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Rwanda 1994: Akazu “Hutu Power” Genocide Of Tutsis Custom Essay Help

This is a Rwandan genocide that led to the mass slaughter of the minority Tutsi tribe in Rwanda during the country’s civil war that started in 1990. In 1993 there was a ceasefire of the civil war as the roadmap to the implementation of the Arusha declaration that was to enhance inclusivity in the government was set. However, the Hutu and members of the Akazu looked at this as a concession to the enemy demands. This led to the genocide.
This is an exciting topic that one can draw a lot of lessons from. I, therefore, chose this topic to highlight the grievous impacts that tribalism can have on a country. There was mass slaughter of people from the Tutsi tribe, and many of them were displaced from their homes due to this. This needs to be a lesson that should be highlighted so that vices such as tribalism, nepotism, and racism are condemned.
It is also essential that the role played by politicians is pointed out so that the public learn from the mistakes that happened in Rwanda. Politicians are very influential people, and that can be shown by the role they played in the events that led to the Genocide of Tutsi. They influenced the people and created animosity between the two tribes leading to the deaths of millions of people. Therefore, it is important that this story is highlighted so that people learn from it.
This story is also a learning point on the economic impacts of political and tribal instability can have on a nation’s growth. Although Rwanda has grown significantly since the genocide, there is no doubt that the government would have been far off had it not been for the events.
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The concept of a nation is a modern notion online essay helpBenedict Anderson, the writer of Imagined Communities, presents his view that the concept of a nation is a modern notion in his book. In the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries, the existing power structures that were based on a dynastic rule, sacred language or cosmology, and religion began collapsing one after the other. Instead, a more rational perception of surroundings was used to create what Anderson calls the “Imagined Community,” where everyone may not know the other person, but the boundaries are finite, and there is a sense of comradeship amongst everyone.
The emergence of print-capitalism allowed for an individual to relate to others as well as think about themselves in different ways XXXX. It managed to create multiple parallel realities which allowed individuals to connect to others who existed within an “Imagined Community.”
Anderson takes the argument that the nation and nationalism was a construct with European origins, and counters it with various modeled witnessed elsewhere in the world. The first model is of the early Creole communities which were formed by European settlers in the Americas XXXX. The second model came in the form of evolution of languages and was carried out by scientists who studied the languages and linguistic nationalist in the late eighteenth century. Another model is that which came about in the form of Official Nationalism. It was seen in countries like Japan, Thailand, Russia, and England, and was primarily a retaliatory response by monarchs against linguistic as well as popular nationalists. The fourth model that Anderson points out is one which developed owing to colonial rule, such as in Asia and Africa. In these continents, the educated, bilingual locals thought of themselves as being part of solidarity that lay outside the models of a nation. They had access to education and were also well traveled, which allowed them to gain power.
A nation can exist in one of three conditions, which are Sovereign, Community, or Limited. These states have been shaped by the time and place where they were created, and the manner in which they have been adapted for use around the world. One of the key focuses of the book is on places outside of Europe, such as Latin America, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan, even though these were also colonies at some point in their history.
The way in which the writer deconstructs the concept of nationalism while presenting the notion of Imagined communities on a national basis is quite impressive. It becomes clear in father reading that with the adoption of print-capitalism, as well as the conception of “homogenous, empty time,” a psychological condition was created to allow for the birth of national identities.
Shared pilgrimages, whether to Mecca, any imperial metropolis, or an administrative capital, also have an effect on the concept of a shared community. In essence, there is a multitude of people, i.e., a “we,” which goes to such places. This was further affected by the rationality being brought into maps and times. Earlier, the ideas of imperialist centers of states, unclear boundaries, and an understanding of sovereignty which was based in identity rather than residence defined communities. These were replaced by bounded communities that were enclosed within clearly defined borders.
Anderson’s book is both harsh of, as well as sympathetic with the nationalism. He does note that there have never been any great thinkers who have propounded nationalism, unlike other philosophies such as Marx and Marxism. However, he goes on to show that despite the racism and the associated loss of life, nationalism has also been able to inspire great acts of self-sacrifice XXXX. There is a theme of sympathy towards the movements of liberation, especially those in third world countries. However, the most fantastic aspect of the book is the amount of, and the depth in which, anti-colonial history is covered.
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How SmartPhones Affect College Students college admissions essay helpPart 1: Overview
The study is aimed at understanding the impacts that the use of smartphones has on college students. The annotation paper will look at the various applications of smartphones which have an impact on students. Social media serves as the major component of these devices that a majority of students use. The study will critically look at the way these social media sites impact on the lives of college students. It will also analyze other uses of such smartphones. Further, it will seek to understand the effects of smartphones on student’s socialization and performance. It will examine these sources to put this into perspective.
Part 2: Annotated Bibliography
Wang, Rui, Gabriella Harari, Peilin Hao, Xia Zhou, and Andrew T. Campbell. “SmartGPA: how smartphones can assess and predict academic performance of college students.” In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM international joint conference on pervasive and ubiquitous computing, pp. 295-306. ACM, 2015.
The authors in this article employ the use of SmartGPA study to analyze the individual behavioral performance of both low and high performers in a school term. They do so by sensing and collecting passive data from the student’s smartphones which are then used to analyze their behaviors. The study reveals that there are significant behavioral data collected that relate to the way a student performs in a class. Through the analysis of the data collected, the article has found out that there is a relationship between the different behavioral performances to the academic performance of students. This article is, therefore, crucial in that it shows how smartphones have been used to collect data, which indicates possible reasons for failures of students in college. The article relates to the topic in that the data obtained from students’ smartphones can be used to analyze their behaviors and, thus, the proper remedy can be introduced to improve their performance.
Park, Namsu, and Hyunjoo Lee. “Social implications of smartphone use: Korean college students’ smartphone use and psychological well-being.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 15, no. 9 (2012): 491-497.
This article is a study that analyzes the relationship that exists between the motives of smartphone use, physical wellbeing, and social relation. Therefore, it demonstrated that the need to care for the welfare of others had a negative relation to depression and loneliness and a definite connection to self-esteem. This article is critical to the main topic of study because it looks into the relationship between the use of smartphones as well as the social and physical wellbeing. It is essential in understanding how the use of smartphones affects students’ lives. By reviewing this article, one can get to understand the relationship between the motives that college students have when using smartphones and their social relationships. It will also tell how its use affects their physical wellbeing.
Hartanto, Andree, and Hwajin Yang. “Is the smartphone a smart choice? The effect of smartphone separation on executive functions.” Computers in Human Behavior 64 (2016): 329-336.
In this article, the authors seek to understand the impact of the use of smartphones on students. They study whether the separation of one from their phones has influences on state anxiety and the high order cognitive functions such as administrative processes. The study found out that when one is separated from their smartphones, there is heightened anxiety. This, in turn, leads to adverse effects of separation from smartphones on all the main elements of executive functioning. It also found out that the overdependence on these phones has negative impacts on the cognitive mechanisms of a person. This paper talks about the effects that smartphones have on cognitive development and mechanisms of a person and is, thus, prominent in the study of the impact of smartphone use on college students. This is because it analyzes how these devices affect the mental health of people; therefore, it relates to the topic of study.

Francis, Jeso Joseph. “Impact Of Social Networking Sites On College Students.” SSRN Electronic Journal. (2014).doi:10.2139/ssrn.2400937.

The article states that students are increasingly using social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter and, therefore, seeks to study the effects that these sites have on the academic performances of college students. This article is critical in analyzing the impact of the use of smartphones on college students. Smartphones have introduced a portable way in which students can use to access the Internet without having to carry their computers. It is clear that students use theirsmartphones more to access such social media sites. Social media applications such as WhatsApp are only available on smartphones and, therefore, by understanding the effect that social media has on the academic performance of college students, one can relate this to the usage of such technology. This is because a large percentage of the students rely on their phones to access these sites.
Elhai, Jon D., Jason C. Levine, Robert D. Dvorak, and Brian J. Hall. “Non-social features of smartphone users are most related to depression, anxiety and problematic smartphone use.” Computers in Human Behavior 69 (2017): 75-82.
This particularsourcedeals with the study of twotypes of smartphone usage. It deeply looks at the social and the process usage of these devices to analyze their relations to depression and anxiety. The authors describe the social usage of the smartphones as the social engagement feature that comes with the device that allows one to communicate with one another by messaging and calls. The process usage, on the other hand, is described as the feature that allows one to have nonsocial engagements with their devices. It found out that the social usage of smartphones is negatively associated with depression while the process usage has been linked to anxiety. This article relates to the topic of study due to the fact that it examines the effects of different conventions of smartphones which could apply to college students. It is highly relevant to the research topic as it solely deals with the impact of the smartphone technology.
Elhai, Jon D., Jason C. Levine, Robert D. Dvorak, and Brian J. Hall. “Non-social features of smartphone use are most related to depression, anxiety and problematic smartphone use.” Computers in Human Behavior 69 (2017): 75-82.
Hartanto, Andree, and Hwajin Yang. “Is the smartphone a smart choice? The effect of smartphone separation on executive functions.” Computers in Human Behavior 64 (2016): 329-336.

Francis, Jeso Joseph. “Impact Of Social Networking Sites On College Students”. SSRN Electronic Journal. 2014. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2400937.

Park, Namsu, and Hyunjoo Lee. “Social implications of smartphone use: Korean college students’ smartphone use and psychological well-being.” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 15, no. 9 (2012): 491-497.
Wang, Rui, Gabriella Harari, Peilin Hao, Xia Zhou, and Andrew T. Campbell. “SmartGPA: how smartphones can assess and predict academic performance of college students.” In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM international joint conference on pervasive and ubiquitous computing, pp. 295-306. ACM, 2015.
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To what extent Politics-Administration Dichotomy and Weberian bureaucracy are obsolete? essay helpIn a democratic society, the politics of administration dichotomy is the theory that builds the boundaries in the public administration and accounts for the normative relationship between administrators and the elected officials. The politics-administration dichotomy explains how administration and politics are inherently different and therefore should be approached differently. The administration is like a business and politics sets the responsibility of administration. On the other hand, Weberian bureaucracy is a bureaucratic theory formed by max weber to management principles. Max Weber believed that to set up an administration efficiently, the organization then one had to use bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is a set of rules and norms that govern an organization, enabling the administration to perform effectively. This paper aims to describe how old politics-administration dichotomy and Weberian bureaucracy are.
Politics administration dichotomy
Politics administration dichotomy was to separate politics and public administration. The dichotomy is obsolete in that without politics administrations cannot be formed; in short, they both rely on each other existence. Politics, in this case, has something to do with policies while administration aims at executing strategies. The politics is purposeful for policies and lawmaking while the administration is investing in the implementation of the laws formed the politics. The dichotomy of administration and procedure was not intended to control behavior instead of as a behavioral prescription directed against contemporary practices of machine politics. The model also had a strict definition. It is not possible to have one-way dichotomy that retains elected officials of the administration but then allows administrators to be active in the policy. The dichotomy level standing on its own is an aberration.  To have progress and objectivity, the politics must, therefore, separate from the administration. With doing the separation, every person would have equal power on their field rather than being controlled by the other.
Weberian bureaucracy
Bureaucracy seems to be obsolete since administrative reforms that have been implemented over the past few years have been a series of attacks over the hierarchical structure of the public administration. The standard arguments that go for bureaucracy are that it is slow, inefficient, rigid, and unable to change and it also fails to draw on the professional expertise in the organization and the external community. The bureaucracy is slow that an organization that needs a fast service cannot depend on it.  An administration needs efficient management to perform and achieve its goals, and with bureaucracy, it’s not attainable. For an organization to play well, the bureaucracy should be mobile so that it could be changed anytime when there is a need. Another issue people argued of is that bureaucracy is unfriendly to clients and therefore cannot promote customer attuned services to the general public. They also explained that it is too much formalized and standardize and the strict adherence to organizational goals and purposes. They misrepresented that bureaucracy should focus on the significant challenges they are facing in delivering public services to ensure efficacy in discharging public functions to compete effectively with private facilities. For obsolete reasons, some highly substantial changes have been implemented in the public sector.
In conclusion, the public administration discipline has gone through several stages to get accounted for. It has come from rigidity and impersonality of relationship and emphasizes on the existing rules. With bureaucracy in a state, politics can be played so well as people will fight to follow the rules and regulations given to them. The politics-administration of dichotomy also helped the nation because every citizen or customer had to abide by them and thus laws were well maintained.
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Uses and Gratification Theory provides a basis for social interaction college admissions essay helpGratification theory is the use of media as a form of socialization. The, therefore, focuses on what people do with their as oppose to what media does to people. It is an audience-centered theory and thus is based on the activity of people based on what people intend to use it for.  The communication theory and researches drove the use of this theory, and its foundation was led by JeyBlumler and Denis McQuail in 1969. This discussion, therefore, provides a literature review on the gratification theory based on the past researches on its influence on the people as they use the media in their daily activities.
The use of this theory differs from other media theories since it is based on the fact that individuals have control over their media usage. The understanding of the use of media to affect the only watching is based on the ability to explore the communication theories that are presented. An in-depth analysis is based on the concept of the understanding of what people do with their media reveal an idea of socialization that does not me reflect what media do to them.
Most individuals, therefore, use media when the motive of the use presents itself, especially in terms of entertainment. The primary role of the press is to enlighten the society and inform them about the happening around the world. Moreover, the media has been used to create cultural uniformity that is meant to expose the world to a different concept. This research, however, reveals that the motive is rarely met especially when individuals start controlling the combated they watch in media.It creates a system where the media has no control over the lives of society, and instead, it gives an opportunity for the individual to control the media.
The primary use of media today is to entertainment. The gratification theory explains that for a channel to prosper or to have the view that is required, it must present a high tech of entertainment.Thecontent must, therefore, involve the concept of wishful thinking, learningand emotional. This model, therefore, took account of the all to contribute foundations developedfrom the idea of gratification. in his case, an individual, thus, gets on the specific form of media and employ some efforts to ensure that the desire for satisfaction from the content is met.
There are specific ways regard determine how individuals contribute to the foundation for the model to develop this theory. Ittook into account the d degree of gratification of an individual who is determined to select the contemptfive significant needs drive the gratitude theory. The first one involves cognitive needs. Thisrefers to the desire of an individual to acquire a piece of new information or knowledge. The use of TV for knowledge, facts, and information contributes to the trend in the use of Medias. Some people are media for intellectual gains. It is a phenomenon which is not so much common. This is because of the different need of the people and the desire to achieve individual interest that varies across the viewers. Knowing the current affair require people to watch the news regularly, search engines, therefore, become regular ways of accessing information for cognitive gain. It is one of the critical aspects of the media, and it makes a component of the gratification theory of media use.
A compelling need to satisfy human needs becomes the second component of media use. Itinvolves all kinds of emotions mood and pleasures of people. It is the use of television and othermedia platforms to meet their emotional needs.One of the bestdemonstrationsis whenindividuals get emotional when they watch something touchy and hence may make them cry. It feels the need of individuals ofan emotional satisfaction and therefore defines the nature of the use of media bythe human in many setups.
The personalintegrative need is also another attribute of gratificationof media. Itinvolveself-esteem needs.  It confirms the fact that people review their status in the press for reassurance that they have a respectable status in the society. An example is w when people watch advertisements in the media likethe jewelry, the current phones and other commodities used by most individuals with high status in the society. This comparison concept, therefore, becomes the core reason for the use of s media. Itboosts the morale of the individual and ensures that he or she meets the status of the average individuals in society.
Social integrative needs also becomea significant factor in the definition of the gratification theory. This involves the concept of the desire to socialize with families’ friends and relatives. People do not seem to be together in a weekend. This makes them use social me4dia media such as Facebook, tweeter, and others to tumble their needs; this need become a significant factor of the definition of the principle of the use of the social media among individuals. This implies that the press satisfies social needs.
Another example is the tenancy of individuals to watch particular shoes or programs in televisions as a means ofsatisfying their social needs. It is not because of t their self-interest but rather because of every one watches it. Failing to observe it, males, an individual socially outclassed.The concept of tension-free needs that makes one have a desire to moveaway from the stress of the real world becomes the fifth component of the gratification of the media.This, therefore, implies that the balance between the press and the real world is created by the desire of individuals to v be in a world of fantasythat works bestfor him or her.
Furtheranalysis of the gratification concept reveals that there are different types of audiences to s media. Theuse of mass society theory becomes aconcept that is used in the evaluation of the principlesof massmedia and the changing characters of the audience. With an understanding of the gratifications, paying attention to the demands of the audience becomes the order of the day. In this case, the media responds to the needs of the audience especially based on the lifestyle and the possible ways if fitting into the lifestyle of differentindividuals in the industry. Further analysis of the article reveals that the dynamics in the change of the media depends on the ability to attract the attention of the audience. It shows the reversed roles that are currently present in society
One of the main assumptions that have been set for the gratification theory is the audients are active seekers of contents that give them the highest level of satisfaction. Unlike the old period where the media was the controller of the materials, today the audience controls the content of the press.The press has to meet its audience demand for it to be wanting;it shows a reversed role and the concept of change in society.The morean individual drive a feeling of satisfaction from the media content, the more likely that he will accept the material.Theability to keep the audience active is the leadingconcept ofensuring thatthe media contents are to the standard of the audients requirement.
An analysis of the use of gratification in the 21st century reveals that the increasing use of mass media such as television and radio. It the theory of satisfaction has not been seen to hold since there is a general change of the content and the drivers of the audience. Withthe excess access to information and the development ofsocial media, several principleshave been used to explain to analyzethe concept. Among them is the use of cell phones to access information and the ability to ensure that such devices met the specific demands of the customers. It, therefore, takes away the audience from the mass media and thus rendering the mass media ineffectivein all the ways possible.The emergence of communication technology, however, has made this theory more relevant. In this case, there is full freedom on the content to watch that satisfies the needs of the audience.The cell phones and the internet are the accomplishment of the attitude theory that has made the media so volatile and detail oriented based on the meeting the audience needs and ensuring that they deliver the highest level ofcontent.
The gratification theory does not only apply to media alone. Thereat other ventures that make serious use. Among them include the selection of books, theses, library among others are becoming increasingly crucial for the gratification theory. With the increased exposure to various contents, people have to be selective in selecting information. Eventhing for the past years, the library was used as a storage house for information;there has been a gritchange since there has been a takeover bythe technology takeover. It gives an opportunity for the audience to search data from other devices, the organic content is based on the fact that each platform must target specific customers who help to assure the improvedcontent to be watched. The review between the five library rules creates a strong link between the library and the information science. The role of m the gratification theory can, therefore, beseen from the various perspective of understanding of the media y use. Consequently, the ability of the media to draw the audience from the multiple aspects of the views on the driving factors is one of the most critical factors that shape media operations in the modern world.
Reflections on the use of   gratification theory
The purpose of gratification theory that explains the control that theaudience uses the media to solve their personal need is one of the concepts that are profoundly taking root in the current world. It is based on the factthe t there is a variety of media platforms, and there are diversified contents.  It is for this reason that the media industry is becoming concerns with the needs of the audience andthe desire to satisfy their requirements. Withthe availability of technology, the role of media has drasticallychanged, and the use of the gratification theory has been evident in all aspects. The criticism of the development of the concept in the media industry is to the opinion that the contents are created and are based on the social theory if communication. However, social media and other modern platforms give individual a choice of the material based on the level of satisfaction they want to draw.
In conclusion, the use of gratification theory is becoming a significant aspect of modern society. It c explains the use of media to satisfy individual needs. Different motives make social media attractive. Therefore the major concepts that are o be driven from the media platforms are based on the ability of individuals to meet their personal needs and the desire to be relevant in the society. It is for this reason that the media has to stop being the custodian of information to being the competitor for the attention of the audience who have a  variety of choices to make on the content matter and another aspect of the media needs.
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Chapter 4 and 5 questions writing essay helpChapter 4

Increasing complexity creates a paradox for managers because it leads to problems of coordination, communication, and control (Slack,66). The managers, therefore, face difficulty when enhancing the organization toachieveits objectives.
Formalization is the strict organizational structure that sets rules, and regulations and determines relationships within an organization. Its advantages are; consistency of leadership; this is through the rules that it creates. The other advantage is a comprehensive relationship between leaders and employees (Slack,67). However, its disadvantages are; establishes highly formal relation which hindersfriendly ties. And it also prevents any changes in interpersonal skills.
The tradeoffs involved in the decision to centralize or decentralize the operations of an organization include; weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the structures. The other tradeoff is checking the economic benefits of the structure and lastly, the motivation of employees in a particular structure (Slack,77).
The areas that would be feasible for managers to formalize include; rules area, this is because they are leaders in the organization. They are, therefore, required to give rules and regulations. The other area is procedures; the managers can perfectly formalize this area.
In different types of sports organizations, I expect formalization to vary. Those with good leadership, I expect the relationship to be healthy. In an organization with poor leadership, I expect formalization to be weak.

Chapter 5

The characteristics of machine bureaucracy are; extensive training of workers, well-defined hierarchy and high formalization. The advantages of the machine bureaucracy include; accountability, this is due to the vast system of rule and regulation. The other advantage is the impersonal nature of relationship; this creates chances of succeeding. The disadvantages are; reduced productivity and innovation, and decreased morale.
Coordination varies in each of the five designs; in the simple structure, coordination enhanced direct supervision of workers. In machine bureaucracy, tasks are designed and operated in operational procedures. In the professional bureaucracy, the company standardizes the skills and qualifications required. In divisionalized form, coordination concentrate on the bigger picture of the company and lastly in an adhocracy; it enhances the horizontal sharing of authority based on competence.
In adhocracy, there is a lack of formal structure combined with a variety of highly skilled workers, adhocracy adjusts to whatever situation it encounters (Slack, 100). On the other hand, the professional bureaucracy has a formal structure and doesn’t conform to changes that come its way.
Adhocracies are fashionable because they are a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that lacks structure.
Typology is classification according to the physical features while taxonomy is the general classification as applied to the living things.

Work cited
Slack, Trevor, and Milena M. Parent. Understanding sport organizations: The application of          organization theory. Human Kinetics, 2006.
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The Importance of Cybersecurity Education and Training essay helpAbstract
Cybersecurity can be defined as all means that are used to protect or guide programs, system or even a set of connections against digital attacks. The main objectives of cyber attacks are, changing and accessing information, interrupting normal business processes, extorting money from users or destroying delicate information. Everyone has to implement effective cybersecurity measures because the challenging issue today is that it appears that the number of devices are more than people, and attackers tend now to be more creative. Hence, it is vital that individuals and companies need to receive the right education and training so that they can be able to protect their data. Second, it is critical to understand the possible vulnerabilities of cyber-attack. Third, it is good to recognize the ways of controlling physical access insecurity. It is also advisable to have ideas where the best education and training is available, and people should start anticipating the future of cyber.  
Keywords: cybersecurity, attackers, proper education and training, physical access, future of cyber.
The Importance of Cybersecurity Education and Training
Cybersecurity refers to all means that are used to protect or guide programs, system or even a set of connections against digital attacks (Powner, 2011).  The main objectives of cyber-attacks are, changing and accessing information, interrupting normal business processes, extorting money from users or destroying delicate information. Everyone has to implement effective cybersecurity measures because the challenging issue today is that it appears that the number of devices are more than people, and attackers tend now to be more creative. Therefore, due to the dependency on advancements of technology, the increase in daily crimes and severe exposed risks from lack of security, it is vital that individuals and corporations receive proper education and training to have better overall protection of the organization.
Importance of Cybersecurity Education and Training
Cybersecurity knowledge should be of concern in any organization. The significance of this knowledge is to reduce exposure to cybersecurity-related risks (Shoemaker, Conklin, 2011). First, it helps to decrease costs is caused by both the lower frequency of cyber-related loss-incidents and the repercussion of those incidents. Secondly, it helps to reduce costs associated with cybersecurity insurance premiums. Thirdly, it saves time since many people post cybersecurity incidents online and it is easier for one to learn more and avoid issues that can bring them troubles. Besides, cybersecurity helps organizations to know how to market their products online and prevent or limit cases of frauds (Kostopoulos, 2012. Without education, organizations might end up losing important data which can result in its closure.
Exposed Risks
Listing of Possible Vulnerabilities
The first possible vulnerabilities in cybersecurity are the employees. They are among the top threats, sometimes more than hackers. This is because it is straightforward for them to access or attain data from their workplaces. The unhappy employees can also take or sell devices and physical data to the outsiders or company enemies(Manky, 2010).  The second is vulnerabilities are unsecured mobile devices. When mobile devices are in use it is hard to maintain a high level of security around one’s business especially when one is not using, the policy of ‘Bring Your Own Device (BYOD).’ Furthermore, employees still use their gadgets in work-related issues meaning they have less control over their passwords, security threat, and downloading application which could cause security threats.
The third one is, cloud storage applications, putting applications and data on the cloud is advantageous because it grants one to enter data from anywhere using multiple devices. However, if one does not use security caution, hackers will get chances to attack. The fourth one is third-party service providers; most cloud storage companies are the only category of third-party service providers. Due to convinces and cost they likely offer multiple third-party services. However, problems will start arising when their systems fail and are not secure because they will get access to all people’s private data. For example, if one uses a third-party accounting software, hackers could enter the system and access the financial records. (Kotsiopoulos, 2012)All this will be easy when the providers use fewer security methods, such as the use of a default password for every person’s account. The last but not list is, malicious attacks, people become vulnerable when they download malware, and therefore hackers will use this advantage to attain one’s data. Mostly, it is unintentional because people click suspicious links in their servers and also having old systems will increase your risk of malicious attacks.
Controlling Physical Access
Physical security protects companies, sites, information, premises buildings, facilities, people, and other assets and an essential part of protecting them, integrity, confidentiality, and availability of resources (NetScreen Technologies Inc., n.d). It is crucial to improving physical security to secure infrastructure, critical resources, and systems effectively. The categories of physical control; first, preventative control, these are measures that are meant to block unauthorized actions (Savitz, 2012). For examples biometrics, locks, mantraps. The second is detective controls; this is supposed to send alerts after or during an attack. For example, mandatory vacations, job rotation, reviewing and recording security cameras. The third is, corrective control; its purpose is to restore systems to normal after any unauthorized activity. For example, intrusion detection systems, business continuity planning, or antivirus solutions (SANS Institute,2003).  The fourth is, Recovery control, it is set after any security incident has occurred and is supposed to restore functionality of the system. For examples, reinstallation of data restored from backups and operation systems. The fifth, deterrent control, its purpose is to discourage actions. For example, signs like, “Security System” or “Beware of Dog.” The last one is, compensating control; these provide an alternative or supplementary solution to control difficult or expensive implements.
Education and Training Available
Everyone should benefit from the work of cyber threat researchers and trainers in different places or institution. Cybersecurity organizers provide training to people or employees; they educate them on how to fend off security threats (Stawowski, 2007).  They also train institutions on how they can protect themselves from all cyber-attacks. For example, the team of 250 threat researchers at Talos; they examine future threats, set cyber-attack policies and reveal vulnerabilities. Also, they enlighten the public about the significance of cybersecurity. These training institutions make the internet safer for everybody.
The Future of Cyber
Quantum technology is the future of cyber because in 10 to 20 years into the future. It will conquer the encryption methods like symmetric and asymmetric (Trim & Lee, 2014).  Symmetric encryption will be weakened by quantum computers using longer encryption keys. The algorithms used for asymmetric encryption will lose all their security. Asymmetric encryption algorithms are the one used in today’s e-identities, e-commerce, and also certification management is based on them. Therefore, it is important to follow current development so that these algorithms can be changed before quantum computers become a reality.
The Military and Other Organizations
Military agencies and organizations practice security rely on resilience (Lovelace, 2008). Based on resilience method, military and organizations like civilian agencies and private sectors study and learn the technique. However, the big challenge is to get ways to measure the effectiveness of every dollar spent on resilience. Most of all, people should learn from the military resilience approach to cybersecurity, which is the only realistic way to cope with today’s digital environment.
In conclusion, no precise method can fix the threat caused by cyber warfare because the cyber risk factors cannot be eradicated. Therefore everybody should try prevention by training about cybersecurity, noting the possible vulnerabilities in their day to day activities. Training ensures that individuals have enough knowledge and strategies on how to deal with cybersecurity challenges. Institutions and organizations should ensure they protect their data by all means and keep note of their employees. Prevention is better than cure.
Kostopoulos, G. (2012). Cyberspace and Cybersecurity. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Lovelace, D. C. (2008). Terrorism: Documents of International and Local Control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, USA.
Manky, D. (Nov 8, 2010). Top 10 vulnerabilities inside the network. Retrieved from
NetScreen Technologies Inc. (n.d). NetScreen white paper on the principles of secure network
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Powner, D. A. (2011). Cyberspace Policy: Executive Branch Is Making Progress Implementing 2009 Policy Review Recommendations, But Sustained Leadership Is Needed. Collingdale, PA: DIANE Publishing.
SANS Institute. (2003). SANS Institute white paper on Designing a secure local area network.
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Savitz, E. (Dec 11, 2012). 5 key computer network security challenges for 2013. Retrieved from
Shoemaker, D., & Conklin, W. A. (2011). Cybersecurity: The Essential Body Of Knowledge. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Stawowski, M. (2007). The principles of network security design. [PDF] Retrieved from
Click to access Principles_Network_Security_Design.pdf
Trim, D. P., & Lee, D. Y. (2014). Cyber Security Management: A Governance, Risk and Compliance Framework. Aldershot, England: Gower Publishing.
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Analysis of the Iron Jawed Women Movie a level english language essay helpIt is no doubt that the US has sharply fallen behind most established democracies such as European countries with respect to enhancing gender equality and women representation in national politics. Even as the US government gears towards strengthening its commitment on matters concerning women representation in active national politics, the majority of women in the country remain underrepresented either at state or federal level. Notably, while there has been a current uptick in the number of women running for political offices, there still exists a huge gap between the number of male elected leaders and their female colleagues (“Horowitz,Igielnik, and Parker”). It is such occurrences which statistics prove the need for gender inclusivity and equality, not only in political matters but also on social and economic issues such as employment and elections. One of the movies which are relevant in discussing the existence of gender inequality and women underrepresentation in the US political issues is the Iron Jawed Womenmovie.
The Iron Jawed Movie is an American drama film that was directed by Katja von Garnier and released in 2004. The movie stars some of the famous female characters like Hilary Swank, Julia Ormond, Anjelica Huston, and Frances O’ Connor. The movie is about the desire and the commitment of some women in the US, led by their leader Alice Paul, to ensure that women are given the right to vote. After returning from England where they participated in the Women’s Social and Political Union, Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, present a plan to the National American Women’s Suffrage Association (NASWA) to advocate for women’s voting rights in the US (“von Garnier”). However, the leader of the suffrage association finds Alice and Burn’s ideas to be too forceful and decline to be part of their campaign. The two women are therefore forced to go ahead with their plan which involved marching during President Wilson’s inauguration and even protesting outside the Whitehouse. It is such actions which make them arrested for obstructing of traffic and later sent to prison. The brutal and calamitous treatment of these women in prison gets the attention of the public, forcing the President to ratify the 19th Amendment, thus giving women the right to vote just like their male colleagues.
After viewing the Iron Jawed Women movie, two current issues that I feel would be worthy of protest in the US today are the skewed gender roles and salary or wage inequalities against women. It is correct to recognize the fact that women in the US have made tremendous strides in the aspect of gender gaps between women and men. However, there are still many instances where women are still discriminated and stereotyped because of their gender. For example, male employees are likely to enjoy higher salaries than female employees within the same job group even though both of these two groups of employees may be possessing the same skills and experience or academic qualifications for the position they occupy. Also, women are highly disadvantaged on matters of politics because of the skewed gender roles where women seem to be assigned more family roles and expectations than their female colleagues. I, therefore believe that these two socio-economic and political issues are worth protesting.
The failure of Hillary Clinton to ascend to the most powerful seat in the world, the President of the United States of America (POTUS), indicates how far the country is when it comes to electing its first female president. Based on the determination and resilience portrayed by Alice and Burn in ensuring that women in the US are given the right to vote, it is self-evident that women must be ready to defy the social or political odds to enable them to achieve equality and enhance their stature in the country. I believe that just like Alice and Burn, women in the US today should champion for the federal government to amend the constitution and enact a law which assigns some number of seats both in the house of congress and senate specifically for women. By doing this, the government will be able to reduce the gap between male and female leaders in both houses and also enhance the degree of women representation in national politics and decision-making processes.
Works Cited
Horowitz Menasce Juliana, Igielnik Ruth, and Parker Kim. Women and Leadership 2018. Wide gender and party gaps in views about the state of female leadership and the obstacles women face. Pew Research Center. 20th September 2019.
von Garnier Katja. “The Iron Jawed Women Movie” YouTube, Commentary by Ron Olson, 23rd November
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The politics of administration dichotomy essay help online freeIn a democratic society, the politics of administration dichotomy is the theory that builds the boundaries in the public administration and accounts for the normative relationship between administrators and the elected officials. The Politics-administration dichotomy explains how administration and politics are inherently different and therefore should be approached differently. The administration is like a business and politics sets the responsibility of administration. On the other hand, Weberian bureaucracy is a bureaucratic theory formed by max weber to explain management principles. Max Weber believed that to set up an administration efficiently in an organization then one had to use bureaucracy. Bureaucracy is a set of rules and norms that govern an organization, enabling the administration to perform effectively. The application of Politics-Administration Dichotomy and the Weberian bureaucracy in Hong Kong had numerous features.
Politics-Administration dichotomy
Politics-administration dichotomy was to separate politics and public administration. In Hong Kong, you can only separate bureaucracy with democracy since bureaucratic leaders serve for self-interest. The dichotomy is obsolete in that without politics; administrations cannot be formed; in short, they both rely on each other’s existence. Politics in Hong Kong has something to do with policies while administration aims at executing strategies. The dichotomy of administration and procedure was not intended to control behavior, but in Hong Kong, the presence of social conflicts despises the principle. The model also had a strict definition. It is not possible to have one-way dichotomy that retains elected officials of the administration but then allows administrators to be active in the policy. The dichotomy level standing on its own is an aberration.  To have progress and objectivity, the politics must, therefore, separate from the administration. With doing the separation, every person would have equal power on their field rather than being controlled by the other. In Hong Kong, the obsolete Politics-Administration dichotomy is evident from how powerful ministries and state companies are involved in a devastating competition. If politics was to be separated from the administration, state companies could be acting independently without an interest in ministries. The ministries are expected to be involved in public administration as well as the state companies; hence there should be no competition since every enterprise has its administrative restrictions.
Weberian bureaucracy
Bureaucracy seems to be obsolete in Hong Kong since administrative reforms that have been implemented over the past few years have been a series of attacks over the hierarchical structure of the public administration. The standard arguments that go for Hong Kong bureaucracy are that it is slow, inefficient, rigid, and unable to change and it also fails to draw on the professional expertise in the organization and the external community. The bureaucracy in Hong Kong is characterized by reduced efficiency in economic administration through less established reforms. The policy making bureaucrats in Hong Kong were not democratic implying bureaucracy was applied without administrative functions.  An administration needs efficient management to perform and achieve its goals, and with bureaucracy, it’s not attainable. For an organization to play well, the bureaucracy should be mobile so that it could be changed anytime when there is a need.  For the case of Hong Kong democracy was replaced with bureaucracy since civil servants established the public policy decisions. The elected politicians cannot be entrusted with the roles assigned to them since conflicts are familiar with the social class. They also explained that it is too much formalized and standardize and the strict adherence to organizational goals and purposes. They misrepresented that bureaucracy should focus on the significant challenges they are facing in delivering public services to ensure efficacy in discharging public functions to compete effectively with private facilities. For obsolete reasons, some highly substantial changes have been implemented in the public sector.
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Appeal against academic violation college admission essay helpAs a student, I have a right to appeal against any suspension given to me even if my case might not be reliable. However, it was wrong for me to sit for an exam in psychology 105 which I never enrolled. Therefore, the University Senate might because to uphold the suspension reduce the punishment. Even if some students mislead me to sit in a class, I had not enrolled in, and this cannot be used as a defense since I am supposed to make an independent judgment. Besides, my appeal cannot be considered because I wanted to attain a better grade during my final year exams. Therefore, the authorities can argue that I could have used the right channel to achieve the grade. I cannot escape the suspension despite that it was my first time to commit a crime in my four years in college. Though, the relevant authorities can use this as a basis of decreasing my suspension days.
Additionally, even though I relied on friends advice and I was not aware that I was committing an offense cannot be used as a defense. This is because ignorance cannot be used to escape the full wrath of the law. As a result, those who will hear the appeal are likely to uphold the earlier decision of suspending me. In this case, I prefer any form of detention instead of a suspension. However, I do not have any powers regarding the kind of punishment that is likely to be imposed on me. The college senate will ultimately make this decision. Their decision will be final and not subject to any further plea.
Moreover, pleading guilty, asking for forgiveness and promising not to can influence the people hearing the appeal reconsider the earlier decision. Therefore, they may reduce my suspension to a few days. However, the chances of being forgiven entirely are rare because it can encourage others to commit similar offenses in the future. Therefore, they can use my case as a warning sign to others who might be having similar intentions. Furthermore, the fact that I did not know that I was committing a serious violation is not a defense. I was expected to know the school rules and regulations before being admitted to college. Besides, there are high chances that I was given a letter containing these regulations before being accepted. Therefore, the college senate might not consider my plea because of my ignorance. Also, my actions are not permitted since they had ill intentions of taking advantage of others. Consequently, there are high chances that listeners of the case might proceed and suspend me with immediate effect.
I promised the authorities that I will never enroll for a Psychology 105 class in the future. However, I think this decision is not right. I am at liberty to register for this class as long as I do it through the proper channels. The only bad thing that is not allowed is to use illegal means to enroll in these classes. Authorities are likely to punish me because if I was not noted, I could have proceeded and sat for the exams. Lastly,the fact that I am supposed to graduate cannot be considered in my application. The college regulations obligate all learners to attain their grades through legal means. In this case, the university can cancel my graduation if the due process was not followed.
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One Hundred Years of Solitude: Theme of Love a level english language essay helpIn the novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude, the author has discussed several themes all with the intention of showing their impact on society. One major theme that has cut across the novel is the theme of love. Love and lust are seen to be entangled in each other and can only be differentiated after an in-depth analysis of the book. Familial love, especially between siblings and parents has been confused with sexual love. The novel shows how husbands and wives have developed almost no sexual chemistry with each other as they strive to satisfy their sexual needs with other partners. In the same note, the parentage of many characters is kept a secret and thus creating a question on whether real love is existent. Incest has been recorded in the novel owing to the many secrets about parentage that have not been discussed (Summaries, 2016). The complicated situations touching on love have been caused by lack of dedication by the characters to building strong love and adhering to the social norms. There are many mistakes that have been done in the arena of love and this could only be prevented if the characters were open about love and on who they really have a relationship with (Summaries, 2016).
The Buendia family is entangled in a complicated situation as for them they are afraid of promoting love between close family members. It is a huge struggle as their ancestors had experienced these (Summaries, 2016). The greatest undoing is that the fear is not so strong as compared to love. Familial love leading to sexual attraction is seen in Jose Arcadio who goes ahead to marry his first cousin Ursula. Although the family had been against this, Jose cares less and alleges that there is a strong love that cannot be quenched. For him, he is not afraid of having a child with a deformity. This scenario proves in no small extent that love has blinded most of the tye characters to a position that they can’t see the worst case scenarios that can happen if they love each other. The situation seems to favor Jose and his wife Ursula, and this is seen as love conquering against all the odds. However, Jose kills Prudencio for mocking him because of his acts. Love, in this case, is seen to have contributed to Jose killing Prudencio. The desire of the two to leave their home for Macondo is proof of strong love and attraction to each other (Summaries, 2016).
Despite the fear of getting kids with a pigtail, it has been seen that none of the individuals is interested in foregoing love because of the dangers that are associated with incest. Most of them are so ready to deal with the social and psychological effects that it brings. The novel has depicted a strong love despite the Buendia’s being unable to grow their families beyond the original bloodline. It is true thetre love, but again this love has not been proved in a strong way (Summaries, 2016). , although not accepted within the community, has been proved to be a strong foundation of love for many characters. Jose Arcadio himself goes ahead and develops a romantic relationship with his adopted sister Rebeca. To Jose, losing family ties is not as important as compared to being in love with the sister. The two develop a deep and serious love for each other and fortunately this time around they are not afraid of a child with a pigtail. Jose and Rebeca sacrifice the closeness they have with their families all in the name of the romantic love between them (Summaries, 2016).
The numerous cases of incestuous developments in the novel show a community that has chosen to ignore the social and moral cues for the sake of their love. However, in some individuals like Aureliano, he decides to forgo love and marry an outsider rather than be a despot from his people. Despite there being a lack of respect between Fernanda and Aureliano, the two have not divorced citing their religion (Summaries, 2016). Love is seen between Aureliano Segundo and Petra Cotes that even affects positively the fertility of the livestock they own together. The scenario proves a real love that is passionate to each other and goes beyond mutual satisfaction. The most intriguing part of this relationship is that they thrived despite having the community being against them. Meme who happens to be the daughter of Aureliano and Fernanda have a passionate, romantic relationship with Mauricio Babilonia (Summaries, 2016). Fernanda believes that the only way to save his family and the closeness is by hiding the identity of the baby. The case proves that although the individuals are not mindful of their actions, they are worried about the familial love that exists.
More scenarios of romantic love are seen between Aurelio and Amaranta who also happen to be a trealtives. A strong relationship is seen between Remedios Moscote and Colonel Aureliano Buendia. Marquez in the novel has been keen to develop themes of love although most of them have been based on familial love that later on developed to romantic love (Summaries, 2016).
Summaries, B. (2016). One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Marquez (Book Analysis): Detailed Summary, Analysis, and Reading Guide. BrightSummaries. Com.
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Repeal The Logan Act online essay helpThe defense forces may fade away, and the flowers may die, but the statutes we have in our constitution do neither. The statutes live for an indefinite period in the United States. The statutes often become obsolete or in some cases fall into desuetude. These statutes even though fall into desuetude and rarely enforced, they always retain their effect and force until they are either held unconstitutional by the courts or repealed by the legislature(McLaughlin, Patrick). There are more than 4000 laws that are obsolete. Many of these laws are absurd and irrelevant. Among these archaic and absurd laws that need to be repealed or held unconstitutional is The Logan Act. Congress has to repeal this act. Thus, this paper highlights why The Logan Act ought to be repealed or held unconstitutional by the courts.
Congress has a duty to repeal the Logan Act. Globalized and modern communications have thus far been destroyed by the remnant rationale of the Logan Act. The act today will hypothetically criminalize constitutionally protected speech made by US citizens(McLaughlin, Patrick). Mid last year, some news broke out that John Kerry had a meeting with some foreign sources that included the Iranian ambassador with an agenda of promoting foreign policy at the expense of our current administration. So many folks can criticize John Kerry for his move but not least on the agenda of taking part in siding with our nation’s enemies. One squabble against John’s pursuit of his foreign policy is at odds with our Commander in Chief is that his actions are regarded as a federal crime in line with the Logan Act. His actions may be considered as a federal crime, but in reality, is a reminder why the Congress or our courts should repeal this absurd and irrelevant act.
The above act is an example of a doleful American culture and tradition. This act was named after a particular individual. This particular individual was a Pennsylvania legislature known as George Logan. It is in between his five years of tenure when The United States and France embroiled themselves in a Quasi-War(Simpson &Curtis, 365). As the undeclared naval war prolonged, George sympathized with France and offered to travel to the French country to open some separate negotiations. Through George’s actions of separate talks, the Federalists were outraged. While George was continuing with negotiations in the France territory, the Federalists in the Congress passed the Logan Act which bears his name.  The Logan Act passed by the Federalists stated that (“The Logan Act of 1799),
“Any citizen of the United States, wherever he may be, who, without authority of the United States, directly or indirectly commences or carries on any correspondence or intercourse with any foreign government or any officer or agent thereof, with intent to influence the measures or conduct of any foreign government or of any officer or agent thereof, in relation to any disputes or controversies with the United States, or to defeat the measures of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. This section shall not abridge the right of a citizen to apply, himself or his agent, to any foreign government or the agents thereof for redress of any injury which he may have sustained from such government or any of its agents or subjects.”
Any law that sits in the constitution for more than two centuries without being in practice notwithstanding,  being invoked overtly in high profile political hullabaloos does not hold water in the rule of law. Since the act was passed, it has only indicted two individuals who include Daniel Webster in the year 1982 and Kentucky farmer under the Administration of Jefferson(Simpson & Curtis, 365). The enforcement of the Logan Act is far too subjective, and if anyone can be charged under this act in this current era would possess a strong potential legal defense and a fairness argument. He or she will argue that the statute only applies selectively, purposely on political matters.
It is ripe to put to an end to this charade of an act that has been so dormant since it was passed in the year 1799. This act is an example of a sad American culture, tradition and should be repealed or held unconstitutional by our courts. In spite of this, for example, John Kerry putting himself in the same shoes like that of Flynn, worse still is that since Flynn apparently acted on behalf of a duly elected presidential Administration, the statute has never been applied or brought any good tidings to our nation for the last two centuries(Vagts &Detlev, 268-302). As the citizens, we ought to give cover to our politicians in all the parties to join hands together and repeal the Logan Act. Equally, we should advocate our relevant courts to provide a ruling that the act should be deemed unconstitutional. If this act would be used against any nationally prominent individual in a significant disagreement, the act will lead to an increasing combustible climate, politically and after that bringing considerable harm to our country’s unity.
Works Cited
McLaughlin, Patrick A. “The Searching for and Cutting Regulations That Are Unnecessarily Burdensome Act of 2014.” Testimony before the House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Regulatory Reform, Commercial, and Antitrust Law, Mercatus Center at George Mason University, Arlington, VA (2014).
Simpson III, Curtis C. “The Logan Act of 1799: May It Rest in Peace.” Cal. W. Int’l LJ 10 (1980): 365.
Vagts, Detlev F. “The Logan Act: Paper Tiger or Sleeping Giant?.” American Journal of International Law 60.2 (1966): 268-302.
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Decision Making Process online essay helpDecision making is essential in our day-to-day activity. The process of decision making is not only beneficial to an individual but also to big institutions. The most competitive businesses are managed by individuals who are able to evaluate different options and chose the most suitable alternative.  There are many tools, perceptions, and techniques which may be applied in the process of decision making. The process is not natural particularly world since different people have different ideas, opinions, experiences, and perceptions. Scholars have developed theories explaining how different people make decisions and factors which influence the process either in the present or in the future. The process is influenced by such factor as; past experience, age, and individual differences, cognitive biases, escalation of commitment etc. This paper will focus on the first three factors highlighted.
Decision-making process
The process involves seven steps; first, one has to identify the purpose of the decision.  A critical analysis of the problem is done at this stage.  One end to answer the following questions; what is the problem? Why should we solve the problem? Which parties are affected more by the problem? And finally, does the problem have a deadline? Answering those questions will offer a clear picture of the actual problem. Secondly, one should gather information from various stakeholders. Involving stakeholders in gathering information would help to outline the factors contributing to the occurrence of the problem. The third step involves judging alternatives. During this step, one has to set up some criteria for judging the various options while considering the organizational culture and objectives. For example, the key objective of an enterprise is to maximize profit. The firm should, therefore, make decisions which would help the company realize the goals.
The fourth step involves brainstorming and analyses of the various choices. During this phase, all the best ideas are listed down, and the best option is chosen. One should also understand the cause of the problem before concluding on which option fit the organization. While brainstorming, it is recommendable to apply cause-and-effect diagram while helps to identify the possible source of the problem and Pareto chart which aids in the selection of the cause with the most significant effects. The next step involves evaluation of alternatives. The alternatives are keenly evaluated based on their pros and cons. During this step, people in the socioeconomic status are likely to come up with the best alternative since this stage relies greatly on experience.
Having evaluated the various alternatives, one has to select the best alternative which best fit the situation of the firm. After selection, execution of the decision has to follow. The decision is converted into a plan. One may execute the plan alone or with the help of the support staffs. Finally, one has to assess the consequences of the decision.  During the evaluation process, one is in a position to identify the various mistakes he/she did in the decision making process thus helping him/her to avoid repeating the same mistake in the future.
Factors Influencing Decision Making
Future and present decisions are influenced by past experiences. According to people are likely to make a similar decision when faced by a comparable situation in case a decision made in the past was successful. Decision makers are also expected to highly avoid past mistakes. However, future decisions based on experience may not be the best. For instance, in the financial sector, decision-making decision based on the past sunk outcome may lead to heavy loss which may affect the entire business. Notably, consumer tastes and preferences change over time; therefore, investment decision should be based on the needs of the present consumers. The approach of past experience conflicts with people’s expectations.
Sunken outcome and escalation of commitment are also key factors which influence decision making is an institution. These two factors refer to unrecoverable costs which an organization has already incurred. People tend to count on the amount of money and time invested in decision making and fear to disappoint the progress. They, therefore, tend to commit themselves in the same situation regardless of whether the decision is beneficial or not. These factors hinder investors of organizational management to validate new strategies.
Cognitive biases refer patterns of thought which may influence decision making.  Such thoughts are based on past observations and generalization. Cognitive biases may lead to poor decisions in an organization since generalization may lead to faulty logic, memory errors and inaccuratejudgment.  The process includes;

Belief bias; people heavily rely on previous knowledge in making decisions. They are not ready to gain new information which may help them to make more informed decisions. People tend to stick to traditional decisions thus failing to appreciate that change in the system has occurred. Changes are inevitable and therefore decision-making process is also affected.
Hindsight bias; under this situation, individuals tend to explain an event as inevitable once it has already happened. For instance, making the wrong decision before investment would lead to a loss in business. The management would, therefore, tend to explain that the loss incurred in that particular financial year was inevitable due to various factors which could not even be the cause of the injury. Hindsight bias is therefore involved high risk and uncertainties.

Omission bias; normally, individuals have a tendency to omit information allegedto be risky. Investors tend to be optimistic about their investment plan. For example an omission bias, an individual is selling his second-hand vehicle. The vehicle’s engine is defective hence the seller has three options first, tell the buyer that the engine is faulty, secondly, lie to the buyer on the condition of the engine and lastly, to remain silent about the engine’s health. The first option is the best. But, suppose the seller opts to remain silent? In such a situation you are equally as good as one who opts the second optionsince you decide to omit crucial information.

Confirmation bias; is a situation where an individual observe only what they presume in an observation.

The decision-making process can also be influenced by; socioeconomic status, cognitive abilities, and age of an individual. According tocognitive functions declines with age thus affect decision making.The elderly are overconfident on their capacity to make decisions and therefore, they do not embrace new strategies. Researchers have also found that old people have fewer choices compared to young people.People with lower socioeconomic status have less access to education and therefore subject to making unreliable decisions.
Theories of decision making
Self-regulation theory
This theory is based on the self-discipline of an individual. The argument for this theory is that whatever people want does not favor them.The model postulates that people should expend effort to control what they believe in and what they say. People should remain committed to their actions and believes in the present time and the future. According to this theory, an individual should try as much as possible not to do what is not expected of them. For example in business, transparency, honesty and accountability are paramount virtues which have to be adhered to.The management should not be involved in corruption. The employees should also not be included in the action which may ruin the future progress of the firm.
The theory is grounded on four components which include; standards, which indicate desirable behaviors secondly, motivation; individuals are motivated to meet the criteria. Third,part involves monitoring of thoughts and situations which precede standard breaking. The last aspect indicates the willpowerwhich serves as the internal strength to control urges.Generally, this theory states that what you want to do and what ought to be done are not the same and therefore one has to make a decision. The decision one makes at that particular situation have an impact on the welfare of other people. For instance, in case of a conflict in the workplace, the way an individual react does not only affect him but also the colleagues.
Elaboration likelihood model
The theory states that there are two ways in which make decisions and as a result they get motivated. First, when one is motivated and able to pay attention, they take conscious thinking and a logical central route in the decision-making process. Arguably, this helps to change a person’s attitude and adopt the speaker’s argument. Secondly, an individual may take a peripheral route where one does not assume any form of persuasion.  In such a case one makes his decision based on whether he/she like the speaker or not.
In the central route technique, the listener is able to way both arguments for an argument against and then derives the best option. When people are comfortable in their situation and their fear to adopt new changes which may affect them in the long run or fear to experience a great loss perhaps based on their past experience will tend to embrace the peripheral route.
Cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance refers to the feeling of uncomfortable strain which arises from holding two contradictory thoughts in the thoughts at the same time. Dissonance is influenced by three factors which include; the significance of the subject, how severe the conflict is in the discordant thoughts and the inability to justify the conflict. Researchers have found that dissonance increases when one does something contrary to his or her beliefs. For example, if one feels that he is a winner and happen to lose, then the person will not be comfortable at all due to cognitive dissonance. It has also been found that cognitive dissonance is a strong motivator which allows people to change their beliefs.
When an event has already occurred and cannot be undone, individuals are forced to change their strong philosophies and attitude. Such people are then forced to make the right decisions in order to be successful.  The same is applicable in organizational decision making where one has conflicting ideas from his beliefs. Staffs may feel that other people’s reactions are wrong and should be scrap away. However, such an individual turn out to be more successful; thus one has to change and adopt such behaviors.
Critical analysis
Decision making can be influenced by different factors such as age and individual beliefs. However, one has to understand the market demand while making decisions. When a business relies on decisions which were made for instance in the 50s may be less successful in the current business situation. The level of technology in the 50s is different from the current technology, skills by early investors are different from the present investors due to the changes which have occurred since then. The model of cognitive dissonance states that one has to change the behaviors and beliefs to make informed decisions.Sticking to the traditional beliefs may act as a barrier to penetrate new markets due to low market information and low quality of products.
According to the elaborative likelihood model, people who are less skilled and experienced can be easily persuaded thus adopting the central route decision making process. Notably, this may affect the outcomes of the decision. For example, a young investor is attracted by an advert on television and convinced to invest in a sector he/she does not understand are likely to incur substantial losses. Remarkably, this may occur as a result of inadequate market information, lack of understanding of the legal requirements thus incurring heavy penalties form the government etc. Therefore, the elderly and experienced persons are less likely to fall under such a trap.
Cognitive biasmay hinder the success of an organization since individuals tend to generalize things without taking into consideration of the current market situation. The production process is very sensitive since the deliverables produced have to meet consumer expectations. Production firms should therefore heavily rely on the current data and avoid data which was collected many years down the line. The Self-regulation theory states that an individual should highly stick to the code of ethics. Misleading information would lead to poor reputation, employee turnover rate, and reduced consumer loyalty.
The decision-making process involves five key steps which help one to arrive at the best option. The decision making procedure ensure that an individual is able to select an alternative which best suits the current market situation. People who hold past experience are not likely to befit from the procedure since they are not willing to change their views.Such individual suffers from hindsight bias, that is, they explain their failure as inevitable and tend to repeat the same mistake in the future.
Escalating commitment is a factor which may reduce competitive capacity of a firm. The process is expensive since the firm is not able to recover the amount of money already incurred in the decision-making process. However, the changing demand in the market requires the company to adopt new technological skills. Notably, this will help in improving the quality of a brand, address consumer demand and also improve consumer loyalty. Sunken outcome and escalating commitment may hider data interpretation within an organization since the decision maker are guided by the desire to commit to the previous decision.
Generally, the decision-making process is essential in the progress of an organization. Poor decisions making leads to poor performance of a firm and therefore ant organization should depend on the current market information. The firm’s competitive capacity depends on its ability to interpret data thus making an informed decision. Decision makers should also understand the cause of the problem facing the firm before choosing the best alternative to address the problem.
Data interpretation helps any given firm to make the right decision.Consumer loyalty for a given firm increases when consumer utility is achieved.Dependence on updated data also helpsa company to improve the quality of a given commodity.  Employee turnover rate may also decrease when the management team makes informed decisions. Reliance on traditional decisions may lead to poor choices which adversely affect the welfare of the employees. In the current market, staff training is crucial since it helps to make critical decisions thus increasing efficiency in the production process.
During our day-to-day activities, we are expected to make different decisions which may impact on our future lives. Different choices require different efforts depending on their seriousness and their potential outcome to the company and the society in large.In decision making an individual should weigh both the positive and negative impacts of the business and adopt one with positive outcomes. Indeed, this will help to overcome losses within an enterprise. Hence the firm will remain competitive within the economy. There are times when one opts not to make decisions particularly when a lot of hostilities faces one after making harsh decisions. However, one should make healthy decisions and accept their outcomes in order to remain in control of the company life.
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The Death Penalty: Source Evaluation cheap essay helpMany studies have been done regarding death penalty whereby scholars are arguing out whether it is an ideal practice or acts against human rights. Having conducted in-depth research, I came up with many articles which help in putting this debate into perspective.
Source 1
The first article is ‘Capital Punishment: The Great American Paradox’ published by A. M. Stroud III. I found this publication in the Lonestar Library Research database while doing in-depth research regarding how the issue of the death penalty has been viewed as a disgrace to the human race. This is because losing a life just because of trying to prove a legal point might seem an unexpected action which is also not justifiable. Instead, more reasonable punishment needs to be initiated such as jailing one for ten years or even more so that he or she can undergo rehabilitation.
This publication will support my argument in that it offers examples of executions in line with death penalty conducted in the US and indicates that such a masquerade should stop. The author claims that the US used to give death penalties to be viewed as the leader of the world yet this involved going against human rights. Thus, he coined this the American Paradox that needed to be stopped at all costs. Similarly, in my argument, I think the death penalty leads to the deaths of people regardless of their innocence yet the only one who is supposed to determine someone’s fate regarding death is the creator. Another argument that supports my viewpoint is that the American system of capital punishment is erroneous and should not be relied upon in conducting such killings.
Since statistics and figures are usually crucial in strengthening arguments, Stroud III referred to specific data which to enhance even his case further. An excellent example is that as of 2016, the United States had 2943 death row prisoners (Stroud III 372). This is a surprising figure that shows how the country is still glamorizing this cruel punishment. Out of all these cases, it is hard to determine whether all of the executed offendersreceived a fair trial or at least pleaded guilty of the charges put against them. The author also referred to exact dates to ensure that the readers were well-conversant with the history of capital punishment. An example is where he pointed out about the Gallup poll which was taken in 2015 whereby a majority of the Americans claimed that the use of capital punishment was effective (Stroud III 373). However, the author successfully argues against this since the majority can never justify a wrong in society.
Source 2
The second source is entitled ‘Death penalty Information Center: Facts about the Death Penalty’ and I obtained it from the Death Penalty Information Center which is a website that is affiliated to the Washington DC and the federal government in the US. This source has proven to be highly effective in arguing against the use of death penalty claiming that it is against human rights, a view that I also hold.
The source tends to use actual figures and statistics to call for the abolition of capital punishment since it has led to the loss of many innocent lives. Instead of killing offenders, it is essential for them to be given a chance to reform and even live better lives after being released from jail. By bringing in the issue of racism, the author claims that death penalties target the African Americans or blacks and the Latinos more than the whites (‘DPIC. Facts about the Death Penalty’). This means that it is not effective in curbing crime since one section of the population will feel that it is targeted. Thus, this is an indication that the capital punishment system is flawed and should not be given a chance to operate in the country since it will lead to perceived division. I also hold the same view, and I think that this publication will play a crucial role in backing up my argument with the available data and theoretical perspectives.
An excellent example of the statistics used are the ones provided in bar graphs especially on the first page. The visual covers the number of executions from 1976 to 2016, which is 1438. The year with the highest killings is 1999, and it seems that the judicial system championed for such a punishment between 1997 and 2004 given the rising figures.Another significant example which shows how racism takes shape in capital punishment is that the criminals “who killed whites were three times more probable to be executed than those who killed blacks.” This brings in the racial theory and claims that the punishment is pegged on ethnic affiliations. Through this argument, it is clear that the death penalty will not be successful in restoring order or stopping crime. I believe that the article is well-structured since it focuses on visuals and brief points with exact data that would be needed to understanding how the death penalty has been carried out in the US in full disregard of human rights and equality.
Works Cited
DPIC. Facts about the Death Penalty – Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved from
Stroud III, A. M. “Capital Punishment: The Great American Paradox.” Ark. L. Rev. 70 (2017): 369.
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Crisis Action Plan: San Francisco International Airport college admissions essay helpIntroduction
The mission of the company is to offer logistic services both national and international levels as well as packaging items for transport. Through technology,  Emergency department monitors the overall operations of the company and properties to identify any threat and supply the staff and the management with information relating to any risk as well as mitigation methods.
The propose of this crisis action plan is to give a detailed structure of responsibilities and duties of the organization personnel in case of an emergency. The plan is made to help prevent or minimize injuries to all staffs and properties of the organization as well as any person or property related to the clients of the organization present at the time of a crisis.
The outline procedures and processes will guide the emergency response team (ERT) of the organization in association with Airport emergency repose team, the local law enforcement team and emergency departments to organize personnel, equipment, and any other recourse, which will help in minimizing the impacts of the disaster.
This plan also provides strategies for the mitigation of threats to the staff and appropriate emergency response teams. The overall purpose of the program is to ensure that there is continuity in ensuring the safety of the company and the crews in any situation.
The plan will be activated in case of a natural or human-made crisis, which threatens the lives of the organization staff, and client present at that moment. Also, it will be used when there is a threat to damage the properties of the organization. Only in those crisis considered dangerous will the plan be useful. It can extend to unique incidences to the organization, which require special attention although they do not involve injury or property damage.  The actions and measures, which the plan outlines in pre-crisis mitigation as well as a contingency plan, are frameworks, which the responsible people will use to adjust to any disaster.
The policy of the organization is to notify the staffs and other clients in time about any circumstance or activity that poses a threat to individual safety or the safety of the whole organization.   Also, the organization aims at starting processes which support the status of the community both physically and mentally immediately a disaster occurs. Each staff and client has the responsibility of giving information related to any threat or crisis occurring within the organization premises. The emergency response manager is supposed to respond to all information supplied to the office through the emergency call numbers listed in this outline.
This plan focuses on providing a structure for mitigating all possible crises, which may affect the operations of the organization. The results of mitigation are the stability of the staff and clients both physically and mentally and the continuity of normal operations and activities.
One of the assumptions made in the pan is that all staff has gone through training on how an action plan works. The emergency and crisis response team exposes the outline and trains the staffs regularly on how to use it and behave in case of a crisis. Another assumption is that all the staff will be in their respective areas of work in case of disaster. The outline also assumes that there is a secure place to assemble in case of a crisis and transport means for evacuating people.
Organization Structure for Implementation
Company structure comprises of the general manager, manager in charge of national logistics, a manager in charge of international logistics, packaging department supervisor, security office, Emergency and Crisis Manager, IT director, supervisor of transport department. Appendix 1 provides details of the chain of command.
The general manager, having received information and advice from the emergency and crisis manager (ECM) will launch the plan in case of a crisis and select a central point of command. Also, the general manager will coordinate all activities that the team will carry out to ensure the mitigation of the disaster and restoration as soon as possible. Those people listed in the pan will make up an emergency response team (ERT) and are the only ones expected at the control center. They include;

General Manager –coordinator of the ERT
Emergency and Crisis Manager- director of communications during the crisis
Manager in charge of national logistics- supervisor of the external ERT like FBI
Supervisor of transport department-coordinator of evacuation and Transport
Security office- in charge of security of the organization’s properties during the crisis
Packaging department supervisor- supporting staff for back up
Manager in charge of national logistics- supporting team for back up

Supervisors at different departments will handle minor disaster from their departments. Communication on manger disasters will be directed to the emergency and crisis manager to assess the need for an ERT and after that communicate to the general manager for further directions.
Critical Organizational Functions
Direct Production and Processes
The secondary products of the company in crisis management are security office summary on security alerts and daily operations in the organization and globally. Also, there is a report on weather and climate changes from the local meteorological departments at the local, national and global level. The reports are essential in helping the emergency and crisis department together with the management make informed decisions on current threats and issues.  The information on national security, for example, will inform on the increased or reduced cases of an active shooter and therefore increase or decrease security outside the premises.
Secondary products for the organization include reports from the secretary and the security office on the nature of the incoming clients and visitors. Also, each department is supposed to give a weekly summary of perceived internal dangers like fire outbreak, bursting of pipes or electric appliances. The IT department will provide a monthly report on the changing nature of security technology like new improved CCTV cameras, more secure safes and doors, fire extinguishers among others. Also to include in their report together with the emergency and crisis department is the latest design structure and organization of work in a manner that will reduce the effects of disasters. The Emergency Department will use the reports to assess applicability in the organization and advice the general manager accordingly.
Support – Logistics, and Personnel
Crisis management and forecasting of threats requires smooth communication and flow of information within departments and staffs throughout whether day or night, working or off days. The company, therefore, should have a secure network of communication. Part of the network includes a strong, consistent internet, telephone network, mobile phone network as well as visual networks, which comprises of CCTV cameras and webcams. The communication center and networks are the backbones of the management process. Failure to have good communication flowing in one direction will lead to failure in crisis management. The communication network does include not only physical gadgets and software but also a good relationship between all departments.  The weak connection will paralyze the team’s effort to reach essential areas and decisions because of failure to transmit information to the next level. Departments should have a smooth working relationship all the time and observe the structure of communication.
Staff Protection
The security of the organization, which ensures the safety of the staff, includes the security officers at the gate and around the compound. They will ensure that no hostile or armed persons access the premise to harm any team.  There are also CCTV cameras, which monitors the movement of the staff in their offices to ensure that nothing hurts them while working. Access to the various doors is by use of cards, which ensures that there is an unauthorized person does not access the staffs. There is also a bell alert system installed in the mobile phones of every staff and the walls of the offices to communicate in case of emergency.
Threat Forecast
All possible threats to the company are in categories of natural disasters, humanmade, production and technical as well as public relations. However, the most likely threats are humanmade because of the nature of different goods, which the organization handles. Some of the products are expensive, some are prohibited and others a corrupted. With that idea in mind, the company is likely to experience threats such as active shooting in an attempt to steal or hide evidence from some of the goods. Also, the trend in technology is posing a threat to any technological appliances. The organization highly depends on telecommunication to connect with the clients at national and international levels. Technical and human-made threats such as hacking are therefore likely to occur. Natural disasters are not so likely to affect the organization because the area does not flood or experience heavy wind. Also, there is no history of earthquakes or eruptions. All of the category threats have the potential to interrupt the mission of the company to offer logistic services at all levels.
Natural disasters


Humanmade events

Active shooter/ bomb
Demonstration and riots
Medical emergencies
Cyber attack

Technical and production events

Temporary and extended loss of power
Temporary and extended communication interruptions
Service and building maintenance

Public Relations

Exposure of an organization’s sensitive information
Improper behavior and conduct of any staff
False accusations from the public or government


Pre-Crisis Mitigation Actions
The mitigation plan for the company operates in a bottom-up the structure with increasing levels of command rising with the strength of the threat. There are levels for each crisis numbered 1, 2, and 3 with increasing magnitude. This lever category helps the organization to approach the crisis with minimum impact on the mission and daily operations. The approach helps to ensure that small crisis do not lead to a stop in all activities while a single department can handle.  The emergency and crisis manager is in charge of determining the level after receiving communication and therefore give a guideline on how to handle the situation.
Level 1 – the crisis at this level only requires a communication to the emergency manager and the department to handle it with the provision of the necessary equipment. The event effect on operations ranges between two to twelve hours to mitigate. Examples of events under the level include the fall of a wall that does not affect people or loss of electric power.
Level 2- the level carries events, which take average time between 12 to 24 hours. The type of event will determine the kind of team that the emergency manager will form. Power loss for more than twelve hours or a fire that extends for more than the same time are examples of threats at the level
Level 3- threats at this level require commands from the general manager and the formation of an ERT. They affect the company’s operations largely, and they last for more than 24 hours. They include natural disasters and an active shooter.
Manmade Threats
Active shooter, Angry Employee or other public person or Bomb
This category of events is graded level three with the ability to lose life or properties. The following are mitigation actions, which makes the events unlikely to occur;
CCTV systems inside, outside the company building, and the gate
Enough security personnel at night and during the day
Electric fence around the premise
Password systems for doors, locks and other technological appliances
Standby telephone for all departments and working areas
Policy for responsibility and accountability
This action plan recommends a regular drill for active shooter and bomb attack. Also, the company to have secrete simulated alerts to assess the preparedness of members.
Fire ranges between levels two and three depending on its magnitude. The following preparedness reduces the probability of occurring;

Fire extinguishers huge and portable and tight contact with the local council fire department
Fire alarms
CCTV cameras to monitor activities around the premise

The plan recommends the company to have regular drills on fire and training on how to use the fire extinguishers. Also, there should be a routine check on alarms and extinguishers are functioning.
 Medical Emergencies
The crisis can be a level two or three, which can involve injury on staff or client within the premise.  The plan outlines the following preparedness strategies;

Evacuation procedure and assembly points
First aid kit
Security in all working areas with such risks
Fire extinguishers, helmets, and other protective gears
Emergency transport means

The plan recommends regular training on how to handle such emergencies
Cyber attacks
A cyber attack can range between level one and three depending on magnitude. The crisis is very likely and can affect much of the company operations. The most targeted gargets are computers software, which connects the company with the clients who send and those who receive the cargo or other goods. Other attacks can follow an attack on the communication network because the attackers know that there will be no proper coordination of the disaster management team. Other competitors or malicious persons can initiate the attack. The following are strategies, which the company has put in place to prevent such attacks;
A skilled and on standby IT team which helps to update software security with the trend in the market regularly

Back up to company information and access to Cloud data sharing
Change of password used by employees once they leave the company
Maintenance of the internet server and update with current software

The plan recommends regular employees training on cybersecurity issues.  Also, the staff should be trained in ways to respond to pop messages on the internet which carry viruses.
Natural crisis
Storms, Floods, Hurricanes
The events have high magnitude and therefore assigned level three. Storms and floods are a crisis with low probability because of the location of the organization. However, the fact that they are natural makes them remain threats to the company. The crisis can attack the transport means, which carries cargo for clients or the premises themselves. Also, it can attack the airport which serves as the backbone of the operations. The mitigation strategies include;

Standby telephones for every department to alert staffs in case of a flood
Backup generators for use when the storm or flood attacks the power lines
Backups for company information on the computers

Tornadoes are events, which last for a very short duration of time but have a massive threat to life. They can be very heavy rainfall accompanied by wind and hailstones. Their magnitudes on the company are located between level two and three. They can attack power supply, buildings and even cause injuries on people.  The mitigation strategies include,

Backup generators
Cloud access and back up for company data
Regular roll call for staff members in case of such events
Standby telephones in all departments

The company is operating in an airport where there so many people from different countries who might be carriers of some diseases especially the airborne. Also, handling different types of cargoes make the probability for epidemics high. Epidemics have a very impact on the organization operations and therefore assigned level three.  The mitigation strategies include,

Protective gears like gas masks while handling cargoes
Standby telephones to communicate in case of an emergency
Emergency transport means

The plan recommends regular simulated alerts and training on how to handle epidemics cases within the premises.
Tsunami crisis is not likely for the company because the location is far from the ocean. However, nature controls the threat and therefore the company needs to prepare. Where it occurs, the impact on the company would be very high and consequently assigned level three. The mitigation strategies include.’

Power back up since they may affect the power lines
Regular roll call on staff in case it occurs to ascertain that nobody is affected
The policy of accountability to make people raise an alert in case of a suspected Tsunami and also help each other during the attack

Technical and Production Events
Temporal and Extended Loss of communication
The crisis can have an impact of levels between one and three depending on the duration of loss. Mitigation strategies in place include

Standby mobile communication
IT specialist
Back up office station with equipped communication networks

Loss of power
Power loss can be temporal or extended although both do not have a high impact on the organization operations because of the mitigation measures. They have an impact level between one and two. The mitigation strategies include

Backup generators
Electric technicians
IT specialist

Wall or building Collapse
The collapse of a building or a wall may interfere with the normal operation the organizations whereby there will be no workspace. The impact is not very high therefore has an impact level of one. Mitigation strategies include,

Back up building or empty hall
Laptops, which are portable to work from other locations

Public Relations crisis
Exposure of Organization Sensitive Information, Improper Staff Conduct, False Accusations form Public or Government
All the events under public relations are high level between two and three because their impact on the organization is high. Negative information to the public can affect the clients and therefore, stop most of the operations. Some of the behaviors from staff, which may lead to negative publicity, including giving false reports, unprofessionalism like in dressing, and sexual misconduct among others. The Emergency department together with the security office monitor such behaviors every moment to mitigate them before they turn into crisis because of the impact they would have on the organization. Mitigation strategies include;

Supervision of all reports going out of the company by the respective department managers
Security inspection of dress code and general behavior for everyone within the premises
Monitoring from the department manager on timeliness for duties assigned
Severance of the public and government opinion about the company performance through the IT department

The plan recommends a regular meeting to emphasize on any slightly observed behavior. Also, the general manager should meet the department heads to discuss issues relating to quality performance to implement in each department.
Planning Scenarios
Active Shooter
Contingency plan
(0-15minutes approximate time for an active shooter and neutralization)
Once any staff encounters any unfamiliar armed person within the premise should at the spot contact the emergency and crisis department manager through 223-679-096. In case the individual starts to become hostile, make an additional call to the Police emergency department team located at the airport through 910.  The emergency department manager will share the information with other relevant authority starting with the general manager for electing a command post and implementation of the crisis plan.
Shooter outside the premise

Staff to switch off the lights, close doors, and windows
Move to a common safer part of the room and get on the floor far from electricity or any other item that may cause a fire
No one should move outside at that time to confirm what is happening until the officials give a clear alert from the emergency department only
No one should respond to any other unknown call or voice during the time of action
The shooter may provide signals with the aim of getting access to where people are
Activate the alert bell through the phone or any switch that is near

The shooter in the building

In case there is a place people can hide, and they think it is safe then they should and remain there until it is clear
Where possible to move outside in a safe manner, the staff should do so and assemble at the designated place for further evacuation
While at the room hiding or facing the shooter, try to contact the emergency department through the contacts on the appendix or the police emergency teams within the airport
Activate the bell alert through your phone or manual switches on the walls

The shooter in the office
Here, there is no specific strategy and staffs are encouraged to use their common sense to handle the situation depending on its nature. However, here are some guidelines on what one can do.

Turn to any barrier, which is around like chairs, tables, door
When there is nowhere to hide, make a negotiation with the shooter and were not possible, try to fight or stop them
Make a bell alert and where possible, contact the emergency department or the emergency police at the airport
Note that trying to use force against the attacker is the last thing to do

The Bell alert application on each staff mobile phone will be the primary mode of communication in cases of such incidence, and each person should refer to it for further directions. Immediate notifications are necessary from any person

In case of a confirmed active shooter, the emergency department will dispatch the information to all staff members through the bell alert application
More information about the location and action to take will come through the same application
Try to follow the instruction received as much as possible from the alert
All doors should be activated to open in case there is a possibility of getting out to a safer place
Staff in the office or building where the shooter is should hide in a safer room because it may be impossible to evacuate them. They will receive instructions through the bell alert on the specific location of the shooter to make decisions on how to move
In the confirmation of armed shooter with bad intention, the bell alert will reach to the emergency teams at the airport including the FBI, Sheriff, San Mateo County police
The general manager will open a command center where the Law enforcement team and the emergency response team will give directions from

Teams and Authorities
Administrative Team: Emergency Response Team (ERT)
The team will be responsible for giving further direction to the law enforcement authority through the coordination of the general manager. The general manager in consultation with the team will determine the need for law enforcers
Coordinator of the team-Managing director
Chairperson of the team –Emergency and crisis department manager
Supportive members –other listed ERT members
Operations Team: Command  (Law enforcement SFPD-AB)
The San Francisco Police Department (SFPD-AB) will be the overall leader of the operation being the leading law enforcement agency at the airport where the organization is located. Since the department is required to respond immediately to any such incidences in the airport, it will be expected to respond to the incidence of the company with a location in the airport.  The SFPD-AB in conjunction with other law enforcers like the FBI and the organization ERT will create an incident command post and select an incident commander.
The Police will be in charge of communications, and the primary mode of communication will be police radio calls. Once the police take over the scene, mobile phone bell alerts will not be active again to ensure that the shooter does not take advantage to paralyze the police effort.
Logistics Team: San Mateo County Sheriff
The San Mateo County Sheriff detectives together with the SFPD-AB will preserve the crime area for investigations and correct witness information. They will also ensure that the injured are taken to the care center they collect their reports about the incidence.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Will take the full responsibility to investigate the matter once the crisis is over
Other teams which may be needed in case the crisis exceeds beyond the time limit and the police command includes the SWAT and the SFPD explosive Ordinance Disposal (EOD).
Recovery and Restoration
Emotional and psychological Recovery

The management will make follow up for any persons with physical injuries until they recover either in the hospital, home or at work.
The organization will link with the human resource services dealing with psychology matters to come and address the staff. Those with more profound psychological effects from the evens will meet the psychologist on regular
After the mitigation of the event, the emergency and crisis department will collect information about the incidence and prepare a report with lessons learned.
The managing director to hold a meeting to discuss the issues on the report as staff makes remarks and recommendation

Physical and Facility Restoration

There will be repairs for the broken walls, windows doors, and shelves
Reinforcement of security on the recommended areas will be done

Reputation and Goodwill Restoration

The communication department will make a communication to all clients on the stable condition of the organization to make follow up of their accounts
The management to make follow up of the cargoes which were sent some few minutes or hours before the incidence to confirm their location and inform the relevant clients.

Appendix A: Team Contact Information
Manager, Department of emergency and crisis 023-678-345
General Manager    987-094-456
Organization security in charge   097-345-785
SFPD- 911
FBI   – 266
Appendix B: Emergency Procedures

Any information about an active shorter or any other crisis to be given to the Emergency and Crisis department manager
The emergency department manager to inform the general manager about the incidence
General manager to converge the ERT and launch the plan
The general manager will take the position of the coordinator to hook the team with law enforcement agencies
The law enforcement agency to take the command from the general manager

Appendix C: Team Assignments & Taskings

Emergency Response Team- Determination of the weight of the crisis to inform the law enforcers to find a way of solving it internally
Management Team –provision of the necessary resources to overcome the crisis
Law enforcement Team- carry out mitigation and evacuation role
Crisis Recovery and Restoration Team- Help members to recover from injuries and restoration of the normal structure of the organization
Transport team- offer evacuation services away from the premises

Appendix D: Plan Maintenance
The plan will take effect with the approval of the general manager or the Manager in charge of emergency and crisis in case the manager is absent or not in a position to authorize its activation
Activation and use of the plan will only be required when the crisis requires external services like the county emergency and fire department, the law enforcement department or the public relation services
Appendix E: Approvals
This crisis management plan will become effective in the approval of the General manager, Emergency and crisis department manager and the security officer in charge.  There plan expires after every one year where the team will review it inline with the incidences which occur during the year. Also where need there is observed gap, the emergency department will request for review.
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Advocacy Letter for Gun Violence in New York argumentative essay helpFebruary 21, 2018
Andrew M. Cuomo
Governor of New York State NYS State
Capitol Building Albany, NY 12224.
Dear Mr. Cuomo
I am a nursing student at the University of……………………..Due to the heavy emphasis that my course places on community health, I have, with time, developed the desire to contribute positively to the improvement of the health of people in my area of residence. In as much as significant efforts have been made in fighting gun violence in New York, reports indicate that the state is losing the fight. I am advocating for low gun ownership as a means of reducing or controlling gun violence in New York.
The rates of gun violence in New York have been alarming, and reports indicate a steady increase since the start of the millennium. Since the year 2010especially, many lives have been lost to careless shootings that could have been avoided had the issue been under proper control. It is reported that the New York Safe Act of 2013 contains some of the best legislation concerning the issue of gun violence in the United States. Nonetheless, gun violence is still considered one of the most significant threats to the safety of people living in New York because many people have access to guns.
In the year 2012, close to 1000 people lost their lives through shootings both by people within and outside the State. Almost half of these (455) were homicides, and about 500 were suicides committed using guns. Less than one percent of the deaths were however unintentional. Gun-related deaths have occurred so notoriously and so have gun-related injuries. In the year 2013, reports claim that there were more than 300,000 cases of violent crimes that were committed with the help of machine guns. About 75,000 people in that year were admitted in hospitals where they nursed nonfatal after gun wounds.
Gun violence is not just costly in terms of the number of deaths and injuries occurring as a result of it. The economic costs of gun violence negatively impact the state through unnecessary spending that can be avoided. In the year 2010, the cost of gun violence reached a whopping USD 12 billion after factoring various associated expenses such as insurance, hospitalization, and insurance. After studying both indirect and direct costs, a report claimed that for every individual in the United States, the annual cost of gunviolence exceeds USD 1000. Treating gun wounds[1]has never been a cheap expense either. The average medical cost associated with the aftermath of gun wounds is above USD 30,000 before factoring the hospitalization fees during the initial treatment of the injury.
There is strong evidence supporting the famous claim that reforms in gun laws can save lives. In the U.S, states that have theweakest gun laws have reported the highest number of deaths associated with gun violence. Some of these states areAlaska, Montana, and Louisiana. More than 60% of households in Alaska possess guns, and the state is in the top three of the places where gun deaths occur mostly in the United States.
These trends prove that stronger gun laws can save lives and make New York more secure, but this journey has to begin with emphasizing low gun ownership in the state. Currently, New York is not in the top three of the safest state in the country because gun ownership is close to 20%. In the long run, more guns usually equal more deaths as a result of gun violence. Your honor, this state is under your governance. You have the authority to influence legislation towards low gun ownership. Your involvement in this fight will easily result in success in the revolution.
Thank you for granting me your audience. Kindly get back to me through my email address which is……………..
New Yorkers Against Gun Violence (2015). Gun violence in New York: No room for complacency. Retrieved from
Criminal Victimization (2013). National Crime Victimization Survey. Retrieved from
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The Mammalian Nervous System (CNS and PNS) best college essay helpThe essence of the mammalian nervous system lies in its contribution to the general wellbeing and coordination of the body. Human beings tend to be the most notable beneficiary of this system because of the tasks that they have to accomplish daily. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is known to control the volitional and non-volitional behaviours through the assistance of spinal and cranial nerves. In this category, the somatic and autonomic nervous system are involved by virtue of the zones that are covered. The CNS is known to control most functions of the body. Since the brain and the spinal cord are incorporated, it manipulates thoughts, body movement, and even the conceptualization of the external environment. Both the CNS and the PNS aid in ensuring that an organism can make a proper judgement based on the prevailing conditions. The CNS collects sensory input from different parts of the body and sends the appropriate signal or mode of action that should be undertaken at any given time.
Advantages of MRI
MRI has a number of benefits that individuals can accrue from its application. First, it tends to be almost free from any form of allergic reactions because its contrast agents are tolerated. Secondly, patient acceptability is high since it requires little time for preparation. Additionally, its non-invasive nature aids to this effect. Thirdly, it should be noted that an MR image does not require ionizing radiation unlike in other techniques. The fourth benefit is that MRI acquisitions can be programmed to aid in the encoding of physiological phenomena such as diffusion of water (when detecting stroke) and the velocity of the blood.
How Information is Collected using MRI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical test that is non-invasive that is used by physicians in the diagnosis of different medical conditions. The process incorporates a powerful magnetic field, and radio frequency pulses. Further, there is a computer that is used in the production of organ and tissue pictures. The images then aid in the evaluation of various body parts. An examination can then be done from a computer monitor. Diffusion tensor imaging involves the utilization of specific MRI sequences and software in the generation of images from the resultant data. It uses water molecules diffusion to improve the MR images contrast.
Advantages of PET and fMRI over MRI and CT Scans
FMRI is known to produce high-resolution images as compared to MRI. This aspect is aided by the type of technology that is used. PET’s advantage lies on its ability to aid in the study of body functions through the application of biochemical functions (Oehr, Biersack& Coleman, 2004). Therefore, early detection of diseases can be attained. Further, it ought to be noted that fMRI is non-invasive and does not use X-rays as in the case of CT scans. People need to be careful about the choice that they make according to the intention of the physician.
Limitations of PET compared to FMRI
The first limitation of PET in comparison to fMRI is that its scans have a lower resolution as compared to FMRI. Therefore, a medical practitioner will have to struggle to figure out the fine details (Alavi& Lin, 2009).  Additionally, there is an element of cost that is also evident. PET scanning needs a special machine. Hence, it tends to be more expensive than FMRI. Several trials have to be conducted to get an appropriate scan. PET also need radioactive isotopes for everything to work. The use of this approach has been discovered to be unsafe.
Alavi, A., & Lin, E. (2009). PET and PET/CT: A clinical guide. New York: Thieme.
Oehr, P., Biersack, H.-J., & Coleman, R. E. (2004). PET and PET-CT in Oncology.
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Impact of Interest Rate Changes on Property and Casualty (P&C) Sector college essay helpI agree with the information, ideas, and opinion expressed in this reading.The property and casualty industry is sensitive to changes in interest rates.In the article, the author explains how lower interest rates impact the success of insurance companies.P&C firms find it difficult balancing their interests with those of clients. Lower interest rates are beneficial to the firm as it reduces liabilities and solvency.Lower interest rates favor the policyholder, but it has to respond accordingly in controlling risks. Henderson explains that lowered interest rates diminish the value of the insurance firm. Consumers tend towards firms offering higher interest covers.
I support the author’s opinion that increased interest rates are favorable for long-term interest returns. P&C companies could consider diversifying by investing in bonds.However, the author also notes that the insurer has to be considerate with a sharp increase in interest rates.I read a similar explanation in Henderson’s article that abrupt changes in interest rates pose a financial threat to the insurer as the firm may not know how to respond effectively. Gradual changes in interest rates allow the insurer to observe changes and plan accordingly.The advantage of a gradual increase is that it wills enable the insurer to respond to changes occurring in the market instead of making hasty decisions by reacting to external pressure.
Changes in interest rates determine the success or failure of the insurer. Reduced rates may favor the insurer as they reduce solvency and liabilities, but they also reduce profit margins by reducing the value of the firm. Increased interest rates increase the value of the firm, but they also raise the liability and solvency of the firm.Sharp changes in the market may have adverse impacts on the firm as they do not allow the policyholder to respond accordingly.

Works Cited
Henderson, Neville. Low-for-long: The Effects of a Low-Interest Rate Environment on Canadian Insurers — Remarks by Neville Henderson to the 2017 American Risk and Insurance Association Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario.Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions. Accessed 22 Feb. 2019
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Counseling Gifted Students college admission essay helpIntroduction
School counselors in most cases concentrate on students performing below average or those are most likely to perform poorly in their studies. Unluckily, counselors and educators often ignore or assume the emotional needs especially of gifted students since such students usually exceed the educational expectations (Wood& Peterson, 2018). This paper will discuss gifted students, with an emphasis on the existing diversity in this group. The paper, in addition, will evaluate the possible challenges and risks that gifted students usually face in schools, and available strategies that school-based counselors may employ when dealing with gifted students. When supporting a student, schools must consider all aspects of diversity, and this includes giftedness(Wood & Peterson, 2018). Other aspects of diversity that influence the identity, academic, and social development of a student include sexual orientation, gender, race, and socioeconomic status. It is therefore important for school counselors when developing treatment plans or evaluating problem cases to take into account how students’ abilities, talents, and skills might be interacting with other diversity aspects in their daily lives. With a detailed understanding of how giftedness affects the mind, counselors can effectively tailor their therapeutic plans to meet the requirement of the student population suitably.
Gifted Students
Gifted students are more the same as non-gifted students in various ways, particularly when responding to life adversity. Irrespective of the past majority have the same issues as well as meet with like storm and stress of teenagers life. According toTrail (2011), teenagers are commonly confronted with the usual psychological issues such as career choices, self-esteem, identity formation, friendship, extreme self-consciousness, dating, and conforming to peer pressure. However, gifted students will also have to cope with other factors such as social expectations of them and the label of being intelligent.  These students have special traits that could result in adverse effects on their lives.  This might cause unanticipated emotional explosion and frustration that could trigger depression episodes, suicidal ideation or even suicide. While counseling gifted children, counselors should use a unique approach that will address all their concerns (Fisher& Kennedy, 2017).
There are various methods of definitions of Giftedness and methods of identifying gifted students. This population of individuals can be referred as gifted or gifted and talented or can be identified as those with high ability, high academic performance, or those who stand out for extraordinary skills or achievements across fields such as music or art.  According to Charman (1994) describe a gifted individual as a person who exhibits an extraordinary intellectual ability and capable of outstanding accomplishment and performance. According to Peterson (2015), gifted people are individuals with remarkably high ability, regardless of academic performance. Based on Peterson description, the framework for giftedness definition need to include both people who have the outstanding achievement and those with the potential to do so.
Gifted students are people with certain features, cognitive traits, and abilities, which include grasping complex scientific and mathematical concepts with ease as well as show creativity, originality, and innovation in their works (Fisher & Kennedy, 2017).  Gifted students are usually divergent thinkers and can look at issues from a broad point of view. They also have the ability to concentrate for a long time especially when doing activities they are interested in and set an extremely high standard for themselves, while often get motivated especially when faced with new ideas (Fisher & Kennedy, 2017). The gifted students in addition process information in a unique way, as well as questioned concepts, theories and abstract ideas that may not have direct or simple answers.  However, their positive qualities matched negative attributes such as excessive self-criticism, confused identity formation, anxiety, and perfectionism. These negative traits can generate interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts inside and outside their environment of learning(Fisher & Kennedy, 2017). Besides, they often experience high or all-consuming response, which may disrupt other work or concern areas. Hence, to facilitate the learning process of gifted students, educators, parents, as well as counselors, should understand both academic as well as non-academic needs of these students and be cognizant of even the smallest affective, behavioral, and cognitive differences that might surface out of the ordinary (Piragasam, 2017).
Types of Gifted Children
Gifted students are usually described as an indistinguishable group. It is critical to note that relationships, community, personality, environment, past education experiences, as well as their personal development,  affect gifted students. There is a theoretical paradigm to help offer acumen into the different behaviors the gifted students exhibit as they attempt to manage their image (Trail, 2011). The commonly recognized type of gifted students are “successful” and are identified by the school programs(Piragasam, 2017). The next type is “challenging” gifted kids who are divergently gifted and are rarely identified in schools. The third type is known as an “underground” gifted student, and they tend to hide their giftedness in an effort to fit better with their peers. Such form of behaviors are always displayed in the middle school; peer groups importance is key to the identity formation and development of the adolescent. The fourth type is known as “dropouts” usually feel that they have been rejected, angry and that the school as neglected their needs(Piragasam, 2017). They may become defensive, withdrawn, or defensive. The “doubled” gifted types are usually ignored. These gifted students are twice brilliant having traits of learning disabilities as well as gifted capabilities. Identifying these gifted students is not an easy task as their strengths often match their weakness and their learning challenges and difficulties cover by their strengths(Piragasam, 2017). The last type of gifted student is “autonomous Learner” who usually utilize the system in developing new opportunities. This structure usually assists school counselors to note that it takes a detailed process to identify all gifted students and learning type of gifted students can help offer a structure to understand as well as describe the diverse needs that these gifted students may need in school.
Counseling of Gifted Children
While there are numerous techniques and methods of counseling, there are few particular modalities created for counseling gifted students. Due to their incomparable nature because of their giftedness, it is illogical to believe that traditional methods of counseling would be effective when dealing with this student population(YazarSoyadı, 2016).  During the process of counseling a gifted student, a counselor should look into several factors. During the assessment, it is imperative that the counselor make a clear-cut difference as to the root cause of the student’s problem. That is if the problem is an implication due to giftedness, or symptomatic of a psychiatric ruckus, or a complex mishmash of variables. One main factor why this distinction is important is that a misdiagnosis or mislabel might be detrimental to the student (Piragasam, 2017).
Many psychiatric symptoms, as well as diagnostic classifications, resemble giftedness features. The following are certain usually observed psychiatric and diagnostic  classes that due to their connection with giftedness, school counselors should take into account  carefully while assessing as well as diagnosing their patients: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD); Somatic Disorder; Anxiety Disorder; Autism; Pervasive Development Disorder; Dysthemia/Depression; Borderline Personality Disorder; and any other psychiatric diagnostic class that is nonconforming in nature(Trail, 2011).
Actually, counseling methods for gifted students are more the same as approaches for ordinary students. Nevertheless, some adjustment and modification are necessary due to the nature of these students (Trail, 2011).  It implies that a trained counselor already holdsthe primary knowledge and skills needed to work effectively with gifted students, but there is require they adjust their approach and perspective just a little bit to deliver maximum for this population(YazarSoyadı, 2016). Competent school counselors of gifted students hold skills in three practical areas: consultation skills, counseling and therapy skills, as well as, teach techniques to manage stress and aid in social support network creation(YazarSoyadı, 2016).In addition, counselors serving gifted students are expected to teach the various methods of managing stress and assist build a social support network. Other resources proved to help this group of people include progressive relaxation of the muscle, meditation, mindfulness, as well as guided imagery (Piragasam, 2017).
For basics, counselors should have knowledge about CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy), and SFDT (Solution-focused Brief Therapy).  Cognitive behavioral therapy is usually a counseling method, which is evidence, based and created on the premise that behaviors and feelings are primarily determined by a person’s thought that is cognitively mediated.  Solution-focused brief therapy is a counseling technique that is strength based and focuses mainly on solutions as a method of re-conceptualizing as well as solving problems of students (YazarSoyadı, 2016).  Counseling method, which is a solution, centered works to expand students’ perception about a problem and solutions through the uncovering of any clues of flexibility and variation in the student language.
Academic Anxiety and Perfectionism
Based on the premise that giftedness is identified through extraordinary ability or accomplishment, gifted students usually spend fairly more energy and time in their ability areas those non-gifted students. This might be noticeable as perfectionism or the desire to endeavor toward perfection (Fisher & Kennedy, 2017). Perfectionism is common with gifted people. However, research has concentrated on these areas in relation to gifted students. Perfectionism can be dysfunctional or healthy even though most of the studies have focused on dysfunctional perfectionism(YazarSoyadı, 2016).Dysfunctional perfectionism is a situation that a gifted student is marred with fear of imperfection, anxiety as well as a desire to become perfect. A fine line exit between striving to attain utmost excellence and feeling self-defeated by the incapacity to achieve unrealistic perfections expectations.  When this line is crossed, tendencies of perfectionists become disabling. In a learning environment, perfectionism can cause underachievement or anxiety (Fisher & Kennedy, 2017).
Studies have focused on dysfunctional perfectionism with a population of gifted students may not be necessarily a world phenomenon. For instance, in their studies of gifted Chinese students, Fong and Yuen (2014) revealed that there was a higher likelihood of positive perfectionism than negative perfectionism. Based on their observation, perfectionism traits is more adaptive in China than in Europe, and that is why the expectation of gifted Chinese student more positive than in western nations(YazarSoyadı, 2016).  When perfectionism is a counseling intervention target then schools counselors should work towards assisting gifted students to cope with or reduce negative aspects, but the main objective should not be geared toward eliminating perfectionism. Based on this study found, and other many findings of the potential effect of perfectionism, ubiquity within the gifted student’s population as well as possible cultural diversity in presentation, school counselors need to be wary especially in understanding perceived perfectionism (Piragasam, 2017).
The two key concerns regarding perfectionism especially for the gifted students: emotional turmoil and under-accomplishment. Even though under-accomplishment may be asynchronous with giftedness concept, perfectionism concept can provide detailed analysis and information of some of the under-accomplishment among the gifted student population. perfectionism may cause gifted students to fail to submit the work if not perfect and only submit if it is perfect which might translate to late submission or assignment or complete failure to submit the work because it did not meet the expectation of the student, and this may make them get poor grades just fail by default. Based on emotional stress, perfectionism may stir depression and worthlessness feelings when gifted students fail to conform to the unrealistic expectation they have set. This can result in several implications for school counselors such as being able to identify perfectionism among gifted students and create effective coping intervention or methods for this population (Wood & Peterson, 2018).
Perfectionism counseling strategies
When outlining interventions for a negative perfectionism, it is effective to use strategies, interventions, and structures developed for anxiety. As with an intervention in a diverse population, no perfectionism of two gifted students or academic anxiety can be driven by the same school of thought,or manifest the same; thus, interventions should start with taking time to learn more about the student as an individual (Wood & Peterson, 2018).
Based on CBT outlook, perfectionism is a mode of thinking about individual self or mode of thinking in relation to the bigger work. This is attributed to failure panic. Mistakes are always there and in most case a key part in the process of learning. However, for the perfectionist students, this point of view may have maladaptive or extremely negative reactions since they perceive failure as directly showing their value as an individual(Piragasam, 2017).  Aspects of perfectionist form of thinking include dichotomous thinking, concentrating on challenges and goals instead of savoring success, and transforming desires into demands. Cognitive models can be used to evaluate these thoughts with thoughts useful to these students being strengthened where unhelpful or distorted thoughts are modified. CBT can aid to restructure the dichotomous thinking(Wood & Peterson, 2018).  A solution-focused method can help to address perfectionism by reducing dichotomous thinking. Other counseling methods for dealing with anxiety related perfectionism include skill building, relaxation strategies, as well as guiding students through imaginary or real failures insecure way (Piragasam, 2017).
Other Academic Anxiety
Besides and outside perfectionism, gifted students may be anxious especially when faced with academic errands such as exams, assignments, to the extent that the anxiety is much overwhelming that is dramatically interferes with the performance of these students. Being anxious while attempting to complete an academic assignment is a harmful form of taxes working memory and multi-tasking. Anxious thoughts are associated with attention diversion and hence degrading the performance of the student, a feature that is common among gifted students
Expressive writing can help improve an anxious student performance since it reduces the academically related worries during the task.  Besides, writing about performance qualms may free up working memory resources to assist these students better differentiate, understand and identify their emotional experience, which can result in using a more effective emotion management techniques during exams(Piragasam, 2017). Other methods of counseling designed for anxiety can also effectively support gifted students through performance anxiety. Methods centered on relaxation such as progressive muscle relaxation, or meditation may be useful particularly when students learn these skills and the way to implement self-relaxation when anxious
Asynchronous Development
Gifted students face many different challenges such as asynchronous development, that is the only developed in some areas, not in all areas. Gifted students may exhibit advanced skills in mathematics, verbal activities while having developing skills in emotional and social development. This can lead to anxiety, stress, as well as social challenges.
Based on the way asynchronous development can affect a student, a school counselor has a number of ways to offer support. In the case, a gifted student is experiencing anxiety because of learning or trying to understand concepts beyond their emotional maturity level, the use of psychoeducation to help these students learn various coping strategies is important. Self-talk, as well as other calming techniques, is also useful (Piragasam, 2017).
Group counseling interventions, designed to meet the needs of gifted students can assist deal with the social changes linked to giftedness. The role of counselor should go beyond the ordinary skills they use for counseling. Working with gifted students require unique and slightly different preparedness. Counselors can achieve this level of preparedness by knowing their own giftedness. A school counselor requires a clear concept about his own identity as a gifted individual, deficits, and attributes alike (Piragasam, 2017). They should also have solid theoretical bases as well as knowledge about the traits of gifted children. Counselors also need to be cognizant of the available resources for gifted kids: parent organizations, bibliographies, educational opportunities, and support groups. They should also be creative and critical thinkers especially in how they deal with gifted students counseling.  Traditional counseling approaches are not effective for gifted people.
Gifted students represent a challenging and exciting population for individuals offering mental health as well as support services in the school environment. The needs, abilities challenges, and experiences of such students are always diverse (Song, 2014). However, studies on gifted students offer counselors with technical know-how, and direction of factors to take into account and ideas about various counseling methods and models that might effectively meet the needs of this population. Besides, counselors need to be aware that giftedness is among the students’ aspects. It more or less the same as other factors shaping the personality of that student, but should be considered when key decisions are being made on various ways to support the students during a time of dire need (Song, 2014).
Counseling gifted students, as well as their families, is quite challenging but a rewarding function for any counselor. Gifted students have huge variability in both their cognitive capacity as well as their effective development.  While there are common themes and aspects to the social-emotional problems confronting gifted students, a larger difference exists among these students(Song, 2014). The role of school counselors is to assist students to recognize their identity, make a decision as well as develop and improve their potential. Gifted students require help and nurturing counselors can offer. It will be a good thing for counselors to always use their expertise and skills with talented and gifted students in their schools.
Wood, S. M., & Peterson, J. S. (2018). Counseling gifted students in schools: A guide for school counselors. New York, NY Springer Publishing Company, LLC.
Trail, B. A. (2011). Twice-exceptional gifted children: Understanding, teaching, and counseling gifted students. Waco, Tex: Prufrock Press.
Fisher, E. S., & Kennedy, K. S. (2017). Counseling special populations in schools. New York, NY Oxford University Press
Fong, R., & Yuen, M. (2014). Perfectionism and Chinese Gifted Learners. Roeper Review, 36(2), 81-91. doi: 10.1080/02783193.2014.884202
Piragasam, G. (2017). Counselling Practices in Fostering Potentials among Gifted Students. SainsHumanika, 9(1-5). doi: 10.11113/sh.v9n1-5.1173
Song, K. (2014). Domain Thoughts in Gifted Students and Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities. Journal Of Gifted/Talented Education, 24(5), 851-876. doi: 10.9722/jgte.2014.24.5.851
YazarSoyadı, A. (2016). Counseling and Guidance for Malaysian Gifted Students: A Conceptual Framework. Journal For The Education Of Gifted Young Scientists, 4(1), 21-21. doi: 10.17478/jegys.2016115332
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Outline: Developing a Team for High Performance writing essay helpIntroduction
The paper is grounded in the second option particularly option B: an effectively performing team.  The team consists of 16 individuals involved in zonal marketing for Huawei Technologies.
Thesis Statement
The course maintains that team leadership is essential in facilitating the integrity and cohesion of a group; therefore the paper asserts that one individual in the group has the responsibility of ensuring the other 15 members are actively involved in their duties in addition to supporting harmonious working environment.
1st Main point: Reasons for Selecting the Team
The main reason for the selection of the group is their high rate of success in a new market characterized by a multi-cultural population.  Additionally, the group embraces inclusivity and diversity since it consists of members from different cultures and ethnic groups (Colenso, 2012).
2nd Main point: Reasons for the Success of the Team
1st Sub-point:According to Nederveen, Knippenberg&Van (2013) the effective performance of a team working in multi-cultural environment necessitate cultural understanding, integration, effective communication in addition to supporting efforts of conflict prevention and resolution. Indeed, in this particular group, open communication channels and evident team integration to no small extent explains the success.
2nd Sub-point:Another important aspect of team success is planning which lays out the responsibilities of each and how these roles are integrated for the benefit of the team (Salas & Rosen, 2013). Undeniably, the team practices strategic planning which is goal-oriented and milestone-based, thus incorporating the roles of each member.
3rd Sub-point:Another essential ingredient in team success is work ethics which prescribes the right attitudes and behavior among the group members (Iglesias, Sauquet, & Montana, 2011). When behavior is intrinsically motivated and collective in efforts of aligning with team objectives, it creates trust among the members thus facilitating team success (Hakanen, Hakkinen, & Soundunsaari, 2015).
It is evident that team planning and management are the critical components of a high-performing team. It is crucial for planning and management to be facilitated with good work ethics.
Colenso, M. (2012). High performing teams in brief. Routledge.
Hakanen, M., Hakkinen, M., & Soundunsaari, A. (2015). Trust in building high-performing teams-conceptual approach. Electronic Journal of Bussiness Ethics and Organization Studies, 20(2), 43-53.
Iglesias, O., Sauquet, A., & Montana, J. (2011). The role of corporate culture in relationship marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 45(4), 631-650.
Nederveen Pieterse, A., Van Knippenberg, D., & Van Dierendonck, D. (2013). Cultural diversity and team performance: The role of team member goal orientation. Academy of Management Journal, 56(2), 782-804.
Salas, E., & Rosen, M. A. (2013). Building high-reliability teams: Progress and some reflections on teamwork training. BMJ Qual Saf, 22(5), 369-273.
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Aviation Strategy & Planning essay help site:eduPart A
The objective of this analysis is to find the preferred airline services. The Low-Cost Carriers (LCC) entails airline services with low fares and fewer comforts. The airline make up for the lost income through extra charges food, seat allocation among others. Ison, 2017, highlights the strengths and weaknesses of LCC. One of the strengths of the low cost carrier is the acceleration of the traffic growth of the airline. Investing in a higher number of seats and greater efficient airplanes saves on the operating costs of the airline. The weakness of LCC is brand perception and seasonality of earnings. The users of LCC expect high levels of punctuality and safe air travel at a lower cost which might not be the case. There is high earning during some seasons and low earning experienced in other seasons.  There has been a rapid rise in LCC as a popular alternative to mainstream airlines. Over the past decade, there is a significant shift in low-cost carrier’s market segment. There has been an expansion of the LCC and change in the business model. Its business model focuses on operational practices that lower airline costs. Also, LCC fly short-haul routes and return the base to avoid hangarage and other associated costs (Ison. 22)
The full-service carrier (FSC) offers its passengers checked baggage, beverages, flight entertainment comforts such as pillows and blankets and meals in the ticket price.
In most cases, the FSC has more legroom and seats with more recline.  One of the strengths of the FSC is the one cost ticket which might be the only cost one might incur. The FSC also allows one to buy tickets to destinations that are e directly connected to the departure destination. Strength is the convenience of the takeoff time. There is a chance for passengers to choose the class they want to use regarding their preference and affordability. Among the types are the economy class, business class, premium economy, and first class. One of the weaknesses of FSC is the high prices of the tickets which limit the number of passengers who instead opt for low-cost carriers. Another weakness is the rise in competitors who offer quality services at a lower rate thus causing the FSC airlines to revise their prices drastically (Cento, 29).
It is important to note that the price is not the only factor that separates LCC and FSC. There are other services such connecting flights, airline, and comfort, which the full-service Carrier offer in one ticket, unlike the Low-cost Carrier where one incurs other charges besides the ticket prices (Miller, 33).
Part B
The objective of this analysis is to establish the market positioning of Airbus and Boeing.
There are only two firms in the airline manufacturing industry; Boeing and Airbus. Each of the firms has strategies in place for positioning in the market place through flagship products.  One of the strengths of Airbus is the innovation in technology and designs. The firm has used modern technology in manufacturing and assembling the A 350’s production. Another Strength is the Eco efficiency. The firm has led by example for eco-efficient sustainable aviation. This has been affected through the launch of the blue five, which is an initiative that ensures waste reduction, CO2 reduction, energy saving and VOC reduction (Miller, 15).
One of the weaknesses of the Airbus is that the firm’s perceived demand for their product might not indeed exist. It has backlogs where the firm delivers less number of aircrafts in comparison to the orders placed. Another weakness of the Airbus is the operational inefficiency where delayed launches are noted. The production cost of Airbus is very high thus minimizing the profit margins of the firm. In the year 2001, the Airbus was formed through the integration of a consortium of various European Aerospace firms to make a single company. This was to position itself better for market competition against the large American Manufacturers. It has developed a single-aisle A320 and a twin Aisle A340 (Miller, 25).
The Boeing, on the other hand, has grown and controls a broader market of the commercial aircraft. It has come up with a wide range of aircrafts among them single aisle737, medium and range 767, long-range 777 as well as the jumbo jet. The firm is renowned for manufacturing weapon and attack aircrafts as well as the sate lights. Its varied products make it gain a competitive advantage over its competitor the Airbus.  One of the weaknesses of Boeing is the severe technological constraints in their new designs (Gould, 14).
Boeing as a company has a high competitive advantage if only they could invest more in technological innovations in their designs. The firm produces a higher number of airplanes and air crafts compared to its competitor. The company continuous growth indicates an increase in its valuation with time. The wide range of the aircrafts meets the needs of various users ranging from commercial, individuals and military as well space (Gould, 17).
Part C
Global trends have reshaped the GCC travel in the airline market. The need for digital technological innovation has weakened the relationship between the airlines and their customers. The GCC airlines have transformed their distribution business model and how they attract and sell to their customers. With the increase of internet penetration in the Middle East, there is an increase in mobile use thus leading to easier access and interaction with potential customers. Growth in the customer base enables the GCC airlines to extract more value from their services and products.  It is worth noting that social media has grown as a media of advertising. It shares first-hand experiences from satisfied customers as well as those who have complained which helps the airlines improve on customer relations and satisfaction.  These experiences influence the travel decision-making process. The airlines have put in place the loyalty programs that allow direct engagement with the customers and let them earn rewards such as cash and upgrades besides seat redemption. The organizational structure of the GCC airlines allows a functional collaboration in their operations which are geared to understand the customers’ needs and retention. For the airlines to make their services remarkable is to understand the current environment and the evolution of the aviation industry so that they keep customer through tailored and better facilities (Desai, 26).
The Asia and European carriers have put in place market strategies that would attract more customers and maximize their profits. The airlines have ventured into low fare strategy through the Dunning eclectic paradigm which sheds light on navigation and managing flights with low operational cost. Previously the European airlines had focused on tourism and charter market. With the change in the market trends, the airline also embraced the low-cost market environment. The airlines in 1985 such as the Air Berlin was founded on the tourism segment. The Easyjet and Ryanair were later introduced in 2000. The airlines have undergone relaunching and rebranding to maintain a competitive advantage in the aviation industry. The European Union has unregulated aviation market and economic area in which has no foreign ownership restriction and limitation in traffic rights (Asia, 68).
The Asia Pacific aviation market is more regulated with traffic rights and foreign ownership. The Asian airlines were launched in the 1960s and have gone through a rebranding and have also embraced the low fare flights. Asian airline has also relied on exports as an internationalization strategy. Other strategies of market entry welcomed by the Asia airlines are the contractual alliances and national subsidiaries as well as own bases (Starkie, 22).
The aviation industry is part of the service industry that competes to offer the best experience to its users in a bid to gain a competitive advantage. The Asian carriers have understood the market and tailored their services in a way to attract more customers as well as retain them. It has allowed loyalty programs that offer several packages to their customers such as gifts and earning points that are redeemable. It has embraced both traditional and formal advertising campaigns.  They have supported sporting events and food festivals to become household names. Flight perks also play a significant role in customer retention (Shishido, 14).
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What do you think your handicap would be if you lived in this society? best college essay help
What do you think your handicap would be if you lived in this society?

Mental handicap,
I would make an effort of making people in society equal through handicapping the individuals who possess high capabilities

Should people be completely equal in every sense of the word, as presented in this story, or is what is given a completely different ideology for equality?

Everyone should be having equality in every aspect of their interaction; what is present in the story resembles the ideology for equality. Embracing equality in the society there results in a minimum feeling of inadequacy, envy, and jealousy. When people are completely equal in every sense of the world people would have similar thoughts, movements, preference, accessibility of resources and treatment. Having several shared interests will result in simplified converting and understanding whereby every individual settle for complete agreement. From the short story of “Harrison Bergeron” the mental aberration illustrated; people would not be in apposition to recognize that they are conditioned towards that direction. They would not seek for different society in which individuals are unequal; these ideas will cease when the metal confusion as they would change to the blissful ignorance of living in complete equality.

Does equality mean sameness? Yes, equality would also mean sameness that is the same in every situation, in other words, equality would refer to the quality of being the same or similar in the society


Could you see society heading in that direction? Why or why not?

No! The society is not in a position to sustain equality, As portrayed in Harrison society whereby everyone is not willing to embrace equality, but they are pushed to becoming equal. The beginning of this shift was evidenced by the remarks George made to Hazel. Vonnegut tries to illustrate this by setting up the relevant handicaps, with an attempt of trying the playing field, unfortunately after sometimes and the several amendments made the government was still not at the right position. Sustain equal wealth in an economy is something very hard, no matter the effort it is not easy to secure equality. The main point in the short story is that individual should stop wasting their efforts trying to archive the aspect of equality, and in a real sense it’s not easy to sustain

Please share your thoughts. If you have things to say about the story, share them.  You can respond to these topics if you want to, but if you have other things you want to discuss, by all means, please do so.  It is far more interesting to hear your unique opinion as opposed to everyone writing in response to the same topics.

This particular story considers equality as something which is impossible to archive. In my understanding, I think having every individual equal and same the community would be annoying to some extent, because upon allocation of resources in the society whereby everybody would be In a position to access them the society would be boring.
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THE CONSCIOUS REDEMPTION SHOW writing essay helpObjective: Amazing reggae music as we interact and share knowledge.
Link 1
Welcoming the listeners to the show. Thanking the loyal fan for staying with the show.
Introduction of myself as the new host, also appreciation of previous hosts who have enabled the success of this show.
Link 2
Social media handles Twitter @Shinefm103.1, Facebook Shinefm103.1. Or you can text on 0713531786.
It is informing the audience on news that has been trending in the world and anything that has changed.
Link 3
Amina Mohammed declares Helb loan defaulters will be hunted down by the police.
Link 4
A man who was caught trying to smuggle his child from hospital offered a job, on a postponed sentence served outside the jail.
Link 5
Introduction to the talk segment followed by a discussion of the topic day.
How to invest in talents and hobbies
Identifying different talents and skills/hobbies that there are
Link 6
Ask the audience to contribute any more talents and hobbies they may know
Link 7
Various ways to use our abilities to improve ourselves and the condition of people in our environment.
Link 8
Everyone is a unique individual with different skill and abilities. Everyone can find their calling; they have to invest in it to develop it.
Hour 3
Link 9
Getting feedback from the audience via social media platforms and calls/SMSs
Continuation of the topic
Link 10
Getting examples from the bible of those whose gifts are reflected in their service to the almighty and how they used them to serve.
Link 11
Moses – how his surrounding modeled him for the mission ahead.
Link 12
Encouragement to the youth to invest in our talents in the time that we are on earth.
I am reading any comments on text message if any.
The conclusion of the topic.
Link 13
Welcome the listeners once more to the show.
Remind them that this is the last hour of the show, it is the request hour.
Requests accepted reach me through:
Link 14
Open social media platforms and present listeners with opportunities to make requests on conscious reggae music.
Link 15
Play the music back to back.
Good flow of conscious reggae music back-to-back.
Link 16.
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Actions to tackle a strategic challenge that I have been involved with or been able to observe, in a public or third sector organization best college essay helpIntroduction.
Third sector organizations typically refer to those organization which is neither public or private; they exist as voluntary and community organization. It entails the social enterprises, agencies, mutual associations and co-operatives which do not depend on government, having their primary focus on achieving societal goals. Third sector organizations are generally based on two core principles, one they are value driven, meaning that they are determined to archive the social goals such as improving the public welfare, the environmental well-being, and the economic stability. Secondly, they are motivated to reinvest any surplus generated in the pursuit of their goals. I have observed that these organizations usually face some crucial strategic challenges which limit them from accomplishing their set objectives, these challenges are majorly based on the following fundamental frameworks; Strategy beyond profit and leadership problems.
Strategy beyond profit
Under close examination, the aspect of Strategy Beyond profit is a major challenge in the third organizations. The public sector encounters difficulties in strategy formulation and implementation that are distinct from those faced by the private sector, and these include different cycles of leadership changes, complex internal and external dynamics, and a variety of stakeholders who have diverse definitions of success and failure. To meet the likelihoods caused by these determinants public bodies rely on1 process timelines based on the election sequence, recognizing and emphasizing on key adversaries and supporters, continuous communications, and utilization of the viable possibilities offered by real or perceived pressures. In employing this combination of states, public-sector managers can effectively draw on both conscious devising methods and implement new policies.
Center to the continued endurance of any organization is the capacity to formulateand fulfill an efficient approach notwithstanding some shortcomings of organizational suppliesand the forces of the outside atmosphere MeanwhileIn the profit  making sector, it seems to be comparatively outspoken. The plan aims to maximize gain and stockholder value.Private-sector firmsneed layout to withstand dares from opponents, decisions of administrative bodies,changes in the financial context including shifts in interest charges and industrial movement, and deficits of personnel and stocks. Public-sectorbodies also face multiple of these hurdles but in diverse patterns, as wellas the extra deliberations of a selection sequence that may results changes in leadership, a wide variety of stakeholders with competing agendas, and thesubjective nature of success given these diverse perspectives
However, is this an appropriate measure for public value?First, it implies that managers can predict future states with
enough accuracy that plans can anticipate these emerging circumstances. Second, it assumes that the organization can rearrange its internal
structure to meet these requirements. Third, while such an approach is not
built on environmental stability, it does presume that changes will occur
within parameters anticipated through the generation of scenarios or other
variants of the central plan
Many researchers have noted significant differences between the public andprivate sectors with respect to factors that affect strategy formulation(among others, see Ferlie 1992; Lindblom 1977; Richardson 1995). Unlikecommercial firms, which are free to produce only those goods that managersfeel will be profitable, ‘‘the public sector continues to produce core goods andservices that are of major significance to society as a whole: health, education,social security, defense and criminal justice’’ (Ferlie 1992: 80)Despite the complexityof services or the issues faced, the public sector has no choice but tocontinue with its mandate, although there is some room for innovation in howservices are delivered.You should also note down whether you agree or disagree with the positions stated and whether you have experienced these challenges.
As a summary, question whether you think strategy for public value is wholly different from strategy in the for-profit sector or simply strategy with a different emphasis.
Leadership and wicked problems
This is crucial challenge which is evidence in the third organizations. It has been my observation that many models designed for organizationalchanges tends to fail. The major causes of these failures may be usually due to the way the problems are framed and the implemented approach to tackle the problem. According to Grint “differentiating between Tame, Wicked and Critical problems, and associating these with Management, Leadership and Command, might be a way forward” And according to my own point of view it is to my conviction that this strategy will help the third organizations tackle this kind of challenges they encountered when making organizational changes.
To address change the following needs to be put into consideration, and accepted need to change, a viable vision, change agents should be available, realistic scale and pace change, An intergrated transition programme, A plan for likey resistance, constant advocacy , an dfinally a benefit plan which is locally owned.  However each organizationa change differs from the other this might make the universal solutionto be hgampered. Leadership and management identified as forms of authority which are based on the degree of uncertainty and certainty are on the other hand interconnected to the topology of Tame and Wicked problems.
The third organizations faces complex Tame problems, this problems can be solved through application of the unilinear acts. Wicked problems are on the other hand more than just complicated, they are much complex. Tame problems in simple terms can be referred to as those probelmes which have a scietifc solutions however the wicked problems do not have scietifc solutions. Thus the category of problems is subjective not objective. Conventionally, we associate leadership with precisely the opposite – the ability to solve problems, act decisively and to know what to do. But Wicked Problems often embody the inverse of this – we cannot solve them, and we need to be very wary of acting decisively precisely because we cannot know what to do. If we knew what to do it would be a Tame Problem not a Wicked Problem. Yet the pressure to act decisively often leads us to try to solve the problem as if it was a Tame Problem.
The leader’s role with a Wicked Problem,therefore, is to ask the right questions rather than provide the right answers because the answers may not be self-evident and will require a collaborative process to make any kind of progress. Examples would include: developing a transport strategy, or an energy strategy, or a defense strategy, or a national health system or an industrial relations strategy. Wicked Problems are not necessarily rooted in longer time frames than Tame Problems because oftentimes an issue that appears to be Tame can be turned into a Wicked Problem by delaying the decision or reframing the problem, It is then necessary to involve leadership with effective and efficient solution for different problems. If there was an elegant (scientific) solution it would be a Tame Problem. Wicked Problems are inherently political in nature not scientific or ‘rational’ and progress is likely to be via a Clumsy negotiation of the common ground
            Reading 6] In the article ‘Wicked problems and clumsy solutions: the role of leadership’ Keith Grint (2008)
Grint, ‘Wicked problems and clumsy solutions: the role of leadership’ (2008)
Triplett, Rolfe, et al. “Extending the productive associations of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.” A Nitrogen Story, Jan. 2019, pp. 01-03
Williamson, “Factors Inhibiting the Efficiency of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation.” ecological Sciences, 1998, pp.1233-1234
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