Problems with the Cogito
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I applaud Descartes in actually establishing something (that is not nothing) in his second Meditation and think he is getting somewhere, however, I also feel that there remains a large hole in his logic and that he is perhaps not being quite as methodical and careful in the conclusions he draws from the cogito. The starting point is, of course, the projection of thought вЂ“ the actual act of thinking and the way in which it defines and characterizes the human mind. To be as meticulous and scrupulous as Descartes himself (previously), how do we know that thoughts are, in fact, a projection of the human mind? How can it be known whether or not a thought is projected from who-knows-where and that it is the actual nature or essence of the mind to simply вЂњtune inвЂќ to such projections or thoughts? If this, or some other phenomena, is indeed the case, then the conclusion established
First States And Saint Thomas Aquinas compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help
Proof for God’s Existence
Proof for God’s Existence
“Whether or not it is the case that there is proof for Gods existence.”
“It seems that the existence of God can be proven in five ways by the Cosmological Argument.”
Saint Thomas Aquinas, put forth his own theory on the existence of God. In his text “Whether God Exists”, he stated that through his five arguments he could prove Gods existence. His five arguments are from motion, from first efficient cause, from possibility and necessity, from gradation, and from design. Aquinas begins his text with two objections as to why God does not exist. The first states that God does not exist because the word “God” has the meaning of infinite goodness. Therefore, if God actually existed there would be no evil in this world. Because there is evil, God cannot exist. The second objection states that all natural things can be attributed to reasons other than Gods existence. The objection states that natural things are the result of human reason or will, without need for Gods existence. Aquinas then goes on to explain his first argument, the argument from motion. In this he states that it is evident to everyone that certain things are in motion, and were put into motion by something. He defines motion to be “the reduction of something from a state of potentiality into a state of actuality” Aquinas gives an example of this in his text. He states that something that is actually as hot as fire will make the potentially hot piece of wood actually hot. Furthermore he states that it is not possible to be in a state of actuality and potentiality at the same time from the same point of view. From different points of view, however, this is possible. In the case of the wood, it can be actually hot while at the same time being potentially cold. With this he is basically saying that nothing has the ability to move itself. According to Aquinas, everything has been put into motion by an original force or first mover, and this he believes to be God. Aquinas second argument is the argument from the formality of efficient causation. In this he states that there is an order of efficient causes
Mr. Dimsdale And Old Guy essay help fairfax
Do Our Judgement Of Others Define By The Symbolz They Signify
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Do our judgment of others defined by the symbols they signify?
Are judgment of others defined by the symbols they signify? Why do we judge people based on how they appear? From the min we see somebody wearing bagging jeans, big shirts, just the whole package. We take them to be no good. When thats not always the case . Do we look at them for what they symbolize? By the way they walk, talk, act. Names and titles always symbolizes a person. It describes a persons outlook. When you hear psycho. We would think that the person is crazy. And would know to stay away.
Why do we judge people based on how they appear? When I was first saying bout the baggy jeans, big shirts. We look at them basally to be bad because most people who dress like that are. If I were to dress up as a police and walk down the street people will always come to me asking for help or something that a police individual would do. With Hester and scarlet letter. In the book people who wear the scarlet letter are known to have done something bad. And so they look down on her. With Mr. Dimsdale he is look upon as a someone who has no sin. Ideal. Just on what we appear to be.
Do we look at them for what they symbolize? of course we do. Its not right. But lets take for sample an old guy with baggy cut up clothes, long bread, just sitting down in a corner of a street. We take the old man dont have a job, car, education, no life. And that just may be the case. But how a person symbolizes themselves to be thats what we take them for. If a young lady comes in with her hair in a bun and very covered up, No make-up. Always keeps her head down .You take her to be shy , keep to herself or something like that. Just by her just doing all that. We take her to symbolizes a shy lady. As well as Mrs. Hibbins. She acts a witch. Everybody is going to take her to be one .
Conflict Of Interest And Venture Capitalists argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online
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Who are “venture capitalists”? What role do they play in helping start-up companies?
They investors who help start a company. The money is provided by professions who help with the growing company. Venture capitalists are an important source of equity for growing companies. Venture capitalist help finance new companies with purchasing equity securities as well as help in the development of new products and services.
Name at least 4 large investment banking companies.
Morgan Stanley, Merrill Lynch, Goldman Stackson, Leeman Bros and CSFB.
When were trading commission on stocks deregulated and how did this affect investment bank revenue? Apart from trading commissions, name two other sources of revenue for investment banks.
May 1st 1975 was when trading commission stocks were deregulated. The investment banks were affected regarding there revenues because the brokerages changed from a fixed commissions for securities to a negotiable one. Other sources of revenue are commissions and 7% earned to investment bankers.
What is an IPO? Who allocates these IPOs? Who receives them and on what basis?
An IPO is where a company offers its stock to public investors for the first time. IPOs are allocated through investors. IPOs are usually distributed though underwriters who then sell the shares to institutions and to the preferred customers.
What is meant by the term “flipping”? Give a specific example. Why is this harmful for the company that just issued the stock?
Flipping is done when shares of a stock are leftover. The investor flips the share to the public individual investors and small institutions. They then can only purchase the share through a stock broker. These shares are usually bought and sold within a matter of minutes.
Where is the conflict of interest involved with recommendation of a stock broker working for an investment bank?
The conflict of interest involved has to do with purchases of the shares by individuals. The way this works is that the investor basically advertises the stock to the public in various ways.
What is a Dutch auction? How is this different from a traditional IPO? Discuss at least two of its
Political Power And Political Structure rice supplement essay help
Political Power and the State
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“Political Power and the State”
According to Spencer political power is the result of cooperation between individuals in a society. The cooperation between individuals leads to a political structure that organizes the efforts and gives direction to the group as a whole. The political structure derived from this cooperation has to have the power to restrain individual behaviors in order to keep the society together for the same common goals. The political structure gets this power from the idea that everyone in a society wants to feel that they are part of something larger than themselves. In turn this idea of community leads to a moral high ground for social action and identity. Spencer argues that basic political division in society is between strength and age. When people get older they may be wiser but they lose physical strength, people who posses both are considered more renowned. Thus, Spencer states there are three divisions of political structure; the masses of the young and the weak, those who are strong and inexperienced, and those elite few among the strong and experienced. Every political structure is a derivative of this one. Throughout history there have been different forms and distinctions of this structure for example, king, nobles, and people; but in todays modern society we have CEO, elected officials and citizens. Each political structure is different combinations of three areas ” despotism, oligarchy, or a democracy”. In a democracy the citizens are most important; in an oligarchy the power belongs to small groups of leaders; and in despotism only one person holds all the power.
Spencer thought that the degree of power given to the political structure of a society was based on two factors. The first factor involves population growth. The more a population grows the more complex the political structure becomes. The second influence deals with the resources available to the society and other surrounding societies. Spencer argues that when there are few resources the political structure is given more power in order to attain the resources necessary for the society to survive. The manner in which the political structure obtains these resources is determined by the complexity of the political structure itself, and the political structures of the societies around it.
Spencers definition of political power and the basis of that power do not show any distinct division between the political structure and the people governed by it. The individuals in a society and the population of the society are the determining factors in the degree of power that the political structure have and how it is built.
If we look at Marxs theory we can see that there are two distinct classes (bipolarization) in modern day society the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The proletariat, or the working class and the bourgeoisie, the feudal nobility have always been antagonistic towards one another. When considering capitalism though, they become two very separate and unique classes. Under capitalism all political relationships are controlled by the state and they strip power away from personal ties and move them into more interpersonal ones. For example, in agricultural societies capitalism takes away work from the farm and places it in urban based factories, thus stripping away the importance of family businesses. There is also a huge division of labor that occurs being that there is mental labor (philosophers, priests, etc) and material labor (workers). The current socially stratified class system is controlled by the people in
Mocking Bird And Unemployed Men law essay help
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Prejudice is defined as an “opinion formed without taking the time and care to judge fairly”.In the novel To kill a mocking bird there are several themes present like growing up, bravery and prejudice, but the main theme in this book is prejudice.
Prejudice was a common problem during the early quarter of the twentieth century. In the novel to kill a mocking bird, this problem is evident in maycomb, the fictional town of alabama in southern america. In the book its not just a case of black and white but the entire novel is about prejudice in many forms including class gender and racial prejudice.in the novel we see these events through a young girls eyes scout.
In the book scouts father , atticcus, tells scout and jem “id rather you shoot at tin cans in the backyard, but I know youll go after birds.Shoot all the blue jays you want if you cannot
hit them, but rememberits a sin to kill a mocking bird”. In this quote the mocking bird symbolizes these two characters boo and tom because it does not have its own song. Because a mocking bird does not sing its own song, we charecterize it only by what the other birds sing.this exactly applies to boo and tom. Both of these characters do not really have their own songs in a sense, therefore,are charecterized by other peoplesd view points are are targets of prejudice.
The novel is set in the 1930s during this tiume the country was in the period known as the Great depression. Many people were jobless and homeless. Many people lived in shanty towns, with shelters made of sheet metals and scrap. All oover america it was common to see unemployed men and women riding the rails looking for work shelter and food. In 1931 a person working 55 or 60 hours in alabama would only earn $150 annually. Because of the shortage of jobs and how low paying they were, there were fights for these few jobs. The blacks and whites hatred got larger with competition for jobs.one of the most amous court cases in american history was during this time,it was the scottsborro trial. The scotborro trial was very similar in many ways to the fictional trial of tom robinson .
The incident which was the basis of the scottsboro trials began on march 25 ,1931 when a group of people were riding a train from tennessee to alabama. After leaving the train two white woman accused 9 african american men of raping them in an open car. There were several trials with differnet verdicts for the 9 defendants. The similarities to the fictional trial of tom robinson include the issue of race. In both cases black men wereaccused of raping white women in alabama in the 1930s. if the jury had found the men not guilty in either trial it would mean that the jury had taken the word of a black against a white. This was something that could not be allowed in the present society. In both cases the accuses used poor black men to occuse them of rape to cover up a secret.In the scottsboro case it was ruby bates and victoria pierce, who accused the men of rape to cover up
Charles Jones And Area Of Gene Technologies essay help us: essay help us
Gene one Leadership Change
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Running head: LEADERSHIP CHANGE STRATEGY
Gene One Leadership Change
This paper will discuss and analyze Gene One which is a biotechnology company in business for eight short years and started by a group of family and friends. It has been successful in the area of gene technologies and has realized its potential growth opportunity by seeking to be an IPO on the stock market. These new advancements in gene technologies help farmers field and produce better crops using no chemicals. The Company is now looking to go public in order to obtain the capital needed develop future products, and to stay competitive in the biotech industry. Over the last eight years Gene One has established a team who members possess the skills required to produce new technologies. These new technologies will help eradicate disease in crops.
Recently with the passing of the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Don Ruiz, the organization is facing many changes in leadership and must now analyze who should succeed Don and what the way forward will be for the company.
Leadership in an organization involves instilling motivation and enthusiasm in the employees. An effective leader knows how to manage and tackle difficult situations and people. An effective management team carefully plans the goal of an organization, recruits the necessary staff, organizes them, and closely supervises them to ensure that the overall goals and objectives of the organization are met. It is about extending the support that is required by the employees for the successful accomplishment of the organizational goal and objectives. Therefore, it is absolutely important for Gene One management to communicate with there employees so they know which direction the company is heading and what is to be achieved. Many reasons can cause a force of change in organizations. It is up to leadership to manage these planned and unexpected changes. As we see with Gene One they are going through a force of change and must make decisions that are in the best interest of the company and its employees. Because of change they will see some resistance. The resistance may be caused by employees feeling insecure, afraid of the unknown and some will feel the loss of power. Resistance to change may have been captured best by M. Ferguson when he said “Its not so much that were afraid of change, or so in love with the old ways, but its like being between trapezes. Its Linus when his blanket is in the dryer. Theres nothing to hold on to”.
Team Analysis of Gen One Leadership
Gene One has many valued employees each of whom brings a wealth of knowledge and experience to the organization. However, with the new leadership changes that are needed, we will see many opportunities for conflict? Leadership factors can affect conflict within decision making groups. The analysis of the Gene One team is;
Don Ruiz, Chief Executive Officer: Until his recent passing Don was the force behind Gene One. He was very knowledgeable in the technology industry and took Gene One from a $2 million dollar start up company to a $400 million company.
Michelle Houghton; As Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Michele holds a strong sense of ownership and emotional attachment to the company. She has been successful in obtaining outside finding from both the private sector and the government. Michele is one of the original five that helped start the company. Because she has invested everything she had into Gene One she holds a strong sense of ownership and emotional attachment to the company. Seen as reserved and quiet, she is often mistaken for a pushover, but in reality, she is concerned and focused about any issue that puts the company at risk. Michelle is a young 35 and has never had the opportunity to direct the finances of a large company nor has she been involved in an IPO; because of this lack of experience she will need to quickly get spun up and have the right people supporting her. She does have good leadership skills and is most suited for the position.
Charles Jones; Currently Charles is a Gene Ones Marketing Officer. He is a motivated employee and believes in the company but lacks the experience needed to be CFO. Therefore, the company should hire another person to fill out this position.
Teri Robertson, Chief Technology Officer, is one of the original team and Dons niece who is completed absorbed with Gene One. Teri is well rounded and understands both the scientific and financial side of the organization. Teri is a motivated and passionate researcher but does not want to be forced to research by the mainstream “Wall Street” investors.
Greg Thoman; Chief Human Resource Officer, has been successful in ensuring Gene One obtain and retain only the most qualified people. Greg joined Gene One six years ago and has helped fill staff positions with talented researchers and innovative product developers. Because of Gene Ones rapid growth over the last couple years Greg has been very busy focusing on bringing onboard only the highest qualified people but has had little time to focus on developing his own future and at this time would not be a candidate for the CFO position.
The required change strategy will be devised so it supports the overall approach of the organizations objectives and goals. Realizing its growth potential Gene One will develop new and innovative products by identifying and using better technological tools and techniques. The new change will cause Gene One to focus on the quality of its products in the market. This can be done by using available funds raised during the Initial Public Offer (IPO), and by identifying new prospective investors. Gene One will also look into the possibility of expanding into the international market.
The organizations change strategy will be to focus on effective leadership, which will motivate and encourage the employees to develop a background for change. It may be quite possible that the changes are met with much apprehension and fear. The recommended changes to positions in the company are as follows:
1. Michele assumes the CEO position
2. Lucas fills the marketing position
3. Greg assumes the CFO position
4. Teri stay as technology lead (persuading Teri to go along with the changes will require assistance from all players.
Execution of Change
Set Of Core Values And Existing Culture Of The Organization medical school essay help
Gene one Problem Definition
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To grow or not to grow, that is the dilemma. Many companies are often faced with this challenging decision. The consequences of this decision may be the overall success or failure of the organization. Change is often necessary to create opportunities for growth and profitability. In fact, change is required for companies looking to grow the business (Andersen, 2005). Such changes may include modifying the existing culture of the organization and the companys leadership philosophy. McShane and Von Glinow (2004) define organizational culture as the set of core values, beliefs and behaviors shared by the members of an organization. Culture determines how formal or informal an office is, how much emphasis is placed on rules and regulations, how approachable senior management is, how problems are tackled and successes shared, etc. It is important, particularly in times of change, for companies to have a clear sense of who they are, what they stand for and what behaviors their people must exhibit for the organization to be successful. Having a clear vision has a positive impact on the organization and its employees. Having a strong sense of who the company is and what it stands for promotes an environment where people demonstrate a commitment to the companys core values, such as providing excellent customer service, being dedicated to quality, acting with integrity, and showing respect for each other. These values keep the company on course, regardless of the changes and challenges that are faced. Core values enable the company to not just weather the difficult times, but to come through them an even stronger organization. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities faced by Gene One and identifies end state goals used to measure success. It will show the benefits of revamping the existing culture of an organization in an effort to drive business results and experience growth and profitability.
Gene One, faced with increasing demands in the biotech industry, is challenged to grow the business 40 percent per year for three years, become a publicly traded company, raise capital and develop new products. The company has experienced rapid growth, growing annual revenue from $2 million to $400 million over its first eight years. The CEO and Executive Board of Gene One are implementing the strategy to become a public company in order to gain access to the much needed capital for new product development and marketing. This strategy is based on the realization that the company must take advantage of the growing interest in biotechnology in order to survive economically and become a leader in the industry.
The primary challenges for Gene One in the scenario include the experience level and leadership capabilities of the senior leadership team regarding IPOs and the communication plan that will be used to convey this new strategy to the employee population. None of the senior leaders have any experience with IPOs. Charles Jones, the Marketing Officer, lacks attention to detail and has yet to put a marketing infrastructure in place for the organization. Greg Thoman, the Chief Human Resources Officer, has not focused on training and development for the employee population which limits the opportunities to grow the business. Teri Robertson, the Chief Technology Officer, seems more interested in solely doing research as opposed to developing new products in an effort to raise capital. Overall, the leadership team lacks the experience and, in some cases, the motivation and focus to take the business to new heights.
Employees at Gene One have grown accustomed to the existing organizational culture. The
changes on the horizon may cause internal problems such as turnover if the new vision and strategy are not communicated timely and effectively. Change management is the skill most needed to ensure that this organizational change opportunity is received and implemented with
enthusiasm, as opposed to the panic and doubt referenced by Greg Thoman.
The opportunities for Gene One revolve around becoming a publicly traded company, realizing growth targets that will make the company an industry leader, and gaining
capital for new product development, advertising and marketing. The benefits in becoming a public company include the following (
Public companies are valued higher than private companies
Making acquisitions with stock is easier and less expensive
Stock and stock options are useful in attracting quality employees
Employee stock options have more value
More liquidity for founders, minority shareholders, and investors
Added prestige and visibility with customers, suppliers, employees and the financial community
Becoming a publicly traded company will provide Gene One with credibility and capital. The credibility will lead to stronger brand image and an increased customer base. The capital investments will allow Gene One to develop new technology breakthroughs and innovative products based on current technology. By increasing the companys
Traditional Values And Educational Values professional essay help: professional essay help
Educational Values (Ruthie M. Tate)
Please provide analysis and how Educational Values are manifested.
Assess their effectiveness in personal situations and working environments.
Conclude (Individual conclusion will be compounded on the main conclusion) if philosophically speaking they can be achieved or whether or not differences and conflicts can arise.
Please submit your portion to the “Center for Writing excellence”
According to Coxon (Nov 16, 2003), a school, Norfolk House, based on
traditional values emphasize traditional subjects, particularly math and English; however, there are extracurricular such as music, drama, and sports. There are small classes to ensure close personal attention to each student and teaching methods uphold traditional educational values.
Cited by Leonard (1999), the condition of ambivalence, fueled by diversity and change ubiquitous in todays postmodern society (Hargreaves, 1994b), means, “because education inevitably mirrors society, these are not easy times for educators” (Begley, 1996a, p. 8)
Teachers experience value conflicts and heated debates when teaming relationships and
decision-making processes. Cited by Leonard (1999), Fullan and [Hargreaves] (1991) point out, whereas collaborative
Pre-Socratic Philosophers And Milesain Monists essay help services: essay help services
Join now to read essay Pre-Socratic Philosophers
There were three different groups of Pre-Socratic philosophers, The Milesain monists, other monists, and the Pluralists. The Milesaines were found in Miletus, a Greek trading colonel, which is located in present day Turkey. The other monists could be found in different parts of Greece in the fifth century. Then the Pluralists could also be found in different parts of Greece.
The first Milesain monist was Thales. He was able to predict that there was going to be an eclipse of the sun at an exact hour and day. When that came true the colonel gave Thales all their attention. He was able to us mathematical equations to calculate when the next alignment would be. His theory was that all events have rational causes and we can understand them, helping us anticipate them. This was a crazy way to think of things because before people just thought at anytime the gods would change their world completely. They now believe that things happen in a predicable manner.
All Greeks believed that there was a substance that is common in everything in the world. This substance is called the arche, which means first or beginning. Water seems like a reasonable arche, humans can only go a few days without water and plant need water in order to grow and bloom. It makes sense why Thales thought the arche would be water. Christians even uses water for baptism, immerse a person in it to indicate a transformation from one form to another. As many philosophers do they take on students and the students that Thales took on did go along with Thales ideas about the arche. Anaximander believed the arche was boundless but then Anaximenes believed that it is air.
Anaximanders theory on the matter was that water was to common to be the arche. He claimed
Effective Teams And Board Members online essay help
Gene one Problem Statement
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Situation Analysis and Problem Statement
In an ever changing business landscape and dynamic period of start-ups where change is the only thing than seems to be constant, organizations require two key entities: effective teams and transformational leaders. Effective teams are required to adapt to organizational changes, embrace and evolve with the change, and seize opportunities that come with the change to achieve the organizational goals. Transformational leaders require being inspirational in their vision, and through demonstration of commitment and belief to the vision, cause others to embrace and make significant sacrifices to achieve the common goal. Such leaders require having the ability to lead an organization through major changes by strong commitment, consistent use of problem solving techniques, determination in reaching the goals, securing necessary resources that are knowledgeable and aligning the culture and resources with the vision to effect a successful organizational change.
This paper discusses about the changes that occur in a high-growth bio-technology company and the challenges that arise during the transformation to become a public company. The leadership team encounters a great deal of challenges during this transformation. The author uses a nine-step problem-solving approach to help the leadership team to identify the challenges and opportunities in effectively handling the transformation. The author attempts to describe the situation by identifying the issues that exists in the company, the challenges that the leadership team faces during the transformation and the opportunities that exist to be leveraged. The author then identifies the stakeholder perspectives and ethical dilemmas that the organization faces as a result of competing stakeholder values. The problem is then defined as an opportunity with a futuristic outlook and a set of goals are identified that define the desired future state. In the first step the author strives to describe the situation at hand.
Situation Background (Step 1)
Gene One is a high-growth biotechnology company that was started by a group of entrepreneurs who were highly motivated and passionate about their work. Gene One brought cutting edge technologies to the market which eliminated the use of pesticides in growing plants. This created a win-win situation for farmers and consumers. As a result Gene One grew from a $2 million startup to a $400 million company in a very short time and positioned itself to realize further growth.
The CEO and board members recognize the consumer demands, favorable industry trends from regulatory bodies and investors in biotechnology. The CEO and the board believe that it is the opportune moment for expanding the business and achieving growth and realize the need for additional capital, marketing and advertisement. The author notes that the management and board members have a clear vision and investment strategy to go public in the next 3 years, achieve growth and demonstrate its leadership and organizational capabilities to Wall Street.
Gene One has a business process that is highly focused, quick and resourceful. Don Ruiz, CEO of Gene One is a great leader. Teri Robertson, CTO has a passion for technology and innovation and is a world renowned scientist. Michelle Houghton, CFO has earned a credible reputation with the leadership team, board and the FDA in terms of finances. Greg Thoman, CHRO is highly motivated and has equipped Gene One with the required human capital. Charles Jones, Marketing Officer is smart, self-confident, and moral and garners trust for himself and the company. In all, Gene One has a highly talented and motivated leadership team. However, Gene One employees are still in a start-up culture.
The author observes that Gene One is challenged with a great deal of internal and external issues. Gene One has a highly motivated team and yet very ineffective. Gene One work-teams do not have a shared leadership model to accommodate for the changing circumstances and needs of the group. The teams do not have a collective accountability to foster cooperation and cohesiveness. The teams further suffer from lack of clear vision and the vision of the leadership is not accepted by everyone. Some of the team members such as the marketing officer do not understand roles and responsibilities. The employees thus do not form effective working teams. Kreitner-Kinicki (2003) noted that teams can be effective only if they are nurtured within the organizations environment. A work team will not be truly effective if it gets the job done but self-destructs in the process and burns everybody out. Some of the team members suffer from lack of cooperation and trust. The team members doubt each others abilities and the board members do not trust that Gene One employees have the ability to transform into a public company. The Gene One work teams do not have adequate training and as a result are inexperienced in Sarbanes-Oxley Act and regulatory compliances. Human Resources have not invested time and effort in recruiting additional talent and the company suffers from poor team staffing to support future growth. Gene One does not realize the importance of building human capital through knowledge management and formal learning programs. Instead, the company believes in replacing existing employees to achieve the purpose of transforming into a public company. Management did not foster mutuality of interests between the individual and organization interests. This is evident from the fact that while the management felt the need for growth and expansion, some of the technology employees displayed interests in pure research and development which were not served by the company. Management did not persuade or try to positively influence the employees from leaving the company. As a result Gene One lost some critical technologists who were a key for the cutting edge products that Gene One was known for. Changes in the organization fostered an unsteady environment which was responsible for the emotional outbursts by some employees leading to mismanagement of emotions at work and failure to harness and seize opportunities instead. Some employees believed in their own personal interests and lacked an emotional bond with Gene One. When changes were inevitable, such a commitment resulted in Gene One employees to re-evaluate their interests and a decision to separate. McShane-Von Glinow (2004) noted that employees with high levels of affective commitment are less likely to quit the jobs, which can give a company a significant comparative advantage and improve customer satisfaction. Gene One endured a start up company culture and did not have an adaptive culture to changing customer and market demands. This resulted
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Gene one Problem Solution and Defese Paper
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Running head: GENE ONE PROBLEM SOLUTION AND DEFESE PAPER
Gene One Problem Solution and Defense Paper
Global Communications Benchmarking
December 03, 2007
Gene One Problem Solution and Defense Paper
Gene One (GO) a privately owned biotechnology company is attempting an initial public offering (IPO). During this transition, issues within Gene OneÐ²Ð‚?s organizational structure have been made more prominent. Utilizing the Problem Based Learning (PBL) model the concepts of transformational leadership and organizational culture will be applied to the current internal issues faced by GO in the areas of team dynamics, knowledge and leadership style.
Lead by Don Ruiz an ambitious and visionary CEO, Gene One (GO) has surpassed expectations during its 8 year growth. Don is an intrinsic part of a five member team who built the GO dynasty out of a 2 million dollar investment. His goal is to position GO as an industry leader while creating a legacy of his work. In order to acquire large amounts of capital for advanced research and superior product development to meet consumer demand and a grow by 40% per year, the CEO and his board have decided on an Initial Public Offering (IPO) within a 36 month deadline .
Organizations enter into business ventures with the knowledge that the potential to flourish or underachieve exists, regardless of past success rates. It is critical that all decisions and business strategies are meticulously researched, analyzed, and benchmarked for best practices. A successful IPO is dependent on the level of receptiveness and investment of all internal and external stakeholders. GOs internal stakeholders are comprised of the CEO, Executive Board, Senior Leadership Team (SLT) and the employees. The External stakeholders are the consumers and the investing public. The IPO will have a negative or positive impact all stakeholders, the process will be taxing without allegiance, unified values and goals.
Gene One (GO) has garnered early success through a innovative gene variant which eliminated disease and pesticide requirements when growing tomato and potato plants. The CEO of Gene One (GO) is attempting to have the company go public within a 36 month timeframe. However, severalÐ²Ð‚Ñœ key playersÐ²Ð‚Ñœ are resistive to going public. Opposition to GOÐ²Ð‚™s IPO has led many employees and SLT members to openly question the CEOs motives, causing internal conflicts and power struggles all while the CEO attempts to enforce his position, and assert his leadership skills within the organization.
Gene OneÐ²Ð‚™s team dynamics has been ineffective; breakdowns in communication have increased employee stress, especially amongst those staff members who are not supportive of the IPO decision. The viability of GOs work team is in question as some team members are over burdened with responsibilities and potentially unrealistic deadlines to produce. The VP of technology has resigned citing job dissatisfaction, Ð²Ð‚Ñšemployees can be satisfied with some elements of the job while simultaneously dissatisfied with othersÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (McShane & Von Glinow, 2005). The CTO is contemplating resigning but as a dedicated researcher (who holds patent to gene variant), and founding member with familial ties she is caught in a difficult dilemma Ð²Ð‚Ñšaffective
Work Productivity And Extreme Competition free essay help
Process for Revamping Motivation
Essay title: Process for Revamping Motivation
Process for Revamping Motivation
In todays workplace, motivation is more important than ever. Extreme competition between businesses makes it vital to find ways to keep employees motivated in order to maximize work productivity and raise the quality of the work environment. I have noticed practices at my own place of work that I believe can be modified to improve worker motivation, quality of performance, and contentment with his or her work environment. The employees have the feeling they are being left out and have no official feedback from management on the events and status of the job. Second, some or even most of the workers at my facility believe that they are not important and their ideas are not being heard or at least considered worthy. Finally, when the management offers the employees free dinners or lunches for a past job well done it often never happens, leaving the workforce wondering when, if at all, they are getting their meal.
As it stands now, at the beginning of work everyone goes to the center office where the work packets are already laid out with their specific names on them. When the work is picked up, the warehouser heads strait into the warehouse to work. Very little contact is made with management or supervisors. This situation leads to the over all feeling that the employees are being left out of the loop and causes a pattern of behavior called Learned Helplessness. Learned helplessness is a motivational behavior caused by the belief that ones behavior has little affect over ones fate (Reeve, 2001). With no other official way for the workforce to express or share their concerns, ideas, and gripes this contributes to overall feelings of a lack of appreciation felt by the employees regarding management. Not only does this situation affect motivation it also adds to the feelings of alienation from the management and the company that they work for.
Changing the current policy and adding a five to ten minute meeting at the beginning of the shift would give the workforce a chance to ask questions about specific issues of the day that might be beneficial to their work or to the work effort of others. It would also give the workforce an avenue to express opinions as to what could be improved upon in the warehouse as well as safety and other hazards that might be overlooked otherwise. This would be a crucial way for the managers to let the workers know they are a valued teem members. It would also give management the opportunity to boost moral with the acknowledgement and expressed approval of the hard work of his or her shifts put forth daily on a face to face basis. By doing this, it would help to instill a sense of pride and belonging back into the shifts mentality, as well as, increasing motivation as well.
I would like to see the management and supervisors encompass a more open door policy and demeanor. Instead of just walking by a warehouser as if he or she was not there, stop and ask how they are doing. It is important that the management can be able to communicate
Stakeholders Of The Profit Of New Products And Don Ruiz aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
Gene one: Problem Solution
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Running head: PROBLEM SOLUTION: GENEONE
Problem Solution: GeneOne
University of Phoenix
GeneOne was founded in 1996 and entered the biotech industry with the original mission to become a leader with groundbreaking gene technology. Home grown consumer foods raised without pesticides was becoming more popular with consumers and GeneOne soon became a profitable biotechnological company. Within eight years of foundation, GeneOne had grown into a $400 million company. Chief Executive Officer, Don Ruiz, bolstered by growing interest on Wall Street combined with leadership changes favorable to biotechnology, developed ideas to work towards a conservative forward thinking growth target of 40%. With Board and investment community support, a clear strategy was developed for a 36 month deadline. CEO Ruiz believes that IPO capital will enable GeneOne to develop new products with support advertisement and marketing. To remain aggressive in a growing biotechnology market, GeneOne leadership and its support organization desires to show that a fledgling company can become a global competitor.
GeneOne has become a global biotechnological company that is experiencing growth in products, profits and sales. New products and research support future growth and profits for the company provided that additional IPO funds become available to support continued development and research, and its support advertising and marketing. GeneOne leadership and outside consultants will develop strategies in order to reach the company goal of being one of the worlds most dynamic biotechnology companies. Gene One will realize their goals with an IPO deadline of 36 months. Ruiz transformational leadership style works for him but it will be Ruizs objective to create, “an outline of the actions required to complete the plan, assign responsibility or ownership for each action, identify a timeline for completion and define how success is measured. The common ingredients that lead to successful implementation typically
include the following:
Pick a strategy implementation process and use it
Use a facilitator (internal or external) to help you and your team work the process
Stay disciplined to the process
Know what success looks like for each action implemented
Follow-up by monitoring implementation activities on a scheduled basis ” Expert Corner (2006, p.1).
Based on the ideas of strategic implementation and forward growth planning, Ruiz has much to accomplish as leader of GeneOne before final decisions can be made. Ruiz is convinced of what must be accomplished in the immediate future; he must be able to convince, the board of directors, technological staff and stakeholders of the profit of new products with IPO support if he is to succeed in leading his organization towards a 40% growth.
Issue and Opportunity Identification
GeneOne is a relatively young biotech company. The company which was founded by Don Ruiz and four investors quickly became a strategic competitor in the biotech industry. It established itself as a leader in consumable products which were home grown and chemical free. GeneOne has experienced organizational and strategic growth that requires transition for future profits and growth. A 36 month window of opportunity has availed itself with a future perceived growth of 40%. Production culture as well as research and development of GeneOne supports continued global growth despite concerns within research and development and finance leadership. GeneOne profits and abilities to function have not become lethargic and CEO Ruiz desires to keep the company in line with global ideas and technologies. Her reign was short lived and she was replaced by William Guardo. The scope for the company to remain competitive may have to change and the competitive production initiative which was “in-the-works” still has a plethora of roadblocks which could cause delays. Lack of a solid and reliable leadership board as source and marketing campaign anticipated disasters inhibit the forward thinking research and development concept. Included in the obstructions which CEO Ruiz is senior leadership board and suggested determination of established employees who could refuse to buy-in to a IPO. GeneOne will need full spectrum of support from stakeholders, organization leadership and employees for strategic barricades to be eradicated.
Stakeholder Perspectives/Ethical Dilemmas
According to Allen & Kilvingron, “stakeholders are persons, groups or institutions with interests in a policy, program or project.”(Allen & Kilvingron, 2001, p.2). Primary stakeholders in GeneOne are founders, executives, senior leadership team, R&D and others who are a part of the biotech company. Secondary stakeholders are the intermediaries in the process, and may include educational entities, government agencies and other institutional bodies also considered to be shareholders in the company. Third party stakeholders to have vested interest are employees, front line managers, researchers, technical support. Listed as fourth interested are governmental regulators relative to enforcement of Sarbanes-Oxley Act..
Ethical dilemmas for primary stakeholders include ethical and social responsibilities to the organization as a whole with accountability to any and all partners and employees. GeneOne leadership must openly communicate between all stakeholders to positively impact the recommendations soon to be decided by Don Ruiz and the leadership team. Employees must be communicated with openly to quell any fears of lay offs and dissolution of departments and any and all impact relative to the impending IPO. Employees may need a reward system to become a multi-functional force to continued research and development strategies or whatever decisions are made as to the new products to be supported by GeneOne.
GeneOne empowerment should be to assign responsibility of change and planning to each of the issues to members of the executive body that has some past experience in solutions. Consultants
Good Leadership And Good Leader college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx
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EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICAN MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE
GM501: GENERAL MANAGEMENT
The world is experiencing an economic revolution unlike any since the dawn of the industrial revolution and good leadership is particularly crucial now. In order to enhance your effectiveness, you need to be able to measure and quantify your leadership style.
1.1 What is leadership?
While there is vast disagreement over what exactly leadership is, but whatever it is, it seems to make a substantial difference to organizations. Leadership is typically offered as a solution for most of the problems we have.
Leadership in organization has a different and more meaningful definition. Leadership is all about taking people to places they would not go alone or on their own. It is defined as the process of influencing people or team members to work towards common objectives, principles and values. A person is said to have an influence on others when they are willing to carry out his/her wishes and accept his/her advice or guidance. Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm and doing it willingly.
1.2 What makes good leadership? The fact is that there are many factors/qualities that contribute to good leadership. Anyone can be a good leader; however some have greater leadership potential than others, many researchers have concluded that individuals can learn and practice certain technical skills that make them good leaders. Good leadership enables people to work together well and realize their potential. Good leadership develops through a never ending process of self study, education, training and experience. Effective communication, empathy, authority, and social skills can be taught and combined with individual personality to make good leadership.
2.0 Several factors that constitute good leadership:
The key to holding the team together is motivation. Motivation can be considered as the amount of effort an individual is willing to put into their work. Therefore, it is important to ensure that any team is highly motivated towards their work. A lack of motivation in any member of a team can have a negative affect, reducing the groups effectiveness and possibly leading to the demotivation of others. The first step in creating an atmosphere that will motivate employees is expressing appreciation. Research shows that people often leave an employer because they have not received the recognition they want or feedback on how they are doing. People want to feel involved in their jobs and important to the success of their companies. Leaders can motivate employees by asking them to set their own job goals and suggest better ways to do things. Good leadership consists of motivating people to their highest level by offering them opportunities not obligations.
Good leaders must be able to speak effectively in public and in most cases; they must have good writing skills. Communication is a key to being a good leader. Communications is much more than being a good speaker. Good leaders must have the ability to communicate a vision effectively to others. Lay out organizations goals and principles in a mission statement and keep sharing vision with employees. Effective communication goes up and down the organization. Employees want to hear their leaders ideas and plans. Effective communication wins organization trust and confidence. Good leaders keep their people informed.
Is the ability to translate the vision into reality. All good leaders should have the capacity to create a compelling vision, one that takes people to a new place. Good leaders must be very forward thinking and be able to see the organization not only moving forward but already there. Good leaders should know where the business is going.
A good leader utilizes other peoples talents to achieve the desired goals. Often this occurs through the delegations of tasks and authority to talented supporters. This requires that a good leader be perceptive in recognizing his/her own talents and limitations and those of his/her supporters. Delegating is a critical skill for good leaders
One of the most important tasks of a good leader is to make decisions. Good leadership requires the decisions to be both sound and practical and it should not be in the monopoly of top management alone.
Good leaders must know their job and have a solid familiarity with their employees jobs. A good leader should possess a thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of his/her job. Besides he/she should be quite familiar with the jobs done at different work points in his/her department.
Good leadership is the mechanism to influence people about the need for change. Dynamic leadership is the foundation stone of organizational change and development. “In a world of change and uncertainty, the business leader becomes a vital element in the very process of change itself”. Good leader should know how to plan ahead, find best strategies, decide and implement, agree targets and objectives, monitor and control progress, evaluate performance, carry out appraisal and target-setting interviews.
Leadership helps to unify individual efforts. Leadership is the cohesive force which holds the group intact, the force that transforms chaos into order, the electric current that energizes human action. A good leader fosters mutual understanding and team spirit among his followers. He/She creates a community of interests of the subordinates. He/She resolves internal conflicts by serving as arbitrator and mediator between
Ethical Aspect Pragmatism And Pragmatist Approach college essay help
Pragmatist Approach to Truth
Pragmatist Approach to Truth
To understand what the pragmatists approach to truth you would be, you must first understand what a pragmatist believes. Pragmatism is derived from the word pragmatic, meaning “dealing or concerned with facts or actual occurrences; practical.” Therefore a pragmatist is said to believe that the truth of a proposition is measured by its association with experimental results and by its practical outcome. Thought is considered as simply an instrument for supporting the life intentions of the human being and has no real metaphysical (abstract) significance. Pragmatism stands opposed to principals that hold that truth can be reached through deductive reasoning from a principal grounds and insists on the need for inductive investigation and constant pragmatic verification of hypotheses. There is constant protest against speculation concerning questions that have no application and no verifiable answers. Pragmatism holds that truth is modified as discoveries are made and is relative to the time and place and purpose of inquiry. For example, at one time the world was thought to be flat. This was said to be true and thus everyone believed it. Only after explorers discovered that the Earth was really round, did the truth change. Truth changes via new discoveries. In its ethical aspect pragmatism holds that knowledge that contributes to human values is real and that values play as essential a role in the choice of means employed in order to attain an end as they do in the choice of the end itself.
The world is full of ideas or realities and these ideas are said to be infinitely helpful or infinitely harmful. Having knowledge of truth is only the initial means toward other worldly application. The book gives the example about being lost in the woods and starving. You notice a cow-path and assume that there should be human life at the end of the path. If you follow the path you eat thus your life is saved. The true thought of the house is useful because the object, the house, is useful. Therefore the practical value of true ideas is first and foremost derived from the practical importance of the objects to us. On another instance, the house may not be important therefore the idea, however verifiable, is of no relevance. This is referred to as “extra truths,” ideas that shall be true of merely possible situations. When an “extra truth” is deemed relevant for a given situation, it goes from being an a dormant state to an active one. You can say that “it is useful because it is true” or that “it is true because it is useful. Truth would never have been given a name suggesting value unless the world
Employees Of Abc Company And Administrative Assistant admission college essay help: admission college essay help
Problem Analysis Summary
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Problem Analysis Summary
The employees of ABC Company have identified a problem, which must be resolved. ABC employs a part-time administrative assistant whose work ethics and productivity are lacking; thereby affecting others in the organization. The employee is responsible to answer phones, take messages, and assist each department in performing various administrative functions. The position held by this employee is important, as each department relies on her input and assistance in completing their assigned tasks. The administrative assistants lack of follow-through and general uncaring attitude towards her work has caused her co-workers to be frustrated, annoyed, and more importantly, has led to productivity being negatively affected.
In reviewing the problem it is important to note the specific details of the behaviors the administrative assistant is displaying. The hours for the position were presented to the administrative assistant; however, she arrives late for work on a daily basis. This issue has been discussed with her, without successful resolution; she has a daily excuse of why she is late. The worker in question does not finish the tasks assigned, and typically procrastinates beginning a project. When the employee works on an assignment, she does not stay focused, gets easily side-tracked and appears to be working on several projects at once, never giving any assignment her undivided attention. Finally, phone messages that are written by the worker are vague and incoherent. All of the aforementioned details lead the administrative assistants co-workers to realize there is a problem with this worker.
General Bank And Central Bank argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
General Bank in Indonesia
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This research project is about the Central Bank in Indonesia where we will discuss the meaning, the job and the role of the Central Bank in the economy of the country and it is influence.
In this project we will use the historical and the comparative analyses. With the help of using the internet and books to get all the information we need.
The object of this project is to identify mainly the Central Bank in Indonesia.
Our project will be divided into two sections, the first section discuss the central bank from a theoretical point of view. The second section talks about the central bank in the Indonesia.
Section Ð™: Central Bank Structure.
1- Summery about it:
Central bank: is an institution designed to oversee the banking system and regulate the quantity of money in the economy.
The central bank in the United State and agency in it is Federal Reserve, often simply called the Fed.
The Central Bank was created in 1914 after a series of bank failures in 1907 convinced Congress that the United State needed a central bank to ensure the health of the nations banking system.
The primary elements in the Central Bank System are:
1) The Board of Governors
2) The Regional Federal Reserve Banks
3) The Federal Open Market Committee
Today, the Central bank is run by its board of Governors, which has seven members appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. The governors have 14- years term. The president appoints the chairman to a four- year term. The most important of these seven members of the Board of Governors is a chairman.
The chairman has some function he should be doing in the central bank such as:
1- Directs the Fed staff
2- Presides over board meetings.
3- Testifies regularly about Fed policy in front of congressional committees.
The Central Bank System is made up of the Central Bank Board in Washington, D.C., and twelve regional Central Banks. The Central Banks has twelve district banks and nine directors. Three appointed by the Board of Governors and six of them are elected by the commercial banks in the district. The directors appoint the district president, which is approved by the Board of Governors. The New York Fed implements some of the Feds most important policy decisions.
The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has some function should do it:
1- Serves as the main policy-making organ of the Federal Reserve System.
2- Meets approximately every six weeks to review the economy.
The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) is made up of the following voting members:
The chairman and the other six members of the Board of Governors.
The president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
The presidents of the other regional Federal Reserve banks (four vote on a yearly rotating basis).
Monetary policy is conducted by the Federal Open Market Committee. Monetary policy is the setting of the money supply by policymakers in the central bank and the money supply refers to the quantity of money available in the economy.
Three Primary Functions of the Central Bank:
Regulates banks to ensure they follow federal laws intended to promote safe and sound banking practices.
Acts as a bankers bank, making loans to banks and as a lender of last resort.
Conducts monetary policy by controlling the money supply.
In the Federal Open Market Committee has some operation to increase the money supply, (the Fed buys government bonds from the public) .To decrease the money supply, (the Fed sells government bonds to the public).
Banks and the money supply:
Banks can influence the quantity of demand deposits in the economy and the money supply.
Reserves are deposits that banks have received but have not loaned out.
In a fractional-reserve banking system, banks hold a fraction of the money deposited as reserves and lend out the rest. The reserve ratio is the fraction of deposits that banks hold as reserves.
When a bank makes a loan from its reserves, the money supply increases. The money supply is affected by the amount deposited in banks and the amount that banks loan.
Deposits into a bank are recorded as both assets and liabilities.
The fraction of total deposits that a bank has to keep as reserves is called the reserve ratio.
Loans become an asset to the bank. This T-Account shows a bank that
keeps a portion as reserves
And lends out the rest.
It assumes a reserve ratio of 10%.
Section II: Central Bank in Indonesia
Introduction and Objective:
There are many aspects to the role the Central Bank plays in supporting the national economy of Indonesia.
In addition to acting as the bank to the other banks operating in the country, it is also the banker and financial advisor to the Government.
It is the responsibility of the Central Bank to formulate and implement the countrys Banking, Credit and Monetary Policy in order to realize and achieve the Economic Policy objectives, including price stability, and to support the Indonesia currency, guaranteeing its value, stability and its free convertibility into all currencies.
A new chapter in the history
New Beliefs And Justification Of A Mediated Belief A easy essay help
Problems of Epistemology
Essay title: Problems of Epistemology
Epistemology is the study of our right to the beliefs we have. More generally, we start from what we might call our cognitive stances, and ask whether we do well to have those stances. Cognitive stances include both our beliefs and (what we take to be) our knowings; and in another dimension they include our attitudes towards the various strategies and methods we use to get new beliefs and filter out old ones, as well as the products of those strategies and methods. Epistemology, on this showing, is explicitly normative; it is concerned with whether we have acted well or badly (responsibly or irresponsibly) in forming the beliefs we have.
In pursuing this inquiry, we do not, of course, ask only about the beliefs and strategies we find ourselves with at the beginning. We also ask whether there are not others which we would do better to have, and whether there are not others which we should have if we have these ones to start off with. The hope is to end up with a full account of how a responsible cognitive agent should behave, with some assurance that we do not fall too far short of that ideal.
1. Justification. We can distinguish between two sorts of belief: the mediated and the unmediated. Mediated beliefs are those which we reach by some strategy which starts from other beliefs we have. Inference is such a strategy (but not the only one); we infer that will rain soon from our separate beliefs that it is mid-morning and that it is growing very dark outside. Mediated beliefs raise the question of whether the strategy we adopt is one to which we have a rightвЂ”one we do well to use. Unmediated beliefs are those which we adopt without moving to them from other beliefs we already have. These raise different problems, which concern the source of our right to believe. I open my eyes and, because of what I see, immediately believe that there is a book in front of me. If I do well in adopting that belief, it is justified (or I am justified in adopting it). This focus on justification is one way of expressing the idea that epistemology is normative. What makes it the case, then, that this belief is justified?
Various answers suggest themselves. One is the reliabilist answer: that the belief is justified because it is the result of a reliable process. Another is the coherentist answer: that this belief is justified because my world is more coherent with it than it would be without it. A third is the classic foundationalist claim that this belief is not in fact unmediated, but inferred from a belief about how things seem to me just now. If this last were true, we are thrown back to two questions. The first is whether, and how, the belief about how things seem to me just now is justified. The second is whether the inference from that belief is justified. We might ask what principle of inference is employed. Suppose it is this: that if things seem to me that way, they probably are that way. What makes lithe case that we do well to use this principle?
2. The Structure of Justification. This brings us to one particular question about justification, which has received much attention. Suppose that we give the justification of a mediated belief A which appeals to its relation to some other belief B. This belief, B, justifies that one, A; my belief that it is Sunday justifies my belief that there will be no mail today. There is a very strong intuition that B can only transmit justification to A if it is itself justified. So the question whether A is justified has not yet been answered, when we appealed to B, but only shelved. Whether it is justified depends on whether B is. What justified B? We might appeal to some further belief C, but then the problem will simply recur. We have here the beginnings of an infinite regress. The first belief in the series is not justified unless the last one is. But will there ever be a last belief in the series?
This is the infinite regress of justification. Foundationalism takes this regress seriously, and tries to find basic beliefs that are capable of stopping it. Promising ways of doing this include the idea that basic beliefs are justified by their source (they are the immediate products of the sense, perhaps), or by their subject-matter (they concern the nature of the believerвЂ™s current sensory states). Empiricism, in this connection, wants in some way to ground basic beliefs in experience. Foundationalism concerns itself with the structure of this empiricist programme. So a concern with the regress of justification is a concern with the structure of justification.
General Electric And Edison General Electric Company essay help free: essay help free
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General Electric is a company who strives to put their best foot forward. For more then 120 years, General Electric has been number one in the products they sell. From airplane engines to light bulbs, their attitude has been admired not only in America, but worldwide. GE serves customers in more than 100 countries and employs more than 300,000 people worldwide. After all GE has accomplished, including revenues of 152.4 billion dollars in 2004, the company still maintains a healthy relationships with its customers.
In 1876, Thomas Edison opened a laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In that lab one of the greatest inventions of all surfaced, the light bulb. That one business however was not enough for Edison. In 1890, Edison organized various businesses into the Edison General Electric Company. In 1879, Elihu Thomson and E.J. Houston formed a competitive company, Thomson-Houston Company. This company also merged with various companies to keep up with Thomas Edisons company. It was then ran by Charles A. Coffin, a former shoe manufacturer from Massachusetts. When these two companies began to expand, it became increasingly difficult for either to produce complete electrical products. In 1892, these two companies merged with the
help of JP Morgan, a financial company. When these companies merged, it became known as “General Electric Company”. After the merger, the company moved its headquarters to Schenectady, New York. In 1896, GE was one of the original 12 companies to be listed on the newly formed Dow Jones. Today, it is the only original company to be listed. In 1919, GE founded the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), and American Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T).
Through the 1960s, GE was one of the eight major companies (with IBM being the largest and UNIVAC being the smallest). GE also had an extensive line of computers ranging from general purpose to special purpose computers. It was said GE got into the computer business because in the 1950s they were the largest users of computers outside the U.S government. In 1970, GE sold its popular computer division to Honeywell. When GE reacquired RCA, it was mainly for the NBC television network. The rest of RCA was sold to various other companies. In more recent years GE has been growing its assets in different industries, including the 2004 buyout of Vivendi Universal. In the same year GE bought out the credit card unit of the department store Dillards for 1.25 billion dollars. One of the last acquisitions was the financial assets of the Canadian airplane manufacturer Bombardier for 1.4 billion dollars.
General Electric consists of many different types of divisions that have allowed them to become one of the worlds largest corporations in the world today. Many of the products that have been developed have allowed GE to become the potent industry it is today, such things as Light bulbs, home appliances, electronic supply to major corporations, and much more.
General Electric has become known for their superior quality and design of their products. The different types of products GE consist of are, Appliances such as fridge, stoves, microwaves. All these appliances are used in the home and have become a necessity for all people living in a home. Home electronics is another portion that they deal with, which includes phones, clocks, radios, computers, and much more of our growing needs. As far as lighting they are the biggest supplier in the light bulb industry. The company has grossed in more than any of its competitors in the last decade. Going beyond the home and the business office, GE has manufactured many Aircraft engines, Train engines, Boat engines, and also car engines. Those industries have contributed to the many success of GEs dynasty. GE is a company that never stops working on new ways to improve their status as a dominant force in the business world; they are involved in many new projects. Water is the first project that they are focused on; their challenge is water scarcity combining state of the art reverse osmosis with energy and financial solutions. Their next project is wind energy. Their mission is to provide a more advance and efficient source of energy, and this is being done for the services of the energy industry. Another project being worked on is the Gevo 12-cylinder diesel engine products the same 4,400 horsepower as its 16- cylinder competitor. This engine uses less fuel, delivering significant savings over the life of the diesel locomotive.
General Electric over the years has expanded their target markets from and older generation, to a new and more youthful generation. Now in our society more and more young women are taking the necessary steps to become more responsible and independent. In our days marriage occurs in the early 20s and lower, with that information GE has figured that more of the younger generation would be into such products as their mothers were into. Now more commercials are focused on mainly middle aged women that are in the process of becoming parents are wives. Other target markets include Aircraft industry, rail, automobile, appliance, electronic, consumer direct, and energy industry. As time progresses so will the expansion of GEs target market, and they will continue to be the dominant power house in the Electrical industry.
General Electric Company (GE) is a diversified industrial corporation engaged in developing, manufacturing and marketing a wide variety of products for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and utilization of electricity. The Company operated in 11 segments. On June 23, 2005, GE announced reorganization of its 11 businesses into six industry-focused businesses effective July 5, 2005. The six businesses are GE Infrastructure, GE Industrial, GE Commercial Financial Services, GE NBC Universal, GE Healthcare and GE Consumer Finance. During the year ended December 31, 2004, GE acquired the commercial lending business of Transamerica Finance Corporation. Also in 2004, GE acquired Australian Financial Investments Group. On May 11, 2004, GE completed the merger of NBC with Vivendi Universal Entertainment LLLP. In December 2004, GE Infrastructure completed the acquisition of InVision Technologies, Inc. Also in December 2004, GE sold a majority interest in Gecis.
From jet engines to TV broadcasting, from plastics to power plants, General Electric (GE) is plugged in to most businesses that have shaped the modern world. The company produces aircraft engines, locomotives and other transportation equipment, appliances (kitchen and laundry equipment), lighting, electric distribution and control equipment, generators and turbines, nuclear reactors, medical imaging equipment, and plastics.
Womans Moral Capacity And Womans Choices college essay help free
Pro-Choice Philosophy and Abstinence
Pro-Choice Philosophy and Abstinence
We recognize no single, universal, objective moral truth that determines our moral decisions. On the contrary, we must consider a broad range of values whenever we seek to make wise, ethical, and compassionate choices. We respect a womans moral capacity to make decisions regarding her health and welfare, including reproductive decisions.
A womans choices reflect how she weighs her various life circumstances: her important relationships, her economic, social, and emotional resources and obligations, her health, her religious or philosophical beliefs, and the well-being of others for whom she has responsibility.
We live out our destinies in a world of vast and profound complexity, where claims upon our compassion and our judgment compete and often conflict. A woman respects the preciousness of human life by acknowledging and honoring the intricate tapestry of her relationships and commitments; indeed, we believe that the complexity of human life can be a source of moral wisdom and courage. The womans ability to choose is rooted in her individual conscience, not in her adherence to ancient religious superstitious beliefs.
In preparation for hearings on the renewal of the federal abstinence-only education provision, the National Coalition Against Censorship and 35 endorsing organizations, including the National Education Association, the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States and the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, launched the “Campaign Against Abstinence-Only Education.”
In a joint statement released yesterday, the groups said that they are deeply concerned about publicly funded sexuality education programs that restrict students access to information and limit learning to one approved message about human sexuality.
Gms Vision And Innovation Of Gm People rice supplement essay help
General Moters Strategic Analyisis
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General Motors is committed to be a leader in providing transportation products and services of such quality that our customers will receive superior value, our employees and business partners will share our success and our shareholders will receive a sustained superior return on their investment.
Vision Statement –
Gms vision is to be the world leader in transportation products and related services. We will earn our customers enthusiasm through continuous improvement driven by the integrity, teamwork and innovation of GM people. Becoming the best is an unending journey, a constantly changing destination. But thats where were determined to drive – one car, one truck, one customer at a time.
Founded in 1908 General Motors immediately began manufacturing and selling their vehicles in several countries throughout the world. They quickly grew and shortly thereafter became the worldwide leader within the automotive industry. Due to the success of their business in 1919 GM decided to establish General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC) in order to finance vehicles bought by their customers. Once again GM experienced success. The establishment of the GMAC has been extremely profitable over the years and currently makes up almost all of GMs profits. Throughout most of the 20th century GM has been at the forefront of innovation and technology inventing products such as the electric self-starter as well as developing popular vehicles such as the Suburban and Corvette. GM however, did not stop there. They also stressed the importance of service and customer care, and in 1926 created the first nationwide service policy to accommodate their Cadillac product. By 1938 GM was annually selling 350,000 cars outside the US and Canada. By 1976 they had produced over 100 million vehicles in the US and owned 47 percent of the US automobile market. As far GM was concerned they were the automotive leader and nothing was going to change that.
Today however, GM is in trouble. They are no longer the company that dominated the majority of the last century. Their share of the US market has decreased to roughly 26 percent, a number not to be ashamed of but a serious drop from 47 percent in the late 70s. In 2004 GMs current ratio was at 1.06, there ROE has dropped from 15% in 2003 to 10% in 2004, and their profit margin was about 1.5 %. As we can see these numbers do not indicate a stable company. It has not particularly been any one event that has caused GMs downfall, rather a combination of several factors. These factors include the increase in costs, such as supplies, fuel, healthcare, and pension payouts; the over dependence on the US market, their organizational structure, and most costly their inability to keep up with the alternative energy movement. During the late 90s early 2000s the automotive industry began to shift from the big gas guzzling vehicles to the smaller more compact fuel efficient vehicles, and or vehicles powered by alternative energy, i.e. hybrids. This was the result of both the continuing rise in gas prices, as well as the environmental issues that we now know of. GM however, did otherwise and did not develop a hybrid vehicle until 2004, five years after the release of Hondas Insight Hatchback. Now four years later they are fighting their way back, however competitors like Toyota, now the leader in hybrid vehicles is challenging GM for the largest automotive manufacturer in the world. The following sections will outline GMs current situation, both internally and externally, and will look to provided information helpful to General Motors strategic plans.
Alternative Energy Movement
It is obvious that GM was behind its competition with regards to the research and development of hybrid vehicles. However hybrid technology is still very much new giving GM the opportunity to once again become the automotive industrys leader in innovation and technology.
Continuing to Expand Globally.
Recently GM saw an increase in the Chinese automotive market, which proves there needs to be more emphasis put on foreign markets. If GM can infiltrate these markets and successfully grow along with their continuing focus on the US market they will be headed in a positive direction.
Low Interest Rates
With the right marketing strategy the low interest rates have the potential to generate an immediate increase in sales.
Develop New Vehicle Styles and Models
This is an opportunity that will never be satisfied, meaning that GM should always be attempting to develop the automotive worlds most popular vehicles, and as we know, what is in today will be out tomorrow.
Rising Fuel Prices
With GM being a large producer in both trucks and SUVs, sales have drastically decreased due to the lack of fuel efficiency. The rise in fuel prices has played a significant role in creating the opportunity for development of both hybrid and more fuel efficient vehicles. As you will find with most threats, an equal opportunity will usually emerge as is the case here with GMs opportunity mentioned above.
Growth of Competitors
GM no longer has the luxury of being the known leader in the automotive industry and faces the reality that they are in serious trouble. As I mentioned earlier Toyota took the first step in the direction of hybrid technology and has since drastically grown and become the questionable automotive frontrunner to start the 21st century.
Part of this threat is their own doing and the other is simply unavoidable. GM is responsible for providing generous pension benefits to its employees, which at the time seemed like a great idea, however they are now experiencing problems as more and more people begin to collect.
Increased Health Care Costs
GM, like many large companies with quality employee health care benefits, is experiencing a large financial hit that only gets worse as time continues.
Rising Supply Costs, i.e. Steel
Once again this threat affects the entire automotive industry and forces each company
Empiricism Work And Philosophy Of Social Science narrative essay help: narrative essay help
There is an on-going debate within the philosophy of social science, regarding the relationship between the natural and social sciences. This discussion stems from opposing viewpoints as to how studies of the world around us should be conducted. The job of science is to explain and make predictions regarding our realties, and researchers in the natural and social sciences have distinct views regarding that method. The natural sciences are focused on the causal nature of phenomena and they believe that the best way to discover these causes is through quantitative, analytical and impartial studies. The belief is that this brings them as close to the “reality of truth” as possible within an experimental environment. Social science theory on the other hand, deems the natural sciences as clinical and dismissive of meaningful explanations. Societal studies should involve reflective interpretations. It is apparent that all social researchers agree that the social sciences should be studied; Disagreement occurs regarding the methods chosen to study it. The United Nations is an entity that was created because all of its members agreed on the attainment of world peace and harmony. Problems have arisen regarding the pathways to achieve those goals, since every country has defined its own beliefs regarding policies and procedures. Likewise the social sciences face similar challenges from the differences in the use of language in studies, and how the resulting conclusions are communicated to others. Many scholars in the natural sciences believe that the social sciences are methodically similar. But can social science fit into a naturalist attitude? Can natural methods really benefit social sciences? Can there be a unity of science? How can hard” empiricism work for the study of a human condition which is “dynamic” in nature? How is the study of politics affected by these questions? This essay looks at these topics through the lenses of positivism, a study that embraced the views of the natural sciences.
Sir Francis Bacon once said, ” To study nature you must consult nature, not Aristotle”. The realist perspective of positivism fulfills Bacons request. Positivism places particular emphasis on the sense experience of observable facts. The Vienna Circle, a group of positivists from the early 20th century, dismissed metaphysics as not having an important role in research. They believed that all statements could be reduced to a definitive mimetic, or that is to say, an actual reflection of human experience. But how can we measure experience? The answer according to a tenet of positivist theory is through empirical analysis, changing the observable into the verifiable. Emile Durkheim, a positivist from the late 18th Century, believed that the only way to measure science was by separating the individual from the State. His work, “Suicide”, established empiricism within sociology, which would describe phenomena strictly in sociological terms.
Income Statements And Common Income Statements cbest essay help
General Motors Case
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By comparing General Motors and Toyotas 2004 and 2005 income statements and balance sheets, one can begin to learn how two companies in the same sector have vastly different financial situations. We will begin by converting the current income statements and balance sheets into common income statements and balance sheets, which will allow us to compare on a percentage basis instead of whole dollars. We will look at both firms profits and any differences. We will analyze any differences that may account for the problems of General Motors relative to Toyota. We will calculate the free cash flows for both firms and compare the findings. We will also provide additional internet research about the differences between the two firms in 2005 and continuing into 2006, as well as an update on how the two companies are performing today.
Figure 3.1 represents a side by side comparison of the 2004 and 2005 income statements for Toyota and General Motors. Both companies reported a positive net income in 2004, however General Motors later reported a negative net income in 2005.
For the years ending 2004 and 2005
Cost of goods sold
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
Depreciation and amortization
Figure 3.2 represents a side by side comparison of Toyota and General Motors balance sheets for 2004 and 2005. Interestingly, Toyotas total assets and liabilities are less than 50% of General Motors.
Annual Balance Sheet ($ millions)
At 12/31/2004 and 12/31/2005
Cash & equivalents
Other current assets
Total current assets
Gross plant, property & equipment
Net plant, property & equipment
Other current liabilities
Total current liabilities
Long term notes
Other long-term liabilities
Total liabilities and equity
To convert the income statement to a common income statement, one must convert the dollars reported into percentages of Total Sales. Figure 3.3 shows the common income statement for both firms and Figure 3.4 shows the common balance sheet for both firms.
Common-Sized Income Statement
Cost of goods sold
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
Depreciation and amortization
Common-Sized Income Statement
Public Company Accounting Oversight Board And Audit Behavior college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help
Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper
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Generally Accepted Auditing Standards Paper
Auditing is indispensable for todays economic activities. According to Boynton and Johnson (2006), auditing is defined as “a systematic process of objectively obtaining and evaluating evidence regarding assertions about economic actions and events to ascertain the degree of correspondence between those assertions and established criteria and communicating the results to interested users.” (p. 6). In 2003, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) has developed 10 generally accepted standards to regulate the audit behavior, which are known as Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS).
The 10 GAAS can be summarized into three categories:
Auditors performing the audit are required high professional education and enough training in expertise area.
Auditors must maintain an independent position and exclude outside influences to objectively perform the audit and report the auditing results.
Auditors are required to be rigorous and prudent no matter they are in the process of carrying out audit, or presenting conclusion report.
Standards of Field Work
Sufficient planning and appropriate supervision could make audit more efficient.
Auditors are required to understand the factors that could be impact on the risk of substantial misstatement in the entity.
Auditors opinion should be supported by adequate proficient audit evidence
Standards of Reporting
Auditors are required to ascertain whether the financial statements meet the principles of GAAP.
Auditors report must maintain consistency in applying GAAP.
Auditors are required to reveal the informative disclosure to the financial statements in their reports.
Auditors are required to address their opinion regarding the financial statements.
Financial audit is an audit of financial statements. In most states, only certified public accountants (CPAs) can conduct audit on the financial statements by law. To implement independence in mental attitude, a company usually hires an external firm to give an outside opinion of its financial statements.
Operational audit is testing the efficiency and effectiveness of a companys operating activities. (Kinyo, 2012, para.8) This type audit relies on standards of field work to evaluate the companys internal system and procedures, and employ the standard of reporting to express the auditors opinion on those reports.
According to Rouse (2010), “a compliance audit is a comprehensive review of an organizations adherence to regulatory guidelines.”(para.1) therefore, the GAAS element of standard of reporting will be implemented to determine if the company in accordance with the GAAS criteria in its economic activities.
In response to a series of sensational financial scandals, known as Enron/Andersen
Us Automobile Industry And Biggest Single Day Loss descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
General Motors Problems
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US automobile industry began at the end of the 1800s and by the 1890s one out of seven jobs and one out of six businesses owed their existence to the automobile. Also this industry was the largest single customer for many raw materials but now With analysts debating whether or not the American economy is already in a recession, the big three automakers in the US especially General Motors are sharply scaling back production. The facts described by Danny Hakim in an article (G.M. Sees a Loss Near $1 Billion; Stock Falls 14%) published in NYtimes on March 17, 2005 say that announcement by GM about losses of almost a billion dollars for last six month dropped its share to the lowest level in more than a decade. Also it is considered to be ever biggest single day loss since 1987, as GMs share lost 35 points on Dow Jones. GM once considered as strongest among big three is now way behind in the race with the plans to cut off 10% production of cars in North America. Investors have lost their confidence in GM. Market researchers and analysts are also waving red flags. Main reasons for GM crisis are crucial home industry and increasing health care cost, as company is providing health coverage to almost 1.1 million people in America. Despite all these facts, companys chief executive Mr. Wagoner has neither yet announced any serious plans to overcome this situation nor has he shown any intention to change their corporate strategy.
Globalization is the first concept which could be related to this article. Due to globalization, markets have expanded but these expended markets are now contributing towards the economic problems of the United States. US companies especially the auto industry are no longer enjoying monopolistic powers in business world. Local auto industry is facing a big threat from foreign companies like Toyota, Nissan and Honda.
General Motors, which controlled nearly half the American market as recently as late 1970s, is now finding it difficult to manage in new competitive environment and its market share has fallen to one quarter in February. Company is broadly struggling and Toyota is more likely to displace GM in next few years to be number one in auto industry. No doubt GM is innovative in models and designs but brands like Pontiac, Buick and Saturn are not appealing customers any more, described by J. D. Power & Associates, the quality and customer satisfaction analyst. Ronald Tadross, an analyst at
Manufacturers Of Ford And Supplier Relations college essay help
General Motors – Just in Time
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The global automobile industry has become increasingly competitive and the previously dominant “Big Three” manufacturers of Ford, General Motors (GM) and Daimler Chrysler have lost much of their market share to their Japanese competitors. Manufacturers continually have to look toward lowering their costs and GM and Ford largely go about doing this through their purchasing practices, more specifically, their supply chain management.
In this paper, we shall discuss our findings on the different practices of Ford and GM (the carmakers) on how they get the most out of suppliers in terms of price, quality, timeliness and other expectations. We will further discuss the implications of their current strategies, short term future plans and supplier relations before deciding on whether Ford or GM would potentially make a better working partner for suppliers.
CARMAKERS AND SUPPLIERS
The automobile industry has seen a great shift in the way business is conducted over the past few decades. Gone are the days where the manufacture and assembly of parts and the sales functions were all done in-house. Today, Ford and GM are highly dependant on external parties to supply them individual parts and sub-assemblies (suppliers) and take care of their sales functions (dealers). The carmakers challenge these days is to coordinate and manage the complex supply chain network where the quality of the partners they work with would determine the carmakers ultimate performance.
To manage these vast networks, Ford and GM have turned to the internet as a solution. In 2000, Ford and GM were part of an initiative that set up Covisint , an online portal where OEMs and their suppliers could interact under a common infrastructure and carry out their business transactions. The use of such portals meant that OEMs and registered suppliers could easily have access to each others information in the form of online catalogs, real-time inventory levels, contract bidding auctions and other cooperative applications.
Presently, Ford and GM continue to use such portals in the form of the Ford Supplier Portal and GM SupplyPower . These portals have enhanced information flow and feedback between carmakers and suppliers and allowed the carmakers to announce supplier requirements and tender contracts. Interactions with each individual supplier have also been reduced, saving much time and paperwork. Such portals also represent doorway to new and lower cost supply markets (China) which the OEMs might not have been able to reach previously due to geographical distance.
OBTAINING BETTER PRICES:
For Ford and GM, one of the biggest cost drivers would be the price at which supplies are obtained. The sheer volume of automobile parts demanded by them each year put them in extremely powerful positions to negotiate supplier contracts aggressively. Some of the smaller suppliers supply almost exclusively to the two companies and their business survival depends on totally on contracts with them. Ford and GM have in the past leveraged on such positions to demand two digit price cuts knowing that suppliers would likely accede and not want than to risk financial ruin like the bankruptcy of Tower Automotive . For example, GM inserts clauses into contracts that allow them to switch supplier by giving a 30-days of notice if another supplier offers a better rate.
Ford and GM are also known to place parts requirements on their portals for suppliers to bid for the contracts. This is done on a reverse auctions basis where the lowest unique bid wins the contract . This ensures that the suppliers are obtained at the lowest possible cost without overpaying.
GM expects their suppliers to provide competitive pricing – assist in providing substantial cost reduction when demanded. GM launched a three-year cost-cutting strategy possibly starting in 2007; transferring the stress to their suppliers to fulfil their cost-cutting plans. The suppliers would have to set up factories in low-cost countries such as Brazil, China, Honduras and India in order to attempt to reduce costs. It should be noted that suppliers are still in the midst of a previous three-year cost reduction programme implemented by GM, which was targeted at reducing the global purchasing bill of $85 billion by 20 percent . This continuous pressure to cut cost resulted in a widening rift between suppliers and GM as they struggle to remain competitive with the rising raw material costs and drop in sales with the automakers.
Similarly, Ford had announced plans in 2000 to require their suppliers to relocate to a supplier complex next to their assembly plant. The aim was to reduce cost when shipping parts from suppliers to Fords assembly plant. Other benefits include better coordination of the flow of vehicle parts where the supplier will only transfer the parts when Ford needs them, thereby cutting down the holding cost for Ford.
Ford launched their Aligned Business Framework in 2005 to align themselves with their suppliers, designers and assembly personnel in the pursuit of sustainable profitability. A big part of the Framework is to cut down the number of suppliers and lower cost by giving business to suppliers that can supply parts to them at the lowest prices, naming them Preferred Suppliers.
Ford also pushed for Team Value Management (TVM) between them and their suppliers. The goal is to further reduce costs for both of them, in particular material costs. This involves joint effort to monitor and find cost efficiencies. This is an ongoing process that requires openness on the suppliers part, allowing Ford to scrutinize their operations closely. Ford will leverage on its global reach to find the lowest metal prices and technological innovations for its suppliers .
The carmakers have not only sought to get the best prices for themselves through aggressive contract terms, they have tried to help (and in certain instances) force their suppliers into cost cutting measures after which they would demand for even lower prices from their suppliers.
SEEKING FOR BETTER QUALITY:
GM had a “zero-defects mentality” and viewed any disruptions caused by quality defects as more than lost time. The spillover effects like affected staff morale were equally important to them. To establish the fundamental quality expectations for suppliers, Ford, GM and Chrysler developed the QS-9000 certification which has now been superseded by the ISO/TS 16949:2002 . All suppliers would have to obtain the certification before any supplier contracts were to be awarded. In the case of GM, suppliers who found to be non-compliant to strict quality of products
Global Communications And Toyota Motors academic essay help: academic essay help
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The companies, IBM and Toyota Motors, have had to address similar issues that Global Communications is experiencing in becoming more profitable while competing globally in their respective industry. IBMs challenge is to retain key talent while downsizing staff and outsourcing jobs to India so they can increase market share to the approval of the shareholders. However, an IBM employee has shared that his creative approach to remain with the company by offering to pay his own relocation costs to India to remain with the company has fallen on deaf ears. He attempted in various electronic forms and phone call attempts to all levels of management to present his idea and was pretty much given the so-called runaround. This is an excellent example in identifying problems with hierarchical communication within a company and their avoidance management techniques. The Global Communications Senior Leadership team did offer in their solution to pay relocation costs to retain key talent as long as the employees were willing to take a 10% cut in salary. However, this was offered without any employee and/or union leadership in the planning stages.
Toyota Motors addressed their global competitive issues in more of an open environment approach by following their vision and principle statements of trusting and respecting all levels of labor and management in the planning and decision making process. By following these basic principle tools of communication, Toyota Motors has become number one in the world in sales with the approach of all stakeholders being able to provide input in problem solving. Global Communications can utilize this valuable lesson and place it into practice so that they can increase their market share and profits. This will provide all stakeholders a win-win and not a win-lose situation
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General Motors Case Study
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General Motors, an American-based automotive manufacturer with a large global presence, has long held a large share of the worldwide automotive market. Despite its market position and reputation for quality, the company has recently begun to struggle with new competitors in the Asian Pacific region, which has pushed their needs to develop new manufacturing technologies, as well as to better control costs and quality in its American manufacturing facilities.
Beginning in the 1970s, several nations of the Asian Pacific region, most notably Japan and South Korea, emerged as economic powerhouses. As their manufacturing bases matured, they entered the automotive industry and began to present new challenges as well as new opportunities for General Motors. GM would need to find a successful formula for doing business in this region, as well as develop and adopt innovations that would help it improve its manufacturing operations elsewhere.
In this Case Study, we will examine the facts, the problems, identify the core problems in how General Motors has managed its business alliances in with Asian partner companies, and offer our recommendations how General Motors can best master the challenges of doing business in the East and fully benefit from its joint ventures.
I. THE FACTS
Toyota and NUMMI: In Japan, Toyota was the heavyweight of the automotive industry, controlling over fifty percent of the entire Japanese auto market, and eight percent of the total world market, making it the worlds third largest automotive manufacturer, behind only Ford and General Motors. Toyota presided over a tight confederation of companies, known as a keiretsu where a major manufacturer, such as Toyota, presides over a “pyramid” with the primary manufacturer on top, and several tiers of suppliers below. Unlike General Motors, who held seventy percent vertical integration with its global network of partnerships, alliances, and joint ventures, Toyota only had thirty percent vertical integration in its affiliations, but still managed to have many long-lasting and stable partnerships with its suppliers.
Keiretsus were vast and closely-allied corporate partnerships which evolved from the pre-World War II zaibatsus, giant industrial conglomerates that dominated the nations pre-war economy and politics, but were broken up during by the post-war United States-run Occupation authority. These networks were bound by complex and long-lasting arrangements, often minority equity ownership by the company at the top of the keiretsu. The member firms often plan strategies jointly, share information and technology, pooled resources, and in times of trouble, take on employees from each others firms. Normally, memberships in these keiretsus are long-lasting and change very little, creating high levels of trust and stability within these confederations, as well as a strong sense of common purpose.
Toyotas keiretsu is dominated by the companys well-refined production and supply system, operated almost entirely within Toyota City, a large and well-integrated complex of assembly and supplier plants in Japan. The “kanban” or “just-in-time system” is a tightly controlled distribution system which routes parts directly from suppliers to the assembly plants, as needed, reducing inventory and delivery times, as well as the storage space needed to hold excess inventory. This fast-moving supply system was famous for keeping costs and needed inventory levels low, while helping identify and eliminate distribution bottlenecks and increasing accountability among suppliers.
Toyota, in spite of its domestic dominance, had taken a conservative approach to new ideas, including overseas expansion. Typically, the manufacturer was content to allow other Japanese competitors to make the first moves with new products, as well as expanding overseas. However, in 1983, Toyota entered the U.S. market with a manufacturing partnership with General Motors. Funded with $100 million each from General Motors and Toyota, they set the joint venture up in a GM plant in Fremont, California that had been shuttered in the 1970s, New American Manufacturing Incorporated (NUMMI) would produce cars for both companies for sale in the United States.
The NUMMI operation, which barely received FTC approval in a 3-2 vote, would be governed by its own board of directors, appointed in equal numbers by GM and Toyota. Toyota would name the ventures president, CEO, and other top officers, while GM was allowed to appoint no more than sixteen executives to the plant at any given time. UAW members would staff the plants production facilities. In exchange for FTC approval, the joint venture would only be allowed to run until 1996.
General Motors had two primary reasons for entering the NUMMI venture: to gain access to a small car to help expand its marketing mix, and to learn about the famous Toyota Production System, with the goal of being able to incorporate both into their operations. Toyota had its own motive: to get around the voluntary export restraints agreed to by the Japanese government by manufacturing inside the United States. Some also speculated this venture was to enable the company, which was the last Japanese automaker to set up operation in the United States, to familiarize itself with manufacturing and doing business in the United States towards the goal of establishing a much-larger long-term presence there.
Plans called for the plant to manufacture approximately 200,000 vehicles a year, for which Toyota would supply the major components, NUMMI would provide stamping and assembly operations, and other parts and components would be supplied by United States-based suppliers. Production would start with a compact car that has been manufactured and sold by Toyota in Japan as the Sprinter, but branded in the United States as the Chevrolet Nova.
While the NUMMI plant would be operated with American labor, it would be operated with Japanese management and by Japanese management principles. Many of the first employees at the plant had visited Toyota City for extensive training in the Toyota system, incentives would be provided to encourage workers to train to handle multiple jobs, and much of the day-to-day decision-making was to be delegated to small employee-led teams. The Just-in-Time supply chain system used in Toyota City would be implemented at this facility along with Toyotas stringent quality-control standards for its suppliers.
The results of the implementation of these management practices at the NUMMI facility were mixed. GMs quality audits gave the plant very high ratings, and while some suppliers complained about the high quality
Global Communications And Mutual Support admission essay help
Generic Benchmarking: Global Communications
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Generic Benchmarking: Global Communications
Global Communications has several problems facing it due to their need to cut cost and partnership with the introduction of new services. I choose to focus on two issues facing Global Communications and used generic benchmarking to find possible solutions. The issues faced were not unique to Global Communications and in fact are common in the business world. The issues were cutting cost and introduction of new services.
Microsoft and Compaq partner together to make personal computer easier to use in order to become competitive in the personal computer market. The two companies say the comprehensive agreement, called the Frontline Partnership, details a commitment from both companies to work together to develop products that are the easiest to use and the simplest to install, with the best performance and value in the industry.
Many computer users hesitate to add components to their computers because making the two operate together was almost impossible. With Intel microprocessor chips and Microsoft software adding components could be simple as “plug and play”. Plug and Play, a concept that allows the user to remove a computer system from the box, connect the necessary cables, and have everything work correctly through automatic recognition and configuration of the hardware and software. Linking any devices together in a simple manner will be come the new standard.
In order to make the Partnership and the new products a success there has to be effective communication between the two organizations. As discussed in our course material chapter 15: Organizational Communication in the Internet Age the Microsoft and Compaq displayed perceptual model of communication . Sending and Encoding messages was critical to the communication process ( “Communication begins when a sender encodes an idea or thought. Encoding translates mental thoughts into a code or language that can be understood by others”).
The two companies will participate in mutual support and marketing programs, including the sharing of technical support information, cross-training of the respective sales organizations, and the assignment of full-time marketing managers. The two companies will maintain a joint database to track support calls received from Microsoft and Compaq customers, which could lead to suggestions for new features in either companys products.
Process Metaphysics And Essay Process Metaphysics college essay help free: college essay help free
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What exactly is the fundamental structural of the world? The question conveys a tremendous amount of enormity. The question is so weighty that perhaps it is unanswerable. Nonetheless, many brave philosophers and branches of philosophy have made many brave attempts. One particular field is process metaphysics. Process metaphysics views the structure of reality as one of change and process. All entities in the world possess processes and are contributing to a larger process, reality. Another metaphysician, E.J. Lowe provides some interesting thoughts about the structure of reality as well. When comparing the two types of metaphysical studies, one can see process metaphysics, although not totally complete and error free, a more viable form of metaphysical study.
Process metaphysics is concerned with what exists in the world and with what terms this reality is to be understood. The guiding force behind this concept is that reality and nature is to be explained in terms of processes and not actual objects. For process metaphysicians, change of all sorts is the predominant quality of reality. Process metaphysics, or philosophy, is opposed to placing processes in some type of order or hierarchy, or by subjugating processes to objects. Process metaphysics is intent upon seeing process as a definitive and an essential aspect of everything that exists. For the process metaphysician, all that exists in nature is not just originated or sustained by processes, but is characterized by them. The process metaphysician believes that the end result of the process gives us insight into the nature of reality. Process metaphysics emphasizes that processes are basic and can be derived from external elements because it takes a mental process in order to separate objects from the worlds physical processes. For a process metaphysician, a thing consists in what it does. (Kraus pp. 1-9)
A process entails three different qualities. A process is complex in that it is a union or combination of different components and phases. A process is always a matter of “now this, now that.” The second quality illustrates that this process, or complex, has a “certain temporal coherence or unity.” Therefore, process has a temporal dimension that cannot be eliminated. Lastly, all processes have structure or a shape or format that they adhere to. (Kraus pp. 1-9)
A process philosophy involves certain basic notions and propositions in its study of reality. Time and change are among the basic metaphysical categories. Process is a “principal category of ontological description.” Process is more or equally fundamental to actual objects and entities. Many elements, such as people, material items, nature, and God, are best understood in process related terms. Finally, “contingency, novelty, emergence, and creativity,” are fundamental factors in understanding metaphysics, and as a result our understanding of the real. (Kraus pp. 1-9)
The process metaphysician will point to many different areas of study, in particular science, in providing justification for their ideals. Twentieth century physics has shed new light on the study of atomism. Instead of small elements, or atoms, combining to produce processes, the study has shifted to emphasizing that very small processes occur that produce elements. Process metaphysicians also point to evolution as another defense for their arguments about reality. If it were not for the process of evolution, philosophy would not exist. Evolution is a reflection of the process metaphysical emphasis on the importance of process in determining the structure of the world. Evolution is a symbol of how significant process is in comprehending the nature of the world and reality. Evolution implies change, and since it implies change it is inferring a level of instability. Certainly, the idea of change, according to the process metaphysician, is a key element in all process, since a process entails phases. Different phases depict a type of change has occurred, otherwise how would one distinguish between phases? (Kraus pp. 60-69)
The process metaphysician is clearly a proponent of evolution and views it as a process occurring in nature. However, process metaphysicians have differing views of nature. One sect is of the opinion that a type of inner push or drive exists in nature that can allow further developments and change. The other view is a teleological view. This is a theological perspective that sees natures processes directed toward a positive destination. Both share the view that there is a type of centrality or source of what occurs within nature. The naturalist perspective views this focus in terms of a type of randomness or element of chance that strays away from theories and formulations that were derived in the past. The teleological perspective views the drive in nature has something predetermined or pre-established by a type of force
Data Doctor Password And Recovery Software get essay help
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Did someone hacked or cracked your Gmail, Yahoo, Hotmail account or indiatimes, msn, rediffmail email ID password. Data Doctor password unmask, recovery software recovers accidentally lost or forgotten encrypted characters hidden behind the asterisk****. Tool support different versions of Windows operating systems like XP, 98, 2003, 2000, ME, NT for the retrieval of coded character temporarily stored inside the cookies which are set to these OS supported system. Restore saved coded characters of Excel, VBA project, Office XP, Office 2003, Power Point, Outlook and Access. Software fetch the encrypt character saved inside the text fields of various softwares such as FTP, FlashFXP, SmartFTP and CuteFTP. Utility is read only, non destructive and gives user compatible GUI (graphical user interface) so that users can work easily only by dragging the pointer over the asterisks typed inside the password text field. Unmask tool secure the machine from different ways of hacking like HTTP, FTP, NetBIOS, ICMP Ping, rpc.statd. Unhide the user and owner password which provides the standard security to prevent PDF files from copying, printing, and editing. Features: * Decode the coded user and owner password which provides the standard security to prevent PDF files from copying, printing, and editing. * Support different versions of windows operating systems like Windows ME, NT, XP, 2000, 98, 2003. * Restore saved encrypted characters of Excel, VBA project, Office XP, Office 2003, Power Point, Outlook and Access. * Tool unhides the yahoo, hotmail, gmail, indiatimes, rediffmail, msn account password. * Software fetch the encrypt character saved inside the text fields of various Softwares such as FTP, FlashFXP, SmartFTP and CuteFTP.
Global Communications And General Motors grad school essay help: grad school essay help
Generic Benchmarking for Global Communications
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Running Head: GENERIC BENCHMARKING FOR GLOBAL COMMUNICATIONS
Generic Benchmarking for Global Communications
Lisa Harman, Erica James, Mike Jefferies
University of Phoenix
Dr. Tom Riggins, Ph.D.
Generic Benchmarking for Global Communications
Global Communications is facing many challenges with their new vision. By looking at how other companies have addressed these issues and the corresponding outcomes, Global Communications will be able to make educated decisions on the steps they will need to take.
Three major challenges face Global Communications. Organizational communication is the first. This entails issues such as language or personal barriers and choosing the right channels to communicate information effectively internally and externally. The second challenge is the emotions that play into these decisions. Many different types of emotions and attitudes will be present among the managers, employees and in the community. How Global Communications deals with these emotions will be very important to the success of their transition. The last issue is that of the organizations commitment. Global Communications needs a method for maintaining job satisfaction and customer satisfaction while implementing their solutions.
Six different companies have been used to benchmark Global Communications challenges. They include Pfizer, General Motors, Delta Airlines, Toyota, Caterpillar Inc. and Ford Motor Company. While each company has faced similar issues, there are varying approaches. Global Communications will benefit from evaluating each and selecting which methods will work best given the situation and circumstances.
A great deal of documentation exists proving communication is key to the success of any organization, especially those undergoing change. This has become even more evident after researching six companies that all faced dilemmas comparable to what Global Communications is currently experiencing. Although all had variations in their strategy as well as results, one common thread remained: communication was key to achieving the desired results. The better the communication was with each other and with employees, the better the outcome.
The synopsis on General Motors shows they faced a similar situation when it appeared they might be better off closing a plant and opening a new one in another country. For General Motors, their commitment to communicating with the workforce ultimately resulted in a win-win for everybody. Through negotiations they were able create an environment where the employees were working toward a common goal in order to maximize the potential payoff for themselves while easing the company into the change they wanted.
By contrast, the other companies used communication to help avoid possible loss of jobs. Pfizer, Delta Airlines and Toyota all decided to create environments in which their employees were able to take some kind of ownership of what change would look like within the company. All showed a strong commitment toward making their employees feel as if they were important to the success of the organization. Pfizer allowed workers to come up with ways to save the company money, Deltas management took pay cuts right alongside their workers, and Toyota took time to teach each employee “The Toyota Way”, which fostered a sense of pride in their work. Each of the companies drew a connection between managers and subordinates for a common purpose and used communication to ensure that everyone understood each others commitment to the final product. Ford and CAT maintained open negotiations with the workforce which resulted in the restructuring of the job duties and plants. This process of give and take allowed for both parties to achieve a sense of success and accomplishment.
Global Communication is now faced with an important choice. Should they communicate that a decision has been made to close U.S. call centers and get feedback from employees on how the move could best be handled? Or, should they return to the drawing board and see if workers may be able to offer alternatives to the closures? With any option, communication about the ultimate choice will be important in gaining commitment from the organization. Job satisfaction of the employees will be directly related to the effectiveness of the communication strategy, which includes media, timing and the actual message.
“Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself- and others.” (McShane & VonGlinow, 2005, p.15). Whenever a company is about to undergo change, it is important to be aware of how individuals directly involved may feel about the change and what steps can be taken to recognize and possibly mitigate issues that arise due to the emotion of the situation. “Thats because the emotions people experience and their judgments about various aspects of work make a difference in the organizations performance, customer loyalty, and employee well-being.” (McShane & VonGlinow, 2005, p.2). Over time, when a company does a good job of managing emotions and change, inspiring others and supporting teamwork and collaboration, they will be rewarded with employees who have a positive attitude toward the organization and the different characteristics of it. This is referred to as Relationship Management under the wider umbrella of Emotional Intelligence and it takes practice to develop.
The six companies researched have different levels of maturity when it comes to emotional intelligence. For the purposes of this exercise, three categories are used: reactive, proactive, and defuse. General Motors (GM) and Delta airlines recognized they had to find a way to keep their employees happy despite layoffs, pay cuts, and changes in benefits. In order to plan their strategy on how to do that they first had to understand how employees would react to the announcement of the changes. After taking an in-depth look at possible reasons employees would be upset, they each devised a strategy to counter those emotions. General Motors knew they could not avoid layoffs and that unless they found a way to give the disgruntled employees an inventive to work hard, production
Apple Became And Steve Wozniak popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
How Apple Became Successful?
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Apple was founded by three friends with a few dreams. Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, shared a love for technology and had a knack for being innovative. Together they built a brand that would dominate the world of computers and technology. Steve Jobs is primarily the face of Apple. He served as the founder and CEO of the company. As with any organization, Apple as a company had its share of low points before reaching to the top totem pole. At its all-time lowest, and facing bankruptcy, Apple was not afraid to take risks and reinvent the brand. The company started out focusing on computers, and in the midst of adversity, it shifted its focus on being creative and innovative in ways that their competitors could not imagine. The company thought of ways to expand and how to create smaller, sleek and esthetically attractive products. Apple now serves as a marketplace for music, cell phones, tablets, iPads, iPods, pc’s, multimedia, retail and so much more. The company utilized a strategic business plan and invested in its talented employees and re invested in Steve Jobs who was one of the original founders to achieve success. As stated on sucessstory.com, “Steve Jobs Apple’s cofounder and CEO stated that the goal of Apple wasn’t simply to create great products, but to create a lasting company that would influence the world for generations.” I believe that Apple utilized its resources well, recognized when to take risks and created a talented team of people that worked together to achieve organizational success. Through the use information, information technology and people, Apple has accomplished remarkable achievements that are standing strong today as the largest technology company in the world.
Apple Inc Success Story. (2017). Retrieved from:
Writing Qualities And Research Papers essay help fairfax
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My Writing Qualities
When done well, writing can take you to anyplace, anytime, without ever having to leave your couch. Writers can inspire, teach, and provide an escape for their readers. I hope that this class will help me improve my writing abilities, so that I can more easily prepare essays, and complete my assignments in a better timeframe. I am also eager to see if this class will help me improve my work on papers that I dont usually do well on, like research papers and essays about history.
One strength I feel I possess in my writing is my ability to express feeling and emotion. I have been keeping a journal since I was in elementary school, and feel that it has helped me in that area of my writing. Being able to write how I feel, or how I see others feeling, has helped me cope with a lot of dilemmas. I am hoping this course will improve my writing, and show me new ways to express feelings on paper.
Researching information for papers has always been en enjoyable experience for me, so I feel that this would be another strength of mine. I am very interested in learning new things, and sometimes wouldnt normally have a reason to learn about some of the different topics unless I had to for a class. Searching the Internet, going to the library, and reading magazines looking for information, and then putting all of my gathered I hope I can better my skills in gathering information in this class when we work on our research paper. Information together to make an informative paper is very rewarding for me. I always hope that someone else will read it, and gain an interest in something that they normally wouldnt. I am hoping to be able to use these skills on a research paper later in this class.
As far as weaknesses in my writing, I definitely feel that procrastination is a problem. I have gotten better in the past two years, but I always seem to put off the actual completion phase of the assignment until the last minute. Hopefully this class will help motivate me to start putting my paper together
Response Row And Task A narrative essay help: narrative essay help
Essay Preview: Generic Benchmarking
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Learning Team B
Submitted July 10, 2006
Task A: Problem/Opportunity Statement
Instructions for Task A: In the Response row, write out the problem/opportunity statements for the scenario for each of the team members.
Response to Task A: Global Communications can use global outsourcing to cut costs and become an industry leader.
Generic Benchmarking–The purpose of generic benchmarking is to identify potential solutions to the problem statements defined in Task A. You will do this by looking at how companies in other industries have dealt with similar issues.
Task B1: Generic Benchmarking: Topics
Instructions for Task B1: In the Response row, identify the topics for which you need information in order to identify potential solutions to the problems identified in Task A.
In the Response row, list three to five topics that you will research in peer-reviewed journals, on Web sites, and in popular publications such as magazines and newspapers.
In the Response row, provide a justification for each topic.
Response to Task B1: Global Outsourcing
Task B2: Generic Benchmarking: Companies
Instructions for Task B2: In the Response row, identify companies that have faced and addressed similar situations (successfully and unsuccessfully).
In the Response row, list two to three companies for each topic identified in Task B1.
In the Response row, identify those companies that have been successful and those that have been unsuccessful.
In the Response row, summarize your key findings for each company as they relate to the scenario.
Response to Task B2:
Task B3: Generic Benchmarking: References
Instructions for Task B3: In the Response column, list each reference using APA format.
Response to Task B3:
Genetic Screening And Valuable Information english essay help
Genetic Screening in the Work Place
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Genetic Screening in the Workplace
Workplace gene screening can be used to ferret out the weakest candidates for employment and minimize the related costs of decreased productivity, health insurance, retraining, relocation, and improvement of working conditions. The issue of genetic discrimination involves a severe conflict of interests. On one hand, the defenders of human rights proclaim that excluding workers from jobs on the basis of their genetic make up is immoral and threatens the life chances of large groups of people. On the other side, employers have a legitimate interest in hiring healthy workers to ensure high productivity and soaring profits. From their perspective, genetic prejudice is economically efficient.
In my paper, I will argue that testing for genetic abnormalities is ethically unwarranted. It concerns not only the invasion of privacy but also the unjust ostracism of individuals arising from a genetic contingency which is beyond their control. In addition, technology still cannot precisely predict the outcome of a disease and its degree of severity, hence perfect discrimination is not feasible. I will use this to prove that the testing procedure allows the waste of highly capable workforce.
For the purpose, I will first trace the advancements in genetic research and screening practices to point out the technical and causal limitations on the scientific prediction of critical outcomes. Second, I will highlight how depending on the reason for conducting genetic screening and the underlying conditions, it can be viewed as beneficial, practical, promoting public safety, or unethical. Further, I will focus on the concrete ethical implications of genetic screening and discuss how technology blurs the notions of genetic susceptibility to a disorder and the inevitability of a disease. In this context, I will refer to Gilles Deleuzes understanding of the modern control societies where individuals become dividuals, and masses – samples. As a result, risk assessment is based on belonging to a certain group, and probability statistics are used to justify decisions. An illustration of my point is the film Gattaca, which exemplifies the outcomes of employing genetic prejudice to able individuals.
Genetic screening is a result of the biological revolution triggered in the last century. The discovery of the structure of DNA molecules in 1953 suggested a copying mechanism for the genetic material. Nowadays, the clinical benefits of genetic screening are indisputable. Thanks to the continuing and rapid development in the fields of genetics and biotechnology, the diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases ushered in a new phase.
A recent breakthrough in the sphere of genetics is the Human Genome Project, an internationally coordinated effort to determine the complete DNA sequence in the human genome. In April 2003, the mission ended as more than 99% of the sequence was identified. The findings are important but do not assure perfect pre-symptomatic prediction of illnesses and adverse drugs response. In this respect, science is still inaccurate.
The technical and causal limitations of genetic screening in its present stage of development pose ethical and moral implications. Often, scientists are not able to detect the particular gene in question. Instead, they recognize sequences of healthy genes that are usually, but not always, close to the “defective” one. This technical limitation calls for the use of statistical correlations. In addition, linkage analysis – a reference to the DNA patterns of affected and unaffected family members – might be needed to ascertain the expression of a mutated gene as a disorder. The causal limitations arise when a disease is indicated by several genes. Locating the gene in question means nothing without indicated auxiliary genes. While the genetic research promises an improvement of human health and well-being, robust paths towards the enhancement of genome-analysis technologies should be established (Kupfer, 191).
Purposes of Genetic Screening
As discussed above, genetic screening applied as a diagnostic-therapeutic model offers indisputable benefits to the individuals tested and treated. It provides valuable information for the availability of genes indicating an inheritable disorder. On the basis of similar knowledge, individuals can make well-versed decisions about their lifestyle or begin a timely preventive treatment. For example, information about heart disease disposition calls developing healthy habits, while identification of the Huntingtons disease gene should be considered in family planning.
Initially, businesses also conducted genetic screening as a precautionary procedure. Information about susceptibility to workplace toxins was used for safe employee placement. In the early 1980s, Dow Chemical and DuPont tested their workers for vulnerability to chemicals in the workplace in order to reduce exposure to the hazard through relocation. In this way, employees benefited from risk-free working conditions and businesses found a practical way to reduce the potential costs of absenteeism and health insurance. In other words, “at its inception, genetic screening of workers seemed to be a mutually agreed upon practice aimed at mutual benefits – workers and owners cooperating for the good of all” (Kupfer, 190).
Genetic screening promoting public safety is another just application. When the deprivation of individuals from certain privileges is contingent on the onset of a disorder and seeks solely to protect society, there is no deviation from ethically acceptable practices. For instance, railroad dispatchers should be able to quickly implement appropriate procedures in emergency situations. Hence, applicants with slow responses would not effectively prevent a number of people from harm or death, which justifiably renders them unqualified for the particular task.
However, corporations did not adhere for long to the traditional purpose of genetic screening. The availability of information about job applicants or current employees genetic make up can minimize their costs. Why worry about vulnerable workers compensations, high employee turnover, or expensive retraining programs in case of inception of a suspected disabling condition? Employers can simply deny work to potentially disordered individuals and fire the “defective” ones. Insurance companies can refuse health coverage or raise insurance premiums for people whose tests reveal a high probability of developing a disease.
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