hundred and fourteen years of production, hence assuring the customers of the best of the product.

Dyer Design. (n.d.). Magazine and newsletters. Retrieved from

The magazines must be as captivating as possible to capture the reader’s attention to all the news incorporated within. The Dyer Design with a one-page interview article within the Hearing Loss magazine is thus a comparative example in which an interview and the wife are positioned aside on the magazine page. The position is strategic to invoke the reader to read on what the whole discussion is about. Besides, the photograph has much visible to display the subjects’ full-length bodies, highlighting their clothing and faces. The colors within the pictures are also much revealing, giving an insight into the photographer who must have used his photographic skills to shoot the picture and edit. This is as evident in the creases visible on the woman’s shirt as well as print patterns on the man’s shirt in which he did not omit despite the much editing. He also ensures the smiles and wrinkles of the couple are also captured within the photograph besides who would have been interested in reading a story with a dull picture.

The artistic nature of the editor is also revealed. He utilizes much space in the picture to capture the reader’s attention to the brief interview, approximately a third of the page. The different color editing enables the reader to differentiate the question and answer. The paragraphing of the content is also precise and to the point rather than lengthy statements, making the content boring to read.

Whole Foods Market. (n.d.). Welcome. Retrieved from https://eü

Radish, fruits, and vegetable pictures form the multi-colored food market website. This gives a captivating insight as well as an overview of what is contained in the company website. A help prompt has also been incorporated within the page and offers the user the option to choosing either logging to the United States or United Kingdom websites. The two website logging options appear in different colors, making them distinguishable to the user, avoiding confusion. The United Kingdom website has been designed with a large red button while the United States is displayed in a small, green, and less conspicuous button. The design of the webpage is much simpler for the user as it has very few options, which are all enabled by the big and descriptive buttons. Much of the page is utilized to making the page attractive to the user as it contains lots of images with fruits and vegetables, which are all sparsely placed within the whitish background.

The website’s design is also much easier as the contents of whatever the customer is expecting from the company are displayed on top of the page. The information is well displayed on a large rectangle containing the whole foods label. The customer is directed to the different markets they can visit by clicking the buttons below the first box, which leads the user to the specific online market. The webpage has also been incorporated with information to direct the user on the delivery mode and the standards of the product. The red buttons within the page are essential for redirecting for more information pages.

Creative Overflow. (n.d.). Flyers do still work for business promotion + 20 examples. Retrieved from

The design of the flyer should give the reader an insight into whatever is contained within. The electro-pop party flyer is no different as it includes the young female image dominating the center in which the lady’s white face has been blended with the paper background. The flyer has further incorporated various shapes to bring out the party theme as there are some blue donut shapes, tiny white circles, and little blue kite shapes. A small illustration has been incorporated at the bottom of the flyer, formatted in a big, bold, black font. There is also attachment information below, formatted in smaller bold fonts and light blue fonts. The various colors incorporated within are associated with the musical and electronics components hence the theme of a party well portrayed within the advert.

“The Man in the Hathaway Shirt” Original Copy

The American men slowly realized their ridiculous acts of spoiling their well-fashioned suits with ordinary shirts. This led to the sprout of the Hathaway shirts’ popularity across the nation as they were deemed classy. The Hathaway shirts were designed to be infinitely long, making one look younger due to the cut collar design. The design left the shirt having relatively longer tails hence more comfortable for office wear. The buttons were more fitting with the stitching, leaving an antebellum elegance.

The blending of the various raw materials for design made the fabrics to be more remarkable. For instance, the company sourced cotton from West Indies, linen batiste from Paris, and woolen from Scotland. Various other raw materials such as hand-blocked silk from England and American- sourced cotton. The company is situated across Waterville, Maine, where it employed the gifted craftsmen who designed famous shirts for almost one hundred and twenty years. The company also had various stores abbreviated C.F/ HATHWAY. They could be accessed through OX 7-5566, retailing at $5.95 to $20.00.

“The Man in the Hathaway Shirt” Revised Copy

Your highly anticipated search for the best office wear that matches your fashioned suits ends with this advertisement to the esteemed American customers. The Hathaway shirt has been customized to all sizes, and its thick cotton material assures a less stressful machine wash. Waterville, Maine, remains our permanent store from where all the shirts have been customized by the skillful local artisans using their long ancestry line. Our shirts are available at your nearest clothing store worldwide. Kindly contact us through OX 7-5566 for much more.

With love,

C.F. Hathaway.


Creative Overflow. (n.d.). Flyers do still work for business promotion + 20 examples. Retrieved from.

Dyer Design. (n.d.). Magazine and newsletters. Retrieved from

Sandu, B. (2018, June 26). Nike print magazine ads that boosted the brand’s popularity. Retrieved from

Schauer, M. (n.d.). “The man in the Hathaway shirt” ad by David Ogilvy.Retrieved from

Whole Foods Market. (n.d.). Welcome. Retrieved from https://eü

Problem Solving and Learning Style argumentative essay help
Problem Solving and Learning Style

Student’s Name:

Institutional Affiliation:




Problem Solving and Learning Style

The paper addresses the need to embrace an effective problem-solving model and a learning style to gather necessary information and knowledge. The report identifies and describes each of the phases of the problem-solving model and shows how it becomes practical to solve a problem by combining it with Bloom’s taxonomy. The paper identifies studying with others as my learning style, and it entails sharing information with other people. Both sections provide valuable insight that may help one handle emerging issues more effectively and build one into a knowledgeable individual.

Problem Solving

Although problem-solving models can be technical and challenging to follow, the following model has six easy steps. The model is adequate to mitigate all but the most technical issues despite its simplicity. The simplicity of the structure makes it easy for one to remember when having to solve a problem. The first step when solving a problem is to define or identify the issue. An individual or group of people identify and discuss the signs and scope of the case by determining what hurts, the level to which the symptoms are transmitted or shared, and the urgency of mitigating the symptoms (Chakravorty et al., 2008). The person dealing with the problem can deploy various approaches, including completing questionnaires, interviewing, and brainstorming to collect relevant information. The second step is to identify the primary cause of the issue. Determining the nature of the issue happens upon successful recognition of symptoms and having tentatively identified the problem. Chakravorty et al. (2008) inform that restating the situation presents an opportunity for the definition to reflect its origins. The third phase is to generate possible alternatives, which happens after defining the problem. Whereas one could be tempted to jump to a particular conclusion, a creative problem-solving approach requires exploring a broad range of visible remedies before concluding (Chakravorty et al., 2008). However, one must consider various factors to assemble a variety of remedies from which to select a final option. An imperative factor to consider at this step is to gather as many possible remedies as possible and to relate each remedy to the causes of the problem. One should also connect each remedy to the causes of the issue and merge related or similar remedies.

One must also pay particular attention to the fourth, fifth, and sixth steps equally important when solving a problem. The fourth step is to select a suitable solution by evaluating each possible solution for its weaknesses and strengths (Chakravorty et al., 2008). Selecting a remedy involves searching for the most suitable remedy by employing two general guidelines. The fourth phase postulates that an effective remedy is technically feasible and is acceptable to those who will have to use it. One determines feasibility at this phase by asking various questions, including whether the practice can be executed in a reasonable duration, whether it can be conducted within cost limits, and whether it will work reliably and effectively (Chakravorty et al., 2008). It is also essential to ask whether the risks are manageable and benefit a person or an organization. The fifth phase is to implement the solution because choosing does not immediately deal with the issue. Putting a solution into practice may prove hard as settling on one. The implementation phase requires planning. Specifically, the problem solver should consider what needs to be done and who will do it. Besides, it is imperative to consider who will do it, when it is commenced, and when the key milestones are completed (Chakravorty et al., 2008). The sixth and final step is to evaluate the outcome. Evaluation provides an opportunity to ensure that goals and milestones are achieved, costs are handled, and all tasks are completed in time (Chakravorty et al., 2008). It is essential to follow all the steps to solve the problem adequately.

The six-phased problem-solving model can be combined with Bloom’s taxonomy to solve a problem that I may encounter in the future. Benjamin Bloom merged with his collaborators in 1956 to develop a framework for categorizing educational objectives. Commonly referred to as Bloom’s taxonomy, the framework has been used by teachers at elementary, secondary, and college levels (Rahman & Manaf, 2017). The model proposed by Bloom and his partners comprise six significant sections, knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, and assessment (Rahman & Manaf, 2017). Knowledge entails recalling specific approaches and methods and understanding, implying that a person understands what is being communicated (Rahman & Manaf, 2017). Application means using abstractions in particular contexts, and analysis involves breaking down communication into different structures. Synthesis entails putting together all parts and elements to form a whole, while assessment means making judgments about the importance of materials and processes for particular purposes (Rahman & Manaf, 2017). Combing the six-phased model with Bloom’s taxonomy would present a better chance to deal with a future problem more effectively. Fusing the two models offers a better opportunity to understand the problem’s nature and its possible impacts. Besides, using both techniques makes it possible to assess potential solutions more effectively and arrive at the best remedy without much difficulty. Thus, I plan to understand how both frameworks work to increase my chances of handling possible problems in the future more effectively.

Learning Style

My learning style is studying in groups. It involves sharing information and knowledge with other people. I prefer to approach different learning styles because it provides me with an opportunity to learn faster. Besides, studying in groups is effective because it allows me to sharpen my skills and break the monotony associated with studying alone (Davis, 2011). I also prefer learning in groups to other approaches because the style encourages me to think creatively and develop strong communication skills, making it possible to understand all learning materials (Davis, 2011). Besides, Chiriac (2014) indicates that those who engage in study groups feel more comfortable and confident about achieving their academic aspirations. However, I intend to acquire more information that would improve how I indulge in group learning.  


The paper addresses two issues; the problem-solving model and my learning style. It identifies a six-phased problem-solving model that requires a person first to identify the problem, determine the original cause, develop possible alternative solutions, select a suitable solution, implement the resolution, and evaluate the outcomes. The study illustrates the importance of using both the problem-solving model and Bloom’s taxonomy presents a better chance to identify a problem more effectively and propose remedies that could help deal with an issue more effectively. The second part of the paper describes my learning style. The section illustrates how I apply to study with others as the learning style I use for my learning practices, both for academic and non-academic reasons.


Chakravorty, S., Hales, D., & Hebert, J. (2008). How problem-solving really works. International Journal of Data Analysis Techniques and Strategies, 1(1), 44-59. doi:10.1504/IJDATS.2008.020022

Chiriac, E. (2014). Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(558), 1-10. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00558

Davis, D. (2011). The adult learner’s companion: A guide for the adult college student. Boston: Cengage Learning US. ISBN-10 ‏: ‎ 0495913839

Rahman, S., & Manaf, N. (2017). A critical analysis of Bloom’s taxonomy in teaching creative and critical thinking skills in Malaysia through English literature. English Language  Teaching, 10(9), 245-256.

Affordable Care Act – Issues and Recommendation scholarship essay help
Affordable Care Act – Issues and Recommendation

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Table of Content

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………3Purpose of the Act………………………………………………………………………..3Historical Efforts to Create a Similar Act………………………………………………..4Key Components of the ACA……………………………………………………………6Positive Effects…………………………………………………………………………..7Consequences of the Components…………………………………………………….…9Current State of the Program……………………………………………………………10Future State of the Program………………………………………………………….….10Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………11References……………………………………………………………………..……..…13

Affordable Care Act – Issues and Recommendation

The research paper focuses on the Affordable Care Act (ACA) that came into force in 2010 with the primary goal of increasing health cover nationally. The government has always aspired to provide health insurance to its people and this began with the development of the Medicare and Medicaid in the mid-1960s. Other Medicare and Medicaid, which are still applicable nationwide, other regulations, including MMA. CHIP, FEHB, and HIPAA were formed in a bid to increase coverage. The study shows how the introduction of the ACA had significant impact on health practice. The key components of ACA are clear that people have the right to affordable health cover, accountability, and quality services when receiving care. The definition of the ACA as it appears in its key components emerge as a policy that is destined to ensure that every American and non-nationals residing in the country have access to improved health care. The study affirms that the ACA is still in force and continues to change how people access health cover and will become prosperous in future by identifying and helping those who still lack cover due to different reasons.

Purpose of the Law

The ACA, also known as Obama Care the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted in March 2010. The Act has three chief objectives. The first is to make cheap health insurance accessible to more people (Kongsrvedt, 2012). The law offers buyers with subsidies called superior tax credits that reduces costs for families with incomes ranging from one hundred and four hundred percent of the specified FPL (federal poverty level) (McIntyre & Song, 2019). However, one may still be eligible for the first-rate tax credit depending on 2021 guidelines even if their income is beyond four hundred percent FPL (McIntyre & Song, 2019). The other drive and goal for making the ACA was to offer health cover to all American adults with revenue levels below 138% of the national poverty rates. The other main purpose for introducing the law was to boost innovative medical care provision techniques formed to minimize the costs of health care overall (McIntyre & Song, 2019). Primarily, the act was designed to expand health coverage to millions of uninsured people in the U.S. The Act broadened eligibility to Medicaid, formed a health insurance marketplace, obstructed insurance firms from denying coverage because of pre-existing factors, and required proper plans to insure various key health benefits (McIntyre & Song, 2019). The health insurance marketplace also known as an exchange is run by the federal government and to be eligible one must not be incarcerated, be a U.S. citizen, or reside in the U.S. (Kongsrvedt, 2012). The policy that was formed as a type of employer-sponsored benefit program was created to permit workers to choose the types of gains suitable for their lifestyles (McIntyre & Song, 2019). Its introduction was aimed at making health insurance more cheaply, to foster consumer protections, and to escalate the number of individuals insured by health insurance.

Historical Efforts to Create a Similar Act

Before the introduction of the ACA, the government had made efforts to create policies that offer health cover to Americans. Prior to the establishment of the ACA, President Lyndon Johnson had introduced the Medicare and Medicaid programs in 1965 (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). The initial Medicare plan was divided into Part A and Part B known as Hospital Insurance and Medical Insurance, respectively. Currently, these two components are referred to as Original Medicare. However, the Congress has made significant changes to Medicare. One evident change is that Medicare provided an opportunity for more people to become eligible for the health cover. For instance, Medicare was widened in 1972 to cover more people, comprising those with ESRD (end-stage renal disease) needing kidney exchange or dialysis, the incapacitated, and those beyond 65 years or above that benefit from Medicare insurance (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). Furthermore, the changes introduced more benefits such as coverage on prescription drugs. Initially, Medicaid offered medical coverage to people receiving cash aid, but toward the policy covers a larger group. Medicaid now covers low-income families, pregnant women, people who require long-term care, and those with disabilities (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). Thus, the introduction of the Medicare and Medicaid plans presented a suitable opportunity for Americans to access health cover.

However, various related initiatives were formed in the U.S. with the goal of increasing health cover to various populations. 2003 witnessed a momentous breakthrough in the enactment of Medicare because it was during this period that the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) was formed. Evaluators believe that the MMA made the most significant impact on the Medicare in more than thirty-eight years (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). As provided by the insurance policy, private health agendas verified by Medicare changed to be known as Medicare Advantage (MA) Plans. Another related initiative is the CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program) that was formed to deliver preventive care and health cover to the millions of uninsured Americans (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). Most of the children hailed from working families that are not insured yet earned so much to qualify for Medicaid. Today, all states in the U.S. including the District of Columbia, and related territories follow CHIP policies.

However, Americans have also relied on other health cover policies that was formed before the ACA. One particular example is the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) initiative that was introduced in 1960. FEHB is a program through which the health of employees are offered to civilian state workers and annuitants of the U.S. government (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). The state offers more than 70% of the measured mean premium of all health plans, not to surpass 74% of the premium for any single plan, which is measured differently for family and individual insurance. The FEHB initiative permits some insurance firms, workers unions, and insurance firms to sell health insurance plans to state workers (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). Also, the HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) that was introduced in 1996 insures workers in the U.S. by making it possible for them to shift with their health coverage from one organization to the other. The initiative also permits employees to apply to different health programs to replace misplaced insurance and to make adjustments for changes in the family setup through adoptions, births, and marriages (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2020). Moreover, HIPAA prohibits insurers from discriminating against applicants because of their health issues. In some scenarios, if an insurance firm refutes an employee’s application, the worker may apply for insurance outside the typical period of enrollment. Besides, HIPAA protects state laws that safeguard employees’ insurance rights. Nonetheless, ACA emerges as a comprehensive policy that seeks to provide more coverage to larger populations.  

Key Components of the ACA

It is possible to understand the key components of the ACA by examining the progress the Act made following its introduction of the law in 2010. In 2010 the law that provided a new light to Patient’s Bill of Rights came into effect, safeguarding consumers against possible violations by the insurance sector (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). The introduction facilitated cost-free preventive care that reached many Americans. Following the introduction, people with Medicare got the chance to receive essential preventive services without charge, and also get a 50% discount on particular drugs (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). Furthermore, the ACA directs that accountable health care firms and other related initiatives should assist medical practitioners work collaboratively to provide better services. In addition, the ACA advocates for unregulated participation in Health Insurance Markets, and also advocates for unrestricted access to health cover services at an affordable rate (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). The key components of the ACA have had numerous benefits on benefitting groups.

Positive Effects

One of the positive effects of the ACA and its key components is that it has encouraged the introduction of new consumer protection measures, which increase health cover for Americans. The regulation has facilitated the putting of information for buyers online. The Act provides for where purchasers can compare health insurance protection alternatives and choose the plan that works best for them (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). Another benefit associated with consumer protection is that the policy has eliminated lifetime restrictions on health insurance coverage. Under the regulation, insurance firms will be forbidden against imposing lifetime dollar regulations on major benefits such as hospital stays. Besides, the key components of ACA advocates for the establishment of consumer assistance initiatives at the state level (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). Under the regulation, states that apply get federal financial aid to help establish or widen independent operating stations to assist purchasers navigate the private health insurance structure. These initiatives can assist buyers bring forwards any appeals or complaints, enroll in health insurance, and get relevant training concerning their responsibilities and rights in individual health coverage policies or group health plans.

The ACA and its key components have other positive effects on entire health insurance sector. The enactment of the policy while adhering to its fundamental provisions have played fundamental functions in enhancing quality of care and reducing costs. For example, small businesses now have access to health insurance tax credits (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). It now emerges that approximately four million small firms have reach to tax credits to assist them offer insurance benefits to their employees. The initial phase of the provision offers a credit amounting to 35% of the contribution by the employer to the worker’s health coverage plan. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that operate in the not-for-profit sector also get to benefit because they get at least 25% credit (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). Also related to enhancing quality of life and minimizing costs is that the ACA and its components advocate for providing relief to more than four million elderly citizens, especially those achieve the Medicare prescription medication. A report by the Department of Health & Human Services (2021) informs that an approximated 4 million elderly people will achieve the gap in prescription drug coverage as provided by Medicare in what is called the donut hole. Each suitable old person gets about 250 USD to sustain their income and needs. Moreover, the Act and its key components call for offering free prevention services with the objective of enhancing quality and minimizing costs. The law emphasizes that all new initiatives must address particular services such as colonoscopies without levying any fees. More fundamentally, the law has facilitated the introduction of preventive programs aimed at preventing diseases and illnesses as advocated for in the ACA’s key components. The Act facilitates the release of funds to enhance preventive practices. For example, about $15 billion was released in what was known as the Prevention and Public Health Fund to increase preventive measures and improve public health programs that keep American citizens healthy (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). The many benefits emanating from the key components of ACA is the key reason why stakeholders strive to improve the functionality of the law.  

Consequences of the Components

It is possible to identify more consequences of the development of the ACA and its primary components. Americans are now able to access affordable care because the Act identifies the need for affordability as a critical component. Americans can now access insurance cover for people without cover yet they live with pre-existing conditions (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). The ACA facilitated the introduction of the Pre-Existing Condition Insurance Plan that offers alternative coverage choices to people who have remained without insurance for not less than six months because of a preexisting ailment. States have the choice of running the initiative in their respective jurisdictions (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). If a state decides not to follow this option, the Department of Health and Human Services in the state takes the obligation to establish a relevant plan. Another consequence of the ACA as identified in the key components is that it has broadened coverage for young adults. Under the law, young adults have the permission to use their parents’ health coverage plan until they reach twenty-six years old.  Nevertheless, in the context of existing group health insurance, the benefit is not applicable if the young adult receives health coverage at the place of work (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). Furthermore, health insurance firms are now more accountable in their practices, thanks to the clear directives of the ACA and its key components. Insurance companies now have the obligation to reduce health care premiums. It is also possible to experience new consumer protection features as provided for in the key components of the ACA. The regulation ensures coverage of people taking part in clinical trials (Department of Health & Human Services, 2021). Insurers are banned from reducing or lessening coverage because a person opts to participate in clinical trials. More fundamentally, the provision provides room to eradicating yearly limits on insurance coverage.

Current State of the Program

The U.S. Supreme Court on June 17, 2021 on the applicability of the ACA showed that the health policy is still effective and all stakeholders should abide by its guidelines and provisions. The Court was dealing with an appeal that challenged the credibility and essence of the ACA and in its ruling it found that the Act has played significant roles in promoting overall health system and in particular insurance coverage since its introduction more than one decade ago (The Commonwealth Fund, 2021). The court ruled that many people, health practitioners and state agencies depend on the protections provided by the law and enjoy substantial financial relief due to its existence (The Commonwealth Fund, 2021). The judgement means that the ACA is fully operational and impacts significantly on people’s lives. Presently, nearly 14.9 million adults with health cover attribute it to Medicaid expansion by the ACA (The Commonwealth Fund, 2021). More people continue to buy cover through the initiative, especially through the individual market where at least eleven million people have enrolled in 2021 alone. Thus the Supreme Court decision has further reassured the constitutionality of the law, further dementing the program as the cornerstone of the country’s health system.

Future State of the Program

Examining the future of the ACA suggests that the policy is likely to continue impacting on how Americans get health cover and enjoy improved health care, but these beneficial outcomes will only prevail if implementers overcome existing constraints. The Commonwealth Fund (2021) reports that while many Americans have benefitted from ACA, at least thirty million children and adults in the U.S. still lack insurance and another forty million have plans that render them underinsured and likely to pay expensive hospital bills. Thus, to achieve success in future, implementers may have to identify alternative marketing techniques, especially through the use of enticing mechanisms that make every person to reach out for cover. Alternatively, implementers of the policy may have to introduce door-to-door campaigns to make the policy a success.  


The study is a critical analysis of the ACA policy that was introduced in 2010 during Obama’s presidency. The analysis reveals that before the introduction of the ACA, Americans relied on Medicare and Medicaid that were introduced in 1965 by President Johnson. Other regulations such as the MMA. CHIP, FEHB, and HIPAA were introduced before the ACA with the motive of offering health cover to different populations in the U.S. The study identifies the various components of the ACA and describes how they advocate for better services in terms of providing health cover and improving quality of services. Consumers now enjoy enhanced protection measures, preventive mechanisms, accountability, and collaboration that impact on health care delivery and provision of health insurance. Moreover, the key components of ACA outline the importance of offering affordable care and coverage for all Americans. The provision is set to increase the number of people getting fundamental health services without much impact from their economic background. The research reveals that the Act is still in force and impact the way people seek health insurance at affordable rates. Finally, the study shows that ACA will succeed in future if implementers overcome constraints that still leave many Americans uninsured. More people continue to seek health cover as provided for by the ACA and the trend seems to be rising. The judgement of the Supreme Court sets a clear trend showing that more people still rely on ACA for their health cover primarily because of its affordability.


Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2020). History: CMS’ program history. Retrieved from

Department of Health & Human Services. (2021). About the Affordable Care Act. Retrieved from

Kongsrvedt, P. (2012). Essentials of managed health care. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

McIntyre A., & Song, Z. (2019). The U.S. Affordable Care Act: Reflections and directions at the close of a decade. PLoS Med, 16(2),

The Commonwealth Fund. (2021). The Supreme Court upholds the Affordable Care Act: What it means and what’s next. Retrieved from

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!