The number of child victims trafficked worldwide for sexual exploitation or cheap labour on an annual basis is 1. 2 million. 1 Human trafficking, the third largest international crime, following illegal drugs and arms trafficking, is believed to be worth billions of dollars each year. Driving the trade is the demand for commercial sexual exploitation. Seventy-nine per cent of all global trafficking is for sexual exploitation. 2 Forced marriages are generally made because of family pride, the wishes of the parents, or social obligation.
In much of Pakistan, marriage clearly is imposed on women against their will. Those brave enough to complain to the courts or run from their homes are hunted down by their families and forced to return or, all too frequently, murdered to restore a distorted sense of honour. The police usually turn a blind eye. Vanni, an ancient tribal practice in which feuding clans settle their differences by exchanging women for marriage, is illegal in Pakistan. The United Nations views forced marriage as a form of human rights abuse, since it violates the principle of the freedom and autonomy of individuals.
They settle disputes, restore honor, win forgiveness, and turn mostly minor girls—some as young as 5 years old—into servant-mistresses. Tribal jirgas, or assemblies, order the unions. One girl above the age of 7 or two girls younger than that are an acceptable compensation for, say, murder. The girls become the property of the victim’s family. One of the main problems in tackling child sexual abuse is getting acknowledgement of its existence but, for most Pakistanis, this is a taboo subject. “We live in a country where people find talking about sex and sexuality shameful.
Good people simply don’t want to talk about it, which of course provides a dilemma ripe for denial,” Talking about sex in the conservative Pakistani society is taboo; nevertheless, sexual violation and exploitation of children is happening. Pakistan has recently passed laws greatly limiting child labor and indentured servitude — but those laws are universally ignored, and some 11 milion children, aged four to fourteen, keep that country’s factories operating, often working in brutal and squalid conditions To be sure, child labor is an institution throughout the Third World,
Child labour is a violation of fundamental human rights and has been shown to hinder children’s development. the National Child Labour survey ( 1 ), conducted in 1996 by the Federal Bureau of Statistics, found 3. 3 million of the 40 million children (in the 5-14 years age group) to be economically active ( 2 ) on a full-time basis. Of the 3. 3 million working children, 73 per cent (2. 4 million) were boys and 27 per cent (0. 9 million), girls. Children’s contribution to work in rural areas is about eight times greater than in urban areas.
The number of economically active children in the 10-14 years age group is more than four times the children in the 5-9 years age group. those who cannot go to schools due to financial problems, they only watch others go to schools and can merely wish to seek knowledge. It is due to many hindrances and difficulties; desperate conditions that they face in life. Having been forced to kill their aspirations, dreams and other wishes, they are pressed to earn a living for themselves and for their families.
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Internal control is the method put into place by a company to be sure the integrity of financial and accounting information, meets operational, profitability targets, and transmit management policies throughout the organization (Investopedia). Control deficiency is the result of the design or operation of the control not allowing management, employees to prevent, or correct financial misstatements (Ken Plessner CPA). Material weakness occurs with the possibility of the material misstatement not being prevented, detected, and corrected on a timely basis (Ken Plessner CPA).
Significant deficiency requires attention by those in charge but is not as severe as material weakness (Ken Plessner CPA). SAS 115 allows the practitioners to more effectively use their judgment when they become aware of and determine the severity of the deficiency found. If it is determined the deficiency is severe enough, they will report it in writing, to management, and administration (Ken Plessner CPA). Benefits of the changes As with SAS 112, SAS 115 promotes clients understanding of their organization’s internal control weaknesses, which can benefit them in several ways, including (Thomas J.
Ryan): * Written communication clarifies identified deficiencies determined to be significant or material weaknesses so management can weigh the risks and determine how they will be addressed. * Management addressing the deficiencies may result in reduced risks to the business because of financial reporting processes and controls being improved. This will also lead to more efficient audits moving forward. * Fraud may be deterred when higher internal controls are attained due to the identification of significant deficiencies and material weaknesses. As a result of managements heightened awareness and education on internal control, a client will be more confident with the internal control of financial reporting. Conclusion The changes put into place by replacing SAS 112 with SAS 115 give Certified Public Accounts (CPA) better ability to judge the severity of internal control deficiencies or material weaknesses that arise during an audit. The CPA’s, in turn will be able better to communicate the found deficiencies to the organizations being audited. As a result they can better assist their clients in obtaining constancy, accuracy, and better administrative practices (Ken Plessner CPA).
Works Cited Investopedia. (n. d. )
Why Religion Should Be Kept Out of Sublic Schools writing essay help: writing essay help
These practices still continue today with various religious groups taking stronger and more creative ways to infiltrate the public school systems of America. Another, more recent example of these tactics is that of a group of creationism advocates in Louisiana who took school science books and pasted disclaimers in them slighting evolution concepts and praising creation of man from God. This attempt to change school curriculum also failed in the courts due to it not being a separation of church and state (Boston).
The last example actually rules in favor of a religious activity where a group of students asked if they could use a class room to hold a prayer group during lunch. This passed in the court because it was the students asking, it wasn’t taking place during normal class time and it was voluntary whether a student went or not (Mead, Green, Oluwule). The following essay will strive to give facts from both sides including different court verdicts and it will also show how the courts have upheld the First-Amendment and freedom of religion rights.
Religion should not be allowed in public schools for the simple fact that America has had so many court cases in which they have had to uphold the constitution in reference to the first amendment which clearly states the separation of church and state. Since 1948 the Supreme Court has heard and decided on 13 cases that presented questions such as whether and under what circumstances religious doctrine or prayer should have in America’s public schools as an accommodation to individual beliefs. Mead, Green, Oluwule) There are three types of cases that seem most likely to go up before the Supreme Court multiple times in regards of religion in the public school system. (Botson) These are 1. ) Cases involving the controversy of evolution versus Intelligent Design being taught in classes. 2. ) Cases involving student led prayer during class times, at ceremonial functions such as graduations, or in the schools locker room before a game. 3. ) Cases involving the constitutionality of the pledge of allegiance being said in classrooms.
The first of these cases was touched on in the before stated paragraph where it was shown to what lengths activists will go to get their beliefs integrated into the public school systems and why they failed (Boston). The second case, also discussed briefly in the before mentioned paragraph deals with prayer in schools but doesn’t talk about ceremonial prayer. Graduation ceremonies often include prayer by a student, faculty, and deans or in some cases outside clergy whom were brought in by the school (Boston). Should prayers be allowed at these ceremonies?
In 1992 the Supreme Court had to consider this question, in the case of Lee vs. Weismann (1992), when students complained about the prayer which was to take place at their graduation, the school defended its decision by telling students their attendance was optional even though they were still expected to attend their own graduation. The court rejected this argument stating that it was an exercise of formalism and characterized it as one that exacted too high a price for dissent. They also cited that prayer at a graduation was only one view of civic religion.
However in the case of a valedictorian to include a prayer in his speech was deemed excusable because it was a student’s speech and he wasn’t an employee of the school (state) (Mead, Green, Oluwule). The third and toughest case, due to its historical and patriotic nature and the reference to god in its orientation are cases involving the Pledge of Allegiance. One such case took place in California where a teacher attempted to the use of the Pledge of Allegiance to push his view of religion to his students.
He asked his students what significance Gods role was in the pledge and what his importance was. When parents complained to the school board that he should be teaching not preaching, he decided to take it to court. Backed by the A. D. F. (Alliance Defense Fund), their goal wasn’t to win but to give public schools a bad rap concerning religion and the schools non-tolerated view. They were hoping people would only hear half the story, “did you hear about that school somewhere that banned the Pledge of Allegiance? This attempt failed and their case denied due to the Pledge of Allegiance’s standing on patriotcal and historical significances. (Declaration on Deceit: The Truth about the ADF’s attack on Public Schools) Some other facts that give credence to the difficult decision the courts must make on this issue is one case involving Elisha R. Potter of Rhode Island who was the Commissioner of public schools from 1850 thru 1854, stated that “The public school system is supported, and the house built, by money collected by force of laws from people of all religions, and people of no religion”.
What he is saying here is if a state was to allow religion in its schools, the use of public funds would be fostering a religious practice (Flaherty). An additional fact based on majority rule is that cited in Engel, by Madison (1785),”It is proper to take alarm at the first experiment on our liberties… Who does not see that the same authority which can establish Christianity, in exclusion of all other religions, may establish with the same ease any particular sect of Christians, in exclusion of all sects? With the way our government works, all the people in that state would be paying for a religious view that not all the people share which violates the sensibilities of others (Flaherty). Should majority rule take place over personal liberties? In the Supreme Court case of Abington school district Vs. Schemp in1963 Justice Thomas Clark presented the majority decision stating that “the idea of impartiality of the state does not mean the consent of the majority is enough to require the observance of a particular exercise”.
Meaning just because a community may be mostly catholic they still don’t have the right to force their views or observance of a particular religion on others who do not share their views. Judge Clark also made it quite clear that the court had no ambition to dispute the literary or historical value of the bible, so long as its reading was not as a religious exercise (Mead, Green, Oluwule). With the United States allure and fundamental values and a base of freedom, such as Freedom of Religion, isn’t it easy to see why it is so important to keep religion and schools separate.
The First Amendment provides us that “the government maintains strict neutrality, neither aiding nor opposing religion”. Yet, there are still strong right sided activist who would see their views as the only view. This is what private schools are for, whether you are Catholic, Baptist, and Non-Devotional or Hindu, there are private schools for all these. If it is that important to teach your child religion at the same time they learn math, English, geography and science use your choices and send our child to a private school. For if we allow religious practices in our public schools there’s no telling what Billy or Suzy could be taught, Satanism, maybe it is considered a religion. With the pushing of ever bodies own ideologies and views we’ve forgotten what makes this country great, that is liberty regardless of sex, color, creed, beliefs or birth right, you still have the right to be you, not what someone else tells you that you have to be.
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Introduction: when thinking about how the world works IR scholars usually subscribe to one of two dominant theories, realism or liberalism. One, classical/neo-realist thought, is more pessimistic about the prospects of peace, cooperation, and human progress whilst the other, liberalism/idealism, is more upbeat and sanguine about human nature and human possibilities. In this lecture, we examine each worldview in depth… at the end I’d like you to think about which, if any, view you subscribe to… II. International Relations Theory A. What is theory? One word often used to describe theory is “paradigm”.
According to Ray and Kaarbo, a paradigm is simply a way of thinking about and approaching an area of scientific or scholarly inquiry that is widely accepted within a particular discipline. 1. In other words, a paradigm provides a simplified map of reality; it takes the complexity of the real world and reduces it to a core set of assumptions that make global events that seem so isolated, unrelated and complicated more comprehensible. 2. So thats what theory and paradigms are all about: they help us systematize and simplify a very complicated world. Good theory is generally simple (see Ockham’s Razor…
William of Ockham said [a long time ago! ] that “when you have two competing theories that make exactly the same predictions, the simpler one is the better. “), accurate, and elegant. -William of Ockham 3. Note that to be valuable, a paradigm of world politics needn’t explain every event. This is b/c theory, by nature, simplifies reality so that certain things are missed. This simply can’t be helped. 4. Ray and Kaarbo (p4) make the point that studying theories “allows students of international relations to analyze global politics in the future, long after they finish reading this book or taking courses on the subject.
When students learn only history or contemporary issues… their knowledge of global politics is limited in time because new issues and events are always arising. ” In short, by studying theories of IR, you will be able to see events in a broader, more analytical, more systematic framework rather than a limited and time bound one… analytically, that’s vital. 5. In this lecture we will be examining two dominant paradigms in world politics: Realism and Liberalism (along with sub-theories within the same larger paradigm) III. The Realist Worldview A.
Let’s start with a quote from Thomas Hobbes (1651), whom many characterize as probably the major citidel of the modern theory we call classical realism: -The stylish Mr. Hobbes – Cover of his seminal work, “Leviathan” “Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man… To this war of every man against every man, this also is consequent: that nothing can be unjust.
The notion of right and wrong, justice and injustice, have there no place. Where there is no common power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice. Force and fraud are in war the two cardinal virtues. ” 1. You should note from the above that realism embraces a more pessimistic view of world politics, state relations, and the possibility of “perpetual peace”… That’s why I started with this b/c Hobbes’ more pessimistic view of the world really underscores the theory we call classical realism (and which is now called structural/neo realism) B.
Definitions and Description of Realist Theory. 1. According to professors Kegley & Wittkopf (31), classical realism is “a paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially and unchangeably a struggle among self-interested states for power and position under anarchy, with each competing state pursuing its own national interests” 2. Ray and Kaarbo (p4) write that realism is “a theoretical perspective for understanding intl. relations that emphasizes states as the most important actor in global politics, the anarchical nature of the intl. ystem, and the pursuit of power to secure states’ interests. ” 3. The founding father of this theory is the Greek historian Thucydides, who wrote the seminal account of the war between Athens and Sparta. In his history of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides argues that the war broke out b/c Athens was concerned about Sparta’s growing power. His writings greatly influenced theorists and statemen alike through the next two thousand years, including the modern proponents (Morgenthau, Kissinger, Waltz, James et al) of classical and neo-realism… 4.
In short and in sum, realists see international relations as driven by the unrelenting and competitive pursuit of power by states in the effort to secure state interests. 5. For realists, the most important source of power is military capability, and the acquisition and use of that military capability makes the realists’ world one prone to violence and warfare. 6. At the core of this theory is that world politics takes place within a context of anarchy (ie the absence of world govt. which is different than how the world of domestic politics functions), which Thomas Hobbes likens to a state of nature.
In this state of nature, Hobbes argues that because there are no rules, no laws, no enforcement mechanisms etc, that conflict turns into war (he calls it a perpetual “war of all against all”) which is why INSIDE countries, people consent (ie the so-called social charter) to live under a government that makes and enforces laws, order, security, etc. In this state, people don’t have absolute freedom BUT they sacrifice some liberty to that govt. in order to get order and security… 7. In world politics, we don’t have this, ergo, realists argue that we live in a “state of nature”, or in a world of perpetual conflict.
Therefore, the violence, chaos, death and destruction that often accompany world politics reflect the “war of all against all” that intl. anarchy directly implies… 8. Realists also assume that states, or countries, are the “key actors and determine what happens in the world” (Ray and Kaarbo: 5). Ray and Kaarbo (p. 5) add that “states can, if they choose, control all other actors, according to realism. ” 9. State interests, rather than human rights or ideological preferences, are the reason behind every state action. Ray and Kaarbo (p. 5) suggest that “it is the maximization of power that is in a state’s interest.
Thus, everything a state does can be explained by its desire to maintain, safeguard, or increase its power in relation to other states. ” 10. In the world of anarchy and state sovereignty, there is no higher authority to impose order, and there is no intl. 911 number for states to call when their interests are threatened. States must therefore provide for their own defense and protection. Realists refer to this effort by states to defend their own interests as SELF-HELP (usually though the acquisition of military capacity or joining alliances… ) 11. In short and in sum, without an “intl. orld authority, they must look out for their own interests” which realists suggest is all about securing and maintaining their power. To realists, this is the only rational way to behave in an anarchic intl. realm… 12. The implications of all of the above for realists is somewhat obvious: war is inevitable… this is b/c in a world with no higher power to impose order and resolve disputes, with almost 200 sovereign actors looking to defend their interests via self-help, and where efforts at self-help and self-defense can threaten other actors in the system, states sometimes need to use force to resolve disputes with other states… 3. Realists conclude a few other things–the possibility of cooperation and change is limited, that world politics is not primarily about good and evil, that power trumps justice, and that the road to order lies through the balance of power… a. Ray and Kaarbo site Saddam Hussein’s invasion of Kuwait as an example of how states act to maximize their power above all else… C. The core of classical realist theory is best summarized in the form of 10 assumptions: 1.
People are by nature narrowly selfish and ethically flawed 2. Of all people’s evil ways, none are more prevalent or dangerous than their instinctive lust for power and their desire to dominate others 3. The possibility of eradicating these instincts is a utopian “pipedream” 4. International politics is a struggle for power, “a war of all against all” 5. The primary objective of every state–the goal to which all other objectives should be subordinated to–is to promote its NATIONAL INTERESTS 6.
The anarchical nature of the intl system dictates that states acquire sufficient military capabilities to deter attack by potential enemies and to exercise influence over others 7. Economics is less relevant to ntl security than is military might 8. Allies might increase a state’s ability to defend itself, but their loyalty and reliability should never be assumed 9. States should NEVER entrust the task of self-protection to intl security organizations or intl law 10. If all states seek to maximize power, stability will result by maintaining a balance of power
IV. The Liberal Worldview A. As in classical realist theory, I will start the discussion of liberalism with a quote from one of the founders of this paradigm, Immanuel Kant (1795): -The perspicacious Dr. Kant -Kant’s towering “Toward Perpetual Peace” “But the homage which each state pays (at least in words) to the concept of law proves that there is slumbering in man an even greater moral disposition to become master of the evil principle in himself (which he cannot disclaim) and to hope for the same from others…
For these reasons there must be a league of a particular kind, which can be called a league of peace (foedus pacificum), and which would be distinguished from a treaty of peace (pactum pacis) by the fact that the latter terminates only one war, while the former seeks to make an end of all wars forever. ” 1. You should note from the above that liberalism, or idealist theory, embraces a more optimistic view of world politics, state relations, and the possibility of “perpetual peace”… That’s why I started with this quote by Kant’s more optimistic view of the world. B.
Definitions and Description of Liberal Theory 1. According to Kegley & Wittkopf (2006: 28), liberalism is “a paradigm predicated on the hope that the application of reason and universal ethics to international relations can lead to a more orderly, just, and cooperative world, and that international anarchy [lack of a hierarchy/world government] and war can be policed by institutional reforms that empower international organizations and laws” 2. Ray and Kaarbo (p. 7) define intl. liberalism as “a theorectical perspective emphasizing interdependence between states and substate actors as the key haracteristic of the intl. system. ” 3. Liberalism, or what many also call idealism/idealist theory, can be traced back to Kant’s “Toward Perpetual Peace” though more recently, in the period b/n WWI and WWII, the major intellectual challenger to the realist paradigm was idealism. Idealists questioned many of the basic tenets of realism and suggested that it would be possible to transform the world of power seeking and war into one in which peace and cooperation among states might prevail… 4.
Idealism, in contrast to realism, suggests a well-intentioned but utopian perspective that realists believe was out of touch with how the real world actually works… which is why the word idealism was shelved for the world liberalism, which couldn’t be tarred as fuzzy headed and out of touch… 5. Unlike realists, liberals believe that significant global cooperation is possible and that we can move beyond the power politics at the heart of the realist paradigm. 6. For liberals, the key assumption is that peace and cooperation among states can produce absolute gains for all.
As long as your state is better off as a result of cooperating with others, the gains of others should not matter… realists are only concerned with relative gains (why intl. trade isn’t the end all be all for classical realists, esp. if you will empower a rival) 7. BTW, whilst Kant argued that the natural state of humankind is one of war and conflict he also importantly suggested a state of peace can be established. He argues that this “perpetual peace” can be established, esp. through the (1) the creation of a loose “federation of free states” whose members were committed to maintaining intl. rder and security, (2) the “spirit of commerce” which in Kant’s view is “incompatible with war” and which “sooner or later gains the upper hand in every state”, and (3) the creation of republican govts in which executive power is checked by an independent legislature 8. Liberals argue that realist explanations of anarchy and self-help are wrong b/c they miss the REAL nature of world politics in the modern world: COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE, which has become the “dominant feature of global politics” (Ray and Kaarbo: 9). a.
Complex interdependence means that there are multiple channels among a variety of actors in intl. politics. b. Where realists see states as the only important actors, liberals see a world where there are a variety of non-state actors (such as multi-national corporations, intergovernmental organizations, and governmental organizations), share the world stage with countries. c. They also argue that multiple issues, not just military security, are vital to the global agenda… C. Modern Liberalism based on the following set of assumptions: 1. Human nature is essentially “good” 2.
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The Impact of Financial crisis of 2007 on the USA Economy Names Mohammed AlAjmi MANSOUR AL-AHMADI OMAR AL-AL-SHAIKH HUSSAIN AL-ALI ABDULLAH AL-AMER YOUSEF ABABUTAIN Course Fin 410 Prepared for Dr. Ahmed Khalifa Date 20th of December 2011 4492 words Table of Contents I Financial Crisis and Its Causes 1 II Macroeconomic variables 3 A. GDP 3 B. Unemployment 7 C. Inflation11 D. Exports and Imports13 II. Government efforts to overcome the crisis13 A. Government bailout 13 B.
Government stimulus package14 IV. Federal reserve 15 A. Interest rates15 V. Conclusion18 Financial Crisis and Its Causes: Several debates have been raised concerning the causes of the recent financial crisis. Analysts and policy makers alike have come up with different theorems that seek to explain why the financial crisis occurred and why it had such a broad and long-lasting impact. The US economic sectors are expected to continue experiencing the effects of this crisis for years to come.
The crisis has been attributed to various causes including: inefficient credit rating agencies, the 2005 US housing bubble, systemic risk caused by a lax in credit control regulations, government imposed subprime lending, shadow or parallel banking systems, increased mortgage fraud and underwriting, poor securitization, and increased risk taking behaviors by financial institutions. The U. S Federal Reserve offered constructive environment for banks by reduced the lending interest rates in 2008.
Large amount of loans were taken by people therefore, increased economy liquidity because of increase in good prices. The money flow in the economy replicated in the whole banking segment, thus reduced the lending interest rates. To start with, the failure of some major sectors, contributed to the financial crisis in US. These sectors include mortgaging industry and shadow banking industries, which were favored by the rules of Federal Reserve of the US. The stability of most productive industry; mortgaging industry, greatly determined the status of the U.
S economy. Therefore, any descending minor change in it could cause many disturbances in the economy. The demand for houses became extremely high in the year2008, because of the comfortable lending rules of the Federal Reserve, which encouraged the borrowing of more money by the mortgage firms to at reduced rates. Before long, credit firms started lending mortgages to each potential purchaser. That promoted the demand for houses, and therefore more people rented mortgages, even those with unstable financial base, were still issued the mortgages.
So, majority of the mortgage firms were lending with assumption that if a borrower was unsuccessful in making the payment, they could sell their houses to recover the cash. Of course, this was a better idea, but it was ideal to some situations. A crisis occurred when the mortgages were finally adjusted upwards. It became difficult for the borrowers who had been lend the mortgages from firms and those who had borrowed money from the bank for housing purposes to pay (Shiller, 2008). Most of the borrowers were incapable of paying their debts, this lead to losses in mortgage firms, and other institutions, which can give loans such as banks.
It became so difficult for the Mortgage firms to resell their clients’ houses since the liquidity positions of all the monetary institutions had been already immensely affected. There were inadequate finances in all economic institutions thus the decline of the economy. Overestimations of prospect house prices was done during the 2007/2008 financial period, where they expected arise in housing price therefore majoring most of the investments in that sector, which eventually flooded leading to excessive supply of materials with a limited demand.
This greatly affected the economic status of US, which requires further concentration in order to become stable. The shadow banking industry, which comprises of non-depository banks and financial institutions also, has weight on the economy of United States. This is where the investors loan and then after some time they demand their funds back. The industry’s down fall was a puff to the economy because less investors did little investment to these financing institutions in the year 2007, thus contributing to their eventual collapse (Pinyo, 2008).
In addition to this, a leading financial services company of Lehman Brothers also declined causing a crisis in New York Stock Exchange and equity markets in the year 2008 (Canstar, 2009). The Wall Street activities of Lehman Brothers directly affect the global economy. The U. S government was forced to assist some leading banks that were entangled in the economic crisis. The government came up with strategies such as a$1 trillion financial plan bundle, which was aimed at stimulating the already declined economy as many banks were running on losses.
There was reduced borrowing which implied that there was no profits which could be made by banks for the few day to come, which further, frustrated the already terrible condition of the U. S economy (Shiller, 2008). It is not just the investors’ confidence that brought the economy down, but also the consumer’s confidence declined, as they were not sure of what could happen with the economy. Still, the Federal Reserve became more responsive by injecting more funds into the economy as stocks on the U. S market became more unstable, though it has not saved the situation much as the investors had already lost confidence in the stocks market.
Macroeconomic variables (2002-2011) GDP There was reduced economic growth in USA due to the crisis. Causes for the decline in economic growth ranged from falling revenues for the government to increased government expenditure. This means that the government was putting more money into areas that may not have been planned for. The real estate industry is also one of the drivers of the economy. Its strong growth had supported the continued growth of the country and its economy prior to the financial crisis. The start of the crisis brought the industry to its knees. The country suffered greatly from the reduced prices of the assets.
Despite the low prices, the demand for the assets also plummeted during this period and this meant that the income and other revenue that was gained from this sector were reduced. In addition, investors stopped putting their money in the real estate fearing that they would lose their money. The growth of the economy, which was supported by the development of the real estate business, was in danger since the credit markets could not provide loans to the investors. Investors lost confidence in the financial sector of the country when the government bailed out a bank.
The loss of confidence by the investors meant that the government had little foreign exchange and this led to slowed growth and increases in prices of commodities. With limited input from the investors, the country was bound to suffer from decreased spending by the public. This was due to high prices of commodities. Consumers, in such times, only purchase the necessary items and cut spending on luxurious items. Reduced consumer spending can have devastating effects on the economy of a country as it can reduce the cash available in the market.
This was the case in USA and the government had to redirect its funding to other areas in order to ensure that people were protected from the crisis. The economic growth of USA during this period was expected to be almost zero although some analysts were more pessimistic and forecast negative growth. The result was spending on areas that the government may not have anticipated. The result was reduced spending in development and more input into short term measures such as food security. This meant that some aspects of economic growth had been neglected and hence the decreased economic growth in the country. he following the graph showing national GDP changes Year| GDP growth rate| 2002| 2. 45%| 2003| 3. 10%| 2004| 4. 40%| 2005| 3. 20%| 2006| 3. 20%| 2007| 2%| 2008| 1. 10%| 2009| -2. 90%| 2010| 2. 80%| (Data 360, 2011) Regression Statistics| R Square| 39%| Standard Error| 0. 01740197| Before the crisis| 3. 20%| Effect of the crisis| -2. 50%| P-value| 6. 70%| Mean| 2. 15%| Equation| y=3. 2%-2. 5%x+1. 7%| As we can see from the regression statistics the impact of the crisis on GDP growth rate is insignificant and 39% of the variation of in the GDP growth rate is explained by the financial crisis Unemployment-
There was an upward-adjustment in unemployment figures in the United States spelled fear among many people. Lack of a stable job indeed presents a challenge to the entire population, as unemployment and crime are closely associated. Many youths sprawling around aimlessly made the already devastated lives of many Americans even harder as they braced themselves for the inevitable. To some extent, it was not their desire to live as criminals but the tough living conditions just left them with no options, courtesy of the greed of a few mortgage lenders who put their interest before that of the nation.
Walking to work or home, hiring a taxi or using public transport were common scenes in United States for the past two years. As stated earlier, everything had to be prioritized due to the ailing economy, which affected directly and negatively on everyone’s income. Considering the cost of fueling a private car in comparison to the use of public transport, it was much cheaper to use public transport and instead abandon the car at home, a car that had become a burden! After all, every single cent matters in an economy that is experiencing recession.
Oil producing and exporting countries in Asia (Middle East), Africa (such as Nigeria, Algeria, and Angola) and Latin America felt the effect too as the demand for oil decreased, resulting in a drop in oil prices. A number of African families had a firsthand experience of what a financial crisis in U. S means. Africans working in U. S regularly send part of their earnings back home. However, since the financial crisis struck in early 2008, many African families have not received any money from their relatives working in the U.
S. Any remittances back home were in minute proportions (Mvunganyi, 2010). The African economies also benefit from foreign currencies send by families working in U. S. A hence a reduction in remittances had a negative effect on such economies. The economic crisis was not simple and its effects remain evident presently. In fact, it is not just on the side of human beings that the crisis was felt; animals too felt the wrath of the limping economy. It has become harder for employees to advance at their place of work.
According to Reuter’s Zieminski, majority of the employees in U. S and in other developed countries have reportedly become ‘nesters’ (Zieminski, 2010). This means that they are now willing to shift employers, majority of them prefer to work for one employer for their entire life because of risks associated with moving from one organization to another. As staying with one employer for a long time guarantees one of income in comparison to moving away to a place where one is not sure of employment, Americans have been fixed in job places.
Some of the employers pay low salaries and their working conditions are not the best but shifting organizations is accompanied by the risk of losing a job in the present nation where unemployment figures are dropping at a slow rate. Presently, most employees in the United States find themselves held up in places of work where they do not like. It is discouraging and the productivity of such employees is low, negatively affecting the U. S economy. Other than helping banks to increase value to shareholders, the Fed has not done much to increase employment (Masaccio, 2010). ear | Unemployment rate| 2001| 4. 74%| 2002| 5. 78%| 2003| 5. 99%| 2004| 5. 54%| 2005| 5. 08%| 2006| 4. 61%| 2007| 4. 62%| 2008| 5. 80%| 2009| 9. 28%| 2010| 9. 63%| 2011| 9. 03%| (USA department of commerce, 2011) Regression Statistics| R Square| 40%| Before the crisis | 5%| Standard Error| 0. 015876006| Effect of the crisis | 2%| p-value| 3. 50%| Mean| 6. 37%| equation | y= 5%+2%X+1. 5%| As we can see from the regression statistics the impact of the crisis on unemployment is significant and 40% of the variation of in the unemployment rate is explained by the financial crisis Inflation –
The US Federal Reserve System has had much success in curbing inflation over the last two decades. Unlike other countries, which adopted the Inflation Targeting strategy the US, has maintained a nominal GDP targeting and has done quite well. Inflation targeting has various advantages but is sometimes very difficult because of the difficulty in accurate prediction of inflation. The lack of predictability makes it very difficult to control and thus it is not possible to make an accurate judgment of whether the Federal Reserve with its monetary policies has reached its inflation targets.
This has made the US prefer the GDP target, which does not have an outright strategy but has an implicit nominal anchor that helps to control future inflation. This strategy unlike inflation targeting involves foresight and monitoring of any sings for inflation and putting up strategies to counter the inflation. This is forward-looking strategy, which has been in operation at the Federal Reserve under the leadership of Alan Greenspan, has achieved sound economic performance and was very influential in keeping the 2001 recession to very mild levels despite the then present conditions of terrorism and some corporate scandals (Mishkin, 2007).
Although the rate of inflation has been kept relatively low for, a long time but there is no guarantee of any success of having a stable value of money in future. This is because the U. S monetary system works in discretion and independence and therefore there it is not legally possible for the Congress to enforce a commitment for long-term stability of prices. The independence and discretion that is exhibited by the Federal Reserve create uncertainties, which limit the power of the congress to provide a legal framework that would make the Fed accountable.
The lack of accountability makes the Fed lack a monetary rule that would keep it tied to the objective of maintaining future stability of prices. The lack of such a rule continues to be the reason business fluctuations are witnessed (Mishkin, 2007). year | Inflation rate | 2001| 2. 83%| 2002| 1. 59%| 2003| 2. 27%| 2004| 2. 68%| 2005| 3. 39%| 2006| 3. 24%| 2007| 2. 85%| 2008| 3. 85%| 2009| -0. 34%| 2010| 1. 64%| 2011| 3. 53%| (USA department of commerce, 2011) Regression Statistics| R Square| 25%| Standard Error| 0. 01239097| Before the crisis| 2. 60%| Effect of the crisis| -0. 30%| -value| 64%| Mean| 2. 50%| Equation| y= 2. 6%-0. 3%+1. 2%| As we can see from the regression statistics the impact of the crisis on inflation is insignificant and 25% of the variation of in the inflation rate is explained by the financial crisis Exports and imports- the imports and exports were also affected because the world purchasing power came down. Government efforts to overcome the crisis Government Bailouts- The return to normalcy in USA was unexpected despite the strength of the economy. Consumer spending continued to be low while investor confidence was also in the red.
This meant that the government had to come up with measures that would mitigate these effects and enable the country to stabilize. One such measure was the increase in government spending. The government had to intervene and it injected billions of cash into the economy. This measure was not only meant to boost investor confidence but also to provide liquidity in the economy. Access to capital was limited at the time and thus investors did not have any liquid cash with which they could trade. The result was the need by the government to inject cash in the market to enable various sectors market to recoup its losses.
As has already been noted, consumer spending was at an all time low and the government needed to jump-start the economy to avoid a situation that would require massive resources. Banks had little money to give to consumers and allowing them to draw on their reserves was a government move to increase liquidity in the area. It is important to understand that the flow of money in the public is an important aspect in the development of a country. By allowing banks to have, more money that could be given out, the government was encouraging consumer spending to avoid a stall of the economy.
Some of the banks had also gone under and the government was obligated to bail them out to ensure they continued to provide services to the people. Although this form of spending by the government does not entail direct input by the government to the public, it enables the banks to act as intermediaries between the government and the people. The public through the banks can access the money and this is expected to enhance consumer spending. Government stimulus package – the stimulus package was meant to help boost the economy. However, it was lesser than its expected amount.
To reduce unemployment, the increase in GDP should be higher than before. It involved assisting states were able to provide a third of the total government spending (Stiglitz, 2010). States had to maintain a balance between the total expenditure and total revenues to maintain the balanced budget framework. As the values of properties and profits decreases, the tax revenue will also decrease. the stimulus program did not give any importance to this aspect of the economy. Government could not attain their principles because after the implementation of this program, the most affected people were the poor.
To reduce the gap between the rich and poor was one the main principles but they did the opposite work. To come out from the crisis, reduction in poverty was very important. It was very necessary to fill up the holes in the safety net of the economy (Stiglitz, 2010). People observed much more necessity of insurance or coverage system. The government was providing employer-based insurance contracts in companies. In the recession period, most of the people had lost their jobs. As a result, people lose their health insurance contracts after losing their jobs.
Some insurance companies were providing insurance schemes as the earlier reforms. They would provide the schemes only to them who were able to afford it (Stiglitz, 2010). People were running out of money and jobs and this reduced the power of affordability of those insurance contracts. Therefore, poor and middle-income people could not afford health insurance. The government gave prior importance on the investment strategies and its proper distribution. There was shortage in total expected investment. This shortage was mainly in the public sector. There were many constraints in the public sectors to invest more (Stiglitz, 2010).
Government can do that by reducing tax. This would help to increase the cash flow and to invest more in the public sector. However, the stimulus package did not provide this kind of improvement in the investment strategies. To increase the total investment, mainly in public sector, government should go for a tax-cut (Stiglitz, 2010). The government went for the implementation of tax-cut rule but unfortunately, that was inefficient and ineffective to provide higher investment. This benefited rich people because most of the increased money went into their pockets.
Therefore, the gap between rich and poor was increasing gradually. Most of the principles were carefully designed but the implementation procedure was not effective for the economy under the circumstances of financial crisis. The Federal Reserve action In the United States, the principal organization charged with the implementation of the policy is the Federal Reserve System (Fed) which is the country’s central bank. As stipulated in the Federal Reserve Act (1913), The Federal Reserve sets policies that affect the availability of money in order to promote the nation’s economic goals.
The Federal Reserve is responsible for controlling the Open Market Operation, reserve requirements and the interest rates which results in influence over the supply and demand of money and which affects the funds rate. The monetary policy made usually affects any financial or economic transaction that is made by everyone in the country. Other than influencing economic decisions among its citizens, being the world’s economic giant makes the U. S monetary policy affects other countries’ economic decisions. Sound economic performance is the primary objective of the reserve system and therefore it uses various tools to nfluence the demand of goods and services, and one of these tools is the variation of the short-term funds rate. As a body that is independent of the current political pressures, the Federal Reserve System has had many successes over the last decade in rooting for the country’s good economic performance. In the midst of the successes, there are also challenges and failures that have been encountered. As the institution responsible for controlling and regulating the banking sector, the Federal Reserve has been responsible for the efficiency in the commercial banks by instituting measures that increase harmony in the banking sector.
A program dubbed quantitative monetary ease was established in 2007 to continue with the goal of monetary expansion in the economy. The move meant to recapitalize the banking system saw an increase in monetary base from $855 billion by the end of 2007 to more than $1,728 billion by the end of 2008. This made the economy more liquid by increasing the reserves held by banks (Free, 2010). The financial institutions in the country have been known to be reluctant in providing credit to one another, a phenomenon that has created a financial crisis in the country.
In order to solve the reluctance, the Federal Reserve has made it possible for any financial institution that requires liquidity to access credit directly from the Fed. Previously, the Federal Reserve lending would not provide liquidity to other financial markets for example the commercial paper market but would only provide liquidity to banks. This is now possible as the non-bank paper markets and money market mutual funds can access credit directly from the Fed. This was in line with the program called Term Auction facility initiated by Ben Bernanke the chair to the Federal Reserve in 2007.
This program was set to provide liquidity to financial institutions and paper markets that did not perform efficiently due to the credit crunch. These programs were very effective in reducing the funds rate, which stood at 4. 25% in 2007, fell to 0% at the end of 2008, and consequently increased lending (Free, 2010). The Fed has also taken up the place of private and commercial banks by starting facilities for providing backup liquidity for the money market mutual funds (Office of Management and Budget, 2010). Various actions by the Federal Reserve System have eased credit crisis and increased credit facilities.
This includes the decision to buy longer-term debts and securities unlike the past when it used to limit its operation short-term securities. This policy provided a monetary stimulus to borrowers by easing the pressure from the long-term interest rates such as mortgage rates (Free, 2010). Expanding the Fed’s credit facilities has made it to realize increases in its balance sheet, which increased to over $2 trillion in 2010. Such an increase also translates to potential increase in the supply of money in the country (Office-of-Management-and-Budget, 2010).
The programs instituted to support the financial market as well as the low interest rates set a policy that helped to expand the economy. The Federal Reserve System and the monetary policies over the last decade have helped to keep the banking system afloat and profitable but that profitability comes at the expense of the consumer. The low Federal funds rate which keep the interests rates to a minimum help the banks to stay afloat by accessing credit from almost interest-free lines while the consumers and the government feel the effects of financial crises.
James Mckeen Cattell Contributions to Psychology essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
After completing his doctorate, Cattell spent two years at Cambridge University, where he founded England’s first laboratory in experimental psychology. While at Cambridge, Cattell married Josephine Owen, who became a lifelong partner in his research and later in his editing and publishing duties. Also during his Cambridge years, Cattell’s father helped him to secure a faculty position at the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught for two and a half years. It was during this time that Cattell coined the term “mental testing” to characterize his research (Sokal, 1987).
Cattell then moved to Columbia University as head of its psychology department and taught there until his dismissal in 1917, a dismissal nominally caused by an anticonscription piece that he published during the first world war, but almost certainly fueled by long-standing antagonism between Cattell and Columbia’s president, Nicholas Murray Butler (Sokal, 1995). Cattell’s eminence in his day is clear; in 1901 Cattell was elected to the prestigious National Academy of Sciences, although historian Michael M.
Sokal suggests that this may have been due more to his resurrection of the journal Science than to his scientific research (Sokal, 1980). Cattell is known to psychologists familiar with the history of psychology in the United States not only for his experimental work on reaction time and mental testing but also as one of the founding figures of the APA in 1892 and as its fourth president (1896). Sokal’s numerous publications on Cattell have helped to elucidate his role for general, for Cattell’s influence extended far beyond the confines of psychology.
Indeed, one scientific contemporary eulogized that Cattell “did more than any other man of his generation to bring about the organization of science in America” (Conklin, 1944, p. 154). Edward L. Thorndike similarly recalled that although Cattell had been “the most likely candidate” at the tum of the century for leadership in psychology, “he chose to become both a leader and a servant, and of American science as a whole rather than of only psychology” (Thorndike, 1944, p. 155). Cattell is best remembered for his lifelong services as an editor and publisher.
He edited the first six editions of American Men of Science (now American Men and Women of Science), instituting and maintaining against increasing opposition its system of “starring” the 1,000 most eminent scientists (Sokal, 1995). Among the journals he published and edited were the Psychological Review (with James Mark Baldwin), The American Naturalist, School and Society, Popular Science Monthly, The Scientific Monthly, and his longest and most noteworthy venture, Science. He also helped to found the Archives of Psychology and the Journal of philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods.
Cattell maintained an active interest in psychology throughout his life, and was president of the International Congress of Psychology (1929) as well as one of the founding members, in 1921, of the Psychological Corporation, a business designed to promote applied psychology. As Thorndike put it, even while becoming a broader man of science, Cattell “did not cease to be a psychologist . . . . but his leadership was in psychological affairs rather than in psychological thought and experimentation” (Thorndike, 1944). Cattell and Science
Cattell was central to the story of the AAAS from the turn of the century until his death. Sokal, Kohlstedt, and Lewenstein have detailed that story in an excellent recent publication (Sokal et al. , in press); we simply summarize some of the highlights of Cattell’s AAAS years, as gleaned from their research and our own. As already mentioned, the AAAS was at a critical moment in its history at the turn of the century, as its membership numbers stagnated and attendance at meetings fell off in the face of the rising number of specialist societies that competed for scientists’ closely guarded time and energy.
It both had no official publication, and at the AAAS meeting in 1900, members began grumbling that they were not getting enough for their $3 in dues (Conklin, 1944, p. 153). The journal Science had been founded in 1880, privately published and kept afloat financially first through the generosity of Thomas Alva Edison and subsequently by Alexander Graham Bell and his father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard. Leaders of the scientific community in America perceived a need for a journal that would keep them abreast of developments across the various scientific fields and that would also promote the interests of science for the public.
But the journal had a difficult time in the 1880s and early 1890s for various reasons (Kohlstedt, 1980). Of its first three editors, two were scientific amateurs who failed to gain the respect of scientific researchers. The journal varied in quality from issue to issue, and articles were often derivative of older published sources. The subscription list was never large enough to support the journal, so continuous external backing was needed, and patrons tended to offer more advice than editors wanted, leading to tensions and the resignation of the second editor.
The journal finally sunk in 1894, its last issue published in March of that year (Kohlstedt, 1980). A number of members of the scientific community gathered at an AAAS meeting in that year and pledged their support to keeping the journal alive, even recommending that the AAAS provide it a subsidy if it were revived. One of the journal’s aims had always been to report on the activities of scientific societies, and the proceedings of the AAAS’s annual meetings had been a staple of Science since its founding, but as yet there was no official connection between the journal and the association.
In the fall of 1894, Cattell purchased Science for financial reasons (Sokal et al. , in press). Of all of Science’s early editors, Cattell was without question its most scientifically established and respected. He was a faculty member and department chair at Columbia University, one of the leading research universities in the country, and he had a fine record of publication in the new experimental psychology. Earlier in 1894 he had started editing, with James Mark Baldwin, the Psychological Review.
Cattell was already well-connected in the American scientific community, and he used his new position to strengthen and broaden his network. More than previous editors, he was able to draw on these ties to persuade eminent scientists to contribute articles and information to the journal; its first new issue in January of 1895, for example, featured a lead article by Harvard physicist Simon Newcomb, another by Daniel Coit Gilman, president of The Johns Hopkins University, as well as a number of other presidential addresses and papers by leading scientists (Conklin, 1944).
Within the space of a few short years, Cattell transformed Science into a journal that people wanted to read in order to keep up with the latest advances and gossip in the various fields of science. His connections with a wide range of scientists nationally and internationally enabled Science to “scoop” other American periodicals on a number of exciting scientific developments of the late-19th and early-20th centuries, such as the discovery of X-rays, wireless telegraphy, new chemical elements, the rediscovery of the gene, and the Wright brothers’ early flights at Kitty Hawk (Sokal, 1980).
In addition to regularly featured articles and presidential addresses, he established a regular “Current Notes” section that included information on recent developments in various scientific fields, he included regular reports of local scientific meetings and reviews of scientific journals, he encouraged discussion of the latest scientific controversies in a “Correspondence” section, and he added a “Scientific Notes and News” section that gave professional news of the AAAS members (Sokal et al. in press). The latter section, Sokal suggests, was of special interest to members at a time when the scientific community was relatively small (only about 5,000 scientists in the United States and only about 2,000 AAAS members), and many of its members knew each other. As we will describe below, Dael Wolfie would later find it necessary to transform this section in order to meet the changing needs of a membership whose numbers had exceeded any reasonable sense of the term “community. Even while he was reviving Science and making it a commercially viable enterprise, Cattell sought to link his journal with the AAAS; he quickly arranged to receive the subsidy that had been recommended by the AAAS committee of 1894, and he subsequently worked with the Permanent Secretary (now called the Executive Officer) of the AAAS to make Science the official journal of the AAAS in 1900 (Sokal, 1980).
All members of the AAAS would receive Science without an increase in their $3 dues; Cattell would take a slight loss because individual subscriptions to Science cost $5, but his subscription list grew, which appealed to advertisers. The official linkage worked to the advantage of both Science and the AAAS, even exceeding their hopes. After a number of years of stagnation, within a year membership in the AAAS had nearly doubled, and within the decade it had tripled, hitting 6,000 in 1909 (Sokal et al. in press). Members now felt that they were getting something for their dues, and Science, now the official journal of the largest broadbased scientific society in the United States, had an even greater opportunity than previously to attract the support of leaders of the scientific community and to become the central journal to represent the interests of all the sciences in America.
Cattell had revitalized Science, and its union with the AAAS helped to breathe new life into that organization as it weathered the changes of an increasingly specialized scientific community. HelpingPsychology. com (2010) James McKeen Cattell: Noteworthy Psychologist. Retrieved on January 9, 2011 from http://helpingpsychology. com/? s=James+McKeen+Cattell Plucker, J. A. (Ed. ). (2007). Human intelligence: Historical influences, current controversies, teaching resources. Retrieved January 9, 2011, from http://www. indiana. edu/~intell
Tax Exemption essay help us: essay help us
According to source B, who strongly believes that churches should be tax exempt, it is apparent that if a church requires the same infrastructure as any other taxpaying enterprise, it should not be free from from paying taxes. All of which is demonstrated through the unbiased facts in Source A, the logical presentation of Source C, and the hardly opinionated Source G, which all include a sense of responsibility and equality.
Although it is thought by many believers, such as in Source B, that churches should be tax exempt because of all the wonderful deeds that they do, such as care for the homeless, provide optimism for the hopeless and provide a quantity of social services for citizens, it is not all flowers and dandelions. Churches necessitate the same infrastructure and government services that other tax paying entities must use, such as roads, fire department, and police.
If other people must pay taxes in order to have such services made available to them, churches should be required to follow the identical set of laws. In Source A, the information it provides is from the IRS, and is very straightforward as well as not subjective. It explains how under section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations are eligible to receive tax exemption status and how they are able to go about doing so.
As well it states that these section 501(c)(3) organizations are restricted on their lobbying and political activity they are able to participate in, this is something that is obviously not that enforced as laws seeing as these churches are in the news often and can say and do many things in order to try and influence peoples to either convert or get them to have faith in their belief system. In Source C, author Austin Cline presents the problem of which the churches that are in the United States own up to twenty five percent of the land.
The land that is being used by these churches could be used by the government for schools, or banks or something that will help everyone, not only those who believe in a higher being. The exclusion they have from taxes must be made up in some other manner, be it from individuals or other tax paying corporations. In this tough time of recession, many families have had to cut back on costs and even go without things that are essential to their being, with that being said, the one thousand dollars that are being paid by each individual in order to make up for the exemption of church taxes, that money ould be put towards a family’s expenses and needs. That money belongs to the people who earn it not some building that only some people attend in order to have some hope. Besides only having churches exempt from needed taxes, Source G also enlists the help of thirteen pastors to attempt to make the case that it is not only atheists and non-believers that think that churches should not be tax exempt.
Not only does Peter Molnar provide reliable proof that this exemption is not just but he also says that some congress members may be violating tax laws by living in a boarding house, C Street Center that was affiliated with an evangelical Christian network called the Fellowship Foundation. Although Congress has oversight ability, it often ignores many religious institutions and its doings. 12 of these pastors believe that the matters at C Street Center should be investigated, and not only do these pastors and clergy members believe this, many citizens who have to pay for the difference of these tax exempt churches believe so too.
With all of the rational explanations that have been provided in sources A, C, and G there is almost no reason to continue to provide additional arguments as to why religious institutions should not be tax exempt. A church or mosque, or any other institution requires the same infrastructure and cost as any other government building, they should not be able to be liberated of this dutiful task and law that everyone should abide by, especially considering that everyone is created equal and having religious institutions be excluded from these necessary taxes could very well be considered unconstitutional.
Understanding Pride and Prejudice Through Letters essay help: essay help
Understanding Pride and Prejudice through Letters In Jane Austin’s Pride and Prejudice, there are very little explicit descriptions of characters’ true personalities. Instead she gives insight into character through their words, actions and a few thoughts. However, Austen also uses characters’ written letters and the reaction of those who receive them to convey information, reveal characters, advance plot and show personal view points. As a practical purpose, letters written from one character to another provide information about what is happening in their lives and the context for certain events.
For example, the letter from Mrs. Gardiner to Elizabeth explaining Mr. Darcy’s critical role in the marriage between Lydia and Wickham, is a long account of events with a purpose of revealing what part Darcy has played. Because Pride and Prejudice is written in a way that mostly follows Elizabeth’s point of view and thoughts, had this information not been conveyed in a letter, it would have been difficult for the story to find a way of exposing Darcy’s actions. What certain characters say in their letters reveal their personalities. The letter at the beginning of the novel from Mr. Collins to Mr.
Bennet expressing his wishes to stay with them, gives insight into Mr. Collins’ pretentious character. Additionally, the reactions from the Bennet family members expose their individual ways of judging character. As Jody Devine states, Mr. Collin’s first letter “reveals to the recipients character traits that do not reflect his class. His tone is pompous and condescending to Mr. Bennet, a man of equal class and status. ” In this letter Mr. Collins writes, “I cannot be otherwise than concerned at being the means of injuring your amiable daughters, and beg leave to apologise for it… [and make] amends (43).
The reaction of Elizabeth to this phrase illustrates her curiosity in finding out what kind of a man Mr. Collins is. Her desire to make judgements on character is shown when she questions, “what can he mean by apologizing for being the next entail?… [can] he be a sensible man…? ” (44). Elizabeth’s leery response is contrasted with Jane’s insight that Mr. Collin’s wish is “certainly to his credit” (44) showing Jane’s natural tendency to assume that goodness is in everyone. The communication between Caroline Bingley and Jane rovides further proof of Jane’s kind-heartedness and Miss Bingley’s duplicity. During her stay at Netherfield, Miss Bingley writes to Jane her “dear friend” asking her to dine with them. Further letters from Miss Bingley are pleasant and friendly, yet when Jane is in London and writes to Elizabeth, she says that she has been “entirely deceived in Miss Bingley’s regard for [her]” (99). Jane explains that “when [Miss Bingley] did come [to visit], it was very evident that she had no pleasure in it” (99).
According to Jane, Miss Bingley’s actions towards her are contrary to her initial letters written to Jane, therefore demonstrating Miss Bingley’s insincerity. Nevertheless, Jane is still compassionate and writes that she “pity[s] [Miss Bingley], because she must feel that she has been acting wrong” (99). Austen also uses letters to propel the plot of Pride and Prejudice forward. The most important letter in the novel is from Mr. Darcy to Elizabeth. It is not only important in the fact that it exposes Wickham for his past indiscretions and Darcy for his true personality, but it creates the story’s turning point.
Up until she received this letter, Elizabeth’s view of Mr. Darcy was based on Mr. Wickham’s story of a proud, selfish man who betrayed his father’s wishes. After reading Darcy’s letter, where his true motives and character are revealed, Elizabeth is confronted with guilt and she becomes occupied with finding ways of confirming what Darcy has written. It is this letter that creates a change of heart in Elizabeth and from this point forward the rest of the story is a waiting game of when she and Mr. Darcy will make amends and reunite.
Another letter that assists the storyline is the letter from Jane to Elizabeth relaying the news of Lydia’s elopement with Wickham. This conflict is provided at the perfect time in the story right before Darcy comes to visit Elizabeth. As mentioned by Susan Fraiman, knowing what Wickham has done to Lydia, Darcy has “a chance to display his nobility of heart and purse, his wish to rectify and his power to do so” (362). Consequently, the predicament of Elizabeth’s family as conveyed in the letter is the initiating factor for Darcy to prove his affection to Elizabeth.
Many thoughts that are expressed in the letters of Pride and Prejudice are feelings that would never have been spoken out loud by the characters. Referring back to Darcy’s letter to Elizabeth, Darcy admits that his “character required it to be written and read” (129). As opposed to being said in person, Darcy feels that he must write this letter to explain to Elizabeth the true circumstances of his and Wickham’s dislike for one another. In the letter from Mrs. Gardiner to Elizabeth revealing Mr. Darcy’s actions, Mrs. Gardiner teases Elizabeth about her relationship with Mr.
Darcy. As Teresa Kenney explains, “Aunt Gardiner is referring in her letter to what she supposes to be Lizzy’s disguising of the real state of her relationship with Mr. Darcy. ” Mrs. Gardiner also writes that she is going to “take this opportunity of saying (what I was never bold enough to say before) how much I like [Mr. Darcy]” (211). Evidently, Mrs. Gardiner did not want to be presumptuous before, but now that she has exposed her inclination that Darcy and Elizabeth will be a couple, she shares her opinion of him in her letter.
Mental Health Services Within the Criminal Justice System essay help services: essay help services
These days it seems that more and more people are being diagnosed with some form of mental disorder or disability. It’s important that those who provide mental health services be properly trained and certified so as to provide the best possible care and treatment for those who suffer from mental health disorders and disabilities. The history of mental health services is quite extensive. In 1773 the first hospital for the mentally ill in the US opened in Williamsburg, Virginia. In 1840 there were only eight “asylums for the insane” in the United States.
Dorothea Dix crusaded for the establishment or enlargement of 32 mental hospitals, and transfer of those with mental illness from almshouses and jails. The first attempt to measure the extent of mental illness and mental retardation in the United States occurred with the U. S. Census of 1840, which included the category “insane and idiotic. ” The “mental hygiene” movement began in 1900. Clifford Beers, a mental health consumer shocked readers with a graphic account of hospital conditions in his famous book, The Mind That Found Itself.
Inspection of immigrants at Ellis Island included screening to detect the “mentally disturbed and retarded”. The high incidence of mental disorders among immigrants prompted public recognition of mental illness as a national health problem. In 1930, The US Public Health Service (PHS) established the Narcotics Division, later named the Division of Mental Hygiene, bringing together research and treatment programs to combat drug addiction and study of the causes, prevalence, and means of preventing and treating nervous and mental disease. During World War II, severe shortages of professional mental health personnel and the nderstanding of the causes, treatment, and prevention of mental illness lagged behind other fields of medical science and public health. Dr. William Menninger, chief of Army neuropsychiatry, called for federal action. A national mental health program was proposed, forming the foundation of the National Mental Health Act of 1946. On July 3, 1946, President Truman signed the National Mental Health Act, creating for the first time in US history a significant amount of funding for psychiatric education and research and leading to the creation in 1949 of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).
Congress authorized the Mental Health Study Act of 1955 and called for “an objective, thorough, nationwide analysis and reevaluation of the humane and economic problems of mental health”. The act provided the basis for the historic study conducted by the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health, Action for Mental Health. In 1961 the Action for Mental Health was transmitted to Congress. It assessed mental health conditions and resources throughout the United States “to arrive at a national program that would approach adequacy in meeting the individual needs of the mentally ill people of America. Congress appropriated $12 million for research in 1956 the clinical and basic aspects of psychopharmacology and the Psychopharmacology Service Center was established. The number of consumers in mental hospitals began to decline reflecting the introduction of psychopharmacology in the treatment of mental illness. The Health Amendments Act authorized the support of community services for the mentally ill, such as halfway houses, daycare, and aftercare under Title V. The CMHC (Community Mental Health Center) Act Amendments of 1965, (P. L. 1-211), were enacted and included the following major provisions: Construction and staffing grants to centers were extended and facilities that served those with alcohol and substance abuse disorders were made eligible to receive these grants. Grants were provided to support the initiation and development of mental health services in poverty-stricken areas. A new program of grants was established to support further development of children’s services. By 1988, the concept of behavioral health managed care evolved from theory to practice.
Massachusetts was the first state that utilized a managed care platform regarding service of its behavioral healthcare needs. The state “carved out” mental health from physical healthcare and awarded the contract for management of the mental health benefits to a private company whose responsibilities included service authorization, utilization, quality management, a provider network, claims processing and interagency coordination. The managed care platform was based on efficiency and effectiveness, and sought to take advantage of emerging technologies.
However, capturing the cost savings proved to be a difficult task as managed care programs spread throughout different states. Population disparities in the rural and urban areas, unfulfilled technological promises, decreasing social service budgets in the states, and erosion in the areas of access and quality had a lasting effect on managed care systems. “Mental health services are designed to promote and maintain mental health, prevent mental illness, and treat and rehabilitate mentally ill persons. ” (Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 69). Community mental health centers provide a variety of services. Such services include, but are not limited to, emergency services, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and community education and coordination. Mental health issues involve a wide array of behaviors ranging from severe mental impairments that would require hospitalization to mildly impairing behaviors. Another specific goal of mental health services involves promoting maximum mental health by support help in life transitions and difficult periods of stress.
In recent years there has been more focus on the interrelationship of biological and psychosocial factors as they relate to mental health. “Mental health facilities include both public (state and county) and private psychiatric hospitals in which patients are either voluntarily committed or involuntarily committed by court order or following certification by two physicians. Aftercare is often provided for discharged patients in a local community facility. ” (Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 269). According to Patty Fleener, “The purpose of Mental Health Today is to help stop the pain caused by mental health disorders.
The hope is to provide the latest information about mental health disorders to mental health clinicians as well as consumers and families who are now beginning to demand better treatment. Communities have been created for emotional support, articles are written to assist in recovery, crisis intervention is provided by recovering mental health consumers, and resources are given. ” Financing for mental health services can get tricky and complicated. “Using monies from federal block grants, state mental health departments operate statewide networks of mental health services. ”(Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 70). In addition, state departments of education also provide financing through special education programs. Complications arise however, when we get into private insurances and what they will and will not cover. “Despite research findings that behavior and mood illnesses such as severe depression and schizophrenia are disorders of brain circuitry, debate continues whether mental health conditions are physical or mental. ”(Dolgoff & Feldstein, 2009, p. 270). The reason this piece of information is so important is because insurance companies do not equally cover mental illness and physical illness.
Today, more and more insurance companies are restricting coverage for mental health services. This includes services that are normally provided by social workers. This was motivated by several concerns. Insurers feared that coverage of mental health services would result in high costs associated with long-term and intensive psychotherapy and extended hospital stays. They also were reluctant to pay for long-term, often custodial, hospital stays that were guaranteed by the public mental health system, the provider of “catastrophic care. These factors encouraged private insurers to limit coverage for mental health services. (U. S. Public Health Service). Federal public financing mechanisms, such as Medicare and Medicaid, also imposed limitations on coverage, particularly for long-term care, of “nervous and mental disease” to avoid a complete shift in financial responsibility from state and local governments to the Federal government. The purpose of mental health insurance is to protect the individual from catastrophic financial loss. A 1996 review of the evidence for the efficacy of well-documented treatments (Frank et al. 1996) suggested that covered services should include the following: * Hospital and other 24-hour services (e. g. , crisis residential services); * Intensive community services (e. g. , partial hospitalization); * Ambulatory or outpatient services (e. g. , focused forms of psychotherapy); * Medical management (e. g. , monitoring psychotropic medications); * Case management; * Intensive psychosocial rehabilitation services; and * Other intensive outreach approaches to the care of individuals with severe disorders.
Since resources to provide such services are finite, insurance plans are responsible for allocating resources to support treatment. Each type of insurance plan has a different model for matching treatment need with insurance support for receiving services. (U. S. Public Health Service). Health insurance, whether funded through private or public sources, is one of the most important factors influencing access to health and mental health services. Of the roughly 32 million uninsured Americans required by law to enroll in health insurance plans by 2014, about half-or 16 million-will sign up for Medicaid.
And of those new enrollees, one-third will have preexisting mental health or substance abuse conditions. Not surprisingly, state governments (which will implement the law) are desperate to cut costs. People with chronic psychiatric conditions, after all, are among the most expensive to insure because their crises usually lead to emergency room visits and lengthy stays in institutions, at a cost of thousands of dollars a day. Many mentally ill patients cope by smoking, abusing drugs, or overeating, leading to an increased risk of cancer, diabetes, and other expensive “co-morbidities. One study published in 2000 estimated that people with psychiatric or substance abuse problems consume 44 percent of all the cigarettes sold in the United States. This is one reason why the average life expectancy of an American with a chronic mental illness is about 25 years shorter than the national average. (The American Scholar). Nearly 12 percent of U. S. adults (27 million low-income individuals on public support) receive Medicaid coverage (with more than 2 percent having dual Medicare/Medicaid coverage).
With per capita expenditures of $481 a year for mental health services, the average cost of this coverage is 2. 5 times higher than that in the private sector. An explanation for this higher average cost is the severity of illness of this population and greater intensity of services needed to meet their needs. State mental health policymakers have begun to blend funding streams from Medicaid and the state public mental health expenditures under Medicaid “waivers,” which offer the potential of purchasing private insurance for certain public beneficiaries who have not been eligible for Medicaid.
This new option has recently been raised as a means of concentrating public mental health services on forensic and other long-term intensive care programs not covered by private insurance (Hogan, 1998). Given the extremely low level of funding for the uninsured with less severe mental illness, the recently implemented Federal legislation to fund a State Child Health Insurance Program (CHIP) could result in considerably increased coverage for previously uninsured children.
It is noteworthy that CHIP benefits vary from state-to-state particularly for mental health coverage. America is about to undergo a massive shift in how health care is paid for, and at the state level the responses have been varied. South Carolina, for example, slashed mental health spending 39 percent between 2009 and 2012, and nine other states cut their mental health budgets more than 10 percent over that same period, according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness, leaving significantly more people on the street, in jail, or dead.
In other states, the objective is to replace custodial care, which is often inefficient and inhumane. The new model of care encourages a far greater degree of independence, and at a fraction of the cost of hospital wards. Consider that the state of New York spends about $220,000 a year to keep a person in the Buffalo Psychiatric Center. Now compare that with the annual direct cost of supported housing in Buffalo- about $8,000 per person, according to Joe Woodward, director of a peer-run housing agency in western New York.
About 25 million adults in this country suffer from serious psychological distress; some surveys estimate that half of all Americans will have a diagnosable psychiatric condition at some point in their lives. And yet, the mentally ill are a largely forgotten part of the population. Governments especially seem to deal with the problem by ignoring it. The major obstacle, still to this day-is social stigma, which the sociologist Erving Goffman elegantly defined as “the process by which the reaction of others spoils normal identity. ” This stigma is what peers can best combat. People may not know how to make recovery happen, but that doesn’t mean that it can’t happen,” said John Allen, a peer activist for decades and now the director of the Office of Consumer Affairs at New York State’s Office of Mental Health. “I believe that recovery is possible for every human being. ” The mental health care in America is extremely poor at this time. Many people continue to suffer and lives are literally lost due to lack of interest in our society in assisting people with mental health disorders and people continue to be heavily stigmatized.
Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Najee Bailey Professor Scheuermann English 101 03/04/12 Rodriguez describes his journey of language through the influence of his grandmother, the battles of balancing both the native language and the English language and by his disagreement of “individuality”. Rodriguez designates his passage by describing the struggles he endured as a bilingual Hispanic in American society. Born as an American citizen to Mexican immigrants, Rodriguez was the child of working-class parents. He started going to a Roman Catholic School following the footsteps of his older sister and brother.
However, by attending this school, he felt misplaced; his classmates were all children of high-class lawyers and doctors. Living in Sacramento, California, Rodriguez realized that his life would entirely change, for better and worse. Rodriguez describes his grandmother as “a woman of Mexico” and her no interest of the “gringo society” (36). Throughout his early years, Rodriquez had a close relationship with his grandmother. He would take her to a Safeway and she would have him translate for her.
She would mock him and call him “Pocho”, meaning “bland” or a Mexican-American who, in becoming American, has forgotten his native society. His grandmother was the type of woman who never expected a response from him. Rodriguez explained, “Language was never its source. ” (36) He understood her completely; however she didn’t need him to respond to anything. She was the one who truly made him understand the “intimate utterance”, a mystery that couldn’t be solved. His grandmother would help him understand that it is not the word that makes up the meaning it’s the sounds one makes instead.
Rodriguez mentions that though he could not describe the sounds of her words, he could describe the stories and memories she mentioned. It was this particular closeness and personal connection he had to her voice that made it seem as if he understood the “intimate utterance”. Balancing between “private language” and “public language”, Rodriguez describes his struggle to choose one between the other. Growing up as a Spanish-speaking boy living in an English-speaking society, he entirely felt like he was different from other children. Richard spoke English, but as soon as he got home, Spanish was the language of choice.
By speaking this “private language”, it helped him preserve his own culture and came to be a disadvantage as well; yielding his learning in English. Rodriguez felt safe in his Spanish speaking home because it was familiar to him. His teachers soon realized that Richard would not speak or would not try to speak the “public language” because he was afraid. After being tutored at school he realized that public language, in which this case happens to be English, provides the foundation for the rights and opportunities available for those who speak the “public language”.
So by choosing to assimilate into society, this “public language” came to be his key to unlocking the door to opportunities. As positive as this realization was, there was an equal downfall to his situation. He stated, “I no longer knew what words to use in addressing my parents. ” (24) From there on, a language barrier started to be the gap that divided his parents from him. Richard, who had felt that this assimilation was necessary, had now lost his parents amidst the goal.
As a result, Richard had little contact with them, because he assimilated into a society that was unknown territory for his Spanish-speaking parents. Bilingual education began in the 1960’s, at a time when the Hispanic American social activists permitted non-English-speaking children to promote their family language as the language of school. Rodriguez did not agree with bilingual education proponents who argued that children that were not taught in their native language lost their “individuality”. Rodriguez explained that the activists “…do not seem to realize that there are two ways a person is individualized. (26) One way would be that while one suffers a sense of private individuality by becoming assimilated to the public society, in such, opportunities make it possible for an achievement in the public individuality. Rodriguez asserts “Only when I was able to think of myself as an American, no longer an alien in gringo society, could I seek the rights and opportunities necessary for public identity. ” (27) He did not believe that his childhood proved the necessity of bilingual education. Rodriguez’s decision to use the English language ultimately formed his identity in the American society.
Rodriguez realized that he had to eventually adapt to the American society by learning the English language. By doing so, he had his own understanding of the “intimate utterance” from his grandmother; the balance between “private language” and “public language”, and assimilated to his own “individuality”. Through Rodriguez’s own adaptation, he realized that though he lost a lot from his native culture, he also gained certain aspects from American society. If it wasn’t for the teachers encouraging the use of English, Rodriguez would have never had as many opportunities he does currently as a lecturer and writer.
Recent Trends in Hrm extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology
Indian organizations are also witnessing a change in systems, management cultures and philosophy due to the global alignment of Indian organizations. There is a need for multi skill development. Role of HRM is becoming all the more important. Some of the recent trends that are being observed are as follows: • The recent quality management standards ISO 9001 and ISO 9004 of 2000 focus more on people centric organizations. Organizations now need to prepare themselves in order to address people centered issues with commitment from the top management, with renewed thrust on HR issues, more particularly on training. Charles Handy also advocated future organizational models like Shamrock, Federal and Triple I. Such organizational models also refocus on people centric issues and call for redefining the future role of HR professionals. • To leapfrog ahead of competition in this world of uncertainty, organizations have introduced six- sigma practices. Six- sigma uses rigorous analytical tools with leadership from the top and develops a method for sustainable improvement. These practices improve organizational values and helps in creating defect free product or services at minimum cost. Human resource outsourcing is a new accession that makes a traditional HR department redundant in an organization. Exult, the international pioneer in HR BPO already roped in Bank of America, international players BP Amoco & over the years plan to spread their business to most of the Fortune 500 companies. • With the increase of global job mobility, recruiting competent people is also increasingly becoming difficult, especially in India. Therefore by creating an enabling culture, organizations are also required to work out a retention strategy for the existing skilled manpower.
NEW TRENDS IN INTERNATIONAL HRM International HRM places greater emphasis on a number of responsibilities and functions such as relocation, orientation and translation services to help employees adapt to a new and different environment outside their own country. Selection of employees requires careful evaluation of the personal characteristics of the candidate and his/her spouse. Training and development extends beyond information and orientation training to include sensitivity training and field experiences that will enable the manager to understand cultural differences better.
Managers need to be protected from career development risks, re-entry problems and culture shock. To balance the pros and cons of home country and host country evaluations, performance evaluations should combine the two sources of appraisal information. Compensation systems should support the overall strategic intent of the organization but should be customized for local conditions. In many European countries – Germany for one, law establishes representation. Organizations typically negotiate the agreement with the unions at a national level.
In Europe it is more likely for salaried employees and managers to be unionized. HR Managers should do the following things to ensure success- • Use workforce skills and abilities in order to exploit environmental opportunities and neutralize threats. • Employ innovative reward plans that recognize employee contributions and grant enhancements. • Indulge in continuous quality improvement through TQM and HR contributions like training, development, counseling, etc • Utilize people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in an area, e. g.
Xerox in photocopiers, 3M in adhesives, Telco in trucks etc. • Lay off workers in a smooth way explaining facts to unions, workers and other affected groups e. g. IBM, Kodak, Xerox, etc. HR Managers today are focusing attention on the following- • Policies- HR policies based on trust, openness, equity and consensus. • Motivation- Create conditions in which people are willing to work with zeal, initiative and enthusiasm; make people feel like winners. • Relations- Fair treatment of people and prompt redress of grievances would pave the way for healthy work-place relations. Change agent- Prepare workers to accept technological changes by clarifying doubts. • Quality Consciousness- Commitment to quality in all aspects of personnel administration will ensure success. • Due to the new trends in HR, in a nutshell the HR manager should treat people as resources, reward them equitably, and integrate their aspirations with corporate goals through suitable India is being widely recognized as one of the most exciting emerging economics in the world.
Besides becoming a global hub of outsourcing, Indian firms are spreading their wings globally through mergers and acquisitions. During the first four months of 1997, Indian companies have bought 34 foreign companies for about U. S. $11 billion dollars. This impressive development has been due to a growth in inputs (capital and labor) as well as factor productivity. By the year 2020, India is expected to add about 250 million to its labour pool at the rate of about 18 million a year, which is more than the entire labour force of Germany.
This so called ‘demographic dividend’ has drawn a new interest in the Human Resource concepts and practices in India. Indian HRM in Transition One of the noteworthy features of the Indian workplace is demographic uniqueness. It is estimated that both China and India will have a population of 1. 45 billion people by 2030; however, India will have a larger workforce than China. Indeed, it is likely India will have 986 million people of working age in 2030, which will probably be about 300 million more than in 2007.
And by 2050, it is expected India will have 230 million more workers than China and about 500 million more than the United States of America (U. S. ). It may be noted that half of India’s current population of 1. 1 billion people are under of 25 years of age. While this fact is a demographic dividend for the economy, it is also a danger sign for the country’s ability to create new jobs at an unprecedented rate. With the retirement age being 55 to 58 years of age in most public sector organizations, Indian workplaces are dominated by youth. Increasing the etirement age in critical areas like universities, schools, hospitals, research institutions and public service is a topic of considerable current debate and agenda of political parties. The divergent view, that each society has a unique set of national nuances, which guide particular managerial beliefs and actions, is being challenged in Indian society. An emerging dominant perspective is the influence of globalization on technological advancements, business management, and education and communication infrastructures are leading to a converging effect on managerial mindsets and business behaviors.
And when India embraced liberalization and economic reform in the early 1990s, dramatic changes were set in motion in terms of corporate mindsets and HRM practices as a result of global imperatives and accompanying changes in societal priorities. Indeed, the onset of a burgeoning competitive service sector compelled a demographic shift in worker educational status and heightened the demand for job relevant skills as well as regional diversity. Expectedly, there has been a marked shift towards valuing human resources (HR) in Indian organizations as they become increasingly strategy driven as opposed to the culture of the status quo.
New Deal Dbq Outline buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
Analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were these responses? How did they change the role of the federal government? Thesis Statement: During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency, his administration helped and tried to solve the problems of the Great Depression. He caused the government to play a very important role in society and from their help many people responded with their opinion of what they felt about it. Document A: •in Document A it discusses about women during the Great Depression •FDR and his administration helped keep women’s condition very well ? omen didn’t suffered as much as the other people o“…not many women in the bread line…” ? they didn’t have to wait in line for food o“…you don’t see women lying on the floor of the mission…”, “They obviously don’t sleep…under newspaper in the park” ? women had a better condition than other people, had a better living and didn’t have to sleep elsewhere •even though the Great Depression caused many women to become jobless, but they still have a better living than others ? showed that women didn’t suffer much during FDR’s presidency Document B: •during the Great Depression, many people pitched in to help out ?
FDR helped better the worker’s working conditions and wages ? NRA and Section 7(a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act o“Everyone is sympathetic to the cause of creating of creating more jobs and better wages for labor…” ? showed that everyone was pitching in to help and create more jobs for people o“…leading us fast to a condition where the Government must more and more expand its relief activities…” ? the government is using its money to create more jobs for people ? government was playing a major role in providing people jobs Document C: •some of the people believed that FDR’s actions during the Great Depression as too radical and it was changing America into a whole new nation instead of fixing the problem o“It is a evolution, not revolution, gentlemen! ” ?evolution: any process of formation or growing ? developing ? revolution: a radical change in society osaying that this was supposed to be the time to develop newer ways to prevent the Great Depression from happening again ? a time to develop newer ways and ideas to better the society ? FDR’s actions doesn’t seem like it’s better the society, it seems like he’s doing a radical change to it ? FDR kept creating new administrations and programs, and passing acts and laws ? oing more than bettering the society ? he’s changing it Document D: •the government took out money to help relief people and to create more public-works projects so that people can have jobs ? the government was willing to make as much money as they can to help to help people ? this also contributed more to their national debt ? government needs to watch on how much they spend •“An enormous outpouring of federal money for human relief and immense sums for public-works projects started to flow to all points of the compass…Six billion dollars was added to the national debt…”
Document E: •the government passed the Social Security Act so that the older generation can retire and still get paid by the government and the younger generation can take their jobs •the advertisement is used to advertise and notify people that when they retire they can still get money from the government each month ? “a monthly check to you-“ ? this helped provide more jobs for the younger generation Document F: •the government is getting involved with unions and telling businesses how they should treat them ? people believed that the government is pushing its powers ? elieved the government is doing too much now •“The authority of the federal government may not be pushed to such an extreme” Document G: •people believed that the government now is overdoing things ? they are getting too involved with workers and union ? government gave worker’s the right to form unions and collect bargains ? businesses and employers didn’t like this, said the government is overdoing it •“…have no right to transgress the law which gives to the workers the right of self-organization and collective bargaining”
Document H: •the government needed to take such radical moves to solve problems of the Great Depression ? the government is the main key to helping the nation through the Great Depression ? changing the Supreme Court and adding new justices ? bettered the Supreme Court •“The government as an instrument of democratic action in the future has also been strengthened and renovated” •“The Courts, too, have been revived… ” •“…excellent new appointments, so that we now have a Supreme Court which is abreast of the times” Document I: FDR tried to relief the blacks from the Great Depression but he didn’t have the intention to deal with social injustices ? he did help provide some blacks jobs, but didn’t deal with social injustice because he didn’t want to lose the support from the Southern Democrats •“…Roosevelt administration has tried to include the Negro in nearly every phrase of its program for the people of the nation…” •“…most important contribution of the Roosevelt administration to the age-old color line problem in America has been its doctrine that Negroes are a part of the country and must be considered in any program for the country as a whole”
Document J: •during FDR’s presidency, he provided many jobs to people and the unemployment rate decreased greatly from the Great Depression •this graph shows that when the Great Depression started (1929) there was a high percentage of unemployed people, but when FDR came into office (1932) and he started to take actions, the percentage begins to drop ? showed that FDR and the government worked hard to provide people jobs ? government played a very important role ? FDR turned government into the nation’s largest employer
School Board Paper college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Gary Norris, Executive Director of School & Community Relations/Board Secretary, Sharon Miller, Chief Financial Officer/Board Treasurer, Michael Coughlin, Assistant Superintendent for Administrative & Student Services, Dr. Peg Dokken-Opat and Associate Superintendent for Educational Services, Dr. Jane Lindaman. Those that were not present were Board member, David Meeks, and Associate Superintendent for Human Resources and Equity, Dr. Bev Smith. There were a few public citizens there, the Waterloo Courier, and sixty-five teachers from the Waterloo school district.
There were 65 teachers in attendance from the Waterloo school district. One young teacher came up front to speak during the time that the Board would listen to different information from individuals. She spoke of how frustrated she has become concerning all of the changes that are taking place all at once. She tried to encourage the District to focus on implementing only one or two initiatives at a time. There was also another woman that came up and thanked the Board members for their service to the community. She also spoke of the Empty Bowls Fundraiser and asked them to once again support this fundraiser.
She stated that the money that is raised would go to the NE Iowa Food Bank. Last year they were able to raise over $13000. 00 There were several items on the agenda; Bills due and payable and bill paid between board members; Food Service Software and Point of Sale Equipment; High School Historically Black College Tour; East High School JROTC Raider Challenge; Board Policy Changes: 2012-2013 Budget Estimates and Publication and Superintendent’s Report. The items that generated the most discussion at this board meeting were the Food Service Software and Point of Sale Equipment.
This item was about purchasing food service software from Infinite Campus for the amount of $70,489. 00. Matt O’Brien, Director of Technology, provided all the information needed. The motion carried 6-0. Another item that took considerable time to discuss was the 2012-13 Budget Estimate and Publication. Mr. Michael Coughlin, Chief Financial Officer provided the information on budget expenditure estimates, the tax levy rate for publication. A public hearing was set for April 9, 2012 at 6:00 p. m. The motion carried 6-0. The third item that took considerable time was the Superintendent’s report.
Dr. Norris thanked all of the public for attending tonight’s meeting. One of the first items talked about was the teacher’s concerns with the initiatives that are being put into place at a fast rate. He stated that these initiatives were being put into place with the best interest of the students. He encouraged all of the teachers to attend the meetings that will be held in the near future within the buildings that they work in and if anyone has something that they want to say, “Please feel free and comfortable to do so. ” He reintegrated that all of the teachers ARE important and appreciated.
One of the characteristics that is comparable from the school board meeting and from the text book is that they have the power to raise money through local tax initiatives. Another comparison from the meeting and the book is that this meeting was considered a regular meeting. It is open to the public which can lead to enhancing school-community relations and allow parents and others to understand issues that surround the system’s schools as well voice their concerns. One thing that I found interesting is that in the book it states that the majority of board members tend to be older than the general population.
I would have to say that there were a few who were older but there were also individuals that were younger. Another characteristic that is comparable from the text book is during the Superintendent’s report when Dr. Norris was discussing the initiatives that were and are going to continue to take place in the school system is “Policy” power and the “Curriculum and assessment” power. They are telling the teachers what initiatives need to take place and the teachers need to implement them. Another power that took place at this board meeting was “Fiscal matters. This was evident in the report from Mr. Michael Coughlin. He was stating how the school district needs to get the most out of every tax dollar. “Community Relations” is another power that was utilized during this meeting. It was used when Ms. Susan Padget came up front to discuss a fundraiser called “Empty Bowls. ” With the school board supporting this fundraiser, they are responding in a positive way to members of the community. One last power that I am going to mention is the power “Employee relations. ” Dr.
Norris wants to make sure that there will be open communication between him, the board members, and the teachers regarding the new initiatives that are going to be implemented. He apologized for the lack of communication in the past and ensured the teachers that this would change. There were a couple of things that surprised me. The first is that with the number of teachers that were at this board meeting, why didn’t more than one get up and voice their frustration. I assume that they chose not to because they were scared that there could be ramifications.
Another thing that surprised me was the school board members’ great sense of humor. They were serious and respectful when they needed to be but they could make light of certain things to put individuals at ease. The most meaningful thing to me from watching this board meeting is how respectful and caring the board members were. One thing that caught my attention was towards the end when Dr. Norris started to talk and said that that the teachers definitely caught his attention tonight. I felt that he was very sincere in the way that he came across when directing himself towards the teachers.
Azerbaijan persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help
The country was among the birthplaces of mankind and is located at the heart of ancient civilizations. Furthermore the country is known to be among the most progressive and secular Islamic societies. Aside from having been the first Muslim country to have operas, theater plays, and a democratic republic, Azerbaijan today is among the Muslim countries where support for secularism and tolerance is the highest. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world, was established in 1918, but was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920.
Azerbaijan regained independence in 1991. The Constitution of Azerbaijan does not declare an official religion but the majority of people adhere to the Shia branch of Islam, although Muslim identity tends to be based more on culture and ethnicity rather than religion and Azerbaijan remains as one of the most liberal majority-Muslim nations. The pre-Turkic Azerbaijani population spoke an Iranian language called the Old Azeri language, which was gradually replaced by a Turkic language, now known as the Azerbaijani language from the 11th century onward until it became completely extinct in the 16th century.
To distinguish it from the Turkic Azerbaijani or Azeri language, this Iranian language, is designated as the Azeri language (or Old Azeri language), because the Turkic language and people are also designated as “Azeri” in the Persian language. Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 38° and 42° N, and longitudes 44° and 51° E. The total length of Azerbaijan’s land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 kilometers are with Armenia, 756 kilometers with Iran, 480 kilometers with Georgia, 390 kilometers with Russia and 15 kilometers with Turkey.
The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country’s center. There are also three mountain ranges, the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40 percent of the country.
The main water sources are the surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km (62 mi) in length. All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country. Since the independence of Azerbaijan in 1991, the Azerbaijani government has taken drastic measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan. But national protection of the environment started to truly improve after 2001 when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline.
Within four years protected areas doubled and now make up eight percent of the country’s territory. Since 2001 the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked for environmental protection. Azerbaijan’s diverse landscape affects the ways air masses enter the country. The Greater Caucasus protects the country from direct influences of cold air masses coming from the north. That leads to the formation of subtropical climate on most foothills and plains of the country. Meanwhile, plains and foothills are characterized by high solar radiation rates.
Rivers and lakes form the principal part of the water systems of Azerbaijan; they were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period. This is particularly evidenced by fragments of ancient rivers found throughout the country. The country’s water systems are continually changing under the influence of natural forces and human introduced industrial activities. Artificial rivers (canals) and ponds are a part of Azerbaijan’s water systems. From the water supply point, Azerbaijan is below the average in the world with approximately 100,000 m? year of water per km?. The first reports on the richness and diversity of animal life in Azerbaijan can be found in travel notes of Eastern travelers. Animal carvings on architectural monuments, ancient rocks and stones survived up to the present times. The first information on the animal kingdom of Azerbaijan was collected during the visits of naturalists to Azerbaijan in 17th century. Unlike fauna, the concept of animal kingdom covers not only the types of animals, but also the number of individual species.
There are 106 species of mammals, 97 species of fish, 363 species of birds, 10 species of amphibians and 52 species of reptiles which have been recorded and classified in Azerbaijan. The national animal of Azerbaijan is the Karabakh horse, a mountain-steppe racing and riding horse endemic to Azerbaijan. The Karabakh horse has a reputation for its good temper, speed, elegance and intelligence. It is one of the oldest breeds, with ancestry dating to the ancient world. Azerbaijan’s vegetation consists of more than 4,500 species of higher plants.
Due the unique climate in Azerbaijan, the vegetation is much richer in the number of species than the flora of the other republics of the South Caucasus. Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions; 66 rayons and 77 cities of which 11 are under the direct authority of the republic. Also, Azerbaijan includes the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan. The President of Azerbaijan appoints the governors of these units, while the government of Nakhchivan is elected and approved by the parliament of Nakhchivan Self-ruling Republic. Tourism is an important part of the economy of Azerbaijan.
The country’s large abundance of natural and cultural attractions make it an attractive destination of visitors. The country was a well-known tourist spot in the 1980s; yet, the Nagorno-Karabakh War during the 1990s crippled the tourist industry and damaged the image of Azerbaijan as a tourist destination. It was not until 2000s that the tourism industry began to recover, and the country has since experienced a high rate of growth in the number of tourist visits and overnight stays. In the recent years, Azerbaijan has also becoming a popular destination for religious, spa, and health care tourism.
Around 95 percent of the populations are Muslims. 85% of the Muslims are Shia Muslims and 15% Sunni Muslims, and the Republic of Azerbaijan has the Second highest Shia population percentage after Iran. There are some other faiths practiced among the different ethnic groups within the country. By article 48 of its Constitution, Azerbaijan is a secular state and ensures religious freedom. Of the nation’s religious minorities, Christians are mostly Russian and Georgian Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic (almost all Armenians live in the break-away region of Nagorno-Karabakh).
The culture of Azerbaijan has developed as a result of many influences. Today, Western influences, including globalized consumer culture, are strong. National traditions are well preserved in the country. Some of the main elements of the Azerbaijani culture are: music, literature, folk dances and art, cuisine, architecture, cinematography and Novruz Bayram. The latter is the traditional celebration of the ancient New Year. Novruz is a family holiday. The traditional cuisine is famous for richness of vegetables and greens used seasonally in the dishes.
Fresh herbs, including mint, dill, basil, parsley, tarragon, leeks, chives, thyme, marjoram, green onion, and watercress, are very popular and often accompany main dishes on the table. Climatic diversity and fertility of the land are reflected in the national dishes, which are based on fish from the Caspian Sea, local meat (mainly mutton and beef), and an abundance of seasonal vegetables and greens. Saffron-rice ploy is the flagship food in Azerbaijan and black tea is the national beverage.
Azerbaijan–Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as “one nation with two states” by the ex-president of Azerbaijan Abulfaz Elchibey due to a common culture and history, and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. The countries share a short border, with the Aras River separating Turkey from the Nakhchivan exclave for just a few kilometers.
Today, the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the “most important bilateral partnership” in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijani foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peace keeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces.
Super Bakery Analysis admission college essay help: admission college essay help
The ABC method benefit companies that assign costs based on cost drivers and how they reflect the depletion of the resources to create the product. Complications with Current Accounting System Super Bakery uses the ABC accounting system that is a management tool that focuses on reducing costs and improving process by using the information obtained from this form of accounting. This allows managers to take the approach of practicing activity based management.
This method ,however, is not the preferred method for a company running a virtual corporation simply because at the cost of goods sold will fluctuate depending on variables related to the outsourced and subcontracted companies and how the economy impacts their individual business. By averaging the cost of each good made and shipped to all parts of the globe Super Bakery relies on the least expensive products to make up for the more expensive ones and diminishes the amount of net income that can be produced. Job Order Cost System
The job order cost system will benefit the Super Bakery company more effectively than the ABC system solely because the job order cost system assigns prices to unique products, and also can be assigned to unique shipping locations. This process keeps track of the material, labor, and overhead costs of the individual job. Assigning different values to the fluctuating variables of shipping methods, contractors, and outsourced companies the Super Bakery management would be able to determine what outsourced interests need to be looked into.
By using this method, management can determine if the shipping company is charging too much for certain locations or a manufacturer of a particular product charges less for the various vitamins. This will allow Super Bakery to find another company that will ship a product to a destination that orders a certain product more than other locations. For instance, if shipping company A charges $10 to ship a product to Alaska and company B charges $8 and 80% the companies shipment of this particular product go to Alaska Super Bakery can decide to ship this product with company B and keep company A for the domestic locations.
The method that Super Bakery is currently using would not necessarily show this dynamic simply because it assigns to cost to shipping as a whole and not the individual location or product. Process Cost System This system assigns cost to mass-produced products identical and mass-produced like the products manufactured for Super Bakery. This process breaks down cost between products in a work-in-progress, and products finished goods.
This method reports the production costs allocation between work-in-progress and finished goods through the cost of production report. This method would benefit Super Bakery more than their current one as well. It allows management to see how much each individual product production costs and allows management to assign cost to units completed and to those in the work-in-progress inventory. Conclusion
Although Super Bakery utilizes a business model that keeps costs down because of the outsourcing that takes place to operate the company they can benefit from changing their Cost Accounting system to the Job Order Cost System. This system calculates for material, labor, and overhead, and assigns a price to individual products and those products being shipped to different locations. The other method of accounting that would benefit Super Bakery would be the Process Cost System; this system assigns costs not only to products finished but also cost to products still in progress.
While this could work, it will be too difficult to calculate all the stages of the production process with all of the different outsourced companies used to run Super Bakery. Super Bakery would benefit from changing to the Job Order Cost System to enhance how they view the cost of goods sold. References Kimmel, P. D. (2009). Accounting: Tools for Business Decision Making (3rd ed. ). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.
Porter Five Analysis of the European Airline Industry admission essay help: admission essay help
While the business model existed for some time (first such in 1973 US), the appearance of these in the European market needed the liberalization brought forth by the EU, implementing the „Freedoms of the air” in three stages. In 1997 the first LCC (Low Cost Carrier), the Ryanair began its operation, and in a few years a few more followed, which gave the national and network airlines a new problem to the existing economic problem, shrinking market and others such as 9/11. By today the changes in the past two decades have shifted and diversified the industry, which was once a mature and to some level declining in structure.
The new regulations, companies, investors and consumers have brought new life, the industry once again mature with fragmented characteristics. The ideal tool for the assessment of the airlines industry is Michael Porter’s five force model. It aims to find and demonstrate the forces in the microenvironment which influence the industry, internal and external as well. Threat of new entrants (barriers to entry) •High capital investment ? •Capital intensive ? •Airport slot availability ? •Predatory pricing ? •Brand loyalty/frequent flyer ? •Economies of scale ? Limited number of routes ^ The threat of new entrants, due to the barriers mostly set by the nature of the industry and by the existing companies, are very low. Yet sometimes when the possibility arises, new companies start: in the past few years many national companies went bankrupt leaving a market to take by the existing companies or new upstarts. Bargaining power of suppliers •Aircraft manufacturers •Relatively low number of suppliers ^ •Suppliers are concentrated ^ •Airlines are valued customers ? •Airports •Slot availability ^ •Alternatives to the primary airports ?
The bargaining power of suppliers is mostly two-legged, and both have a medium threat. For both parties it is best to find a mutually working solution on a long term, because it is a industry with relatively small number of players loosing even one can have an impact on both sides. Threat of substitutes •Alternative transport (bus, car, train) ^ •Videoconferencing ^ •Global environmental awareness ^ The threat of substitutes includes a broad variety for the different needs. All-in-all it still only gives a medium threat, since the quick transport to a distance has no alternative.
Bargaining power of customers •Price ? •Internet/social media ^ •Customer orientation ? •Choice ^ With the first LCCs the customers had no bargaining power: if you choose to go with this low price, accept the services as it is. However, nowadays with more alternatives and the ever-reaching internet and social media a bad customer satisfaction can be a disaster. This can however be mitigated with customer orientation, but still customer had the choice, it is a medium high level. Rivalry within the industry •Between LCC and national/network airlines ^ •Between LCCs ^
The rivalry within the industry is high due to the high number of big and medium sized companies. The airlines industry is highly competitive, with very high barriers and medium to high threats within. While there is a relatively low threat from a new market entree, the existing international competition is fighting over all the resources: more and better airports possibly with mutually excluding contracts, picking up the customers fed up with their previous carrier or starting a price war on a selected destination, binding the newly aquired flyers with brand loyalty programmes.
Unless there is an opportunity, it is not an attractive industry to enter due to the high number of barriers. However, once established a foot, it is a very interesting and very intensive industry with good possibilities. The major LCCs depending on how low cost they are making good profit and there is still room for growth. The key factors for success should include: •Efficiently utilizing the resources (financial, time, human resources) •Utilizing a network of business partners (complementary) •Timely expansion (trying new destinations, increasing frequency) •Customer orientation (with following trends eg. ocial media) These above should be observed by both LCCs and traditional airlines. The industry standards are given, those companies will become successful which can effectively utilize them.
Opposites and Paradoxes in King Lear aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
The sequence of oppositional characters and motifs in the play bring about in the audience a sense of the corruption of principles that beset the protagonists of the play. With this sense of opposition comes a strong sense of the duality within the play seemingly centred on the Epodoclean theory of a “world governed by the contrary forces of love and hate. Though this is not unusual for a stage production, McAlindon believes that when the bond of opposites that constitutes the natural order of “revolt against limit and fly to extremes. ” This can be seen in the characters foremost as the sons of Gloucester as well as the daughters of Lear are directly opposed to each other. Indeed it is in the internal nature of Lear that this is focused most powerfully as his beliefs in love and kindnesses are offset by the egocentric and chloric feelings that dwell within his heart.
It is mainly from the character and fate of Lear that the true extent of the breakdown of nature can be seen as within the space of two weeks he has sunk from kingship to a world of destitution and poverty as he suffers at “th’ extreme verge” in his relationship with his family. What is most tragic in relation to Lear though is his rediscovery of Cordelia before the heart wrenching death she endures as he is thrown from the heights of grief before his heart gives way under the strain of ecstatic joy.
But while the emotional converses that Lear endures are tremendously powerful they are not the only matters in opposition throughout the play. There can be seen in the various settings of the play a number of thematic oppositions, with the most apparent being the contrast between the nocturnal and gloomy castle of Gloucester as opposed to the serene Dover fields where Father and daughter are reunited, where love opposes strife. Indeed there are a great number of inversions that apply a new number of possible thoughts to the understanding of the play.
Lear’s sufferings are completely opposed to the more typical tragedies of the Shakespearean era where there was a distinct separation between the suffering of the social elite and “the low and the ludicrous” in the principal of the Senecan school of thought. In King Lear though it would appear to be the Saturnalism theories that prevail as the positions of the lowest are inverted with those of the highest, as Lear takes the place of his fool in declaring the unpalatable truths of the world in his madness, adopting a sense of tragedy in the manner in which this is done.
There are none more demonstrative of inversions than the antonymic nominalism that occupy the play with the most pathetic being Gloucester’s praise of Goneril and Cornwall, whereby his loyalty to the king becomes “treason” whereas Edmund’s betrayal is described as a show of “loyalty. ” But more than this it is a key illustration of the wickedness of protagonist such as Goneril who condemn “harmful mildness. ” This sense of paradox is prevalent mostly in the evil party where it comes to signify a moral and social inversion of a rational order of things.
In contrast to this a positive paradox comes to represent a renewal through destruction and a discovery though loss, most notably seen in the increase of France’s attraction for Cordelia following her rejection by Lear as she becomes an “unprized precious maid,” becoming “most choice, forsaken” as the isolation of “forsaken” seemingly highlighting the paradox. What is more is that a sense of pathos is granted through this as Lear’s misinterpretation of each one of his daughters and his reliance of the “wolfish” Regan and Goneril, as well as Gloucester’s miscomprehension of Edmund as being a “loyal and natural boy. The twin paradoxes that appear in the discovery of madness, characterised by Lear, and the discovery of vision in blindness are the most powerful in the development dignity undertaken by Lear and to an extent Gloucester in this play. McAlindon believes that of all the paradoxes it is the fact that the tragedy develops around an inability “to contain the worst effects of a terrible eruption in nature,” and none is more terrible than the progressive failing of family links. The typical familial bond of mutual love and affection that is the ornerstone of most families is shockingly absent in King Lear though it is desperately craved by Lear himself. McAlindon believes that this style of bond involves love and justice as well as that it “predicates a glad and spontaneous performance of offices and responsibilities. ” It is therefore bewildering that Edmund would break such a bond in such an anti-familial manner, undermining civilised society in the process, and comparisons can be drawn between him and Iago in his mistreatment of Claudius in Othello.
Gloucester, however, can be seen to be as equally to blame for Edmund’s waywardness as his dreadful mistreatment of him, whose breeding is only acknowledged as Gloucester “often blushed,” and seems to be a victim of tragic causality as Edmund comes to believe that he owes everything to himself. The ancient Greek writers Plato and Aristotle believe that love creates emotional awareness and allows for the creation of just law.
With this in mind the manner with which Lear treats the link between him and his daughters in such a material way shatters any sense of order or responsibility in his court with the dismissal of Cordelia and Kent becoming a satire of what passes for justice in society. If Plato’s theories are developed then it would seem that the main cause for injustice is a loss of human kindness and sympathy, explaining fully Edmund’s pathological hardness as his bastardy alienates him.
In the same manner in which Edmund suffers a lack of acknowledgement, so too does Lear suffer the same fate, it is only through his mistreatment on the familial ties. McAlindon believes that Lear holds a heavy “dependence of personal identity on the bond” and it is his reliance on the bond as a material tie makes him a nobody after he divulges himself from his power and estate resulting in one of the most pathetic lines “I gave you all” separated from the cruelty of Regan.
The greatest dignity is then conveyed onto those around him who still perceive the bond to be a union through love, and therefore still hold the same respect for Lear despite his failure to recognise them. The importance of a character understanding the treatment of time plays an integral part in the possibility of them being seen as a tragic figure. King Lear is a tragedy characteristic of its age, a tragedy of extreme and terrible violence, as there is a sense of the untimeliness of violence and destruction that rashness and impatience bring about.
Most characteristic of this flaw is Lear as his kingdom implodes through his “hideous rashness” as he signals the unleashing of pitiless violence that culminates in the utterly pathetic death of Cordelia. He is ironically guilty too of being overly patient as there is an almost comic stichomythia between him and Kent portraying his unwillingness to accept facts. A parallel can be drawn with Gloucester in this as his impatience regarding the supposed traitor Edgar is both unjust and demonstrative of the nexus between time and justice as well as injustice and haste.
Calculated swiftness becomes characteristic with the actions of the evil party and can be seen by Edmunds manipulation of Gloucester under the pretence of judicial behaviour as well as that of his brother as he acts “in cunning” and its placement a the beginning of the line illuminates its two meanings. In an extreme contrast the good party align themselves with time, adopting a policy of patience that is both dignified and tragic. Edgar is keen to wait for “the mature time” whilst Kent waits for the perfect moment to reveal himself to his master, however, it is his own personal tragedy that he never finds the right moment.
This can be seen as a demonstration of a true heart as this is a play that appeals profoundly to the heart as much as it does to the mind. Emblematic of a noble heart is the manner in which a protagonist empathises and treats those around them and powerful contrasts can be seen between characters and their counterparts. Indeed the most powerful of these contrasts is between the “dog-hearted daughters” of Lear and Cordelia with the scenic juxtaposition of tranquil Dover and the castles and courts of Regan and Goneril a clear demonstration of this.
To be truly tragic in King Lear a character possess a good heart and this is perfectly shown by the “marble hearted sisters” as opposed to Kent’s whose own heart is pierced by Lear’s rejection of Cordelia. Alongside the good characters Lear’s heart is true in its nature, though he seems to suffer the promethean anguish, with his heart replacing the traditional liver, culminating in his death which must be presumed as being from a broken heart. Compassionate love is the supreme value in the play and as discussed above beliefs and social morals come from love and therefore the heart.
Conversely though a slighted heart can produce the most devastating fury and hatred through grief as not only does the heart present the duality of nature with the possibility for disunity and anarchy but in this same manner emphasizing the importance of patience. Therefore the presence of all the aforementioned undertones and subtle themes tragedy is both made distinctly more unattainable as well as becoming much more powerful in its nature, with pathos coming to play a key role in its development.
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