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Segmenting (breaking down a diverse market into homogeneous groups) v The STP Marketing Process Segmenting, Targeting, and Positioning Targeting (choosing a specific segment for your campaign) v Positioning (designing a distinctive message to appeal to the targeted segment) Segmenting Breaking down a diverse market of people into smaller, homogeneous groups Segments should be measurable, sizeable, Market Segments of Potential College Students Wants a community college Wants a mid-size school – not too big, not too small and reachable

Wants a small, private, liberal arts school After segmenting > target a specific segment (focus your campaign on that group) > positioning Wants a large school that’s affordable with a lot of major choices On what basis can a market be segmented? Demographics Age Income Gender Education Occupation Segmentation by Demographics – Meets the needs of child and parent Psychographics AIO (attitudes, interests and opinions) VALS II PRIZM Lifestyle Market Analyst Personality Products consumed Bases for Segmenting (cont. ) Product benefits (benefit segmentation)

Based on benefits people seek in a product Ex. Cars – economy, basic transportation, status Family buying behavior and decision-making Initiator, evaluator, decision-maker, purchaser, etc. Product usage patterns Owner Psychographics: active, affluent, and educated, embrace technology, shy away from conventional status symbols Owners view the Saab as dynamic, distinctively styled, high performance, and safe Copy: Saab is functional and can be used to transport an object bought on impulse; rear seat folds down and the Saab has 46 cubic feet of cargo space

Heavy, medium, or light users Benefit of Enjoyment Goal: Reconnect people to the feeling of drinking a Coca-Cola; associate life’s good experiences with the brand Vietnamese ad – Promotes drinking Coke as a physical pleasure, not just as a status symbol to look trendy and affluent (sales dropped with the recession in the late 90’s) PRIZM Cluster System Geographic segmentation system describing 40-62 neighborhood types or “clusters” Clusters are defined by demographic data and lifestyle variables Sample clusters: Towns and Gowns Shotguns and Pickups Blue Collar Nursery

Top 5 McDonald’s Clusters Rank and File Older, blue-collar industrial suburbs U. S. Army’s Best Recruits Shotguns & Pickups Mines & Mills Blue C – ollar Nursery Middle class, child-rearing towns Coalburg & Corntown Small towns with light industry and farming Smalltown Downtown Small industrial cities Shotguns and Pickups Villages serving the nation’s lumber and breadbasket needs Rank & File Coalburg & Corntown Mines and Mills Struggling steel towns and mining villages Top 5 Coca Cola Clusters

Hard Scrabble Poorest rural settlements Top 5 Pepsi Clusters Hard Scrabble Norma Rae-Ville Lower middle class milltowns and industrial suburbs, mostly in the South Tobacco Roads Predominantly black farm communities throughout the south Downtown Dixie-Style Predominantly black neighborhoods, typically in southern cities Smalltown Downtown Inner city districts of small industrial towns Share Croppers Southern hamlets devoted to farming and light industry Blue-Collar Nursery Mines & Mills Coalburg & Corntown

Organizational Psychology essay help online free: essay help online free

However, some topics in the field cannot be classified as either industrial or occupational so when put together they can explain the broad nature of the field (Spector, 2008). This paper will discuss the history of industrial-occupational, how it is different from other fields of psychology, how industrial-occupational can be applied in organizations, and the role that research and statistics plays in industrial-occupational psychology. The History of I/O Psychology I/O psychologies origins can be tracked back to the late 19th century crusade to understand and gauge human abilities and drives.

In 1903 Walter Dill Scott wrote a book that was the first to link psychology and business together. Scott has been considered to be the founding father of I/O psychology along with Hugo Munsterberg who was a German psychologist teaching a Harvard University. Munsterberg published a book in 1913 titled “The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency. ” However, I/O psychology truly came into its own when the United States entered into World War I in 1917. The military convened a committee of psychologists to investigate solider drive, incentive, and the commonness of psychological impairment.

At this time psychologists also developed the Army Alpha a group-administered intelligence test. There were 1,726,000 soldiers and officers tested but little come out of the information gathered because the war ended three months after the test was administered. Studies found that the test scores were related to solider accomplishments. After the war the Carnegie Institute of Technology started a university-based facility for the study of the applications of psychology to business this was the first of its kind. The center was called the U. S.

Bureau of Salesmanship Research and at that time it was sponsored mainly by the life insurance industry. The research conducted was for the selection and enhancement of secretarial, executive, and sales staff (Spector, 2008). During World War II psychologist developed the “Army General Classification” test, which was used for the assessment and placement of the recruits as well as identifying precise aptitudes and capabilities of the soldiers. During this time the psychologist also investigated accidents, plan crashes, morale, and solider attitudes.

After the war I/O psychology come out as a specific specialty of the broader field of psychology. In 1970 I/O psychology got another push after the court decisions interoperating the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In this decision the courts placed a substantial responsibility on employers to explain the validity of their recruiting, selection, and promotional procedures. Many employers determined that it was smarter to employ the skills of I/O psychologist to defend against this and other possible anti-discrimination legislation.

Maintaining an I/O psychologist on staff would also provide defense against lawsuits brought about by employees who claimed that he or she sufferer from discrimination (Spector, 2008). The Difference between I/O Psychology and Other Field of Psychology There are many similarities between I/O psychology and other fields of psychology however; I/O psychology focuses mainly on applying psychological practices to the business industries. The other disciplines many study or apply similar topics as I/O psychology but the range of topics very.

I/O psychology encompasses issues that are studied individually by human resources management (HRM), social psychology, and business management. Whereas each of these fields of study may focus on other topics none of them focus on the entire set of topics as I/O psychologist do. As with any other field of psychology the difference is sometimes blurred. I/O psychology applies psychological theories to the business industry, while other fields of psychology apply theories to the diagnosis and treatment in all aspects of life (Spector, 2008).

How I/O Psychology Is Applied In Organizations I/O psychology can be used in establishments with the intention of diagnosing the organizations snags, suggesting or applying changes, and calculating the costs of those changes. The four areas that the I/O psychologist may address are: personal psychology, training, motivation and leadership, and engineering psychology (Cascio, & Aguinis, 2008). Personal psychology deals with individual differences. Personal psychology works with the areas of recruiting and selecting personal.

Put simply personal psychology tries to establish who the best person is for any available positions using precise methods that have been proven to work well in the past. The primary focus of personal psychology is to study the job and the traits of the people currently holding the job and using this information to determine what kind of individual would be right for the position (Cascio, & Aguinis, 2008). Training is using the theories of learning to teach employee’s skills, techniques, strategies, and concepts for enhancing employee performance.

I/O psychologists are deeply involved in determining training needs by using job analysis, performance evaluations as well as employee attitude surveys. I/O psychologists are well placed to determine if a training program would alleviate the organizations problem. I/O psychologist address questions such as “who, if anyone, needs training? ” and “are the present employees likely to improve from training? ” Once the I/O psychologist concludes that training is right he or she will try to outline the best contents and formatting for the training program (Cascio, & Aguinis, 2008).

Employee motivation and leadership deals with current employees and strives for a way to establish an atmosphere that offers employees a well-defined idea of what they are supposed to achieve and encourages the establishment of conditions conductive to inspiring people to do their best. The four major methods I/O psychologists apply to aid organizations in creating conditions that are beneficial to efficient performance are: motivation, job satisfaction, leadership, and organization development. Motivation is creating organizational conditions that are helpful in bringing out the best in their employees.

The I/O psychologist’s job is to use concepts of work motivation toward the improvement of working environments and a reward program that will motivate good performance. Because job satisfaction is not directly related to productivity and is weakly related to employee turnover and absenteeism the main purpose is to give management a good idea of the mood of employees which he or she can use as a guide to improve reward programs, benefits, and motivational conditions. The leader ship topics addressed by I/O psychologist are how people come to be leaders, how to prepare people to be leaders, and what leaders do.

Organization development is the area of helping people to work better as a team. To do this I/O psychologist address way to enhance the group’s cohesion and effectiveness with tools such as team building exercises, leadership exercises, self-management work groups, and survey feedback (Cascio, & Aguinis, 2008). Engineering psychology concentrates on the human problem of organizations through the design of machinery and tools that take human limitations specifically into account. Engineering psychology focuses on two areas. The goal of the first area is to make machines that require few decisions to be made by the operator.

The goal of the other area is to design the machinery and workspaces to be congruent with human limitations and capabilities (Cascio, & Aguinis, 2008). The Role of Research and Statistics in I/O Psychology I/O Psychology has it foundation in science; the main focus is on testing and evaluating issues with measureable methods. This process is not like using simple intuition or trying new things until something works. I/O methods like all other fields of psychology are studied with scientific methods and supported by theories and statistics.

Research can develop new methods and procedures for such activities as selecting or training employees. Other research focuses on understanding some organizational phenomenon such as employee theft, the effects of job attitudes. The results of the research conducted in the field are presented at professional meetings and are published in scientific journals. I/O psychologists collect and analyze data to address organizational issues and questions. I/O psychologist start the research process by posing a specific question that defines the purpose of the study.

The I/O psychologist determines the research hypothesis, which is the best guess of what the outcome of the research will be. From there the research is conducted in one of two ways either in the field or in the laboratory. Research conducted in the field takes place naturally while research conducted in the laboratory is created. Researchers try to achieve generalizability, which means that the results can be applied to a variety of other settings and situations. The researchers establish control over the experiments that they conduct to eliminate alternative explanations for the results.

There are many ways that a researcher can achieve control in studies. Two such ways of achieving control are random selection and random assignment, which ensure that all participants have an equal chance of being assigned to different treatments or that every participant has a chance to be chosen for the study (Spector, 2008). The design of the research can be divided into experimental and nonexperimental forms. In experimental design the researcher randomly assigns subjects to conditions that are constructed for the study.

In nonexperimental designs the subjects are observed without assignment or construction of the conditions. The researcher must ensure that the experiments have both reliability and validity. This means that the tests must produce consistent measurements and can produce inferences about the data collected. The data collected from the research is analyzed with statistical methods (Spector, 2008). The statistical methods used by I/O psychologist are either descriptive or inferential. Descriptive statistics are a way for I/O psychologist to reduce large amounts of data into summary statistics.

These statistics are much easier to interoperate than the original data. There are three reasons to use descriptive statistics to analyze data sets. The first is to determine the central tendency and dispersion. The arithmetic mean is the sum of observations divided by the number of observations. The median is the middle number when the numbers are arranged in order from lowest to highest. However, these two methods do not indicate how much the observations differ from each other. To determine the difference of the observations a researcher would use variance and standard deviations.

When there are more than one variable the researcher would use correlations to indicate the degree in which the two variables are related and the direction of the relation. An important byproduct of correlated variables is that a researcher can use one to predict the other this is known as regression (Spector, 2008). Inferential statistics allow researchers to draw conclusions that generalize from the subjects studied to all the people of interest by allowing the researcher to make inferences based on probabilities. This is done by using the descriptive statistics from a small group and combining them with the indings of other subjects by using statistical tests that are based on probability (Spector, 2008). Conclusion Industrial-occupational psychology is the study of psychological issues such as behavior, cognition, emotion, and motivation as it is applied to the problems of people in organizations. I/O psychology can be used in establishments with the intention of diagnosing the organizations problems, recommending or implementing change, and evaluating the consequences of those changes. The four areas that the I/O psychologist might address are: personal psychology, training, motivation and leadership, and engineering psychology.

I/O Psychology has it foundation in science; the main focus is on testing and evaluating issues with measureable methods. This process is not like using simple intuition or trying new things until something works. I/O methods like all other fields of psychology are studied with scientific methods and supported by theories and statistics. Research can develop new methods and procedures for such activities as selecting or training employees. The statistical methods used by I/O psychologist are either descriptive or inferential. Descriptive statistics are a way for I/O psychologist to reduce large amounts of data into summary statistics.

Communication with Children and Young People rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

Many people don’t think that they have the skills necessary to build professional relationship, but with a little time and effort it isn’t difficult. Professional relationships should be conducted in a spirit of mutual respect. Communication is key when building a good relationship with adults and pupils in the school. It is very important to develop the skill of being a good listener, which is one of the hardest skills to develop but one of the most important skills in communication. Being a good listener means we can’t interrupt the other person.

This requires great discipline and respect. A crucial component of good communication is the consistent use “I-statements” as opposed to “you-statements. ” I statements unite, while you-statements alienate and create distance. An I-statement begins with “I feel … ” A you-statement begins with “You make me feel… ” A you-statement is almost always experienced as an attack. When we own our feelings and opinions by using an I-statement, we are communicating that we are taking responsibility for the issue and not blaming the person in front of us.

When a person feels he or she cannot express their needs to the other person, then this leads to a break down in trust. When a we can express and meet each other’s needs consistently this is one of the most powerful ways to build trust in a relationship. To build trust with pupils we need to know the child’s interests as such as what their favourite movie or game is. We gradually increase interaction. As the child becomes more comfortable with us, we can begin to ask more questions or make more friendly demands. Trust is one thing that takes a long time to build and a very short time to destroy.

When a pupil is experiencing some form of “crisis” or “problem” within his/her life, disclosure about personal information can leave the pupil feeling vulnerable. In order for the student to disclose information, he/she needs to be reassured that the person to whom the information is being given will respect and adhere to his/her right to confidentiality. Confidentiality is a guarantee that private affairs do not become public property. A breach of confidentiality can mean a breach of the students trust in the teacher assistant or teacher. This is often difficult to regain.

It is permissible to breach confidentiality if the student concerned has given permission to do so. In order to respect the student’s right to confidentiality, it is important to discuss the information that going to be disclose and to whom it will be disclose. Confidentiality may be breached in the following circumstances: 1-When there is a risk of serious harm to any individual, including where a child (under 18) is judged to be at risk of sexual, emotional or physical abuse. 2-Where an adult is aware that a child is involved in criminal activities.

In any of these exceptional circumstances, the School Head may, after careful thought and consultation, decide to inform the appropriate agencies or authorities, depending on the details of the situation. The child will be informed of the need to breach confidentiality prior to it happening. Where this is not possible (in an emergency) the child will be informed of the breach at the earliest possible opportunity. Never before has so much personal information been collected about children. And the volume is set to increase dramatically.

The main issues – broadly mapping on to the most relevant statutory data protection principles – fall within these headings: 1-child protection as a priority; 2-primary and secondary uses; 3-fair and lawful processing; 4-accuracy and quality of information; 5-security; 6-rights – especially access to records. Protecting children from a real risk of harm from abuse or neglect, usually from their parent or carer, must always be a priority. It is widely accepted – legally and ethically – that confidentiality can be broken on pressing child- protection grounds.

This has long been an integral part of the daily operations of social workers, doctors, teachers, the police, and those providing advice on information handling issues within these services. By sharing genuine concerns about a child or family, professionals of education can construct a more accurate and comprehensive picture about a child’s safety and well-being. Sharing information may be especially important, given the extreme lengths abusers may go to conceal their wrong-doing.

It is important to re-state that data protection law never stands in the way of using or sharing personal information – about the child and sometimes about others – where a real need exists. Harming children though abuse or neglect is criminal activity. Data protection law recognises the importance of preventing and detecting crime and pursuing offenders. This must be especially important where children are the victims. Data protection should never be used as an excuse for failure to protect a child from a real risk of harm.

Data protection issues may be less clear-cut where the concerns focus on the welfare of children, rather than their protection. Schools hold information on their pupils and from time to time, by law, they have to share some of the information with various government organisations. Schools will also share information with other organisations where there is a need to protect a child or someone else from harm. Where information is shared, there is an implied understanding that the information will not be used except where it is strictly needed and always with the welfare of the pupil in mind.

Abstract of Radishes as Pesticide essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Making use of radish extract as an effective alternative method of getting rid of insects and pests like worms, ants, and aphids was studied in this research project. The purpose of this experiment is to prove that radish extract can be used as an insecticide. The researchers first gathered all the materials needed to complete the experimentation. First washed, sliced, and pounded the radish tubers using the mortar and pestle. Then the researchers extracted it by using a clean strainer, strained and acquired the juice of the radish.

After completing the three setups, the researchers sprayed it on the insects and observed what happened. They tried several trials to determine the more effective proportion and gathered all the recorded observations. From the experiment conducted, the researchers observed that pure radish extract is more effective than the one which was added with water. This shows that the radish extract is effective in killing certain pests. Therefore, the researchers conclude that the pure radish extract can be used as pesticide and is more effective than the mixture of the combined water and extract.

This research study helps everyone to know whether the radish extract is really an effective alternative pesticide; thus, not only helping people to save and apply practicality, but also reduce the number of people using chemicals as pesticide which are distractive to nature. The study entitled, “Radish Extract as a Pesticide” is guided by the following questions: 1. What is the effect of radish extract as pesticide on certain pests? 2. Can radish extract be effectively used as a pesticide?

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Skillsfirst Awards Level 2 Award in Employment Responsibilities and Rights in Health, Social Care, Children and Young People’s Settings (QCF) Learner Assignment and Assessment Record General Information for Learners Q) Do I have to pass this assignment? A) Yes. You must pass this assignment to achieve the full qualification. Q) What help will I get? A) Your tutor will help you when completing the Skillsfirst model assignment and will make sure that you know what resources/facilities you need and are allowed to use. Q) What if I don’t understand something?

A) It is your responsibility to read the assignment carefully and make sure you understand what you need to do and what you should hand in. If you are not sure, check with your tutor. Q) Can I copy other people’s work? A) No. The work that you produce must be your own work and you will be asked to sign a declaration to say that the work is your own. You should never copy the work of other learners or allow others to copy your work. Any information that you use from other sources, e. g. books, newspapers, professional journals, the Internet, must be clearly identified and not presented as your own work. Q) Can I work in a group?

A) Yes. However, if you work in a group at any stage you must still produce work that shows your individual contribution. Q) How should I present my work? A) You can present your work in a variety of ways, e. g. hand-written, word-processed, on video. However, what you choose should be appropriate to the task(s). For some work, e. g. presentations, coaching sessions, role-play, work experience, you will need to provide proof that you completed the task(s). A witness statement or observation sheet could be used for this. If you are unsure, check with your tutor. Q) When I have finished, what do I need to hand in?

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The management thereafter tries to minimize this difference. i. For variable costs, the actual year’s production serves as a standard base for current production. ii. For fixed costs, its total budget is considered as a target which is lowered by a reduction rate. The actual performance is then compared with this budget and the favourable reductions are made. * The other objectives of Kaizen costing are: * Providing the customers with the best quality product possible at a minimum cost and thereby satisfying them. Making improvements as and when required at each stage of production and reducing the costs to the minimum. * Acknowledging the problems openly and creating an atmosphere of team work to solve them. * To eliminate the waste of time and raw materials, include the just in time strategy and induce the management to work effectively and efficiently. KAIzen costing at “Toyota motor company” : * During 1987-1991, demand for cars was overheated, which induced the carmakers to diversify their car models. The sales increased, but profits, however, did not increase as rapidly as sales.

Furthermore this ‘bubble economy’ provoked crisis of labour force due to several reasons. At the same time, Toyota was engaged in revising its production management and human resources management in order to solve this labour crisis. * To face this labour crisis, Toyota’s union and management formed a Committee in which their representatives questioned the production efficiency management coupled with production allowance, the human resources management, the working conditions and the tough assembly line work. Toyota decided to radically modify its production system. And the way to increase the production efficiency was by reducing the number of workers by KAIZENING the production process for a given production volume under the constraints of “just-in-time” production. * For this, the management renounced its unilateral.

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How are organisms adapted for efficient gas exchange? [25 marks] Many organisms have different features which enable them to survive and carry out gas exchange effectively. Single-celled organisms, such as bacteria and protozoa, are in constant contact with their external environment. For them, gas exchange occurs by diffusion across their membranes. Even in simple multicellular organisms, such as green algae, their cells may be close to the environment, and gas exchange can occur easily.

In larger organisms, for example animals, gas exchange follows the same general pattern as in plants. Oxygen and carbon dioxide move by diffusion across moist membranes. In simple animals, the exchange occurs directly with the environment. But with complex animals, such a mammals, the exchange occurs between the environment and the blood. The blood then carries oxygen to deeply embedded cells and transports carbon dioxide out to where it can be removed from the body.

In humans the gas exchange organ system is known as respiratory or breathing system. The actual respiratory surface is on the alveoli inside the lungs. An average adult has about 600 million alveoli, giving a total surface area of about 100m? , so the area is huge. The walls of the alveoli are composed of a single layer of flattened epithelial cells, as are the walls of the capillaries, so gases need to diffuse through just two thin cells. Water diffuses from the alveoli cells into the alveoli so that they are constantly moist.

Oxygen dissolves in this water before diffusing through the cells into the blood, where it is taken up by haemoglobin in the red blood cells. Haemoglobin is an oxygen carrying protein which is made up of 4 ‘Haem’ groups which each bind to 1 oxygen molecule. Red blood cells are packages of haemoglobin together with a couple of enzymes that help haemoglobin load and unload oxygen effectively. ***** The steep concentration gradient across the respiratory surface is maintained in two ways: by blood flow on one side and by air flow on the other side.

This means oxygen can always diffuse down its concentration gradient from the air to the blood, while at the same time carbon dioxide can diffuse +down its concentration gradient from the blood to the air. In insects the waterproof exoskeleton allows insects to have a separate gas exchange known as the tracheal system. This gives every insect cell a continuous airline to the atmosphere. Each segment of the insect (apart from the head) has openings called spiracles, which lead to a tree-like series of tubes called tracheoles via the trachea.

The spiracles can be closed to prevent loss of water through the tracheae and opened when greater respiration is needed, and by contracting muscles between each body segment the insect can compress the tracheae and so pump gases in and out of its body. Some insects have further adaptations, making this system even more efficient – by opening and closing the spiracle valves in a particular order it is possible for the insect to suck air into the tracheal system at one end of the body and to circulate the air through the system and pass it out at the other end of the body.

A further refinement is that, in response to changes in water potential, water can leave the body cells and fill the trachea, thus reducing its effective surface area when asleep or dormant. This water leaves the trachea, again by osmosis, when the insect is most active, producing the maximum respiratory surface when required. Fish have specialised gas exchange organs called gills which are made up of thousands of filaments. These filaments are covered in tiny feather-like lamellae which are only a few cells thick and contain blood capillaries.

This structure gives a large surface area and a short distance for gas exchange. Water flows over the filaments and lamellae, and oxygen can diffuse down its concentration gradient the short distance between water and blood. Carbon dioxide diffuses the opposite way down its concentration gradient. The gills are covered by muscular flaps called opercula on the side of a fish’s head. The gills are so thin that they cannot support themselves without water, so if a fish is taken out of water after a while the gills will collapse and the fish suffocates.

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I have chosen the Strengths and difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ is completed at the start and end of each case that is referred to the service I work for. I have changed all names and omitted addresses for anonymity and patient confidentiality in accordance with the nursing and Midwifery Council Code of Conduct (NMC, 2004). I have chosen to follow the personal text (Webb C 1992) for this assignment. The model of reflection I have chosen to use is Gibbs, often used within my clinical supervision. The service I work for is a government initiative.

A three-year pathfinder programme aimed at supporting the development of innovative models of therapeutic and holistic mental health support in schools for children/adolescents and their families for children aged 5-13 and may be at risk of experiencing, mental health problems. Promotes social and emotional well being in schools (NICE 2008) through using evidence based practice as set out by Every Child Matters April (2008), Department of Education May (2010) It is a Targeted Mental Health in Schools (TaMHS).

The service comes under Child and Adolescent Mental Health (Camhs) with the same policies, procedures and protocols of Camhs. Practitioners can refer into tier threeor four services should this be the appropriate pathway for children and their families. It is hoped TaMHS will reduce the amount of inappropriate referrals made to tier three/four services of Camhs. (Camhs 2008) There is no evidence to show a reduction in inappropriate referrals to Camhs, as this is a pilot project the ten identified schools are not borough wide and therefore does not represent the school population of the borough.

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Write a program that can be used by a small theater to sell tickets for performances. The theater’s auditorium has 15 rows of seats, with 20 seats in each row. The program should display a screen that shows which seats are available and which are taken. For example, the following screen shows a chart depicting each seat in the theater.

Theater Seating Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 Row 10 Row 11 Row 12 Row 13 Row 14 Row 15 Here is a list of tasks this program must perform. 1. When the program begins, it should ask the user to enter the seat prices for each row. The prices should be stored in a separate array. 2. Once the prices are entered, the program should display a seating chart similar to the one shown above. The user may enter the row and seat numbers for the tickets being sold. Every time a ticket or group of tickets is purchased, the program should display the total prices and update the seating chart. 3. The program should keep a total of all ticket sales.

The user should be given an option of viewing this amount. 4. The program should also give the user an option to see a list of how many seats have been sold, how many seats are available in each row, and how many seats are available in the entire auditorium. 5. Make provisions so that your program can be executed many times until the user enters a specific input. Input Validation: When tickets are being sold, do not accept row or seat numbers that do not exist. When someone requests a particular seat, the program should make sure that seat is available before it is sold. First Time SAMPLE RUN OF THE PROGRAM Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4

Reflection of the “Thought Police vs. Outer Party” Game cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

During the “Thought Police vs. Outer Party” game, I learned the importance of the value of independence and freedom. Previous to playing the game, I would consistently wear whatever I wanted, I would carry my books whatever way I wanted to, and I was allowed to live my own life. But the game gave me a new perspective, not only on Winston and his hardships, but on my peers. While engaged in the game, due to the secrecy developed within the tension of ignorance, I felt paranoid and oppressed.

Because nobody knew what role everybody in the class played, there were underlying tensions that lead to distrust. Personally, I could not trust anybody, not even my closest friends in the class. I felt like I was always being watched. Being worried about whether getting caught justified the uncomfortable feeling I had. Then I realized that this was Winston’s life always being watched while unwillingly obeying the rules of the party. The situation was bad, having my classmates betray each other, which taught me that there is no place safe for individualistic freedom.

The first day we started the “Thought Police versus Outer Party” game, I was very conscious of myself and my surroundings. All day and every day, I would keep a mental checklist of the rules that I had to follow. Doing this taught me the theme of what I wanted to do versus what I needed to do. For example, one of my peers, who is not associated with AP Language, asked me why I was wearing a yellow leaf. I had to lie to her and say “Oh… I’m just taking risks, as far as style goes. ” I felt stupid for saying that!

I really wanted to tell her what is going on. If I was allowed to tell her, she could have possibly helped me find out who the thought police was. Speaking of having to wear my yellow-leaf necklace, the third day into the “Thought Police versus Outer Party” game, I overslept. Once I woke up, I put sweatpants on and ran out the front door to the bus. I didn’t even realize how I looked that morning. When I got to school, I realized I was lacking my yellow-leaf necklace. I felt ultimately hopeless. I was sad, but not to the point of crying.

It wasn’t like I was going to be “vaporized” or anything. Afterwards, I went in “Big Brother’s” classroom and saw an unpunched yellow leaf, an electronic hole puncher, scissors, and a white piece of string. I had an insane adrenaline rush. I grabbed everything and went to Coach Johnson’s room quickly so no one would see me. However, I had a feeling that “Big Brother” saw me on the way out the door. Two minutes later, I came back into the classroom feeling accomplished as if nothing had happened. The next day, I saw that my name was on the offenders list.

Guess what crime I had committed? The “Yellow-Ribbon” crime! All of a sudden, I did not feel accomplished after all. At least I know who reported me. That same day, I also forgot to wear anything orange. I can only imagine how Winston would have felt if he forgot to wear his uniform. Luckily, before I went to “Big Brother’s” classroom, I stopped by Mrs. Hood’s room. I saw Michaela Bailey, a member of the Outer Party. I felt so fearful because for all I know, he could have been a thought police (luckily, he was not).

I took an enormous risk and asked “Do you have anything orange I could wear? ” He answered “Sure, you can wear this”. He handed me an object that looked like a ripped sock that soccer players wear on their shins. I responded “Thank you so much! “. It is amazing how paranoid I was being, because on any other day, I would have been like “Oh, no thanks. You keep it… “. This proves the importance of having to unwillingly obey the party. The next day, “Big Brother” posted the crimes and who had offended them. My name was on the list for offending Crime Number 5.

This rule states: “When speaking to lunch ladies, janitors, office staff, or any non-teaching adult, students must express gratitude for their service by greeting them with the phrase, “We appreciate your work on behalf of our education. “. I did not even know I broke this rule. I do not remember seeing a lunch lady, janitor, office member, or a non-teaching adult. That wasn’t the only strange event that had occurred. All of the other Outer Party members’ names were listed as well. That made it even harder to guess who the Thought Police were. However, with this taking place, made me think smarter.

The reason for that is because I knew that either “Big Brother” turned us in, or a member of the thought police turned their self in. Now that I think about it, it did not really help me at all. The day that the “Thought Police versus Outer Party” game was coming to a close, I was absent from school. Because of this, I was not able to guess who the thought police were. The good thing about it was that when I finally found out who the Though Police were, I realized that if I were not absent, I still would not have had decreased the size of my reflection essay.

Bordetella Pertussis medical school essay help: medical school essay help

In 1906 two Belgian bacteriologists, Jules Bordet and Octave Gengou first discovered Bordetella pertussis, what is known today as the whooping cough, by isolating it in pure culture. They distinguished the whopping cough agent from the respiratory tract of children (Jules Bordet). B. pertussis is a very small, prokaryotic, coccoid bacterium, which does not make endospores. It is a gram negative bacterium which means the cell structure contains an outer membrane, an inner membrane, and a thin peptidoglycan layer. It metabolizes through aerobic respiration, is nonmotile and an encapsulated microorganism.

It appears either in pairs or singly, cannot survive in the environment and only reside in human hosts, where it usually appears in the trachea and the bronchi. B. pertussis produces several virulence factors. These include pertussis toxin, which is secreted in the cell and extracellular fluid, and filamentous hemagglutinin, which is a “fimbrial-like structure on the bacterial surface” (Todar). B. pertussis is nutritionally fastidious meaning it has complex growing requirements, and is difficult to grow without specialized media.

It requires special growth factors and may not grow on routine media, although it has been found that the organism grows better on a media that has a slightly acidic pH. Growth of this organism is restrained by its own waste as well as heavy metals, peroxides, sulfides, and fatty acids. To neutralize any inhibitory substances and absorb toxic metabolites this organism is often grown on media with rich concentrations of blood, or charcoal. (“Pertussis. “). Two different solid cultures that are used in growing B. pertussis are Bordet-Gengou agar (BGA) and Regan-Lowe agar (RLA).

Bordet- Gengou agar contains potato starch and is peptone free, also an inhibitory substance. It also contains glycerol as a stabilizer, and an antibiotic, such as penicillin, to restrain gram positive organisms from growing, although the antibiotic may slightly restrain B. pertussis itself. Another method of growing B. pertussis is on Regan-Lowe agar. This agar is a charcoal based solid with defibrinated horse blood. (Ahmad). The charcoal helps absorb waste products and toxins. This charcoal agar has become more popular in laboratories because, “of the ease of its preparation and its superiority in growing B. ertussis by absorbing the toxic metabolites of the organism” (Ahmad 1071). B. pertussis grows quite slowly and it best grows when it is incubated at 35° to 37° C in a humid or moist environment for about 3 to 6 days. It grows as a mercury colored droplets with domed colonies. B. pertussis is a worldwide occurrence that causes a highly contagious acute infectious disease called “whooping cough” which resides in the upper air pathways such as the bronchi and trachea, and appears on epithelial cilia of respiratory tract.

A “whoop” is a “high-pitched noise heard when breathing in after a coughing spasm” (CDC). The first outbreaks were described in the 16th century but it was not until 1906 that it was discovered. it is a much more milder disease in adults than it is in infants, in which it can be very severe and frequent, and it was not until the 1930’s that immunization was discovered. B. pertussis is contracted through aerosol droplets from person to person, which are either sneezed or coughed in the air by the infected person.

The bacteria then “attaches to the cilia of the respiratory epithelial cells, produce toxins that paralyze the cilia, and cause inflammation of the respiratory tract, which interferes with the clearing of pulmonary secretions” (Pertussis). After seven to ten days of the incubation period of the bacteria the first stage of the infection appears. This stage lasts anywhere from one to two weeks and is called the catarrhal phase. In this phase the infected person experiences cold like symptoms such as runny nose, fever, mild cough, and sneezing.

After about another week or so the cough slowly becomes more severe and the second phase of the disease presumes: the paroxysmal phase. Only during this phase can the diagnosis of whooping cough actually be claimed. The cough appears at various intervals where one may become cyanotic, turn blue, and may result in vomiting due to mucus buildup on the tracheobronchial tree. If the cough is long enough an infant may go into hypoxia, which is a state where there is a reduced amount of oxygen, and further lead to seizure.

In result other symptoms include dehydration, weight loss, and potentially anorexia. The last phase is called the convalescent phase meaning gradual recovery phase. The cough becomes less severe and disappears within a few weeks. (Pertussis ). “In 2004 through 2008 a total of 111 deaths from pertussis were reported to the CDC”. ( Pertussis). Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin that is produced during the infection and is the major cause of the abnormal cough. It causes T cell lymphocytosis, increased IgE synthesis, hyperglycemia, increased endotoxin sensitivity, and impairs NK cell killing. This results in the accumulation of large amounts of cAMP which leads to increased mucus secretion and interferes with many cellular functions” (Ghaffer). Other virulence factors include filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin, and fimbriae. These are adhesions that allow the bacterium to attach to the glycolipids on the membrane of ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory cells. (CDC). Precautions to take in order to prevent pertussis are getting vaccinated, as early as 6 weeks old, with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, good hygiene, and covering the mouth when sneezing or coughing.

Antibiotics are used to treat the disease. In 2010, 27,550 cases of whooping cough in the United States have been reported to the CDC. Worldwide there are up to 50 million cases and over 300,000 deaths that have been reported. Whooping cough may not sound like a severe disease but if people go untreated and unvaccinated, especially people in less developed countries, it could become fatal, especially to infants and younger children, whose immune systems are not as strong. Therefore, it is important that as many people are aware of this disease and do not go unvaccinated or untreated.

Puritan New England Dbq essay help: essay help

Thesis : The New England colonies were greatly influenced by the ideas and values held by the puritans. Puritans influenced the political, economic and social development of the New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s. Their main purpose of coming to America was to acquire religious freedom. They were the foundation for what America is now and their influence towards political, social, and economic development of the New England colonies shaped what America is now.

Religion: •In document J, John Higginson wrote “The cause of God and his people in New England” in 1662. He states that New England is originally a plantation of Religion (ALSO DOC A city on a hill religious mission ), not a plantation of trade. What he was trying to say was that they did not come to America to prosper from it, but came to America to spread their religion. •Puritans worked hard (Puritan Work Ethic)…. worked hard to show they were the “elect” or bound for heaven…. onnect to predestination. •Religion was very important in the lives of puritans. In 1666, a court article titled “Religious Conformity in the Bay Colony” showed us that these men (Thomas Gold, Thomas Osbourne, and John George)

Social Studies Sba write my essay help: write my essay help

How Drug Abuse Affect The Citizens Of the Salt Spring Community The method used to collect data in this project is interviews. What is an Interview? An interview is a conversation between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. Data Checklist/questionnaire 1. What is your Name? 2. How old are you? 15-19 3. What is your gender? 4. At what age did you start using drugs? 5. What kind of drugs do you use? 6. How does it affect you? 7. What influence you to start using drugs?

The interviewees were approached and made aware of what I was doing, fort(40%) of them agreed to be interviewed the same time at which I approached and sixty(60%) agreed to be interviewed at a later date, which was arranged. Interviews were done at the Salt Spring Health Center, at my home, and at a shop in the community. Chart Showing Gender Involve in study The chart above display the gender difference in the research of out 15 persons interviewed 12 being males and a mere three being females. Chart showing Types of Drugs Used by Both Genders

The chart above shows the percentage of drugs used by both male and female and what kinds. All of the interviewees reported using all the drugs listed expect for cocaine which all the female deny using. Marijuana had the highest numbers of users with all respondents reported using it, next on the list being marijuana again all respondents report using the drug, next on the list is cocaine with only two(2) of the respondents report using which were only males. Finally ecstasy with only two respondants using one male and one female. Respondents| Alcohol| Marijuana| Cocaine| Estacy|

Describe What Your Role history essay help: history essay help

Unit 1: Preparing to teach in the Life long learning sector Question 1: Describe what your role, responsibilities and boundaries as a teacher would be in terms of the teaching/training cycle. It would be my responsibility as the teacher to carry out initial assessment before the students are excepted on to the course, to make sure the student have the knowledge and the previous experience needed to cope with the course. Also this would be the time when the I (teacher) would find out if the student has any learning difficulties or disabilities.

In order for a class or course to be successful there is extensive planning involved, a scheme of work will be written as an overview of what will be covered over the length of the course or term. A lesson plan will be complete with a detailed lay out of the objectives, teaching and learning activities, the type of assessment methods that will be used and the recourses that will be needed throughout the lesson. After planning a lesson the next step will be to deliver the lesson. It is important that the appropriate methods or mixture of methods are used to successfully assist the progress of learning.

Learning activities will encourage creativity and enthusiasm and promote independent learning. Example learning activities would be games, essays, group work or case studies. Ice Breakers are a effective way of starting a lesson they help people get to know each other help the students to relax. They also break down the barriers, encourage teamwork and establish trust within the class. When delivering a lesson it is important that the students are aware of their limits this is why it is essential that ground rules be put in place. I also believe that rules and expectations form the foundations for effective learners.

It is vital to everyone’s progression that they feel safe and able to express themselves. It is also my responsibility to assess the students Ann Gravells states that “Assessment is a way of finding out if learning has taken place”. When taking a class of students through a course or qualification there are different types of assessments that will take place. In fitness students are assessed throughout the course both formatively and summatively until competence is proved. Assessment methods need to be valid. As the teacher I will must select the most appropriate assessment method for what is to be assessed.

Some of the methods used during a NVQ in Fitness would be, multiple choice, Oral questioning, direct observation and assignments. After each lesson I must carry out a self evaluation, thinking about how the lesson went, what was good and why, and also what they could improve on or change for next time. When teaching a longer subject for example NVQ in Fitness it is also important to get feedback from the students on how they think the course is going, are you meeting the needs of the students and to find out any areas they feel may need to be covered in more detail.

This could be done by giving the students a questionnaire part way though the course and at the end. Teachers also have to be available to offer support and guidance to their student to help their learning and development on the course. If a student comes to myself or another teacher for support or a particular individuals needs have been identified during a lesson, it is the teachers responsibility to decide and effective way to help the student.

It may be that the student needs a one to one tutorial or it could be that you have to refer then to a support service that the college or learning institution offers. Sometimes there are issues that both myself or other teachers are unable to deal with but are able to referee students to external agencies to better support the students for example: Charities such as the RNIB, the Dyslexia Association and Mencap who will provide practical advice and guidance to the college. Reference: Gravells. A, (2008) Preparing to Teach in the Life Long Learning Sector, Exeter, Learning matters Ltd.

Influence Consumer Purchase Behaviour for the Coffee Bean common app essay help: common app essay help

In this 21st century, a demand of the coffee and tea is ever-increasing in complexity due to the new life style of modern people. People become more particular in choosing the coffee brand. Buyers hence may have to mainly rely on the brand image and the reputation of the manufacturers in order to simplify their purchase decisions. In addition to brand image, there are other factors that contribute to consumer purchase decision-making such as price of the products, servicescape and so on.

Through the identification of the ‘Management Decision Problem’; Hypotheses and Research Objectives were developed based on the THREE independent variables identified in the Conceptual Schema earlier. These factors will in a way affect the purchase intentions and decisions of consumers in the automotive industry. This literature review will provide a detailed view as to whether or not these variables have a relationship with the consumer choice. After which, a survey questionnaire will be conducted on a sample population of 90-100 respondents.

The survey results will be compiled, tabulated and tested against the hypotheses identified. The information will then be analyzed and interpreted, and concluded for managerial decisions. 2. Statement of management decision problem: Problem definition: Since its establish in 1963, The Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf has grown to become an international icon with more than 750 cafe outlets in 22 countries included Singapore. However, its sale has not been doing well comparing to other coffee brand like StarBucks which is one of the best coffee leaders in the world.

To identify this issue, this research paper‘s objective will be testing on the three key factors that contribute to Coffee Bean’s consumer’s willingness of purchase as being defined in the Conceptual Schema earlier. They are price, brand name and servicescape which will be examined through this entire research paper by supporting with previous articles. In addition, the hypothesis model will also be established to test these relationships. Research question: Price •Is the price of Coffee Bean’s products perceived as reasonable to consumers? •Is the price of Coffee Bean’ product value to consumers?

Compare Public Management Reform in the Uk with Singapore narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Competency, bureaucracy and public management reform: A comparative analysis Make sure I read before completing essay, very relevant! Also last seminar presentation (governance, NPM) Compare Public Management Reform in the UK with Singapore. What does the comparison tell you about the factors that shape public management in each country? Introduction Governments around the world are moving from outmoded tradition towards managerial modernity in attempt to get their public sector organisations to run better.

A key issue on a countries public agenda in society is education to ensure sufficient knowledge is attained for their citizens, more specifically, the next generation. The emphasis on education is evident because it provides greater opportunity for individuals to develop to their full potential so they can contribute to society which in result, will help increase the competitiveness of their economy. In some terms it is seen as an investment, whereby, the performance outcomes will be seen in the future.

This essay will involve a comparative analysis of the Education reforms in Singapore and the UK with the introduction of ‘independent’ and ‘autonomous’ schools and the 1988 Education Act concentrating on ‘the national curriculum’ and ‘local management of schools’ respectively. The main objective of distinguishing factors that help to shape public management in each country and examine the extent to how countries learn from each other about the nature of change and reform. Context

The UK and Singapore are both leaders in the education rankings as a result of their reforms but they have both been achieved in terms of different historical, political, economical and cultural contexts. Britain has a past of being a dominant force in the world with the legacy of the British Empire, whilst ironically; Singapore is an Ex- British colony that is fairly new considering they only gained their independence in 1965. Singapore is a multicultural state where they have developed a nationalist ideology consisting of neo-liberal market values mainly initiated because they lacked any real natural resources except for their people.

There is scepticism to whether ‘democracy’ exists as the People’s Action Party (PAP) has dominated the political and administrative system since the internal government’s existence in 1959; therefore, their regime is more along the lines of a Hybrid. Despite their sheer dominance, the PAP have played a decisive role in transforming Singapore into a small economic powerhouse where they are amongst the highest GNP per capita in the world. This has resulted in a high level of legitimacy within the country where citizens place a lot of trust within the government.

Lee Kuan Yew was an influential leader who played a significant part in the transition turning them into a stable state with rapid industrialization and modernisation. As they had little natural resources, these programmes where key to attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) which is now in excess of $40 Billion. Another incentive for Foreign Investors to retain their investment is Singapore is considered the most business friendly environment with minimal corruption, which is not bad considering they had once inherited a corrupt colonial bureaucracy that wasn’t concerned with national development.

Within the PAP’s ideology, they have promoted a culture based on certain principles commonly referred to as Asian values. These include respect for authority, nation before community, and consensus rather than contention. As Singapore had minimal natural resources, education has been used to preserve racial and social harmony whilst investing in the only effective resource it had, people. This has enabled them to cope with the demands of social and economical developments.

Education has always been a priority of the PAP where as a result, a lot of pressure is placed on children to perform well, whereby, the majority of them are exposed to tuition at a young age. The UK is a developed country but its historical background contrasts to that of Singapore as it was once the largest empire which ruled a quarter of all land at its height. Today they remain a great power with leading economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence.

International trade is not as big as Singapore’s as a proportion of GDP, but like Singapore, they are highly exposed to global forces, especially with the importance of the capital as a global financial centre. Like Singapore, the UK has a parliamentary system but it is a full democracy where there is more competition to govern meaning pressure groups can influence policy change more than in Singapore. UK is not quite the multicultural state like Singapore, but it still has a large proportion of foreign born residents where it experienced rapid immigration from the 1990’s.

Over the last thirty years, public spending from the conservatives was much higher in comparison to the Labour government. Thatcher’s government wanted to minimise Public Sector Borrowing which in turn, led to a tighter fiscal policy. As a result the conservative government reduced public spending from 47. 3% of GDP to 38. 8% of GDP from 1984-1987. In Education, public spending dropped from 5. 41% of GDP in 1980 to 4. 14% of GDP in 1990, however, between 1986, the proportion of the total budget spent on Education increased from 10. 7%, 11. 4%, 11. 8%, 12. %, and 12. 2% in every year respectively until 1991. This reiterates the greater emphasis put on education by the conservatives during them years, hence the reforms. The newly elected conservative Prime Minister Thatcher wanted to change the direction of educational policy. The UK became neo-liberal like Singapore where Thatcherism conveyed much of her thinking. She wanted to increase productivity, privatisation, and cut welfare to make labour markets more competitive where it would establish a more flexible and competitive working practice and culture.

Crabb Theory Critique essay help free: essay help free

There are many strengths and positive points to adopting this counseling style the most prevalent being the focus on restoring others to God through correcting the assumptions which have been tainted by living in a sinful world as sinful people, back to biblical thinking with an absolute truth. In contrast, the weakness as this writer would suggest is in the loss of the individualistic nature of man, and the one true God’s ability to allow each man to have his will and seek after Him in a very personal broken manner that can be the very thing that serves God’s people most.

Evaluation of Strengths and Weaknesses The strengths of effective biblical counseling as presenter by Dr. Crabb is very well presented and have very strong biblical validity. The counseling theory functions on the presumption of the absolute truth of God and the redemption through the blood of Christ. It holds to the purpose of pointing the counselee to maturity in God and a fullness of life in fellowship with Christ, not as a patented cliche answer but as authentic freedom in living as the new creation a believer is once they turn their life to God (NIV, 2 Corinthians 5:17).

Crabb quotes this purpose as the ability “to solve this problem in a way that will make me more like the Lord. Then I will be able to worship God more fully and serve him more effectively” (pg. 22). In contrast the weakness also can be the single vision of absolute truth in a right or wrong approach is that the reconciliation of one to god and the maturing process is very individual according to the purpose God has for us (NIV, Romans 8:28). For example, the path of a charismatic believer and a Lutheran believer are very different and have polar opposite purposes in the kingdoms of God.

As to the hurts people face can sometimes be very spiritually based and have many general hurdles to jump before they can address corrective their biblical thinking errors, basic safety, crisis intervention, mental illness (clinical depression, substance abuse, trauma, etc. ). In the explanation of understanding, the sinful feelings man allows himself to feel in comparison to the appropriate counterpart of feeling real issues in a biblical manner a counselor can help the counselee identify their needs according to a biblical model.

The explanations of depression vs. anguish, crippling guilt vs. constructive sorrow, resentment vs. anger, frustration vs. motivated discontent, anxiety vs. concern help to understand the reconciliation of God vs. the reconciliation of self leads one in understanding their feelings not according to their “deficit motivations” but feeling which lead them to healing (pg. 104-105). Being able to identify true feeling that project change rather then sooth or punish the self would come as water to the thirsty soul of many today.

While understanding their feelings and the motive a counselee help find the motivation behind the behaviors causing the problem rather then just dealing with the symptoms. The weakness in this emotion and motivation defining is that the symptoms and emotions are real and need addressing/ exploring before redefining, otherwise argument can be made it may come back repeatedly, which would have been how the “motivation deficit” was caused in the first place. Personal Reflection and Application As I read this text by Dr.

Crabb, I was very challenged in my deficit motivations in which I have been functioning under since my divorce. My fear of rejection causes me to allow others to treat me negatively way beyond that which is healthy. I realized that my motive for leaving my spouse was biblical in that I believed then and now that it was the only way to help point him toward true repentance and wholeness in Christ. I was challenged to face my patterns of attempting to find happiness, soothing of self, rather then joy, godly contentment in the midst of trial (NIV, James 1:2-8).

Although due to the spiritual abuse my spouse had imparted on me created a fear in me to trust my faith or my ability to understand God’s will for me an area that would be defined as a new motivation deficit under Dr. Crabb’s theory. I believe I would need to process and redefine everything that happened rather then just claimed as a deficit to untangle it from the truth faith I have, which consequently led me to seek the counsel of a church counselor this week. I see the value in an integrated approach, which I value. I agree with him that it is important to check the psychological approach/theory against scripture to be sure they agree.

I believe God has created all of us unique physiologically and set each of us into unique patterns of life to lead us to his plan and purpose for us (NIV, Romans 8:28, Jeremiah 29:11, Psalm 139:14). There is absolute truth with in the word of God but the manifestation of that truth can look very different in each person, all of which make God’s people able to serve him even with brokenness. I feel the need to not attempt to use this theory to judge people’s motives and direct them in a way that seems cookie cutter faith, and if not reached they somehow are less of a Christian in the kingdom.

There is value in the deficit motivation, the evaluation or redefining of feelings, and claiming the absolute truth by which we are to live. I feel this application to my personal counseling style would be appropriate in many situations that are common such as marriage, family and life cycle issues, but trauma, crisis and mental illness may not benefit from this approach. Reference Crabb, L. (1986). Effective biblical counseling: A model for helping caring Christians Become capable counselors. Grand rapids, MI: Zondervan. ISBN: 0-3102-2570-1.

One Blood, One Race essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Critical Analysis of One Blood, One Race Ken Ham did a brilliant job depicting the history of racial intolerance and misconceptions in his book One Blood, One Race using the Holy Scriptures to show where mankind and the church has gone wrong, and what areas we can strive to improve. Ham proves Biblically that all mankind are descendants of one man, Adam, and therefore we are all one race. This reading contains vast amounts of practical knowledge on genetics, but also gives wisdom of how we can interpret this knowledge as we examine mankind and the rest of God’s creation.

The arguments presented in the book are so well backed and thought out that I cannot think of any objective counter arguments. The first argument given is actually a defense from those who think that there were several races during the time of Cain, because he had a wife yet the bible only mentions the names of Adam’s sons. This is typical though, because the bible often does not list the daughters in genealogies. Also the bible does say that Adam and Eve had many sons and daughters.

Ham also offers an introduction to genetics so that everybody could understand its importance to understanding different ethnic groups and how over time they have formed. He also proves that genetics is further proof for creation and that all humans have come from one man, Adam. Human DNA can vary as much as . 2% from person to person, but only . 012% on DNA is what determines outward appearance (skin and eye color, body shape, etc. ). This being said, all humans are essentially the same, so it begs the question, “Why are humans so concerned about outward appearance and skin color? ”

As Christians we must look at ourselves and the church to see how our views align with the views and facts within the Bible. It has been the norm in all cultures to only marry into that culture, but when it comes to ethnicities, this is wrong. Cross-ethnic marriages should not be feared since people are really the same underneath their physical appearance; however it may not be wrong when it comes to cultures and beliefs, especially Christianity. When people are married they are making a vow to be together the rest of their lives, but if the man and woman do not have the same beliefs this will not work.

Fashion: Clothing scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Fashion is a term commonly used to describe a style of clothes, hair, accessories, make-up popular at a particular time or place. Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Even people, who say they do not care what they wear, choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day. Without realising it, the clothes we choose to wear tell other people a lot about us. We often judge people by what they are wearing. For example, people dressed in expensive clothes are thought to be wealthy.

Our shoes, make-up, accessories and jewellery, all tend to create an impression of our personality and the social class we belong to. Similarly, our choice of clothes also depends on our age and who we are influenced by. For example, popular music seems to have become the most important means of developing personal identity for young people. Whether they prefer heavy metal, grunge or pop, the musicians they see on TV soon become their role models, so young people not only want to listen to their music, they want to copy the musicians’ style of clothing and behaviour.

Similarly, peer pressure is strong among teenagers who want to be like other people of the same age. For this reason, to most teenagers dressing to look like their friends seems to be the surest way to be accepted. Fashion is a big business. More people are involved in the buying, selling and producing clothes than in any other business in the world. Every day, millions of workers design, sew, glue, dye clothing and transport it to stores.

Store buyers work many months ahead of the season to place orders with manufacturers for styles they think their customers will want to buy. Ads on buses and billboards, fashion magazines, Hollywood blockbusters, flashy TV commercials and TV shows with celebrities give us ideas about the latest trends, in other words, what is in fashion and what has gone out of fashion. On the other hand, we do not always have the chance to choose our clothes.

If we work as a nurse, police officer or fire-fighter we have to wear standard uniform at work. Some companies have a dress code, which should be strictly followed by all employees. Lastly, our ideas of beauty are revealed by our style of dress. Dressing in a particular outfit might be a way of saying, “This is what I think is nice, and I believe it makes me look more attractive”. In conclusion, more than being just a way to keep warm, clothes reveal a lot about person’s life, character and status.

Molecular Vapor Deposition popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Introduction There has been much new advancement in the nano-technology field on a international level in recent years. The new advancements have drawn a increasing interest in nanometer scale surface coating. Ultra thin film coatings can be used in a wide range of applications as lubricants, anti-stiction layers, molecular glues, coupling agents or adhesion layers. The mentioned molecular coatings are used to modify material surface properties. The traditional coating deposition methods consist of a set of sequential wet baths. The wet processing method is complex and limits the ability of molecular coating in many MEMS applications.

The use of liquid precursors has extremely limited bath life, which cause the method to be highly expensive and have low product ability. In this paper a new surface coating technique a new surface coating technique will be discussed, which is called Molecular Vapor Deposition (MVD). This new method has proven to overcome the shortcomings of the liquid phase method and has single handedly improved changed the ability of surface coatings. Molecular Vapor Deposition (MVD) is a unique nanotechnology technique that allows for room temperature vapor deposition of organic and organometallic molecules.

MVD technology enables the growth of ultra-thin films with a wide range of functionality on a broad spectrum of substrates. This innovative technique has allowed many new emerging applications with small feature sizes that where very difficult or impossible to produce using traditional liquid synthetic techniques. MVD is very versatile and is an ideal process for modifying surface properties. Films that are created using MVD can serve as hydrophobic, hydrophilic, biocompatible, protective, or reactive coatings.

The MVD process takes place in a vacuum and when it is combined with Applied MicroStructures advanced surface preparation and adhesion enhancement techniques, the extent of surface coverage and coating conformability can each approach 100%. Molecular Vapor Deposition was developed by a company called Applied Microstructures Inc. (AMST) which deals with the development of Molecular Vapor Deposition processes. Its MVD processes are applied to nano-devices and micro-sensors that deal with automotive airbag accelerometers and cellular phone microphones.

AMST currently markets two machining tools; the MVD 100 which provides automated deposition of organic and composite surface coatings; and the MVD150 system, which offers manufacturing capacity and automation. The company also offers MVD NanoFilms that are customized nano-scale thin films used to modify surface properties of substrates, and process chemicals for surface modification and for surface functionalization of various substrates and materials. It provides MVD equipment and contracted deposition services for MEMS, nano-bio, nano-imprinting, and hard disk applications.

The company was found in 2003 and is based out of San Jose, California. Applications of MVD In MEMS applications, MVD molecular films are typically self-assembled mono-layers (SAMs) with very low work of adhesion and are used as anti-stiction coatings. In Nano-imprint Lithography applications, MVD films are used as very thin and conformal release layers between the stamp and polymer materials. In Inkjet applications, MVD films are used to prevent ink accumulation on the nozzle face plate to ensure unrestricted ink flow. In Bio-MEMS, hydrophilic and biocompatible MVD films can be used to improve wetting or to prevent protein adsorption.

In Biotechnology applications, MVD films are used to create surface anchors for subsequent coatings. In SAMS coating MVD allows for the creation of molecular organic coatings which are denser and more durable than those obtained by current liquid or vapor-phase methods. This improvement has been achieved using a sequential or layered vapor deposition scheme of two different molecular films. The first molecular coating is a seed or adhesion promoter layer which is used to increase the binding sites for the subsequent functional molecular layer.

The resulting surface coatings were observed to have improved stability to immersion applications, higher temperature stability and overall improved durability as a result of the increased surface coverage when compared to standard self-assembled monolayer’s (SAMs). These new film capabilities will have significant importance in improving the functionality and reliability of many micro- and nano-scale devices. The sequential approach with the seed layer has also been used to deposit molecular coatings on a variety of substrate materials (such as polymers, plastics and metals) which normally do not allow high quality surface coatings.

In an effort to improve performance of the MEMS devices and to eliminate the shortcomings of liquid processing, MVD has allowed for successful coating of complex devices that where not possible using a liquid phase. The most significant benefit of using a vapor method versus a liquid is the reduction of particles and surface roughness while maintaining the desired physical and chemical characteristics of the coating. There are many advantages to using this method for MEM devices such as process scalability, elimination of solvent disposal, compatibility with automated processing, and a lower cost volume in manufacturing.

During this process a vacuum is used to improve the MVD repeatability by removing any environmental factors. The apparatus used in this process enables control of moisture in the reaction and a repeatable application of precursor vapors. Within a temperature controlled environment. An integrated remote plasma source provides surface cleaning and preparation as an important step of the integrated deposition process. The oxygen plasma cleans any organic contaminates from the substrate and ensures uniform surface hydroxylation.

The MVD reaction is controlled using an advanced multi-precursor vapor delivery system, which allows for precise dosing of the precursors and catalyst vapors into the deposition chambers. Chamber walls and vapor delivery manifolds are heated to prevent condensation and to facilitate reliable control of vapor delivery. The pressure of the reaction can be controlled within a wide range and is typically maintained between 0. 05 Torr and 0. 2 Torr. In the apparatus described in this paper, a substrate is loaded into the processing chamber and is then subjected to cleaning, hydroxylation, deposition and purging steps.

A complete deposition sequence for most alkylsilane based coating takes less than 20 minutes. The automation of process sequencing improves repeatability while dosing of the vapors allows for an efficient use of precursor by way of eliminating over saturation of the surface with the vapors. The basic properties of the molecular films (composition, hydrophobicity, work of adhesion) are very similar for those deposited for liquid phase deposited films. However uniformity, roughness and defect density of the MVD films where found to be superior to the conventional solution based films.

MVD application-release layers for nano-imprint lithography (NIL)-has already shown yield improvement and cost reduction advantages and has been used in many development labs worldwide. NIL, as a printing technology, requires mechanical contact between mold and resist (polymer material), thus resist adhesion to the mold is one of its primary challenges. When intimately contacted, the resist tends to be pulled from the substrate and remain on the mold, creating a defect that affects not only that specific substrate, but all other subsequently printed substrates because of an air gap formed between mold and substrate.

The main approach to overcoming this problem is to apply a low surface energy coating to the mold surface that can drastically reduce adhesive forces between the molds and resist materials. Imprint molds coated with a thin and conformal nano-layer perform hundreds of replication cycles without recoating and provide high fidelity of sub-50nm features. MVD has been successfully employed is in the inkjet field. Passivation of the inkjet nozzle face-plates with low surface energy MVD coatings prevents contamination with ink, which reduces printing defects and enhances inkjet nozzle operational lifetime.

For inkjet applications, several important performance requirements must be satisfied for the device to function properly. The mechanical stability of the coating must be sufficient so that the routine movements of the inkjet device associated with cleaning and use do not destroy the coating The durability of MVD coatings has been improved using in situ deposited adhesion layers that enhance the adhesion of the coating to the substrate material and thus increase the density of the bonding sites. The stability of MVD coatings immersed in DI water and different types of inks have been demonstrated to be many weeks.

Coatings are stable in thermal treatment up to 400°C in air. The durability of MVD coatings has also been tested using an inkjet dry wipe test (HP-990 Maintenance Blades tester), showing stable performance for tens of thousands of wipe cycles. Molecular Vapor Deposition Tools The MVD-100 is able to create single and multi-layer coating using a low temperature sequential deposition process. This results in improved film durability and surface coverage over a wide variety of substrates including glass, plastic, polymers, metals and semiconductor devices.

The MVD-100 had been designed for automated processing in manufacturing with high throughput and process scalability. Precursor usage is greatly reduced and there are no chemicals or solvents to dispose of, leaving a superior film quality at a greatly reduced cost for nano-scale device manufacturing. The benefits of the MVD-100 are the low temperature process, low defect density, precise vapor delivery, In-situ surface preparation, In-situ adhesion layers, excellent repeatability, safe operation, and a user-friendly interface.

The MVD-150 is also available and provides consumers with completely automate process with larger capacity than the MVD-100. MVD-150 enables high volume manufacturing of MEMS devices and facilitates the transfer of MEMS microfluidic, and NIL technologies from R&D to production. Merits & Demerits This MVD technique has several advantages over similar liquid-phase application processes. It provides a high degree of control of the coating environment by integrating the surface preparation and monolayer deposition reaction into a single tool. This facilitates more uniform conformal coatings on micron and nanoscale patterns.

Teaching Assistant Level college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years,to include; a) Physical development b)Communication and intellectual development c)Social,emotional and behavioural development Working with Children does not only mean to keep children happy and safe. The professional adult working with children must have a complete knowledge and understanding of how they develop and learn. Expected pattern of a child’s development at the age of 0-3 months is as follows: Physical development Sleeps more and grows fast. Enjoys playing with hands and fingers.

More active when awake and not tired. Hand and eye coordination starts to develop. Physical movement with legs and arms. Communication and Intellectual Development Recognises familiar faces and voices. Observe movements around them e. g. objects. Responds to smiles and voices. Explore objects that come in hands by putting them in mouth. Makes noises like crying. Social,Emotional and behavioural development Becomes attached to mothers. Recognises parents and familiar adults and respond to their voices. Cries to seek attention. Stops crying when sense of security is felt by picking them up.

Expected pattern of a child’s development at the age of 3-9 months Physical Development Starts moving legs and hands to play. Interest in playing with fingers. Arms lifting up to show that they want to be picked up. Exploring objects using their hands and mouth. Excitement at feeding time. Communication and Intellectual Development 1)Laughing,babbling and smiling back when they see a smiling face. 2)Start understanding the meaning of ‘drink’ and ‘dinner’. 3)Babbling becomes tuneful. 4)Different sounds of cries,when they are tired,bored or hungry. Social,Emotional and Behavioural

Bio Webquest law essay help: law essay help

The three main group of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides 2. Play the animation of dehydration synthesis. What two monosaccarides did you start with? What disaccharide was produced? What molecule was created as a bi-product? The dehydration synthesis started with two glucose molecules, an H+ ion and an OH- ion were released creating Maltose and water as a bi-product. 3. Four types of polysaccarides are mentioned on this page, name them. Which are found in animals? The four types of polysaccaries are starch, glycogen, cellulose, and chitin.

Glycogen is found in animals, chitin is found in arthropods. Starch and cellulose is found in plants. LIPIDS Neutral Fats: 1. Play the animation of fatty acids being attached to the glycerol backbone by dehydration synthesis. When making one (lipid) triglyceride, how many molecules of water are formed? The process of making a triglyceride results in the release of a H+ ion and an OH- ion creating one molecule of water. Phospholipids and the Cell Membrane 1. Name the four parts to a phospholipid molecule

A phospholipid contains a polar head group and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails, which are usually fatty acids. 2. Play the animation of phospholipids being immersed in water. Why do the tails float in the water pointing up? What happens when a second layer of phospholipids are added? The tails float in the water pointing up because that is the hydrophobic side, when another layer is added the hydrophilic tails face downwards creating a phospholipid bilayer. 3. Which of the following are also found in the cell membrane: lipids, proteins, or carbohydrates? What is the role of steroids in a cell membrane?

Cell membranes contain all three of the above groups, lipids are found abundantly in cell membranes, steroids are a type of lipids which helps with membrane fluidity by restricting the motion of the fatty acid tails. Scroll down to proteins. List the six functions of proteins listed. What are the units of a protein and how are they connected? Proteins can be categorized into transport, hormonal, receptor, enzyme, regulatory, and structural proteins. The basic unit of a protein is an amino acid. Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to form polypeptides. 2. Proteins can be small or large.

The larger they get causes them to fold. List the four types of structures in which they can fold. Since they are held in this folded place by hydrogen bonds, what is it called when you heat a protein and ruin its structure? Proteins fold in a primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Each structure is a combination of the ones before it. When these folds are damaged, denaturing occurs. 3. What does it say determines the final shape of a protein? The final shape of a protein is based on it’s primary structure which is the amino acid monomer, coded by our DNA.

Deforestation in Indian common app essay help: common app essay help

The best known case of this is the Chipko movement in the Himalayas (Hegde, 1998; Weber, 1987). The villagers rallied together to save their forests by hugging the trees from the axe of the contractors who were issued licenses without the consent of the local people. Much earlier to this movement, though similar in its action is the story of the Bishnois in the desert state of Rajasthan (CSE 1984-85). The religious tenets of the community prevent them from causing any harm to any living thing.

A few centuries ago a situation arose when the ruler ordered the cutting down of the trees of the area. The people of this community protested. They hugged the trees to protect them and in the process paid a very heavy price. The king’s men ruthlessly chopped down the protesters before chopping down the trees. Even today the villages of the Bishnois are a pleasant sight where trees 76 IGES International Workshop grow all around inspite of the desert like environment and various animals like the endangered Blackbuck find freedom and safety in a people’s sanctuary.

In addition, across the country there are innumerable sacred groves (Gadget, 1975; Gadget and Vartak, 1976; Induchoodan, 1991; WWF, 1996); patches of forests that have had a sacredness and sanctity attached to them for centuries. Often it is a forest dedicated to the local deity and in many places like in the western ghats these remain the only surviving examples of the rich and virgin forests that once clothed the mountains. More recently we come across the well-documented cases where communities are taking the initiative in protecting their forests.

For instance Jardhar (Kothari, 1995) is a village in the Garhwal Himalayas about 12 hours drive away from New Delhi. Here the village has come together on its own initiative to protect the forests on the hills around their village. With the help of the Delhi based environmental group Kalpavriksh they have even prepared a community register of their biological, ecological and environmental knowledge. Additionally they have a ‘Beej Bachao Andolan’ (Save the seeds campaign) wherein the villagers have taken it upon themselves to save the great agricultural diversity of their area and have started a seed bank on their own.

Similar is the case in the Alwar district of Rajasthan where the coordinated action of a series of villages; protecting the forests, preventing grazing, tree cutting, and building a series of small bunds across the water streams has actually brought the river Arvari back to life (Patel, 1997). The river which had over the years turned into a seasonal stream now once again flows perennially. Enthused by the initiative of the villagers the government too responded positively and schemes like those under Joint Forestry Management are being implemented in the area.

Education Reflective admission essay help: admission essay help

If someone told me that teachers know everything, I would have agreed without any argument until now. After reading and watching this weeks presentation on survival skills, I realized there is a lot more to learn in our first year than expected. We may possess the knowledge and basic teaching skills, but what we lack are key components to our own survival. In the following paragraphs, I will discuss the most important skills in my opinion, starting with organization, classroom management and behavior, and finally the importance of the teacher-student relationship.

Organization is an important survival skill because without it, our lives and work would be total chaos. In my opinion, all teachers must be organized in order to be productive in the classroom. This means keeping an organized binder of lesson plans and activities, establishing procedures to be used everyday, and planning or preparing for the next lesson ahead of time. I feel that better organization skills would result in more time for instruction, less confusion, and less frustration for students and teachers.

It would also set an example for the students to follow, which would benefit them throughout their lives. This will hopefully lead to better behavior in the classroom, which will be further elaborated on in the following paragraph. Classroom management and promoting consistent behavior patterns amongst students are also important survival skills teachers must possess. Each teacher must establish their own set of classroom rules and consistently follow them. I feel that a few simple rules to follow and a predetermined conduct code will work in most classrooms.

If students are aware of their expectations and appropriate behavior, there will be less disruptions and more respect for their classmates and you. I also feel that our behavior and attitude towards students, fellow faculty members, and parents must be consistent. According to the video and our reading, our classrooms should be positive, safe, and comforting places for our students to learn. Therefore, with a consistent and an unchanging environment, our relationships with our students can grow.

The final skill I think is important in teacher survival, is building a strong student-teacher relationship. The more teachers learn about their students, the more ways they can help them. I also believe students will become more comfortable with their teachers and therefore be more eager to learn. Another way to help build relationships comes with greater student involvement. In my opinion, students will feel appreciated and important when asked questions or for their help with some task.

After watching the video, I feel this skill is crucial to our success. In conclusion, I feel that without any help or survival skills, teachers would feel like they have been thrown to the wolves in their first year of teaching. Thankfully, there are many teachers in the world who have survived their first year and continue to enrich the lives of their students. I hope that with their help and this list of skills, our first year in the classroom will be an exciting journey where students can thrive in learning.

Appraisal Methods a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Abstract Appraisal Methods are used today to evaluate employees in organizations today. There are many different type of methods that an organization can choose from. When deciding on which methods are used organizations must consider informational, motivational, and developmental use. Furthermore an organization must consider what is effective for them to accomplish their desire goals for the company and employee. In today’s competitive, global environment it is important for an organization to have employee performance evaluations. One way to promote a performance level is by having a strong performance management system.

When rating employee’s performance with performance appraisals is a great way the organization can measure how strongly their employees perform. When it comes to evaluating the performance of employees, an organization may use the different methods. Some methods will compare employees to one another and as a group or possible on its own merit. The method an organization chooses depends on the goal they are trying to accomplish (i. e. , employee development, personnel decisions, increased productivity, etc. ). This paper will talk about the purpose of performance appraisal systems and show how important it is.

The next section will focus on different types of methods. Included in those sections I will discuss the important, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each and may be useful for the organization. The final will be an overview of the performance evaluations. Purposes of Performance Appraisal It is important to have performance appraisals because it is a communications tool that may offer a potential salary increase or promotion. Also it allows the manager and employee to come together and discuss relevant issues that maybe important to the organization’s mission that the employee may impact.

It also provides a perfect opportunity for the employee to be recognizing for a job well done and allow the employer to reinforce the possibility of employee career advancement. Also it allows the employee to be aware of areas in which they need improvement and training and allows employer to give a formal documentation of unsatisfactory performance. It also encourages initiative and stimulates growth for the employee. Performance appraisal help to motivate develop and contain information for the employee. This is why there should be a set criterion so no favoritism can happen.

An effective criteria should include characteristics such as; reliability, relevance, sensitivity and practicality. To motivate an employee it can help foster a more productive working environment. Receiving an increase in salary generally motivates the average employee. Therefore using appraisals as a means to emphasize merit increases can be a good source of motivation for employees. Appraisals can also be used to evaluate new employees for those who are put on probation. This will allow employers to determine if they would want to invest further in the employees.

The develop part of the appraisal allows employees with feed back. It also helps employees set goals and overcome obstacles. It also will help employees need more training and determine what type of training program is needed. With the information part of the appraisal area helps employees what is expected from them. Also, provide management with output information and help with budget figures. Also, it is good in providing to management organizations problems. Behavioral –Oriented Ranking Methods The definition of these methods will take into account employee’s behavior, or by evaluating employees on performance standard.

Some examples of behavioral -oriented rating methods are ranking, narrative essay, paired comparisons, forced distribution, behavior checklist, and etc. Ranking Method In this type of method the supervisor is asked to rank his/her employees in the department. The ranking would consist of the best employee to the worst employee. This method sometimes become somewhat difficult when there is many employees in the department. Narrative Essay Method This method is the simplest method. The supervisor is asked to write about the employee’s strengths and weaknesses.

In most cases managers has a guideline to follow and is asked to make suggestions of potential and areas of improvement. Sometimes managers who do not have good writing skills may found it difficult to put some areas of the evaluations in writing. Paired Comparison This method is designed where the supervisor compare employees to one another. This method also is effective because it forces the manager to look at all areas of the employees performances and it becomes more visible. Having large number of employees to rate will make this method something you would want to avoid.

This method I feel is a good tool to use for employment decisions. Forced Distribution This method grades an employee such as on a curve. Sometimes this form of method creates negativity with employees. It also creates other problems for an organization such as legal problems and affects the teamwork among employees in a department, because it affect employee moral. Behavioral Checklist This method describes the employee’s job behavior. This checklist is a list of statements that is related to the employee job and the manager checks the traits that the employee possesses. This form of method is very inexpensive to use and easy to use.

It can also be used in comparing other employees, but many employers’ uses this method in order to make salary decisions and motivational tool. All these behavior-oriented rating methods no one method is perfect to use across the broad. They all come with advantages and disadvantages, but an organization must determine what method is effective to use and cost. Another decision a company will need to determine is the desired goals, when determining a method. In summary, when organizations decide to use a method, they will want to consider the informational, motivational, and developmental uses of each type.

Persepolis admission essay help: admission essay help

Persepolis was a very insightful movie about the lives of Iranian people at a very important time in the country’s history. Two topics that stuck out to me the most were the effects of the war on the everyday lives of the citizens of Iran and secondly the not-so-patriarchal lifestyle of people at the household level. Once the revolution to bring down the Shah began, which was followed by the Iran-Iraq war, the lives of Iranians were never the same again.

Before these events, Iran appeared to be what we can easily call ‘a modern society’. Women were treated equally, men and women openly socialized together without any restrictions and westernization was apparent with the dressing styles of women, parties and the children indulging in pop culture. All of this drastically changed after the elections and once the war began. Under the new repressive government, religious extremists in power imposed several laws that undermined the freedom of all citizens of Iran.

Everybody was told how to dress whereby women were required to veil in public, parties and consumption of alcohol became illegal, children were taught in school that the new government was very good, young boys were influenced into joining the army and fighting in the war. In addition to all these social impacts there were economic downturns as well. The stores are shown to have empty shelves, the country’s infrastructure destroyed, healthcare deteriorated, the excessive restrictions on almost everything pushed for the need for black-markets and illegal operations.

Even with all the restrictions from the people in power and the policing of everybody, there were still a large number of people who were very modern, even men. One example would be Marjane’s father telling her and Reza to be more careful about meeting in public. Another example would be when Marjane’s uncle Anoush is released from prison and visits them, everybody ate dinner at the same table, both men and women. One of the topics that relate to our class readings is war and bereavement. The war that lasted so long did not occur without expensing lives of millions of innocent people.

During the war period, countless lives were lost and most of these were men. Men fought in wars and died and the women were left to deal with the loss. When a missile lands in Marjane’s neighborhood, the fear of losing her family takes over her and she is still a little girl at the time. The same incident cost the lives of her friends in the neighborhood. Of all the characters in the movie, to me, Marjane’s grandmother was the most compelling character. She was a wise old woman who was inspirational, understanding and very realistic.

She was a symbol of independence and a great role model for Marjane. Most importantly, she practiced what she preached. She placed a great emphasis on protecting the innocent as this was an issue close to her since her husband and family members had been victims. When Marjane tells her that in order to save herself from the police, she lied and got an innocent man in trouble, Grandmother reacts in a way that I didn’t expect. She believed in being true to your own self and certainly did not tolerate any unfaithfulness, even from her beloved Marjane.

The character that had the most impact on Marjane would have to be her uncle Anoush. He came into Marjane’s life when she was still very young and definitely made an enormous impression on her. As if his life story wasn’t enough, uncle Anoush’s death left an even bigger impact on Marjane’s life. She wouldn’t tolerate people talking about war and death lightly after his death. Several times in her life when she was feeling confused, the words of her uncle Anoush helped her get through.

Catawba essay help tips: essay help tips

Is the company correct in its practice of not manufacturing standard model compressors on Sundays because of the accounting loss incurred on each unit? As per the cost structure given in the case, Selling costs, Sales and Administration costs, Depreciation and other manufacturing overheads have been considered to be variable costs, i. e. per unit costs and hence have been accounted for in the calculation of profit and loss.

As such, this methodology is resulting in a loss of $900 for every Sunday that the plant is operated. Therefore, if the present cost structure is used no production should be done on Sunday since it is clearly unprofitable. However, on a closer analysis, a few irrelevant costs like Selling expenses and General and Administration costs can be excluded, since they do not vary by the volume of production. Hence, even if the plant operates on a Sunday no incremental costs will be incurred for these particular items.

Accounting Fraud at Worldcom essay help writing: essay help writing

Due to heightened competition, overcapacity and the reduced demand for telecommunication services at the onset of the economic recession and the aftermath of the dot-com bubble collapse, the telecommunication industry conditions began to deteriorate. Prices were falling and WorldCom had no option but to cut their prices as well. This action placed severe pressure on WorldCom’s most important measurement, the E/R ratio. The E/R ratio was being affected due to revenue and pricing pressures while the committed line cost was still the same. ) Is there a boundary between earnings management and fraudulent reporting? If so, what is it? “Earnings Management is recognized as attempts by management to influence or manipulate reported earnings by using specific accounting methods (or changing methods), recognizing one-time non-recurring items, deferring or accelerating expense or revenue transactions, or using other methods designed to influence short-term earnings” (Akers). We do not see any boundaries between earnings management and fraudulent reporting.

Both actions will prevent the seeker-of-information (investors, Government … etc) from receiving consistent and non-tampered-with results. To use an analogy, murdering someone with a knife (earning management) or a gun (fraudulent reporting) does not add any substantial difference to the final situation; at the end of the day you have committed a murder. Both earnings management and fraudulent reporting will alter either existing data or the way the existing data is portrayed. 3. 1) Why were the actions taken by WorldCom managers not detected earlier?

The fraudulent actions taken by WorldCom managers were not detected earlier because of WorldCom’s organizational structure and distant relations with both WorldCom’s external auditor and Board of Directors. First, WorldCom’s departments were spread out across the country (The finance department in Mississippi, the network operations headquarters in Texas, human relations in Florida, and legal department in D. C. ) made it difficult for the different departments to fully coordinate and realize what was occurring in each department.

Furthermore, each department had its own rules and management style, making the entire WorldCom operations uncoordinated. This organizational setup would make it easier for accounting fraud not to be detected by different departments. Second, WorldCom, headed by CEO Bernie Ebbers, encouraged a corporate culture that “employees should not question their superiors, but simply do what they were told. ” Thus, when financial times were difficult, subordinate employees were ordered to maintain World Com’s 42% Expense to Revenue ratio, and accounting managers were ordered to release accruals that were too high.

The managers had incentives to do so in order to continue receiving high compensation and to avoid personal criticisms or threats that were commonplace to employees who did not obey orders. In later years, starting in 2001, staff members were ordered to treat costs of excess network capacity as capital expenditures, instead of operating costs. Third, Ebbers and Sullivan granted compensation and bonuses beyond the company’s approved salary rate, creating an incentive for employees to go along with the fraud even if they detected it. The staff in the accounting department especially had personal ties to WorldCom, which made them go long with the fraudulent practices for many years. For example, Cynthia Cooper, head of the internal audit department, grew up in the same town as WorldCom’s accounting headquarters and had personal relationships with family members of senior employees. Thus, Cooper had the incentive to go along with accounting fraud to continue making a large salary and to not ruin personal relationships. Arthur Anderson, the outside auditor, also had many incentives that prevented the auditing company from reporting WorldCom’s suspicious actions.

Basketball Drills academic essay help: academic essay help

Do these drills with wrist weights and gloves. Backwards Dribble Running – 1 minute- dribble while running backwards. Windmill Around Legs w/dribble – 1 minute- dribbling between legs in a windmill type motion. V-dribble between legs -1 minute between each leg-dribble between one leg fora minute then switch legs Dribble Behind Back – 1 minute- dribble behind your back

Defense Dribble – 2 sets of 50 dribbles with each hand- in a crouch position like you are under pressure with your guide hand up to keep defenders away dribble low and hard as fast as possible Figure Eight Dribble – 1 minute- while walking dribble between your legs 1 minute rest Pound 1, 2, Crossover – 1 minute each hand- dribble twice then crossover and repeat then switch the hand you do the pound 1,2 in Spider Dribble – 2 minutes

Side V Dribble – 1 minute on each side- like the yo-yo dribble with the ball at your side dribble back and forth  Front V Dribble – 1 minute with each hand- same only in front side to side Between the Legs Behind the Back – 1 minute each direction – dribble between your leg and then immediately behind your back then switch the leg you are dribbling between. Dribble with Right Hand two minutes dribble with left hand two minutes. 1 minute rest Windmill Around Legs w/o Dribble -1 minute each direction- around your legs in a windmill motion without dribbling then switch directions  CirclesAround Head – 2 sets of 50 each direction

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Stop eating and listen up! If you are overweight then this message is for you. The diet industry has lied. That’s right. According to a recent survey, 78% of all Americans have made serious efforts to lose weight without results, 78%. So, if you’re thinking about losing weight, get off that truck scale and act now. You don’t need a restricting, fad diet or stupid exercise program. You need Fat Blaster.

Put down your fork and pick up the phone and call within the next 10 minutes for your free 30 day trial plus shipping and handling and start losing weight now! Call 1-800-FAT-LOSS, that’s 1-800-328-5677. Limit one free trial per household. Fat Blaster may or may not include these side effects, shooting diarrhea, burning flatulence, vomiting, irregular heartbeats, loss of appetite, loss of sex drive, loss of keys, loss of hair, memory loss, ulcers, and other side effects that we don’t know of yet

Sex and the City english essay help online: english essay help online

Yes, it is, and after two years the Prestons — as Mr. and Mrs. Big are more officially known — may be in something of a marital rut. All of which could be perfectly interesting. Good movies have been made of smaller crises, and over the years all of these characters — Carrie and Big in particular — have earned and repaid our interest. At its best the series, a swift half-hour at a time, distilled and defanged the world it represented, giving HBO subscribers a fantasy picture of New York they could both aspire and relate to.

The clothes were fabulous, the social pressures and professional ambitions intense, the names aggressively dropped, but at the heart of every episode were four friends who, while they could be competitive, judgmental and mean, could also be relied upon when it really counted to be loyal and supportive. Sex was the tease, the city was the packaging, but the real selling point was always the love among those four wonderful women. If they seem less wonderful now, it isn’t because of slackened effort or diminished charm on the part of the actresses who play them.

It is that the movie itself, and perhaps the culture it stands in for, has lost interest and can’t figure out what to do with them as they tiptoe toward middle age. Samantha is the exception, but the whole point of her character is a steadfast resistance to change. So Ms. Cattrall dutifully reprises her trademark outrageousness, come-hithering guys of all ages and sponsoring a decadent girls week out in Abu Dhabi. Is Manhattan really that over? Maybe it is for Carrie and her friends. Time does not stand still on that island, where the party girls of yesteryear are tomorrow’s Ladies Who Lunch.

But rather than trying to find a place for Carrie and company on their native ground — which has shifted a little in the recessionary, politicized interval between the series’s heyday and now — “Sex and the City 2” flees into a never-never land that manages to be both an escape from contemporary reality and an off-key, out-of-touch mirror of it. The Emirate to which the four friends repair is an oasis of gilded luxury in a world that has grown a little ambivalent about unbridled commodity fetishism.

The longest segment of “Sex and the City 2” consists of a drooling, gawking deluxe tour that would not be out of place in a high-end travel magazine or a hip-hop video. Four white Maybachs greet the ladies at the airport. (The production could not obtain four white Maybachs in time for the shoot, so black versions had to be wrapped in white vinyl and delivered to Marrakesh, which stood in for Abu Dhabi. ) They are led through ever more lavish rooms, oohing and ahhing at their amazing good fortune, and assuming you will do the same.

Maybe. But the ugly smell of unexamined privilege hangs over this film like the smoke from cheap incense. Over cosmos in their private bar, Charlotte and Miranda commiserate about the hardships of motherhood and then raise their glasses to moms who “don’t have help,” by which they mean paid servants. Later the climactic crisis raises the specter either of Samantha going to jail or the friends having to fly home in coach, and it’s not altogether clear which prospect they regard as more dreadful. That might depend on the in-flight movie.

This one is grueling, especially when the action moves to the Middle East. There are some gestures toward a plot — a stolen kiss, a lost passport, the appearance of a former lover (Aidan, played by John Corbett) — but remarkably little happens, even when Samantha runs into trouble with the local mores. The attempt to be both piously respectful of a foreign culture and to stand up for sexual liberation against repressive tradition may be admirable in principle, but in practice it’s silly and strained.

And the trademark quips, never as witty as they might have been, would be unlikely to make you chuckle even if your best friend said them. “Inter-friend-tion”? “Bedouin bath and beyond”? “Lawrence of my labia”? Yes, it’s supposed to be fun. And over the years audiences have had the kind of fun that comes from easy immersion in someone else’s career, someone else’s sex life, someone else’s clothes. But “Sex and the City 2” is about someone else’s boredom, someone else’s vacation and ultimately someone else’s desire to exploit that vicarious pleasure for profit.

6. “It Is More Important to Discover New Ways of Thinking college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Developing new ways of thinking about what we already know is very important as it helps us to develop a better understanding of that which we already know so to some extent the above statement is true. However it is as significant to discover new data or facts. In fact these two concepts go hand in hand; it is because of some discoveries that we knew when they first came to light that we have something we call existing knowledge to think about and sometimes it is through trying to develop new ways of thinking about a certain issue without a solution that we finally decide it is best to find a new explanation or concept of looking at it.

A student who goes from lower to higher school both learns new and advanced ways of thinking about the information they have gathered in previous grades as well as some new data they have never come across before which further stresses that both concepts are important. We cannot learn everything at once nor can we know all sbout those things we know, which is why both developing what we already know and leaarning some new things are equally important.

In some cases one may find that discussing and thinking about what we already know but in a new clearer way can help us reach a conclusion whereas if we had chosen to discover new facts about it instead, our horizon of confusion would have been broadened and we find ourselves with yet another mystery to solve. A good example of a case like this is death. Unless someone dies and comes back and tells us exactly what happens after death, no one can ever really know what happens. Any information we all have of life after death is based on assumptions that is if there is even life after death.

Discovering new facts about the so called life after death isn’t but going to cause even more confusion, so really in my view I would say it is rather best that one sticks to the knowledge and believe they have over this issue, and if anything, find new ways of thinking about instead of creating yet another confusing phenomena based on assumptions. But such fields as Science motivate constant discovery of new knowledge because this is one area of knowledge where falsification is the only method used to prove the theories because we cannot verify, in other words prove a Scientific theory to be true in any way but we can pfove it fo be wrong.

In this case it is clear then that in Science it is more important to discover new facts or data than to think about that which we already have as we need new discoveries to falsify old theories. However sometimes it may be thinking hard and deep into a scientific theory that makes one see fault in it as a result make new discoveries in which case both thinking of something in a new way and making new discoveries would have been equally important. We can for instance look into the famous example of the falsification of Newton’s theory of gravitation by Einstein’s theory of relativity.

Einstein like all other Scientists of that time saw nothing wrong with Newton’s model until a crisis came when Newton’s theory of gravity failed to account for the behavior of light. Obviously this had to be a result of scientists thinking of new ways of applying Newton’s model. No one expected the negative outcome they came out with but it was negative and the Scientists were faced with a dilemma they had to solve. That it is when Einstein invented his theory of relativity, a whole new theory, which could work even for those discoveries that Newton’s model failed to.

In any case, the point is to show that finding new ways to think of something can actually lead to the discovery of new information which in turn gives us something new to think about and in new ways if we please. Living only by developing things we already know would be depriving ourselves off so much knowledge. Had the people who lived before our generation decided they wanted to live only on what they knew, there would be so much we do not know.

Generations like that of Newton or Einstein, generations like that of Priestley or Lavoisier who made discoveries about oxygen and those of people who learned the word of God and passed it on from generation to generation till the bible was written we would not have the knowledge we have today. And the knowledge does not end there and like the paradigm shifts suggest, there will always be new information, new theories and new ways of thinking as the world revolves that will override the current theories but should we decide to live only by the data that already exists, we may find that we are making experiments with 90% errors all the time.

Psy choose my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

I choose: Reclaiming adulthood as a social category: A recognition-theoretical approach. By: Blatterer, Harry Explain why you chose this topic and article. The reason in which I chose this topic is because when we reach adulthood our social lives are a bit more complicated that as children. After going through so much growing up sometimes it gets hard to be social due to trust issues. The reason that I chose this article is because the title caught my attention.

The title is: Reclaiming adulthood as a social category: a recognition-theoretical approach. I was interested in knowing what theoretical approach the author was taking on reclaiming adulthood socially. If you had to write a research paper on this topic, would you use the article you selected? Explain why or why not. If I was writing a research paper on this topic I would really use this article because it is very informative.

The article breaks it down into different categories that are easy to read and understand. The article talks about Adulthood and contemporary social change and adulthood: A central and marginal category. I feel that it will be very helpful for a research paper if it ever arise. What are some of the factors that affect social development in adulthood? What is a midlife transition? Careers, marriage, and families are some of the factors that affect social development in adulthood.

All choices that are concerning these issues are going to affect social development in adulthood, whether negatively or positively. Midlife transition is a stage in which many of us will endure in time usually around the age of 40. Midlife transition can include: Feeling restless, questioning decisions, daydreaming, irritability, unexpected anger, sexual affairs, persistent sadness, wanting more out of life, and increased or decreased ambition. Psychological Types (Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 6)

The Rise and Fall of Sean Quinn essay help from professional writers: essay help from professional writers

The rise and fall of Sean Quinn Recently former Irish billionaire filled for bankruptcy in Dublin court. Mr Quinn who was in 2008 listed as an Ireland richest man €4. 7 billion owned to Angolo Irish Bank €2. 8 billion by 2011. What was the reason for such a successful businessman to fall down so hard? Rise and downfall Sean Quinn, a son of former farmer, started his first business at age of 26 when he borrowed ? 100 to extract gravel and selling it to local builders. Since then he expanded his Quinn Group portfolio to insurance, glass, hotel, plastic and radiator industries.

Having built empire, he was borrowing billions to gamble on the shares of Anglo Irish Bank, oping to turn quick profit. As recession started in 2008, Anglo Irish bank’s shares dropped value and the government nationalized the bank to prevent complete collapse. Sean Quinn lost his fortune and his business empire. Greediness and ethics In one of Sean Quinn’s interviews, he admitted that he only can be solely blamed for the downfall of his empire. He knew the risk he was taking versus the possible quick profit. So, what were the motives of his gambling business decision?

Previous to his bankruptcy, Mr Quinn told in one of the interviews in 2007 that he has always been greedy person. Could it be that he lost all his fortune purely because of greediness? Sean Quinn had inner drive that nothing was enough to him, he wanted more and more and that is probably one of the reasons that his empire keep growing and he became richest until the downfall. But through out his career did he ignore ethics? I borrow a text from Tudor Richard’s book – Dilemmas of leadership: “For some leaders, matters of ethics arise as unwelcome intrusion in the pursuit of economic success.

Nevertheless, such leaders have to find ways of assessing the risks facing companies that fall foul of regulatory guidelines”(3) Sean Quinn’s gambling in Anglo bank share did not break any laws; however it brought up a discussion about ethnics. A good leader has to deal with the interests of his employees and shareholders and not only act on his own. There is no doubt that leaders should not ignore ethnics at work as it can have a negative impact on reputation and the brand of the company and possible have negative financial impact. Unanswered questions and the future of Sean Quinn

There are still some unanswered questions of Mr Quinn’s fall, such as why did he invest in banking sector that he didn’t had any experience in past? Was he assuming that banking sector would be similar to other sectors he has done business? I personally experience this dilemma last year as I was moved from IT to financial sector to sell software licences. However financial sector was far more challenging that IT sector. The competition was more aggressive and the market was much matured and the profit margin was less compared to IT sector and I was less successful than I was expecting.

Project Management essay help writer: essay help writer

The initial performance goals should be outlined in the initial Scope of Work. 2) Time: All projects will have a deadline, whether it is tied to an event (e. g. Olympics) or an arbitrary deadline set by the stakeholders. Whether it is arbitrary or related to a significant event, completing the project within the deadline is always the objective. 3) Cost: It is important to remain within the budgeted amount for a project. A Project Manager must not over extend themselves on the resources available.

Along with the primary goals of a project our text states a Project Manager has ancillary goals which “include improving the organizations project management competency and methods, increasing individual’s managerial experience through project management, gaining a foothold in a new market and similar goals. ”(Meredith and Mantel, 2012) Meredith, J. & Mantel, S. (2012). Project Management: A managerial approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Discuss the advantages, disadvantages and limitations of project management.

Project Management has many advantages for an organization. Along with the tools that project management provides, it can improve” an organization’s ability to plan, execute, and control the performance of activities and the utilization of resources when doing non-routine work. ” (Meredith and Mantel, 2012) At the same time a company can “experience better control and better customer relations” (Meredith and Mantel, 2012). Project management also fosters a team environment allowing for better decision making and ideas to be floated around, finding the optimal solution.

This will result in an organization that can have new products or services developed in a shorter amount of time, lower costs, increased quality which might result in better profit margins. (Meredith and Mantel, 2012) While there are many advantages to project management there are some disadvantages as well. According to the text, some disadvantages of project management are the organization will see an increase in organizational complexity and the possibility of organizational policies being violated due to the autonomy a project manager has.

At the same time some organizations stated they “have higher costs, more management difficulties, and low personnel utilization. ” (Meredith and Mantel, 2012) Project Management also has its limitations. One of the glaring limitations our text states is the actual creation of a project might make an organization’s managers feel they cannot accomplish their goals through the “functional organization”.

Another limitation is the project manager rarely has the authority needed to garner the necessary resources and must rely on a managers “good will” (Meredith and Mantel, 2012) While there are disadvantages and limitations to project management it is an important part of business and can be successful if the project manager is properly trained and has the backing of the organization. Projects will fail if they do not have the proper resources available and the support of management. Meredith, J. & Mantel, S. (2012). Project Management: A managerial approach.

Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Briefly describe the seven (7) main characteristics of a project (include an important feature of each). A projects characteristic according to the project management guide is “temporary – temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Project always has a definitive time frame. A project creates unique deliverables, which are products, services, or results. A project creates a capability to perform a service. A Project is always developed in steps and continuing by increments – Progressive Elaboration. (Project Management Guide, 2011) There are 7 main characteristics of a project: 1) Importance: The project must have the senior management buy in, without this a project will fail when problems first arise. 2) Performance: A project should have a comprehensive SOW. With a clear indication of performance objectives one can measure the success of a project. A project must coordinate and control all of the tasks needed. 3) Lifecycle: According to the definition of a project characteristic they are temporary and have a definite beginning and a definite end.

At the end of the project one needs to transition the project to normal business operations. 4) Interdependencies: Project usually are coordinated with normal business operations. Activities must be fluid between the temporary endeavor and these operations to be successful. 5) Uniqueness: Project management is used when a new goal that has not been tried before is taken on. The development of the moon rover in the Apollo Program is an example of this type of uniqueness. Project should not be used for normal business operations such as cutting payroll checks. ) Resources: Projects typically have a limited amount of resources. These resources need to be carefully managed as to not overextend them (e. g. Budget, People and Time). 7) Conflict: Conflict is inevitable in project management. The conflict usually arises from having limited resources available to the project team and due to the expectations of the stakeholders in a project. What is a project and its characteristics. (2011, January). Retrieved from http://www. pmvista. com/project-characteristics/ Meredith, J. & Mantel, S. (2012).

Project Management: A managerial approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. What is meant by the term “project life cycle”? Toolbox. com defines the term project life cycle as “a project that includes the necessary steps, from beginning to end, needed to complete a project. If a project team develops and implements a project lifecycle, time lines are easy to set up and follow; another result is the ease of which progress can be tracked. ” The Project Life Cycle consists of four phases: * Define * Plan * Do It! * Close Toolbox. com. (2010, May 08).

Retrieved from http://it. toolbox. com/wiki/index. php/Project_Lifecycle How do projects, programs, tasks, and work packages differ? The terms project, program, task and work package differ from one another, not only in definition but in different industries as well. In the world of project management one should look to the PMBOK for the definitions. Our text utilizes these definitions and defines them as: 1) Program: Often not distinguished from a project, but frequently meant to encompass a group of projects orientated toward a specific goal.

The military utilizes different programs, for example the F-16 fighter program. There are multiple projects in the design of the plane with each one helping reach the goal of building a better fighter jet. 2) Project: A project is part of a program. The project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. Many projects run simultaneously to achieve a programs desired objective. (Project Management Institute, 2008, p. 442) 3) Tasks: A subset of a project, consisting of work packages.

A task is the work necessary for a step in the project. 4) Work Package: A sub-element of a task at the lowest level in the work breakdown structure, used to assign costs and values. Meredith, J. & Mantel, S. (2012). Project Management: A managerial approach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons. Maladroit Cosmetics Company Recommendation Maladroit Cosmetics needs to replace critical equipment to be utilized on a new production line. This equipment needs to be installed within the next 6 months in order to meet the deadlines set forth by management.

Maladroit finds itself in a situation where the plant manager has a full plate with various other projects, but would like to spend as much time as possible on this project. Maladroit has a decision to make with regards to assigning a project manager for this project. One would normally gravitate to the plant manager but due to their overloaded schedule and having to manage the project informally out of their office would not make this a feasible choice and I would recommend against it. The next two options, a member of her staff or the vendor, can both work but she would have to take into consideration the following issues: 1.

Is there a qualified person in the organization who can take on this critical project? The plant manager might be able to also use this as an opportunity for training and development of an employee ready to move up in the organization. 2. If they utilize the vendor to do the installation, what is the cost and have they been successful in the past? 3. If Maladroit chooses to do the installations themselves are there any issues with the support they will receive from the vendor? Does it void a warranty?

Once you have the answers to these questions then you could make a good business decision. My recommendation would be to investigate the possibility of an internal candidate for a training and development opportunity. This will accomplish a few things, one it would allow the company to have better trained employees who can help with project overload in the future and save money by not having to outsource the installation and it will allow the employee to feel they have growth opportunity in the organization making them a more loyal employee.

There are only a few reasons to outsource the installation to the vendor would be if the warranty is voided on the equipment or the equipment is so specialized only the vendor can provide the services. The last reason to outsource would be the cost of installation from the vendor is less than the costs to do it internally. If the project was one small machine at a total cost of 4,000 would the recommendation be different? When looking at assigning a project manager to a specific project, it is not about the cost of the equipment.

One has to look at the deliverable to the organization to gauge the importance of the equipment. This is a critical piece that is needed for a new production line, therefore one will need the dedicated person for the management of this project. If this was not a critical deliverable then the answer may change. Discuss the relative importance of the capital investment required versus the role of the investment in machinery. The capital investment required and the investments in the machinery are two different factors to evaluate in this project. The investment in the machinery is just one aspect of the cost.

To properly evaluate the budget for a project you have to look at the total cost of ownership. This would include the cost of the machinery, the cost for any retrofits to install the equipment, the cost of labor for installation, the overall effect on the production line (e. g. does it increase productivity, lower scrap…) and training and development to operate the new equipment. It is important to evaluate the total cost of ownership. This will enable you to properly budget and see the possible return on investment. If it does not meet the minimum requirements of senior management to project should be scrapped.

Investigating Meaningful Teaching essay help writing: essay help writing

Investigating Meaningful Teaching Daniel Bowen Grand Canyon University Special Education Foundation and Framework SPE-330 May 26, 2011 Investigating Meaningful Teaching Investigating what meaningful teaching is it is having teachers that are willing to teach to the whole student by having patience, compassion and developing a meaningful relationship with their students. Being a positive influence and having effective classroom management. An effective teacher is a teacher that wears many hats such as a coach, actor, cheerleader and friend.

Having the ability to read their moods, body language, when and what may cause them to become frustrated. Also having a deep belief in each and every student has the ability to learn and achieve. In an interview with four teachers, two inclusion teachers and two self contain teachers was conducted. All four teachers were asked the same questions this being a summary of the results of that interview. (Grand Canyon University, n. d. ) In their opinions, what is necessary for a meaningful and worthwhile teaching and learning experience?

All four teachers refer to having respect for each student and students having respect for them and being consistent in enforcing classroom rules. Maintain a set of routines so the students know what is expected of them each day. Know the laws that deal with Special Education. These laws are appt to change at any time. (Grand Canyon University, n. d. ) How is a meaningful learning experience for students related to the teacher’s philosophy of education? The teachers all feel in general that a meaningful education is synonymous with their philosophy.

A student must be made to feel respected, valued, and to feel safe in the classroom. Discipline is as necessary as the text without it the learning process cannot be achieved. Each teacher believed that having the understanding that each student will learn on deferent levels and different ways. It was part of their philosophy to discover the uniqueness of every student. (Grand Canyon University, n. d. ) Why did you want to become teachers? Why do you continue teaching? The first part of this question is generic.

They all were influence by a teacher or more than one teacher as they were growing up. The second part was a little different with each teacher. In general the challenge they face every day. Having a child all of a sodden come alive. They begin to grasp the math or reading at their level seeing the excitement in their eyes when a door opens for them that once was closed. The small rewards everyday is what kept them in the classroom. (Grand Canyon University, n. d. ) What are two or three of their most rewarding teaching experiences? Their most challenging?

Two of the teachers stated that their most rewarding experience was in having a past student call them up with an invitation to their graduation. These students stating that they would not have made it through school if these two teachers did not believe in them from the start. The others where when they observed there student achieve the understanding of basic math without a calculator and one learning how to write their name for the first time at the age of thirteen. (Grand Canyon University, n. d. ) What changes would they like to make in teaching?

Why? They all agreed that the change they would make would be Standardize testing the F-cat (Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test). The teachers have to teach the test and not what the student truly need to be successful in the classroom. They state the biggest problem with this test is that the government is trying to outsmart the student. It is believed that they design the test to make the students to fail. One example was given were a student was a straight “A” students her whole life all through elementary, middle and high school.

She took the F-cat so she could graduate and failed. She could not graduate with her class. They feel the test is not fare to student with or without learning disabilities. The changes they all agreed with was to completely do away with the F-cat and much of the paper work and go back to letting teachers teach. (Grand Canyon University, n. d. ) The reason I want to become a teacher is the total opposite of the teachers interviewed. I never had a teacher that left a lasting impression on my life. I had no on to mentor me as I chose to become a teacher.

I became a teacher because after a few industrial accidents left me unable do anything physical for a very long time. While I was looking for something I could do. A bus driving passion came open. So I became a bus driver. As I was driving the position of a substitute teacher open I became a substitute teacher because it paid two dollars more an hour. That was as a substitute teacher that and working with the student that made me decided to become a teacher full time. Watching students struggle with their work, being able to show them how to do it correctly, and having the opportunity to see the “ahh” factor.

Being able to help students learn and see them as they learned is one of the greatest experiences I had in my life time. The decision to become a Special education teacher came a little later. It was the same as when I decided to become a teacher. It was having that one on one with the student. Being able to teach a class with children that were diagnose with Downs, Autistics, Mental Retardation and the list grows. I feel in love with these children and discovered the real need for teacher in this area. This is the reason I decided to join the ranks of Special Education teachers.

Through the interview I discovered an even stronger desire to become a Special Education teacher. Through these teachers interview help to enforce what I already knew. Each student is a unique individual. Having different personalities, weakness, strengths, and learning styles. This becoming one of the greatest challenges is unlocking each student mind helping them to discover knowledge. References Grand Canyon University. Syllabus module 2 (n. d. ). http://angel103. gcu. edu/section/default. asp? id=835810

Global Marketing essay help us: essay help us

Global localisation” (glocalisation) is a policy that each company has implemented successfully. Critically review the concept of glocalisation. Give examples for each company from the case. Page 10-12 Appendix I – Mckinsey/GE Matrix. 1. 0 Make an assessment of the competitive strategies that Michelin, Continental and Goodyear respectively may pursue to strengthen their European Market position. The success of a company’s competitive strategy depends on how it relates to its environment (Porter, 1980).

This report discusses how Michelin, Continental and Goodyear relates environment, encompassing social as well as economic forces to increase their market in European market. Bridgestone is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of tyres and hope to increase their company brand awareness within markets where they are less well known. However, to do this they have to compete with the market leaders within this sector such as Michelin, Continental and Goodyear. The competitive strategies of each respective industry to strengthen their European Market position are highlighted below:

Michelin Michelin is a French tyre manufacturer that has the highest percentage share at 32% within the European tyre market. Over 100,000 people work for this last industry. There are 67 factories spread throughout 13 different countries. Globally, it provides services within 170 countries. In terms of products, Michelin have a strong presence within the market as it manufactures 3,500 different types of tyres which give them a broad product range within that market. Furthermore, it also provides tourism services such as maps and guide books.

To strengthen Michelin’s European position, they should continue their adaptive approach to different markets, which has and will give them an opportunity to dominate markets on different continents of the world for example, Asia and America which is their largest market. Michelins ability to adapt different tyres for different purposes such as aircraft tyres and earthmover tyres are how they have been able to apply their brand strategy in so many different ways. Michelin provide innovative solutions for a variety of different vehicles that need tyres.

This is what differentiates themselves from their competitors as they have such a wide range of tyres in particular to offer, which is something that other companies cannot provide. To strengthen this particular area of their business they must make sure all of their work continues to be done efficiently as maintaining the Michelin brand name is essential at their stage. To maintain their European market position, Michelins strategy has been to acquire MRF in the Philippines and also the Columbian manufacture Icollantas.

This has lead to the expansion and growth of Michelin outside Europe however, increasing their economy of scale, cheaper labour costs and competitive prices. Michelin is an example of a company that has used the acquiring of joint mergers to their advantage and to strengthen their current position they should maybe look at joint ventures in other areas that they have not fully entered yet to spread their market range. Michelin’s ability to provide brand quality throughout all of their markets can be seen as a competitive advantage.

They hope to continue to maintain their market position, with innovative advertising and promotion schemes which will add to the development of their already high brand awareness within the tyre market. In relation to Porters Generic Strategy it is thought that Michelin has a strategy based on differentiation as their product range and amount of services are second to none throughout the world. The ability to provide tyres to different countries that have entirely different needs is efficient. For example, providing tyres for the American market where there is a fashionable status around their cars.

Another example would be how Michelin provide tyres for the Asian market, where the cars that they drive and the environment that they drive in require different tyres which encourages Michelin to adapt to all of these markets. Differentiation is a key factor and is used to provide Michelin with a competitive edge over their rivals. Goodyear Goodyear currently maintains an 18. 2% market share, behind Michelin and Bridgestone. Although the company is the second largest tyre maker in Europe, in order to maintain and strengthen this position, in 1998 Goodyear pursued an alliance with Sunitomo Rubber Industries.

This was a good strategy, as it allowed Goodyear to take control of the Dunlop brand in both Europe and North America. This may provide Goodyear with the advantage of eventually taking complete ownership of Dunlop’s tyre activities, a move which would strengthen Goodyear’s control over its product range, promotion and pricing strategy. Goodyear’s product range includes many innovative and continually developing tyres, including the 3 in 1 Performance tyre. This is a revolutionary tyre that can provide Goodyear with a competitive advantage over its competitors and may be used to promote in Europe in order to strengthen its presence their.

For the second successive year in the UK, Goodyear has produced TV advertisements focusing on the company’s strength of innovation, from the first tyre to land on the moon to their present day innovations, i. e. Run on Flat tyres. This is an effective strategy for Goodyear to use and although, Goodyear has an 11. 3% market share in Europe, it is not as successful in both France and Spain, therefore the company’s European Strategies need to be targeted more so in these countries.

Joel Peter Witkin college essay help online free: college essay help online free

Contextual Study Joel-Peter Witkin is arguably the most controversial photographer in history. His work surrounds themes and issues such as death, corpses, and people who are often concealed from society such as dwarfs and transsexuals. His work has been described as both “morbid” and “that of a genius”, yet these provocative images, he claims are inspired by his childhood. An accident that happened outside his house, involving a young girl being decapitated fascinated him. “It happened on a Sunday when my mother was escorting my twin brother and me down the steps of the tenement where we lived.

We were going to church. While walking down the hallway to the entrance of the building, we heard an incredible crash mixed with screaming and cries for help. The accident involved three cars, all with families in them. Somehow, in the confusion, I was no longer holding my mother’s hand. At the place where I stood at the curb, I could see something rolling from one of the overturned cars. It stopped at the curb where I stood. It was the head of a little girl. I bent down to touch the face, to speak to it—but before I could touch it someone carried me away. His upfront view of horror and death is represented in a beautiful and energetic way, and presents the fresh curiosity he possessed as a child. He is able to find beauty in the most repulsive and grotesque things. In order to find his subjects he has visited medical schools, mental asylums and morgues across the world. His bold images have provided a lot of controversy. He creates his own world of the dead, through his pictures. Witkin was born in 1939 in Brooklyn, New York City, to a Jewish father and a Roman Catholic mother.

However, his parents divorced when he was young because of their religious differences. After school he worked as a war photographer in the Vietnam war. In 1967, he decided to work as a freelance photographer, and later studies to become a Master of Fine Art. Witkin works in a defined manner, by beginning with sketching his ideas on to paper and then perfecting the image before replicating it in the studio. He then uses techniques such as scratching and piercing his negatives in the darkroom and transforming them into images which look unreal, and therefore reinterprets his intial idea.

A Streetcar Named Desire Themes nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Stanley stalks fiercely” “with a shouted oath he tosses the instrument out of the window” Stanley supposedly hits Stella after she protests at his outbreak of rage when he threw the radio out of the window. There is a sound of a blow. Stella cries out” On this occasion Stanley’s attitude towards Stella is purely physical and violent. We do not see Stanley hit Stella but the stage directions tell us information and we assume that he has. (Scene 10) Blanche tries to fend Stanley off with a broken bottle top “she smashes a bottle on the table and faces him” . However this doesn’t deter Stanley and he “Springs towards her, overturning the table. ” He then carries her into the bedroom.

It is up to the reader to make up their mind as to what happens after that, but it is implied that Stanley rapes Blanche, the pinnacle of his violent state. Sexuality (Scene 1) Blanche feels that she will have no privacy as she is only separated from Stanley and Stella’s bedroom by a curtain. “But there’s no door between the two rooms, and Stanley-will it be descent? ”-Blanche. This suggests that Blanche feels that she will be imposing on Stella and Stanley’s sexual relationship. She feels uncomfortable with the situation. Scene 3) Blanche flirts with Mitch, displaying her feminine sexuality. She exaggerates her (assumed) purity and innocence. “Blanche means white” which reflects purity. We find out that both Blanche and Mitch are romantically interested in each other. (Scene 7) Stanley reveals to Stella the information that he found out about Blanches past, from Shaw. She was selling herself sexually and got involved with a 17 year-old boy. “They got wised up after two or three dates with her and then they quit, and she goes on to another”-Stanley.

It shows how Blanche’s past revolves around sexuality, and sexual favours. Love Stella is truly in love with Stanley and it is a running theme in the play that Stella will always go back to Stanley. “They’re crazy about each other”- Mitch. Blanche loved her husband. “I loved him unendurably”-Blanche “Blanche didn’t just love him, but worshipped the ground he walked on”-Stella Loneliness (Scene 2) When Stanley touches Blanches love letters she expresses her devastating feeling of loss, and loneliness.

It is obvious that she is in need of companionship. “poems a dead boy wrote”- Blanche . By stating that she is not “Vulnerable” anymore, actually increases how much the reader sees how much she needs someone. (Scene 6) Blanche and Mitch are both alone, “you need somebody, and i need somebody too. Could it be – you and me, Blanche? ”-Mitch. Mitch and Blanche both understand feelings of loneliness and by supposing that they are to be together then they will no longer have to be alone. Scene 8) Mitch doesn’t come to Blanche’s birthday party. “It’s the first time in my entire experience with men, and I’ve had a good deal of all sorts that I’ve actually been stood up by anybody! ” Blanche tries to make light of the situation, but now we can see that she is truly alone, without any friends. She tries to make sure no one can see her loneliness. Opposing Backgrounds (Scene 1) Blanche arrives in New Orleans, expecting it to be of the same class as where she and her sister Stella grew up.

The contrast of her standing in the Kowalski flat which is simple and common, and wearing clothes that suggest great wealth and a proper upbringing, tells the reader that there may not only be opposing class in the play, but opposing views and lifestyle too. “This-can this be- her home? ”- Blanche This quote shows Blanches shock as to where her sister lives. (Scene 4) Blanche has a very low opinion of Stanley and his general manners around the flat, and his actions towards Stella, his wife. “He acts like an animal, has an animal’s habits! Eats like one, moves like one, talks like one! It is this time n the play that Blanche really lets go and expresses how she really feels. She feels that Stella, being from a more educated background, is too good for a commoner like Stanley. (Scene 8) Stanley is aware of his and Stella’s opposing backgrounds, and yet he doesn’t express it in the way that Blanche does. He does not see it as a negative thing. He feels that he did Stella a favour by pulling her “down off them columns”. It shows that although he and Stella are from different worlds, they have created their own personal breed, where the upper and working class can live together happily.

Lies/Hypocrisy (Scene 1) When Stanley first meets Blanche, she says that she has not drunk any of his liquor, but we think Stanley is quite suspicious. He comes back by saying “Some people rarely touch it, but it touches them often” This is ironic as we know that Blanche HAS drunk Stanley’s alcohol. And she lies by saying that she hasn’t. (Scene 2) Stanley believes that Blanche has been lying about the loss of Belle Reve, and that he and Stella have been “Swindled” He uses reference of the “Napoleonic Code”.

We later find out that the estate may have been lost on a mortgage, but Stanley does make a very convincing argument, trying to prove Blanche is a liar. (Scene 11) Blanche is in a state of delirium, it seems that she is drowned in her lies and she now begins to believe them as reality. Stella has arranged for Blanche to be institutionalised, but she’s “got it mixed in her mind with Shep Huntleigh”. Blanche a Eunice go along with her stories however, these lies, rather than being for personal gain, are to benefit Blanche and her wellbeing.

The Benefits of Using Hands-on Activities college essay help free: college essay help free

The following year the teacher moved up to the third grade with the same students. During the first term they had a review on verbs (that the teacher assumed was going to be easy), but when the students were asked what verb a was, they gave all kinds of answers except the right one. At this time the teacher realized that the lesson should be taught using a different method. The teacher then made a spinning wheel with four adjectives, four verbs, and four nouns. The students would spin the wheel and whatever word they landed on, they would ask themselves if they could do that word.

If they could do it they knew it was a verb. Hampton City Schools had citywide language arts assessment four months later and there were two questions on the test asking students to identify the verb in the sentence and no one in the class missed either of those questions. Using manipulatives to teach the other components of language arts can be just as effective as it was for the researcher when teaching grammar. Many teachers have become conscious of the fact that not all students perform to the best of their capabilities. There are many different reasons that could affect student performance.

They have short attention spans and have a propensity to become bored quickly. Many other children are capable, but they are just underachievers. “Basic human values are involved in the problem of success and underachievement. These values involve such old-fashioned but irreplaceable virtues as self-discipline, commitment to goals, the ability to sacrifice momentary pleasures for greater rewards of tomorrow, independence in motivation, moral responsibility, and cooperative effort. Students who attain achievement in school almost always reflect these old-fashioned values.

Underachieving students who have brains but lack effort almost always reflect a lack of these values” (Whitley, 2001, p. 26). There is not a better approach when trying to keep children’s attention than to have them do something that is interesting and gives them the opportunity to be involved in a hands-on activity. Statement of the Problem The problem of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hands-on activities compared to paper and pencil activities (reading textbooks, answering comprehension questions, and worksheets) when teaching language arts to first through fifth grade students, based on student progress and achievement.

Hypothesis To answer this problem the following hypothesis was established: H1: There will be a difference in students’ achievement levels in elementary reading when determining which is a more effective teaching style, using hands-on activities to teach reading or using paper and pencil work to teach reading. The hands-on activity will be the more effective method and the students will prove this by increases in their progress levels. Background and Significance In elementary school, students are taught the foundation skills of reading that are necessary in order to achieve mastery skill level.

The Life of an Administrative Assistant descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

The life of an Administrative Assistant Most Administrative Assistants duties revolve around managing and distributing information within an office. Often individuals are employed by schools, companies, government agencies, legal firms and health care facilities. This generally includes answering phones, taking memos and maintaining files. Administrative assistants may also be in charge of sending and receiving correspondence, as well as greeting customers and clients. In some offices they may have to monitor and record expenditures. In some instances they are required to do scheduling and preparing presentation materials.

Some assistants may have to type and proofread documents. The education and training requires the individual to be certified or have a two year associate degree program. This is usually offered at a community college. Some colleges offer bachelor’s degree programs in business admiration, which are four year programs that help you prepare students for this career. Depending on what type of office you want to work in other courses will need to be taken. Your college counselor can help you set those up. You are encouraged to become a certified administrative professional this is a one year program.

Most places will require this you will learn research skills, communications skills, supervisor, office management and networking. Some other training may include accounting, marketing, statistics, finance, business writing and law. The salary for an administrative assistant is very appealing to the eye. Salary ranges from $17. 00 dollars an hour to $21. 00 an hour. The annual wages are anywhere from 29, 000 to 69,000 a year once again, this depends on what office or what type of work you prefer. The job outlook for this career seems to be very good. From 2008-2010 job opportunities will grow about 11%.

Prezi Analysis common app essay help: common app essay help

A Ride through Prezi Prezi is like an amusement park. An amusement park is composed of various types of rides geared towards different family members. Firstly, the teacups or the bumper cars which are traditional games for everyone, or the simulators which are for the more adventurous ones and finally the roller coasters which are only for the ones who like adrenaline and danger. No matter what game a person likes to ride, every single time on the game is different, there are unexpected twists and turns and every person has different experiences while on the ride.

Prezi, which is a new form of presentation that allows users to create ‘their own story’ within a white canvas and make it as creative and unique as they want, is geared towards everyone from middle school students to CEOs. The twist and turns in Prezi are found within the zooming options and paths created by the presenter and so far there have been mixed reviews as to how efficient and effective Prezi is for people. In my opinion, Prezi is an innovative, complex and fun software available to everyone around the world and can come in handy when trying to be original.

Prezi was available to the public in early 2009, but many people are still unaware of its existence. About 80% of the students in my technical communication class had no idea what it was, even though college students are supposed to be technology savvy. As the mission statement says, “it is a way to make sharing ideas more interesting. ” It is one of a kind and is cloud-based, which makes it easily accessible to anyone with internet access all over the world.

The most innovative part of Prezi is the Zooming User Interface, ZUI, which enables the users to zoom in and out of the presentations and clearly show which ideas are more important than others. It keeps the audience guessing what is coming next, since some words might not be visible until the presenter zooms in on that specific frame. There is also a function called Prezi Meeting, which is one of my favorites. It allows for many people to edit and modify the same Prezi at once from their own individual computers.

In today’s world, everyone is busy and schedules vary, so being able to conveniently see in real time how a coworker, classmate, friend, etc. is modifying the Prezi, while also being able to make changes yourself is really helpful. These clearly innovative applications are great for someone who is well acquainted with Prezi, but for first time users it might seem a bit overwhelming and confusing at first. Prezi is complex, but as a really common quote says “the best things in life are not easy, but they are worth it. ” In order to be able to create a good Prezi, time needs to be invested.

The first time I used Prezi, it was spring term 2011 for my Management Information Systems class. One of my group members had just found out about Prezi and suggested we used it for our presentation in order to stand out. We all thought it was a great idea, but we didn’t know how time consuming it would be. We went to the website, created an account and started with our first Prezi. There is a mandatory tutorial for anyone who is creating their first Prezi. I think it is an excellent thing because it introduces some key words like pan and zoom, Prezi zebra, frame and path.

Prezi zebra being the most important one because it is the one that allows you to modify the size, rotate and delete any object (pictures, words, videos, etc. ) in the canvas. The canvas is the rectangle that Prezi gives you to create your presentation and the frames are the spaces where information is grouped together and the path is the sequence of frames in your Prezi. Even after going through the tutorials it was difficult to fully understand the concept of every function available and how best to take advantage of the whole software, so we watched the additional videos available in the website.

It personally took me about two to three hours to completely understand the software, its advantages, disadvantages, and all the functions, but the time invested pays off every time I create a new Prezi and I am able to efficiently and effectively create a presentation. For people who are not willing to fully acquaint themselves with the software before using it, it might seem complicated and overwhelming, because it is clearly a great change from PowerPoint, which everyone is used to using. Once people do get to know and understand the software, they can have fun every single time they use it.

Every Prezi is different; this is because every person has different ideas and different ways to show them in a presentation. There are some preselected themes and combination of colors available as well as some diagrams and flow of ideas, but other than that every single person is able to do it as original as they want. This is my favorite part about Prezi, it allows you to think outside the box. Information can be presented in either a linear, like PowerPoint, or a non-linear way. Text, images, videos, PowerPoint slides, Excel worksheets, PDFs, links, etc. an be imported and used in Prezi. There is even an option of browsing Google images within Prezi itself and copying the desired image into the presentation. As much as Prezi is fun because ideas can be spread over the canvas and creativity is encouraged, one does need to keep in mind that the presentation has to be organized, that zooming in and out repeatedly and going all over the canvas can produce headache and nausea for the audience and that too many pictures and turns can be distractive and overwhelming.

With every Prezi I have created, I have liked how easy it is to import anything into it and have gotten better at organizing everything in a creative and cohesive way. My best recommendation for it is to group ideas together and use layouts so that visual stimulation is there, but it adds to the presentation rather than damages it. Prezi is definitely a software worth checking out, especially if you are the type of person, like me, who likes being different and knowing about new things available.

As a college student, I think it is definitely important to know about the multiple useful and innovative software available, specially because technology is increasing at such a fast pace and no one knows what the future for presentations is going to be. Maybe someday Prezi or a similar program will become the new PowerPoint and being acquainted with it will definitely be a huge advantage.

African American Representation in Show Boat narrative essay help: narrative essay help

The evolution of musical theater in America can be viewed through many lenses. Through the lens of hindsight, it is easy to reflect on the treatment and portrayal of African-Americans in the contextual fruition of live entertainment in the United States. Dating back to the later half to the nineteenth and into the early twentieth century, ethnic representation in musical theater underwent a gradual change paralleling a shift in societal opinion toward racial equality.

Though by today’s standards, its depiction of African-Americans may seem archaic at best, Show Boat changed the way audiences viewed musical theater through its success as the first show to deal with racial issues in the United States. In order to fully understand the point of view from which racial representation in Show Boat originates, one must have an historical reference point from which to base it. Musical theater in the United States emerged out of an industry of entertainment striving for legitimacy.

Branching away from its European roots, defining America came to be the “central theme in American musicals, to which the other themes relate in both obvious and subtle ways. ”1 But to define America, at the time, meant societal introspection. Society, however, was slow to grapple with some of its most obvious shortcomings: the issue of race and inequality. Meant largely as a satire of American society, one of the earliest forms of musical theater in America, the minstrel show, emerged in the 1840s.

The minstrel show “always featured the element of satire in lyrics and skits with music that appealed to those who favored loud, raucous, and rhythmically jaunty tunes. ”2 Initially absent from these minstrel troupes, African-American representation was left up to the white producers and performers. Thus, blackface found a widespread home in musical performances. Through smearing burned cork over their hands and faces, white actors and singers portrayed what much of society at the time perceived as typical negro behavior. But blackface was not necessarily intended as an offense, though offend it did. Under the protection of scurrilous, primitivist persona, and in the guise of humor at the persona’s expense, an actor could do or say – or sing virtually anything. ”3 Simultaneously though, blackface reassured white audiences that not only was the status quo in America acceptable, but that African-Americans, under the assumption that the performances audiences witnessed were accurate, did not deserve a higher seat in society. It was ten years after the emergence of the minstrel show when African-Americans began learning the business.

Ironically enough, these African-American troupes also performed in blackface. Eventually creating their own form of theater, African-American musical theater flourished between the 1890s and the first decade of the twentieth century. But it wasn’t until Shuffle Along, in 1920, that the color barrier on Broadway was truly broken. Creating a new model for the productions that followed, Shuffle Along incorporated new musical genres such as jazz and ragtime; typically associated with African-Americans.

Integrating these musical stylizations into musical theater could have only seemed logical considering “from the time of the arrival of the first Africans on the North American shore…their musicality was vigorous, impressive, and frequently preeminent. ”4 Shortly after Shuffle Along’s premier came the 1926 novel, Show Boat by Edna Ferber. And while Shuffle Along may have been the first integrated musical on Broadway – bringing racial issues to the forefront of thought among audiences – Show Boat became the first musical to tackle these issues.

For the first time, African-Americans were portrayed as real characters, rather than agents of parodied comedic relief. This is seen most clearly through the characters of Queenie and Joe. Composing the script, lyrics, and music for Show Boat were Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein. “The creators of Show Boat wanted the musical to be about Americans, not race conflict, although the race of the characters contributed significantly to the development of the plot. ”5 Show Boat follows the lives of a number of performers and workers on the Mississippi River Ferryboat, the Cotton Blossom.

In her doctoral dissertation, Katherine Axtell examines Show Boat from its novel origins to its inception and creation as a work of musical theater. It is clear from her analysis that even though Hammerstein and Kern may not have intended Show Boat to be about race, it was still at the forefront of their minds. Axtell states, “sources…strongly suggest that, page for page and line for line, the composer and librettist expended the greatest energy on the development of material for the romantic leads, Magnolia and Ravenal; that they took nspiration…from contemporary African-American musical theater. ”6 Axtell also cites Todd Decker, “who in 2007 included Show Boat in a larger study of ‘black-white encounters’ in selected American stage and film musicals… Decker argues that Kern and Hammerstein concentrated, from the beginning of their collaboration, on the development of interracial encounters and the creation of such numbers as ‘Can’t Help Lovin; Dat Man’ and ‘Ol’ Man River. ’”7 It was, in fact, “Ol’ Man River” that many believed to be the highlight of the show.

Question and Answers for Unit 225 college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

A. I first looked and decided on the topic of the presentation, and then gathered all of the information and images required before making a start. I then created a master slide for the presentation then enhanced the presentation with animation, slide structure and transitions. Q. What were your strengths and weaknesses with using PowerPoint to complete the job? A. Adding the images, data and using the slide structure were my strengths. My weaknesses were importing graphs from excel and ensuring that the data was fully visable Q.

How could you improve productivity and efficiency using IT? A.. I could improve Productivity and efficiency using IT by better planning of the job, using storyboards and draft copies on paper. Q. State shortcuts you have used to improve own productivity? A. Creating a Master Template. Ctrl and C for copy and Ctrl and V for paste to insert images and text as this is a much faster way of carrying out the task then using the functions within powerpoint. Q. What were the benefits and drawbacks of IT tools that were chosen in regards to productivity and efficiency? A.

Power Point allowed me to display the information in a way that is interesting, the benefits of using a master slide saved time. The drawbacks of using the masterslide would be the creativity and workability of the area, it would be limited on every slide and also have the same images/colour/text on every slide. Q. What further improvements could you have made to the presentation? A. I could have changed the lay out of the data to enhance communication, added more animation to enhance the main points. Detailed the graphs more and added more images to explain procedures.

Food Chemistry Options Report nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Food Chemistry What is food chemistry? Food chemistry is the application of the actual science that goes into the production, development, and actual creation of the foods we frequently consume. In reality, much more thought as well as actual science goes into the food production and consumption that we as a society divulge in so regularly. It is up to the food chemists to design the most efficient and fastest way to make and preserve both the appeal as well as the nutrition of the food.

With that being said, not only must the food meet the standards of the consumers, but the chemistry behind it must also be in line with the guidelines set up by organizations such as the FDA. Perhaps the most important factor when looking into a food is it’s chemical composition. For example, typical lipids include phospholipids, sterols, and vitamin D which because of their structures remain soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water. A common lipid makeup of a fatty food contains an intricate mixture of many different molecules.

A large part of these lipid makeups are usually a good amount of triacylglycercols which are literally the esters of three fatty acids bonded to a glycerol molecule. Variation in fatty foods are then caused by differences in chain length, degree of unsaturation, and position on the glycerol molecule(ACS). Another prominent factor when considering the different types of fats is that the unique profile of lipids present determines the exact nutritional as well as physiochemical properties.

As the discussion of food fat and oils continues, it is important to distinguish that the difference between the two is that a “fat” is a lipid that is solid at room temperature whereas an “oil” is a lipid that is liquid at that same temperature. Along with lipids, carbohydrates also have a very different chemical structure that contributes to their unique qualities. Carbohydrates exist in combinations of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen which really shows how simple the base structure of a carbohydrate is.

In the presence of animals, carbohydrates can be seen as starches whereas in plants they are most commonly noticed as cellulose. Carbohydrates can be most commonly identified in their base state as simple sugars but they can quickly combine to form complex structures as more of the simple sugars combine. A common structure for a simple sugar or monosaccharide is a carbon chain ending with a carbonyl group that also has hydroxyl groups spread out over the molecule. The main difference from some simple sugars to others is the specific orientation of the hydroxyl groups around the simple sugar chain.

As the talk of lipids goes more into depth, it is important to distinguish between the different types of fat and in this case the differences between saturated and unsaturated fats. It has long been common knowledge that unsaturated fat is better for you and that saturated fat is just horrible for you but it has never really been explained at all. However, when examining into the actual chemical effects that these two fats can have, it becomes much easier to see why one would be considered so much healthier over the other.

As the chemical structure of saturated fats are examined it can be seen that since the molecule is so concentrated with hydrogen atoms, there is no double bonds contained between the atoms. These saturated fats have been known to raise cholesterol levels because of the more dense fat that must be consumed. When the structures of unsaturated fats are looked at, it can be seen that there is a huge difference between it’s chemical structure and that of the saturated fat. This difference is shown by the presence of double bonds between some of the atoms.

This presence of double bonds then shows that the atom has a much less concentrated state in comparison to the saturated fats which also explains why it remains at a liquid at room temperature instead of a more dense solid. As a result, these unsaturated fats take much less of an effort by the body to consume since they are less dense which is really what helps them in being considered so much healthier. Shelf life, the length of time a product can be stored without becoming unsuitable for use or consumption(Gyesley S. . There are many factors that go into the preserved shelf life of foods and many of which that have to do with the actual chemical composition of the food in question. These factors include the food’s exposure to light, heat, water content, as well as exposures of the food to air in general which can lead to slow but actual chemical changes over time. The main problem associated with the exposure of light onto foods is how strong the affect of light can manage to be.

Too much light will cause a loss in the presence of vitamins as well as the overall appearance since the excess of light can lead to a much faster deterioration of the food. There can really be a problem with the amount of water content in packaged foods today too, as that can affect the rate at which that food undergoes chemical changes however if the food comes dry and then begins to pick up moisture it can drastically change the rate at which microbial spoilage will take place.

These chemical changes in the food is really what leads to the sharp decline in shelf life as well as the quality of the food and it is influenced in a very strong way by the temperature at which the food is stored. A gallon of milk left out at room temperature spawns microbial growth much faster than one that is left in the refrigerator. It is important to realize how important the preservation of food becomes after reading about how easily food can spoil. The first of these is one of the most obvious that involves storing dairy products at low temperatures which usually encompasses using a refrigerator.

There are also some techniques that change the packaging such as many foods these days that are packaged in reduced oxygen. The growth of the traditional spoilage organisms can be prevented by the application of this new method at a higher rate than ever before. The use of these new packaging techniques really differs from the past when one of the most common forms of preservation in meats was to salt them very heavily. As that is now still an option, it is used way less often because of how unhealthy that has become to be considered by our society today.

What is sometimes simply overlooked in foods is the appearance by which they come. Foods have color because of their ability to reflect and absorb the different wavelengths of visible light. When considering where these colors actually come from the answer usually involves one of the natural pigments of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. Anthocyanins are more commonly known to be present among plants. The colors they produce range from pink, red, and purple to blue. Carotenoids are considered to be more of a general igment as they are virtually found everywhere. These colors involve red, orange, and yellow which are typically most seen through nature. As to the presence of Anthocyanins in plants, it is important to realize that along with it comes the commonly known natural pigment of chlorophyll that is typically found in any plant that shows green. As the conversation onto the appearance of food continues, another aspect of food that would have to be considered is the texture of foods.

In liquids, one of the most common ways that is used to change texture or the look is through the process of emulsion. This involves combining two liquids that would normally be insoluble to each other by means of adding one to the other drop by drop. This process of emulsion can really be sped up by the addition of an emulsifying agent as well which allows for the two liquids to combine faster. When the actual term of “emulsifier” is used, this just describes the actual substance that allows small droplets of one liquid to become suspended into the other.

In conclusion, food chemistry involves a large amount of organic and chemical structure knowledge in order to maintain and improve upon the food production and processing techniques that are already out there. Much more thought is often put into food chemistry then most people would think which shows why it is often not known or understood by the common person. However, as food development and preservation becomes even more prominent in our society today, common food chemistry knowledge should become more well known.

Equity Law cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

The order may also require the defendant to disclose to the plaintiff the whereabouts of any document or item listed in the order. The first reported case where an Anton Piller order was made was EMI v Pandit (1975). This case concerned a claim of copyright infringement. The court made an order ex parte allowing the plaintiff to enter the defendant’s premises to photograph equipment, inspect files and remove tapes.

This form of injunction got its name from the 1976 Court of Appeal decision in Anton Piller KG v Manufacturing Processes Ltd (1976). The defendants had received confidential information and plans concerning the plaintiffs’ electrical equipment in their capacity as the plaintiffs’ selling agents in London. The plaintiffs had reason to believe that the defendants were selling the information to the plaintiffs’ competitors but were unable to prove this without access to documents situated in the defendants’ premises.

The Court of Appeal made an ex parte order requiring the defendants to permit the plaintiffs to enter their premises and inspect documents relating to the equipment. Such an order would only be made in exceptional circumstances where it was essential that the plaintiffs should inspect the documents between the parties and there was a danger that vital evidence would otherwise be destroyed. See also Joblin-Purser v Jackman (1999), Carroll J. Conditions In Anton Piller, Ormrod LJ laid down four conditions for the grant of the order.

The plaintiff must: (1) Have an extremely strong prima facie case; (2) Show actual or potential damage of a very serious nature; (3) Have clear evidence that the defendant has incriminating documents or things and a real possibility of their destruction before an inter partes application can be made; (4) Establish that the inspection will do no real harm to the defendant. The Anton Piller order must not be used for ‘‘fishing expeditions’’. 4 ©Philip Burke, City Colleges

In Emmanuel v Emmanuel, the Anton Piller order granted allowed the wife’s solicitor to enter the husband’s residence and inspect a filing cabinet full of documents containing information on his earnings. The House of Lords upheld the concept in Rank Film Distributors Ltd v Video Information Centre (1982), although the Irish Supreme Court has yet to approve of the Anton Piller order. It is unclear whether or not a defendant would be held to be in contempt of court for refusing to comply with an Anton Piller order that was later discharged.

Buckley J, in Hallmark Cards Inc v Images Art Ltd (1977), held that while a defendant who does not comply with the Anton Piller order prior to the court’s setting it aside is technically in contempt of court, he did not feel that the defendant was liable if the order was discharged. However, this approach was not accepted in the later case of Wardle Fabrics v Myristis Ltd (1984). Here Goulding J held that contravening an Anton Piller order constituted contempt irrespective of whether or not the order was later set aside.

Christmas in Australia write my essay help: write my essay help

Christmas In Australia What do you think of when you think about Christmas? Snow, cold weather, ice, cool breezes? Not in Australia! During the month of December, it’s summer. Due to Australia being on the southern hemisphere, in December, the earth tilts to the side of which it faces the sun. That means that for Australians, Christmas is hot, sunny, and filled with amazing summer breezes. Jackets won’t be needed anymore, in that hot climate, majority of the people are wearing light clothing, including shorts, t-shirts, and sandals.

Australia is its own continent, even though it is filled with other ethnicities around the world, English is the official language. The capital of Australia is Canberra, which is located somewhat near the coast. In Australia, about seventy percent of the population are Christians. Summer is from December through February, unlike the United States. When it comes to Christmas, Australians know how to celebrate. There are many forms of entertainment during this time of year. Popular activities and celebrations include picnics, going to parades, playing cricket, going for a swim, or attending “Carols by Candlelight”.

Melbourne is a city in Australia, located in the south-eastern part of the mainland , within the state of Victoria. Melbourne is also the city in which “Carols by Candlelight” takes place. This event takes place on Christmas Eve night, where thousands of people spread blankets on the ground, and sing Christmas carols together. Christmas in Australia has many similarities to the United States. Santa Claus is known as Santa, or Father Christmas. Christams takes place on the twenty-fifth of December, and lasts for only one day. Both countries put up decorations, such as Christmas Trees, figurines for outdoors, candles, etc.

Gifts are exchanged, Santa arrives, and the birth of Jesus is celebrated. Some differences would be on how Santa is pictured. Most children picture Santa Claus in heavy clothing and big boots riding inside of a sleigh. In Australia, he’s pictured in a swimsuit on a surfboard, surfing the waves under the hot summer sun. On Christmas Eve, the children put pillowcases on their bed, waiting for Santa to leave small gifts inside of them, and big gifts under the tree. Unlike the United states, where instead of pillowcases, stockings are used by the fireplace.

Instead of leaving milk and cookies, Australians leave Santa sherry and mince pies for him when he arrives. The next morning, the presents are unwrapped, and Christmas Day begins. In Australia, the daily diet consists of meat, but there is a substantial number of vegans and vegetarians, so vegetables are also included. On Christmas, the foods eaten would most likely be seafood, cold ham, turkey, and salad. Popular drinks consumed include coffee, champagne (instead of eggnog), and other alcoholic beverages such as wine. On Christmas Day, after unwrapping the gifts, families usually head for the beach.

Picnics are usually held, especially barbeques. After the day is done, people wake up bright and early to hit the stores on Boxing Day, the twenty-sixth of December, when most stores have sales on items for customers to purchase after the Christmas holiday. Although Australians participate in all these fun activities, they still know the true reason for the holiday. They conisder it a time for remembering Jesus Christ. Together, families celebrate the importance of the birth of Jesus, and the spiritual meaning of Christmas by joyfully opening their hearts to God along with opening gifts given and recieved.

Comparitive Analysis of Marketing Stratergies: Indian Footwear Industry college essay help free: college essay help free

COMPARITIVE ANALYSIS OF MARKETING STRATERGIES: INDIAN FOOTWEAR INDUSTRY NIKE-ADIDAS-REEBOK-PUMA-INDIAN BRANDS Executive Summary To study and develop substantial market analysis on the primary products these firms (Nike, Adidas, Reebok, Puma and Indian brands) make, i. e Athletic Footwear. We will compare their marketing strategies, their targeting and their marketing mixes. We will analyze their segmentation and examine their positioning in the Indian market. And lastly we will state our conclusions on the comparative marketing strategies of these firms. Project Scope

This project will cover the following areas: * Brief Company’s Profile * Major Players & Market Share * Trends in the Industry * Market Analysis Brief Company’s Profile Adidas: Adidas is a German sports apparel manufacturer and part of the Adidas group, which consist of Reebok Sportswear Company, Taylor Made-Adidas Golf Company, and Rockport. Adidas is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe and the second largest sportswear manufacturer in the world. Though Adidas entered in to license agreement with Bata in 1989, it formally began operations only in 1996 with establishment of Adidas India Marketing Pvt.

Ltd. Nike: Nike is a major publicly traded sportswear and equipment supplier based in the United States. It is the world’s leading supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment. Nike has been present in India for over a decade through its seven year license agreement with Sierra enterprises, which didn’t help much in the bigger scheme of things as Reebok and Adidas came to the country with fully owned subsidiaries. This explains why the global market leader is still lagging behind in India.

In2004, instead of renewing its franchise, it became a subsidiary and started operating with more freedom and capital. Reebok: Reebok International Limited, a subsidiary of the German sportswear company Adidas, is a producer of Athletic shoes, apparel, and accessories. It is a private organization. The name comes from the Afrikaans spelling of rhebok, a type of African antelope or gazelle. In 1890 in Holcombe Brook, a small village 6 miles north east of Bolton, England, Joseph William Foster was making a living producing regular running shoes when he came up with the idea to create a novelty spiked running shoe.

After his ideas progressed he joined with his sons, and founded a shoe company named J. W. Foster and Sons in 1895. Puma: Puma AG Rudolf Dassler Sport, officially branded as PUMA, is a major German multinational company that produces high-end athletic shoes, lifestyle footwear and other sportswear. Formed in 1924 as Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik by Adolf and Rudolf Dassler, relationships between the two brothers deteriorated until the two agreed to split in 1948, forming two separate entities, Adidas and Puma. Indian Brands: Bata: Bata India is the largest retailer and leading manufacturer of footwear in India and is a part of the Bata Shoe Organization. Incorporated as Bata Shoe Company Private Limited in 1931, the company was set up initially as a small operation in Konnagar (near Calcutta) in 1932. Bata India has five manufacturing plants and acquires its leather from two tanneries in Mokamehghat (Bihar) and Batanagar. It is headquartered in West Bengal, India. Types of footwear offered by the company include rubber, canvas, leather and plastic footwear.

The company also markets apparel under the brand names of North Star, Power and Ambassador. MD of Bata Stores is Rajeev Gopalakrishnan. * Liberty: Liberty shoes ltd. is a leading leather shoes brand and is engaged in the manufacturing, supplying and exporting of the footwear’s. It is the only Indian leather shoe brand that occupies fifth ranking among the top shoes manufacturing companies in the world. * Action: The Action group is one of the India’s leading business conglomerates. The group commenced its operations as a source of footwear and its components in domestic and export markets.

Action has consistently used “COMPLETE FAMILY FOOTWEAR” positioning and continues to use it. The company virtually makes shoes for the entire family- more precisely-for everyone- for all occasions. Action shoes, a 1000 crore division of trendy footwear, are the flagship company of Action Group. Action shoes is the market leader and the most renowned company for manufacturing performance sport shoes to semi-formal and formal footwear. Major Players & Market Share Brands| Percentage (%)| Reebok| 34| Adidas| 28| Action| 9|

Nike| 26| Others| 3| 3 26 9 28 34 Others Nike Action Adidas Reebok Trends in the Industry In this stage the big four, Nike, Adidas, Reebok and Puma and the others such as Bata and Liberty, the industry is experiencing hyper competition. We will discuss these trends in detail in our Phase-2 presentation. Market Analysis India has a large market for footwear and the brand loyalty is also growing. India is ranked the 4th largest economy by GDP. We will analyze the market trends in depth in our Phase-2 presentation.

Mandatory Reporting professional essay help: professional essay help

The mandatory reporting law is a great law that is in need of major revisions. The role of the doctor has been clear and distinct in my life. I have always looked at my doctor as a person who assists me with health issues. But somewhere down the line, the role of the doctor has changed. Doctors are taking on the decision making of the patient. In a recent bill that was passed, practitioners are required to report any physical injury that is due to firearm, assault, or abusive conduct. This law is called, “The Mandatory Reporting Law”, in which it aids victims of domestic violence.

However the word “aid” has speculated through many people in examining this law. Mandatory Reporting has become a big controversial topic, in which people are investigating the pros and cons. To understand the pros and cons of the Mandatory Reporting law it is important to address the historical and social relevance of domestic violence. Domestic violence has been an ongoing problem for centuries. Historically men would have power over their wives. Women would be beaten for not having the dinner made or not taking part in sexual activities.

Domestic violence was very common, in which the man would usually be the batterer and the woman would be the victim. Taking into consideration that women had no rights or power, they were subject to the abuse, society treated spousal abuse as a normal way of life—domestic violence was not seen as a crime. According to Dr. Mitizi Krocker (Roan, 1996) many practitioners and police felt that it was not their job to assist in domestic violence situation. As years went by, women were starting to gain rights. Women started talking about their abuse and finding the courage to leave.

As a result, resources were developing for victims of domestic abuse. A resource that was developed was the Mandatory Reporting Law. The Mandatory Reporting Law stemmed out of the ideologies of society not caring or taking domestic violence seriously. There were too many batterers getting off the hook and or not being caught. The Mandatory Reporting law would assist in building a stronger case for victims and creating a method for batterers to be prosecuted. Mandatory Reporting was introduced by Jackie Speier (Assemblywoman) in the O. J. Simpson era.

In 1994, as Americans tuned into the O. J. Simpson case, domestic violence was becoming an interesting subject. People were eager to find out if Nicole Simpson (a battered wife killed) would be found justice. When the verdict was reached, domestic violence was confirmed as an insignificant matter. Unfortunately, O. J. Simpson was released and dropped of charges because of the lack of evidence in the defense of Nicole. Mandatory Reporting has been a tool that can help in the defense of a victim. Many victims are abused and never tell anyone and or visit a practitioner.

As a result, when the victim appears in court they usually have no solid proof on the accusers side. With the help of Mandatory Reporting, practitioner are required to document and make a police report, in which hard core evidence is produced. Kramer (one of the victims in Smith article) suggests that mandatory reporting is an excellent resource—women that are victims of domestic violence are forced to report. She further explains that women who have come into hospitals have altered the truth about their injuries. Mandatory Reporting will confirm that these women will be taken care of, in regards to the batterer being confronted.

Mandatory Reporting is available at any licensed doctor who performs medical services to the victim. The practitioner is automatically required to assist in domestic abuse cases. The question to be raised is what happens when victims do not want to be reported? Under the law practitioners are not required to inform the patient of the reporting. Victims are reported rather than agree or disagree to the terms. The doctor is obligated to report any suspicious behavior leading to domestic violence. As a result, Mandatory Reporting is being utilized frequently.

However, many victims are catching on to the law, in which they are steering away from their doctors. Victims are afraid of the action that the law might take. The law is utilized daily to victims who come into the hospital with an injury. Practitioners who fail to report can result in a misdemeanor charge and or fine. Mandatory Reporting has the intended benefit. Critics have mentioned that Mandatory Reporting was designed to catch the battered and not worry about the well being of the victim. The intended effect has been accomplished through evidence; there has been an increase in prosecuting the batterer.

However, an unintentional effect has been the decline in women going to their doctors for medical assistance. Immigrant women have really declined in seeking medical attention because they are scared to be removed from America. There has not been any evidence that has proven that mandatory reporting is beneficial to the victim’s safety. Beverly Upton states, “In some counties, officers show up at the victims home and arrests the batterer upon receiving the report from the practitioner– this can increase danger for the woman. The law did not take into consideration the danger that some victims would encounter, when their spouse would be released from jail. Many batterers will leave jail, angry at their spouse for reporting the abuse. As a result, victims would be severely beaten. The victim would be afraid to seek medical attention again. Lynn Smith explains how many women are going to shelters for medical attention. Another unintended effect is that in some cases doctors are put into an awkward position, where they are faced to report something that their patient asked them not to do.

The law is relevant but not accessible to marginalize populations. What the law brings to victims in a sense of loss freedom—not being able to make decisions about their personal wellbeing. The worst thing that could happen to a person is to take their freedom away from them. When people realize that their freedom is limited, few people will conform. Victims should have the right and support to keep their injuries confidential. A third party should not be involved in a situation, where the victim has refused the service. Adults are being treated as if they have no voice in regards to their life.

Mandatory Reporting is not accessible to the marginalized population because it does not take into consideration all of the effects of the law. Mandatory Reporting is an excellent resource; however there are some things that could be modified. According to the Association of Women’s Health Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (n. d. , p. 1), mandatory reporting should not be modeled from child abuse laws—these victims are adults who are capable to make decisions for themselves. I believe that victims should be able to have the right to decide whether they would like to report their injury or not.

Practitioners do not know the circumstances of the particular family. Who gives them the right to decide on a family’s wellbeing? In some cases there are children involved. What happens to a child if they see one of their parent’s arrested? How will the child cope with not having a father or mother around? The law also does not take into the consideration of finances. If a family depends on one another for financial support, how will the family cope with a missing income? These are all question that should have been taken into consideration when the law was written.

Beverly Upton suggests that there is a need for a change in the language if we would like to keep the law active. The language of the law is not formatted for victims to feel safe on reporting to their doctors on medical situations. The whole notion of doctors composing a report because of suspicion has also been a red flag. The word “suspect” is not accurate enough for me, because speculation can be wrong. A woman could have encountered a black eye because she was hit with a baseball. What does the doctor do, if there is a false report made? How will a family cope with a false arrest on a member of the family?

I project that a victim must admit to being abused before the practitioner takes any additional steps. If the practitioner believes that the victims injuries were related to domestic abuse, the Practitioner should offer a class or counseling for the victim. As Lynn Smith (1995) states, “it is unfortunate that law requiring reporting came before the one requiring training. ” Doctors should be required to take part in training, where they are taught to address and understand domestic violence to a patient. Practitioners should be able to recommend proper support when a victim is under abuse.

In some cases, reporting their alleged abuse to the police is detrimental to the victim and or their family. The Mandatory Reporting Law has benefited and hindered victims of domestic violence. I agree with Beverly Upton, that there should be a change in language. The law is a good attempt to cracking down on domestic violence, but it leaves out the importance of the situation; which is to protect the victim. Mandatory Reporting should not be a tool to capture batterers, but a tool to assist and support victims. Jackie Speier must have kept in mind the safety of the victim.

In writing a law, one must take into consideration all of the possibilities that may occur. The law benefits the victims that want to escape from their batterer, but it does not assist victims who are still in denial about their abuse. Many victims have trouble realizing that they are in a bad situation. Victims might feel that their abuse is caused by their behavior, or some might be victims of abuse for years in which they see nothing wrong with it. Before a judgment is called about a victim’s situation, there must be a full analysis of their circumstances.

One must have a good insight on her life, before making judgment. There are too many risks that can take into place, if the right choice for the victim is not made. Mandatory Reporting becomes a controversial topic because there is a conflict with the purpose of the situation; some people believe that the end to domestic violence is capturing the batterer, as the opposing view would believe that the end to domestic violence is to remove the victim out of the situation in the best interest of the victim. The key to eliminating domestic violence is taking into consideration that everyone’s situation is different.

There might be a need to call the police and have a batterer arrested in some situations in which the victim feels that he/she has had enough. In other cases the victim might not want to leave, in which counseling would be implemented to get him/her in the mind frame to leave their situation. Domestic violence is a sticky subject, in where it varies from place to place. Mandatory Reporting will not encompass all of the needs for victims of domestic violence; instead it will serve as an aid to a certain population. Until Mandatory Reporting is modified, the law will remain controversial in attempts to addressing domestic violence.

Narrative Essay a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

Many people may say that they go through many disappointments in life but im pretty sure we all can say that at some point in time in life. Life is full of obstacles that slow you down. Some even say you have to fail to succeed. We all have different sayings for this crazy thing called life but, we have to take what is given to us even if its negative and try to make into something positive. It was a morning in March, I anxiously went to the DMV to take the permit test it was my birthday so of course I was really excited and nervous at the same time.

After I had been sitting more than thirty minutes, waiting and praying that I would get nothing but easy questions so that I would past with no problems at all, an old, short woman was sitting at the front desk and she called my number to come up to her desk. Her outfit was very wacky. She spoke to me and then handed me a clipboard with info that needed to be filled in the blanks so I filled it out and she proceeded with the permit test process.

She tested my eye sight by having me look into a microscope and call out the letters that I saw on different rows. After she took my picture and had me proceed to the back where I would began taking the test. My heart was beating so fast and my palms were sweaty. As I proceeded to the back I approached a line of other people also waiting to take the test I couldn’t stop thinking to myself “what if I fail” “what I fail. ” The line began to move up and I was only two people away from taking the test.

After about twenty minutes I heard a lady say “next in line please” I walked to the desk and handed her a paper that she needed from the first desk in order for me to take the test. She told me to go to computer number one I began to approach the computer and on the screen it asked what state was I in. I clicked Maryland, it then told me my options to be able to skip go back and etc. It asked me basic questions as an example on how to use the different maneuvers on the computer. I answered the example questions and the real test began.

My heart dropped as I read the questions and bubbled my answer. Each time I got one rite it would highlight in green saying correct each time I got one wrong it would highlight in red I got it wrong. I continued to about number ten and I had gotten that one wrong and I started to panic because you are only aloud to get three wrong out of twenty-one questions, I tried to keep my cool but I couldn’t stop thinking to myself “Oh My Gosh! …I can only get two more wrong before I blow this. ” As I continued I heard a boy next to me scream “YESSSSSSS! ALRIGHT! ” I couldn’t help but look at his screen after he got up and his screen said PASSED written really big across his screen in green, so I thought to myself okay I can do this, this test is easy so let me hurry up and get this over with. However, while I was being nosey on his screen I accidentally hit next question with the wrong answer bubbled and I got it wrong. I was very angry and upset at myself because now I could only get one question wrong. I was now on question twenty, the question was about blind spot.

However I did not know what this was because I didn’t study so I took a guess and got it wrong and my screen said FAILED highlighted in red. I was so embarrassed and upset, I got up and walked to the counter and the lady told me to try again in 2 weeks. I walked out and my mom asked did I passed and I told her no. She told me this time maybe I should actually try to study. The moral to the story is always study before taking a test, even if you think you already know it because practice makes perfect.

Elephant Cruelty rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

Elephant Cruelty Explored Through Circuses There is no creature among all the Beasts of the world which hath so great and ample demonstration of the power and wisedom of almighty God as the Elephant. ~Edward Topsell “The Historie of Foure-Footed Beastes” (1607) Elephants are currently suffering in two distinct ways. They are suffering as a species, and as individuals. The following essay will introduce elephants and their plight as a species, but will focus on the suffering of circus elephants. Circuses are major culprits of elephant exploitation. Elephants in circuses are not cared for properly and often experience abuse.

The purpose of this essay is to not only point out these cruelties, but to discuss how we can change the fate of elephants in circuses worldwide. Elephantidae is the familial classification of elephants. There are two distinct species of elephants; the African elephant (Loxodonta arficana) and the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). In the wild an elephant’s geographical location is synonymous with its name. The habitat of the African elephant is usually a wooded or shrubby area that is near a water source. Asian elephants have a greater range in habitat which can include rain forests, dry forests, and grass jungles.

Together, elephants are the largest living terrestrial animals on Earth. Elephants are regarded as highly intelligent and social animals. They live in herds which are lead by the eldest and often the most dominant female elephant called the matriarch. Elephant families provide their members with knowledge, life skills, security, and companionship. Social learning is an important feature of elephants. They learn things like how to forage for food, communicate, play, attract a mate, and protect themselves from watching and the imitating behaviors of other elephants in their herd.

Elephants are also well known for the ability to express an array of emotions. Emotions allow elephants to form closer bonds and to communicate with each other on a greater level. In terms of species status, the African elephant is listed as threatened and the Asian elephant as endangered. There are an estimated 400,000 African elephants and 35,000 Asian elephants left in the world[1]. This includes both wild and captive elephants. A species that is listed as endangered is in serious jeopardy of becoming extinct. The title threatened is given to species that are likely to become endangered in the near future.

The documented decrease in elephant populations are mostly attributed to loss of natural habitat and the intentional killing of elephants by humans. Expanding human populations have caused encroachment and alterations to lands that were once home to elephants on the continents of Asia and Africa. Overpopulation and the increased competition over resources have created the Human-Elephant conflict. People who live in close proximity to wild elephants are often fearful for the destruction of crops and of personal harm caused by elephant aggression and stampedes.

Injuring or killing the elephant in question has been the common response in these types of situations. Elephant conservation organizations like The Amboseli Trust for Elephants are working with African governments and their citizens to spread knowledge and provide economic alternatives to poaching such tourism. [2] Poaching elephants for their ivory tusks is widely banned, but is still a plight of the elephant. It is particularly a serious problem of the African Elephant. Both male and female African elephants have tusks and are susceptible to ivory seeking poachers.

Even though plastics have replaced most of the traditional uses of ivory, ivory is still being used to make jewelry and decorative items. There is still a strong underground market for this “white gold”. A recent increase in the wild African elephant population has revitalized the illegal ivory trade. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). is a group of agreements that establish guidelines concerning endangered species and trade on the international level. As an endangered species, the Asian elephant cannot be sold or traded under CITES.

CITES does allow private organizations to borrow Asian elephants long-term if it is for conservation and educational purposes[3]. Even with the ratification of CITES, countries like Lao are continuously seeing their “best and healthiest elephants leave the country… despite existing laws condemning the export of live elephants”[4] Elephant theft is especially frustrating for Laotian conservationists who are trying to restore their native Asian elephant populations. Many of the elephants that appear in circuses worldwide have been illegally captured from the wild. A circus is “a raveling company of performers that may include acrobats, clowns, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, unicyclists and other stunt-oriented artists”. [5] The general idea of a circus was developed by the Ancient Romans. Animal exhibits, horse races, jugglers, and acrobats were often featured in the outdoor Roman circuses. People of all ages and classes would pay their fair share to see and experience the circus. The modern indoor-circular circus has European roots dating back to the 18th and 19th centuries. The first modern circus was brought to America by the Englishman John Bill Ricketts in 1793.

Ricketts’ circus mesmerized the American audience and inspired the development of American circus culture. Many contemporary circuses are revolutionizing circus tradition by focusing less on animal exhibition and animal acts. They are embracing more of an artistic performance style that does not include actual animals. Cirque du Soleil is a popular example of a contemporary circus that mixes art, theater, and music with aerobatics and other aerial stunts. Though these new types of circuses are emerging, the traditional traveling animal circus still exists worldwide.

The longer animal circuses exist, the longer the suffering circus animals will have to endure. The mistreatment of elephants in circuses can be discussed through the categories of training, performance, and housing. It is important to emphasize that elephants are wild animals. In order to become semi-domesticated, elephants must undergo what is called the “breaking-in” process. [6] The objective of the “breaking-in” is to get the elephant to respect and submit to the trainer. This process can include the use of physical force, hooks, and threat of starvation to tame the elephant.

Elephants born in captivity do not usually experience or require this type of “breaking-in”. These elephants are preconditioned to enclosed environments and human interactions. No matter how much training or conditioning an elephant receives, it still has wild tendencies and instincts. Trainers use positive and negative reinforcement to control an elephant’s behavior. Positive reinforcement could be rewarding an elephant with apple slices when it performs a trick properly. Negative reinforcement uses punishment as a deterrent for undesired behaviors.

If an elephant is punished for disobeying a command, the elephant will likely be more compliant the next time the trainer orders a command. Trainers who use negative reinforcement are usually unskilled or impatient and may punch, pull or a whack an elephant with a bull hook or a whip. Electrical shocks are also administered as a form of punishment. All of these methods of punishment are painful and unnecessary. Desired results can be reached through positive reinforcement. Elephants also experience a great deal of pain and discomfort when performing certain tricks.

These tricks include handstands, standing on hind legs, and tight rope walking. These are unnatural elephant behaviors. A grown elephant can weigh anywhere from 5,000-15,000 lbs[7]. Its massive weight is spread out and supported by four legs. When an elephant does a handstand or stands on its hind legs it is putting an enormous amount of pressure on one or two of its legs. Whiling performing these types of tricks, an elephant is risking serious leg injury and other additional injuries if it was to topple over. Elephants belonging to a circus are usually housed individually in rooms no larger than the average American bedroom. 8] For safety and convenience reasons, elephants are chained for the majority of the day when they are not performing. These chains are highly restrictive and can cause body lacerations if an elephant tries to free himself. Circus elephants are isolated from other elephants and confined to spaces that are way too small for them. This is not appropriate since elephants are a mobile and social species. In the wild elephants can spend up to twenty- two hours a day moving around whether it’s foraging for food, exploring, or socializing with other elephants[9].

Elephants in circuses are unable to fulfill these simple needs and desires. Confinement and isolation is a serious elephant welfare concern. Elephants in captivity tend to exhibit abnormal behaviors and can develop psychological disorders. Documented abnormal behaviors include swaying, pacing, hyper aggression, and sometimes the killing of infant elephants. [10] Elephants that experience abuse can develop Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder occurs when an individual is exposed to a traumatic event and persistently re-experiences the event.

PSD may explain events in which elephants have lashed out and harmed their trainers or people in the audience. Mental anguish is not just a human experience. Elephants can suffer from both physical and mental abuse. To expand upon the condition of elephants in circuses, this issue must be examined from a multicultural prospective. Cultural norms determine animal welfare laws and generally accepted practices of animal use. How one society perceives and treats animals is often different from that of another society. Here we will look at animal circuses and the standards for animal welfare in China, the United States, and in the United Kingdom.

By observing the practices of these countries, a broad picture of how various regions in the world relate and think of non-human animals can be created. Understanding existing laws and customs is important in working with governments and citizens to adopt stricter animal cruelty and welfare laws. The Chinese circus is an ancient art from that is believed to be at least 2,000 years old[11]. Chinese circuses are a part of a rich tradition that is generational. Most Chinese circuses are operated by a single family. These circuses can include live animal acts, but the focus is usually on acrobatic acts and dance performances.

The animals that do appear in Chinese circuses are prone to mistreatment and abuse. At the moment China does not have any type of national animal protection law. This means that there are no legal welfare requirements for housing, feeding, transportation, veterinarian care and general care for circus animals, including elephants. The article titled “Does China Need an Animal Protection Law” addresses the current efforts of Chinese law experts in drafting China’s first national animal protection law. Most importantly, this article discusses the challenges that these lawyers are facing in creating such a law.

The conflict facing the adoption of an animal protection law in China can be described as the East versus the West. The East versus the West is a situational and ideological conflict that tends to occur when western thought is introduced or forced into an eastern state. The following quote best explains the present conflict in China regarding animal welfare: “Some people believe it’s absolutely necessary to punish those who abuse animals, while others believe that animal protection is something only developed countries can afford to consider. [12] The belief that human protection needs to be achieved before animal protection is a reasonable claim. In the last couple of decades, China has experienced rapid growth in their economy. Unfortunately, social progress has not kept up with economic progress. Basic rights and availability of social welfare resources is not guaranteed everywhere in China. People who live in remote locations are often impoverished and have not seen the benefits that people living in the developed cities have seen. Animal cruelty may not be a priority for someone who lacks food, clean water, and shelter.

This type of law would also be problematic for people following traditional Chinese customs involving animals. An animal protection law could make many current animal practices in China illegal overnight. Putting these problems aside, China is making some progress in terms of animal welfare. This past June a survey regarding animal welfare was given to Chinese citizens. The results revealed that eighty percent of the respondents supported a basic animal protection law, and seventy-five percent agreed that people who abuse animals to death should go to jail. [13] The credibility of this survey could be questioned.

The article does not mention who created the survey, and which populations of people were given the survey. If this survey is representative of the China as a whole, it is hopeful that China will be able to adopt a national animal protection law in the near future. In the beginning of 2010, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development in China put a ban on all animal acts in zoos and wildlife parks. [14] This ban came after a report was published by the animal advocate organization called Animals Asia. The report highlighted numerous instances of severe animal abuse and what they describe as horrific living conditions.

The increasing number of exposes and reports by animal advocacy groups have brought attention to animal abuse in China and aided in the creation of bans such as the one mentioned above. Although the Chinese ban on animal performances in zoos and safari parks is a step in the right direction, it does not protect animals in circuses. Elephants will continue to be exploited until the ban is extended to circuses. The first purchase and exhibition of an elephant in the United States occurred in 1808. [15] After this date, elephants became a central component of American circuses.

By 1952, a hundred and twenty-four elephants belonged to circuses. Many of the first elephants imported to this country did not live long. An inadequate understanding of elephants as a species contributed to many of these early elephant deaths. The lack of a formal animal welfare law may have also been a factor. The United States passed the Animal Welfare Act in 1n 1966. This act regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition and transport. “Persons who have warmblooded animals on display, animals that perform for the public, or animals used in educational resentations, must be licensed as exhibiters” with the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APIS)[16]. The U. S. Department of Agriculture regulates AWA and APIS. The Animal Welfare Act requires exhibiters to provide adequate care and treatment for their animals. Requirements for specific animals are not listed under AWA. The APIS has an inspection guide that is useful for both inspectors and animal exhibiters. Elephants have species specific requirements. An elephant must have access to a pool or pond, be free from dry skin and skin wounds, and be able to move and lie down comfortably if chained. 17] The U. S. Animal Welfare Act is vague in many areas. What counts as elephant abuse is one of these areas. Until recently, the AWA has not mentioned anything about the use of bull hooks on elephants. Bull hooks are tools used as negative enforcers. These hooks tear at an elephants delicate skin, causing them much pain. In 2009, PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) brought the owners of the Ringling Bros. Circus to court. PETA argued that Ringling Bros. violated the Endangered Species Act by using bull hooks on endangered Asian elephants[18].

The judge who presided in this case agreed that bull hooks cause unnecessary pain to elephants, but ruled that PETA did not have standing. Even though PETA lost this case, bull hooks have been prohibited by an amendment to AWA. Elephants in American circuses will no longer suffer at the hand of a bull hook. This is a small, but notable win for elephant welfare on the federal level. PETA v. Ringling Bros has more noticeably sparked action by local governments. Shortly after this ruling, New York City officials voted in support to prohibit “the display of wild or exotic animals for public entertainment or amusement[19]”.

This decision means that elephants will no longer be parading through New York City. Local governments in the United States are the clear legislative leaders in an elephant protection and performance ban A significant portion of elephant suffering is from the inability to carry out instinctual behaviors. The Animal Welfare Act does not incorporate a mental wellbeing requirement in its text. This is highly problematic for animals such as elephants, dolphins, chimpanzees, and whales which have greater intellectual and emotional capacities than most other non-human animals.

If the AWA was amended to include a mental wellbeing component, it is likely that a federal ban on elephants would follow. The current practices and environment created by circuses cannot support an elephant’s mental health. This is evident in the abnormal behaviors displayed by most elephants in circuses. Elephants reappeared in English entertainment in early 2009. Before this 2009 show, elephant acts had not been performed in the United Kingdom for nearly a decade. [20] The Great British Circus received much criticism when it announced that it would be bringing elephants back into their line-up.

Elephant acts have not been formally outlawed by the British government, but it is a common opinion that they should be. Like the United States, the United Kingdom has an Animal Welfare Act. The United Kingdom did not pass an official animal welfare law until 2006. Prior to the U. K. ’s AWA, animal owners had the “duty of care”. Duty of care is a common law term that is legally binding[21]. It specifically refers to the responsibility of the owner to ensure that their animal does not suffer unnecessarily. The U. K. ’s Animal Welfare Act is much more specific in respects to how animal must be cared more, and how it cannot be treated.

This Act says that an animals’ welfare needs includes, “a suitable environment, a suitable diet, the ability to exhibit normal behaviour patterns, and protection from pain, suffering, injury and disease”[22]. The U. K. based animal advocacy group Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) does not believe that circuses can uphold the standards set by the U. K. ’s Animal Welfare Act. [23] A representative of the Great British Circus told the BBC news that the trainers use only their voice to get the elephants to follow commands. This statement neglects the other components of the Animal Welfare Act.

Word of voice does not matter if an elephant is being held in a small trailer. The United Kingdom’s comprehensive definition of animal welfare makes it nearly impossible for a circus to have elephants. In December of 2009, the U. K. ’s Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs consulted the public on the matter of wild animals in circuses. Defra asked the public to answer questions that would help the government in determining if they should ban all wild or exotic animal acts altogether. The first question in the survey reads, “Do you think that there are any species of wild animal which is acceptable to use in traveling circuses? . Out of 100%, 95. 5% of persons responding to this question said no[24]. China, the United States, and the United Kingdom represent separate sections of the world. Government laws along with public opinion can place these three countries on an animal welfare spectrum. Being ranked from the most protective to the least protective is the U. K, U. S, and China. The United Kingdom like most of Western Europe has very high standards for animal welfare and the environment. The United States falls in the middle because it disregards the mental aspects of animal cruelty which is a critical in species like elephants.

At the moment China does not have any sort of formal animal protection law. This is why I have ranked China as number three. The United States should be heavily scrutinized in regards to our treatment of elephants. Entertainment is not a valid excuse for animal abuse. The lifelong suffering of a circus elephant cannot be justified. There is a lot of cruelty that is hiding behind the tent curtains of circuses. Now that this cruelty has been exposed, it is imperative that people react and act. Acting can be avoiding animal circuses, protesting, donating time or money to animal advocacy groups, or meeting with government representatives.

If people do not act, elephant cruelty will remain among us. Works Cited “About ATE. ” Amboseli Trust for Elephants. 2010. Web. . “Animal Exhibitors. ” USDA – APHIS. July 2003. Web. . “Animal Welfare Act 2006. ” Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. 12 Feb. 2010. Web. . “Animal Welfare. ” USDA – APHIS. Nov. 2004. Web. . “BBC NEWS | UK | England | Nottinghamshire | Anger over Elephants’ Circus Show. ” BBC News – Home. 27 Feb. 2009. Web. . Bradshaw, G. A. “Elephants in Circuses: Analysis of Practice, Policy and Future. ” 2007. Web. . “Chinese Circus. ” British Born Chinese. Web. Colwell, Jessica. “China Bans Animal Performances, Elephants Breath Easier – Shanghaiist. ” Shanghaiist: News, Music, Nightlife, Restaurants, Events and More in Shanghai, China. 27 Oct. 2010. Web. . Forthman, Debra L. , Lisa F. Kane, and Paul F. Waldau. An Elephant in the Room: the Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy, 2009. Print. Lee, Jennifer. “Should Circus Elephants Be Banned? ” The New York Times. 23. Mar. 2009. Web. http://cityroom. blogs. nytimes. com/2009/03/26/should-circus-be-banned, MacGregor, Fiona. To the Circus: Conservationists Warn of Elephant Exodus from Laos”. Guardian. co. uk. 10 Aug. 2010. Web. . Shigong, Li. “Does China Need an Animal Protection Law? ” Beijing Review. 06 Nov. 2009. Web. . Sims, Paul. “Animal Welfare Charity Slams Plans for Elephant Circus Act”. 23 Feb. 2009. Web. . “Trial Reveals Extreme Elephant Abuse by Ringling Bros. Circus. ” People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA): The Animal Rights Organization | PETA. org. Web. . ———————– [1] “Elephants in Circuses: Analysis of Practice, Policy and Future. ” [2] Amboseli Trust for Elephants 3] “To the Circus: Conservationists Warn of Elephant Exodus from Laos”. [4] Ibd p. 1 [5] “Elephants in Circuses: Analysis of Practice, Policy and Future. ” [6] “Trial Reveals Extreme Elephant Abuse by Ringling Bros. Circus. ” [7] An Elephant in the Room: the Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. p. 3 [8] “Elephants in Circuses: Analysis of Practice, Policy and Future. ” [9] An Elephant in the Room: the Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. p. 7 [10] An Elephant in the Room: the Science and Well-being of Elephants in Captivity. p. 56 [11] “Chinese Circus. ” 12] “Does China Need an Animal Protection Law? ” p. 1 [13] “Does China Need an Animal Protection Law? ” [14] “China Bans Animal Performances, Elephants Breath Easier” [15] “Elephants in Circuses: Analysis of Practice, Policy and Future. ” [16] “Animal Welfare. ” [17] “Animal Exhibitors. ” [18] “Trial Reveals Extreme Elephant Abuse by Ringling Bros. Circus. ” [19] “Should Circus Elephants Be Banned? ” [20] “Animal Welfare Charity Slams Plans for Elephant Circus Act”. [21] “Animal Welfare Act 2006. ” [22] “Animal Welfare Act 2006. ” [23] “Anger over Elephants’ Circus Show. ” [24] www. defra. gov. uk

“This Whole System Seems Wrong” Felipe Montez and Concerns About the Global Supply Chain my essay help uk: my essay help uk

In 2003 Felipe Montez was hired to be a Purchasing Director and Product Designer for a Spanish electronics company. This company focused on supplying fashion-forward personal electronics (such as cell phones or MP3 players) and had built their reputation by quickly responding to trends in electronics while still maintaining a reasonable price point. In order to keep prices low and produce products quickly, the company outsourced certain elements of their production, most recently to factories in South China.

Until Felipe was hired, the company had a 27 year history of working with a distributor in Hong Kong, during which time no one from the Spanish headquarters had ever visited the actual Chinese factories where their goods were manufactured. Felipe had previous experience working in Asia, and decided to cut out the middle-man by working directly with the factories in China that supplied his company’s goods. Working directly with their factories eliminated the distributor’s mark-up (which was sometimes as high as 30%) and allowed for faster communication and delivery from the factory.

On Felipe’s first trip to China he visited several factories. Conditions varied from one factory to another. A few of them were clean and very organized, but some facilities seemed more chaotic. Felipe was particularly concerned about the conditions in the factory that produced the majority of his company’s goods. Many of the employees at this factory appeared to be very young (Felipe guessed they were 12-16 years old).

In response to questions about the youth of the workers, the factory manager told Felipe that younger girls were valued for their precision work: they had small hands and could mount chips on motherboards very carefully. Although younger girls were slower than an assembly machine, the factory manager told Felipe they were cheaper to “run” and “maintain”. The young factory workers had to work for what the foreman claimed to be an 8-hour work day, 6 days a week. In general, the factory manager seemed to regard the workers less as human beings and more as part of a mechanical process.

Felipe was shocked to discover that during their shifts the workers were not allowed to look up, because the factory manager did not want them to lose one second of concentration. In spite of these long hours of concentrated work, the young girls installing chips into motherboards did not have magnifying glasses to ease the strain on their eyes. Felipe was also concerned that working conditions in the factory were unhealthy. He noticed that, in spite of high temperatures in the region (often above 100?

Fahrenheit), the only employees working in an air-conditioned space were the ones working with the assembly machines, because the machines needed a constant room temperature. Felipe was especially troubled by the fact that some factory employees worked in the immediate vicinity of melted lead, while others painted plastic cases with only paper masks for respiratory protection from resulting gasses. (In fact, on a later visit Felipe discovered that these workers were paid more, as it was well-known in the community that these workers would often get seriously ill, and perhaps even die. The workers’ lives outside of the factory also concerned Felipe: all of the workers lived next door in a factory-owned building that did not have windows or running water. After his visit, Felipe could not stop thinking about what he had seen at this factory. He had visited a number of factories in China, and while there were certainly factories with worse conditions, there were many where conditions were far better. He was uncomfortable about continuing to source the majority of his company’s products from the factory with conditions as they were.

On the other hand, Felipe knew that this particular factory was prized for the speed and quality of its work and that his job was to maintain the quality of his company’s goods. Felipe was unsure if he had the expertise to find a suitable replacement factory, and he reasoned that even if he took his company’s business elsewhere, it would do nothing to change the lives of the young people working in the factory. Felipe knew some representatives for the other companies that sent work to this factory, and he talked to them about his concerns.

On the whole, they seemed far less concerned. In fact, many of his colleagues pointed out that without a job in the factory, the young people who worked there would likely be doing more difficult work in the fields, or in the case of the young girls, might be pressured into prostitution. They suggested that working in the factory was a way out of poverty for these young people, even if conditions were a little rough. He knew that many of these other company representatives were far more senior than he was and had been visiting this factory for years.

Faced with their responses to his concerns, Felipe wondered, “If it is okay for them to do nothing about the conditions, maybe it is alright for me to do nothing as well? After all, they seem to know more about the situation than I do. ” But with more thought Felipe realized he wasn’t comfortable with this mentality—while working in a factory may have been better than the alternative for these young people, it did not mean that conditions could not still be improved. When he returned to Spain, Felipe discussed what he had seen with his manager and detailed his concerns about certain conditions in the factory.

His manager encouraged Felipe to follow up on specific issues he had identified, such as the need for magnifying glasses for the young girls doing precision work. However, he was discouraged from raising the larger issues, such as long hours and lack of breaks for the workers, since his manager reasoned that any changes in the factory’s policies would increase costs and therefore increase the purchase price of the goods they were sourcing from the factory. Felipe knew that some larger public companies had more stringent requirements for their factories.

He had also heard that some electronics companies were talking about creating an industry group to enforce better labor standards in their factories in Asia. However, most of these companies were placing orders on a much larger scale than his company (often working as the exclusive client of large factories, unlike his company, which worked with factories that were serving a variety of different clients), and he suspected his management wouldn’t want to get involved in issues that might ultimately raise prices.

He did find out, however, that his company had a small charitable fund that focused on providing microfinance loans to women in India. Still, as a junior member of the staff, Felipe was concerned about pressing this issue. He could tell that his manager considered the discussion over, and going above his head seemed like a bad idea. Felipe was also concerned that he could undermine his credibility in the company or be branded as too naive. However, when he thought about things he had seen in China, he felt guilty nd sad, even when he tried to tell himself that this was just the reality of the world. He wanted to act prudently and effectively, but how? What could he do and say next? This material is part of the Giving Voice to Values curriculum collection (www. GivingVoiceToValues. org). The Aspen Institute was founding partner, along with the Yale School of Management, and incubator for Giving Voice to Values (GVV). Now Funded by Babson College. Do not alter or distribute without permission. © Mary C. Gentile, 2010

Computer and Web Ethics cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help

With the freedom of the computer has come a multitude of new ethical issues. Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that systematize the use of computers and supervise the behavior of a group or individual. This essay will tell how computer ethics came about. We will discuss the “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics. ” Having the use of a computer for business, academic, or just for social reasons entitles you to know and follow these ethics. Do you apply computer ethics when spending time on the internet?

At the end of this essay ask yourself this question again and give an honest answer. If your answer is no then correct the issue and apply them now. Ethics in computing are social-justice issues, commerce, computer abuse, speech issues, intellectual property, basics, privacy, and risks. We will discuss each of these issues in this essay. By the end of this essay you will have the knowledge of computer and web ethics to apply to your daily use of a computer. The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics were created in 1992 by the Computer Ethics Institute.

The commandments were introduced in the paper “In Pursuit of a ‘Ten Commandments’ for Computer Ethics” by Ramon C. Barquin as a means to create “a set of standards to guide and instruct people in the ethical use of computers (Fitzpatrick, Carolyn Bronstein 2006). ” The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics 1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work. 3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files. 4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. 5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. . Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. 7. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation. 8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output. 9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. 10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that ensure consideration and respect for your fellow humans. The “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics” cover many concerns of ethics in the technology world today.

It covers plagiarism, hacking, identity theft, and social standards. These issues are in the work place, academic areas, and the social network. If people would follow the “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics” it would be a start in the fight against ethical problems in the world of computer technology. Computer ethics begin long ago with the invention of computers. MIT professor Norbert Wiener, during WWII in the early 1940s, recognized the consideration of computer ethics. Wiener helped to develop an anti-aircraft cannon with the capability of shooting down fast warplanes.

Cybernetics, the science of information feedback systems, was soon created by Wiener and his colleagues. In 1950, Wiener published The Human Use of Human Beings, which described a comprehensive foundation that is still the basis for computer ethics research and analysis (Rebecca Harold, 2006). Donn B. Parker published “Rules of Ethics in Information Processing” in Communications of the ACM in 1968. Parker headed the first code of Professional Conduct for the Association for Computing Machinery which was adopted by the ACM in 1973 (Rebecca Harold, 2006).

In 1978, Maner published the Starter Kit in Computer Ethics, which contained curriculum materials and advice for developing computer ethics courses. Many university courses were put in place because of Maner’s work (Rebecca Harold, 2006). These were just the beginning of the concept of computer ethics. Today the field has grown in different ways and has developed over time. Growing up parents taught their children at a young age morals and ethics at the top of this list is manors. Manors consist of being polite to others and using appropriate language.

Ethics were taught as the children got older. Ethics consist of the dos and don’ts of life do the right things stay clear of the wrong things. Morals and ethics should be involved in all that we do in life. Morals and ethics are important in the computer world as we know it today. Computer and web ethics are the same as the ethics we were taught as children but applied when we are on the computer. Use proper computer and web ethics to make your time on the internet fun and safe for all. Computer ethics covers many fields and areas of the web. Below is a site map of computer ethics.

By: Dr. Edward F. Gehringer ([email protected]. edu). Let’s begin with commerce. Commerce covers many areas like anticompetitive practices, fraud, free trade, and gambling. With gambling, individuals are losing money over the internet when playing some games. The games are getting people hooked and giving them the option to purchase more chips or other gaming items. Social-justice issues covered in the map are downsides of computer age, work place issues, and equity of access. In the work place people need to be professional at all times, this includes computer access.

Emails and business letters must be ethical. Some employees have been known to have unauthorized access to business computers during work hours or hacking them after hours. One of the most common problems in computer ethics is computer abuse. Computer abuse is hacking, worms, viruses, Trojan horses, and spamming. Intellectual properties are software privacy, patent and copyright law, electronic copyright. Speech issues covers chain letters, free speech, and netiquette. There is a freedom of speech on most social sites; however, some people take it to an extreme.

Foul language is an issue on Facebook which needs to be addressed. People can express themselves without the use of foul language. Privacy covers email privacy, anonymity, encryption, privacy on the web, and database privacy. The basics are principles, whistle blowing, and code of ethics. Risks are taken each time someone logs onto a computer. The risks are computer models, software reliability, artificial intelligence, network security, and software safety (Rebecca Harold, 2006). The theft of computer software is a serious issue. This issue is common in the academic area.

Computer ethics are important in the academic world. Students plagiarize papers thinking it is an easy out and that they will not be caught. In some cases students do get away with this but in most cases they are not so lucky. Copying someone else’s work and passing it on as your own is unethical and immoral. If you feel the need to use someone else’s work word for word be sure to cite it properly and reference the work. This will protect you from plagiarism and also give credit to the author as well. Students who are caught plagiarizing or cheating are punished.

Punishment can consist of failing grade for the paper, failing the course and having to retake it, the loss of funding, or in some cases being expelled from school and having the issue documented on your personal record. The price for unethical conduct in the academic world is not always worth the short cut. It is better to budget your time wisely or turn the assignment in late, losing a few points would be better than the alternative. The use of the internet is different for many people as shown in the graph below (Susan Wilson, 2011). Computer UsagePercentage Browsing 79% Online Banking 47%

Get Product Info 46% Social Networking 46% Playing Games 39% Download/View Videos 39% Download/Listen to Music 38% Listen to Online Radio 38% Pay Bills 22% These usages leave people venerable to hackers and identity theft, two computer ethic issues. However, these usages have also brought a convenience to the public. Online banking and bill pay are convenient and hassle free; however, it can provide information to a hacker and cause the individual financial problems later on. The purchase and download of a secure anti-virus which prevents hacking will be most helpful in these situations.

Computer ethics is a set of moral principles that systematize the use of computers and supervise the behavior of a group or individual. Now that you know more about computer and web ethics ask yourself the question again. Do you apply computer ethics when spending time on the internet? What is your answer now? Do you follow the “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics? ” If your answer is yes, then you conduct proper ethics in computing which are social-justice issues, commerce, computer abuse, speech issues, intellectual property, basics, privacy, and risks.

If your answer is yes, then you know and follow the “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics. ” If you are a student and your education is important to you then take the time to do your own work and to properly cite and reference your papers. The knowledge of computer and web ethics is the first step in defeating the fight against computer neglect and safe internet use for all. So take the time to learn proper computer and web ethics and apply them to your use of the computer and enjoy your computer and web adventures.

Reader-Response Critical Essay on Mitty grad school essay help: grad school essay help

Reader-Response Critical Essay On Mitty Erica Tosh ENG 125 Introduction to Literature Prof. Alex Vuilleumier August 1, 2011 Reader-Response Critical Essay On Mitty Did you listen to anything that I just said to you, are you even paying attention to me at all? These words are often what I hear rolling off of my grandmother’s tongue, the constant bickering, everything needing to be done a certain way at a particular time. This seems to be the same way Walter Mitty lives his life in the short story, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” by James Thurber.

I have elected to write a reader-response critical analysis on this shorty story to define why I found this short story to be alluring, how I related to each character, and how I was able to reminisce on my own life through the words of Thurber. Instantly, the story starts with a daydream of Mitty’s, he is a commander of an 8-engine hydroplane trying to fight his way through a horrific storm. As the story goes on and the commander is screaming to switch the dials, I can feel the intensity, almost as though I am a co-pilot next to Mitty battling with the rest of the crew.

Within seconds, his shrieking wife snaps Mitty out of his daydream, so fast that he barely recognizes her. As fast as this daydream occurs is as fast as reality sets in, and this is an ongoing process throughout the entire short story. Thurber made this story intriguing, leaving the reader with the anticipation of wondering what would be next. As his day goes on, he continues to daydream of various settings, no longer Walter Mitty, now a brilliant surgeon asked to assist in a procedure for a rich Englishman.

Thurber strongly uses satire, “literary art that calls attention to the difference between what a particular thing should be and what it actually is,” (Clugson, 2010 Ch. 1. 2). He uses the word coreopsis as though it is some kind of terrible disease, when in fact this is a beautiful, yellow, wildflower found throughout the world. I found this to be very humorous and creative, enjoyed trying to figure out what it was that Thurber was trying to imply. It would seem impossible to imagine an individual would live a life without ever having a daydream; life wouldn’t be normal for that person.

Living without daydreams could possibly result in a completely boring life, living day after day in complete repeat. I did not relate to Mitty’s daydreams due to the intensity and how in depth they were. He imagined being places and doing things that I have only read in a book or have seen on television. My usual daydream contains ideas on what I would like to do with my day or possibly even my week, I have never imagined myself in a completely different atmosphere with a totally different career.

When Mitty finally remembered what it was that his wife had asked him to purchase, and he said it out loud, while he was alone, this was the one time I was able to relate to him. He did not realize he was talking to himself and that everyone could hear, it was the excitement that he had actually remembered, and I have found myself doing the same. In this short story, I was more able to relate to Mrs. Mitty. I felt as though I could understand where she was coming from when scolding her husband.

He obviously did this often, and she was disturbed by this and felt as though he needed to seek help from a professional. It is hard to be ignored, especially by a significant other, so I felt the annoyance Mrs. Mitty must have been feeling. The humor he brought out in this story was incredible, he made me laugh out loud and I felt the need to continue reading. After the story was over, it made me reminisce on episodes of my own grandfather daydreaming while my grandmother would talk to him.

He often would run simple errands and return home with not one thing my grandmother had asked him to buy, not because he didn’t want to buy them, but simply because he left without a clue of what he was out to buy. After reading this story, I asked my grandfather what exactly it was that he would think about while she talked to him, his answer was simple, not hearing the sound of her nagging voice. Reference: Clugston, R. W. (2010). Journey into Literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, INC. https://content. ashford. edu/books

Sustainable Tourism Through Alternative Forms of Tourism mba essay help: mba essay help

Sustainable tourism is only achievable through the development of alternative and new forms of tourism. Critically discuss this statement with reference to one or more examples of alternative tourism in developed or developing countries. The development of Sustainable Tourism has allowed society to meet their own present needs, without compromising such needs of future generations (Weaver and Lawton, 2010). Much attention in relation to sustainable tourism has been devoted to Alternative Tourism.

Alternative Tourism aims to preserve environmental, economical and socio-cultural impacts tourists have on a destination. This paper will explore the benefits and criticisms of sustainability by a means of Alternative Tourism and also the threat regarding Alternative Tourism potentially developing into Mass Tourism. Tourists visit foreign countries to obtain a sense of paradise, and dabble in a society that has not yet been corrupted (Buchner, 2003). Sustainable Tourism aims to provide such paradise by meeting the needs of tourists, without effecting the economy, environment and society in a detrimental way.

Thus far, Sustainable Tourism has had a vast variety of implications, such as ethical considerations and the suggestion that it may just be a marketing ploy (Lansing and Vries, 2007). It also has been confused with Ecotourism, a form of tourism that places emphasis on a sustainable connection with the natural environment (Weaver and Lawton, 2010). However, Ecotourism is actually a form of Alternative Tourism and potentially Mass Tourism (Weaver and Lawton, 2010) thus fitting with a number of other new forms of tourism. Alternative tourism has emerged and assumed to be effective in developing countries (Britton 1979).

Alternative tourism is a substitute to the mass standard tourism, which is tourism that has the implication of culture being co modified and staged for culture consumption (McIntosh and Zahara, 2007), as philosophy and attitudes are dissimilar and the combination of tourist products and/or services are different from Mass Tourism. Forms of Alternative Tourism include Indigenous tourism, Pro-poor tourism, Community-based tourism, Ecotourism, Adventure tourism, Fair-Trade tourism, Educational tourism and Volunteer Tourism (Newsome, Moore and Dowling, 002). For example, Fair-Trade tourism seeks to create a partnership between the local people at destinations, by providing social, cultural and economical benefits through adhering to national laws and establishing strong First World/Third World structures (Mowforth and Munt, 1998). A key focus on changing consumption levels lead to the establishment of tourism Concern’s International Fair Trade in Tourism Network. It found that to preserve attractions of destinations, whilst providing benefits it was substantial to adopt ethical trading practices (www. ourismconcern. org. uk). Another successful alternative form of tourism takes place in Bulgaria. Here, resources for Alternative Tourism are diverse and it combines preserved nature with unique cultural and historical heritage, moderate climates, beautiful landscapes and hospital people who welcome differences and respecting traditions. They implement thematic tourism, which involves a connection between the cultural and historical heritage, the religion, traditional cuisine, wine, traditional music and handcrafts.

They focus on the idea that Bulgaria is a place to rest and relax, whilst connecting with nature and that it should thus be a high priority and responsibility to preserve nature (Illev, 2006). This form of tourism is attractive to a tourist whom is seeking to escape the “daily grind” and thus has made Bulgaria a sustainable income base for such an alternative form of tourism. It is often assumed that the basis of alternative tourism is a “green” strategy (Butler, 1992), as the objective is to reduce negative impacts environmentally.

However, this is not completely the case as preserving the environment is only one of the objectives. The problem with this assumption is that research has indicated the demand for holidays that are “green” is low, and thus it may not lead to sustainable tourism. This coincides with the statement of some companies suggesting they will only attempt to achieve sustainable tourism if they can see a strong market demand for eco-friendly holidays (Forsythe, 2006).

On the other hand, however, consumer activation has indicated that there are actually a number of people increasingly willing to purchase and consume environmentally friendly products. A study from the International Hotels Environment Initiative and Accor has shown 90% of hotel guests to prefer residing in a hotel that has a strong focus on the environment (Mensah, 2004). From such demand the green strategy has become more centralized with a greater willingness to pay a premium for green products, corporate image, employee morale, and customer satisfaction and demand (Manaktola and Jauhari, 2007).

Thus, this allows us to conclude that Sustainable Tourism can only be achieved through each alternative form of tourism adapting to meet the demand of the market (Forsythe, 2006). A different, but increasingly popular new form of tourism is Volunteer Tourism. It has been argued that it is vital to a model of alternative cultural tourism, as intrinsic motivation was found to be evoked within the tourist, when such experience was endured, thus being beneficial to both the host and volunteer, and provides a meaningful interaction (Wearing and Neil, 2000).

It has been said that traditional interaction between the host and tourist is rewritten through the tourist’s encounter. This is because it is actively contrived together by the host and the tourist (McIntosh and Zahra, 2007). This approach provides the potential opportunity of volunteer tourism fostering creative, alternative and more sustainable types of tourism and tourism activity (McIntosh and Zahra, 2007).

Furthermore, it is a form that conforms to the ideology that was promoted by the initial pioneers of Sustainable Tourism and unites with the principles of those who encourage creative tourism as an alternative option of Cultural Tourism (Richard and Wilson, 2006). One of the many criticisms of such new form of tourism, however, involves the ethics of Volunteer tourism as a ‘best practice’ alterative of tourism (Wearing, 2004). Such example involves the idea of viewing Volunteer Tourism as a contributor to the limitation of self-sufficiency in communities. Alternative forms of tourism do have disadvantages and criticisms.

These can include clan or group rivalries, advocates being bias and uncritical, modest economic returns, control assumed by local elite, reflections of “Western” values, and the fact that locals may actually prefer Mass Tourism (Weaver and Opperman, 2000). Furthermore, it can be quite difficult to achieve sustainability through alternative tourism due to inadequate resources, management, control systems and income, and if proper controls are not in place it may be difficult to distinguish between Mainstream Tourism and Alternative Tourism (Leksakundilok, 2006).

For example, Backpacking Tourism has created a blur between Mass Tourism and Alternative Tourism (Welk, 2004), as the search for greater and more authentic experiences, as backpackers, pushes them to access remote places, thus ironically contributing to their commercialisation (Zurick, 1995). Alternative tourism is often introduced because tourists are seeking different conventions to what they are use to and also because they have been influenced by marketing concepts that have lead them to believe that conventional and mainstream tourism is irresponsible.

The former point derives from the idea that some tourists want to get away from crowded destinations and experience authentic culture. The problem with authentic culture is that what is authentic to some people, may be inauthentic to others (Pearce and Moscardo, 1986), similar to that of what Alternative Tourism appears to be. A successful authentic tourist attraction involves New Zealand Maori tourism. It is a combination of entertainment, arts and crafts, cultural interpretation and accommodation operations and there appears to be a large demand for this type of tourism.

However, problems arise when there are misunderstandings about the cultural performances and it can be argued, for example, that on one level all copies of local art are “authentic” because they convey a meaning of their own (Weaver and Lawton, 2010). For example, the increased demand of Maori cultural performances and products have been a result from an attempt to facilitate economic development for Maori communities and, as such, have been criticized as being a vague insight to the culture, only focusing on traditional cultural perspectives.

This has hence lead to the idea that tourists are enduring superficial and stereotypical experiences (McIntosh, 2004). So how can alternative forms of tourism be sustainable if what the alternative is, may not be perceived as authentic? To answer such question and meet tourists demands for authentic and real experiences of culture, Maori communities, for example, are attempting to provide a more engaging, sincere and meaningful interaction between tourists and the Maori people, hence, providing an “alternative” experience to the stereotypical and superficial performances that have critics rampant (Taylor, 2001).

This allows us to conclude that sustainability will only occur if the alternative form is perceived as authentic. Sustainability in any development is generally only successful with support of the local population and if the attitudes of the host population oppose the new forms of tourism, the development may stop (Gyrsoy and Rutherford, 2004).

Furthermore, new forms of tourism are suggested to not be able to be sustained unless it is urbanized through local initiatives, which are consistent and harmonious with the local environment, community and cultures. For example, Volunteer Tourism is centralised around the essence that contributions to the host communities exist in form of socio-cultural, economical and environmental benefits, however for sustainability to occur a “moral agenda” or a “practical route map” must be addressed and treated with utmost importance (Macbeth, 1994).

Through such emphasis, a strong and reciprocated relationship between the tourists participating, and the host community can be developed, and has shown that Volunteer tourism, as an alternative and new form or tourism, can not only improve aspects of the hosts’ communities environmentally, but also provide a vast variety of social and personal benefits to the participant, which include social network systems and an increased understanding of social and environmental issues (McGehee, 2002).

The biggest problem with Sustainable Tourism being achieved through alternative forms of tourism is the major factor of time. How long can new forms of tourism remain alternatives from Mass Tourism? The more global issues are being recognised from impacts of tourism, the more tourists are becoming aware of how they travel (McGehee, 2002). Thus the emergence of Ecotourism occurred in order to keep impacts of the tourist activity at bay.

Nevertheless, even with such emergence, the more popular the activity becomes, the more impacts it may have, for example the sensitizing of ecosystems, stressing wildlife, contributing to soil erosion, deteriorating the quality of water and exacerbating coral reef destruction (Debarbieri, 2008). However, if a control system is in place and management is of a high importance, destinations of alternative forms of tourism can provide a sustainable base where both Mass Tourism is prevented and the impacts of such are avoided, through the alternative forms of tourism (Westerhausen, 2002).

In conclusion sustainability is achieved through alternative forms of tourism, however whether or not the negatives out number the positives is yet to be concluded. This paper explored both the benefits and detrimental issues that are extracted from new forms of tourism, however it can be set in stone that if a control system is in place and importance is imposed on a highly managed route system to sustainability, Alternative Tourism is definitely a method of achieving such objective.

Marketing Analysis on Garnier Fructis Shampoo (Entered in Turnitin) college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

1. 0 Situation Analysis/Current Marketing Mix 1. 1 Current Product The Garnier Fructis fortifying cream shampoo colour last is one of a large assortment of shampoos on the market. In the midst of such a large range of competitors, Garnier has taken steps to make their product stand out. The product is distinctively designed with a dark red bottle, combined with a dark green cap and label. The opening cap is small and rounded and differs to the usual large opening cap of most shampoos. The general theme amongst shampoos is very bright bold colours so this products darker colours does differentiate the product.

Consumers purchasing this product need cleaner hair and a product that will prolong their highlights or completely dyed hair. The product labelling reassures the consumer that the product will meet this need by describing the features of the product. The labelling describes how the product has a double action: nourishes + resists colour fading (Product label), thereby seeking to profess that they are meeting the needs of the buyer. So people in the target market of having coloured hair will be attracted to this product because of these attributes.

The main consumers who buy this product are women and casual surveillance of shoppers in the health products section of the supermarket showed that a large degree of women will take two to three minutes to select a shampoo. Where this product is not available, the most probable outcome would be that consumers would select a substitute product. This is because therea€™s many available alternative shampoos on the market and they all generally do the same job and profess the same sort of benefits.

The Garnier shampoo range is quite diverse with shampoos specifically for normal, dry hair, dry damaged and stressed out hair, wavy hair and of course colour last. The first four shampoo hair types though come in a green bottle, with the colour last being the only one in a red bottle. This probably reflects the fact that people with non-highlighted hair might use any of the first four hair types and people with highlighted hair mainly use the colour last.

So Garniera€™s product for the later market segment is uniquely coloured to be easily identified amongst the others as people dona€™t colour their hair green but may colour their hair red (colour of bottle) or any other colour. The fragrance of this product is quite unique and fragrance has been shown to be an influencing factor on a product decision. Choice magazine has evaluated the fragrances of various shampoos; Garnier Fructis Fortifying Shampoo was rated highest, having a 70% fragrance score (Browne, 2006).

This is another aspect of the product which has helped differentiate Garniera€™s product. 1. 2 Current Pricing The shampoo market is highly competitive with many suppliers in the market, at varying pricing levels. Consumers have the option to purchase low, middle and high priced shampoos, with Garnier Fructis sitting around the middle to high price range. A recent visit to Coles, Karawara saw a 250ml bottle of Garnier Colour last priced at $5. 34 ($2. 14 p/100ml).

Two interesting points of note on this are that most shampoos come in 400ml bottles, indicating that Garnier may be undertaking the marketing ploy of offering a decreased product size in this product to appear less expensive, as well as decreasing consumers ability to make direct price comparisons with other products. The second point is that the 400ml bottle of Garnier Colour last was priced at $8. 99 ($2. 25 p/100ml), which is actually slightly more expensive per 100ml than the smaller bottle.

As most consumers would expect buying the larger bottle would be cheaper this is another example of underhand marketing tactics by Garnier. Garniera€™s colour last shampoo pricing sits above most brands, including Herbal Fusion ($1. 25 p/100ml), Natures Fruits ($0. 38 p/100ml), Organic Car Colour Shield Shampoo ($0. 77 p/100ml) and is similarly priced to Pantenea€™s Colour therapy shampoo ($2. 45 p/100ml) and Doves range of shampoos ($2. 31 p/100m). (ColesOnline 2011) Figures used are in per 100ml as many competitors use slightly different sized bottles; in comparing prices the closest bottle sizes have been chosen.

As Garnier has positioned their product towards the top of the market they have had to ensure the perceived value that their product offers is greater than cheaper alternatives. Average weekly product sales figures listed on the shelf product pricing ticket at Coles Karawara indicate 935 are sold weekly, which compares to 754 for Pantenea€™s colour shampoo and 832 for the budget natures fruits shampoo. These figures suggest that Garnier has positioned their product well and consumers are influenced by the product image and quality when deciding to purchase this product.

In pricing its products Garnier must consider its business costs; however the cost of making the product varies little between manufacturers. Experts say most shampoos… contain the same basic ingredients: water, cleansing agents, foaming agents and a few preservatives (Shampoo: Full Report, 2010) and thus the difference in price between Garnier and other brands must be driven by other costs such as marketing. Garnier does market there products quite extensively on TV, in magazines and through various other marketing mediums.

Therefore Garniera€™s product is higher up the scales on price due to greater advertising costs. a€? 1. 3 Current Distribution In deciding on the distribution of its product Garnier will first have looked at the type of product Fructis fortifying cream shampoo colour last is and what its characteristics are. The product is obviously a consumer product: a product bought by people for personal use and can be categorised as a convenience product. Convenience products are inexpensive frequent purchases, there is little effort needed to purchase them (Learn Marketing n. d. ).

As the name might suggest convenience products need to be located widely so that they can be easily located and purchased at convenient times. In response to this knowledge Garnier has ensured its product is widely distributed. Garnier Shampoo can be found at supermarkets including Coles and IGA. Supermarkets being of course where most consumers shop for their staple products, which includes shampoo. Other locations that stock Garniera€™s shampoo include multi goods stores such as Kmart, Target and Big W. Chemists are also stockists, this list includes Priceline, Terry White Chemist and Chemmart Pharmacy (Where to Buy Garnier Products. . d. ) Consumers therefore dona€™t have to spend much time shopping for Garniera€™s product. This is essential as consumers are unlikely to spend much time looking for convenience products but would rather accept a substitute as discussed earlier. 1. 4 Current Promotion Garnier runs many promotions including, sales promotions (in store specials), television promotions (commercials) and sponsorship/participation in various community events. In store specials are regularly run for Garniera€™s products to provide a short term incentive to encourage purchase… of its product (Kotler et al. 2008, 484).

The main purpose of this is to entice new consumers to buy Garniera€™s shampoo; be it loyal users of a competing brand or consumers who regularly switch brands. A recent example of an in store promotion is Priceline, who recently advertised in its catalogue a 25% discount off Garnier Fructis Shampoo or Conditioner 250ml. The original price was $5. 99 and the reduced price was $4. 49 (Priceline Catalogue. 2011). Television commercials run intermittently and can also be viewed via the Garnier website. A recent commercial specifically for Fructis colour last featured women in their early years (25-35yrs) leading active and social lifestyles.

The commercial begins with a group of female joggers, then jumps to a cocktail bar with friends, followed by swimming and then finally to a group of friends after a bike ride. The commercial has an outdoors and active theme throughout, which is representative of the lifestyles of the target audience for Garniera€™s Products. Garnier also sponsors the Surf rider foundation Love your Beach initiative, whereby volunteers are called to action to help clean up Australiaa€™s favourite beaches. This is advertised on the Garnier website but is also promoted around the time of the event.

Another community event that Garnier participates in is the Melbourne International Flower and Garden show. At this event Garnier treats people … to a mini facial, massage or hair styling (Garnier World on Tour. 2011). People experience this within the colourful and natural backdrop of the flower and garden show. With both of these events Garnier is seeking to attract publicity and attention to its brand in a different way to traditional advertising. Philanthropic endeavours such as the sponsorship of the Love your beach initiative and handing out freebies at other events help build a positive image of the brand in peoplea€™s minds.

The running common theme in all these promotions (excluding in store specials), is the outdoors and leading active, healthy and natural lifea€™s. In this way Garnier is being consistent in the image and brand values its portraying to its consumers. 2. 0 Segmentation Theory 2. 1 Definition and explanation of Segmentation Market segmentation can be described as the process of dividing a market into a meaningful and relatively similar and identifiable segments or groups (Martin, 2011) Business use segmentation to allow them to market different products and services to different people.

People can be split into different groups through geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioural segmentation. A particular segment may be identified through using a combination of these. Once various segments have been identified the business can evaluate the attractiveness of the segments and then decide which segments are worth marketing to and which should be ignored. Then once the target segments have been identified the business must work on product positing; that is what place the product occupies in consumera€™s minds relative to competing products (Kotler et al. 2008, 246).

In the case of Garniera€™s shampoo colour last, consumera€™s impression or feelings about the shampoo may be that ita€™s a superior quality shampoo that will do a better job than competing brands. Finally the firm must decide on the products price, place and promotion, using the knowledge gathered and decisions made in the earlier steps. 2. 2 Three Benefits of Garniera€™s brand use of Segmentation The use of segmentation provides Garnier with the primary benefit of being able to provide higher value to customers by developing a market mix that address the specific need and concerns of the selected market (Restrepo. 003). In doing so Garnier receives a more loyal customer base that will decrease brand switching. Another benefit that Garnier receives through segmentation is that they can charge higher prices for each of its products as the individual products provide greater value to or perceived greater value to its customers. A product that provides high value to a specific segment can be priced higher than a generic product that provides average value to many segments. Thus the design and marketing of products to different segments allows Garnier to charge higher prices across the board.

The segmenting of the market allows Garnier to develop and implement more effective marketing campaigns as advertising and other customer interactions can be specifically tailored to the target segment. The consumers targeted in Garniera€™s campaigns will notice and recall the advertisements to a greater degree as the consumer will feel as if the advert is talking to them specifically. 3. 0 Target Market Identification Geographic Description Geographically, Garniera€™s target market is located around the inner city suburbs of Australia capital cities.

Garniera€™s products are of course sold all over Australia as all the states have consumers with similar needs and wants. Inner city areas have very dense populations and so people are always around and close to other people, hence the need to keep their hair looking good. The climate is warm most of the year round, except for three months in winter. Demographic Description The socioeconomic status of the target market is middle class. The household is made up of an adult female (25-35 yrs), adult male (25-35yrs) and one or two small children. The female may work as a personal assistant or middle tier worker in a city firm.

The male is a manager in a large retail store or service business. Both adults have diplomas or degrees. Household income is between one hundred thousand and one hundred and thirty thousand. Psychographic Description The consumers of Garniera€™s products have lots of activities in their life including jogging, social tennis, swimming, shopping and eating out. They are interested in the latest fashions including clothes and hairstyles. They believe looking good is an indicator of success and happiness. They therefore can be classed as having busy and social lifestyles, spending much time outdoors and on the go.

The primary VALS2 category of consumers would be achievers. People categorised as achievers strive for success and achieve it, they are committed to their work and have high job satisfaction. Importantly though they like to purchase products that demonstrate their success. Garniera€™s consumers have sociable and outgoing personalities. They like to live in the moment and experience new things. They have very good inter-personal skill which allows them to be in touch with other peoplea€™s feelings and needs. They are liked by everyone and always try hard to entertain and engage friends in a welcoming open way.

Behavioural Description Users of Garnier are seeking the following benefits: Softer and silkier hair, to feel healthier, to feel clean, the repair of split ends and the prolonging of hair highlights. Women use the product frequently; using during showering once every other day or more. So is used on a routine basis rather than just for special occasions or big nights out. Consumers will be somewhat loyal to the product where they will generally buy Garnier Fructis, but may be swayed from time to time to competing products when a price promotion is on.

Some consumers may also rotate there use of different brands of shampoos, staying with each for a month or so before trying another brand. This may be motivated by the feeling that their hair becomes immune to the effects of a shampoo over time. Attitudes towards Garnier is generally positive, they like the product attributes and the brand image. Though being a staple good they wona€™t be excessively enthusiastic about the product, but will favour it in general. a€? Reference List Browne, K. 2006. Shampoo Review and Compare. http://www. choice. com. au/reviews-and-tests (accessed April 3, 2011) ColesOnline. 011. https://www. colesonline. com. au (accessed March 19, 2011). Garnier World on Tour. 2011. http://www. garnier. com. au/_en/_au/news/world-on-tour. aspx (accessed April 3, 2011) Learn Marketing. n. d. Consumer Good Classifications. http://www. learnmarketing. net/consumergoods. htm (accessed April 1, 2011) Martin, C. (2011) Lecture 3: Market Segmentation, targeting and positioning. PowerPoint slides. Retrieved from Curtin University of Technology BlackBoard Web Site: http://lms. urtin. edu. au/webapps/portal (accessed April 1, 2011) Priceline Catalogue. 2011. http://priceline. dynamiccatalogue. com. au/ (accessed April 3, 2011) Restrepo, J. 2003. Segmentation-Targeting-Positioning. http://www. eurekafacts. com/Company/documents/STPWhitePaper. pdf (accessed April 1, 2011) Shampoo: Full Report. 2010. http://www. consumersearch. com/shampoo-reviews/best-shampoo (accessed April 3, 2011) Where to Buy Garnier Products. n. d. http://www. garnier. com. au/_en/_au/our_products/where_to_buy. aspx (accessed April 1, 2011)

Pysch Exam Chapter 8 essay help online: essay help online

Chapter 8 SECTION 1 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS: 1. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to the ability to store and retrieve information over time. The process of acquiring and using knowledge is called ________. a. learning; perception b. memory; perception c. learning; cognition d. memory; cognition Answer: d; Moderate 2. Psychologists use the term _________ to refer to the ability to store and retrieve information over time. a. learning b. memory c. cognition d. perception Answer: c; Easy 3. The process of acquiring and using knowledge is called ________. a. learning b. cognition c. sensation d. perception Answer: b; Easy . Which of the following scientists could be considered a cognitive psychologist? a. Dr. Abdalla, who investigates problem solving b. Dr. Braithwaite, who studies formal reasoning processes c. Dr. Clark, who examines how people encode information from the environment d. All three scientists could be considered cognitive psychologists Answer: d; Moderate 5. According to your text, the cognitive approach became the most important school of psychology in the ____. a. 1940s b. 1950s c. 1960s d. 1970s Answer: c; Moderate 6. Which of these statements does NOT accurately identify a general difference between computers and the human brain? . Computers process information in a parallel fashion, whereas the brain processes information in a serial fashion. b. The brain processes information slower than computers do. c. Whereas computers distinguish between memory and processing, the brain does not. d. The brain is more powerful than any computer. Answer: a; Difficult 7. Which of these statements does NOT accurately identify a general difference between computers and the human brain? a. Computers process information in a serial fashion, whereas the brain processes information in a parallel fashion. b. The brain processes information faster than computers do. . Whereas computers distinguish between memory and processing, the brain does not. d. The brain is more powerful than any computer. Answer: b; Difficult 8. Which alternative correctly identifies a type of memory, a memory stage, or a memory process? a. retrieval – memory stage b. encoding – memory process c. sensory memory – type of memory d. implicit memory – memory stage e. short-term memory – type of memory Answer: b; Moderate 9. Which of the following describes explicit memory? a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had c.

Memory of facts and concepts about the world d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect Answer: a; Easy 10. Which of the following describes episodic memory? a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had c. Memory of facts and concepts about the world d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect Answer: b; Easy 11. Which of the following describes semantic memory? a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had . Memory of facts and concepts about the world d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect Answer: c; Easy 12. Which of the following describes implicit memory? a. Knowledge or experiences that can be consciously remembered b. Memory of the first-hand experiences that we have had c. Memory of facts and concepts about the world d. The influence of experience on behavior, even when we are not aware of the effect Answer: d; Easy 13. It is 10:15 a. m. on a mid-semester Wednesday. Three sections of introductory psychology are meeting on the second floor of Old Main. In Room 201, Ms.

Romero is describing implicit memory. Across the hall in 204, Dr. Darby’s class is considering the differences between sensory and short-term memory. Finally, in Old Main 209, Dr. Eastwood is writing the terms ‘encoding,’ ‘storage,’ and ‘retrieval’ on the whiteboard. Ms. Romero is discussing memory ______. Dr. Darby’s class is examining memory ________. Dr Eastwood is describing memory _________. a. processes; types; stages b. stages; processes; types c stages; types; processes d. types; processes; stages Answer: d; Difficult 14. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between explicit memory and episodic memory? . Explicit memory is one type of episodic memory. b. Episodic memory is one type of explicit memory. c. Explicit memory and episodic memory are two different memory stages. d. Explicit memory and episodic memory are the same thing. Answer: b; Moderate 15. Having done “21 for 21” shots the night before, Deanna barely remembers her 21st birthday. That is, her _________ memory is sketchy. a. procedural b. semantic c. episodic d. working Answer: c 16. Cory knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of a(n) _______ memory. a. semantic b. explicit c. procedural d. both A and B

Answer: d; Difficult 17. Knowing how to serve a badminton birdie is an example of a (n) ________ memory. a. episodic b. semantic c. procedural d. explicit Answer: c; Moderate 18. Ron moved from Alabama to Georgia ten years ago. “My fifth-grade teacher made us memorize the names of all the counties in Alabama,” Ron tells his friend Rory. Rory tests Ron by giving him a list of thirty counties – 15 Alabama counties, mixed in with 15 counties from other states. “Ok, pick out the Alabama counties,” Rory challenges Ron. Which method does Rory’s test use? a. rehearsal b. recognition c. reminiscence d. ecall Answer: b; Moderate 19. An essay question is a _________ test of memory; a multiple-choice question is a __________. a. recall; recall test also b. recall; recognition test c. recall; relearning test d. recognition; recognition test also Answer: b; Easy 20. “Discuss several factors that contributed to the economic collapse of late 2008,” reads a question on the midterm in an Economics course. Such a question is a ________ test of _______ memory. a. recall; semantic b. recall; procedural c. recognition; semantic d. recognition; procedural Answer: a; Moderate 21. In a memory experiment, Dr.

Aziz gives one group of participants a recognition test of a list of words they had seen earlier; another group is asked to recall the words. What might you predict regarding the relative performance of the two groups on the memory test? a. The two groups should perform equivalently. b. The recall group should outperform the recognition group. c. The recall group should outperform the recognition group, as long as the test is given shortly after participants first see the words. d. The recognition group should outperform the recall group. e. No consistent prediction can be made without a consideration of many other variables.

Answer: d 22. A typical multiple-choice question on a psychology test is an example of a ___________ test of _________memory. a. recall; implicit b. recall; explicit c. relearning; implicit d. recognition; explicit Answer: d; Difficult 23. Janna is puzzling over a fill-in-the-blank question on a sociology test. Answering the question correctly requires Janna to use ________ memory. a. explicit b. implicit c. recognition d. episodic Answer: a; Moderate 24. Which of the following memory measures is correctly described? a. recall — involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned b. ecognition — entails determining whether material has learned before c. relearning — involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten d. Each of these is correctly described. Answer: d; Difficult 25. Which of the following is true about recall memory? a. Involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned b. Entails determining whether material has learned before c. Involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten d. Involves knowledge of how to do things Answer: a; Easy 26. Which of the following is true about recognition memory? . Involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned b. Entails determining whether material has learned before c. Involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten d. Involves knowledge of how to do things Answer: b; Easy 27. Which of the following is true about relearning? a. Involves retrieving material from memory after it has been learned b. Entails determining whether material has learned before c. Involves studying material again after it has been learned already but then forgotten d. Involves knowledge of how to do things Answer: c; Easy 8. With respect to the memory measures described in your text, which of the following statements is true? a. Relearning tests can go beyond “correct” versus “incorrect” b. Recognition tests can go beyond “correct” versus “incorrect” c. Recall tests can go beyond “correct” versus “incorrect” d. All of the above are true Answer: a; Moderate 29. Relearning measures allow the assessment of: a. procedural memory, such as that involved in playing a video game b. semantic memory, such as that involved in knowing the state capitals c. semantic memory, such as that involved in crocheting a sweater d. oth procedural memory, such as that involved in playing a video game, and semantic memory, such as that involved in knowing the state capitals Answer: d; Difficult 30. “I know it! It’s um . . . um . . . ,” begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is engaged in a test of her ________ memory. a. external b. explicit c. extrinsic d. internal Answer: b; Moderate 31. Memories of which we’re not consciously aware are called ________ memories. a. internal b. subliminal c. subconscious d. implicit Answer: d; Easy 32. Which of the following is NOT an example of procedural memory? a. |knowing how to play the piano | |b. |knowing how to skip stones | |c. |knowing that your first kiss occurred at a middle-school dance | |d. |knowing how to crochet | Answer: c; Moderate 33. Procedural is to semantic as _________ is to __________ |a. explicit; implicit | |b. |memory process; memory stage | |c. |implicit; explicit | |d.. |short-term memory; long-term memory | Answer: c; Difficult 34. Which of the memory measures described in your text might be used to assess implicit memory? a. recognition b. relearning c. word fragment test d. B and C

Answer: d; Difficult 35. Over time, you have learned to salivate at the mere sight of a chili pepper. This type of learning reflects _________ memory a. implicit b. explicit c. procedural d. both A and B Answer: a; Moderate 36. Some psychologists consider classical conditioning to be a form of implicit memory. Which of the following is probably the BEST reason for suggesting that classical conditioning is a type of implicit memory? a. Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness. b. Classical conditioning requires conscious awareness. c. Classical conditioning is one mechanism whereby we learn actions and skills. e.

Classical conditioning applies mainly to existing rather than new behaviors. Answer: a; Moderate 37. In an implicit memory experiment, participants are first briefly exposed to unusual, lengthy words in Phase I; later in the week, in Phase II, participants return for a word completion task, in which they attempt to fill in the missing letters of each of a list of words (e. g. , p _ _ _ u d _ _ e). Some of the words correspond to Phase I words; others do not. The Phase I word is termed a _______; Phase II words that also appeared in Phase I should be completed ________ accurately than those that did not. a. prime; less . prime; more c. probe; less d. probe; more Answer: b; Moderate 38. In an implicit memory experiment, participants are first briefly exposed to unusual, lengthy words in Phase I; later in the week, in Phase II, participants return for a word completion task, in which they attempt to fill in the missing letters of each of a list of words (e. g. , p _ _ _ u d _ _ e). Some of the words correspond to Phase I words; others do not. Which pair below correctly identifies the variables of interest in this study? a. Phase I or II—independent variable; whether Phase II words had appeared in Phase I – dependent variable b.

Phase I or II—independent variable; word completion accuracy—dependent variable c. whether Phase II words had appeared in Phase I—independent variable; Phase I or II—dependent variable d. whether Phase II words had appeared in Phase I—independent variable; word completion accuracy—dependent variable. Answer: d; Moderate 39. Based on research described in your text (Bargh et al. , 1996), which of the following statements is true of priming effects? a. Priming effects are very small, and have few effects on behavior. b. Priming effects are significant, but have few effects on behavior. c. Priming effects are significant and influence behavior. . Priming effects are significant, but they only influence behavior when one is aware of them. Answer: c; Moderate Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-stage model of memory? a. sensory memory ( short-term memory ( long-term memory b. short-term memory ( sensory memory ( long-term memory c. short-term memory ( working memory ( long-term memory d. working memory ( short-term memory ( long-term memory Answer: a; Moderate 40. Which of the following are types of implicit memory? a. Classical conditioning and Priming b. Iconic and Echoic c. Semantic and Episodic d. Procedural and Semantic

Answer: a; Moderate 41. Which of the following are types of explicit memory? a. Classical conditioning and Priming b. Iconic and Echoic c. Semantic and Episodic d. Procedural and Priming Answer: c; Moderate 42. Which of the following statements is true about iconic and echoic memory? a. Iconic and echoic memory are types of sensory memory. b. Iconic and echoic memory are types of explicit memory. c. Iconic and echoic memory are types of implicit memory. d. Iconic and echoic memory are types of classical conditioning Answer: a; Moderate 43. Information may last for _______ seconds in sensory memory; the capacity of sensory memory is _______. . a few; small b. a few; large c. about 30; small d. about 30; large Answer: b; Difficult 44. The study of sensory memory is associated with: a. Elizabeth Loftus b. George Miller c. George Sperling d. Herbert Simon Answer: c; Moderate 45. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, psychologist George Sperling conducted key studies of ______ memory. a. sensory b. short-term c. semantic d. episodic Answer: a; Moderate 46. George Sperling conducted a study in which he varied the interval between the presentation of a letter matrix and an auditory recall cue. Sperling measured the proportion of letters participants could recall from the matrix.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding this study? a. A graph of the results of this study would show the accuracy of recall on the y-axis. b. The interval between the matrix and the cue is a dependent variable. c. All the letters in the matrix are stored in memory. d. Sperling’s study provided knowledge regarding sensory memory. Answer: b; Difficult 47. Psychologists use the term ______ memory to refer to “photographic” memory. a. pictographic b. engrammatic c. iconic d. eidetic Answer: D; Moderate 48. “She did WHAT?? ” your roommate exclaims as you relate a story about a mutual friend.

Your roommate is processing your story in _________ memory. a. working b. sensory c. episodic d. implicit Answer: a; Moderate 49. To which of the following is working memory most similar? a. a legal pad on which you jot temporary notes b. a calendar item reminding you of a future obligation c. a file on a computer hard drive d. a portrait hanging in a museum Answer: a; Moderate 50. On your computer desktop, you can see all sorts of different files, each immediately accessible. Because you are actively working on them, and because you can open them whenever you want, these files are analogous to the information held in: a. emantic memory b. working memory c. sensory memory d. procedural memory Answer: b; Moderate 51. As you work on a complex multiplication problem in your head, the numbers you are manipulating are in your __________ memory, and the multiplication tables you are drawing on are in _________ memory. a. working; long-term b. working; sensory c. long-term; working d. sensory; working Answer: a; Moderate 52. Process is to structure as __________ memory is to _________ memory. a. explicit; implicit b. sensory; working c. long-term; working d. working; short-term Answer: d; Difficult 53. The central executive is: a. n aspect of sensory memory b. a component of working memory c. a type of implicit memory d. a form of explicit memory Answer: b; Moderate 54. When we look up a number in the phone book, close the book, and then begin to dial the number, we are relying on a. short term memory b. iconic memory c. working memory d. long-term memory Answer: a; Easy 55. __________ examined how long information can last in sensory memory. __________ investigated the duration of short-term memory. a. Peterson and Peterson; Sperling b. Peterson and Peterson; Peterson and Peterson also c. Sperling; Peterson and Peterson d. Sperling; Sperling also

Answer: c; Difficult 56. Rehearsal serves to: a. refresh sensory memory b. keep information in short-term memory c. help transfer information to long-term memory e. both B and C Answer: e; Moderate 57. Which of the following describes short-term memory? a. The brief storage of visual or auditory information b. Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for several seconds c. Processes that we use to interpret and store information d. Memory storage that can last for years Answer: b; Easy 58. Which of the following describes sensory memory? a. The brief storage of visual or auditory information b.

Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for several seconds c. Processes that we use to interpret and store information d. Memory storage that can last for years Answer: a; Easy 59. Which of the following describes working memory? a. The brief storage of visual or auditory information b. Memory where small amounts of information can be kept for several seconds c. Processes that we use to interpret and store information d. Memory storage that can last for years Answer: c; Easy 60. The conscious repetition of information to ensure its survival in short-term memory is termed ________ rehearsal. . primary b. mnemonic c. rote d. maintenance Answer: d; Easy 61. Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory? a. one or two items b. unlimited c. about seven, plus or minus two items d. about a dozen items Answer: c; Moderate 62. In the words of George Miller, the capacity of short-term memory is the “magical number _________. ” a. nine, plus or minus two b. six, plus or minus one c. five, plus or minus two d. seven, plus or minus two Answer: d; Easy 63. Tommy is repeating a series of digits in the order in which he heard an experimenter read them.

The experimenter is testing the capacity of Tommy’s _______ memory. Tommy should be able to repeat about _________ digits correctly. a. short-term; 4 b. short-term; 7 c. short-term; 9 d. sensory; 4 Answer: b; Moderate 64. Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed _________. a. chunking b. clumping c. consolidating d. compacting Answer: a; Easy 65. “What’s your social? ” the associate asks over the phone. “One, six, four . . . ” you begin. After a brief pause, you continue, “seventy-two . . . sixteen thirty-eight. To ease the burden on the associate’s short-term memory, you are giving the number in ______ rather than as individual digits. a. nodes b. clumps c. clusters d. chunks Answer: d; Moderate 66. When you tell an acquaintance your telephone number, you do not recite the digits one by one at a constant rate, as in “3, 3, 7, 2, 3, 4, 8, 3, 9, 2. ” Rather, you might say, “3, 3, 7 . . . 2, 3, 4 . . . 83, 92. ” This exemplifies ________, a strategy to enhance ______ memory. a. consolidation; sensory b. consolidation; short-term c. chunking; sensory d. chunking; short-term Answer: d; Moderate TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS: 7. Explicit memory underlies the ability to swing a golf club. Answer: F; Easy 68. Relearning measures allow the assessment of both implicit and explicit memory. Answer: T; Moderate 69. Primes have little real effect on behavior. Answer: F; Easy 70. Sensory memory can hold only a small amount of information. Answer: F; Moderate 71. The capacity of short-term memory is about 7 items. Answer: T; Easy 72. Chunking serves to increase the capacity of sensory memory. Answer: F; Moderate FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS: 73. Semantic and episodic memory are subdivisions of __________ memory. Answer: explicit; Moderate 74.

Scores on a recall test of memory are likely to be ___________ than those on a recognition test of memory. Answer: lower; Difficult 75. “It’s like riding a bike; once you know how, you don’t forget. ” This adage suggests that procedural memories do not require conscious attempts at recall; that is, procedural memories are often ________. Answer: implicit; Moderate 76. Implicit memory is often studied through experiments that use ________. Answer: primes/priming; Moderate 77. You have just listened to your current favorite song on your iPod. You can still hear traces of the final chorus, even though the song has just ended.

For a few seconds, the song will be represented in auditory sensory memory, or ________ memory. Answer: echoic; Moderate 78. A ________ is a meaningful group of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short- term memory. Answer: chunk; Easy ESSAY QUESTIONS: 79. Distinguish between explicit and implicit memory. How is implicit memory studied in the laboratory? How does implicit memory research inform the continuing debate in psychology regarding the unconscious determinants of behavior? In your answer, make explicit reference to behaviors that may have important personal and social consequences.

Difficult 80. Define and provide original examples from your own experience of each of the following types of long-term memory: episodic, semantic, and procedural memory. Difficult 81. George Sperling conducted classic experiments in which participants were first exposed briefly to a letter matrix; after a varying interval, an auditory tone cued participants to report the letters contained in a specific row of the matrix. The results indicated that iconic memory accurately codes the spatial location of stimuli, and that the information in iconic memory decays after approximately 1 s.

Might sensory memory also code other physical stimulus characteristics, such as color or size? Might it code the categorical identical of stimuli, such as whether the stimuli are letters or numbers, upper- or lower-case letters, consonants or vowels, and so on? Does such information decay more rapidly or more slowly from sensory memory than spatial location information? Use your imagination and describe two original experiments modeled on Sperling’s studies that might answer such questions. Be sure to state your hypotheses and to identify the pattern of results that would support your hypotheses. Difficult 2. Short-term memory is limited both in the amount of information it can hold at one time and in how long it can hold information. Describe several strategies one might use to overcome the capacity and duration limitations of short-term memory. How might one use these strategies when studying for course materials? Provide concrete examples. Difficult SECTION 2 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS: 83. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last? a. encoding ( storage ( retrieval b. storage ( retrieval ( encoding c. encoding ( retrieval ( storage . storage ( encoding ( retrieval Answer: a; Easy 84. Which of the following is NOT one of the three memory processes identified in your text? a. encoding b. priming c. storage d. retrieval Answer: b; Moderate 85. When we use the term “remembering” in day-to-day life, we are making reference to the memory process of: a. rehearsal b. retrieval c. encoding d. storage Answer: b; Moderate 86. Amelia remarks that she needs to learn her text’s section on the structures of the brain for an upcoming test. Brian responds that he couldn’t remember the function of the hippocampus on a test the preceding day.

With respect to the three memory processes described in your text, Amelia is making reference to _________. Brian is referring to ______. a. encoding; storage b. retrieval; encoding c. retrieval; storage d. encoding; retrieval Answer: d; Moderate 87. When answering such questions as “Who was your date to the Junior Prom? ” or “Which costume did you wear last Halloween? ” you are relying most explicitly on the memory process of: a. encoding b. rehearsal c. priming d. retrieval Answer: d; Moderate 88. Clarice presses a key on her computer to save a document she has been editing.

A file is then created on her computer’s hard drive. The computer’s action is most similar to the memory activity of _________. The computer’s hard drive is similar to _________ memory in the three-stage memory model. a. retrieval; long-term b. priming; short-term c. encoding; long-term d. encoding; short-term Answer: c; Easy 89. An investigator asks some participants to count the number of letters in each of the names on a long list of Russian rivers. She asks other participants to pronounce each river’s name and asks, for instance, “Does it rhyme with Vienna? ” (for Lenna).

She asks a third group of participants to place the river on a map and to observe into which larger body of water it flows. Which approach memory concept is this investigator most likely interested in? a. context-dependent memory b. schemas c. state-dependent memory d. elaborative encoding Answer: d; Moderate 90. Which statement best expresses the relationship between attention and the memory activity of encoding? a. Attention is a byproduct of encoding. b. Attention is unrelated to encoding. c. Attention is the same as encoding. d. Attention is necessary for encoding. Answer: d; Moderate 91.

Drew is unable to recall whether Lincoln’s head faces left or right on the penny. Which of the following is probably the best explanation for Drew’s memory failure? a. The information is difficult to retrieve, because it is stored along with so many other pieces of information in Drew’s long-term memory. b. The information was learned so long ago that it is no longer stored in Drew’s long-term memory. c. The information was not encoded, because Drew never really paid attention to Lincoln’s head on the penny. d. The information was immediately displaced from Drew’s working memory after it was encoded. Answer: c; Moderate 2. Which of the following is the best reason for why we have trouble remembering the license plate number of a car that we just passed ten minutes ago? a. Working memory lasts only a minute or so. b. License plate numbers are too difficult to remember easily. c. We probably never encoded the number in the first place. d. The memory, though present, is too difficult to retrieve except under special circumstances, such as hypnosis or substantial amounts of stress. Answer: c; Moderate 93. Which of the following defines elaborative encoding? a. Learning by processing in ways that make information relevant b.

Learning by processing information in procedural memory c. Learning by processing simpler materials as complex material d. Learning by rehearsing Answer: a; Easy 94. Dr. Fernald is conducting a memory experiment. One group of participants has to decide whether each of a list of words begins with the same letter as a target word; a second group has to determine whether each of a list of words rhymes with a target word; finally, a third group has to determine whether each of a list of words is a synonym or an antonym of a target word. Later, all participants are asked to recall the list words.

According to levels-of-processing theory, which group’s performance should be the highest? The lowest? a. highest—synonym/antonym group; lowest—same letter group b. highest—same letter group; lowest—synonym/antonym group c. highest—rhyme group; lowest—same letter group d. highest—synonym/antonym group; lowest—rhyme group Answer: a; Difficult 95. A researcher presents participants with a list of words. She asks the participants to count the letters in the words in Group 1, to come up with rhymes for the words in Group 2, and to produce synonyms for the words in Group 3.

Later, she tests the participants’ memory for all of the words. From best to worst, which pattern correctly indicates how well words in each group will be remembered? a. 1, 2, 3 b. 3, 2, 1 c. 3, 1, 2 d. 1, 3, 2 Answer: b; Moderate 96. According to the principle of elaborative encoding, which of the following study techniques would best enhance memory? a. highlighting important passages in the text b. copying the text into a notebook c. reading aloud important passages in the text d. focusing on the meaning of important passages in the text Answer: d; Easy 97.

According to the principle of elaborative encoding, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests? a. Grant, who attempts to memorize his notes b. Harry, who attempts to relate the material to his own experiences. c. Irene, who attempts to relate her notes to information she has learned in other classes d. These students should retrieve information equally well on tests Answer: b; Easy 98. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship, if any, between elaborative encoding and the self-reference effect? a. Elaborative encoding is synonymous with the self-reference effect. . The self-reference effect is essentially the opposite of elaborative encoding. c. Elaborative encoding is an example of the self-reference effect. d. The self-reference effect is an example of elaborative encoding. Answer: d; Difficult 99. Among the very first attempts to study forgetting scientifically were made by the German psychologist __________. a. Ebbinghaus b. Wundt c. Weber d. Muller Answer: a; Moderate 100. Which of the following statements BEST describes the forgetting function that Ebbinghaus discovered? a. Material is forgotten at a relatively constant rate once it has been learned. b.

Material is forgotten relatively rapidly at first, then the rate of forgetting slows down. c. Material is forgotten at a relatively slow rate at first, then the rate of forgetting speeds up. d. Nothing is ever really forgotten. Answer: b; Moderate 101. What does Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve tell us about the way we forget material over time? a. We forget information at a constant rate. b. At first, we forget very little of what we have learned, but as time passes, the rate of forgetting accelerates. c. Most forgetting happens immediately after we learn material; the rate of forgetting slows down as time goes by. d.

A lot of forgetting happens immediately after we learn material; the rate of forgetting then speeds up as time goes by. e. We forget information at a variable and unpredictable rate as time passes. Answer: c; Moderate 102. Which of the following best describes the results of Ebbinghaus’s work on forgetting? a. You’ll remember what you learn pretty well for a day or two, but then you’ll begin rapidly forgetting the material. b. Beginning immediately, you’ll slowly forget what you’ve learned at a relatively constant rate. c. You’ll forget most of it right away, and you’ll keep on forgetting more of it, though at a slower rate. . You’ll forget a lot of it right away, and you’ll keep on forgetting more of it, at an even faster rate. Answer: c; Moderate 103. According to the ________ effect, _________ practice leads to better learning than __________ practice. a. spacing; distributed; massed b. spacing; massed; distributed c. spacing; massed; spaced d. distributive; distributed; massed Answer: a; Moderate 104. Erika usually ‘crams’ for tests the night before they are given. Francisco generally studies each of his courses for about 45 minutes each night throughout the term. Erika relies on __________, whereas Francisco uses _________. a. aintenance processing; elaborative processing b. distributed practice; massed practice c. massed practice; elaborative processing d. massed practice; distributed practice Answer: d; Easy 105. Which of the following is true about studying? a. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery increases interference, impairing memory. b. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery doesn’t actually hurt, but it doesn’t help either. c. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery improves short-term retention, but doesn’t do much over the longer term. d. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery improves long-term retention. Answer: d; Moderate 06. “I know it! It’s um . . . um . . . It starts with ‘G’,” begins a trivia game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the _______ effect. a. tip-of-the-tongue b. flashbulb memory c. source confusion d. retrograde interference Answer: a; Easy 107. Almost everybody has had the feeling of knowing the answer to a question, but not being quite able to say it. This is called the “tip-of the-tongue” phenomenon, and is a failure of __________. a. retention b. storage c. retrieval d. rehearsal Answer: c; Easy 108. On his psychology exam, Mickey is asked to recall the name of the physiologist who worked on classical conditioning.

He cannot quite remember the name, but he knows that it starts with a P and is two syllables long. Mickey is experiencing: a. repression b. proactive interference c. retrograde amnesia d. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon Answer: d; Easy 109. Jamal’s introductory psychology class is held in Room A. For the final exam, the students in Jamal’s class are divided among Rooms A, B, and C. Jamal’s memory for the material is likely to be best if he takes the test in which room? a. Room A b. the largest of the three rooms c. the smallest of the three rooms d. the room most different from Room A Answer: a; Moderate 10. On a test of recall, participants who learn a list of words in one room do better if tested in that same room than if tested in a different room. This finding is best explained by: a. elaborative encoding b. the spacing effect c. state-dependent learning d. context-dependent learning Answer: d; Moderate 111. Ron receives some stock tips when he’s slightly ‘buzzed’ at an office party. Based on the notion of state-dependent memory, what might you predict regarding the likelihood that Ron will recall the tips the following week? a. He will probably best remember the tips if he is sober. . He will probably best remember the tips if he has had a few drinks. c. He will probably best remember the tips if he is drunk. d. He will remember the tips equally well regardless of his state of intoxication. Answer: b; Moderate 112. Our ability to recall an item from a list depends on where in the list the item occurs. This is the __________ effect. a. serial position b. list memory c. cereal position d. item order Answer: a; Easy 113. How might you describe the shape of the function relating the probability of an item’s recall to the item’s position on a list? a. U-shaped b. squiggly c. linear, negatively sloped line d. an inverted-U shape Answer: a; Moderate 114. A research participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember immediately after having read the poem once. We would expect the greatest number of recall errors in lines: a. at the beginning of the poem b. in the middle of the poem c. at the end of the poem d. at the beginning or the end of the poem Answer: b; Moderate 115. Before going home, Dr. Rosen tries to flesh out his patient notes. He can remember the first and last sessions of the day, but his memory of the middle ones is a bit fuzzy.

Dr. Rosen’s memory reflects the ________ effect. a. primacy b. recency c. serial position d. A, B, and C Answer: d; Difficult 116. The primacy effect refers to the fact that a. the most important items in a list are more most to be remembered. b. the last items presented in a list are most likely to be remembered. c. the first items presented in a list are most likely to be remembered. d. the items in a list which have the greatest emotional impact are most likely to be remembered. Answer: c; Moderate 117. “Cat food, cola, toothpaste,” your roommate begins reciting items into he phone as you throw your books in the backseat and get into your car; you’re supposed to hit the store on the way home. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: “Coffee creamer, spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice tea mix. ” You forget a couple of things, but you do manage to get the cat food, cola, and toothpaste. Your memory for these items reflects the _________ effect. a. primacy b. recency c. serial memory d. item order Answer: a; Moderate 118. One evening, you examine the schedule for your favorite football team. The team plays sixteen games each season.

Later you try recalling that schedule for a friend who likes the same team you do. Chances are, you will recall opponents at the beginning of the schedule particularly well. What is this phenomenon called? a. the list effect b. the primacy effect c. the consolidation effect d. context-dependent learning e. overlearning Answer: b; Moderate 119. The “recency effect” refers to the fact that: a. the last items on a list are more likely to be remembered than the middle items b. the first several items on a list are more likely to be remembered than the middle items c. rehearsed items are more likely to be remembered than unrehearsed items d. he most personally relevant items on a list are most likely to be remembered Answer: a; Moderate 120. “Cat food, cola, toothpaste,” your roommate begins reciting items into the phone as you throw your books in the backseat and get into your car; you’re supposed to hit the store on the way home. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: “Coffee creamer, spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice tea mix. ” You forget a few things, but the Ragu, Dawn, and Lipton’s are in the bag. Your memory for these items reflects the _________ effect. a. primacy b. serial order c. list memory d. ecency Answer: d; Moderate 121. Suppose you begin to list all the classes you’ve ever taken in college. Chances are, you will recall your last few classes particularly well. What is this phenomenon called? a. chunking b. the primacy effect c. the recency effect d. memory consolidation Answer: c; Moderate 122. In ________ interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of information learned more recently; in _________ interference, recently learned information disrupts the recall of information learned earlier. a. retroactive; proactive b. proactive; retroactive c. regressive; progressive . progressive; regressive Answer: b; Difficult 123. Bruce watches a new television program with enthusiasm. He then watches a second, similar program. Bruce later finds it difficult to remember the details of the second program; he finds that details about the first program keep intruding. What has probably occurred? a. interference b. misinformation c. overlearning d. repression Answer: a; Moderate 124. Nana is taking a Spanish final at the end of the spring semester. The problem is, the French vocabulary she learned the semester before keeps getting in the way, causing her to forget Spanish words.

Nana is experiencing ________ interference. a. retroactive b. progressive c. proactive d. retrograde Answer: c; Moderate 125. Which of the following defines retroactive interference? a. Memory impairment that occurs when earlier learning impairs later learning b. Memory impairment that occurs when later learning is impaired by earlier learning c. Memory impairment that occurs when longer lists come before shorter lists d. Memory impairment that occurs in short-term memory Answer: b; Moderate 126. Which of the following defines proactive interference? a. Memory impairment that occurs when earlier learning impairs later learning b.

Memory impairment that occurs when later learning is impaired by earlier learning c. Memory impairment that occurs when longer lists come before shorter lists d. Memory impairment that occurs in short-term memory Answer: a; Moderate 127. Owen has trouble remembering a friend’s new phone number; he keeps recalling the old number instead. Completing a rental application, Pippa finds she can’t recall one of her previous addresses, as she’s had several addresses since. Owen is experiencing __________ interference; Pippa is experiencing _________. a. retrograde; anterograde interference b. etroactive; retroactive interference as well c. proactive; proactive interference as well d. proactive; retroactive interference Answer: d; Difficult 128. In a lexical decision task in which participants must judge whether a string of letters forms a word in English, participants are first shown the string BANANA. Based on what you know about categories and spreading activation, which of the following strings might participants then judge the most rapidly? a. APPLE b. ANANAB c. MAVEN d. BANDANA Answer: a; Moderate 129. Research participants are asked to judge whether or not a string of letters forms a word in English.

They are first given the string CABBAGE. Based on what you know about categories and spreading activation, which of the following strings might participants then judge the most rapidly? a. CRIBBAGE b. CARROT c. TOILET d. CABOOSE Answer: b; Moderate 130. Participants are asked to judge whether a string of letters forms a word in English. The first string they receive is the word VIOLIN. On a subsequent list of words, results show that the participants are substantially faster at answering “Yes” to the word PIANO than to the word TOILET or BASKET. Which concept does this result most clearly illustrate? a. pisodic memory b. state-dependent learning c. the spacing effect d. spreading activation Answer: d; Moderate 131. Often, one memory triggers others. Of the following, which is the most likely mechanism by which this might occur? a. spreading activation b. serial activation c. network priming d. distributed processing Answer: a; Moderate 132. Properties that must be true of all members of a category are termed ________ features. a. prototypical b. schematic c. defining d. essential Answer: c; Moderate 133. Mothers are necessarily female. Being female is thus a _________ feature of the category ‘mother. a. schematic b. prototypical c. essential d. defining Answer: d; Moderate 134. A prototype is: a. a group of objects sharing one or more common features b. the first example of a concept that one encounters c. the most frequent or common example of a concept d. the best or most typical example of a concept Answer: d; Moderate 135. Which of the following is most likely the prototype of the category “fruit”? a. olive b. apple c. persimmon d. blueberry Answer: b; Easy 136. A schema is: a. a conceptual framework for interpreting a situation b. a form of proactive interference c. an important result of decay . an item that has been forgotten Answer: a; Easy 137. Dr. Tranh has given so many lectures that he gives little thought to what he expects might happen: He assumes students will assemble, take notes, and occasionally ask a question. That Dr. Tranh finds the process so routine most clearly reflects the development of: a. a semantic association b. explicit memory c. a schema d. a retrieval path Answer: c; Easy 138. Which of the following alternatives best captures the relationship between the concept of a schema and that of a stereotype? a. The concept of a schema is unrelated to that of a stereotype. b.

The concept of a schema is broader than that of a stereotype. c. The concept of a schema is narrower that of a stereotype. d. The concept of a schema is the same as that of a stereotype. Answer: b; Moderate 139. Long-term potentiation refers to the process whereby a. the number of synaptic and dendritic connections between neurons increases with experience. b. memories become fixed and stable for the long term. c. neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs. d. disturbing memories seem to gain in intensity over time. Answer: c; Moderate 140. The hippocampus plays a role in memory consolidation.

Therefore it is probably most accurate to say that the hippocampus is more involved in _________ than in ________. a. retrieval; encoding or storage b. storage; encoding c. encoding and storage; retrieval d. storage and retrieval; encoding Answer: c; Moderate 141. According to your text, one of the key brain regions in explicit memory is a limbic system structure called the ________. a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. amygdala d. thalamus Answer: a; Moderate 142. The hippocampus: a. helps encode information about spatial relationships b. helps encode the context surrounding events c. helps form associations among memories . A, B, and C Answer: d; Difficult 143. Explicit memories are to implicit memories as the ________ is to the _________. a. hypothalamus; cerebellum b. amygdala; cerebellum c. amygdala; hippocampus d. hippocampus; cerebellum Answer: d; Moderate 144. The amygdala is to the cerebellum as ________ memories are to _________. memories. a. implicit; emotional b. emotional; implicit c. explicit; implicit d. implicit; explicit Answer: b; Moderate 145. Estelle remembers a night she was mugged and brutally beaten. This memory probably involves her: a. cerebellum b. hypothalamus c. thalamus d. amygdala Answer: d; Moderate 146.

Which brain structure is correctly matched with its role in memory? a. cerebellum – implicit memory b. hippocampus – emotional memory c. amygdala – explicit memory d. All of these are correctly matched. Answer: a; Moderate 147. In _________ amnesia, memory is lost for events preceding an injury or accident; in __________ amnesia, memory is lost for events following an injury or accident. a. retrograde; anterograde b. anterograde; retrograde c. regressive; progressive d. retroactive; proactive Answer: a; Moderate 148. Rhonda can’t remember anything about the first several minutes immediately following a car crash in which she was injured.

Rhonda is experiencing _______ amnesia. a. retrograde b. anterograde c. retroactive d. proactive Answer: b; Moderate 149. Which of the following defines retrograde amnesia? a. The inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time b. The inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory c. The strengthening of synaptic connections d. The loss of memory due to the passage of time Answer: a; Easy 150. Which of the following defines anterograde amnesia? a. The inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time b. The inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory c.

The strengthening of synaptic connections d. The loss of memory due to the passage of time Answer: b; Easy 151. Which of the following defines long-term potentiation (LTP)? a. The inability to retrieve events that occurred before a given time b. The inability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory c. The strengthening of synaptic connections d. The loss of memory due to the passage of time Answer: c; Easy 152. Omar experienced a dissociative fugue state. He suddenly snapped out of it in front of a pet-supplies display in a Boise, ID discount store; he had no memory whatsoever of his previous life in Greensboro, NC.

Omar’s amnesia is best described as: a. proactive b. anterograde c. retroactive d. retrograde Answer: d; Moderate 153. Which of the following is NOT among the neurotransmitters mentioned in your text as important in memory? a. glutamate b. serotonin c. endorphins d. epinephrine Answer: c; Difficult 154. Which of the following neurotransmitters is correctly paired with a description of its role in memory? a. serotonin – the most important neurotransmitter in memory b. epinephrine – released when animals learn c. glutamate – may increase memory for stressful events d. None of these is correctly matched. Answer: d; Difficult 55. Based on controlled studies, which of the following popular memory supplements seems to be effective? a. methylphenidate b. amphetamines c. gingko biloba d. none of these Answer: d; Moderate TRUE-FALSE QUESTIONS: 156. After material is learned, little is forgotten at first, but then the rate of forgetting speeds up. Answer: F; Moderate 157. Massed practice yields poorer memory than does distributed practice. Answer: T; Easy 158. The primacy and recency effects are components of the spacing effect. Answer: F; Moderate 159. In a list of items, we tend to forget the middle ones rather than the ones at the beginning or end.

Answer: T; Easy 160. The most typical member of a category is termed the defining example. Answer: F; Easy 161. The hippocampus is mainly involved in implicit memory. Answer: F; Moderate 162. Popular memory enhancers, such as gingko biloba, are not especially effective. Answer: T; Easy FILL-IN-THE-BLANK QUESTIONS: 163. “You’ll probably do better on the test if you put more effort into understanding what the chapter’s trying to say in the first place,” one of your professors admonishes the class. You are reminded of the concept of ___________ encoding. Answer: elaborative; Moderate 164.

The slope of the function relating recall to the interval since original learning is _________ sloped. Answer: negatively; Difficult 165. When using a software package’s new interface, you keep trying to use the same menus and make the same selections that worked so well in the old version of the interface. You are experiencing _______ interference. Answer: proactive; Moderate 166. A researcher finds that her participants think most readily of a carrot when prompted with the category “vegetable. ” On this basis, the researcher might argue that a carrot is the ________ vegetable. Answer: prototypical; Moderate 167.

Rhoda is thinking of a family reunion last summer. This reminds her that a close friend is attending the same college in which her cousin is enrolled; her thoughts then turn to the reading assignments she has neglected in one of her classes. The process of __________ describes how one memory brings up another in our network of mental categories. Answer: spreading activation; Moderate 168. Explicit memory is to implicit memory as the hippocampus is to the _________. Answer: cerebellum; Moderate 169. Leigh wakes up in a hospital. She remembers careening into a collision, but nothing thereafter. Leigh is experiencing ______ amnesia.

Answer: anterograde; Moderate ESSAY QUESTIONS: 170. Define elaborative encoding, state- and context-dependent learning, the serial position effect, and the primacy and recency effects. Describe several ways you might apply your knowledge of these phenomena to improve your retention of material in your college courses. Difficult 171. Describe three of Ebbinghaus’ contributions to our understanding of memory. How might you draw on Ebbinghaus’ legacy to aid your memory for material in your college courses? Difficult 172. Identify three brain structures important to memory; describe the specific role of each in learning and memory.

Identify three neurotransmitters involved in memory. Difficult SECTION 3 MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS: 173. “I don’t know who told me first, but I heard that Kenny . . . ,” Lana begins, sharing gossip on the phone to a friend. Lana is experiencing: a. anterograde amnesia b. retrograde amnesia c. progressive interference d. a failure of source monitoring Answer: d; Moderate 174. Lydia can’t figure out if she dreamed about a person or whether she met him at a recent party. This kind of uncertainty reflects the limitations of a. source monitoring b. counterfactual thinking c. overconfidence d. heuristic thinking Answer: a; Moderate 75. Orlando swears he remembers the cake and the guests at the party his parents held in honor of his 4th birthday. In reality, Orlando merely remembers the snapshots of the event he viewed in his Mom’s photo album much later in his childhood. Orlando’s manufactured memory reflects: a. the representativeness effect b. functional fixedness c. a source monitoring error d. counterfactual thinking Answer: c; Moderate 176. People sometimes remember having experienced events they really only imagined. Which of the following phenomena is most likely responsible for this effect? a. heuristic thinking b. overconfidence . misinformation d. source monitoring errors Answer: d; Moderate 177. The ________ effect refers to attitude change that occurs over time as we forget when and where we learned information. It reflects the limitations of _________. a. misinformation; schematic processing b. misinformation; source monitoring c. sleeper; counterfactual thinking d. sleeper; source monitoring Answer: d; Difficult 178. Which of the following is a definition of functional fixedness? a. An inability to use an object in new ways b. A tendency to verify and confirm existing beliefs c. The inability to remember the source of a memory . Attitude change that occurs over time Answer: a; Easy 179. Which of the following is a definition of the confirmation bias? a. An inability to use an object in new ways b. A tendency to verify and confirm existing beliefs c. The inability to remember the source of a memory d. Attitude change that occurs over time Answer: b; Easy 180. Which of the following is a definition of the sleeper effect? a. An inability to use an object in new ways b. A tendency to verify and confirm existing beliefs c. The inability to remember the source of a memory d. Attitude change that occurs over time Answer: d; Easy 181.

Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports; he appears to ignore editorials critical of the candidate. Nigel appears prone to: a. functional fixedness b. the sleeper effect c. the confirmation bias d. the representativeness heuristic Answer: c; Moderate 182. Sandy, a true believer in astrology, reads in her horoscope that today is her lucky day. She gets so excited that she spills coffee all over herself, necessitating a change of clothes. As a result, she is late for work and for a very important meeting, which in turn gets her into serious trouble with her boss.

That evening, her brother is taken to the emergency room. On her way to visit him, Sandy finds a dime in the hospital parking lot. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest that Sandy will do? a. Sandy will renounce astrology as completely wrong because of all the horrible things that happened on her “lucky day. ” b. Sandy will begin to question her belief in astrology because of all the horrible things that happened on her “lucky day. ” c. Sandy will seize on the dime she found as evidence of astrology’s accuracy. d. Sandy will forget finding the dime because of the all the horrible things that happened to her.

Answer: c; Moderate 183. Lou considers himself lucky, while his friend Larry considers himself unlucky. They each take $100 to a casino and play blackjack for 3 hours. When they leave, they have each lost $20. What does research on the confirmation bias suggest will happen? a. Because of their losses, Larry will maintain his view of himself and Lou will begin to change his view of himself. b. Both men will reason that they were willing to lose $100 but only lost $20, so it is as if they won $80; so, Lou will maintain his view of himself and Larry will begin to change his. c.

Larry will begin to change his view of himself, reasoning that he was willing to lose $100 but he only lost $20, so it is as if he won $80. Because of his loss, Lou will also begin to change his view of himself. d. Larry will maintain his view of himself because of his loss. Lou will also maintain his view of himself, reasoning that he was willing to lose $100 but he only lost $20, so it is actually like he won $80. Answer: d; Moderate 184. Which of the following cognitive biases is correctly matched with a problem that illustrates it? a. Confirmation bias—Duncker’s (1945) candle problem b.

Functional fixedness—Wason’s (1960) 2-4-6 problem c. Availability heuristic—determining whether more words begin with ‘r’ or have ‘r’ as the third letter d. None of these are correctly matched. Answer: c; Moderate 185. Making several minor household repairs, Alyssa uses a shoe as a hammer and a butter knife as a screwdriver. Which of the following statements best characterizes Alyssa’s problem solving? a. She is demonstrating schematic processing. b. She has been released from functional fixedness. c. She is taking advantage of the availability heuristic. d. She is using counterfactual thinking. Answer: b; Easy 186.

A jeweler is unable to fix a particular mounting in a ring because she can imagine only the conventional uses for her tools. This best demonstrates which of the following? a. The confirmation bias b. Functional fixedness c. Counterfactual thinking d. The representativeness heuristic Answer: b; Easy 187. Henry’s dog, Sparky, has been rolling in the mud. Henry must bathe Sparky before the dog gets mud all over the carpet. However, Henry is unable to find the plug for the tub. Sitting on the counter right beside the tub is a fifty-cent piece. In his frustration, Henry fails to see that the coin could be used as an emergency plug for the tub.

What happened to Henry? a. He displayed heuristic processing. b. He fell prey to the confirmation bias. c. He suffered from functional fixedness. d. His thinking was counterfactual. Answer: c; Easy 188. Which of the following is the most likely mechanism by which misinformation might impair a witness’ memory for the actual events in a crime? a. repression b. proactive interference c. anterograde amnesia d. retroactive interference Anwer: d; Moderate 189. The study of the influence of misinformation on memory is associated with: a. Bower b. Miller c. Sperling d. Loftus Answer: d; Moderate 90. Which of the following is the best definition of the confirmation bias? a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be Answer: a; Easy 191. Which of the following is the best definition of the effect of salience? a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information c.

When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be Answer: c; Easy 192. Which of the following is the best definition of the misinformation effect? a. The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be Answer: b; Easy 193. Which of the following is the best definition of overconfidence ? a.

The tendency to verify rather than challenge our existing schemas b. Errors in memory that result from receiving new, conflicting information c. When stimuli that are bright or colorful grab our attention d. When we are more certain of our judgments than we should be Answer: d; Easy 194. Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted an experiment in which participants estimated the speed of cars that were described as either contacting or smashing into another. To which of the following conclusions regarding eyewitness memory is this study most relevant? a. The presence of a weapon attracts witnesses’ attention, impairing their memory. . Eyewitnesses confidence is only weakly related to eyewitness memory. c. Eyewitness memory can be heavily influenced by leading questions. d. Child eyewitnesses less suggestible than are adult eyewitnesses. Answer: c; Easy 195. Which of the following alternatives best expresses psychologist Elizabeth Loftus’ position on the validity of recovered memories? a. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect confusion regarding the source of a memory. b. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect an impairment of implicit memory mechanisms. c. Recovered memories are often false.

They reflect a failure of maintenance rehearsal. d. Recovered memories are often false. They reflect limitations on working memory capacity. Answer: a; Difficult 196. Your text states that the salience of a gun draws a witness’ attention away from the face of the perpetrator, reducing the witness’ ability to later identify the perpetrator. This suggests that the effect of the weapon occurred mainly during: a. encoding b. consolidation c. retrieval d. recall Answer: a; Easy 197. Melinda is computing the correlation coefficient between scores on measure of eyewitness confidence and scores on a measure of eyewitness accuracy.

What sort of relationship do you think she’ll find? a. a strong negative relationship b. a weak relationship if any c. a strong positive relationship d. a curvilinear relationship Answer: b; Moderate 198. The 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center. Princess Diana’s death. The 1986 Challenger explosion. People’s memories for the moment in which they learned of these events are termed ________ memories. a. snapshot b. flashbulb c. photocopy d. thumbnail Answer: b; Easy 199. Flashbulb memories: a. typically concern major, unexpected public or personal events b. are remarkably accurate, even years after the initial event c. re due to special encoding mechanisms for emotionally charged events d. are more accurate than memories for more mundane events Answer: a; Moderate 200. We are often prone to make judgments on the extent to which the things we observe match our expectations of what we think things should be like while ignoring the mathematical probabilities of their occurrence. This error is known as the a. availability heuristic b. representativeness heuristic c. confirmation bias d. stereotypic bias Answer: b; Easy 201. When you use the representativeness heuristic, you are a. aking frequency estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind b. overcoming functional fixedness c. mistaking visual images and other forms of mental representations for reality d. basing your judgments on the extent to which an event matches your expectations Answer: d; Moderate 202. Following the September 11, 2001, Twin Towers attacks, many Americans elected to drive rather than fly: The media coverage of the hijackings caused Americans to overestimate the danger of flying. This example illustrates: a. the availability heuristic b. the representativeness heuristic c. he confirmation bias d. overconfidence Answer: a; Moderate 203. A judgment strategy in which one uses the ease with which examples come to mind as the basis for judging how common events really are is called the _______ heuristic. a. availability b. representativeness c. confirmation d. frequency Answer: a; Easy 204. Stereotypes spring to mind easily. Therefore, we sometimes use them to judge the frequency of certain events such as crimes in a given neighborhood. This example BEST describes the use of the ________ heuristic. a. frequency b. salience c. confirmation d. availability Answer: d; Moderate 05. When people are asked which is more common, death by homicide or death by stroke, they often choose homicide because they simply hear more about murders t

Amazon.Com Executive Summary college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Amazon uses the components of a database to create usable knowledge for people. Amazon is moving away from being a just an online retailer and is competing with Google and Microsoft through business to business transactions based in data storage and data imagery. Many new components are used in Amazons Elastic Cloud Computing application to create data images for multiple user interfaces. Database Components used by Amazon. com: Data management issues The components of a of a database are a logical grouping of data, tables, fields, values, query, forms, reports, modules and data base management system according to Rainer and Turban (2008). Amazon provides data storage (S3), applications they call elastic cloud computing (EC2), simpleDB and Mechanical Turk to other businesses. When businesses use S3 through Amazon special software extracts data from businesses and sends it to a data warehouse in summary form. Using EC2 users are able to design their own software applications (Myerson, 2008). The database components of EC2 very by region but contain Images, Security Groups, SSH Keys, Elastic IPs, EBS Volumes, EBS Snapshots that can not be shared between regions (Right Scale, 2009). All obtained from businesses for EC2 are an image of the original. According to Amazon (2009) simple DB is a web application that allows users to interact with data indexing and querying quickly because it does not store the data in raw form. Amazon offers a service which it calls the Mechanical Turk. Information is processed by humans and converted to usable knowledge through this service. The Mechanical Turk provides access to networks of people who process information that can only be processed by the human mind. End users can see the results of the EC2 service and the Mechanical Turk (Rainer & Turban, p. 26). Data, information, and knowledge Amazon. com: e-business and e-commerce for B2B and B2C According to Rainer and Turban (2008) Business to business (B2B) entails all transactions made between businesses. Rainer and Turban (2008) also suggest that business to customer (B2C) entails all transactions made between businesses and customers. Rainer and Turban (2008) discuss transaction made over the internet as E-Commerce. E-business means all online transactions including all Internet based interactions with B2B and B2C; E-business transforms business processes for high efficiency (Rainer and Turban, 2008). Amazon uses S3, EC2, SimpleDB and the Mechanical Turk to create an even flow of data that is converted into information for businesses by applications created by users in the EC2 service. The information is converted into knowledge for customers and businesses by the Mechanical Turk. Amazon uses both e-business and e-eCommerce to service its customers, collaborate with partners and perform electronic transactions between organizations. Amazon sells products to businesses and organizations electronically from an e-marketplace. Amazon invites individuals to its site to view catalogs and place orders. Uses of the Amazon. com database: data management issues Amazon encounters problems with managing some data, like any organization dealing with large databases. The Mechanical Turk system is only as reliable as the network of people supporting it. The S3 product, which stores data for clients, will continue to received large amounts of data which must be readily available for the people who use it. When converting the data into information and applications using the EC2 product, which is a cloud computing service that Amazon offers, Amazon will need to support people who do not have much experience with computing. EC2 creates images of user data and an image has the distinct ability to become corrupted overtime through application bugs and human error. Much of the data management problem is due to human error (Rainer & Turban, pp. 26 and 106). Reese (2008) suggests that nobody knows how well Amazon is protecting information in the EC2 cloud. The cloud doesn’t operate with a firewall and if someone successfully subpoenaed Amazon for all there data, personal data would be included. Movement away from being a leading online retailer Amazon is moving away from being a leading online retailer because of increasing competition and overspending on infrastructure. According to Rainer and Turban (2008), Amazon was not using up to 90% of its computing capacity and made the good economical decision to increase profits by decreasing its expenses on unused infrastructure and compete in the markets of data storage, computing, travel and financial services, web hosting, and film and software development, which changed the companies overall direction. Amazon. om is competes with Google™ and Microsoft® Microsoft and Google are offering products similar to Amazon’s S3 product and EC2 product. Microsoft entered into the business of cloud computing on the back of Amazon but has more money, fully developed relationships with third-party developers and a superior background in building software platforms. The offering that Google and Microsoft are supplying and Amazon is competing with is Simple storage service. Microsoft’s cloud computing service is called Windows AZURE (Reuters and Newscientist, 2008). Windows Azure features computer processing, storage hosting and web application management from Microsoft data centers (Microsoft, 2009). Amazon is saving on operating costs and putting its currently unused infrastructure to work by making it available for rent to other companies and individuals who need it (Rainer & Turban, 2008). Conclusion Amazon has proven that its business decisions are sound, safe, reliable and profitable. Amazon remains profitable because it continues to discover new ways to enhance the stability and growth of its business. When many e-companies went out of business after the dot-com bubble burst, Amazon persevered. Amazon maintained a steady course and its wise decision-making proved profitable. References

  • Amazon web services, (2009). Amazon SimpleDB. Retrieved May 4, 2009, from Amazon Web Services Web site: http://aws. amazon. com/simpledb/
  • Microsoft, (2009). Windows azure. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from Azure services platform Web site: http://www. microsoft. com/azure/windowsazure. mspx Myerson, Judith (2008, May 13).
  • Creating application with amazon EC2 and S3. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from O’REILLY ONLamp. com Web site: http://www. onlamp. com/pub/a/onlamp/2008/05/13/creating-applications-with-amazon-ec2-and-s3. html
  • Rainer, K. R. , & Turban, E. , (Ed. ). (2009). Introduction to information systems: Supporting and transforming business. [University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-Text]. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from BIS 219. Reese, G. (2008, November 3). Key security issues for the amazon cloud. Retrieved May 4, 2009, from O’Reilly Web site: http://broadcast. oreilly. om/2008/11/key-security-issues-for-the-am. html
  • Reuters and Newscientist, (2008). Microsoft announces windows for the cloud. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from Newscientists Tech Web site: http://www. newscientist. com/article/dn15053-microsoft-announces-windows-for-the-cloud. html
  • Right Scale, (2009). EC2 regions: US & EU. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from Right Scale Web site: http://wiki. rightscale. com/index. php? title=2. _References/02-Cloud_Infrastructures/01-Amazon_Web_Services_(AWS)/02-Amazon_EC2/EC2_Regions:__EC2-US_%26_EC2-EU

Case Study: The Natural Gas popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

The Natural Gas Case In the Natural Gas case, a German company and a Dutch gas reseller (the plaintiffs) is suing an Austrian partnership company (the defendant) for a breach of contract. The plaintiffs negotiated and agreed to purchase 3000 metric tons of propane gas for $381 per metric ton from the defendant. Because of the two companies never conducting business with one another, the plaintiffs agreed to secure a letter of credit with its purchase. To secure the letter of credit with the purchase, the plaintiff’s bank requested information from the defendant as to what state the gas would be loaded aboard.

The defendant then told the plaintiff that they would obtain the necessary information to them. The plaintiff requested several times to the defendant about the location, but the defendant never replied. The defendant’s U. S. supplier later told the defendant that it would not export the gas to the plaintiff’s place of destination, which was Belgium. The plaintiff then notified the defendant of that because of their breach of contract, the Dutch reseller made a substitute purchase at a higher price that the defendant had promised.

The plaintiff then forwarded the claim of the increased costs of $15,000 to the defendant, in which the defendant rejected the claim. Risks Because of the rejected claim from the defendant, the defendant is at risk for breach of contract, and could pay for the loss of profits of the plaintiff, which was $15,000 or pay the entire replacement purchase of $141,131. The plaintiff also could be at risk. The plaintiff never told or indicated to the defendant that they wanted avoidance from the contract.

The defendant is entitled to be notified of some sort of avoidance of contract, and must be made clear of the avoidance. If the contract is not avoided, the loss of damages cannot be resolved in agreement with CISG Articles 75 and 76. Articles 75 and 76 summarizes to that if a contract was avoided under a breach of contract, and the buyer has purchased goods from a replacement, the seller would have to pay for the loss of profit along with the entire purchase of goods from the replacement. However, because there was not proved to be avoidance in contract from the plaintiff, Article 74 could only take place.

Article 74 means that the damages awarded from a breach of contract would only be for the loss of profit and may not exceed the loss. Another risk for the plaintiff is the duty to mitigate. If the plaintiff did not make reasonable effort to mitigate the losses, the plaintiff may not be able to claim any damages. Outcome The outcome of the case was the plaintiff was awarded damages of the full $141,131. The defendant made claim that the plaintiff breached their obligation by not mitigating. It was up to the defendant to prove such claims.

The defendant could and did not prove any claims towards the plaintiff. The court found that the seller’s breach of contract was totally the fault of the seller. Therefore, the plaintiff is entitled the loss of profits and to recover the $141,131. Explanation and Conclusion There are questions that arise in the ruling of this case. Questions such as did the buyer breach because of not obtaining a letter of credit? The answer is no. The letter of credit could not be completed because of the lack of required information from the seller.

Therefore, the fault was on the seller. The next question is did the seller breach? Yes, the seller breached the contract because the seller negotiated and made a deal to the buyer promising them a price and delivery of a product, and the product was never delivered; causing the seller to buy from a replacement at a higher cost. Next question is was the contract avoided? The answer is no; the contract was not officially avoided in accordance with Article 49 of CISG by the buyer. Although, the buyer had grounds to avoid the contract, they did not.

Article 49 states “the buyer may declare the contract avoided if the failure by the seller to perform any of his obligations under the contract or this Convention amounts to a fundamental breach of contract” (CISG, 2006). The next question is was the buyer entitled to lost profits; the answer is yes. The buyer is entitled the loss of profits because the buyer notified the seller that they were going with a resale. Because the seller knew of the resale of goods, the buyer is entitled to the loss of profits.

Next question is did the buyer fail to mitigate; the answer is it was not proven. The case did not whether or not the buyer mitigated or not. The seller claimed that the buyer did not mitigate, it is up to seller to prove that the buyer did not mitigate; the seller could not nor did not prove such. Therefore, it is not known whether the buyer did or did not mitigate. The last question is how may these risks be minimized? The answer is to follow proper procedures at all times to cover all tracks.

For the buyer in this situation, before making a negotiation and deal, ensure that their third party is aware of all information. The buyer should have gone over all information to its U. S. supplier stating that a buyer wants gas delivered to Belgium. The seller could have then received the information from its supplier saying that it could not deliver to Belgium before making a final deal. As far as the buyer, the risks could be minimized by following procedure as to avoiding the contract and mitigating.

The buyer in this case was lucky from the outcome. If the seller had proof that the buyer did not mitigate, the buyer would not been awarded full damages. References August, R. , & Mayer D. , & Bixby M. (2009). International Business Law Text, Cases, and Readings (chapter 10. ) 5th; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, (2006). Article 49. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://ruessmann. jura. uni-sb. de/rw20/gesetze/CISG/cisgedex. htm

Purpose of Power System Protection cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Purpose of POWER System protection The purpose of any power system is to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity to the consumer in a manner that is safe, reliable, and economical; both in the short and long term. Under normal operating conditions, the currents, voltages, power, and energy associated with such systems are all matched to meet the system’s design requirements with respect to reliability, quality, safety, and economy.

To ensure maximum returns on the large or expensive investments in the components which go to make up the power system and to keep the customers satisfied with reliable (i. e. , adequate and secure) service, the power system must be kept in operation continuously without major breakdowns and consequently without violating the design limits (because of abnormal currents, voltages, or power). This can be achieved in two ways: (i) Implement a system adopting/using components, which should not fail (i. . , failure-free components) and requires the least or nil maintenance to maintain the adequacy and security of supply. By common sense, implementing such a system is neither economical nor feasible, except for small systems. (ii) Foresee or anticipate any possible/credible effects or failure events that may cause long term shutdown of a system, which in turn may take longer time to bring back the system to its normal course.

The main idea is to restrict or minimise the disturbances during such failures or events to a limited area and continue power supply in the balance/unaffected areas. The second approach is the one commonly used in practical power systems. To realise it, special equipment is normally installed to continuously monitor the power system to detect undesired conditions that present a threat to system reliability (adequacy and security) and take (initiate) action to remove the threat from the system with minimal adverse effects (i. e. detect abnormalities that can possibly happen in various sections of a power system, and to isolate affected sections so that the interruption of supply is limited to a localised area in the total system covering various areas and damage to expensive electrical equipment is limited and safety of personnel provided). This special equipment used to detect such possible failures or faults and initiate their removal is referred to as “protective equipment or device” and the system that uses such devices is termed as “protection system or scheme”. Thus, the objective of protection in a power ystem is to minimise the risk of damage to equipment, risk of life threat to personnel, and risk of supply interruptions or loss of service to unaffected portions of the system when faults and other abnormal conditions occur. Protective devices do not, therefore, prevent a fault or any other adverse condition from occurring in the system; they only mitigate or avert the consequences of such conditions whenever they occur through quick isolation or removal of the problem. The typical effects or consequences of fault conditions are discussed in the following section.

Summary: There are several reasons to use protective devices in power systems:- (i) to provide alarm when measured process or quantity limits are exceeded, thereby allowing operators an opportunity to intervene with corrective actions; (ii) to isolate faulted equipment or circuits from the remainder of the system so that the system can continue to function; (iii) to limit damage to faulted equipment by quickly isolating from the system and hence reducing the duration of the problem; (iv) to minimise the possibility of fire or catastrophic damage to adjacent equipment; (v) to minimise hazards to personnel; and vi) to provide post-fault information to help analyse the root cause.

The Effects of Tv Adverts on Children law essay help: law essay help

www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 1; January 2011 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 283 Does the Food Advertisement on Television Have the Impact on Children’s Food Purchasing Behavior? A Study Based on Pakistan Food Advertisement Muhammad Haroon (Corresponding author) Faculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages Sector H-9, Islamabad, Pakistan Tel: 92-333-529-9517 E-mail: [email protected]. com Dr. Tahir Masood Qureshi Associate Professor, Faculty of Management Studies University of Central Punjab Lahore, Pakistan

Tel: 92-345-509-0550 E-mail: [email protected]. com Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman Faculty of Management Sciences, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan Tel: 92-300-536-5378 E-mail: [email protected]. com Mansoor Nisar PhD Scholar, Faculty of Management Sciences Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan Tel: 92-300-530-3077 E-mail: [email protected]. com Abstract The purpose of conducting this study was to examine television advertisements and children’s food using pattern when they were watching television and their desire to purchase goods that they saw advertisements on television.

This study was conducted in two parts. In the first part, content analysis of the television advertisements was conducted. In second part of the study, a questionnaire was given to 200 parents. Total of 75 of these parent’s children were attending 1st, 2nd and 3rd grades of the primary schools and 125 of the children were attending the pre-schools. The results showed that children were bombarded with so many advertisements and their behavior was more influenced by the television food advertisements. It was also affecting their food choices and health.

Keywords: Advertising, Childhood obesity, Television viewing, Food preferences, Food consumption 1. Introduction Advertisement plays the major role in informing about the products and services to the target market. It is the paid form of communication to influence the behaivor of the people with effecitive and efficient manner. With the passage of time trends are getting change, many parts of the country have dozens of broadcast and cable channels and hundreds more may be on the way. Advertising’s view of its audience is undergoing significant changes as well.

While researchers and practitioners continue to argue the merits of globalized marketing in general and globalized advertising in particular, an intriguing phenomenon has emerged (Akta_ Arnas, Y. 2006). Children are becoming more focus target market for many advertisers, and they are putting their extreme efforts to capture this valuable target market. Most of the advertisers are advertising those foods products which have above the standard level fats, more calories and salt such as confectionery, soft drinks, crisps and savory snacks, fast food (Ofcom,2004) and pre-sugared breakfast cereals are included in the daily lives of the children.

This www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 1; January 2011 284 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 eating pattern is leading children towards heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and obesity in later stage of the life. Obesity and overweight problems are becoming more common in children because of the eating pattern of the children. Watching the television is a sluggish activity that pushes to reduce the metabolic rates and also make the habits not to do the physical exercise and all this closely related to taking frequently snacks, easy to available fast foods.

According to the office of communication (2004), there is almost the unified agreement among the people related to preference of foods and its consumption patterns are based on multiple factors. Some of important factors shown to be involved where children are concerned are: a. Psychosocial determinants (e. g. food choices) b. More knowledge about the food items c. Hunger and gender factors influences d. Influence of time and convenience factors e. Family demographical factors f. Social network influences g. Schools cafeteria h. Food streets i.

Huge promotion on media, specially electronic media such as television 2. Objectives The promotion of food items through advertisement on television has the great impact on eating habits and health of children in Pakistan. This respective study intended to check advertisements on television and food consumption of children when they are watching television and their wish to buy those food items they watch on television advertisements. 3. Importance of the study in Pakistan’s scenario Many advertisers are targeting children in Pakistan, because children have great influence on their parents to spend on them.

The parents on their children eating habits spend the reasonable amount of money. Generally, most of the parents and other member of the society may have the opinion that advertising have some negative, deliberate or inadvertent, influence on children (Goldberg, 1990; Goldberg & Gom, 1978; Grossbart & Crosby, 1984; Burr & Burr, 1977). Apart from the influence on parents, children also take some purchasing decisions during the school time. Therefore, the main and the most important purpose to conduct this study in this scenario is to make aware the parents about the eating habits and preferences of their children.

They will come to know how their children are taking fats, salts and other unhealthy diet which disturbs their diet schedules. This research will be an eye opener for those parents who were unaware of this fact that their children may suffer from many dangerous diseases, and will also come to know that what the main factor is contributing to all these problems. They will also get conscious about the unnecessary food advertisements which may cause their children to move towards unhealthy diet and purchasing request.

As most of the children use to eat more while watching television so when mothers will come to know about it they will definitely find out alternatives which may defend their children especially from obesity. 4. Literature review There has been very old public concern over the harmful effects of food promotion on children. High levels of concern currently centre on the evidence of rising obesity among children, in common with many other countries in the developed world (World Health Organization, 2000).

Previous food-related concerns have included nutrition, dental health, dieting and anorexia, and so forth. The royal college of physicians has reported that the obesity among the children is increasing (Kopelman, 2004 & Ambler, 2004). All agrees that the food industry is one of the major player in the field of advertising (Hastings et al 2003, Young, Paliwoda & Crawford, 2003). Studies show that food advertising on television is dominated by breakfast cereals, confectionary, savory snacks and soft drinks, with fast food restaurants taking up an increasing proportion of advertising on television.

A major review of the field, recently conducted by Hastings et al (2003) for the food standards agency, has focused academic, policy and public attention on the role that food promotion, particularly television advertising, plays in influencing children’s food choices, defined in terms of food knowledge, preferences and behavior. Both research methods and findings addressed in this and other reviews are much contested (Paliwoda & Crawford, 2004; Young, 2003; Ambler, 2004; and Livingstone, 2004) some reviews cover a wide terrain, examining the www. csenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 1; January 2011 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 285 range of factors which may influence children’s diet. Others are focusing on the direct effects of advertising on food choice. Unfortunately, much of the literature on diet and obesity pays little attention to media related factors such as exposure to television in general or advertising in particular.

Also unfortunately, much of the literature on the effects of advertising pays little attention to the contextual factors which may mediate or provide alternative explanations for the observed relationship between media use and children’s diet and/or weight. Reviewing the field is complex in part because the research available spans a range of academic disciplines, countries and contexts and also because empirical studies use different measures, control for different factors or omit valuable information.

In reviewing the published literature, it is worth identifying not only what can be concluded but also what remains unclear as well as questions for future investigation. Importantly, the balance of evidence (experimental, correlation and observational) in the published literature shows that television advertising has a modest, direct effect on children’s food choices. Although there remains much scope for debate, this conclusion is widely accepted across diverse positions and stakeholders (Livingstone, 2004).

Food promotion is having an effect, particularly on children’s preferences, purchase behavior and consumption. This effect is independent of other factors and operates at both a brand and category level’ (Hastings et al, 2003). Lewis and Hill (1998) conducted a content analysis showing that food is the most advertised product category on children’s television, and that confectionary, cereals and savory snacks are the most advertised. Hence, 60% of food adverts to children are for convenience foods, 6% for fast food outlets, and the remainder for cereals and confectionery.

Lewis and Hill (1998) in this study they found that overweight children are less satisfied with their appearance and have a greater preference for thinness; feeling fat was directly related to weight. In general, children feel better, less worried and more liked after seeing adverts. They also found an interaction effect: after seeing a food advertisement, overweight children feel healthier and show a decreased desire to eat sweets, while normal weight children feel less healthy and more like eating sweets than before seeing the ad. The opposite pattern was observed after viewing non-food ads.

Hastings et al (2003), ‘the foods we should eat least are the most advertised, while the foods we should eat most are the least advertised’. A recent survey of UK parents conducted for the national family and parenting institute (2004) shows that parents feel their children are ‘bombarded’ by advertising to ever younger children and across an ever-greater range of media Platforms. They claim to be anxious, irritated and pressurized, not least because of the considerable domestic conflicts they claim that consumer demands from children result in within the family.

Young (2003) in his study he concluded that children understand advertising from eight to nine years old and that they play an active role in families’ food buying. Dietary preferences of children are said to be established by about five years old, before advertising is understood. The author further argues that a multiplicity of factors, of which advertising/television viewing is only one, influence eating patterns. Stratton & Bromley (1999) in their study they determined through a series of interviews that the dominant preoccupation of parents is to get their children to eat enough.

Parents try to adjust the food to the preferences of family members so that children can eat. There was a notable lack of reference to nutrition and health when talking about food choices for children in the British families interviewed. There have been many investigations determinant of children’s diets, while schools and peers are also influential in determining preferences and habits. A study in New Zealand, Hill, Casswell, Maskill, Jones & Wyllie (1998) showed that although teenagers had good knowledge of what was healthy and what not, what they ate was determined by how desirable foods were.

Gracey et al (1996) in their study “Nutritional knowledge, beliefs and behaviours in teenage school students” described that one of the critical and important factor of enhancing and balancing eating habits is to increase the awareness amongst the children to control their diet; “this needs to be accompanied by provision of nutrition education, and parents and schools need to be involved in making healthy foods more available”.

This is really significance to develop the strong eating habits at the earlier stage of the life; if this pattern of eating habits would be continued in mature life and hard to change at a later stage of the life (Hill, Casswell, Maskill, Jones & Wyllie, 1998; Kelder, Perry & Klepp, 1994; Sweeting et al, 1994). Numerous studies pointed out the fact that those who eat with the family have healthier dietary habits. Family meals become less frequent as children get older and the frequency of those meals differ for different ethnic groups and socio-economical status (Neumark& Sztainer, Hannan, Story, Croll & Perry, 2003).

The influence of family eating patterns on dietary intake stays strong even after controlling for other variables such as television viewing and physical activity. Eating away from home also increases the consumption of soft drinks which is related to problems with www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 1; January 2011 286 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 weight (French, Lin et al, 2003).

The purpose of this study is to examine television advertisements and children’s food using pattern when they are watching television and their desire to purchase goods that they see advertisements on television in Pakistan. 5. Method 5. 1 Sampling & Data collection This study is conducted in two parts. In first part, content analysis of the television advertisement, which during the child programs on Saturday and Sunday were examined. For this purpose the television programs and the advertisements broadcast between 03:00 hours and 7:30 hours for three weeks were taken.

The second part of the study focused on children’s behaviors while watching television advertisement and their purchasing request during shopping, in children aged 3-8years old. In second part of the study, questionnaires are given to 200 parents. A total of 75 of these parents’ children were attending 1st, 2nd and 3rd grades of the primary schools and 125 of the children were attending the pre-schools. 5. 2 Sample characteristics The demographic characteristics are as follows: 55% were boys out of the total and 45% were girls. In total 63% of the parents were high school and university graduates. 5% of the fathers come under 28years and above. 95% of mothers were between 24-40 years. Table 1 shows that 17. 6% of the children pay attention to the advertisements; it was also found that children in the age group of 4-5 years showed attentive behavior more than the children in the other age groups. In contrast, 6. 9% of the children are determined to do whatever they were doing and not taking any notice of the advertisements. It was found that 32. 85% of the children asked their parents to buy the products presented in the advertisements while watching them in this behavior was highly observed in the 4-5 year old children.

Table 2 is indicating that children time is starting from 3. 00hours to 7. 00hours on different channels. It is observed at weekends for three weeks at Saturdays and Sundays. Between these hours, the total mean time of children’s program on three channels were 104 mins. Table 3 shows total mean amount of broadcast advertisements on the three channels were 29. Out of which about 21 advertisements were of food related. According to the table 3, 73. 18 % of the advertisements broadcast are food related, 9. 49% are telecom related and 5. 02 are detergents related advertisements.

It is very clear that food advertisements are more than others. According to table 4, greater percentage is of snacks advertisements in total which is 35. 11%, then chips 28. 24%, ice cream 15. 26%. But there no fruits advertisements which are in real sense having nutrients and energy. 6. Discussion & Limitation of the study After analysis of results now there is need to develop the time plan of watching television for children by their parents. In school teachers can also play the significant role for guiding the television advertising watching .

Children must be guided the both aspects of watching television advertisements, not leaving them on whatever is going on advertisement. First this research only focused the children purchasing behavior based on television advertisements . It can also extended by taking other media as well. Second this can also be apply on some adults both male and female. Third, other daily using items advertisement can also consider for research. 7. Conclusion In content analysis we came to the point that television food advertisements are playing greater role in such regard. Children are bombarded with so many advertisements.

It is also affecting their food choices and health. In addition to this , when the behaviors of the children are examined, it can be observed that children consume food which are rich in fat and sugar while watching television and have problems with their parents about buying the products they have seen on the advertisements. This shows that children in the younger age groups are affected more from the advertisements broadcast on the television and reflect these more in their consuming behavior. In conclusion, it can be suggested that in order to reduce these damaging actors they can adjust the television watching timing of their children in the early years and can control their eating habits and buying requesting patterns. References Akta_ Arnas, Y. (2006). The effects of television food advertisement on children’s food purchasing requests. Pediatrics International, 48: 138–145. www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 1; January 2011 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 287 Ambler, Tim (1996). Can alcohol misuse be reduced by banning advertising?. International Journal of Advertising, 15(2), 167-174 Ambler, T. Braeutigam, S. , Stins, J. , Rose, S. and Swithenby, S. (2004). Salience and choice: Neural correlates of shopping decisions. Psychology and Marketing, 21: 247–261. Beilin. (1996). Nutritional knowledge, beliefs and behaviours in teenage school students. Health Education Research, 11 (2), 187-204, Burr, Pat L. and Richard M. Burr (1977). Parental Responses to Child Marketing. Journal of Advertising Research, 1’7 (6), 17-24. Cihangar S,Demir G. (2003). The Study of Children and their parent’s television watching habits. In:Yayin YP (ed)OMEP World council and conferenes; 5-11 Oct D. Gracey, N. Stanley, V.

Burke, B. Corti and L. J. French, S. A. , Lin, B. H. , and Guthrie, J. F. (2003). National trends in soft drinkconsumption among children and adolescents age 6 to 17 years: Prevalence, amounts, and sources, 1977/1978 to 1994/1888. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(10), 1326-1331. Goldberg, Marvin E. (1990). A Quasi-Experiment Assessing the Effectiveness of TV Advertising Directed to Children. Journal of Marketing Research, 27 (November),445-454. Goldberg, Marvin E. and Gerald J. Gom. (1978). Some Unintended Consequences of TV Advertising to Children. Journal of Consumer Research, 5 (June), 22-29.

Grossbart, Sanford L. , and Lawrence A. Crosby. (1984). Understanding the Bases of Parental Concern and Reaction to Children’s Food Advertising. Journal of Marketing, 48 (Summer), 79-92. Gracey, D. , Stanley, N. , Burke, V. , Corti, B. , and Beilin, L. J. (1996). Nutritional knowledge, beliefs and behaviours in teenage school students. Health Education Research, 11(2), 187-204. Hastings, Gerard, Martine Stead, Laura McDermott, Alasdair Forsyth, Anne Marie MacKintosh, Mike Rayner, Christine Godfrey, Martin Caraher and Kathryn Angus. (2003a). Review of research on the effects of food promotion to children.

Final report, prepared for the Food Standards Agency, 22nd September, 2003. Hastings, Gerard. (2003). Social marketers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your shame. SMQ, 9(4), 14-21 Hill, L. , Casswell, S. , Maskill, C. , Jones, S. , & Wyllie, A. (1998). Fruit and vegetables as adolescent food choices. Health Promotion International, 13(4), 55-65. Kelder S. H, C L Perry, K I Klepp and L L Lytle. (1994). Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 84(7), 1121-1126 Kopelman. (2004). cited in Ambler, T. 2004). Does the UK promotion of food and drink to children contribute to their obesity? (Centre for marketing working paper No. 04- 901). London: London Business School Kotz K, Story M. Food. (1994). Advertisements during children’s Saturday morning television programming are they consistent with dietary recommendations? , J. Am. Diet. Association, 94(3), 1296-1300. Lin, F-Y, Monteiro-Riviere, NA, Grichnik, JM, Zielinski, JE & Pinnell, SR, (2005). A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamin C, vitamin E, and ferulic acid prevents ultraviolet-radiation-induced caspase-3 induction in skin.

J Am Acad Dermatol, 52,158 Livingstone, S. (1998). Making sense of television: The psychology of audience interpretation (2nd Ed. ). Routledge, London Lewis, M. K. , and Hill, A. J. (1998). Food advertising on British children’s television: A content analysis and experimental study with nine-year olds. International Journal of Obesity, 22(3), 206-214. Neumark-Sztainer, D. , Hannan, P. J. , Story, M. , Croll, J. , and Perry, C. (2003). Family meal patterns: Associations with sociodemogpaphic characteristics and improved dietary intake among adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(3), 317-322.

Paliwoda, Stan and Ian Crawford. (2003). An Analysis of the Hastings Review: The Effects of Food Promotion on Children. Report prepared for the Food Advertising Unit, December (2003). Stratton, P. , & Bromley, K. (1999). Families Accounts of the Causal Processes in Food Choice. Appetite. 33(2), 89-108. www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 6, No. 1; January 2011 288 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119 Sweeting, H. , Anderson, A. , and West, P. (1994). Sociodemographic Correlates of Dietary Habits in Mid to Late Adolescence.

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48(10), 736-748. The Office of Communications (Ofcom) 2004. Child obesity – food advertising in context: Children’s food choices, parent’s understanding and influence, and the role of food promotions. Received on April 3, 2009, from World Health Organization (2004). Young people’s health in context. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2001/2002 survey, Eating habits pp110-119 ISBN 92 890 1372 9. [Online] Available: http://www. euro. who. int/Document/e82923. pdf. Young, Brian. (2003). Advertising and Food Choice in Children: A Review of the Literature. Report prepared for the Food Advertising Unit, August (2003). Table 1. Children’s behaviors towards advertised products while watching advertisements Behaviors observed during Frequency of observed behaviors watching advertisements Total Age n % 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pay attention 61 17. 6 8 14 32 3 3 Watches for a few minutes 116 20. 2 14 23 39 18 11 11 Looks from time to time 70 33. 4 7 15 24 6 9 9 Does not care 24 6. 9 2 1 6 4 6 5 Makes comments about the product 102 29. 4 9 23 47 8 7 8 Wants the products 114 32. 85 8 28 58 9 7 4 Table 2.

Values of the children’s programs and advertisements broadcast during the evening hours on weekends according to channels Jeo Saturday Sunday Indus Vision Saturday Sunday Cartoon Network Saturday Sunday Time of the children’s 6. 00-7. 30 6. 00-7. 30 3. 00-6. 00 3. 00-6. 00 5. 10-6. 00 6. 10-6. 45 program Total time of the 90mins 90mins 180mins 180mins 50mins 35mins children’s program Number of the 25 28 47 53 17 9 advertisements Total time of 11:05mins 12:08mins 11:58mins 13:42mins 8:08mins 3:75mins advertisements Number of food 17 21 38 41 10 4 advertisements www. ccsenet. org/ijbm International Journal of Business and Management Vol. , No. 1; January 2011 Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education 289 Table 3. Types of products advertised on the television channels Types of products advertised n % Food 131 73. 18 Detergents 9 5. 02 Cleaning supplies 3 1. 67 Telecom 17 9. 49 Kitchen supplies 4 2. 23 Toothpaste 3 1. 67 Beauty products 5 2. 79 Diaper 3 1. 67 Banking 4 2. 23 Total 179 100 Table 4. Types of food advertisements on the channels % Total n Total Types of food Snacks 46 35. 11 Ice cream 20 15. 26 Drinks 16 12. 21 Candy and chocolates 7 5. 34 Biscuits 5 3. 81 Chips 37 28. 24 Total 131 100

Good Versus Evil essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Lindsey Brutus February 22, 2011 Analytical Essay Good versus Evil At first, it appears that the definitions of good and evil are straightforward. According to the New Oxford American Dictionary, good is defined as “that which is morally right; righteousness”; evil is defined as “profoundly immoral and malevolent. ” For centuries there has been an argument among many philosophers on the belief of “good versus evil” and whether it really exists. Some argue that human beings are the perpetrators of evil.

Others argue that the world is not a bad place and that evil and suffering is, in fact, necessary. Throughout the novel, Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, there is a clear struggle involving good and evil. The reader is introduced to the protagonist and narrator, Victor Frankenstein, at the beginning of the novel. Victor, a family oriented man, becomes very interested in the modern science world and later on believes that he has discovered the “secret of life. ” With this discovery he goes on to create a monster, who remains without a name throughout the whole novel.

At first glance it appears that the monster did everything in his power to prevent Victor from having the happy life that he longed for. Mary Shelley purposely chose Victor Frankenstein to be the narrator of this story. Readers only get the story from his point of view. Frankenstein plays on the emotions of the readers, therefore anything he is feeling, readers feel the same way. He is seen as this helpless man who has been through so much in such a short life, and all because he was being terrorized by this heinous creature. I entered the room where the corpse lay, and was led up to the coffin… The trial, the presence of the magistrate and witnesses, passed like a dream from my memory, when I saw the lifeless form of Henry Clerval stretched before me. I gasped for breath; and, throwing myself on the body I exclaimed, ‘Have my murderous machinations deprived you also, my dearest Henry, of life? Two I have already destroyed; other victims await their destiny: but you, Clerval, my friend, my benefactor’” (122). However, readers do get a glimpse in to how the monster feels and the struggles that he comes across. … She continued her course along the precipitous sides of the river, when suddenly her foot slipped; and she fell into the rapid stream. I rushed from my hiding place, and, with extreme labour from the force of the current, saved her, and dragged her to shore… I was suddenly interrupted by the approach of a rustic… On seeing me, he darted towards me, and, tearing the girl from my arms, hastened towards the deeper parts of the wood… he aimed a gun, which he carried, at my body, and fired. I sunk to the ground, and my injurer, with increased swiftness, escaped into the wood” (95).

Mary Shelley’s anecdote of a struggle between good versus evil makes the reader constantly redefine who is truly the good one, and who is evil. At the end of the novel, the reader discovers that it is really Victor Frankenstein that is the evil one. He manipulated the readers thoughts and feelings by leading them to believe that he was the good one, that he was being tormented by this evil beast. In reality, this is how the story really goes: Frankenstein was the creator of this “beast. ” Frankenstein abandoned the beast and treated it as if it were too wretched to be loved.

Frankenstein, knowing how the beast felt and what he was capable of, continued to ignore the monster’s requests for a companion. Frankenstein knew that the beast would take away all of his loved ones until he got what he wanted. Victor manipulated this monster in to doing his dirty work for him. Mary Shelley displays this battle between good and evil very well. Candide, written by Voltaire, is a satire which pokes fun at a number of Enlightenment philosophies. The protagonist, Candide, is a good-hearted but naive young man.

His mentor, Pangloss, is described as a teacher of “metaphysico-theologo-cosmolonigology” who believes that this is “the best of all possible worlds. ” This belief, which is argued by Leibniz, is the main reason why Voltaire is satirizing his play. Pangloss is an optimist, and believes that no matter what happens, this is the greatest life anyone can live because the good will always be the case. Voltaire mocks the idea that good prevails over evil because he believes that human beings perpetrate evil. He believes that evil does, in fact, exist and ignoring that existence is wrong and dangerous.

Other philosophers such as Leibniz believe that the existence of any evil in the world would have to mean that God is either not good or not omnipotent, and that idea could not possibly be true. With this reasoning, philosophers such as Leibniz believe that since God is indeed perfect, then the world that he has created can be viewed as no less than perfect as well. All the “evil” or “bad” that people claim exists in the world is only because they do not understand what God’s ultimate plan is. Voltaire strongly disagrees with this idea, as it is evident in his novel.

He does not accept the idea that a perfect God exists, maybe a God does not even exist. To prove his point, Voltaire uses a great deal of exaggeration; the biggest optimists in the world, Candide and Pangloss, go through a series of hardships and horrors. These woes do not serve any apparent purpose but to attack this belief that this is “the best of all possible worlds. ” A perfect example is when Pangloss tells Candide that he is dying because of syphilis. In chapter four, Candide cries, “O sage Pangloss what a strange genealogy is this!

Is not the devil the root of it? ” Pangloss simply replies, “Not at all, it was a thing unavoidable, a necessary ingredient in the best of worlds; for if Columbus had not caught in an island in America this disease, which contaminates the source of generation, and frequently impedes propagation itself, and is evidently opposed to the great end of nature, we should have neither chocolate nor cochineal. ” This part of the novel makes the reader laugh because chocolate is not the result of syphilis; they are in, no way, related.

Voltaire then adds more intelligent and rational characters into the story, such as the old woman, who have more pessimistic views about how the world works. By the end of the novel, Pangloss finally admits that maybe this is not “the best of all possible worlds. ” Shelley, Voltaire, and Leibniz all touched on the subject of good versus evil. Voltaire and Leibniz had opposing views on how the world really works. Maybe there is a bigger plan, but evil does exist and evil is created by all of us. Shelley definitely showed how humans can truly be evil. No matter what, there will always be a battle between good versus evil.

Present a Comparative Business aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Present a comparative business history of two firms – Adidas & Nike in respect to their rivalry Present a comparative business history of two firms – Adidas & Nike in respect to their rivalry Abstract In my essay I introduce the topic by presenting a brief history of the beginnings of each of the two firms. Adidas originating in Germany and Nike originating in America. I then go on to introduce some of the first products the companies made and the technological breakthroughs they respectively made.

I then move onto discuss how both of the firms have used well known athletes and celebrities to endorse there products and how this has affected there sales. I identify how advertising has changed over the history of the companies and how it is no longer about marketing the products that they sell. The companies now focus on marketing the brand over the product to improve brand equity. I then talk about how Nike has used ambush marketing to reduce the impact of some of Adidas’ marketing campaigns.

I then discuss the flotation of Nike and Adidas on the stock exchange and how the new CEO’s at Adidas have changed the way that the company operates. In conclusion I found that both companies are trying to enter each others market of origin by purchasing a smaller company from there continent, for example Nike purchasing Umbro. I found that Adidas must introduce a pioneering product or the will face the risk of falling further behind to Nike. Present a comparative business history of two firms – Adidas & Nike in respect to their rivalry Adidas and Nike are two of largest firms in the sports industry. adidas commands nearly a quarter (22 %) of the worldwide athletic footwear and apparel market. ” (Mcafee/ 4/1/10/ [Online]) “adidas trails behind only Nike, which holds a worldwide market share of 33%. ” (Mcafee/ 4/1/10/ [Online]) The two modern giants are at the forefront of many technological advances in sports attire and hardware. The competition between the two firms has grown over the pairs history. I aim to compare and contrast the two in respect to their rivalry, in order to obtain a greater understanding of the way they operate and identify their similarities and differences.

Originating in Herzogenaurach, Germany, Adidas was founded by Adolf Dasler, a man whose aim was to provide every athlete with the best footwear for their respective discipline. Dasler was a pioneer in the sports-shoe industry and throughout his working life created some of the footwear that has revolutionised sport as we know it today. “700 patents and other industrial property rights worldwide are proof of his permanent quest for perfection. ” (Adidas/ 4/1/10/ [Online])

Blue Ribbon Sports was founded on 25th of January, 1964 by Bill Bowerman, an American track and field coach and Philip Knight, one of Bowerman’s pupils at the university of Oregon. Bowerman originally hand crafted shoes for his runners and believed, “there’s a direct correlation between equipment and athletic performance” (Nike Biz/ 4/1/10/ [Online]) In 1964 the company sealed the right to distribute Onitsuka Tiger shoes, the business relationship ended in 1971 after a disagreement with the Japanese firm.

Nike was born in 1971 along with the release of Bowerman’s first shoe ‘The Nike’. Adi Dasler was well on his way to fulfilling his dream, in 1928 athletes at the olympic games in Amsterdam wore shoes from his workshop. By 1930 Dasler had a workforce of nearly 100 employees and was making 30 types of shoes for 11 different sports. It was after the second world war in 1948 when ‘Adidas’ was introduced as the company name. The iconic three stripes were registered in 1949 and to this day are recognisable all over the world.

It was the 1954 world cup final when the German team were given boots with screw in studs that could be changed to adapt to any weather condition, this new technology and the Germans who were the underdogs in the game helped put Adidas firmly on the map. In 1970 Bill Bowerman began experimenting with rubber spikes, he poured liquid rubber into his wife’s waffle iron, the result would forever change the design of running shoes, shortly after this ‘The Nike’ was released and finally in 1978 the company name was changed to ‘NIKE, Inc’.

In December 1980, Nike entered the stock exchange, two million shares were offered, the revenue generated from the sale of stock would be used to aid the expansion of the company especially in the european market that was dominated by adidas. Adi Dasler was the first man to use sportsmen and women to make the public aware of his products. Well known athletes were sponsored by Adidas as a means of advertising the adidas brand. “Many famous athletes such as Jesse Owens, Muhammad Ali, Max Schmeling, Sepp Herberger and Franz Beckenbauer counted themselves among the friends of the Dassler Family. (Adidas/ 4/1/10/ [Online]) Nike used similar tactics, there first signing was proven runner Steve Prefontaine who set the American record for every race from the 2,000 to 10,000 meters. In 1975 the athlete died, however the Nike brand shoes that he ran in have been immortalised along with the imagery that followed the runners death. In 1978 nike went on to sign John McEnroe a hot prospect in the tennis world. They used McEnroe in an advertising campaign that parodied the famous James Dean photograph in Times Square. “Nonetheless, he became an icon and the sport grew in popular appeal.

This poster was such a market success it completely sold out. ” (Aiga/ 9/1/10/ [Online]) The way Nike was using a well known athlete to advertise there brand without disclosing any detail on there products was revolutionary. It was the face of a well known sports personality that was attracting people towards the brand and Nike had identified this by using McEnroe in there campaign. The next major player Nike went on to sign was Michael Jordan in 1984. By signing Jordan nike were taking a large risk, he was a young athlete at the time and nike’s economic performance compared to adidas was under pressure.

The demand for running shoes that had driven nikes sales in previous years was slowly dying and they needed to find a new way to appeal to a wider market. Adidas had already secured large segments of other markets with its wide array of footwear and apparel for a vast majority of sports. By taking the risk Nike pulled off its greatest comeback as a company. The ‘Jordan Flight’ commercial is now famous, not only did it make Michael Jordan a superstar but it granted nike growth through the enormous sales the shoe generated. “When Air Jordans hit the stores in April of 1985, Nike could not keep up with demand.

The Air Jordan line sold over $100 million in its first year” (Nike Culture, Robert Goldamn & Stephen Papson, 1998, Page 47) This move made Nike the company what it is today. More recently, Adidas has chosen to sponsor large events, this involves all of the staff wearing adidas clothing and exposure on television adverts and billboards. By sponsoring the large events it encourages ‘ambush marketing’ “Ambush marketing is a form of marketing in which a group takes advantage of an event (that is usually highly publicized, documented, and seen by many) but with no affiliation with the event and no fee is paid. (optimum7/ 9/1/10/ [Online]) Nike has used ambush marketing on adidas on three occasions, the 1998 world cup was sponsored by adidas however nike chose to sponsor individual teams, the teams kit would be exposed to millions of viewers and thus gaining free advertising, a similar method was used at the Beijing olympics in 2008 where adidas sponsored the event but nike sponsored individual runners that they knew would have camera time. By using ambush marketing a company is able to take the edge off another marketing by putting another product into the equation.

Jim Stengel the global marketing officer of P&G said, “In 1965, 80% of 18-49 year-olds in the US could be reached with three 60-second TV spots. In 2002, it required 117 prime-time commercials to do the same. ” (Smm Strategist/ 8/1/10/ [Online]) This statement suggests that conventional advertising methods were not as effective as they used to be, Nike and Adidas have both reacted to the change. Advertising for both is no longer about selling shoes or clothing it is about marketing the brand.

For example Adidas advert has celebrities in Adidas clothing, the advert does not inform the viewer about the product, it exposes the viewer to a recognisable face wearing the Adidas brand. Nike and Adidas both use this style of advertising to build on their brand equity. Nike ‘take it to the next level’ – contains famous players from teams that they sponsor, the viewer is put into the perspective of someone playing for that team, the viewer is exposed to the nike ‘swoosh’ throughout the advert and there is no mention of any product.

The advert is feature length and shows the player progressing during the advert. The advert suddenly ends and ‘Take it to the next level’ followed by the nike ‘swoosh’ is displayed. Adidas focuses on celebrity endorsement, David Beckham the most famous of Adidas’ endorsees appears in most of the adverts. The two companies compete to create the best advert, the advert that consumers remember the most is the advert that will generate the most brand awareness. The visual embedding of the swoosh onto all environments – the clothing products we use, the social spaces we occupy and the media we watch gave rise to overswooshification” (Nike Culture, Robert Goldamn & Stephen Papson, 1998, Page 1) If a company uses there logo too much faces the risk of sign inflation, where the logo is seen so much the value of it is reduced due to the number of that logo in circulation. Nike had been using the swoosh on all of its advertising campaigns up until 1997 when it changed its signing of adverts to just Nike.

If Nike had continued to overexpose the public to its swoosh then it would be likely that sign inflation would have occurred, with the sign being too common for some buyers. Originally adidas, like all German companies were very design orientated and opted for function over form. Nike, like most American companies have always been a marketing orientated company with the way the product looks as the most important factor. Up until the death of Horst Dasler in 1987 the company kept to Adi Dasler’s original principle of providing every athlete with the best footwear for their respective discipline. Under the CEO Robert Louis-Dreyfus, adidas is moving from being a manufacturing and sales based company to a marketing company. ” (Adidas Group/ 8/1/10/ [Online]) It could be said this move has been done as the new CEO has identified the need to focus on marketing in order to compete with Nike’s dominance in the global markets. Adidas entered the stock market in 1995, the move was representative of nike’s decision to go public to raise capital. In my opinion the move was to raise the funds necessary to expand the adidas group.

In 1997 adidas purchased the Salomon group, a move that would further assist in diversifying the product range of the company. In the year 2000 the management changed again and the new management initiated an, “ambitious Growth and Efficiency Program. ” (Adidas Group/ 8/1/10/ [Online]) Reebok was acquired by adidas in 2005, the move combined the second and third largest shoe manufacturers in order to improve competition with Nike. By purchasing Rebook it has enabled adidas, a european company a larger foothold in the north-american market. the combined company will have 20% of the US market, putting it in a position to better challenge Nike. ” (The Guardian / 8/1/10/ [Online]) Nike acquired UK based football brand Umbro in 2008, a move that mirrored that of adidas in order for nike to gain a larger share in the european market. I believe that both companies are attempting to persuade consumers from each market to purchase their products. The American people are very patriotic and in that sense they are likely irregardless of price or looks to purchase American made goods.

It is a clever move by both companies to obtain a company based in another continent as more revenue will be obtained, that can lead to future growth and also eliminates two competitors from the market. I believe Nike to be a company that is prepared to take risks, for example when it signed Michael Jordan, Adidas tends to play it safe when it comes to the acquisition of players to be signed to the brand. Again I believe this to be typical traits of an American and German based company.

Currently in terms of the global Athletic Apparel market Nike currently have 7% and Adidas have 6%, they are in close competition in terms of clothing. However in the global Athletic Footwear market Adidas have 16% (+6% Reebok) and Nike have 31%. Nike is much further ahead than Adidas in terms of footwear however both of them dominate the market in terms of market share and it is likely that no competition will ever catch them with the economies of scale that they have achieved. (See graph in appendix)

http://www. mcafee. cc/Classes/BEM106/Papers/2009/Adidas. pdf

An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Al Gore’s documentary, “An Inconvenient Truth,” Last winter, it was so warm. It was the time when I could feel that global warming is coming to the world. My friends and other people had a big curiosity that winter was not so cold as usual temperature because the rivers in Korea were not freezing well last year and there were lack of days when we could see the snowy weather. I started to feel that the earth is getting warmer and warmer and have a concern about our earth’s problem as a student who is majoring sustainability studies.

With this existing condition, much news about global warming came out let people know about why the earth is getting warm and how to prevent this situation. However, both scholars and people have a different view of whether global warming is still exist or not. The biggest reason why global warming became hot issue is because of the documentary movie, namely an Inconvenient Truth, 2006. It ranks top3 documentary; I have watched it 3 times including our class time, also it was released to Korean theater for a short time because those who care of environmental issue are not so many.

An inconvenient truth is the movie having the lecture from Albert Arnold Gore Jr. who was the vice president of America. He referred his teacher, child and sister while making a progress of his lecture. He has given a similar presentation over 100 times, it deserves to catch audiences’ eyes. He didn’t miss to give a humor like he introduced himself as Al Gore who might almost become a president with a bitter laugh,. He was becoming serious by showing the graph of air temperature and density of CO2 gas which was measured by his teacher; it seemed they have a big relationship between them.

Every graph which he shows was amazing and enough to give a shock to audiences. The density of CO2 gas in the air had been stable over thousands years, of course there were a few fluctuations, but recently the status of the CO2 density is climbing steeply; it hasn’t had the same status before. It is enough for audiences to be eye-catching. The thing making us more surprised was the evidences of global warming. The pictures comparing the same place by having a time gap gave me astonishment such as Mt. Kilimanjaro, Patagonia highland and Mt. Everest.

The areas where usually get snow have diminished, a lot of icebergs has been melting. It means the length and quantity of the icebergs get smaller than before. Then, he put more words after the pictures like some parts in the earth will be enunciated because of the water from melted icebergs and showed us the simulation of the tragic future. He gave a story of his sister who was died as a lung cancer due to cigarette. By doing so, it made him remind of that the company of cigarette had denied that cigarette has nothing to do with the cause of lung cancer but it is proved that it is not true.

Now everyone knows that cigarette is big cause of the cancer. Then, he showed many pictures of the sudden changes of the earth like north pole, Alaska, Greenland and Amazon. The image of a polar bears searching for the ice flakes looks like out tragic life; they cannot find an ice where makes stable life to them by giving the spaces stepping on an ice. It means they are losing their spaces they live as the same with our spaces where will sink soon. If we can be sure global warming one hundred percent, do you think it is the human’s responsibility?

Al Gore showed the persuasive graph of relationship between CO2 gas and temperature through the result of analyzing north pole’s sample in iceberg. It had never gone up over 300ppm for CO2 gas before, now it breaks a new record and would go over 400 or 500pppm in several years. It will bring about hot temperature because these green house gases will keep the heat energy which is supposed to go out of the earth. Someone says that the reason why the earth’s temperature is getting higher is due to the active activity of sunspot; many sunspots show that it is the time for sun to act very actively so it gives more radiation out of sun.

Of course, it could make the earth get hotter. However, in the trustworthy journal, the activity of sun improves 0. 2 ~ 0. 4 percent, this could make an impact to get the temperature hot during centuries. However, it cannot explain the sudden improving rate, 0. 8 percent, in 20 century. Also, it doesn’t explain this situation that this situation is getting accelerated. There is an inconvenient point in the movie “an inconvenient truth”. First of all, the cause of the rise of sea level is not explained properly. It usually occurs because of temperature rising of sea making water swell.

Originally the bond in ice is so strong making it compact each other, by getting heated the molecules in water become free to move, they have more space and mobility. However, this documentary movie shows the reality to us. The temperature change due to global has already become an inconvenient reality. Inland starts to make lots of dust as higher temperature makes it drier. It’s the reality for us to close up our mouth with a mast while roaming around. Many medias have still informed that both global warming and climate change are the scientific point of view but there is so specific answer of this.

However, most scientists agree that there is global warming and it has a lot of things to do with human beings’ responsibility. Now it is not a stage where we have to debate whether this is global warming or not. We should adjust to the changing climate, put effort to give a solution to reduce green house gases. This has already become big social, political and economical problem getting out of scientific issue. This An Inconvenient Truth would be not knowable truth to someone but for the others they should know about that.

It is the fact for us to realize that we should change something right now; we need to start to change our way of living by looking back ourselves’ life. Like Al gore’s argument, it could not disappear as it is not easily seen for us. Much bigger the importance of our environment is as we ignore more. The main convict and victim are us, so we need to know how much products we should buy, how much electricity we use, what kind of car we drive and how we deal with this situation then we can live well off in this earth

Management personal essay help: personal essay help

After creating the prototype, I would share with the users to determine if any corrections or adjustments are needed. Question 2, page 283 Since my company (Law Office) does not use any systems to that produces budget reports, and even if does it is only for the attorney’s use) I will take an example of a human resource department. Some employers for their Human Resource department have a software system that produces and prepares reports for departments. These reports are used by the Director of Human Resources, HR managers, and Employee Benefits managers.

Additionally, the CEO will use and view this report as department reports directly to him/her. The purpose of the output is to ensure the department is not exceeding its budget goals and to continuously review the budget to see if any changes/adjustments are needed. The output is needed on a quarterly basis and it will be viewed immediately, and if any changes result they will be implemented the following quarter. The output needs to be delivered to all users of the report. Question 3, page 283 A report is a business document containing only predefined data; it is a passive document used solely for reading or viewing.

Examples of reports are invoices, weekly sales summaries by region and salesperson, and a pie chart of population by age categories. Bad reports are reports that have incorrect data and non-user friendly designs which cause users to misinterpret the information it contains. The consequences of these problems are such that management is making decisions based on their information and so if it is not correct, then management will more than likely be making the wrong decision which can be potentially disastrous if the reports are tied to finance etc.

Human Service Scenario Analysis gp essay help: gp essay help

Human Service Scenario Analysis BSHS/322 The interview process between a clinician and his or her client seems to be the groundwork upon which treatment and healing begins. Dependent on the type of case and diagnosis is presented specific settings, techniques, and boundaries will be applied to produce the best results. Thus, it is imperative for a clinician to fully comprehend how what may appear insignificant in his or her opinion negatively can influence his or her client in the vastest way.

A scenario of a 15-year-old Filipino female recently hospitalized for attempted suicide will be used as a theoretical case study and the methods in helping her will be examined. The primary goal of the scenario analysis is to evaluate, identify, and treat the young girl in regard to her exceptional set of circumstances, personal characteristics, and cultural divergence. Supplementary to the clinician’s initial objectives it is important that a stage is prepared for the client to feel compelled to communicate openly and receive guidance to heal.

Alexis Gomez was referred to me by a hospital social worker called to investigate her attempted suicide case. My services is requested to work closely with the young teenage girl in deciding the length of her therapy, whether or not she would require institutionalized care, and the state of her home environment. The first interview was thought best to be scheduled at one of my office’s located at a small community agency near the client’s home to provide a less sterile and clinical atmosphere.

To gain a better perspective of the individual I was to meet so also to help form healthy expectations I reviewed the notes gathered by the hospital social worker detailing the young girl’s medical, family, and cultural background. Upon studying the information provided I learned Alexis came from an affluent two-parent household with two older siblings living in a quiet suburban town. She is an honor student enrolled in all AP courses at a Catholic school where she is involved in numerous athletic sports and is well-liked by her peers.

Although Alexis’ family background reveals that in the Filipino culture family is highly valued above any other and is the fundamental societal unit she is struggling with relationship issues with her mother and siblings. In a traditional Filipino family the father is reported to encompass the role of provider and head of house while the mother takes on the responsibilities of the domestic and emotional development and values of the family (philippinecountry. com, 2006).

The adolescent is remarked to have had a close personal relationship with her mother but lately has been feeling closed off and inadequate because of her mother’s constant mood changes usually directed at the young girl. As well, Alexis has stated briefly that she feels abandoned and alone because her adult siblings spend less quality time with her or at home because of work and personal relationships. Moreover, family tensions have been a cause for additional stress in the home environment between her parents, older brother, and the relationship the parents disapprove of leaving him to move out.

Given that in the Filipino culture families are extraordinarily close parents occasionally find it difficult to allow their children to leave, especially their first born son, which many times results in adult children staying home as long as they please (philippinecountry. com, 2006). As I continued to peruse the reports, I found that Alexis’ desperate action was too fueled by her parent’s restrictive and smothering behavior limiting her social freedoms or relationships, pressure to excel in school seeing as education in the Filipino background is considered central to upward mobility and social standing (everyculture. om, n. d. ), and bullying from jealous peers. The young girl appears to isolate herself even from those closest to her and exhibits signs of resentfulness and hostility that promote assumptions of past self-mutilation when looking over medical reports. Therefore, because I have more knowledge of the client’s identity, the family values and beliefs she has been raised with, and her presenting issues I will be able to create varying methods of gaining her trust in communication while recognizing she may be resistant to the idea of therapy, especially if she has been mandated to participate.

First, I would be sure to speak to Alexis with a tone that expresses my mutual respect for her as a young adult by explaining the reason for the visit and reiterating my responsibility to the relationship in maintaining confidentiality, especially in regard to what is disclosed to her parents with her consent. Next in a focal but also nondirective manner I will ask what her expectations are of me and the session, what her interests are, and where would she like to begin without overwhelming her with countless other questions (Murphy & Dillon 2011).

Throughout this brief introduction I want to offer my support unconditionally while being gentle but persistent if she has trouble speaking of the incident or other sensitive topics. I want her to know that I am simply here to listen without any judgment of what she has done or about her family that will reveal respect for her comfort level while still stressing my concern and readiness to listen (Smith, Barston, & Segal, 2011). As well through validation of feelings and a show of empathy an effective working relationship can be established.

Accompanying my styles for personal communication and instituting a sense of trust in the relationship I might suggest keeping a journal or sharing art projects to help Alexis express herself more actively without shame or hesitance (kidshealth. org, n. d. ). However, I need to remain conscious of some of the issues concerning self-disclosure and boundaries. As I state in the beginning of the interview that I am accountable to my client for releasing or not releasing information to her parents without consent, at the same time it is necessary to discuss with her the instances in which I would have to breach confidentiality.

One instance would be to the Child Protective Agency who was also alerted by the hospital case worker about the attempted suicide who need confirmation on the adolescent’s well-being and living situation and the other to the parents if I feel Alexis poses a threat to herself or others. Likewise, relationship boundaries must be put in place so as not to confuse the young girl with disillusions of friendship outside of the therapeutic setting. Both issues also pertains to the family, they must understand I am here for Alexis’ benefit and will not disclose anything spoken at our meetings unless notified by her or Child Protection.

After discussing expectations and privacy matters, I will focus on my attending behaviors and the client’s non-verbal communication that hopefully will encourage her to talk more freely demonstrating my interest in what she has to say. Engaging in Contrast Interviewing that is basically contrasting and comparing a positive and negative experience, detecting disruptions of eye contact with unsettling topics or dilation of pupils when speaking about something of interest, and observing body language or posture like personal space and oving forward when intent or backward when bored are just a few examples (University of Oklahoma, n. d. ). In addition, vocal qualities or tones (verbal underlining or speech breaks), noticing a change of topic or selective attention, and practicing relaxation or silence when unsure of what to say next are other techniques for supporting my client. Regrettably, attending behaviors and non-verbal communications are not my only concerns to remain mindful of but the cultural sensitivities specific to Alexis and her family.

Filipino societies do not tolerate disrespect of elders, parents, or older siblings and disobedience of the expectations of the home. Just as public challenges or reprimand are not looked upon lightly but are viewed as shaming the family. Because of her families values it will prove problematic for Alexis to discuss her struggles at home without feeling like is she is betraying her cultural lifestyle as well as dishonoring the family and their name.

Equally challenging is trying to create a mode for the young girl to confide in her parents or my interference without them feeling as if their authority is being disrespected. Cross-cultural distrust can become similarly an issue with questions coming from a culturally different interviewer, which is considered particularly insolent. Consequently, it is beneficial I introduce resources that will permit Alexis to relate to individuals with analogous troubles such as groups for depressed teens, teens that cut themselves, multicultural peers, or victims of bullying.

Unfortunately, because so many of the presenting issues stem from the familial environment individual therapy will not be enough and it will be essential to confer with Alexis the need for integrating family counseling once she believes she is ready to do so. Dual collaboration, cooperation, and contribution from all the parties involved will assist in Alexis’ recovery and prevent future destructive incidents. In the end the interview process should consist of understanding the nature of the client’s mental state, personal characteristics, and the cultural and social makeup of his or her home environment.

World Literature Egocentrism essay help service: essay help service

The effect of egocentrism in “A Doll’s House” and “Antegone” and its effect on their relationships and the characters themselves. The two word literatures: “A Doll’s house” by Henrik Ibsen and “Antegone” by Sophocleus, have both portrayed how the character’s egocentrism contributes to the tragic ending. The types or the role of each character are different, but they both have the same egocentrism: Helmer from “A doll’s house” and King Creon from”Antegone”. Helmer personally thinks that whatever he does is taken as the highest priority; he even calls his wife, Nora, as animal.

Creon, because he is the king of his own empire, he is full of hubris and he, like Helmer, takes all of his actions as the highest priority. However, considering their similarities, their egocentrism affect both of them differently, albeit they have the same ending of losing their family. This shows that both of these characters have a number of similarities and differences based on their egocentrism. Helmer has a variety of characteristics, which makes him egocentric. His egotistical character has made him lose his precious wife, Nora.

Helmer has never considered his wife, Nora, an equal being because he thinks that he has higher priority than in social ranking than an ordinary person. “ And I wouldn’t want you to be any different from what you are- just my sweet little songbird” (15). It can be seen from this quotation that Helmer is the master and Nora is his pet or semi-slave. Helmer, since he is the head of the family, thinks that he is the “law” and those who go against him will be punished. “ And worst of all, telling me a lie! ” (177). By considering his expressions, it is obvious that Helmer thinks himself to be a god-like being of the family and in fact he is not.

Helmer becomes indignant because Nora is “telling him a lie”; like telling the God a lie, Helmer believes that no one shall tell a lie to him. Helmer also expresses his egocentric character, which makes him ridiculous, by saying the good part of himself. “ Oh I’m not so hard-hearted that I’d condemn a man outright for just a single slip” (79), and “ Wasn’t that a good idea of mine? ” (186). It is very obvious from the above quotations that Helmer is a type of man who cannot help himself from saying his good points, which eventually causes his relationship deteriorate. In addition to that,

Helmer cannot consider ideas steadfastly and this leads to the loss of Nora. “ My dear Nora, I can forgive you anxiety though its rather insulting to me” (189). Because he is egocentric, he considers things negatively rather than positively. The above characteristics of Helmer have led to the consequence of Nora leaving the house. In act three of the play, it can be seen that the characteristics of Helmer changes with his mood. That is why he takes action without the consideration of the outcome of what he has done. “ I could risk everything I had- even my life itself to save you” (219).

Before the climax of the play, Helmer is expressing his love to Nora, which made her bit comfortable. However, when the letter, written by Krogstad arrived, he turns into a different person. “ For these last eight years you’ve been my joy and my pride- and now I find that you’re a liar, a hypocrite- even worse- a criminal! ” (220-221). In addition to the above quotation, Helmer is also expressing his egocentrism, along with his indignation, to Nora. “ You’ve completely wrecked my happiness, you’ve ruined my whole future” (221). Because he was only concerning himself and covered with emotions, he begins to thrash Nora with the above quotation. And I brought so pitifully low all because of a shiftless woman. The above quotation is contradicting to what he has just said before thrashing Nora. This is because he is self centered and can think of nothing but him. “ And after I’ve cherished you all through our married life. Now do you realize what you’ve done to me? ” (221).

Again this egocentric quotation shows that he has lost his prudence because of his current mood. However, Helmer’s character changes when the letter of cancellation arrived. It can also be seen from here that Helmer is egocentric. “ Nora I’m saved! (222). His mid is full of “me, myself, and I” by looking at the above quotation. As his characteristic has changed, Nora asks him. “ But I have Nora, I swear it- I’ve forgiven you everything. I know now that what you did all for love of me” (223). People will say that Helmer could have forgiven her earlier, but as I stated before, that Helmer’s personal temperament changes is dependent to his moods or current feelings, which is his egocentrism. “And my great wing will protect you” (223) and “ I shall protect you like a hunted dove that I’ve saved from the talons of a hawk” (224).

These quotations are contradicting what he has said before, because his problem is over and he does not need to worry about anything. However, realizes that “ this is a reckoning” (225) and she knows that Helmer “ doesn’t love her anymore” (229) because of his hypocritical temperament and egocentrism. As a result, Nora leaves the house. However, albeit Nora realizes the reality, Helmer still does not realize his egocentrism. “ Over, All over! Nora, won’t you even think of me again? ” (231). By looking at the above quotation, it is obvious that his tragic consequence does bring any effect to him.

Creon has higher power, in pride, compared to Helmer because of his superior social ranking. “ He can sail on a stormy sea” (13) shows that he believes he is the ruler of the sea. It also shows that he believes he is greater than Poseidon, who supposed to be the ruler of the sea. “ He can entrap the cheerful birds setting a snare and all the wild. Beasts of the earth he has learned to catch Fish that teem in the deep sea with nets knotted of stouts cords of such inventiveness man” (13) indicates that he thinks he is the ultimate king of all living species and he is superior to others because he can “catch” them.

These quotations show that Creon thinks that nobody is as high in rank as him, even Gods. Creon, like Helmer, thinks that “yet of all things is man the most wonderful” (13). This shows that the power of men is the most powerful and women shall work under men’s command. It can be seen from this quotation that Creon’s act of egocentrism has contributed to the gender inequality, which eventually lead to the tragic consequence, which will be stated after. Compared to Helmer, Creon has high reliability on “the law of men”, which made by himself. Because he makes the law, this also makes his egocentrism stronger.

Creon, because of his egocentrism, his family turned against him and died. In the play, Creon orders the execution of Antegone, but her lover, Haemon, who is also Creon’s son, advices that his deeds are wrong. However, Creon tells him “ I hate a son to have an evil wife” (21). Indicating that he ignores advice, made by Haemon. Creon’s egotistical behavior causes him to look things from only one perspective, which is from “the men’s law”. Even when the chorus, together with Haemon, urges Creon to things differently, he ends up saying “ What?

Men of our age go to school again and take a lesson from a very boy” (25). Because of his stubborn and egocentric behavior, nothing can veer Creon’s mind. Haemon goes up against him calmly to change his attitude, only finds out that Creon takes his advices as a threat and his relation ship deteriorate. “ What? Threaten me? Are you so insolent? ” (26), and “ The fool would teach me no sense! You’ll pay for it! ” (26), proves the above characteristic of Creon. As the family relationships deteriorate, Creon begins to gain consciousness of the reality and he decided to cancel Antegone’s execution.

The deterioration of family relationship, stems from Creon’s egocentrism, is indeed different from Helmer because, Helmer did not realize what he had done whereas Creon did. “What shall I do? Advice me! I will listen” (38), shows that Creon has finally realized, from the consequence of his egocentrism, that whatever he has done is wrong and he tries to cancel the execution. However, by the time Creon has arrived, Antegone was already dead. Enraged of his tyranny, Haemon tries to kill Creon but he ends up having been killed by Creon.

In addition to that Creon’s wife also turned up against him by cursing his name and committing suicide. This is how Creon’s egocentrism obliterated his families. Compared to Helmer, Creon accepts his guilt and he begins regretting himself from his tyranny. “ The wrong I have done by ill- counseling” (43), “My own stubborn ways have barn bitter fruits”(43), and “ the fault is me not yours”(43) shows that Creon’s regression is the effect of his strong egocentrism. This means that the effect of being egocentric is much worse in Creon than Helmer for relationship wise, but opposite for their individual wise.

By comparing two characters in terms of egocentrism, it is incontrovertible that Creon had at least a sense of reality compared to Helmer, because he finally realizes his evil deeds that cause his relationships to be perfidious. Helmer, on the contrary, did not realize even after Nora left the house. This shows that Helmer has more hubris and egotistical than Creon. The similarities they have are their social ranking, gender inequality and egocentrism. Both Helmer and Creon have upper hierarchy and both of them are prejudice against womens and both of are considering them selves as the most self-centered person.

Community Observation homework essay help: homework essay help

I acknowledge the people who helped me to finish my Field Study: I acknowledge my parents who supported and had given me all the love and care I need especially on my studies. I acknowledge also some of my friends, who helped me to make this portfolio, I also acknowledge our teacher in FS1, Mrs. Ma. Liberty B. Doncillo for all the guidance for this project. And most importantly, to Our Almighty Father who gives me strength and courage every day. Mindanao University of Science and Technology Oroquieta Campus Mobod,

I like to teach in the school i had just observed because it is very comfortable for the learners to learn and it has the learning materials for their studies. OCCES is conducive to learning since it offers complete facilities for the development of its students. The kind of classroom that is conducive to learning is a classroom wherein their where things that could help learning to take its place. In the future I would love to have a classroom which is conducive to learning in a way that I should provide learning materials which enable the students to learn.

And I can accomplish this by applying what I have learned; maintaining classroom cleanliness and make colorful visuals to catch the attention of my students. While I am observing the class, I am really amazed since the effectiveness of teacher will not depend on the teacher itself but also with environment it take place. Episode 2 Learner’s Characteristics and Needs Analysis Level | Salient Characteristic Observed| Implications To Teaching- Learning Process| Elementary | Elementary pupils are fond on playing games and they love to sing too. Therefore the teacher should used games and even action song so that could catch the attention of the pupils. He/she must use strategies such singing to awake the students. | Reflections When I observing the learners I had recall my own experience when I was at their age, the similarities that I have with the students is that being playful and being cooperative also. And at their age I am also dependent on my parents. The teacher that I cannot forget for the positive reasons is my teacher in high school. She helped me with my needs especially in my physical and emotional problem.

My favorite theory of development is the physical theory of development. This can guide me by exerting major effort on teaching them based on their physical and cognitive needs. Episode 3 Classroom Management and Learning Analysis The classroom organization and routines affects the student’s behavior in a way that this will serve as their guide in fulfilling their task every day. The teacher should have in mind that in designing classroom organization and routines that the students can understand what are these routines and this organization will help them to be better in their studies.

The behavior strategies that were effective in managing the behavior of the learners were the analytical abilities, creative abilities and practical abilities. They were effective because it is based on their logical reasoning, and common sense. Reflections The grade level that I want to teach in the future is Grade V since they were more organized and they can easily understand rules. Students must be part in designing the routines since this will fit to their needs. And it would be easy for them to follow since they know it. The rules that I want to impose in my future class are as follows: * Speak English inside the class And never cheat The learners should be involved in making the class rules so that the students will be aware in those rules. And also they can express their own will. Episode 4 Individual Differences and Learner’s Interaction (focusing on differences in gender, racial, religious backgrounds) Analysis There are persons who play important role in the relationship and interactions in the classrooms. There is somebody who appears to be a leader, a joker, and attention seeker. The students that are coming from a minority group are accepted by the others.

This is shown through communication and getting to know each other and they treat them well. The teacher influences the class interaction considering the individual differences of the students by showing to them that their treated fairly and they were teach well. The teacher also helps the learner to cope with other classmates and friends. The gender and age influence the grouping of learners outside the classroom. I had mostly seen peers with the same sex and of same age. They like to join in peers whom they comfortable to stay with. Reflections Being in the classroom I feel the oneness and unity among the learners.

I feel that they were helping each other. In the future I want that my learners will be united in a way that they could feel free to ask questions and they would feel that they are part of me. Soon I will treat equally my students regardless of religious, ethnic or racial background. Their questions must be entertained also so that frustrations among learners may not appear Episode 5 Individual Differences and Learner’s Interaction (focusing on different levels of abilities) Analysis I was able to correctly identify the students who performed well in the class.

These students were those who actively participate in classroom discussion. They can directly comprehend and they can follow instructions easily. There was an average gap between the learner’s abilities among the high achievers and the slow one. The teacher uses systematic methods in dealing with the students she gives remedial time for reading and comprehension. The students try to respond it positively to the best of their ability, Reflections When I was in my elementary years our teacher gives more time on teaching those students who were slow learners. She tries to do something better for them to understand our lessons.

Noah and Saskia cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Noah and Saskia’s avatars are a positive way for them to deal with the pressures of growing up. “Noah and Saskia” is about two teenagers who deal with tough issues in their lives such as the expectations placed on them by their parents. They both meet on the internet, on a website called ‘webweeve’. Noah writes comics while Saskia loves to play the guitar. They decide to use their skills to perfect Noah’s comic. The only problem, Noah lives in England and Saskia lives in Australia.

Noah and Saskia’s personas are a positive way for them to cope with the distractions of becoming an adult because they can talk about their problems and to relive stress. Throughout the essay, these positive ways will be explored such as: opening up to each other, forming a relationship and getting to know their true selves better. Noah and Saskia both have problems in their lives. But never anyone to talk to, since their families aren’t the right people to open up to, so they can help them.

When they adopt their avatars as Indy and Max they both become whoever they want to be and have the confidence to express themselves freely. “In the end people accept you for what’s on the inside “. Their best friends Clive (Max’s best friend) and Renee (Saskia’s best friend) see that has the opposite they believe that people accept you for how good looking you are or how you act around them. As they continue to talk to each other, this gives them a sense of comfort, security and belonging.

Through this experience together, they begin to form a trusting friendship filled with similar interests and talents. As the episodes continue their friendships grows and they become the best of friends. Saskia’s dream is to get a band going as she has the talent for music and Noah’s talent is HTML/comics on his website. Together they make a comic with Saskia’s music so maybe she can get recognised. Their personas online are a positive aspect because they are not able to do this offline. As they are too embarrassed as they fear judgement and lack of acceptance from their family and friends. E. g.

Saskia’s mother wants her to be a lot of things when she is older: a judge by the time she is 25 etc and Noah’s expectations are from his dad to be good at soccer and to stop worrying about computers all the time. After they become good friends they begin to interpret each other’s words to meaning something else. Noah and Saskia have been chatting for quite a while and the audience can see that they are falling for each other, even though both characters deny it and try to act cool. E. g. In episode 9 ‘Extra Spice’ Indy tells Max that she has a band going with Ernesto or Enrique as Max thinks.

Max compliments her and says good luck. When Saskia signs off, Noah gets very angry and breaks his mouse with his hand and frowns at the screen, he tells Clive and asks for some advice. This shows that he cares for Saskia and is jealous that she is spending time with Ernesto. Although things seem rocky, they achieve inner thoughts and feelings which helps them to dissolve them to discover their own identities. The slogan for the T. V series is “Who do you want to be”, this is a relative quote that relates to the whole series.

Noah and Saskia have a dream to be just like Indy and Max in reality. To have the guts to say what they want and to achieve what they can with their personas. E. g. Noah nearly achieves this in episode 11 when he buys the Max Hammer glasses and stands up to bullies and sarcastic teachers. But then goes a bit too far which makes him losing his girl. The only way for them to achieve this is to have confidence when performing facing the audience not turning your back. Also to realise that being a geek isn’t that bad, if you are good at computers.

Noah and Saskia have dreams but in the end it’s how far they want to take those dreams and to achieve them. In conclusion, friendships can be created wherever you go and whatever you do. But in this case it is started through an online chat. Which ends up going deeper and deeper into an intimate relationship? I have learnt that not all people online are strangers and dangerous. The idea of the show is to reveal that personas can actually help us discover our true selves and who we really want to be. For me I want to be a professional soccer player but in the end it is all up to me and how far I want to take it.

Toefl Templates history essay help: history essay help

My speaking template = 28 ________________________________________ So ,I will share my speaking templates with you. It brought me 28 on the speaking section . Question 1 : If you had the opportunity to travel abroad,which place would you choose ? Answer : If I had the opportunity ”to travel abroad” , I would definitely choose to visit [Barcelona] for a variety of reasons . Firstly ,it is very nice city,located on the Meditarenian . The climate is perfect,the people are nice ,and the life is not very expensive ; it is just the perfect place to visit . Secondly , Barcelona is my favourite soccer team .

I would really love to visit their home stadium ”Nou Camp” ,buy something from their fan shop ,and maybe attend a soccer game . For these two reasons,I would choose to visit Barcelona . This is a very basic tamplate ,but it is good enough to get you a 4. 00 Question 2 : Some people think that children should start school at the age of 3 or 4 ,while others think that children should start school at the age of 7 or 8 . Answer : Although ,some people think children should start school at the age of 3 or 4 ,I strongly support the idea that children should attend school at the age of 7 ,or even 8 for a variety of reasons.

Firstly ,a child needs to enjoy its childhood. It is very unfair to a child that has just learnt to walk and speak to be obligated to go to some institution and do some kind of homework . The child`s place is at kindergarten ,when they play with children of their age. Secondly ,a 3-year is clearly not mature enough to attend school. It is very hard to imagine that so young child can learn to write and even to solve basic problems after it has just learnt to speak. For these reasons ,I think children should attend school at the age of 7 or 8. I cant give you examples with the other section,but I will share my templates.

Question 3 usually contains a reading passage ,in which the university announces something ,and listening passage,in which two students express their opinion. The task is to summerize the opinion of one of the student. NOtice that you are NOT asked to summerize the reading ,so you just need one sentance to say what it is about. Otherwize ,you run out of time Question 3 : In this set of materials ,the reading passage is an announcement by the university ,about the/its [the main point of the reading passage] ,and the listening passage is a discussion between two students about what is included in the announcement .

The man/woman states his/her opinion that (summerize the main points of the man/woman that you are asked to talk about. If you feel confident ,talk about some details too . DO NOT SPEAK ABOUT THE OTHER PERSON`S VIEWS) – you will run out of time and you wont complete the task) Question 4 : YOu will read a short scientific passage – take good notes because this time you will have to explain the major points . After that you will hear a lecture ,and most of the time it is an example that is given by a professor to make the students more familiar with the terms in the reading passage”

According to the reading passage , ( summerize the major points . Use parallel structures like – ”Flow is a feeling of a complete involvement in an activiy ,losing the sense of time and reality ,and feeling happy ) ” instead of ”Flow is a feeling of a complete involvement in an activity ,people lose sense of time and reality ,and they feel happy ”) In the lecture ,the professor gives example with [what is the example about] to make the students more familiar with [what is the reading passage about] . Summerize the example CONCISELY – dont use many details !!! This is the harderst speaking to finish in the time allocated .

The example clearly supported the ideas that [what is the reading passage about] Question 5 – probably the easiest one . In this conversation ,the two students are discussing the problem the man/woman is having with [what is the problem] . The problem is [explain it in a few words] . The man/woman suggests that she/he can either [first solution] or [second solution] If I were him/her ,I would definitely [what would you do ] because [say why in a few words] Question 6 No doubt ,this is the hardest question ,it is why I didnt get a 30 ,and it is why many people dont get their dream scores.

IT is very possible to understand LITERALLY NOTHING from the lecture,not to ba able to take any notes ,and not to be able to say ANYTHING. The main problem is that you cant understand the vocabulary ,or the terms – you cant write them down ,and because this speaking/lecture is very fast ,you often lose track . I cant give you a template because most of the lectures are very different arranged ,and you not only dont know what they are about ,but you also dont know how will they be structured. However,very often ,the lecture begins with the explanation of a particular term,and after that two subtopics are discussed.

Then you have to summerize the variuos types of [something] . It is easy to do it if you have taken good notes. If not ,it is harder . A good advice is to try to write down the term you ve never heard of in your own language . Then ,you just read what you ve written and try to say it like the lecturer said it . For example ,you can write down ”Mammoth” as ”Mamut” ,just to write it faster . YOu can even write it in your alphabet – ” ?????” It is important to say it write ,even though you dont know how to write and ,or actually what is its meaning . I hope I was helpful . Good luck to everyone

Speaking templates QUESTION 1: PERSON, PLACE, EVENT OR THING : Description and reasons Timing: 45 sec to speak 5 sec – state topic 10-15 sec – describe what you have stated 20-25 sec – reasons why I chose TEMPLATE: Personally , I would like to say my favourite is —————— And there are a couple of reasons to name . The most important one is that —————– So, that’s why this is ——————- QUESTION 2: PERSONAL PREFERENCE – CHOOSE FROM 2 OPTIONS TIMING: 45 Sec to speak 5-10 sec – state the preference 20 sec – reason1 15 sec – reason 2 5 sec – state the preference again

TEMPLATE 1 : Well, in my opinion , I would definitely agree with or choose A or B The first reason I wanna say is that ————————– The second reason is —————————- So, that’s why I choose A or B for the reasons listed above. TEMPLETE 2: Well, in my opinion, I would definitely agree with or choose A The important reason I give for choosing A is that ————————- The important reason I give for not choosing B isthat ———————– Beacause of these 2 reasons I prefer A to B. QUESTION 3: University notice + conversation TIMING: 60 Sec to speak 15 sec – summarise the reading passage sec – state the persons opinion 20 sec – reason 1 20 sec – reason 2 TEMPLATE: In the reading material, there is a/an announcement/message/notice/proposal about ———–. The university/ college is going to ——————- In the listening material, 2 students discus about this announcement/message/ notice/proposal. The man completely agrees/disagrees with the scholl decision/planning/announcement. He/she gives 2 reasons for having that opinion. The first reason she feels is that———————– The second reason she feels is that——————– QUESTION 4: ACADEMIC CONTENT : READING+LISTENING TIMING: 60 Sec to speak 0 sec- state the topic 5 sec – support or refute 25-35 sec – from listening TEMPLATE 1 : Based upon the reading (XXX) means that ———————– In the lecture, the professor continues to explain this concept of (XXX). The professor tries to elaborate this topic by giving examples. The first example he gives is that ————- The second example he gives is that —————– These are 2 good examples the professor made to explain the principle of reading passage. TEMPLATE 2: In the lecture the professor mainly talked about the theory that —————— To reinforce the theory, the professor gave 2 reasons or examples.

The first one is that————- The other one is that ————– These are the 2 reasons the speaker presented to explain his idea QUESTION 5 : ALWAYS ABOUT A PROBLEM / ISSUE STUDENTS HAVE . OTHERS GIVE SOLUTIONS. TIMING: 60Sec to speak 10 sec- state and explain the problem 10-15 sec – 2 suggestions from other person 35-40 sec – your preference and reasons TEMPLATE: According to the conversation , the woman/man has a problem and the problem is ———- The man/woman offers 2 suggestions/advices/solutions. First one , she suggests is that he do ————–.

However, he’s concerned that ————- Her other recommendation is to ————-. While in the man’s opinion———– In my opinion, the first/second one is better. The reasons for this are – ——- QUESTION 6: SUMMARY OF THE LECTURE TIMING: 60 sec to speak TEMPLATE: In the lecture, the professor is explaining about the topic ——–. He provides 2 examples ti illustrate the phenomenon/theory – ———- The first one is that ——————- Another example is that ——————— These are the 2 examples speaker presented to explain the theory/phenomenon Integrated Writing Task

How the Integrated Writing Task is phrased: If the lecture challenges the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways: O Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage. O Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge specific claims/arguments made in the reading passage. O Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they answer the problems raised in the reading passage. Showing Challenge

In the lecture, the professor made several points about______________. The professor argues that__________________. However, the reading contends that________________. The professor’s lecture casts doubts on the reading by using a number of points that are contrary to___________________________. The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that_________________. According to the professor,________________________________. _______________ differs from the reading in that the reading states _______________________________. The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading because_______________________.

Another point that the professor uses to casts doubt on the reading is ___________________________________. The professor claims that______________________________________. However, the reading states _____________________________________. This point is contradicted by_____________________________________. Finally, the professor stated that, on the contrary of the reading, _____________________________________. In other words,______________________________________. This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________. In conclusion, the points made in the lecture contradict the reading. ________________and_______________ demonstrate that___________is in doubt. If the lecture supports or strengthens the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways: O Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they support the explanations in the reading passage. O Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they strengthen specific points made in the reading passage. Showing support In the lecture, the professor made several point sabout_______________.

The professor argues that______________________________. The points made by the professor agree with________________. In fact, the examples used by the professor support_________________. The first point that the professor uses to support the reading is that_______________________. According to the professor,_____________________________. _______________________supports the reading, which holds that_______________________. The point made by the professor supports the reading because_____________________. Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that_______________.

The professor claims that_________________________________. This point agrees with the reading, which contends that______________. __________________ shows the truth of the reading because___________. Finally, the professor stated that, in support of the reading, ______________________________. Specifically,_____________________________________ _____. This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________. In conclusion, the points made in the lecture support the reading. ________________ and ________________________demonstrate that ________________________is invalid.

Of Mice and Men Critical Lens writing an essay help: writing an essay help

The Practical Reality John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men is a novella filled with complex underlining themes and ideas about society and the intriguing concept known as the American Dream. A well-known quote once said by George Orwell states that “Most people get a fair amount of fun out of their lives, but on balance life is suffering, and only the very young or the very foolish imagine otherwise. What this quote is saying is that most people have their share of fun in life and enjoy themselves as much as they can, however on a realistic and practical note life isn’t full of happiness alone because along with the fun comes trials, tribulations, and only the younger in mind or naive people fail to realize this. This quote is evident in many places throughout the novel. As we read we see that only the wiser of the ranch hands, were able to recognize reality and come to an understanding that achieving the American Dream is not all fun and games and there is a strong possibility they may not even reach their goal.

A very good example of a naive character blind to the truth is Lennie. Lennie is projected as one that consistently demonstrates inappropriate behavior, is mentally unstable and far more important than that, a very complex character. Throughout the novel we see that Lennie unfailingly was always an optimistic character. He never sought to see the negatives in things and under all circumstances always seemed to see things differently. Even as things seemed hopeless, Lennie always imagined otherwise that the dream was still possible.

In the novel, we see that even after Lennie kills Curley’s wife he does not realize the severity of the situation and is blinded by a false image that everything in life is full of happiness. Lennie does not understand that this is a clear hindrance in his plan to achieve his own dream. On page 105 extending onto 106 we see that even as George is about to kill Lennie, Lennie is still speaking about owning the ranch in the near future. Blind to the fact all along that this dream was near impossible; Lennie never gave up his hope.

On page 105 Steinbeck shows us as George was near killing Lennie he was able to convince him that his death would bring him to the “fatta the land” where he would get to tend to the rabbits all he’d wanted. On this page, as they conversed, they had established with one another that what George was about to do was for the dream. “’For the rabbits’ Lennie shouted. ‘For the rabbits, ‘George repeated. ”Lennie, naive to the fact that his death was a mere sorrowful moment was delighted to die.

Sincerely believing he had been achieving his dream he was not able to come to the realization that not everything in life was full of happiness and that often times life is filled with grief-stricken moments. In this novel, the character of George is also key to this quotes application to the story. As we read we see that George is characterized as a strong minded, witty, and wise individual. Throughout the novel we see that George was portrayed as a firm believer in the American Dream.

Coming from nothing he instilled in Lennie’s mind that someday they themselves would be owners of their own ranch. However, as time passes, we see that things get quite difficult for the ranch hands and the dream now seems rather far-fetched than ever. When George realizes that Lennie has killed Curley’s wife we see something out of George that we had never seen before. George had finally came to the understanding that Curley’s wife’s death would be a major stoppage for the dream on a whole. On page 94 Steinbeck shows the reader what had been in the back of George’s mind throughout the entire novel.

It starts off by saying “George said softly, ‘—- I think I knowed from the very first. I think I knowed we’d never do her. He usta like to hear about it so much I got to thinking maybe we would. ” In this quote we see George is speaking about their dream. When he says “he’d never do her” he is acknowledging the fact that from the start he always knew he would never reach his goal. He goes on to say that he had been lying and telling Lennie that they could achieve it so much that he even started to believe it himself.

It is manifest in this quote that George, wiser than the average, knew from the start that the dream was nothing easy to achieve. He knew it was near impossible and indeed came with many troubles. Unlike Lennie, George was not blind to the truth. He states in this quote that from the beginning he knew how much of a task achieving their said dream would be. The character of Crooks is also a prime example of a wise character in which understood that life incorporated problems just as much, if not more than it did happiness. Steinbeck characterizes Crooks s an intelligent, practical, and very lonely individual. Early in the novel we see Crooks enlightens the other ranch hands that through all of the people he has seen not one of them ever achieved their dream. On page 81 we see Crook speaking to George and Lennie. In this conversation we see he says “…They come, an’ they quit an’ go on; an’ every damn one of ’em’s got a little piece of land in his head. An’ never a God damn one of ’em ever gets it. Just like heaven. Everybody wants a little piece of lan’. I read plenty of books out here.

Nobody never gets to heaven, and nobody gets no land…” In this quote he is speaking about the many other ranch hands he has seen come to work with dreams and hopes of achieving the goal of owning their own land. He states that time after time no one with this dream ever seemed to accomplish it. Steinbeck’s cleverly written masterpiece Of Mice and Men came with many different messages to tell. All through this novel the palpable messages show themselves to come together to make an excellent read. One major message in this novel was that of a quote once said by George Orwell.

In his quote he acknowledged that although life consists of a lot of pleasurable moments along with it comes a lot of grief and that only the naive think otherwise and do not recognize both the good and bad of life. In wiser characters such as Crooks and George we see that from the beginning they knew the good and bad that life entailed. However in a character such as that of Lennie we see that he was blinded by his immaturity and could not see that life was not always filled with positives alone. Steinbeck unmistakably depicts the message that often times the wiser are aware of what life consists of and the inexperienced are blinded by lies.

Great Influence of Grandparents english essay help: english essay help

Grandparents are an important part of every child’s life, because they can give valuable and positive directions. Their unconditional love, warm, and strong bond they had with their grand children helps to the growth of a child as it has on me. I am opporturned to have two of my grandparents when l was growing up and they all influence my life in one way or the other ,but my paternal grandparents influence my life more greatly .

They always request that my parent bring us, myself and my siblings to their home during weekends and holidays. My constant visit and their unconditional love to me made me become fond of them and l opted to stay with them and l started living with them when l was attending primary school and college , a period of twelve years . When l think back to these years when i was living with my grandparents, l think about all of my wonderful memories and directions giving to me by my grandparent. Often wish to go back to that point in life when everything seemed simpler . ometimes l think it too much, knowing l cannot return . Yet there is still one place l can count on to take me back to that state of mind, my paternal grandparent house, and a land l love so much a remote village (Ogbunike) in Nigeria. Their house was old , my grandparents and l lived in it . It was painted cream with dark brown tremming, but most of the paints was chipped away Grandpa and grandma as i fondly call them are my icons . My grandpa was born in 12th January, 1916 into a family of five, all men he was the third son , ten years older than my grandma.

He was educated by the missionaries and worked as post master in post office, while my grandma was a petty trader. My grandpa did not go further in after completing his primary education, he vowed that all his children and grand children must attain what he didn’t accomplished through education. Both of them where so close that they don’t eat without each other, the community believe that because of their closeness after two month of my grandpa’s death my grandma also died. Both died on Sunday. My grandparent died in 1998 . A man full of fun and ideas and my grandma so cheerful , enerous, and down to earth always willing to assist any one that come across her way . My grandpa was 6’2″ tall. Athletically built with pot belly to match his height and size of body. His frame earn him a nick-name moun- mountain. He was known and easily described in the community. He is also full of humors. Age has gotten a toll of him as he has marks across his face, gray haired and dark age spots on his face and body. Grandpa was hunched over from years of gravity pushing down on his spine. Grandpa loves reading news papers and discussing local and international politics, always wearing his glasses on the tip of his nose while reading.

He dresses neatly all the time, always wearing suspender, plain shirt and khaki pants to match pulled all the way to the waist and a cap sitting half way on his head. My paternal grandparents were disciplinarians and always want things done in time and accordingly . My grandma used to take good care of me . She has a kind, gently smile which makes you want to talk with her . Very independent and strong willed lady, as she always prepare food for the family and does all the laundry in the house. She never accept any help from any body My paternal grandparents showed me by their examples what it means to be honest and hardworking .

They valued the importance of education and despite my grandma who didn’t enter the four wall of primary school was able to learn how to read and write on her own. They constantly keep themselves updated with the latest happening around the world through newspaper and T. V news. They taught me the values of integrity and honesty. They taught my siblings and l to cherish what we have and protect our loved ones. They are great influence to my life, my grandparent are my role model and my inspirations .

Single Member Plurality Electoral System nursing essay help: nursing essay help

The Fallacy of the Single Member Plurality Electoral System Government efficiency is dependent on the capacity of the government to make decisions that mirror the views of the majority. This would require municipal representatives to be elected by at least half of the voters. This has not been the case in Canada. Electoral reform has been a highly debated issue throughout Canadian politics. Currently, Canada’s electoral system is being questioned for its inability to reflect the political views of its citizens.

The single member plurality system (SMP), which Canada employs to fabricate a democratic election, can cause representatives to be elected without the majority of the popular vote. In contrast, the system of proportional representation eliminates an inequity in parliament composition by ensuring representation from every party that received votes. Although this system would inevitably result in minority governments, it would appropriately cater to the views of the constituents.

To produce a more effective government, Canada’s single member plurality electoral system should be replaced by a system of proportional representation (PR). Another attempt to negate the effectiveness of the PR system is by charging that it would lead to the decline of responsible government. The reasoning behind this lies with the theory that PR disenfranchises a parties capability to “formulate policies, administer programs, make laws, submit budgets”(Barker, 287). Opponents contend that under PR, the government would be unable to garner enough confidence from the legislative branch.

However, by looking at the opposite side of the spectrum, one would agree that this disadvantage is minimal compared to the policy making created through single member plurality. SMP encourages parties to form lowest common denominator policies in order to achieve a plurality of votes. Consequently, parties will create platforms that advocate policies that are indistinguishable to those of other party platforms. By providing ambiguous party principles, a constituent’s local MP can avoid being held accountable.

In essence, “the plurality system encourages MPs and political parties to reflect some limited concerns of their geographic districts while ignoring the deeply held principles of the voters”(Heimstra and Jansen, 300). The only thing differentiating Canadian parties is their promise of “social benefits beyond what the economy could tolerate”(Irvine, 45). Since parties under PR do not have to compete for the median voter, “governing parties have less incentive to manipulate policy for short run ends”(Irvine, 50).

As mentioned earlier, minority governments are likely to be assembled over a majority government under a PR system. This will entice legislature to form a coalition, thereby facilitating the demands of all the different regions comprising Canada. Eventually, long term policy making will be executed with less hesitation, as governments will soon realize that regardless the outcome of the following election, support for their proposed policy will still exist. The inability of the House of Commons to finalize long-term policy-making has stunted economic growth in Canada because of ineffective governments elected through SMP.

The greatest disadvantage of single member plurality is its inhibiting effect on voter turnout. Voter turnout has been decreasing steadily as more people have come to the realization that their votes will not necessarily be accounted for. In Jeffrey Simpson’s book, The Friendly Dictatorship, the author reveals that “only 61 per cent of eligible Canadians bothered to vote in 2000, the lowest turnout by far since the Second World War”(Simpson, 144). It is important to note that Canada counts voter turnout by the number of people who vote in relation to the number of people on the electoral list.

Since not everyone eligible to vote gets on the electoral list, the numbers are actually far lower than they appear. With a large number of eligible voters staying home, elected MPs do not have a real mandate to represent their constituents. This discrepancy has the potential to produce an ineffective government and a discontent amid the members of society. It has become increasingly important to determine the cause of this decreased interest in voting. electoral system is often described as a “first past the post” system.

The way in which this system functions is that each voter is allowed one vote and the candidate with the most votes (or a plurality) becomes elected. Proportional representation, on the other hand, can be accomplished through a multitude of electoral methods. But for the sake of convenience, we will focus primarily on the two most notable systems: party list system, and mixed member proportional. The party list system used to achieve PR relies on the voter to choose the party they wish to support as opposed to the actual candidate.

Improve Efficiency global history essay help: global history essay help

A very high percentage of the items selected (picked) in the distribution centers and re-stocked in the stores were in quantities of 1 case. This company’s roots were as a high volume, limited assortment retailer and distributor. Over time the business had shifted allowing the stores to reorder a higher mix of items at lower volumes. Given the companies market position as a low-price leader, this reduced profit margins. The two root causes of this shift were identified as: 1. Stock-keeping-unit (SKU) count growth outpacing sales growth, and 2.

Allowing minimum order quantities from the stores to the distribution centers to drop to a quantity of one This white paper will study how this company quantified the impact of allowing its stores to order in one case quantity and then recalculated minimum order quantities for higher volume items. (For details of how SKUs were reduced see White Paper “SKU Reduction – Biggest SKLUsers”) A Supply Velocity Consultant led a team of employees through this 5 week project. The Supply Velocity consultant facilitated, but the employees did most of the analysis and therefore owned the improvements. [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 2 Project Outline ? Evaluated all SKUs and the case quantity they are most frequently ordered at, to establish baseline data for how stores are ordering ? Time studied retail store shelf restocking and distribution center order selection labor to determine the negative labor productivity impact of the current ordering policy o Graphed the results in a trend chart o Determined that the greatest labor productivity improvement happens when the order quantity increases from just 1 to 2 cases ?

Recalculated minimum order quantity for all items using Multi-Variable Pareto analysis based on: o Item unit movement o Pack-out (number of units that fit on the shelf space allocated in stores) o Shelf life ? About 20% of all SKUs had a re-calculated minimum order quantity greater than 1 case o The most conservative methods were used to ensure this project didn’t just push inventory out to stores, resulting in shrink (throwing away items that go beyond their shelf-life limit or are damaged) ?

Communicated all items on the minimum order quantity to all stores through a comprehensive communication plan o Communication plan included data to show stores how increasing minimum order quantity on select items would improve their labor productivity ? Created a control plan to ensure new items, SKU reduction and sales history will be used to update the minimum order quantity on a twice yearly basis [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 3

Time Study Analysis To quantify the problem, we time studied order selection in the distribution centers and shelf restocking in retail stores. We conducted a few snapshot analyses of different distribution centers to understand the current state of “order quantities”. The graph below shows that out of the approximately 2800 items, a majority are ordered in quantities of 1 case. The time study data also showed that the second case selected or stocked is essentially “free” and the same movement is used for two cases as for one case.

At the outset of this project the team was worried that any increase in minimum order quantity would be viewed by store managers as an attempt to push inventory out from the distribution centers to the stores. This data showed that increasing minimum order quantity from one case to just two, gave us the greatest percentage of labor productivity improvement. However, we didn’t just want to increase all items to a 2 case minimum order quantity. Instead, a statistical tool, Multi-Variable Pareto was used to calculate the proper minimum order quantity based on a mix of inputs. [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 4 Distribution Center Order Selection Quantity (# of items picked per quantity) 57% of the items in distribution centers were selected at a 1 case quantity [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 5 “Time to Select per Case Quantity” in the Distribution Centers – Based on case count per selection When selecting 2 cases of an item, the time per case drops by 45% from 1 case. [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 6

Time to Re-Stock SKUs on Shelves in Stores – Based on case count When restocking 2 cases of an item, the time per case drops by 61% from 1 case. This shows that the greatest productivity improvement occurs when going from 1 to 2 cases, which is easier to “sell” to the stores than making large increases in minimum order quantity. They can reduce labor by 37 seconds per case by ordering and stocking 2 cases of an item versus 1. [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 7 Multi Variable Pareto Analysis ?

Recalculated minimum order quantity for all items using Multi-Variable Pareto analysis based on: o Item unit movement o Pack-out (number of units that fit on the shelf space allocated in stores) o Shelf life ? About 20% of all SKUs had a re-calculated minimum order quantity greater than 1 case o The most conservative methods were used to ensure this project didn’t just push inventory out to stores, resulting in shrink Multi-Variable Pareto is a method that uses more than one “measure” to sort SKUs from highest to lowest performing.

Normal Pareto Analysis has been used to develop guidelines such as the 80/20 rule (20% of customers generate 80% of sales). When using multiple variables, there has to be a way to normalize the data so all variables are part of the analysis. We used three variables to determine the correct minimum order quantity for an item. ? Cases sold per week on average for each item ? The number of cases that fit in the given shelf space ? Product shelf-life Each of these variables are positively correlated to Minimum Order Quantity. ? The higher the cases sold equals higher Order Quantity ?

The greater the shelf space (pack-out) equals higher Order Quantity ? The longer the item’s shelf-life equals higher Order Quantity The team of subject matter experts used retail experience to determine each of these factors and their impact on minimum order quantity. Results of this analysis are shown below. The calculation was very conservative, as the results have shown. Only 466 of 2800 items have a minimum order quantity greater than 1 case. This was largely driven by two factors. Item shelf-life limited our ability to make any shelf-life sensitive item greater than 1 case.

Our calculation took this limiting factor into account, to ensure we weren’t causing shrink (throwing away items that go beyond their shelf-life limit or are damaged) at the stores. In addition, lower case movement drove many items to a 1 case minimum, even if they didn’t have shelf life limitations. The lower case movement is due to SKU proliferation and was addressed by the SKU Reduction (Biggest SKLUsers) project. [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 8 Results of Minimum Order Quantity Calculation [email protected]. om Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 9 Communication & Control Plan ? Communicated with all retail stores about how the minimum order quantity analysis was conducted and the resulting new plan o Communication plan included data to show stores that increasing minimum order quantity on select items would improve their labor productivity ? Created a control plan so new items, SKU reduction and sales history will update the minimum order quantity on a twice yearly basis It was critical that this project was presented as a positive for our retail store-customers.

We created a communication plan that showed two key aspects of this change: ? The conservative nature of the change o only 466 of 2800 items are receiving a minimum order quantity increase ? This change is good for the stores and will improve their labor productivity To ensure that this process endures and does not get reversed over time we included a control plan. This is shown in the graphic below. As Category Marketing Managers evaluate items, adding and reducing SKUs, changes will be reflected in new pack-out quantities.

This quantity will get fed to Distribution Technology who will recalculate this items’ minimum order quantity using the same Multi-Variable Pareto calculation. A control group, made up of Merchandising, Distribution and Retail Directors will review the list, make changes in the ordering system and communicate changes to store customers. [email protected]. com Copyright: Supply Velocity, Inc. 10 Results By taking the higher sales volume SKUs and increasing the store minimum order quantity, we decreased the time per case to stock shelves in the stores and select items in the distribution centers.

Using only the 1 to 2 case increase in minimum order quantity for the 466 SKUs reduced the labor time per case resulting in a labor savings of $1. 2 million. The expectation for this process is to slowly grow the number items with a minimum order quantity greater than 1 case beyond 20%. By rationalizing and reducing SKUs we should increase the shelf pack-out of remaining items, thereby increasing the minimum order quantity.

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When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theatre, sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as wayang. There is no evidence that wayang existed before Hinduism came to southeast Asia sometime in the first century CE. However, there very well may have been indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of the traditional puppet theatre. The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE, which says “si Galigi mawayang,” or “Sir Galigi played wayang”.

From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event we know he performed a story about the hero Bima from the Mahabharata. Hinduism arrived in Indonesia from India even before the Christian era, and was slowly adopted as the local belief system. Sanskrit became the literary and court language of Java and later of Bali. The Hindus changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana.

Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the western part of Sumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories either fell into oblivion or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays. The figures of the wayang are also present in the paintings of that time for example the roof murals of the courtroom in Klungkung, Bali.

They are still present in traditional Balinese painting today. Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. [pic] Types of Wayang Wayang Kulit [pic] Wayang Golek [pic] Wayang Beber [pic] Wayang Wong (Wayang Orang) [pic] Wayang Karucil or Wayang Klitik [pic] Major Wayang Stories Plots are taken mainly from the Indian Epics, the Ramayan and the Mahabharata The Mahabharata pic] The Mahabharata, is the greatest, longest and one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, The main story of the Mahabharata describes problems of succession to the throne. Two brothers, Dhritarastra and Pandu are heirs to the throne of Astinapura. Dhritarastra is the older, but he is blind, so Pandu (who is an albino) rules instead. Dhritarashtra has 100 sons, the Kauravas; Pandu has 5 sons known as the Pandavas. After Pandu dies, the younger generation cannot agree on which group is to rule. The Pandavas are more popular, since they are just, brave, etc.

They are:? Yudhisthira, the oldest, the embodiment of justice; Bhima, extremely powerful and strong; Arjuna, very handsome, with supernatural strength; and Nakula and Sahadewa, the twins. All the Pandavas are in fact descended from the gods. (Yudisthira from Dharma, Arjuna from Indra, Bhima from Bayu and Nakula and Sahadewa from the twin Aswin gods. )? The Kauravas, headed by the eldest son, Duryodhana, are mean, tricky, etc. They trick the Pandavas out of their share of the Kingdom in a dice game (in which they cheat with the help of their uncle, Sakuni). After losing the dice game, the Pandavas have to go into exile in the forest for 12 years, and spend another year in disguise, after which they return to claim their kingdom. ?The Kauravas refuse to yield, and there is a terrible battle, ? the Bharatayuddha, in which the Kauravas are all killed. One of the Pandavas’ allies is Krishna (actually an incarnation of the god Vishnu) whose participation insures their victories. The Ramayana [pic] Comprising 24,000 verses in seven cantos, the epic contains the teachings of the very ancient Hindu sages.

One of the most important literary works of ancient India, it has greatly influenced art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia, with versions of the story also appearing in the Buddhist canon from a very early date. The story of Rama has constantly been retold in poetic and dramatic versions by some of India’s greatest writers and also in narrative sculptures on temple walls. It is one of the staples of later dramatic traditions, re-enacted in dance-dramas, village theatre, shadow-puppet theatre and the annual Ram-lila (Rama-play).

Rama, prince of Ayodhya, won the hand of the beautiful princess Sita, but was exiled with her and his brother Laksmana for 14 years through the plotting of his stepmother. In the forest Sita was abducted by Ravana, and Rama gathered an army of monkeys and bears to search for her. The allies attacked Lanka, killed Ravana, and rescued Sita. In order to prove her chastity, Sita entered fire, but was vindicated by the gods and restored to her husband. After the couple’s triumphant return to Ayodhya, Rama’s righteous rule (Ram-raj) inaugurated a golden age for all mankind.

Main Characters of the Ramayana • Dasaratha – King of Ayodhya (capital of Kosala), whose eldest son was Rama. Dasaratha had three wives and four sons = Rama, Bharata, and the twins Lakshmana and Satrughna. • Rama- Dasaratha’s first-born son, and the upholder of Dharma (correct conduct and duty). Rama, along with his wife Sita, has served as role models for thousands of generations in India and elsewhere. Many Hindus regard Rama as an incarnation of the god Vishnu. • Sita- Rama’s wife, the adopted daughter of King Janak.

Sita was found in the furrows of a sacred field, and was regarded by the people of Janak’s kingdom as a blessed child. • Bharata- Rama’s brother by Queen Kaikeyi. When Bharata learned of his mother’s scheme to banish Rama and place him on the throne, he put Rama’s sandals on the throne and ruled Ayodhya in his name. • Hanuman- A leader of the monkey tribe allied with Rama against Ravana. Hanuman has many magical powers because his father was the god of the wind. Hanuman’s devotion to Rama, and his supernatural feats in the battle to recapture Sita, has made him one of the most popular characters in the Ramayana. Ravana- The 10-headed king of Lanka who abducted Sita. • Kaushlay- Dasaratha’s first wife, and the mother of Rama. • Lakshmana- Rama’s younger brother by Dasaratha’s third wife, Sumitra. When Rama and Sita were exiled to the forest, Lakshmana followed in order to serve. Elements of Wayang DALANG [pic] A dalang has nine voices for the main figures, as well as the typical language of each one; rengep (to involve completely), to keep the performance alive; enges (emotion), to create interest in the characters and nvolve and move the audience, for instance, during a dialogue between lovers; tutug (eloquence), to recite prescribed dialogues or pagedongan (traditional, fixed explanations); banyol (comedy), to  make the audience laugh; sabet (flow, wave), to handle the puppets correctly, and properly distinguish between their movements, especially during fight scenes; kawiraja (kawi refers to the old Javanese mode of speech, raja means ‘prince’),

A dalang also needs to observe the following courtly prohibitions: he may not change the form of a performance once it is recorded in the pakem (handbooks of the court); he may not show any preference for a character; he may not show himself during a performance, or speak out of turn; he may not focus criticism on anyone, or anger his audience; he may not make uncouth jokes; he must make sure that the performance lasts for the correct duration and that each aspect of the performance lasts the appropriate time. The gunungan (gunung, mountain) or kayon (forest) is a representation of the ancient Tree motif originating from India. This consist of two parts: a mountain and a tree. The Tree motif is rendered as a combination of two different trees: the fig tree rooted in heaven; and the earthbound lotus tree rising from the waters.

The former, placed above, has implanted its root in the top of the stem of the tree-shaped lotus. The lotus is the very symbol of life springing from the water. The celestial fig tree represents ‘creative breath’ or fire, which is as essential in creating life as the water’s essence. In the Javanese gunungan the lotus part can assume an hourglass form, with a small building with a pair of closed doors, or that of a lake or pot filled with water. Guardians stands on both sides of the stronghold. Their task is to guard treasures, particularly the mount Meru (heavenly mountain), and the liquid elixir of life. A pair of huge wings flank the upper half.

The shape of these wings may actually be derived from lotus leaves or other vegetation. The gate building with closed doors can be understood as female, whereas the tree represents the male. Together and united they form life. The gunungan is placed in the centre of the screen before the drama begins, separating the opposed groups of characters that lie to the right and left of the dalang. The meditation undertaken by the dalang before the performance seeks a train of associations leading from the gods of the Hindu pantheon to the kayon. During the performance, the gunungan is the backdrop with which time and space are delineated, and it determines the atmosphere. Gamelan

Gamelan music is an integral part of all cultural activities in Java such as wayang kulit (leather puppets) performance, court dance, uyon-uyon (symphony orchestra performance), etc. There are two kinds of laras (tuning) in gamelan, namely slendro (comparable to minor key in Western music) and Pelog (major key). A complete set of gamelan consist of two sets of different instruments of Slendro and Pelog, such as: lendro and Pelog, such as: 1. Kendang (double ended drum beaten by hands)- It is a leading instrument. The pengendang (drumer) is the conductor of the gamelan orchestra. There are five (5) different sizes of kendang from 20 cm to 45 cm. 2. Saron- A glockenspiel with bronze bar struck with wooden mallet. There are three kinds; Saron Barung, Saron Peking, Saron Demung. 3.

Bonang Barung- A double row of bronze kettles resting on a horizontal frame, played with two long stick bound with red cord at the striking end. 4. Bonang Panerus–smallest member of the bonang group. Twelve bronze pots in two rows of six located in square openings in rectangular teakwood frame, suspended by string threaded through channels carved into frame. 5. Slentem- Thin bronze bars suspended over bamboo resonating chambers, struck with a padded disc on the end of a stick. 6. Gender- Similar to slentem with more bronze keys and smaller bamboo chamber, struck with two disc-shaped hammers. 7. Gambang- Wooden bars laid over a wooden frame struck with two sticks of supple buffalo horn, ending with a small, round, padded disc. 8.

Gong- Each slendro and pelog set had three gongs. Two big gongs (Gong Ageng) and one gong Suwukan about 90 cm, made from bronze, suspended on a wooden frame. It marks the end of the largest phrase of the melody. 9. Kempul- Smaller gongs, marks a smaller phrase. In each slendro and pelog set, there are 6 (six) or 10 (ten) kempuls. 10. Kenong-Smaller gongs lay horizontally on crossed cord, inside a wooden frame. A complete set of kenong in each slendro and pelog consist of 10 (ten) kenongs. 11. Ketug- The kenong player also plays it smaller kenong, marks subdivisions of phrases. 12. Clempung- A string instrument, each slendro and pelog set needs one clempung. 13.

Siter-Smaller cemplung, each slendro and pelog set needs one siter 14. Suling- It is a flute, each slendro and pelog set, needs one suling. 15. Rebab- A two stringed viol, the same as slendro and pelog. 16. Keprak and Kepyak- Needed for gamelan to accompany dances. 17. Bedug- It is a very big drum. Wayang in Society The ancient art of wayang kulit remains popular till today. Not only is it a form of entertainment, it also carries religious significance in Javanese society. Performed during familial and community rituals, such as weddings, circumcisions, births, harvest festivals and village purifications from malevolent spirits, wayang is looked upon as a display of honour.

In a global context, the wayang kulit is also renowned, designated by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2003. -The End- Bibliography: • http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Wayang • http://discover-indo. tierranet. com/wayang. html • http://www. semarweb. com/wayang. html ———————– [pic] [pic] Wayang kulit which means shadow puppets which are ofter found in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiselled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.

They are manipulated behind a white screen with a backlight, so the attendance can see them as shadow puppets. Wayang Kulit was already established in the East Javanese kingdoms one thousand years ago. Wayang Golek is a Sundanese traditional puppet from West Java, Indonesia. Made of wood albasiyah. Carved and painted in great detail and to wear clothes. All made by hand (handicrafts). Played by one person, called Dalang. The puppeteer manipulates a lot of character puppet voice, head, hands and body in motion, so it looks alive. The puppets are held high above the puppeteer’s heads and the rods are worked from below. In modern Western puppetry these days, the style is to work the puppets from behind, as in tabletop puppetry.

Made from wood, wayang golek puppets are much like marottes, in that the body of the puppet sits on a long rod – operated from below remember – and the tips of each articulated hand has a rod attached too. In this way, the puppeteer (dalang) can move three rods; one for each arm, and one for the main body. In fact, the rod to the body actually runs up into the head, allowing the puppeteer to make the puppet look from side to side and so on. One of some kinds of wayang in East Java is Wayang Beber. This kind of wayang is neither made of wood nor leather, but paintings drawn on scrolled sheets of bark paper. Every scene in the story is painted on a piece of paper in rotation.

The performer (Dalang) gives a sign, the gamelan orchestra (or a musician with a violin-like instrument) begins to play and the Dalang unrolls a picture related to the story. Then, speaking and singing, he narrates the story in more detail. In this manner, in the course of the evening he unrolls several pictures. The pictures are shown one at a time and are successively unrolled. Each picture represents a story or part of a story. Wayang wong also known as Wayang orang (literally human wayang) is a type of Javanese dance theatrical performance with themes taken from episode of Ramayana or Mahabharata. The term “wayang wong” comes from the two words “wayang” meaning shadow and “wong” meaning man. Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume:

For male performers: • Alus: very slow, elegant and smooth movement. • Gagah: a more masculine and powerful dance movement, used commonly for the roles of strongly built kshatriyas, soldiers and generals. • Kambeng: a more powerful and athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima, Antareja, and Ghatotkacha. • Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja. • Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying evil characters such as Rakshasa, ogres and demons. • Gecul: a funny court jester and commoners, portraying ponokawan and cantrik.

Importance of Natural Environment essay help for free: essay help for free

Natural outdoor environment is an inspirational, special place that offers children regular opportunities to achieve, and develop confidence and self-esteem through hands on learning experiences in a local woodland environment It’s the perfect place to inspire children actions and thinking also supports their happiness and health. Gives them the opportunity to master their locomotion skills, such skipping, running, climbing, jumping and landing, swinging, rolling and sliding, bouncing and balancing.

Provides them with the opportunity to flourish and grow. Language skills develop in a way perhaps might not happen in more conventional settings where children are occupied by structured games and activities without any need for interaction Enables children to play/explore together, allowing them to develop their self-control and social skills. Pushing emotional and physical boundaries, giving them a great sense of achievement and capability, helps them to join in with others and develop their resilience

They can move, explore, think and understand through moving and using their whole bodies, also the outdoors is full of interest, with the space and opportunity they need so much and provide them with the first hand experience that children need to construct knowledge and understanding. Stimulates their curiosity and sense of discovery about the world, and how their bodies behave in different environments. Help children’s to learn Risk taking is widely understood to be to a child’s development. Looking at risk from a child’s point of view, risk and risk taking is better understood has a challenge.

Providing realistic challenges for children and allowing them to work through the challenges they set themselves supports their development, actively engages them and helps them better understand themselves and each other Natural outdoor environments provide children with opportunity to hunt for small creatures/mini beasts, experiencing the wind, the rain, shadows; to enhances their curiosity and problem solving with natural occurred situations where they can explore how things respond to them

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Developing project portfolio matrix is the most important part of creating a project. Fours quadrants determine the matrix – Bread-and-butter, pearls, oysters and white elephants. Bread-and-butters project means evolutionary improvements to current products and service and it is low risk project with law reward. Pearls involve revolutionary commercial advances using proven technical advances.

Oysters entail technological advance with high commercial payoffs. A white elephant project is that at one time showed promise but is not longer viable. 2. What do you know about the project indirect and direct costs? Prepare a cost-duration graph (15%) Project indirect cost represents overhead cost. Indirect cost varies directly in time. For instance, if our daily overhead cost is 250 euro, any reduction in project duration has to represent a saving of 250 euro per day. Project direct cost is clearly charged to a specific work package such as labor, materials and equipments.

In order to create a cost-duration graph we have to apply three major steps: 1. Find total costs for selected project duration. 2. Find indirect cost 3. Calculate direct and indirect cost for these selected durations. 3. Which are the nine traits/ skills associated with being an effective project manager? (20%) 4. Answer the following multiple choice questions (50%) Multiple choice questions 1. Which of the following is used a Hewlett- Packard for building relationships with key players that will determine a project’s success?

A. MBWA 2. In the Research Highlight, Ancona and Caldwell identified key patterns of activity which contribute to creating a high performance team. Which of the following is not one of those? A. Negotiator 3. The key to exercising influence is to A. Build trust 4. Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of effective objectives? A. Flexible 5. A critical factor to ensure the success of integrating the strategic plan with projects lies in a process that A. Starts with top management’s directives . Projects are usually classified into all but one of the following categories.

Least slack 19. Which of the following is not one of the typical impacts of resource-constrained scheduling? A. There are fewer critical or near-critical activities 20. More common problems associated with managing multi-project resources include all of the following except A. Reducing ‘’downtime’’ created by lack of tasks to perform 21. Activities that have been subjected to the splitting/ multitasking technique are likely to have which of the following impacts?

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