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The Musculoskeletal System

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The musculoskeletal system has many functions to it because it is actually two systems that are put together; muscular and skeletal. The organs that are in these systems are skeletal muscles, bones (joints, tendons, and ligaments). By dividing the two systems into different sections, it will make it easier for you, the reader, to understand and make sense of the information.

The muscular system functions are to provide movement, protects organs, and production of heat. There are many muscles that do different functions. Before I go into all of the muscular functions, I will give an overview of all the muscle structure. Fascia, which is a fibrous connective tissue, separates an individual skeletal muscle from adjacent muscles and then holds it into position. Fascia surrounds each muscle and protects beyond the end of its muscle fibers to form a tendon. The aponeuroses tissues are the forms broad fibrous sheets that attach to the coverings of adjacent muscles. The epimysium lies beneath the fascia, the perimysium extends into the structure of the muscle, where muscle cells separate into fascicles. Endomysium separates individual muscles fibers. Skeletal muscle fibers contract in response to stimulation and then relax when the stimulation ends. Threadlike structures called myofibrils run lengthwise throughout the muscle fiber. The myofibrils are composed of two types of even tinier structure, the myofilaments. The thick myofilaments called myosin filaments consist mainly of the protein myosin. The actin filaments consist of the protein actin. Myosin and actin filaments are arranged lengthwise in the muscle fibers so that they overlap.

During muscle contaction, the actin filaments are pulled inward between the myosin filaments. As that occurs; a nerve cell that stimulates a muscle releases a compound known as acetylcholine. The acetylcholine goes across the muscle-nerve and combines with receptors on the surface of the muscle cell. Then the electrical current spreads over the sarcolemma (cell membrane). Excess acetylcholine is broken down by the enzyme cholinesterase. The electrical current spreads and stimulates the sarcoplasmic reticulum (endoplasmic reticulum) to release calcium ions. The calcium then processes the uncovers binding sites on the actin filaments. This process is powered by the energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules. As this process continues, the actin filaments slide past the myosin filaments, shortening the muscle.

Muscle cells are needed to provide us with large amounts of energy. Sufficient ATP can be piled to store energy for only the first few seconds of activity. Creatine phosphate is muscle cells that have another energy storage compound. The supply of creatine phosphate does not last long during exercise. Stored glycogen is degraded while yielding glucose. When sufficient oxygen is available enough, energy is captures from the glucose to produce needed quantities of ATP. Oxygen many not always be available to meet the needs of rapid metabolizing muscle cells. Muscle cells are capable of breaking down fuel molecules without oxygen for short periods of time. Muscle tone is an unconscious process that helps to keep muscles prepared for action. Without knowing it, while you are lifting a heavy object, muscles are shortened and thicken as they contract. If you push against a locker, no movement occurs. Muscle length does not change but muscle tension may increase.

Skeletal muscles produce movements by pulling on tendons. Muscles can only pull, they cannot push. Synergists stabilize joints so that undesirable movement does not occur and fixators stabilize the origin of an agonist (a muscle that contracts to produce a particular action) so that its force is fully directs to the bone on which it inserts. Synergists and fixators are muscles that help the agonists by reducing unnecessary movement.

Heat is a necessary need for human bodies. About twenty-five percent of the energy released in respiration is available for use in metabolic processes meaning the rest becomes heat. Muscle tissue is a major heat source because muscle is a very large proportion of the body mass. Also, active cells generate heat and blood transports this heat to other tissues to help maintain all of the body temperature.

The other system that is included is skeletal. The skeletal system functions are to provide framework, provide movement, stores calcium and phosphorus, and production of blood cells. Bones give shape to all kinds of structures like the head, face, and limbs and provide support and protection. Bones like the pelvis and backbone support the body’s weight. Without the lower part of your body, you couldn’t hold up your weight. The bone of the skull protects the eyes, ears, and brain. The rib cage protects the heart and lungs. Also the bones of the pelvic area protect the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs.

Levers are whenever limbs or other body parts move, bones and muscle interact. The four components of a lever are a rigid rod or bar, a fulcrum on which the bar turns, an object or resistance that is moved, and the last component is that it supplies energy for the movement of the bar. An example of a lever; when the upper limb bends, the forearm bones represent the rigid rod, the elbow joint is the fulcrum, the hand is the weight that is moved, and muscles supply the force.

Hematopoiesis is the process of blood cell formation. Blood cells are manufactures in the liver and spleen, and they form in bone marrow. Marrow is soft mass of connective tissue within the medullary cavities

Civil Rights Movement And Montgomery Bus Boycott cbest essay help

Civil Rights Movement

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Beginning in the 1950s, the Civil Rights Movement was a prime issue during its time. The Civil Rights Movement lasted, mainly, from 1955 through 1968, and was a nonviolent movement. Was America ready for equal liberties and freedom? It took thirteen long, hard years to find out.

Even though the years 1955 through 1968 are given as the dates of the movement, the fight for civil rights started before then and continues today. The dates are simply when the movement became mainstream and was brought to the forefront as one of Americas main issues. The fight for civil rights has been going on since the beginning of America, when Africans were transported to the “New World” to be enslaved. After slavery was abolished, people still treated blacks inferior to whites, not allowing them to vote and taking away various other rights that each American citizen should have.

The “mainstream” Civil Rights Movement began in 1955, when Emmett Tills brutal murder in Money, Mississippi. He was accused of whistling at a white woman in the store and later on, two men showed up at his uncles house and kidnapped him. They brutally beat him, put a bullet through his skull, and disposed of the body in the Tallahatchie River late at night on August 28, 1955.

The two men were arrested the day after Tills Disappearance, but were acquitted a month later by an all-white jury. Emmett Tills mother chose to have an open casket funeral to show the world the horrible and sadistic way her son was killed.

The event that followed shortly after in Montgomery, Alabama was another act that helped trigger the Civil Rights Movement. Rosa Parks, a black woman, was told to move from her seat on the bus after a white passenger got on the bus, but she refused. She was arrested, tried, and convicted of disorderly conduct and violating a local ordinance. When people found out about this there was a gathering of fifty black residents and they started to Montgomery Bus Boycott to protest segregation on public buses. Lasting 382 days, the city finally caved in to the boycott and the local law that whites got seats before blacks on buses was revoked. This ended the boycott and pushed the movement into full swing.

Until 1955, civil rights took place in courtrooms or as unorganized movements. The local police of an area could handle anything that protestors could put out, mainly because the movements were uncoordinated. However, after the bus boycott and the murder of Emmett Till, the strategy became more direct. Using boycotts, sit-ins , and freedom rides, the supporters of the movement began to use mass mobilization and nonviolent resistance to push the envelope.

The NAACP was barred from operation in Alabama during 1956, after the state required the organization to give a list of member s. When the failed to do so, they were banned. So, they were forced to operate underground, rather than out in the open. However, many local churches and other groups stepped un to help out while the NAACP was banned. They brought more energy and charisma to the movement, which got more people involved, because it was more of proactive way to fight.

Perhaps, one of the most important actions of the early movement was when Edgar Nixon and Rosa Parks called upon Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. top head the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955-1956. He had a knack for giving great speeches and getting the best out of a crowd. Dr. King brought the movement to the mainstream faster and stronger than ever before.

King, who became very respected throughout the Civil Rights Movement, is a name that many people think of when they think about Civil Rights. King headed dozens, maybe hundreds, of boycotts, demonstrations, and gave equally as many inspirational speeches to crows of up to thousands.

In 1957, the Little Rock, Arkansas school board voted to integrate the school system. The NAACP pressed this issue because of Arkansas seemingly progressive nature. However, on the day that blacks were supposed to start school, a crisis began. The Governor, Orval Faubus, called on the National Guard to keep the nine black students from entering the school on September 4. Faubus has been pressured by the conservative wing of the Democratic Party, which controlled the politics in that state, to step in and stop integration. So, wanting to be reelected, Faubus stepped in and took a stand against integration. Shortly after the deployment of the National Guard, President Eisenhower, intent on enforcing integration, sent the 101st Airborne Division to protect the students while they attended school.

Shortly after, Greensboro, North Carolina, Nashville, Tennessee, and Atlanta, Georgia started to take part in the movement. Blacks began to protest at local establishments due to their refusal to desegregate. Protestors were encouraged to dress-up, sit quietly, and occupy every other seat so that white protestors could join in. Often, local police or other authorities forcefully removed protestors from the stores.

These demonstrations were not a new idea. They were used in the 1940s by the Congress of Racial Equality to protest segregation during that time period. The forms of protest were done in public places such as parks, movie theaters, and lunch counters. They proved to be successful when they gained a following and were done with force.

These new techniques of demonstrations included freedom rides. Freedom rides were thought to be very helpful, but, in the end, turned out to be very dangerous. Riders in Alabama were attacked with firebombs, and in Birmingham were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan and severely beaten. While in jail, the riders were treated very poorly. Given very little food, beaten routinely, and crowed into tiny cells with many other people.

Robert Moses formed the Council of Federated Organizations out of the SNCC, NAACP, and CORE, in 1962. The organization was formed in Mississippi, the most dangerous, racist state. Many activists, including Moses and Medgar Evers, went door-to-door trying to get people to join in and fight for the cause. Proving how dangerous Mississippi was during the movement, Evers was murdered under a year later.

The purpose of the COFO was to provide help for blacks living in the state at that time. The first successful showing of the COFO was when James Meredith sued for admittance to the University of Mississippi and won. However, like Little Rock, when he tried to attended school on September 20, 25, and 26, he was blocked by the Governor Ross R. Barnett. However, the governor and his lieutenant were held in contempt with fines exceeding $10,000 for each day they didnt let Meredith enter the school. Meredith finally entered the school, after many riots and injuries to U.S. Marshalls, on September 20, 1962. He was escorted

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Civil Rights Movement

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The Civil Rights Movement started with the The Montgomery Bus Boycott. The Boycott officially started on December 1, 1955. Rosa Parks Was a Educated women she attended the laboratory school at Alabama State College. Even with that kind of education she decided to become a seamstress because of the fact that she could not find a job to suit her skills.

Rosa Parks was arrested December 1955. Rosa Parks Entered a bus with three other blacks and sat on the fifth row. The fifth row was the first row the black could occupy. After a few stops later the rows in front of them where filled with whites. According to the law at the time blacks and whites could not occupy the same row. There had been one white man left with out a seat. The bus driver had told the four to move so the white man had a place to sit. The other three that was with Rosa Parks had moved. Rosa Parks however did not. She refused and was arrested.

E.D. Nixon post bond for Rosa Parks. He told her that with her permission they could break segregation from buses with her case. Jo Ann Robinson made flyers and distributed them with her students. The flyers urged people to stay off the buses on Monday the day Rosa Parks case was due. Martin Luther King, Jr. a minister thought that if they could 60 percent of the blacks to stay off the buses the boycott would be a success.

Martin Luther King Jr. thought he saw a miracle when he saw bus after bus pass his house with no blacks in them. That night they had called a meeting him and other ministers and blacks of the community which they called there self (MIA) Montgomery Improvement Association. They elected King the president of the group. They had a decision to make whether or not to continue with boycott or not.

Then E.D. Nixon rose to speak: “Whats the matter with you people? Here you have been living off the sweat of these washerwomen all these years and you have never done anything for them. Now you have a chance to pay them back, and youre too damn scared to stand on your feet and be counted! The time has come when you men is going to have to learn to be grown men or scared boys.”

The MIA had then decided to let the people vote on whether or not to let the boycott continue or not. They held a mass meeting and it was obvious to see that they decided to continue with the boycott. When the boycott began no one had expected for it to last this long. On Thursday, December 8, the fourth day of the boycott King and the other members schedule a meeting with lawyers and officials of the bus companys to discuss a moderate desegregation plan.

The MIA was hopeful that the meeting would go well and the boycott would end. The city officials refused and also made announcement that any cab driver charging less then 45cent would be prosecuted. Which before the cabs where charging 10cent the same amount of charge the buses charged. Which gave thousand of black no way to get to work? The MIA made a private taxi service which had blacks with cars pick up blacks without.

Kings home was bombed. Also Nixons home was also bombed. After that they turned to the law. The whites arrested blacks for any minor traffic violation possible. No matter the problems they faced they did not break down. They took it all the way to the federal courts. November 13, 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the federal courts ruling, declaring segregation on buses unconstitutional. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was officially over. Although the boycott was over the whites did not take this lightly. There was a series of bombings, threats and attempts to scare blacks off busses.

The first Sit-Ins happen when four black men entered F.W. Woolworth Company store in Greensboro, North Carolina, purchased some school supplies, then went to the lunch counter and asked to be served. One of the students said “We believe, since we buy books and papers in the other part of the store, we should get served in this part.” They sat there until the store had closed and still they had been denied service. This first sit-in had very little effect.

Soon words began to spread. Gordon Carey, a representative from the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), came down from New York to organize more sit-ins. In a few weeks several cities began sit-ins mainly in Woolworths and S.H. Kress stores. The basic concept of sit-ins students would go up to the counter and ask to be served and if they would where served them they would move on. If they where not served they would wait till they are served. If they happen to be arrested a new group would come to replace them.

They had standards also. Like dont talk back or strike back if attack, always face the counter, and to be on there best behavior. They had to wear there best Sunday cloths they had. Also not to hold conversations or to block entrances. When Northern students heard of the movement, they decided to help their Southern counterparts by picketing local branches of chain stores that were segregated in the South.

The first few weeks of sit-ins were fairly quiet. The black people where not served or been harassed much either. Then, on February 27, sit-in students in Nashville were attacked by a group of white teenagers. When police arrive they let the white kids that hit the black kids go, and they arrested the blacks for disorderly conduct. No matter what they did or how many times they been arrested there still was a counter full of students not served.

Over Easter Weekend, Ella Baker of the SCLC helped organize a conference of sit-in students from around the nation. She encouraged the students to form an independent organization. They formed the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, pronounced “snick”) to lead the sit-in effort. On April 19, Z. Alexander Loobys home was destroyed. She was fairly a conservative person. So the destruction did not only enrage blacks but also whites.

2,500 students and community members staged a silent march to City Hall that day. When they arrived at city hall Mayor Ben West was waiting for them. They had asked the mayor if it was right to discriminate against someone only because there color of there skin. Mayor Ben did not find that reasonable. So, the merchants decided if Mayor Ben said it wasnt they should start serving blacks. It was almost as a excuse so they didnt move n there own. A few weeks later on May 10, six Nashville lunch counters began serving blacks.

Sit-Ins however where not over, they continue doing sit-ins in some parts of the South. They continued in some areas of the South until and even after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 declared segregation at lunch counters unlawful. In addition, the technique of the sit-ins was used to integrate other public facilities, such as movie theaters, and SNCC, the student

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Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Movement

During the civil rights movement, individuals including African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, American youth and women along with civil rights organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws.

African Americans during the 1960s, most communities around America segregated blacks and whites in public transportation, restaurants, and school. Discrimination prevented many from receiving equal consideration for education and employment. In some areas of the nation, a “poll tax” was used to prevent African Americans from voting in state and national elections. African Americans wanted to end segregation, discrimination, and bring about equal opportunities for all. In response to this unequal opportunity for blacks in the country many African Americans joined mutually in efforts to generate change. The 1960s saw an increase in organized efforts to strengthen the right of individuals. In April 1960 the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was started in Raleigh, North Carolina, to help direct and organize the student sit-in movement. The sit-in movement also showed clearly to whites and blacks alike that young blacks were determined to reject segregation openly. After the sit-ins, some SNCC members joined in the 1961 Freedom Rides organized by CORE. The Freedom Riders, both black and white, traveled throughout the South in buses to test the effectiveness of a 1960 Supreme Court decision. This decision had declared that segregation was illegal in bus stations that were open to interstate travel. The national civil rights leadership decided to keep pressure on both the Congress and the Kennedy administration to pass the civil rights legislation proposed by Kennedy by planning a March on Washington for August 1963. Leaders of the NAACP, CORE, SCLC, the Urban League, and SNCC as well as Martin Luther King, Jr. expressed their ideals for the civil rights of African Americans. Later on events like the Selma march created broad national support for a law to protect southern blacks right to vote. President Johnson persuaded Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which suspended the use of literary and other voter qualification tests. After the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the focus of the civil rights movement began to change. Martin Luther King, Jr., began to focus on poverty and racial inequality in the North. In their accomplishments although full equality has not yet been reached, the civil rights movement did put fundamental reforms in place. Legal segregation as a system of racial control was dismantled, and blacks were no longer subject to the humiliation of Jim Crow laws. Public institutions were opened to all. Blacks achieved the right to vote and the influence that went with that right in a democracy. Those were indeed long steps toward racial equality.

Civil rights have also been denied to Hispanic Americans, particularly Puerto Ricans in the East and Mexican Americans in the Southwest. The problem has followed traditional paths, as rights have been denied in employment, housing, and access to the judicial system. Many Hispanic Americans especially Mexican Americans symbolized their desire for equal status in U.S. society. Many returning veterans found better paying jobs and were able to go to college and begin businesses. Many Mexican Americans wanted to put an end to being accepted as an inferior status or role in the American Society. In response

After 1945, Mexican American veterans created organizations like the G.I. Forum and the Mexican American Political Association. These organizations directed their efforts to reflect the rise of many Mexican Americans to middle-class status in income and occupation. Mexican Americans also started the Chicano Movement to define the awareness of farm workers, increased labor activism, and growing visibility of educational and community needs of the Hispanic community. The movement galvanized a new generation of activists and leaders and brought to attention nationally a variety of issues important to the Mexican American community. The accomplishments of The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement encompassed a broad cross section of issues. These included restoration of land grants, to farm workers rights, to enhanced education, as well as voting and political rights. The Chicano movement eventually led to the improvement of educational attainment; development of bilingual-bicultural programs; and expansion of higher education fellowships and support services.

The struggle for civil rights has not been confined to blacks, Hispanic Americans, and women. Native Americans for decades were forcibly deprived of their lands and denied civil rights. During the 1960s American Indians suffered perhaps more than any other minority group. Their reservations lacked schools and decent jobs. The unemployment rate was nearly three times the national average. Nearly forty percent lived below the poverty level. In addition to these hardships, they had the worst housing, the highest disease rates, and the least access to education of any ethnic group in the United States. Native Americans wanted to increase public awareness and empathy for American Indian issues as well as bring about change. In response Native Americans became more aggressive in pressing for their own rights. A new generation of leaders went to court to protect what was left of tribal lands or to recover, that which had been taken, often illegally, in previous times. In state after state, they challenged treaty violations, and in 1967 won the first of many victories guaranteeing long-abused land and water rights. The American Indian Movement (AIM), founded in 1968, helped channel government funds to Indian-controlled organizations and assisted neglected Indians in the cities. Books written by Native Americans expressed public awareness and the need for change. The accomplishments were In 1968 Congress enacted the Indian Civil Rights Act, and the federal courts have heard a number of suits designed to restore to Native American tribes rights to their ancestral lands. Still, Indian activism brought results. Other Americans became more aware of Native American needs. Officials in all branches of government had to respond to pressure for equal treatment that was

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The New Generation of Vaccines

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The New Generation Of Vaccines

The nanopatch is a new kind of medical device invented by biomedical engineer Mark Kendall. It is a needle-free device that does the same as a traditional needle and syringe but is pain-free. The nanopatch is a revolutionary device that will help end the cold chain.

According to the article “Fear of Needles? There’s New Tech On The Way”, it states that the nanopatch will “help lower mortality rates from tuberculosis, malaria, HPV and other infectious diseases-which account for millions of deaths every year-and to help eradicate others, such as polio.” This means that the nanopatch could help terminate some diseases that have caused millions of people to die. The nanopatch also does not require refrigeration unlike the needle and syringe which requires a liquid vaccine that has to be kept at a certain temperature. According to the article “Fear of Needles? There’s New Tech on The Way”, “…The nanopatch is embedded with thousands of tiny spikes that are dry coated with vaccine. That’s a boom in undeveloped regions lacking the electricity to keep medications cold.” This will allow more regions to be able to treat patients without having to refrigerate the vaccine so that more people can receive the treatment. The Nanopatch also requires about 1/10 the amount of vaccine needed for the needle and syringe. This helps lower the cost of the treatment so that the treatments are more affordable.

According to the Ted Talk Video, Mark Kendall explains that the needle and syringe causes 20% of the population to have needle phobia. Needle phobia doesn’t just cause the people to be scared of needles, but it makes them to not take the vaccine at all. This will create a higher chance of someone getting the disease while it could have been avoided. According to Kendall, from the TED Talks VIdeo, the nanopatch

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The Myth The Best In World

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Title of article: The Myth of �Best in the World’

Name of Magazine: Newsweek

Date of magazine: March 31, 2008

Recall: Infant mortality rate in the United States is seven per 1,000.

Medical costs in the country are the highest in the world.

U.S. is 28th position in the World Health rank.

Summary: This article was written to reveal the reality of medical care in the United States. People with health insurance believe the U.S. has the best medical system in the world, because they have access to high-tech equipment and the latest procedures. However, those are not necessarily beneficial or make this nation in a better position globally. It estimates 44,000 of the 98,000 deaths are caused by medical mistakes. A deluge of new research shows the States behind other countries in cancer survival and diabetes care. The myth of �the best in the world’ is misguided. The system needs to be reformed.

Question: Why are almost 45% of the deaths in hospitals caused by medical mistakes?

Comment: The article is attempting to say that medical care in U.S. is not the best in the world. Countries such as Portugal or the Czech Republic which are not known as first-rate in health care have a better position than the U.S. in international health rankings.

Connection: One friend of mine, who lives in Michigan, had a surgery to remove a malignant tumor from her womb in the last year. Another surgery was needed a couple months later because the doctor forgot to take out a part of the tumor. Isn’t that ridiculous, making her go through that procedure again?


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The Mircle Of Life- Prenatal Development

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Prenatal Development-The Miracle of Life

Have you ever thought about what an absolute miracle your life is? Imagine how you came to be. Out of thousands of eggs and millions of sperm, one egg and one sperm united to produce you. Had the union of sperm and egg come a day or even a month earlier or later, you might have been every different, maybe the opposite sex or with blonde hair of longer legs. Conception occurs when a single sperm cell from the male unites with an ovum (egg) in the females’ fallopian tube in process call fertilization. The fertilized egg is called a zygote. By the time the zygote ends its three to four day journey through the fallopian tube and reaches that uterus, it has divided into approximately 64 to 128 cells (Eisenberg, Murkoff, & Hathaway, 2002).

The fetus is not immune from the outside world. In fact, some things can be damaging to the unborn child. These are called teratogens, and often result in birth defects. They include such things as maternal disease, poor nutrition, stress, pollutants, and cigarette smoking. Some of the most troubling teratogens are alcohol and drugs. It is critical to the development of the fetus that expectant mothers avoid teratogens, and receive good prenatal care (Baltes, 2003). Other prenatal hazards involve genetic birth defects. A major part in a babys development is directly linked to the actions of the mother takes. To ensure that the baby stays healthy and continues normal development, it may mean to have to make some changes. Pregnant women are encouraged not to use drugs, alcohol, or nicotine as this can seriously affect the babys development. A mother should avoid drinking caffeinated beverages such as coffee and soda while increasing water consumption. Though this all may seem difficult, it is taking an active part in keeping the baby healthy (Baltes, 2003). Exercising is also very important when pregnant. Keeping the baby healthy is just one part of prenatal development but to better understand the full course of prenatal development one must understand physical development during the germinal, embryonic, and fetal period.

The germinal period is the period of prenatal development that takes place in the first two weeks after conception. It includes the creation of the zygote, continued cell division, and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall. The differentiation of cells has already commenced, as inner and outer layers of the organism are formed. The blastocyst is the inner layer of cells that develops during the germinal period. These cells later develop into the embryo. The trophoblast is the outer layer of cells that develops during the germinal period. It later provides nutrition and support for the embryo. Implantation, the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall, takes place about 10 days after conception.

The embryonic period is the period of prenatal development that occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. During the embryonic period, the rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for the cells form, and organs appear. Once the zygote attaches to the uterine wall, the label for the mass of cells changes from zygote to embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells: the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. The endoderm is the inner layer of cells, which will develop into the digestive and respiratory systems. The ectoderm is the outermost layer, which will become the nervous system, sensory receptors (ears, nose, and eyes, for example), and skin parts (hair and nails, for example). The mesoderm is the middle layer, which will become the circulatory system, bones, muscles, and excretory system, and reproductive system. Every body part eventually develops from these three layers. The endoderm primarily produces internal areas, and the ectoderm primarily produces surface parts.

Continuing the embryonic period the embryo’s three layers form, life-support systems for the embryo develop rapidly. These life-support systems include the amnion, the placenta, and the umbilical cord. The amnion is a thin bag or envelope that contains a clear fluid, called amniotic fluid, in which the developing embryo floats. Like the placenta and umbilical cord, the amnion develops from the fertilized egg, not from the mother’s own body. Amniotic fluid helps to cushion and protect the fetus against physical shocks and trauma and provides an environment that is temperature, humidity, and pressure controlled. At approximately 16 weeks, the kidneys of the fetus begin to produce urine. This fetal urine remains the main source of the amniotic fluid until the third trimester, when some of the fluid is excreted from the lungs of the growing fetus. Although the amniotic fluid increases in volume tenfold from the 12th to the 40th week of pregnancy, it is also removed in various ways (Challis & others, 2001). Some is swallowed by the fetus, and some is absorbed through the umbilical cord and the membranes covering the placenta.

The placenta consists of a disk-shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother that the offspring intertwine but do not join. The umbilical cord contains two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein and connects the baby to the placenta. Very small molecules, oxygen, water, salt, food from the mother’s blood, as well as carbon dioxide and digestive wastes from the embryo’s blood, pass back and fourth between the mother and embryo (Bush & others, 2001). Large molecules cannot pass through the placental wall; these include red blood cells and harmful substances, such as most bacteria, maternal wastes, and hormones. The mechanisms that govern the transfer of substances across the placental barrier are complex and still are not entirely understood (Jimenez & others, 2004).

Before most women know they are pregnant some important embryonic developments, such as organogenesis, take place. Organogenesis is the process of organ formation that takes place during the first two months of prenatal development. In the third week, the neural tube forms, this structure eventually will become the brain and spinal cord. At about 21 days, eyes begin to appear, and at 24 days the cells for the heart begin to differentiate. During the fourth week, the first appearance of the urogenital system is apparent, and arm and leg buds emerge. Four chambers of the heart take shape, and blood vessels surface. From the fifth to the eighth week, arms and legs differentiate further; at this time the face starts to form but still is not very recognizable. While organs are being formed, they are especially vulnerable to environmental changes (Wehrens & others, 2004).

The fetal period is the prenatal period of development that begins two months after conception and lasts for about seven months,

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The Pencil

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The pencil is an everyday tool. Some of its uses are for writing school papers, for

completing schoolwork, and for drawing. There are many other uses for the pencil.

In 1564, N.J. Conte invented the pencil. He did so after another family tried but


There are ten steps that you need to go through to make a pencil. Incense-cedar

logs are cut into pencil blocks, and the pencil blocks are cut into pencil slats. Pencil slats

are treated with wax and stain, and then a machine cuts grooves to accept the writing core. The writing cores are then placed into the grooves.

The next step is another grooved slat is glued into the first slat to make a sandwich, and the sandwich is made into pencil shapes by a machine. After that, the pencils are cut from the sandwich and are sanded smooth, and each pencil is painted. The last step is that a ferrule and eraser are crimped into place on each pencil. A ferrule is the metal ring around the eraser that holds it in place.

Pencils were invented because most lead wasnt being used. Today, lead pencils

contain no lead. Instead of lead, they use a mixture of clay and graphite.

In 1821, Charles Dunbar discovered a graphite deposit in New England. It was certified as far superior to any graphite that was found before in the United States.

The center of a pencil is called the core. Today, the writing cores are made of graphite and clay. Pencil makers can adjust the hardness of the writing core by varying the ratio of graphite to clay.

The hardness of the core is usually marked on the outside of a pencil. Its usually a No.2 or No. 3. The higher the number is, the harder the core of the pencil will be.

There are also different markings you will see on a pencil. There might me an H or a B or an F. The H means that it is a hard pencil. The B tells you how black the mark will be when you write on paper. The F means that you can sharpen the pencil to a fine point.

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Resistivity Of A Superconductor And High Temperature Superconductorsð online essay help

The Phenomenon Of Superconductivity.

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The electrical resistivity of a metal arises from the interactions of the conduction electrons with impurities, defects and the vibrating ions of the lattice. As the temperature is lowered, the amplitudes of the lattice vibrations diminish, so one would expect the resistivity also to decrease gradually toward a small, but finite, value determined by the impurities and defects. This behavior is manifested by many materials.

In 1911 H. Kamerlingh Onnes discovered that as the temperature of mercury was reduced, its resistance suddenly dropped to an extremely small value at 4.15 K. The metal had made a transition to a new superconducting state. The resistivity of a superconductor is at least a factor of 10-12 less than that for an ordinary conductor. We can usually take it to be zero. In superconductors electrical energy can be transported without resistive losses, provided the temperature is maintained below the critical temperature, Tc.

�High temperature superconductors’ are such that remains superconductors in relatively high temperatures (for example 77K).

In addition to their obvious use in electromagnets, there are other applications of superconductors. The resistive losses in transmission lines amount to about 10 % of the power supplied. This heat dissipation would be eliminated by superconducting lines. Persistent currents around a hole in a superconductor may be used as a memory device and so on.

In 1933, W. Meissner and R. Ochsenfeld placed a sample of lead in a weak magnetic field and started to cool it. They found that as the material made the transition to the superconducting state, the flux was expelled. This is called the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect. It shows that a superconductor is characterized by more than just perfect conductivity; it also displays perfect diamagnetism.

There exist two types of superconductors:



Largest Island And National Park global history essay help

The Komodo National Park

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Komodo national park

The Komodo national park lies in East Nusa Tenggara province in the Sape Straits between Flores and Sumbawa. The only Access to Komodo village is by boat from Labuan Bajo on the northwestern tip of Flores or from Sape on the east coast of Sumbawa. Komodo, the largest island, has a countryside dominated by a range of rounded hills sloping along a north-south alignment at an elevation from500 to 600m. The coastline is lopsided and characterized by numerous bays, beaches and inlets divided by headlands, often with sheer cliffs falling vertically into the sea. Padar is a small, narrow island, which lies directly east of the coast of Komodo. It also has topography, which rises steeply from the surrounding plains to between 200m and 300m. Further east, the second largest island in the park, Rinca, is separated from Flores by a narrow strait a few kilometres wide. The topography of the southern part of the island is dominated by the 667m Doro Ora massif, while to the north the steep-sided peaks of Gunung Tumbah and Doro Raja rise to 187m and 351m, respectively. As with Komodo and Padar, the coastline is generally strong and rocky although sandy beaches are found in sheltered bays. The mainland components of the park lie in the rugged coastal areas of western Flores, where surface fresh water is more abundant than on the islands of Komodo, Rinca and Padar. Geology reflects area vulcanism, with Pleistocene(a really old rock) and Holocene(an even older rock) deposits forming the principal geological units. Deposits are generally resistant volcanics, volcanic ash, conglomerates and raised coral formations.

FAUNA: The Park is best known for the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis (R), the worlds largest living lizard. The population, which is estimated at around 5,700 individuals, is distributed across the islands of Komodo (2,900), Rinca (900), Gili Motong (fewer than 100) and in certain coastal regions

Move Tragedy And Analysis Of The Move Case law essay help: law essay help

The Move

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On May 13, 1985, a confromation between Philidelphia police and a cult called MOVE resulted in one of the most astounding debacles in the history of American municipal government. After massive gunfire, deluges of water, and explosive charges failed to dislodge the group from there fortified row house, police dropped plastic explosives from a helicopter onto a roof top bunker. The MOVE tragedy severely damaged the reputation of Philadelphia Mayor W. Wilson Goode, who until then had been considered an effective manager, a rising star of national politics, and a symbol of hope for his city. The Special investigation commission (PSIC), appointed by the mayor himself, charged that “the Mayor abdicated his responsibities as a leader,” a condemnation sharewd by most informed observers. With Respect to the twelve values Charles Gilbert(1959) identifieds with adnministrative responsibity, Goode and his key subordinates conspicuously failed to satify at least seven -responsiveness, consistency, stability, leadership, competence, efficacy, and prudence. The paper will argue instead that, lamentable though it was, the mayors performance exemplifies universal tendencies well understood by psychologists of decisionmaking. Analysis of the MOVE case therefore can suggest insights that may enable other administrators to recognize and control situations in which they too might otherwise succomb to irresponsible patterns of action and inaction. The origins of MOVE can be traced to the early 1970s in Powelton Village section of West Philadelphia, near the campuses of Drexal University and the University of Pennsylvania. They called themselves the American Christian Movement for Life, but they later shortened the name to MOVE. As they put John Africas philosophy into practice, MOVE generated frequent tension with landlords and neighbors, who complained about members grossly unsanitary practices and their harboring of dogs, cats, rats, roaches, and flies. During the 1970s, a virtual feud developed between MOVE and the Philadelphia police. The mayor of Philadelphia was then Frank Rizzo, a former police commissioner

famous for tough law enforcement. When August 1 came, MOVE refused to leave, because no one had found a site for relocation they would accept.

For five years, MOVE was visible to most Philadelphians only a series of trials. In 1980, nine members were sentenced to lengthy prison terms for the murder of Officer Ramp, a tenth followed in 1982. In 1981, three

Sustantial Evidence And Planet Earth aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

The Origin Of Humanity

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We live on a planet

believed to be 4.5 billion years of age with millions

of people covering all parts of it. Where did they

come from? Did the whole human population

originate from one of people or were we placed

here and then improved or changed by an

intervention? I believe that humanity on planet

earth was created by evolution. Both the

creationist and interventionist theories seem to far

fetched to be accountable theories for the creation

of humanity on planet earth. There are a lot more

questions that remain unanswered such as if

spacemen put us on earth why didnt they bother

to teach humans anything? And if the creationist

theory were accurate why cant God control

natural disasters on his planet? He is so clever to

create everything known to mankind why doesnt

he make the perfect world if he had that much

control? There seems to be quite a bit more

sustantial evidence on earth to support the theory

of evolution. The evidence is holds up more

because actual samples of fossils have been

collected and scientifically tested using a method

called carbon dating to determine the age of the

fossils. Which can then be examined and placed

along a timeline. The time periods show slight

differences in bone structure showing what is

hypothesized to be the human evolving. Evolving

from what though? The theory

Nitrogen Cycle And Nitrogen Fixation essay help 123: essay help 123

The Nitrogen Cycle

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The Nitrogen Cycle

The Nitrogen cycle is the exchange of nitrogen gas in the earths atmosphere and living organisms. Nitrogen is a necessity to all living organisms in their production of proteins, DNA, and RNA in their cells . However, only a few organisms can use this gas directly, due to the fact that it may limit the growth of plants. Nitrogen takes up about 78% of the earths atmosphere. The nitrogen cycle has three main chemical transformations, including nitrogen fixation, nitrification, and denitrification .

The first main transformation of nitrogen gas is nitrogen fixation. Nitrogen Fixation is the process in which pure nitrogen is converted to various, usable nitrogen compounds. Three processes are responsible for most of the nitrogen fixation in the atmosphere , Atmospheric Fixation, Biological Fixation and Industrial Fixation. Lightning is responsible for atmospheric fixation. In atmospheric fixation, the energy of lightning breaks down the molecules of nitrogen, enabling nitrogens atoms to combine with oxygen, creating nitrogen oxides. Rain dissolves the nitrogen oxides, turning them into nitrates, which is carried to the earth. The second form of nitrogen fixation is Industrial fixation, which is a process that converts nitrogen to ammonia (NH3). Ammonia can be used directly as a fertilizer, but most of it is further processed to urea and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) . The usable nitrogen will take 2 forms: nitrate and ammonium. Plants then take up nitrate and ammonium, get lost in the subsoil or atmosphere, or are changed in the soil. The last form of nitrogen fixation is Biological Fixation. In biological fixation, some bacteria in Legumes, a special group of plants, are able to convert nitrogen into usable nitrogen compounds for plants. In biological fixation, Aminization takes place. Aminization is when microbes break down protein in plants and animal waste

Suns Surface Throw Particles And Northern Lights college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The Northern Lights

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The Northern lights are poetry, they are natures light show, and they are

quantum leaps in the oxygen atom. They are elementary particle physics,

superstition, mythology and fairy tales. The northern lights have filled

people with wonder and inspired artists; they have frightened people to

think that the end is at hand. More exact explanations of the phenomenon

could not be given until modern particle physics were developed, and

knowledge about details in the earths magneto sphere has been based on

measurements from satellites.

When the northern lights are seen over Tromsш, it happens in a set pattern,

although this pattern varies considerably. The outburst starts with a

phosphorocent glow over the horizon in northwest. The glow dies out and

comes back, and then an arch is lit. It drifts up over in the sky. And new

arches are lit and follow the first one. Small waves and curls move along

the arches.

Then within a few minutes a dramatic change is seen in the sky. A hailstorm

of particles hit the upper atmosphere in what is called an aurora sub-storm.

Rays of light shoot down from space, forming draperies, which spread, all

over the sky. And they really remind us of draperies or curtains, which are

flickering in the wind. And you can see a violet and a red trimming at the

lower and upper ends. Or the colors are mixed all together, woven into each

other. The curtains are disappearing and forming all over again by new rays

of light shooting down from space. Above our head we cans see rays going out

in all directions forming what is called an aurora corona. After 10 to 20

minutes the storm is over and the activity decreases. The bands are spread

out, disintegrating in a diffuse light all over the sky. We can not see

individual pockets of light, but the total effect is bright enough to enable

us to make out details of the countryside around us. If we look very

carefully, we can see the remains of the northern lights display as faint,

pulsating flames. Clouds of light which is turned on and off regularly every

5 – 10 seconds as though by an electric light-switch. The natures own

gigantic light show is over.

What causes the northern lights? To answer this, we start with the sun whose

energy production is far from even and fluctuates on an 11-year cycle.

Maximum production coincides with high sunspot activity when processes on

the suns surface throw particles far out in space. These particles are

called the solar wind and cause the northern lights.

The suns surface temperature is approximately 6,000o C, much cooler than

the interior, which is several million degrees. In the suns atmosphere or

corona, the temperature rises again to several million degrees. At such

temperatures, collisions between gas particles can be so violent that atoms

disintegrate into electrons and nuclei. What was once hydrogen becomes a gas

of free electrons and protons called plasma. This plasma escapes from the

suns corona through a hole in the suns magnetic field. As they escape,

they are thrown out by the rotation of the sun in an ever-widening spiral –

the so-called garden-hose effect. The name originates from the pattern of

water droplets formed if we swing a garden hose around and around above out


After 2-5 days travel trough space, the plasma reaches the earths magnetic

field compressing it on the daylight side of the earth, and stretches it

into a “tail” on the night side. A few of the particles penetrate down to

the earth along the lines of magnetic field in the polar areas. Most,

however, are forced around the earth by the magnetic field and enter the

“tail” which stretches out into a long cylinder. Its diameter is equivalent

to 30-60 times the earths radius, an its length up to 1000 times the same

radius. It is, in effect, as if the earths magnetic field creates a tunnel

in the plasma current from the solar wind. Inside one end is the earth, and

around its surface the earths magnetism and the solar wind interact.

The magnetic tail is divided into two by a sheet of plasma. The magnetic

field lines from the earths north and South Pole stretch out in their

respective halves such that the fields are in opposition. The electrons and

protons in each half of the plasma rotate in opposite direction forming a

huge “dynamo” with the positive pole on the side of the plasma sheet facing

dawn and the negative pole facing evening. The current of charged particles


Word Expressionism Waz And O’Neill’S Expressionistic Thearter homework essay help

O’neill’s Expressionistic Thearter (plays)

O’neill’s Expressionistic Thearter (plays)

In the name of God

ONeills Expressionistic Thearter (Plays(

This thesis investigates Expressionism as a theatrical technique in the Emperor jones , the Hairy ape, and the Great god Brown.

The word Expressionism waz apparentiy first applied to modern wok of art in franle , where julien Auguste herve used it in 1901 to deignuteaseries of his paintings . Expressionism as an artistic movement, howerer, began in Ggermany verey eariy in the 20 the century (1905) in which a Nnumber of painters sought to avoid the represen tation of Eexternal reality and in stead aimed to project themseives and their personal vision of the world .

Expressonism was later applieer to literature as a reaction against realism although it was itself out growth of realism . In practice , it aimed to show the inner psychological realities instead of representing the world objectively . In this sense , an expressionist author expresses his inner exprience by representing the world as it appears in his state of mind or in the mind of one of his characters . Expressionism in theater is basically a technique of dramatic representation which attempts to project onto the stage an internal , subconscious or

symbolic reality . It is essentially a method of distertion of reality in order to represent a particular and personal point of view . It is infact a doctrine of individual and personal self expression . The charactristic of this doctrine include :

. A dream like and night marish atmosphere .

. A bizzar shaped setting which avoid the reproduction

of the detailed setting of Naturalistic drama .

. An episodic plot or structure.

. A colorless charactrization by which characters lose their in dividuality and are merely identified by nameless designations such as the man , the workman , the engineer , etc.

. A poltical , febrile , and rhapsodic dialogue .the form is staccto telegraphs-made of phrases or one two words or expletive .

. A style of acting which is deliberatly departing from realism .

The word expressionism entered american theater in spring of 1922 with eugene ONeills the experor jones .ONeill had been influenced by the expressionistic techniques the swedish , dramatist , Auguest Strind berg ( 1849 – 1912) who inspired ONeill to write many expressionistic plays such as The Experor Jouns(1920), The Hairy Ape (1922), and The Great God rown(1926).

As in painting an Expressionistic drama expresses the psychological and inner pains of its subjects.

The them of expressionistic drama includes :

machine-life dominance of industry over human societies , annihiliation of the individual identity ,refutation of war and massacre ,rejection of the exploitation of mankind and human lonliness in the world .An expressionist play wright penetrates into the characters mind to reveal the disordered and private mental state of her/his mind to the audience .

ONeill, One of the ochstanding American expressionistic play wrights,presents his reaction against the modern stste through charactrization . He presents an extremly negative view of the state of machinized American with depersonalized individuals . In the Hairy Ape ONeill protrays Yank as a social outcaster or alien who is overwhelmedly by his frustration in facing the bariers which the society erect against him .

The play begins as Yank , a power ful and illiterate stoker on an ocean liner , is boasting to his shipmeat in the fore castle. Yank Thinks he makes the ship go , not only the ship but the whole civilized world is driven by his energy and his fellowspower . Yank – who scorns ,love ,home , burgeois standards every thing – is scorned by mildred Douglas . Mildred- whose capitalist father owns the ship and posse sses of the most steel bussiness of the world , desires to see how the stokers in fireroom live .She sees Yank ,she cries and call shim “Hariy Ape ” This encounter has a profound effect on yank . He couldnt forget that mildred calls him horrible beast . He set out to deter mine just what his place in the universe is and where he belong to , at the end he is killed.This play is a free expression

Equal Pay Act And President Kennedy nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Parable of the Sadhu

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Forty years after the Equal Pay Act of 1963 (EPA), full time working women still earn an average of 80 percent for each dollar earned by men. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 1999 women earned only 72 cents for every dollar than men earned. This is approximately a 13 cent improvement from the 1963 wage gap figure of 59 cents on the dollar (EEOC website). The Equal Pay Act, signed by President Kennedy, prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in the payment of wages or benefits, where men and women perform work of similar skill, effort, and responsibility for the same employer under similar working conditions. Employers may not reduce wages of either sex to equalize pay between men and women. A violation of the EPA may occur where a different wage was or is paid to a person who worked in the same job before or after an employee of the opposite sex. Jobs are not required to be identical, but they must be equal. It is job content, not job titles, that determines whether jobs are equal.

The issue of equal work for equal pay has a long legislative and judicial history and yet remains one of the social problems that has shown staying power. According to the data from the National Bureau Labor Statistics federal, state, and private sector efforts have fallen short of their aims when trying to equal the playing field, at least in regards to pay equity for women. Discrimination against women in the workplace has been addressed in successive legislation, executive orders and court decisions dating back to 1961. President Kennedy issued Executive Order 10925, which created the Presidents Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity and prohibited discrimination on the basis of gender, race, creed, color, or national origin by federal contractors (EEOC website). In 1965, President Johnson through Executive Order 11375 expanded President Kennedys order. Equal pay legislation was first introduced through the Equal Pay Act of 1963 as an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act. This law requires equal pay for work involving equal skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made all discrimination illegal, and Title VII specifically forbids discrimination in employment practices based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. In 1991, the Civil Rights Acts was amended to strengthen protections. Title VI, known as the Equal Pay Act was amended to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender, race, color, or national origin in any program or activity that receives federal government financial assistance, loans, tax breaks or grants and contracts from government. In addition to federal legislation most states have equal pay laws.

Until the early 1960s, newspapers published separate job listings for men and women. Jobs were categorized according to sex, with the higher level jobs listed under the help wanted

Different Parts And William Paleys Argument Lead computer science essay help


Essay title: Paley

“There cannot be design without a designer.” This quote and many other statements in William Paleys argument lead me to believe that William Paley is trying to argue that there is a designer for everything from the universe to watches. The origin of the universe can be very complicated but I completely agree with Paleys argument.

He compares the universe to a watch since a watch can be so complicated and have many different parts in order for it to work correctly. By giving different scenarios he states that watches have a complex structure, and they arent just thrown together. He talks about the different laws and how it is hard to believe that everything is just put together and does not just appear on the ground where the object (watch) was found. The object must be made by someone who has knowledge about the design of an object and how an object functions. Then Mr. Paley talks about how we have never seen a watch being made so how do we know that a watchmaker made the watch. However, someone had to make the watch because it was just not put together by the ground. If we really wanted to we could probably watch a watchmaker make a watch, but we arent able to watch God make anything. By this he is stating that anything so complicated such as humans, animals, plants, and nature are made by someone and that someone must

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