Sports in American History english essay help online
The origins of American football are not as murky as the origins of baseball (at least there is no Abner Doubleday in the mix) but one thing that is almost universally agreed upon is that the sport as it is known today traces back to Ivy League colleges shortly the start of the 20th century although the first game to played took place in 1869. Of course, that game resembled something you would see in the World Cup far more than anything that might take place in the Super Bowl (Reid 72).
The game as played from that point forward to the first decade of the 20th century shifted and transformed and eventually looked more like rugby and resulted in more and more violence until a game took place in 1905 that resulted the death of an astonishing 18 players. Noted elephant killer and President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt issued a call for the game to be changed to diminish such violent or else face banishment. The result of negotiation for these alterations in the game included the legalization of the forward pass which went a long way toward clearing out the mob structure of the players on the field by forcing them to stretch out a bit more while other “major changes included the addition of another referee, banning of open-handed blows….and a new fair catch signal” (Reid 105).
The changes made to keep the violence that marked the first half-decade of college football alive and well also has the effect of diverting attention away from the possibly even more deleterious effect on the game being made by corruption and gambling. It may never be known if football would have gone on to become the national obsession it has become today if the focus of Roosevelt had been a bit more attuned to problems with money rather than problems with aggression, but history has proven that saving the college game from banishment at the point when its future seemed most vulnerable may have been the single most important moment in the history of sports in America.
A very good question to ask is what is sports in American without cheerleaders? The very same Ivy League football fields where the game that would go on to displace baseball as the national pastime originated would also be the site where cheering on your favorite team started.
The highly athletic cheerleading which has today moved well beyond the sidelines of the football and basketball games and into the realm of a sports of its own got its start around the same time that American football became subject to a series of new rules and regulations designed to reduce violence, increase participation and expand its audience. The cheerleaders were men often sneered at “rah-rah boys” but sneered at only by those suffering the pangs of enjoy or jealously since “the position of cheer-leader nowadays is fraught with great responsibility and rated as a high honor, so much so that in many colleges competitions and examinations are held to select the cheer-leaders” (Hanson 13).
What the growth of college football and the accompanying elevation of the sidelines cheerleader to a status of great influence essentially managed to do to early 20th century America was nothing less than to transform the university from a place where academics was everything to place where academics had to compete on an even keel with socializing.
Hanson, Mary Ellen. Go! Fight! Win! : Cheerleading in American Culture. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State U Popular, 1995.
Reid, Bill. “Three: The Play That Changed Football.” Game Faces: Five Early American Champions and the Sports They Changed. By Thomas H. Pauly. Lincoln, NE: U of Nebraska, 2012. 69-108.
The Risk of Sports Corruption in Saudi Arabia english essay help online
Se Le Pide Calcular El Balance Hidrico En 6 Horas De Un Lactante De… College Admission Essay Help
Reducing the Risk of Corruption in Public Procurement in the Context of Sports EventsThe sports sector is classified as a multi-billion industry, in addition to engaging billions of sports fans. For many throughout the globe, sports are a source and symbol of both great joy and fair play through taking part as a participant, attendee, or just a fan watching sports events. In Saudi Arabia just like other nation throughout the world, sports, particularly major sports events include a lot of public engagement and involvement, coupled with political interests and influence, and not to mention the huge sums of funds at stake. With such a combination, the challenge of corruption prevails as perpetual risk especially for major sports events in Saudi Arabia. The increase in corruption scandals on match-fixing, elections of sports organizations, and the bidding for major sports events, combined with systematic inadequacies in the management and governance of sports undermines the value of sports (events), in addition to compromising public trust (Kovacic, 1998). Therefore, it is evident that in sports corruption takes many forms, as both private companies and the government can work in liaison with the government to rig the bidding and procurement process for construction contracts, as well as sponsorship, marketing, and advertising arrangements. Also, money laundering is prevalent and deep-rooted in the sports industry.
To minimize the risks associated with corruption in public procurement as it pertains to the context of sports events in Saudi Arabia, it is extremely important for the government to strengthen governmental and inter-governmental sports organizations and associations. Strengthening the sports organizations and associations in this context means that the government spearheads the efforts of eliminating corruption by supporting, promoting and instilling the culture of good governance in all stakeholders of sports entities. It is evident that through genuine collaboration among stakeholders’ issues such as match-fixing, doping or sports violence can be substantially reduced (Jones & Sufrin, 2016). Equally important, it is strongly advised that all allegations of corruption are not only recorded in the sports organization’s databases but that the relevant authorities followed up the raised allegations with the required investigations, monitoring and the provision of responses on the matter.
In the same vein, it is important for the entities or parties involved be served with the appropriate disciplinary measures of the relevant sports institution as well as the criminal justice system. Similarly, as a means of instilling good governance in sports, it is important to build partnership initiatives with international organizations. Through such partnership initiatives, the Saudi Arabian sports associations will gather and transfer good sports management practices and expertise that can be implemented to reduce or minimize the risks of sports corruption in Saudi Arabia.
The measures and policies mentioned above can be put in place to eliminate corruption in the sports industry. Even so, it is best to take into account that openness, transparency, and accountability are the cornerstones of successfully and effectively implementing these policies and measures, consequently breaking the link between sport and corruption in Saudi Arabia. As such, the government ought to coordinate and closely collaborate with the international sports industry as well as the anti-fraud organizations (World Trade Organization, 2017). Equally important, sports organizations ought to develop and integrate robust anti-corruption measures into their code of conduct and constitutions respectively. Even more importantly the rules must be adhered to the latter and actively enforced when they are violated.
Open and transparent bidding and procurement procedures will facilitate the prevention of corruption in the selection of venues and cities that host major sports. Transparency and openness are also fundamental to in the bidding and procurement of major sports contracts such as the construction of stadiums. It is essential to monitor bids and ensure they are transparent (Jones & Sufrin, 2016). Sponsors can also help eliminate corruption by promoting ethical practices and governance in their social corporate responsibility initiatives. The media can also help in sensitizing the public and creating awareness about corruption in the sports industry. While it is a global imperative to eliminate corruption from sports, it safe to say that the government has a critical mandate and duty in the prevention of corruption. With the implementation of the aforementioned proposed policies, the sports sector (industry) will no doubt rebuild its reputation.
Ensuring Transparency and Integrity in the Selection of Venues for Major Sports Events in the Light of Relevant Standards on Conflict of Interest
In order to guarantee transparency and integrity in the selection of venues for major sports events, it is prudent that the information on procurement decision-making procedures and processes are not hidden from the public. Instead, it is of great importance to disclose all the details and make all the information on procurement available to the public, including all bidders. Equally important, the information should be disclosed before, during and after the tendering processes (World Trade Organization, 2017). In light of the relevant standards on conflict of interest, transparency and integrity in the section of venues for major sports events can be ensured publicizing the procedures and processes of procurement. By so doing, the procurement process is made open for public scrutiny. Consequently, this ensures transparency and integrity of the bidding process for the venues.
Another measure that can be taken to ensure that the bidding or procurement process for major sports events are beyond reproach and free from any conflict of interests public administrators must also be sensitized by increasing their awareness on the risks of corruption as well as collusion. Creating awareness involves adequately training both the public administrators and the public in general on the consequences of collusion and corruption to public resources in such process and the benefits of a bidding process free from conflicting interests. As such, the objective of the training and awareness campaigns should focus on detecting signs of conflicts of interests and reporting such incidences.
Optimizing the Processes of Compliance with Good Governance Principles to Mitigate the Risk of Corruption
To optimize the processes of compliance with good governance principles and mitigate the risks of corruption it is advisable to implement an action-oriented approach. The proposed approach or mechanism incorporates the strengthening of governmental and inter-governmental sports organizations and associations, by partnering with international sports agencies or bodies to facilitate the transfer of good governance practices in the management of sports. Equally important, mitigation of the risk of corruption it is strongly recommended that conflicts of interests are effectively managed (Kovacic, 1998). Since the conflict of interests’ acts as a catalyst agent for corruption in sports, the effective management of conflicting interests leaves no room for corruption and maintains the integrity of the procurement process and instills public confidence in the government and sports organizations respectively.
Jones, A., & Sufrin, B. (2016). EU competition law. Oxford University Press.
Kovacic, W. (1998). The Civil False Claims Act as a Deterrent to Participation in Government Procurement Markets. Supreme Court Economic Review, 6, 201-239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/scer.6.1147106
WTO � Interaction between Trade and Competition Policy. (2017). Wto.org. Retrieved 7 December 2017, from https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/comp_e/comp_e.htm
Theories of Personality: Erik Erikson english essay help online
Unlike famous psychology expert and colleague Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, another contributor to the world renowned research book entitled Theories of Personality, disregards psychosexual stages of development in his blueprint of the brain. This is despite the fact that much of his ideas were directly influenced and affected by Freud with a nearly identical structure to the foundation. As Freud focuses more on the Id (primal or reptilian) component of the human persona, Erikson feels that the ego, the highest level of conscious thought, is the primary driver for people’s behavior. Moreover, he places a significant emphasis on the role that society and surrounding culture plays in affecting the way the ego deals with internal conflicts; ignoring the clash between id and superego that Freud so heavily stressed his arguments upon.
Theories of Personality: Erik Erikson
What is the overall purpose/direction behind personality?
Erikson believes that “the ego develops as it successfully resolves crises that are distinctly social in nature” (McLeod, 2008). Such examples involve the establishment of trust in other social beings, creating one’s own unique sense of identity and the role it plays in society, and finally, assisting the succeeding generation in preparations for future events (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). While Erikson’s theories are easily differentiable from that of Freud’s, he does extend several of the theories proposed by the Austrian psychologist; including creative characteristics and adaptation strategies of the ego (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). All this, whilst claiming the human personality is an ever-changing entity that continues to develop and evolve over an entire given lifespan (Hall, Lindzey, 1970).
Discussion of Theory Concepts
An alternative approach to the psychosexual development model and as another way to distance himself from Freud’s theories is Erikson’s “lifespan model of development” proposed in a series of five particular stages, extending to a grand total of eight; 2 of which begin at childhood and end at the 18 year mark; the rest of which extend to the beginning of adulthood until far towards the end of a person’s life (McLeod, 2008). The most critical stage of human development, Erikson argues, is the period of adolescence. Using a commonly shared idea amongst the psychologists responsible for the composition of Theories of Personality, Erikson strongly agrees and adheres to something known as the epigenic principle (Hall, Lindzey, 1970).
This principle claims that all personalities are developed in an order that is preset; with successors building upon each stage that arrived previously (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). The outcome includes an integrated and vast set of abilities and skills for life that all function as one within a given individual. As previously stated, Erikson ignores the methods in which sexuality drives development; instead focusing primarily in which children communicate and how this ability to socialize affects the way in which they view themselves.
Role of Society and Individual Differences
With each stage in development of personality comes a crisis or particular new encounter of a problem that is to be faced and dealt with, according to Erikson. Each of these dilemmas are a product of conflict that results between the psychosocial needs of the given individual and the needs of the surrounding society (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Like Freud’s theory, the “successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues” (McLeod, 2008). These powerful characteristics that are acquired allow the mind to be able to easily handle future crises that are similar in nature. The first of eight stages within Erikson’s lifespan model of development involves the matter trust versus mistrust; the initial conflict a developing mind faces. If a child finds proper care in their guardian when sought after that is consistent and reliable, a sense of trust will be developed that carries far into the rest of their lives and into new relationships; allowing themselves to feel a sense of security even upon the possibility of a threat (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Successful completion of this stage allows the person to achieve the virtue known as hope (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). The second stage involves the matters of autonomy vs. shame and doubt. As a child begins to develop and understand the capabilities of their growing body, they must be encouraged to behave independently and supported if faced with failure (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). This is a process called “self control without a loss of self-esteem”; ultimately leading to the acquisition of the will virtue (McLeod, 2008). Between ages three to five the child will be faced with initiative versus guilt. If they are allowed to create their own playful experiences, they will over time develop a strong sense of self-initiative. Conversely, if they are criticized, they will develop a sense of guilt. Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, and Ego Integrity vs. Despair are all subsequent conflicts that all focus on the primary objective of understanding a human’s sense of self and the role they play in the socio-economical aspect of the world (McLeod, 2008).
Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1970). Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley.
McLeod, S. (2008). Erik Erikson. Simply Psychology. Retrieved August 17, 2016 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Theories of Personality: Carl Jung english essay help online
AbstractThrough the combination of the opposing pairs of functions and attitudes, psychologist Dr. Carl Jung identified a series of 8 particular patterns that determine how the mind works. These patterns represent the simplistic foundation of Jung’s theory, that is, “when our minds are active and we are awake, we are alternating between taking in information and making decisions in our internal and external worlds” (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). Composed in his now famous research publication known as Psychological Types, Jung worked to describe the way in which individuals are characterized by the way their minds “habitually prefer one pattern over another” (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). These function-attitudes include extraverted sensing. introverted sensing, extraverted intuition, introverted intuition, extraverted thinking, introverted intuition, extraverted thinking, introverted thinking, extraverted feeling, and introverted feeling.
Theories of Personality: Carl Jung
What is the overall purpose/direction behind personality?
The eight attitudes or states of behavior that Dr. Jung details in his research publication known as Psychological Types are categorized and divided into two opposing columns. These columns serve as the dichotomy between the attitudes of introversion and extraversion (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). This dichotomy represents the first opposing pair identified by Jung as the two different ways in which the mind adapts and orients itself to the surrounding world. He defines extraversion as our energy moving towards the outer layer of the world that surrounds places, people, and things. Conversely, he defines introversion as our energy moving towards the inner layer of the world that encompasses ideas and thoughts. To what degree the mind is attuned in either way dictates the “foundational aspect” of human personality (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). While the brain will alter itself on a moment-to-moment basis between these differing worlds based on arising needs and environmental circumstances, existing preferentially in one particular world over the other, Jung claims, is when the mind feels most at home with itself.
Discussion of Theory Concepts
After much observation and study, Jung soon discovered that the preference between the energy of either extraversion or introversion failed to account for all the differences in behavior that exists between individuals, he developed a second layer of classification known as perception (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Divided into two groups the same as introversion and extraversion, the sensing perception includes the collecting of concrete, factual information utilizing the five senses of taste, touch, smell, hear, and see. The second includes intuitive perception defined by the connecting of the meanings behind what the sensory perception tells us; making an inference as a result of the data. Subsequently, once the mind has collected its information, this inference is then divides into Jung’s two opposing categories of judgment; including thinking and feeling (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Thinking judgment is the way in which the mind evaluates information through the application of logical and objective criteria. Feeling judgment is the way in which the mind evaluates information through the consideration of what it believes to be important. Like the attitudes attributed to energy, Jung ascertained that individuals are pre-disposed to prefer one of the four judgments/perceptions over all others.
Role of Society and Individual Differences
A conjunction between pre-disposed extraversion or introversion coupled with either thinking or feeling judgment exists (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). Through something known as type code hierarchy (synonymous with type dynamics), a therapist can work with a given client to determine the specific combination that suits their mental preferences. Extraverted sensing, is defined by active and outward focus on the world through collecting factual information and “sensory experiences” (MBTI Type Today, n.d.). Introverted sensing is defined by reflective, inward focus on sensory experiences that are subjective along with the collection of historical, factual information. Extraverted intuition is defined by active and outward focus on new possibilities and patterns in the world. Introverted intuition is defined by the reflective and inward focus on symbols, insight, meanings, and patterns derived from the unconscious. Extraverted thinking is defined by the active and outward focus on the application of logic to the world through organizational, decision making structure. Introverted thinking is defined by the reflective and inward focus on determining the principles of logic and understanding the phenomena surrounding something. Extraverted feeling is defined by the active and outward focus of delivering order to the world through the seeking and creation of harmony with surrounding individuals; keeping an open mind to previously undiscovered values. Finally, introverted feeling is defined by the reflective and inward focus of deep, emotional values that aim to establish an equilibrium between personal behavior of values and evaluating “phenomena in light of those values” (MBTI Type Today, n.d). According to Dr. Jung, one has the potential to experience fatigue and/or depletion of energy when non-dominant mental functions are utilized for too great of a time (Hall, Lindzey, 1970). I believe that Jung’s ideas were soon merged with his colleagues to create the many facets of what society dictates is the definition of personality. Indeed many are introverted or extraverted, perceptive or intuitive, but there are more layers to the brain that is explained by Jung.
Hall, C. S., & Lindzey, G. (1970). Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley.
MBIT Type Today. (n.d.). Carl Jung and Psychological Types. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Instrument. Retrieved August 26, 2016 from http://mbtitoday.org/about-the-mbti- indicator/
Research Methods in Cognitive Psychology english essay help online
Cognitive psychology, the school of psychology that researches internal mental processes, employs various methods as it examines how humans understand, diagnose, as well as solve problems and how human memory works (Cognitive Psychology, 2016). Two widely used methods of cognitive psychology are a case study and a controlled experiment. Case studies are in-depth investigations of individuals or single cases. Through the method of case study, a detailed analysis of an individual or a case is obtained. This is achieved through the use of certain data collection tools including questionnaires, interviews, and observations, etc. The data collected provides evidence which is used to disprove or support some theory because it incorporates highly detailed data. At the same time, a considerable disadvantage of this method is its subjectivity and limited generalizability (Yin, 2013).
Case study accounts in psychology, because they are based on the qualitative approach to data collection and data analysis, risk being affected by the researcher bias. In particular, researchers who work with the observed individuals often for a long time can become biased towards the patients and manipulate the findings to create ground for their theories. Sometimes, the findings reflect the researcher’s attitude to the patient, e.g. whether he/she likes the study participant or not, and are interpreted in the way that serve the researcher’s bias. Another disadvantage of the case study is difficulty of replication and limited generalizability (Yin, 2013). Case studies are used to research rare cases and single individuals over a long time in cognitive psychology and they cannot be replicated because of the individual differences among people. Also, they use inductive reasoning.
To compare, the experiment is also used in cognitive psychology to either support or disprove theories. However, the experiment uses deductive reasoning, because it verifies a hypothesis with the help of factual data represented through figures and calculations. This method lies within the quantitative paradigm and involves comparisons of (two or sometimes more) variables as they are manipulated under specific conditions. Randomized control trials (the most valid and reliable type of experiment) involve a highly representative sample of randomly assigned participants and allows establishing causal relationships between studied variables. These findings are applicable to a larger society, and they are valid and reliable evidence for the theory support or disproval. In this way, the use of experiment leads to more objective results, with greater validity and reliability; it is applicable to the society in general and can be replicated (McBride, 2010).
Hill, DelPriore, & Vaughan (2011) used the method of experiment to test new hypotheses on envy, namely how envy affects cognition with regard to attention, memory, and self-regulation. The purpose of the study was to examine whether the experience of envy increases the memory of and attention to certain advanced targets and examine how this experience affects the self-regulatory resources within those who experience envy. To achieve their aim, the authors of the study used four consecutive experiments each testing a particular hypothesis relating to the research purpose (Hill, DelPriore, & Vaughan, 2011). The samples varied from 65 and 69 participants in the third and first experiments to 187 and 152 participants in the second and fourth experiments. Using the quantitative research design and statistical methods of data analysis, the authors found that envy has significant effects on cognitive processing: it enhances both attention to and memory of information about targets and depletes one’s willingness to demonstrate persistence or exert willpower in other spheres (Hill, DelPriore, & Vaughan, 2011). In this way, Hill, DelPriore, & Vaughan (2011) confirmed the socio-functional perspective on envy as a source of shifting cognitive processes in individuals towards certain targets.
Cognitive psychology. (2016). In Columbia University & P. Lagasse, The Columbia Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/columency/cognitive_psychology/0.
Hill, S. E., DelPriore, D. J., & Vaughan, P. W. (2011). The cognitive consequences of envy: Attention, memory, and self-regulatory depletion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101 (4), 653-666.
McBride, D. (2010). The process of research in psychology. SAGE.
Yin, R. (2013). Case study research: Design and methods. SAGE Publications.
Personal Interests in Fields of Psychology english essay help online
Within the discipline of psychology, there are many fields. Each field specializes in a specific branch of psychology such as cognitive, developmental, sports, forensic, abnormal, and social psychology, to name a few. After exploring the differences between branches as outlined in Dr. Kuther’s work, which describes 13 fields of psychology, I found the fields of counseling psychology and school psychology spoke to me the most. My career in the military, along with my interest in human behavior and desire to help individuals with their problems by drawing from my own experiences, were instrumental in me choosing these two fields of psychology.
Kuther states a major element in the purpose of counseling psychology is to “help people adjust to life changes and transitions, such as divorce, remarriage, career changes, to and from college, and provide vocational assessment and career guidance”. This purpose is particularly interesting to me in a number of ways. First, with my military experience, I feel I could help individuals who are transitioning from high school into the military in knowing what to expect. Second, issues such as suicide, sexual abuse, post-traumatic stress and being away from loved ones are very relevant for military members and I have a strong interest in helping those individuals who may be suffering from any of these issues. Also, I feel the counseling psychologist’s work is very important because the counselor has such an impact on helping others transform their lives.
School psychology is also a personal interest. This specialty is rooted in both psychology and education. School psychologists have extensive knowledge of theories and research findings and in the areas of learning, effective instruction, and family and parenting processes. They also help children with academic performance, social anxiety, problems with authority, parents or teachers and problems they may be experiencing at home. This is interesting to me as I have observed that children need attention and guidance to help them in their social interactions. I believe this interaction is needed from parents as well as teachers as without it, a child will not learn the importance of socialization. Unfortunately, with technological advances, children spend way too much time in front of screens – television, phones, computers, tablets, etc., which decreases face-to-face socialization.
Counseling psychology and school psychology both seem important as well as engaging. Both fields incorporate theory and practice in their work to improve individuals’ lives. What I find interesting also is that both fields require the individual to continually improve their personal understanding and learning in order to make valuable contributions to their professional practice. In this way, the school psychologist or the counselor serve as a professional as well as a learner in improving their own understanding and helping others improve their lives. Overall, I do believe a career in psychology suits me. After reviewing the many career options available in the field of psychology, I am not sure what I will be doing within this field, but I do feel I have an intrinsic motivation to learn more about psychology and the many available career options and am confident I will find a field which aligns with my personal interests as well as with my previous experiences.
Kuther, T.L. (2006). The psychology major’s handbook, (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Gender Psychology Assignment english essay help online
First and foremost, while reading the description of the “assault,” the feelings of the individual who was indecisive were very clear and an immediate empathy was developed for this individual. Many decisions in life that may appear to be second nature to some may come as a serious and life altering concern for others. Yet, those who do not see the scenario as seriously as does the decision maker can often downplay their resistance to a mere concept of insecurity or temporary lack of certainty while still seeing the overall decision as being minimalism in comparison to other areas of life. The case of the tattoo would fall under this category as some would envision this as “art” whereas others would see it as a permanent fixture on their body to not be taken lightly. The customer was not taken the decision lightly and this appeared, to the artist, to be a waste and violation of his time. However, the end result, the permanent fixture on the body, would be the customer’s to live with and therefore the decision should also be left to the customer regardless of the considerations of the tattoo artist.
In relation to the concept of acquaintance rape, this could easily be applied in the same basic concept. Much like the tattoo artist who sees the tattoo as a natural part of life and art to not be taken too seriously, many men have the same concept of sexual intercourse. Whereas women often consider the potential permanent aspects of this type of encounter such as an unwanted pregnancy, confused relationship statuses, and the stigma that follows women in regards to having casual sexual encounters. In the case of the tattoo artist, the officer asked if the customer was directly harmed or threatened. The customer, of course, was not but the feeling that was felt by the customer could have easily been perceived as threatening.
One study, in relation to the opinions of females versus that of males in regards to acquaintance rape showed “that female participants had higher levels of empathy (RES), ascribed more credibility toward the rape victim (ARVS), and were less accepting of rape myths (RMAS) compared with their male counterparts” (Jimenez and Abreu 254). This is generally accepted as being true as the men, much like the tattoo artist, often feel that the victim gave a reasonable indication to the attacker that there was some amount of interest in continuing the sexual encounter. These findings confirmed the hypothesis of the researchers that “men are more likely than women to believe in rape myths or stereotypes, express rape-tolerant attitudes, and ascribe blame to rape victims rather than perpetrators” (Jimenez and Abreu 252).
In terms of the case study project at hand, the overall effect was well delivered as the connection between the two scenarios was easily made. The particular statement “the artist grabs hold of your arm and his grip makes you wince” made it very clear that the customer did not see any other choice but to accept the tattoo out of fear of physical violence yet the customer was left without any specific evidence or clear comprehension of that threat. Additionally, the threat of dissolving any contact makes the connection to acquaintance rape even more prominent. Perhaps the only thing that I would add would be a more direct statement of connection as men have already been established to not be able to see this connection very clearly. Something such as: “How is the right to be uncertain in one decision different than the same uncertainty in another?”
Jimenez, Jorge A., and José M. Abreu. “Race And Sex Effects On Attitudinal Perceptions Of Acquaintance Rape.” Journal Of Counseling Psychology 50.2 (2003): 252-256. PsycARTICLES. Web. 13 Apr. 2015.
Criminal Psychology english essay help online
Arson involves the criminal act of deliberately setting fire to people’s property causing damage for individual gain or reasons inclined to terrorism. However, arson the most costly crime as its result is devastating. New Hampshire State is one of the most dangerous states due to numerous criminal activities. Arson is getting to be the fastest growing criminal act in the principal cities.
Different cities in New Hampshire including Berlin and Nashua have different crime gangs that operate in various offences. Arsons are one of the many crimes committed in these towns.
The fire department in New Hampshire collects and analyzes cases that involve fire outbreaks all over the state. The department also gets involved in educating the public in fire accidents either caused by arsonists or by other means.
Nashua city in New Hampshire experiences different criminal activities. Arson is one of the major threats that lead to the states of development (Miller, 2014). Statistical data from the fire department in Nashua indicate that almost fifty individuals in a population of one hundred thousand people get victimized through arson. However, over the years, arson crime rate has reduced significantly due to increased surveillance by police officers in the city.
Nashua as a town compared to Berlin experiences almost a similar number of arson cases. In Berlin, for every one hundred people, there is the possibility that twenty people are victims of arson crime cases. However, with the number of arson cases, Berlin records a higher number than Nashua. In recent years, Berlin has been on the record for almost less than twenty cases of arson while Nashua has registered nearly double the number in Berlin.
As much as Berlin is a productive town, activities like arson lead to incurred losses. Efforts by the government to reduce the number of arson cases happening in Berlin, however, has not resulted in better outcomes due to the rise in beliefs that causing a fire is the best way of relaying out grievances (Miller, 2014). People can also burn down businesses insured against fires are burnt down so that the owner can claim from the insurance companies. It is, therefore, difficult to curb cases of arson in Berlin. Being a town with investments that involve logging and sawing, burning of forest trees is likely to affect negatively the town. When trees are burnt down, there would be no raw material for the respective industries.
Therefore, to protect the development of Berlin, there is the need to come up with strategies that will reduce the losses arising due to criminal activities (Bushway, Cook & Phillips, 2012). The revenue generated from all the business activities contribute much to the economy of New Hampshire State thus requiring the intervention of top management levels in the United States. Improving the insecurity problem within Berlin also improves investment opportunities as there will be no fear of property destruction through fires.
Causes of arson crimes are brought about by the dissatisfaction of the provided services by the prospective groups. The young generation, however, is faced with many challenges to the extent of them trying to take the law into their hands. The youthful generation finds it worth creating attention by using fires as the result is catastrophic and easily noticed by the relevant authorities (Bushway, Cook &Phillips, 2012). Moreover, due to the increased population of people more so the young, unemployment levels have also risen. This situation leaves the young group unsettled and idle leading to them indulging in criminal activities for them to acquire capital.
Meeting the costs incurred in fire cases can be devastating. Fires destroy everything it gets into contact. Therefore, getting back to the initial position of business can cost more than introducing a new company which may not be as successful as the initial one. More so, there is the need to engage the public with the dangers of fires to the economy of the state.
Bushway, S., Cook, P., and Phillips, M. (2012).The overall effect of the business cycle on crime. German Economic Review13(4): 436–446
Miller, S. (2014). Arsonist. Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.
Discussion Post: Everyday Psychology english essay help online
The fundamental attribution error is ‘the tendency to underestimate the degree to which behavior is externally caused’ (Sabini, Siepmann & Stein, 2001). The fundamental error occurs because of the way that human cognitive machinery works and is not dependent on any motivation (Sabini, Siepmann & Stein, 2001). In the 1950s social psychologists Fritz Heider and Gustav Ichhesiter started to research on the human understanding of the causes of human behavior (Gawronski, 2007). The term fundamental attribution error, however, was created by social psychologist Lee Ross only in 1977 (Gawroski, 2007). Although the peak of interest in the fundamental attribution error was in the 1970s and 1980s (Gawronski, 2007), social research still uses the term to explain economic, political and other types of social behaviors.
Individuals often make the fundamental attribution error in their everyday activities. For example, when an onlooker sees a black teenager on the street who does not speak the standard English, they might attribute this to the teenager’s laziness at school, low cognitive skills or a poor taste. However, the teenager might speak the so called black dialect only in the circle of his friends, where the respective language is valued, and be able to switch easily to the standard English. Apart from this, the teenager might be the first-generation immigrant who has gone through his second socialization in the black community in the US, where the dialect in considered to be the norm. Therefore, in these situations explaining the teenager’s behavior through his laziness or poor cognitive skills is an error.
Together with my knowledge of sociology, changes came to the way I explain people’s behavior. Whilst previously I was making the fundamental attribution error constantly, now I try to take into account the social circumstances when trying to analyze one’s appearance, behavior or attitudes. For instance, in the past, when seeing a homeless person, I would explain his or her status through his or her lack of desire to work and earn money in a way that is socially approved. This tendency to think might be explained by the fact that there is a very strong emphasis in American society on the importance of the so called ‘American dream’ with its focus on the individual’s agency in shaping his or her life. However, I was not always correct with my conclusions. A lot of external factors might explain a person’s loss of a permanent place of living, such as his or her status of refugee, the experience of domestic abuse, or the economic crisis.
Post 1: Response
The author of the post gives a short and concrete definition of the fundamental attribution error. However, it might have been helpful to give more information concerning the history of the term and studies that tested the phenomenon of the fundamental attribution error empirically. Namely, the concept of fundamental attribution error has found its wide application in economic and social research (Studiner, Klein & Kantor, 2015), which demonstrates its usefulness for society-at-large.
The author provides a good example of the fundamental attribution errors that people tend to make in real-life situations by discussing a mother in the park shouting at another parent. In addition to this, the author in their post emphasizes the importance of being aware of the fundamental attribution error in order to decrease the level of prejudice and create a platform for tolerance. Indeed, the fundamental attribution error often reinforces inequality because it creates a discourse that makes social injustices seem legitimate. It has been found, for example, that people tend to attribute homelessness to the characteristics of personality of homeless people (Furham, 1996). However, the problem of homelessness is closely related to a variety of economic and social factors that are often out of individual’s control. The fundamental attribution error might thus be helpful in terms of removing blame from unprivileged and socially disadvantaged categories of population and contributing to the increase in individual’s open-mindness.
Post 2: Response
The author of the post references Gawronksi (2007) to provide a definition of the fundamental attribution error. Whilst the definition itself is informative, it might have been helpful to explain the difference between ‘situational’ and ‘dispositional’ factors to make the definition easier for the audience to understand. The author offers an interesting example of the fundamental attribution error, discussing a three year old child who regularly demonstrates bad behavior. The author argues that whilst the real reason behind child’s misbehavior is close physical proximity to other children, the assistant teacher attributes it to the child’s temperament. Indeed, this is an example of the fundamental attribution error. However, the author also notes that ‘a three year old child cries, kicks, and screams when he separates from his mother every morning’. Proximity to other children cannot explain why the child demonstrates exactly the same behavior the moment that they get separated from their mother. Perhaps this behavior indeed can be explained by the child’s temperament, or there is a need to search for other situational factors that might have caused the respective behavior.
The author also mentions the importance of restraining yourself from making the fundamental attribution error. They argue that ‘even physical attributes can be based on situational factors and one shouldn’t assume it’s neither here nor there’. The author provides an example of a girl wearing a short hairstyle, which might be explained not only by the girl’s feminist beliefs, but also by other situational factors, such as the unpleasant experience of previous hairstyles, diseases, career requirements etc. In addition to this, it is important to note that there are certain social categories that are less or more prone to attribute a person’s behavior to their personality. For instance, Follett and Hess (2002) in their study found that middle aged cohort is less prone to the fundamental attribution error than young and older adults, which can be explained by the higher levels of cognitive complexity demonstrated by middle aged individuals, if compared to other age categories.
Follett, K. J., & Hess, T. M. (2002). Aging, Cognitive Complexity, and the Fundamental Attribution Error. Journals Of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences And Social Sciences, 57(4), P312.
Furnham, A. (1996). Attributions for the Increase in Urban Homelessness. Journal Of Social Behavior & Personality,11(1), 189-200.
Gawronski, B. (2007). Fundamental attribution error. In Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (pp. 367-369) . Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE Publications, Inc
Sabini, J., Siepmann, M., & Stein, J. (2001). Target Article: “The Really Fundamental Attribution Error in Social Psychological Research”.Psychological Inquiry, 12(1), 1-15.
Shtudiner, Z., Klein, G., & Kantor, J. (2015). Who is responsible for economic failures? Self-serving bias and fundamental attribution error in political context. Quality And Quantity, (Preprints), 1-16.
Annual Editions in Psychology Reflection english essay help online
This paper is a reflection on chapter 27 of ANNUAL EDITIONS: Psychology 13/14, Forty-Fourth Edition. “Keep Your Fingers Crossed! How Superstition Improves Performance” is the final chapter of Unit 5: Cognitive Processes and was co-authored by Lysann Damisch, Barbara Stoberock and Thomas Mussweiler. This chapter was chosen because I think that just about everyone has an interest in irrational behavior such as those represented by superstitious behavior. I am interested it and looked forward to what the chapter had to offer on the subject of how superstitious acts can vary. I always find it humorous whenever someone says they are not superstitious because what they usually mean is that they won’t avoid walking under a ladder or taking something with the number 13 on it. On the other hand, they don’t appear to consider references to having good or bad luck to be superstitious.
The chapter opens with high-profile examples of that utterly irrational kind of behavior most people think of as being superstitious when asserting that they believe it: Michael Jordan wearing his college basketball team shorts under his professional uniform throughout his career, for example, and Tiger Woods always wearing a red shirt on golf tournament Sundays. Perhaps it was the extraordinary success of high performance athletes like Jordan and Woods that stimulated the hypothesis presented by the authors that engaging in superstitious behavior (regardless of the irrationality level) actually did produce a quantifiably positive effect on performance. I’m sure even the average reader could make a fairly decent guess at where the actual psychological basis this hypothesis was heading: that good old standby known as the power of positive thinking. The average person may knock on wood or toss salt over the shoulder or even hang a rabbit’s food from the rear view mirror inside their car, but they don’t actually invest those things with the power to bring about results. This chapter was clearly going to be about taking superstition to that next level and it didn’t take a scientific experiment to predict that the overriding factor at play from a psychological perspective was going to be that the more you believe in the superstition, the greater the likelihood of a measurable effect. What maintained my interest was how they would go about creating a control in order to produce any measurable data.
As this is a reflection paper, I must admit to an initial sense of disappointment in the methodology they ultimately chose. Essentially, the experiment volunteers were asked to putt a golf ball which had been handed to them with either the directive that the ball had proven lucky during prior use or that it was the same ball everyone had used and as such contained neither positive or negative properties.
Things began to take a more interesting turn with a second experiment involving manual dexterity performed either under conditions involving the activation of a good luck phrase or the absence of the phrase in the control group that I can only hope—but doubt—was less complicated and confusing than the description given in the text. Experiment 3 was even more fascinating as it relied on volunteers who admitted to having a lucky charm of some sort being tested on their performance while in possession of the object and without possession of the object. In both cases, the superstition yield higher achievement in performance. A fourth experiment greatly expanded upon thesis by indicating expectations of better performance when a lucky superstition was invoked than when it was denied.
As expected, the experiment essentially confirmed what is likely a rather universal expectation that the link between better performance and the use of superstition is essentially related to the power of positive thinking. Which is why the single most interesting aspect of this chapter for me had nothing to do with the performance level exhibited by the participants, but rather how invoking the power of superstition impacted their persistence on task in which they attempted to locate as many anagrams as possible from a given letter set (D, S, E, T, N, R, I, and E). Perhaps the only aspect of the experiment that the average reader might not have foreseen is that investing belief in a superstition also impacts the level of persistence one applies to performing a task as well as increasing expectations and performance itself
Damisch, L., Stoberock, B., & Mussweiler, T. (2013). Keep Your Fingers Crossed! How Superstition Improves Performance. In ANNUAL EDITIONS: Psychology 13/14, Forty-Fourth Edition (pp. 125-130). McGraw-Hill.
Cognitive Psychology english essay help online
Definition: Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is a psychology disciplines that entails the study on the manner by which information is processed by people. It involves the understanding on how people process information they receive and also how they treat the received information leading to relevant responses to a particular situation. Alternatively, the interest of cognitive psychology is to understand the actions of human minds that associate response and stimulus (Kellogg, 2015). Cognitive psychologists carry out studies on the internal processes of a person including attention, memory, language, thinking, and perception. The cognitive psychologists ask questions such as how people receive information regarding the outside world, how people solve problems, how people store and also process information, how the breakdown in people’s perceptions lead to errors in their thinking, and how errors in people’s thinking result in negative behaviors and emotional distress.
Cognitive psychology is problem-focused and goal-oriented from the start. It commonly makes use of laboratory experiment in studying behavior. The use of laboratories is due to the fact that the cognitive approach is scientific. For instance, the various participants for the experiment will participate in memory tests in conditions which are strictly under control. However, the popularly utilized laboratory experiment has faced criticism because it lacks ecological validity (Anderson, 2005). Cognitive psychologists have used the concept of information processing as a model for studying the working of human thoughts. Computer analogy is using computers as a tool to think how the minds of people handle information. A number of assumptions are employed when using the information processing approach such as information available from environment is processed through many processing systems such as perception, attention, short-term memory; the processing systems change or transform information in organized ways; and human information processing is similar to that in computers (Anderson, 2005).
Cognitive psychology theories
Cognitive psychology has three main theories. The first is rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) developed by Albert Ellis. The theory basically assumes that an individual contributes to their own psychological issues as well as symptoms through their interpretations. The rational emotive behavior therapy is concerned to uncover the irrational beliefs leading to the development of unhealthy and negative emotions (Kellogg, 2015). In addition, it carries out an examination of this relationship by the use of A-B-C framework.
The second theory is called cognitive therapy (CT) developed by Aaron Beck from the research he carried out about depression. Aaron observed that a large number of depressed individuals interpret life events negatively. Ultimately, Aaron assumed that how an individual feels is lined to the manner they perceive their experiences (Kellogg, 2015). Furthermore, cognitive psychology gives a suggestion that the cause of psychological distress is distorted thoughts in regard to stimuli triggering emotional suffering.
The third cognitive theory is known as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) developed by Donald Meichenbaum. Cognitive behavior modification (CBM) is a therapeutic technique developed by Donald. The technique concentrates on the identification of negative self-talk for the purpose of changing or altering the unwanted behaviors (Kellogg, 2015). The development of cognitive behavior modification was through the merging of cognitive therapy with behavior therapy. It stresses the correlated connections between emotions, behavior, and thoughts.
In a nutshell, cognitive psychology is a psychology disciplines that involves the study on the manner by which information is processed by people. It also involves the understanding on how people process information they receive and also how they treat the received information leading to relevant responses to a particular situation. Cognitive psychology is problem-focused and goal-oriented from the start and it commonly makes use of laboratory experiment in studying behavior. The three theories of cognitive psychology are rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), cognitive therapy (CT), and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Cognitive psychology has basically helped in understanding how people think and the internal process involved in their mind.
Anderson, J. (2005). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications. Macmillan
Kellogg, R. (2015). Fundamentals of Cognitive Psychology. SAGE Publications
Trump Executive Order english essay help online
President Trump’s executive order “Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States.” temporary bans the refugees and the visitors from seven countries due to concerns about deteriorating conditions. The ban includes the suspension of the U.S. Refugee Admissions Program (USRAP) for 120 days though it does make exceptions for applicants from minority religions in their native countries. The President also expects a detailed report from the Secretary of Homeland Security within 30 days. The executive order also calls upon the relevant authorities to further improve the vetting process to prevent the entry of individuals seeking to harm the American interests. The executive order claims the U.S. will not accept more than 50,000 refugees in the fiscal year 2017. The U.S. Secretary of State has been directed to issue non-immigrant visas to foreign nationals on the basis of their respective governments’ treatment of American nationals. The executive order requires the data on terrorism activities and other crimes by the foreign nationals to be published for general public consumption on a regular basis. These crimes may include radicalization, violence against women, and honor killings .
The executive order makes an exception for non-Muslim refugees. This is unconstitutional because the executive order makes distinction among the refugees on the basis of religious affiliation and religious tests violate the spirit of the U.S. Constitution. The order calls for an improvement in the vetting process. This might have made sense if the vetting process in the U.S. was not already extreme and if any past incidents had exposed the inadequacy of the current vetting measures. The executive order calls for limiting the number of refugees in the current year to 50,000. This is a disappointing figure not only due to the strong immigration tradition of the country but also due to the proportionally large number of refugees that have been taken by some European countries, especially, Germany. Moreover, the U.S. also has a moral and ethical obligation to take in more refugees because its foreign policy and military interventions have, directly or indirectly, led to the refugee crisis in many countries on the ban list including Syria and Iraq. The executive order also includes unnecessary components that will only harm America’s image in the world. The U.S already collects local data on terrorism and other crimes and much of this data is publicly accessible. By specifically focusing on the foreign nationals, Trump Administration comes across as anti-immigrant. It may send unintentional messages such as the terrorist act by a foreign national being somehow more despicable than the terrorist act by a local resident.
The executive order by President Trump is not only poorly designed but has also been shaped by inaccurate beliefs. The executive order bans refugees from seven countries while making exceptions for religious minorities. It calls upon the need to improve the vetting process even though the U.S. vetting process is already quite thorough and effective. The executive order also has anti-immigrant elements that will only harm America’s political and social goodwill in the world. It adopts confrontational attitude even in the issuance of nonimmigrant visas. The executive order will not weaken by enhance the security threats to Americans. It will alienate the foreign nationals within the U.S. as well as Muslims outside the U.S whose support America needs to achieve its foreign policy objectives. The ban will only embolden the extremists elements within Islam who have long claimed America is hostile towards Muslims. Last but not least, it is unconstitutional as well as disrespectful towards America’s long tradition of embracing the immigrants and the refugees.
The New York Times. Full Executive Order Text: Trump’s Action Limiting Refugees Into the U.S. 27 January 2017. 3 February 2017 .