Introduction As defined by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes. Key concepts of sustainable development and sustainable tourism, values and ethics of sustainable tourism and the needs of sustainability in all form of tourism shall be discussed in this essay. 2. 1 Sustainable Tourism Since World War II, tourism has developed from a relatively minor activity to the world’s largest industry.
The travelling within more developed countries as well as from more developed countries to less developed countries generally increased. It also consists of the majority of middle classes travelling among less developed countries but also to the more developed countries. The term sustainable tourism emerged from a broader discourse on the idea of sustainable development (Bramwell and Lane, 1993). It aims to obtain economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits and helping to conserve the environment.
Tourism which is developed and maintained in an area (community, environment) in such a manner and at such a scale that it remains viable over an indefinite period and does not degrade or alter the environment (human and physical) in which it exist to such a degree that it prohibits the successful development and well-being of other activities and processes (Butler 1993 in Wahab and Pigram 1997, p44). According to Jafari, the global tourism sector has been influenced and described by a few model platforms, ‘advocacy’, ‘cautionary’, ‘adaptancy’ and ‘knowledge-based’ platforms.
At the later stage, Macbeth (2005) rethought the model and proposed the other 2 models, ‘sustainable’ and ‘value full’ platforms. These distinct perspectives provide a useful structure for understanding the outgrowth and development of sustainable tourism. However these platforms do not represent a pure type or ideology but rather be used for understanding for stakeholders on tourism and it is not mutually exclusive. 2. 1. 1 Advocacy platform The advocacy platform was the first to appear in the post-war period during the 1950s to 1960s and was characterized by the strong support for tourism.
There were a few factors leading to the appearance and ascendancy of this pro-tourism. The tendency to travel for recreational purposes of the middle class in the more developed countries grew after World War II. The cost of travel was reduced and the accessibility to more destinations was opened to a larger market. Less developed countries was made favorable to economic development judging the inexhaustible supply of resources such as the local culture, scenery and beaches. Economic benefits
Tourism generates direct revenues as well as indirect revenues to the country. In this case it creates a large number of employments to the direct or indirect sectors for the unskilled labor force. It also serves as a generator of infrastructure. Socio-cultural and environment benefits Tourism promotes cross-cultural understanding and, ultimately, world peace, through direct contact between host and guest (D’Amore, 1988). It also provides an incentive to conserve the tradition, natural and man-made environment.
The iconic heritage sites such as the Great Wall of China, Egyptian pyramids of Giza and Machu Picchu of Peru would seriously be the tourism attraction of the countries. Therefore a portion of the revenue can be allocated for maintenance or restoration purposes. 2. 1. 2 Cautionary platform Cautionary platform was emerged in the late 1960s to 1970s due to several factors contributing it. It has been argued that unrelated tourism development ultimately rises in unacceptably high economic, environmental and socio-cultural cost for the locals of the destinations, who are losing out as a result of these costs.
For less developed countries, the intensification of tourism development had been developed where negative impacts became increasingly visible. Economic costs Cautionary platform showed that tourism employment generate low wages, part time, unskilled, seasonal job and employee does not have the opportunity to entitle to benefits as well as upward mobility. In the long-run pattern of seasonal nature of tourist demand, it creates a respectively under-capacity and over-capacity which resulted instability to the country economy.
Socio-cultural and environmental costs With the increased of tourism development, the country has to destroy part of the natural environment to build large scale resorts, golf course or marina to attract the tourists. Natural environments such as beaches, forest or lakes are being destroyed due to the over-populated and over-congestion. The culture and the locals are also being commoditized by the visitors as the residents have to adapt products and services to the tourist’s demand rather than their own community.
With the increased of tourism activities, illegal and criminal activities are inevitable which disrupt the structure of the host society. Advocacy and Cautionary platforms are largely concerned with imparts of tourism which leads to the third platform of adaptation where alternative platform of tourism. 2. 1. 3 Adaptancy platform The appearance of adaptancy platform was introduced in the late 1970s and early 1980s. This platform was introduced after cautionary platform identified the potential negative impacts of tourism but did not implement solutions to avoid these negative effects.
It favored new form of tourism responsiveness to the host community, man-made environment, natural environment and socio-cultural. Employing of locals, utilizing local resources, being less destructive can be beneficial to the host community and guests. 2. 1. 4 Emergence of ‘alternative tourism’ By supporting locally owned small-scale enterprises than externally owned and large scale enterprises leads to alternative tourism. Eco-tourism special interest tourism appeared as alternative tourism that attracts based on the natural environment. . 1. 5 Knowledge-Based platform Several factors gave rise in the late 1980s and 1990s according to Jafari (2001) which he terms the knowledge-based platform. It is based on scientific foundation, research-based to provide objective analysis. This platform emphasize on holistic, system-based approached. By studying the whole tourism system, understanding its underlying structures and functions so that proper assessment can be done to manage the tourism sector. 3. 1 Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is defined as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (Brundtland Report, 1987). Essentially, sustainable development advocates the wise use and conservation of resources in order to maintain their long-term viability (Eber, 1992, p. 1). The principles of sustainable development are ecological sustainability, economic sustainability, social sustainability and cultural sustainability (Jamieson, et al, 2000).
Ecological sustainability refers to the direction towards ecological principles and biological diversify. Economical sustainability refers to development economically efficient within generations. Social sustainability refers to the increase of people’s control over their own lives; maintain and strengthen community identity. Cultural sustainability refers to development compatible with the culture and values of affected people. The above-mentioned shows the need for sustainability in all form of tourism in order to sustain. 3. 2 Eco-Tourism
In the mid-1980s, eco-tourism is closely associated. The International Ecotourism Society (TIES, 1990) defined that “responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people”. Ecotourism is about conservation of environment with minimum impart, build environmental and cultural awareness and respect, providing positive experience for both host and visitors, provide financial benefits for the host and raising sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental, and social climate.
Singapore Environment Council (SEC), foster greater appreciation of the environment amongst the community as a whole. The objective of the non-profit organization is to promote greater public awareness concerning the living and natural environment in Singapore, encouraging public to be more environmentally conscious and display a greater sense of environmental responsibility. They also organized environmental promotion and protection in Singapore or the purpose of conserving the nature areas such as Bukit Timah Reserve, Pulua Ubin, Sungei Buloh Nature Park. 4. Local Conditions
The economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors play an important part in a country. The interplay of social, economic and environmental conditions can have a profound impact on the perceived importance of tourism and the relative power of different interest groups within the destination (Dredge 2001b, 2006a). Economic factors refer to the assets and revenues of a country. For instance, the more developed countries will have the ability to supply or inject more money to conserve their natural or man-made environment, or even build large-scale resorts and golf course to attract tourists to the country.
For less-developed countries, due to their low standard of living and undeveloped infrastructures, the countries do not have the ability to invest the money for conserving the environment. Socio-cultural factors refer to the socio structure, the values and cultures of a society. The culture of a community can be very different from other community. For example, Singaporeans are more conservative compared to the westerners. Environmental factors refer to the environment, nature and location of a country. The natural structure of a country is hard to change.
For example, Singapore is a small island with neither forest nor mountain whereas the Himalayas Mountain in Tibet is a natural resource. Therefore planning is important, as good tourism planning can sustain the environment more successfully. Reciprocally, poor tourism planning can result harm to the natural habitat, overcrowding in a place and creates pollutions. 5. Values Jafari’s knowledge-based platform took a scientific and objective view of tourism and a system approach to the industry. However, Macbeth confidently believes that knowledge, policy, planning and development decisions are value-based.
Concluding that no matter how many scientific facts, priorities and decisions made will be based on what the stakeholders believe. Hence, ‘Value-Full’ or ethics-based platform was proposed (Macbeth, 2005). It encourages the stakeholders to question the motives, ethics and morality during the consideration of the consequences of tourism within a economic, socio-cultural and environmental framework. The United Nations, the general assembly adopted the Millennium Declaration on 8 September 2000, recognizing it as a collective responsibility to uphold the principle of human dignity, equality and equality at the global level.
Fundamental values essential to international relations include freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, and respect for nature and shared responsibility are considered. Freedom refers to human rights to live their lives without the fear of violence or injustice. Equality refers to the equal rights and opportunities of different genders, race or religion to benefit from development. Solidarity refers to the sharing of costs and burdens between those who benefit more or to those who benefit less. Tolerance should also be respected within human beings in the difference of belief, culture and language.
Respecting of nature must be shown of all natural resources and living species in order to sustain for the future generation. Responsibility must be shared to manage worldwide economic, social development as well as threats to international peace and security. 6. Global Code of Ethics The Global Code of Ethics is a set of principle which is used to guide the stakeholders as well as visitors in tourism development. The Global Code of Ethics for Tourism is believed to help minimize the negative impacts of tourism on the environment and on cultural heritage while maximizing the benefits for residents of tourism destination (WTO).
The stakeholders in tourism development should implement the principles and follow closely to it. Mutual understanding between peoples and societies, the respect of cultural and religious traditions should be observed. For example, Lijiang Ancient Town, China, acquiring World Heritage status in 1997 and since then four million tourists has passed through the town. According to X. Su and P. Teo, a questionnaire survey was used to ascertain the local perceptions on heritage and the state (2008: p. 153).
Economic Recession in India essay help cheap: essay help cheap
As it was started in US and now it’s touching the boundary of India also. Recession is a phase in which rupee depreciate, cash crunches, money market slowdown, inflation comes. All in all it’s become difficult to bring money from the pocket of an individual. As we know price of the steel, iron goes up, we would like to postpone our purchasing but if we won’t spend, how producer could makes his bread. If the producer starts reducing the price of the commodity with such belief that customer buy the product in all case.
This will bring only when he starts cutting its cost of production. Cost cutting means reduction in variable cost. As price of steel, iron, equipments, machinery, are touching sky, only way to reduce the cost is the reduction in employees. Hence people fear of their job security. In fear of the job security, people are generally shifting their purchasing. All of them either producer, investor, customer, employee posing each other to create recession Negative Aspect of Recession on Indian Economy As recession have various negative effects on Indian economy.
The capital market was facing the downfall, liquidity is dropping down, an individual don’t have money to spend, producers are increasing their price, but to cope with market they are creating deployment. Positive effect of recession on Indian economy The recession in US led to decrease in demand of products, reduces the price of crude oil. Foreign investors who were not able to find a good return, facing Indian like country, so foreign currency is coming. SURVIVAL STRATEGIES Government step: Government of India can took various steps to bear the pressure of recession.
The RBI by reducing the cash reserve ratio can float the money in market, so the liquidity crisis can be faced. And also it can remove burden of VAT on the business class. The government on Jan 5 released Rs. 800 crore to be paid to exporters as duty drawback. If government under its some scheme allows people to convert their black money into white money through investment will also help in boosting liquidity solution. Survival strategies for an Individual An individual when faces recession time, finds him unable to do anything. But an individual has a great power to reduce the effect of inflation.
Firstly an individual pay off its all debts, if any. Secondly he has planned his whole budget on monthly basis, on what product he has spent now, and things of which purchasing can be postponed. Survival strategies for investors The recession affects the stock market badly. The slowdown in capital market, tensed the investor. The investors now plugging back their money due to fear of recession. An investor after seeing the situation of US, obviously will behave in such manner. In this phase investor has to follow the policy of ‘wait and watch’. For compensating the risk he can diversify his portfolio.
Survival strategies for an employee Unemployment is the worst situation emerges due to recession. This has created fear in the mind of employee either the company will retain him or he has to switch to another one. But there is advice to employee this is not a right time to change the job. Stick to your job and try to find your actual worth in the company. Survival strategies for an employer/Business The businessman is finding impossible for them to stand in recession. The export industry, the IT industry, agriculture sector, banking services, are finding hard to earn bread.
So an employer has to change their policy. Firstly retain your existing customer then go for potential one. Prepare your expenditure chart daily. Instead of retrenchment, change the salary package. Motivate your employees for doing hard work. Convince them for long working hour. To reduce the risk, segment your market. Daily calculate the inflow and outflow of cash from the organization. Keep in touch the changes government made in economic policy.
Liquidity Ratio and Profitability Ratio Report free essay help online: free essay help online
Report Introduction: Any successful business the owners is always calculate the performance of the company, comparing it with the company’s historical figures, with its industry competitors, and even with successful businesses from other industries. To complete a thorough examination of your company’s effectiveness, however, I will calculate the statement of financial performance and statement of financial position, so I need to look at more than just easily attainable numbers like sales, profits, and total assets.
I must be able to read between the lines of the financial statements and make the seemingly inconsequential numbers accessible and comprehensible. This very big data overload could seem astounding. Luckily, many well-tested ratios out there make the task a bit less daunting. Comparative ratio analysis helps you identify and quantify of the desert hotel company’s strengths and weaknesses, evaluate its financial position, and understand the risks you may be taking. As with any other form of analysis, comparative ratio techniques are not definitive.
Numerous off the balance sheet and income statement factors can play a role in the success or failure of a company. This discussion contains descriptions and examples of the eight major types of ratios used in financial analysis: Profitability, Liquidity, short-term liquidity and Long-Term Analysis Ratios are highly important profit tools in financial analysis that help financial analysts implement plans that improve profitability, liquidity, financial stability and management efficiency for the business.
Stusy of Organisation Climate of Tata Steel buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
Organizational climate is shared perception of the way things are around the organization. It is individual perception and cognitive representation of the work environment both. Organizational climate is comprised of mixture of norms, values, expectations, policies and procedures that influence work motivation, commitment and ultimately, individual and work unit performance. Positive climate encourages, while negative climates inhibits discretionary effort. ‘Organizational climate’ refers to the quality of working environment.
Every organization is different and has a unique feeling and character beyond its structural characteristics. Thus every organization deals with its member in a distinct way through its policies on allocations of resources, communication pattern, reward and penalty, leadership and decision making style, etc. The organizational policy and conviction with regard to all these and a cluster of other related activities influence the feelings, attitudes and behavior of its members and results in the creation of the unique organizational climate.
Organizational climate has a major influence on human performance through its impact on individual motivation and job satisfaction. It does this by carrying certain kinds of expectancies about what consequences will follow from different actions. Individuals in the organization have certain expectations and fulfillment of these expectations depend upon their perception as to how the organizational climate suits to the satisfaction of their needs. Thus organizational climate provides a type of work environment in which individuals feels satisfied or dissatisfied.
Since satisfaction of individual goes a long way in determining his efficiency, organizational climate can be said to be directly related with his performance in the organization. Organizational climate studies data relating to individual perception of organizational properties in identifying organizational climate. Denison (1996) argues that developing a universal set of dimensions was often the central issue of the climate researchers so that comparative studies could be made possible in different organizational settings.
He compared this approach to that of the culture research that used a post-modem perspective which examined the qualitative aspects of individual social contexts where each culture that was seen as unique and was not expected to have general qualities which had become central to the climate research. Jones and James (19790 argued that one of the assumptions of the climate literature is that a relatively limited number of dimensions could characterize a wide cross-section of social settings. Jones and James labeled their factors as follows: Conflict and ambiguity’, which ‘reflected perceived conflict in organizational goals and objectives, combined with ambiguity of organizational structure and roles, a lack of interdepartmental cooperation, and poor communication from management. Also included were poor planning, inefficient job design, a lack of awareness of employee needs and problems, and a lack of fairness and objectivity in the rewards process. ’ ‘Job challenge, importance and variety’, which ‘reflected a job perceived as challenging, which involve a variety of duties, including dealing with other people.
The job was seen as providing autonomy and feedback, and demanding high standards of quality and performance. ’ ‘Leader facilitation and support’, which ‘reflected perceived leader behaviors such as the extent to which the leader was seen as helping to accomplish work goals by means of scheduling activities, planning, etc. , as well as the extent to which he was perceived as facilitating interpersonal relationships and providing personal support. ’ ‘Workgroup cooperation, friendliness, and warmth’, which ‘generally described relationships among group members and their pride in the workgroup. ‘Professional and organizational esprit’, which ‘reflected perceived external image and desirable growth potential offered by the job. Also included were perceptions of an open atmosphere to express one’s feelings and thoughts, confidence in the leader, and consistently applied organizational policies, combined with non-conflicting roles expectations and reduced job pressure. ’ ‘Job standards’, which ‘reflected the degree to which the job was seen as having rigid standards of quality and accuracy, combined with inadequate time, manpower, training and resources to complete the task. 2.
Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
Supply & Demand, and Price Elasticity All things in our society are connected in some way, for example, how humans relate to each other. Complex ideas and analysis are not without their own set of unique connections. The intricate theories of economics are a prime example of this connection. To gain an accurate understanding of how supply and demand are connected, and its role within the market, one must analyze the functions of each as separate entities, and how they relate to economics as a whole.
To begin analysis, one must examine what causes change between supply and demand. Once this has been achieved, investigating how changes in price and quantity influence market equilibrium, and how the necessity of a good and the availability of substitutions impact price elasticity will need to be conducted. The final step will be to compare and contrast market systems and the role of an economist within these systems. In order to discover what causes change in supply and demand, people need to understand the definition, different forms, components, and principles.
Supply is defined as the amount of product a producer is willing to provide or sell, while demand is the amount of product a buyer is willing to receive or buy. There are two forms of supply: individual and market. Individual supply is the amount of product offered at different prices at a given time by a seller. Market supply is the amount of the product in the marketplace. The components of supply are the price of the product, the price of input goods, the state of technology, taxes and subsidies, and expectations about the future market price.
An example of a cause that would change supply is the change in the cost of supplies and resources: if the cost goes up, producers will decrease their supply. The law of supply is the amount of the products offered by the sellers, directly related to prices of all things being equal (ceteris paribus). There are two forms of demand similar to supply: individual and market. Individual demand is the quantity of the product or service that one plans to buy at different prices at a given time. Market demand is the sum of people’s demand in the marketplace.
Just like supply, demand has its own determinants such as the price of the goods, the price of substitute goods, the price of complementary goods, tastes and preferences, a consumer’s income, and expectations about the future. An example of a cause that would affect demand is the change from a higher or lower income. This would cause an increase or decrease in demand. The law of demand is the quantity inversely related to the price, ceteris paribus. Oftentimes in supply and demand, pricing affects every aspect that goes along with it; if pricing stays stable, consumers will be able to purchase equal amounts of products.
A family’s income creates a demand for the amount of products that are used on a weekly basis. When price increases, consumers tend to buy less of a particular good creating a demand curve. Depending on the consumer who notices pricing starting to rise, they will purchase extra goods to help them save money until the price lowers. This frequently affects the way things are sold in our local markets. If a change in demand exists, people will use substitute items because of cost. The use of a substitute item will shift the demand curve and will create a new demand curve with the substitute item taken into account.
Additionally, prices change due to market value which impacts the consumer. Availability of certain goods helps keep prices low which influences market equilibrium because consumers will be able to purchase more goods. When a shortage of goods exists, this also affects the markets equilibrium because as prices go up, purchasing becomes less and the consumer only gets a portion of what they would normally pay for that good at the same price. The necessity of a good for a consumer can be determined by the following variables: price, substitution cost, complimentary goods, income, taste/preferences, and expectations.
Elasticity of demand can be summarized the measure of how responsive consumers are to a change in price. If the price of the good goes up, the consumer will buy less of the good, if the price of the desired good decreases, the consumer will purchase more of that good. This concept applies to all the variables listed above. A change in price in either direction is going to affect the consumer’s decision to acquire the good. A good way to look at all the variables is isolating each variable to determine the effect of each with respect to the elasticity price.
The key to elasticity is that it is a unit-less measure. The exact number of units does not matter; the ratio of the percentage changes in quantity divided by the percentage change in price. Additionally, time and budget percentages are variables of elasticity price. The longer a consumer has to look for an option to buy the good will determine the effect of the result to elasticity price. A product that requires a large percentage of the consumer’s budget will make the good elastic.
The above variables are examples of how necessity of a good can affect the price elasticity of a product. A competitive market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service which the individual buyer or seller has no impact on the price of the traded good or service. In the market there are two main systems: demand curve and supply curve. The demand curve shows the relationship between the prices of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to purchase in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant.
The supply curve shows the relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity of the good that producers are willing and able to supply to the market in a given period, assuming all other variables stay constant. The economist uses models to determine the competitive equilibrium and to define the comparative statics in a market. The economist, in these systems, uses the data to allocate resources in the most efficient way while reducing waste. The supply of goods and services and demand for goods and services are the two forces that make the market economies work.
There are similarities between these two forces — they both show the relationship between the price of the good and the quantity of that good. The future expectation of the market affects both curves. Supply and demand connect when their quantity and their price meet. A competitive equilibrium exists if the quantity demanded by the consumers meets the quantity supplied by the sellers, The competitive equilibrium point is determined by the demand and the supply forces, it is the point from which the market has no incentive to move.
The demand curve is based on the price of the good, the price of complimentary goods, the price of substitute goods, the consumer’s income, the consumer’s taste and preferences, and the future expectations; it is derived from the consumer’s behavior. The supply curve is based on the price of the good, the price of the ingredients to make the good, the technology that is used to make the good, the taxes and subsidies imposed on the good, and the future expectation; it is derived from the seller’s behavior. The economist collects information, analyzes it, and devises theories in an attempt to learn how the world works.
These theories rely heavily on the demand and the supply in a given market. These particular systems determine the competitive equilibrium and define the comparative statics in a market. The competitive equilibrium assist in reducing chaos in the market and in better allocating resources. In conclusion, identifying the concepts behind supply and demand will help one understand its role in economics. Additionally, this knowledge will assist in shaping the habits and decisions consumers are faced with on a daily basis. Having examined the factors listed above, one will have a more astute understanding of the connectedness of supply and demand.
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