Get help from the best in academic writing.

Suzuki essay help app

The challenges facing Maruti Suzuki management prior to adopting the oracle suite is India at the time was one of the largest car markets in the world and Maruti Suzuki was the leader of that market. Maruti Suzuki then began diversifying their market by adding financing, leasing, insurance and pre-own car business to it. Due to the size and complexity of their organization, Maruti Suzuki was having a difficult time maintaining their explosive growth and was not able to efficiently managed their information management systems.

Part of their challenge stems from the fact that a lot of their information systems came local home-grown systems in India and they were not able to communicate in sync which each other leading Maruti to have extra staff in order to coordinate data. 2. What advantages does Maruti Suzuki derive from working with a single vendor, Oracle? What are the possible risks of working with a single vendor?

The advantages that Maruti Suzuki derive from working with a single vendor is when buying information systems, they will have a unified software that will be able to communicate and cut out the need for additional staff for coordinating data. Oracle also has a consulting service that can provide Maruti Suzuki managers with any information or knowledge during the implementation in order to have the transition smoothly switch over from the old information system without any interruptions.

The possible risk of working with a single vendor is that you becoming totally dependent on their services. If down the road you find out that their product is not exactly what you wanted the cost of having to switch things out can be quite expensive. Not to mention the single vendor can also raises their fees over time since you are already bought into their program you don’t have much choice but to pay the new prices or risk interruptions in your services.

What were the important business factors which management used to evaluate Oracle’s database offerings? The important business factors which management used to evaluate Oracle database offering are they evaluated Oracle’s suite’s capacity to integrate their systems without interruption. Then, managers were able to quantify their benefits in flexibility and time. 4. Why was it important that a vendor’s products be able to integrate with legacy systems?

It was important that a vendor’s product be able to integrate with legacy systems because Maruti Suzuki had several different systems before they switched over to Oracle so it was of the upmost importance that Oracle had been able to integrate their various systems without interruption thanks to the modular structure of Oracle suite. Since Suzuki having such a big and diversified company, they are dealing with huge volumes of business everyday so by having any interruptions which have a devastating effect on their business. 5. What are the business benefits reported by management to using the Oracle suite of products?

The business benefits reported by management from the use of the Oracle suite of product are standardized practices across enterprises, making data immediately available online without needs of batches processing, the enterprise performance management system provides immediately data, decrease the turnaround time in producing consolidation accounts, more management flexibility with the HR suite, Oracle responds to Maruti future needs step by step, and provided the human resources staff with greater control over recruitment, payroll, compensation management leave management competency assessments, and staff development.

Ella Minnow Pea my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

In the book Ella Minnow Pea, the linguistic world around them is eroding as the roots of their native language is slowly decaying as the days go by. During this time of confusion, hate, and misunderstanding the villagers must unite, for if they do not, the loved ones around them will start to fade away as well. The struggles they face between friends, family, and neighbors will challenge the close knit relationships they’ve spent a lifetime building in their small island community.

The challenges will test their moral framework, as once close friends may be the very reason for their own demise. During this time of hardship, many of the villagers seek answers from the late linguistic genius himself, the great Mr. Nevin Nollop. Mr. Nollop is highly honored by the villagers for crafting the infamous pangram “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog”, a sentence composed of all the letters of the alphabet with very few of the characters being used multiple times.

This glimpse of peer literary genius is the reason that the people of the small island village respect and honor the vocabularian’s wisdom in these times of communication turmoil. Nevin Nollop cherished the written and spoken language of his people and before his death he expressed, “Love one another, push the parameter of this glorious language. Lastly, please show proper courtesy; open not your neighbor’s mail. ” (Dunn, 74)This is the quotation I will seek to apply outside of the written pages of Ella Minnow Pea.

In times of distress people’s moral decisions can be influenced by deep rooted emotions and can cloud the judgments we make about others. This is why many teachings ask us to think before we act. Before responding to a situation, we need to understand what effect our actions have on the lives of others. This conscious thought process can be summarized by the Golden Rule. The Golden Rule is a moral building block that has been endorsed by many cultures and religions around the world that emphasizes the importance of mutual respect and civility for one another.

Treat others as you would like to be treated, embodies true introspection and forces us to respond to actions as if we were in the same situation, and apply it. Apply it by imagining yourself in the other persons’ position and ask yourself how you would like to be treated in this given circumstance. The elegant meaning of the Golden Rule has been embraced and interpreted by many religions all over the world including: Hindu, Buddhism, Judaism, Muslim and Christianity.

The teachings of Buddha advocate to “Hurt not others with what pains yourself” (Udanavarga 5:18), or as interpreted in Islam scripture, “No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. ”(Hadith of an-Nawai 13) There are also several references to the Golden Rule in the Holy Bible of Christianity such as; “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” (Mark 12:28-31) and “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” These translations of the Golden Rule can relate to the phrase by Nevin Nollop by simply stating to love one another.

Treat everyone as you would like to be treated. It is this the mutual respect for one another that will help us to progress in the darkest of times. In conclusion, Nevin Nollop’s quote, “Love one another, push the parameter of this glorious language. Lastly, please show proper courtesy; open not your neighbor’s mail” (Dunn, 74) has a deeper meaning than to just respect you neighbors mail, but to respect and love your neighbor as much as you love yourself.

Marks and Spencer Advertising Strategy college application essay help: college application essay help

Marks and Spencer is an international multi-channel retailer that has been running for 129 years. It now operates in “over 50 territories worldwide” and employs “almost 82,000 people”, (Marks and Spencer plc, 2013). It’s dependence on its origin country; the UK is progressively being reduced due to its international focus. M&S’ UK turnover consists of 54% food and 46% general merchandise, including home ware, clothing, lingerie etc. It is currently growing its e-commerce and has expanded to the finance business with its M&S Bank branch.

Clothing has been lately an aspect of concern for the company, as sales of clothing have “slipped back for the ninth consecutive quarter”, (The Guardian, 2013). This has created a 9. 1% fall in half-year profit. For this reason, according to M&S Chief Executive, they are currently working on having “more innovation and choice than ever before”, (Bolland, 2013). However, according to retail analyst for the BBC, “The company is too risk averse and is unwilling to break the mould of its traditional ways of doing business”, (Conlumino, 2013).

The affordable fashion market in the UK has been described as “challenging” by Chief Executive Bolland. The fashion industry requires radical and innovative measures for success, which M&S has not dared to implement until now. Marks and Spencer’s fashion competition is becoming increasingly tough and aggressive. Retailer Next overtook M&S “as the UK’s biggest fashion retailer, in July 2012”, (Nairn, 2012).

Primark, its older rival has “an expected 5 billion pounds in clothing sales in 2014”, (The Guardian, 2013) this is a very close figure to M&S, with the potential possibility of performing above it. CAMPAIGN STRATEGY Marks and Spencer decided to adopt a fairytale theme for its Christmas 2013 campaign, focusing on its men and women ware collections as well a their lingerie collection playing a strong role. The adverts’ message claims to “Believe in Magic and Sparkle” and is based on a collection of fairytale stories including Alice in Wonderland, Red Riding Hood and The Wizard of Oz.

It encourages the audience to believe in the true Christmas spirits while taking them through a range of mind-blowing and fantasy settings that communicate the wide range of festive products available in the store. The advertising campaign was developed by the advertising agency RKCR/Y&R and also includes its Christmas party food range on the table set during the ‘Tea Party’. The company has tried to emphasize its quality by bringing to the advert loved fairy tales in a glamorous offset.

Christmas is a key selling season for M&S and thus their Executive Director of Marketing & Business Director claimed how they wanted to “recapture the magical essence of Christmas that customers tell is synonymous with M&S”, (Bousquet-Chavanne, 2013). In terms of the media channels, Marks and Spencer “is shifting its marketing approach to digital first”, (Vizard, 2013). This means that its strategy is launching campaigns online (through Youtube and its Website) before the use of Above The Line advertising (appearing in TW or print), this is a way to engage better with its consumers.

The campaign was first launched on the 4th November online and two days after the TV debut took place. The whole campaign had a very strong focus on engaging their target audience through social media, allowing shoppers to vote via Twitter and Facebook on a name for the highland terrier which features in its campaign. The main purpose of the campaign is to create awareness to their target audience and recover primarily in terms of clothing sales (increase them). Further objectives of the campaign are to attract its target market for a bigger range of their products.

By integrating food and general merchandise such as clothes and home ware in the advert, M&S aims to take advantage of cross-fertilising across food and clothing, as opposed to other retailers. Finally, the objective of moving to digital marketing is to become multichannel and prove its ecommerce savvy, as according to head of digital store development, “A “frightening number” of M&S customers still do not consider it as a multichannel retailer when they are shopping online”, (Zuurbier, 2013). In terms of its target audiences, Marks & Spencer has always aimed to target different age groups, using its advertisements to expand the generations.

By using well-known celebrities such as Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, David Gandy and Helena Bonham-Carter, it attracts customers from different segments, thus the main character Rosie can appeal to every woman, being neither too common nor too unattainable. However, although reaching out to an adult market segment with its range of winter clothes and festive feasts, M&S has widely aimed to target a younger market, thus engaging them in a wide Social Media campaign and well-known models. In terms of its reach, the M&S advert was broadcasted to a mass audience by using ABT advertising and OL advertising.

It is currently “wining the Christmas TV battle in terms of social, with 58. 8 million mentions on Twitter and 160,000 interactions on Facebook”, (Kindred, 2013). The campaign also created a #magicandsparkle hashtag, which allowed the brand to measure further the impact on social networks, with it being mentioned over 3,500 times. The advert is available internationally with 948. 533 views in Youtube and British TV cannels. The advert was first launched on TV 6th of November and is showing at a daily basis currently and until the end of the Christmas holidays (2 months approx).

The use of social media has been a key element in this last Marks & Spencer’s campaign for two main reasons. First of all, M&S are trying its best to understad consumers’ tastes and what they really want. Social media allows the company to ‘listen’ to what customers are saying in real time, thus having direct feedback and evaluation of their efforts immediately. Secondly, one of their main current objectives is to expand its online market share, thus they want to be perceived as a ‘multichannel’ retailer for online shopping.

According to the head of digital store development, “A frightening number” of regular customers do not consider it as a main online shopping point, and social media through the campaigns enables a connection between the consumers and M&S online platforms and therefore a direct link to purchase. The media channels have played a crucial role in transmiting their campaign to the desired public. The shift on its marketing approach, by launching campaigns online and on social media before print and TV enabled a closer relationship with the online consumers and a way of creating an experience and a feeling with the campaign.

The use of mass media by broadcasting the advert through british TV channels reaches most families that could potentially buy at the physical stores, whereas the online platforms reach audiences that could potentially make purchases at the E-store. The main aim of the campaign was to attract customers of all demographic groups and promote the new products that the company is offering. M&S image is in search of improved quality and consistency, and they wanted to transmit this to their audience.

However, the key issue in this campaign is whether it really communicated a clear ‘message’ and whether it is appeals to the correct target market. M&S, being a multi-department store with different product and option offerings, should thoroughly consider how the different product rages and collectoos are segmented. Usually, M&S was using its ads to span the generations, always including different groups. However, by trying to appear as a ‘improved quality’ brand and creating an advertising campaign featuring actual and trendy celebrities, there is a high risk of detering its core group of older and more simple shoppers.

In terms of attracting the younger audience, there is a high risk involved because this segment is yet not convinced about M&S products being for them, so the efforts to attract this dangerous and risky segment might loose focus on their main and loyal customers. A controversial question on this topic is whether the use of celebrities such as the model Rosie Huntington-Whiteley and David Gandy are associated with the image and main values of the brand. M&S is usually chosen by consumers who regard the brand as trustworthy, caring, straightforward and wise, being their old heritage a plus for consumer loyalty.

Although the celebrity endorsement can create a high amount of awareness and the models can appear as desirable, the brand is unnecessarily being elevated more than necessary, and going a complete different way to its all-time values. It is therefore questionable whether the ‘all things to all ages’ appeal is reflected in the advert. The AIDA model can be used to evaluate the four main points of an advertising campaign, regarding Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action.

The process is used by marketers to ensure that the desired result occurs from the campaign and M&S campaign follows all of the steps: Attention: By presenting the beautifully-made video with well-known celebrities it is catching the audience’s attention. The use of its fairytails theme can help purchases identidy the problem of needing the products offered by the firm to complete its christmas holidays. Interest: Once M&S had the prospects’ attention, the way to maintain the interest in the campaign was to keep the audiences engaged by creating social media activity and repeating the story in different media channels.

Desire: In the desire stage, the range of products showed in the advert are exposed on a way that are tempting and desired by the customers, so that they want to purchase de product. Action: The final step was to persuade the prospects to take immediate action. By using online platforms, creating a direct link to purchase and by limiting the range of products to the christmas season, M&S is creating sense of urgency by encouraging action within a specific time frame. This call to action is essential for the advert to influence the growth in sales.

Marks and Spencer has been suffering from decreasing sales throughout the last years, and instead of focusing on targeting a unclear market segment, it should promote its heritage and history, which is why it is stil considered to be number one multi-department store in the UK. The advertising campaign is beautifully made and has exquisite production values and gorgeous sets but it does not appeal to the right audience. There is an unclear linkage between the advertising and the heart of the brand as experienced by the stores.

The celebrities do not represent what the clients are neither what they want to be, as they are unreachable and extravagant. The magical essence of the advert and the ‘high glamour’ that it wants to communicate has nothing to do with the brand. M&S should focus on one emotional point that can reach its most loyal clients, whereas this advert looses focus by trying to appear and image that is nothing to do with the brand. Even though M&S has captured a lot of attention, the call to action remains unclear, although impact on sales cannot be analysed until after Christmas.

Process of Diffusion and its importance in living organisms buy essay help: buy essay help

Diffusion is the movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient i. e. from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. For a diffusion system to be efficient, it should have a large surface area so that high amount of substances can be exchanged at a time. It should also have a thin membrane and a continuous supply of substances, as a thin membrane means that the diffusion pathway would be short, and the continuous supply helps maintain a concentration gradient, which is essential for diffusion to take place.

There are two main types of diffusion; simple and facilitated. Simple diffusion is when a small, non-polar molecule such as CO2 and Oxygen passes through the phospholipid bilayer. A carrier protein is not needed for this type of diffusion to take place. Facilitated diffusion, however, requires carrier proteins transport molecules across the membrane, as the molecules are polar or are too large to pass through the lipid bilayer. Examples of these molecules are sodium and potassium ions, and glucose.

Diffusion is essential for living organisms as it is a feature of a number of processes which control and supply vital substances to the body. It occurs throughout the human body, and without it, cells and body tissue could not get important nutrients for survival. In humans and animals, diffusion is needed during respiration. It is the way oxygen travels from the lungs to the red blood cells in the blood and the way carbon dioxide travels from the blood to the lungs from where it can be exhaled.

In the oxidative phosphorylation stage of aerobic respiration, diffusion is vital in getting the protons across the potential gradient from the inter-membranal space to the inner membrane to phosphorylate ADP and an inorganic P to ATP which is the universal energy carrier. Without this, we will be unable release energy in respiration and therefore will die. Oxygen continues down the concentration gradient into mitochondria organelles as the final electron acceptor and is reduced to water. The cells in our body also take up nutrients from the blood by diffusion.

Humans and animals cannot make nutrients, so they get the nutrients from the food they eat. Once a nutrient arrives at a cell, it is still inside a blood vessel while the cell lies outside. The lack of nutrients inside the cell, and between the cell and the blood vessel, creates a concentration gradient between the blood vessel and the cell. Due to the lower concentration in the cell, the nutrient diffuses through the blood vessel wall and into the cell. Diffusion is essential in water reabsorption in the kidney for the removal of excess Na and Cl ions. If this process is not done, the osmotic state would be affected.

Diffusion is also extremely important in excretory systems of human beings. For example in a urinary system, if the body doesn’t consume enough water, then water is diffused back in the body and vice versa. Diffusion is responsible for our nerves to function as the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft, so that the next nerve cell can pick up the signal and pass it along. In the case of plants, diffusion is the very important process because plants transfer food particles from the phloem and water particles from the xylem through the process of diffusion and osmosis.

When there’s excess water in the plants, this water needs to be removed, and this is done by the process of transpiration, which requires diffusion. Also, diffusion is an essential process in exchange of gases. Plants get carbon dioxide and release oxygen through diffusion. Photosynthesis also requires diffusion in a number of steps. Moreover, roots absorb water and salts from the soil which is transferred from roots to leaves through the process of diffusion. Diffusion is an important process in the lives of plants.

Water is an important component of all cells, and water moves into plant cells by the process of osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. When there’s excess water in the plants, this water needs to be removed by transpiration. In this process, water vapour evaporates from the surface of a leaf by diffusion through the open stomata. Many plant nutrients reach the root surface via diffusion through the soil solution. Some nutrient molecules diffuse across root cell membranes into the cytoplasm or from the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells into the xylem tissue.

Also, diffusion is an essential process in exchange of gases. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide diffuses from the atmosphere through the stomata and into the air spaces of leaves and oxygen is also released via diffusion. In photoynthesis water must diffuse into the plant or bacterial cell. It is then destroyed in what is commonly called the light dependent reactions. It is separated into Hydrogen ions and oxygen. The oxygen is released into the air via diffusion and the Hydrogen ions are used to

Produce ATP and reduced NADP. Since the water is used up, more is needed to keep the process up, so more water diffuses into the cell. In order for the plant to produce sugars from the carbon dioxide that has diffused into the cell as, it must enter the chloroplast. This is where the light independent reactions occur. The carbon dioxide is used up along with some of the ATP to make sugar. As the sugar is made and relocated this creates a carbon dioxide deficit in the chloroplast, causing more Carbon dioxide to diffuse into it.

Diffusion also plays a role in the movement of photosynthetic products such as sugars into the phloem for transport throughout the plant. Because cellular membranes are composed of a lipid bilayer, lipid-soluble materials use simple diffusion to cross the membrane surface. Substances with low lipid solubility can move across membranes via facilitated diffusion. In this process, the substance binds to a transporter molecule, which transports the substance across the membrane and down its concentration gradient.

Childhood Exposure to Domestic Violence, From Witness to Victim melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

The phrase “exposure to domestic abuse” covers a wide range of perception. In 2002, it was estimated that there approximately 3. 2 million, documented cases of children witnessing domestic violence in America (Stiles, 2002). The different types of domestic violence children are exposed to may range from verbal, emotional to physical. The scope of exposure includes more than just seeing the abuse.

Family violence has an extensive history; the concept that it transcends through generations has and remains a widely received and constant topic in the family violence literature exposure expands past what the child sees or hears it reaches into the future to the long term effect (Smith, Ireland, Park, Elwyn, Thornberr, 2011). Exposure to domestic violence extends years down the road to include conscious and subconscious actions and decisions that the now, adult child makes.

These adult actions and decisions could possibly have, in some cases, very negative effects on the decisions the child makes for the duration of their life (Smith, et al. , 2011). There are several studies that are based on the long term effect of exposure to domestic violence. There is a need for a deeper look into the choices when involving adult intimate relationships. What are the bases for adults, who were exposed to domestic abuse as a child, when entering an intimate relationship?

Some will choose to break the cycle of abuse or follow in the example they had as a child and become abusive or abused in their intimate relationships. Review of literature The research on adults who were exposed to domestic violence as a child is limited. There are available quantitative researches but several of them do not contain in-depth accounts of adults who were exposed to domestic between their parents. Researchers have studied the issue of children who witness domestic violence and often becoming abusers or victims of domestic violence in adulthood (Cappell & Heiner, 1990).

The social learning theory discusses how children be subjected to witnessing domestic violence as children brings about the same type of violence as they enter adult relationships (Cappell & Heiner, 1990). The concept of domestic violence being a learned behavior is also addressed in the social learning theory (Feerick & Haugaard, 1999). Social learning theory maintains that individuals observe the behavior of others, especially the contingencies that follow a person’s actions in a particular situation, and then emulate these actions in a similar situation (Bandura, 1977).

In many cases when children witness domestic abuse between their parents, they tend to conclude that physical violence is sometimes appropriate to achieve behavioral change in an intimate relationship (Bandura, 1977). Some of the attitudes acquired during childhood because of the exposure to the violence manifest in their adult relationships and may be there reason for the perpetuation of domestic violence for both perpetrators and victims through generations (Cappell & Heiner, 1990). Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this proposed study is to learn about children who are exposed to domestic abuse and what influence that exposure has on their adult relationships. From the outcome of the study, the goal would be to develop a solution to help prevent children from going from witnessing abuse to becoming a victim or an abuser, regardless of the exposure, as adults. There are already significant evidence available that documents the negative effects on children who were exposed to domestic violence (Alexander, Mcdonald, & Paton, 2005).

There needs to be more study on the adults who witnessed domestic violence as children to understand their childhood experiences and the effect it has had on the adult experiences in relationships. The beginning point to help the children is helping the parents. Parents’ actions and decisions are essential in the long term effect of the decisions their children make as adults. Exposure to domestic abuse as a child can contribute to a generational cycle of domestic abuse (Smith, et al. , 2011). This study will help grasp a grip on the effects that exposure to domestic abuse growing up, has on children in their adult relationships.

Effects of exposure have negative responses, which include depression, behavior problems in childhood, and increased risk for becoming a perpetrator or victim of abuse in their adult relationships (Benj, 2010). The conclusion for this study is to; have an understanding of the effect of domestic abuse and stop the continuation it the generational cycle of abuse. Hypotheses and Research Questions RQ: Are children who are expose to domestic abuse while growing up, more likely to become abusers/abused as adults than the child who was not exposed to domestic abuse while growing up?

Null Hypothesis: Children exposed to domestic abuse are no more likely to become abusers/abused as an adult than children not exposed to domestic abuse. Research Hypothesis: Children exposed to domestic abuse are more likely to become abusers/abused as an adult than children not exposed to domestic abuse. Definitions of terms Violence Violence is an extreme form of aggression, such as assault, rape or murder and it has many causes, including frustration, exposure to violent media, violence in the home or neighborhood, and a tendency to see other people’s actions as hostile even when they’re not.

Domestic Violence There has been some issue with definitions of the terminology domestic violence. In researching the different definitions in this proposal the term domestic violence will be used in the following way, violence among intimate partners, includes controlling through intimidation, verbal, sexual, and physical abuse. Violence could also include financial abuse and any other type of control. Any type of assault or that an adult uses against another adult involved in intimate relationship (Missouri Coalition Against Domestic Violence {MCADV}, 2000, 2009).

Although violence usually refers to violence between partners, the phrase family violence is used to refer to abuse between other family members, for example elder abuse and child abuse by parents (Salcido, Weithorn, & Behrman, 1999). The American Psychological Association Task Force on Violence and the Family in 1996 defined domestic violence as “A pattern of abusive behaviors including a wide range of physical, sexual, and psychological maltreatment used by one person in an intimate relationship against another to gain power unfairly or

maintain that person’s misuse of power, control, and authority” (Walker, 1999, p. 23). Exposure to domestic violence The phase exposure to domestic violence refers to children experiencing a scope of domestic violence, which refers to verbal abuse as well as physical abuse to a parent, or even trying to stop the violence (Salcido et al. , 1999). Witnessing domestic violence The phrase witnessing domestic violence is used to describe and instance when a child is present in the room when the violence happens. Assumptions

In 2010 According The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, There was an estimated 3 in 10 women and 1 in 10 men in the United States who had been victim of rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner and reported at least one incident of experiencing these or similar forms of violent behavior in the relationship (Black, Basile, Breiding, Smith, Walters, Merrick, Chen,& Stevens, M. R. , 2011) and in many of these instances a child is present. Through interaction, observation, cognitive and personal characteristics children acquire their behaviors and values (Bandura, 1986).

Methods and Procedures This will be a descriptive research, the study will be based on a combination application of quantitative and perspectives. The study will be set to determine those children who were exposed to domestic violence who later became abusive or was involved in an abusive relation. The method used will be a longitudinal case study, in order to observe the selected group at different selected intervals as they age to determine if there were any instances of abuse or being abused (Cozby, 2009). The observations will be focused on relationships after reaching the age of adulthood.

The study will expand over a period of 30 years with interval survey, interviews conducted every 5 years for observation of relationship stats and development check. Population Participant will be selected through random sampling, with participants from a domestic abuse center. The study group will be a group of 100 children, male and female between the ages of 6-16, of various races from the Permian Basin area of Texas various races 6-16, Procedures In preparation for the research study, informed consent statements and confidentiality form swill be prepared. There will be confidentiality forms for all involved with taping of interviews.

Consent forms for any audio taping that may be done, during the interviews will also be prepared. Interview and survey questions will be developed. Time schedules for interval surveys. Instruments Instruments used during the study time would also include questionnaire surveys, interviews using open ended questions and Conflict Tactics Scale. The additional instruments will be administered separately over the period of the study. Each 5 year interval there will be a survey of some form to determine status of effect of the exposure to abuse when the participant was a child.

Data Analysis Discussion Potential outcomes from the study would be that having exposure to domestic abuse a child did affect the relationship choices the participants made as an adult. The effects may be different depending on the gender of the participant or at what age they were a witness to the abuse. There could be a separation in the results as to whether those who were the abuser or victim, if the males tended to be the abusers or they were very protective of their mate because of what they say as a child.

Inspected outcomes is to show how the participant felt when they witnessed the abuse and why they feel the abuse happened or why they feel they abuse their partner or why they are or were a victim of abuse. The most substantial result would be the root of whether children from abusive homes are later abusers or become victims more often than those who grew up in non-abusive homes. Uncovering the root of the cycle of abuse and taking the research further to see if there is a way to help bring knowledge and awareness to communities to prevent domestic abuse. Implications Domestic Violence is an expanding issue in our country.

This issue has been existing for years and is now increasing more rapidly. There has been research that shows that in many of the reported cases of domestic violence a child has been present to witness the abuse. Research indicates that witnessing domestic abuse as a child has adverse long term affects. My proposal is for further research in this area, with emphasis on the a effect witnessing domestic abuse as a child has on adult relationships. The purpose and goal is to decrease the rates of abuse and to decrease the continuing rate of the revolving generational cycle of domestic abuse.

References Alexander, H. , Macdonald, E. , & Paton, S. (2005). Raising the issue of domestic abuse in school. Children & Society, 19, 187-198. American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family. (1996). Violence and the family. Washington, D. C. : American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www. apa. org/search. aspx? query=violence Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Is lottery a good idea narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Lottery is one of the best things that has ever happened to human kind especially those that dream high and but their dreams don’t come to life because they don’t have what it takes to make it happen. Lotteries are in various categories such as sweep stakes, scratch off, the Jackpot and even the green card lottery. The lottery that is being focused in this argument is the jackpot one. When individuals or people in general buy the lottery ticket their hopes are high, and they anxiously await with anticipation hoping to win. If they don’t win, they never give up, for they know that there is always next time and they keep playing.

Some people urge that playing lottery is a bad idea because people end up getting addicted to it, or that it affects them psychologically. They could lose friendships and family member’s trust in some way. This could be true to some extent, but the possibilities of what happens after people win the lottery is in their hands. People buy lottery tickets and spend their money on it for all sorts of reasons. They want to pay off their bills, go to vacations, buy a car, or maybe a new home whatever situation they are in people have hope that lottery can fix it. It is some kind of a rescue fantasy.

It’s like their money is buying some kind of hope for them. The moment they spent that dollar, they can’t help but to think what their life will be like if they win. Where they will go? What they will buy? The list goes on and on. I urge that lottery is actually a good idea, especially if people are intelligent enough to play wisely, and use the money they’ve won to create a life of endless possibilities. The arguments below are some of the reasons why lottery is a good idea. When individuals play lottery the one and only thing that is in their mind is the money.

This is so because in the world we live in, money is the way people get the things they need and want. When the buyer finds out that their ticket has winning numbers, especially the huge jackpot they will jump with joy. The new money will change a lot of things in their life. All of a sudden they have money to buy things they want. This also means that their economic and social status changes too. One example is of a woman in California who won $112 million. She gave her brother and father some money. She also gave some money to a charity program to fund an art program for children.

This is one of the examples that people who win the lottery can do so much with the money since their live hood is elevated, they belong to the Elite. Just like this woman, people get happier as their money increases to the level where they are pretty much comfortable. Also their mental well-being improves. Things can only get bad if people fail to plan when they have that winning ticket. The first thing people have to do is to give themselves time to get used to the wealth before they start spending it. They need to plan ahead if they have to do well.

They need to decide where they will be in years to come to avoid from “riches to rags” scenario. People feel overwhelmed if they don’t have a clear life goal. Winners should also be able to have a team of financial and legal advisers. They have to choose a Lawyer and Accountants so they can work together to help them. Carefully check each of them and make sure there is nothing in their files that has been filed against them. People also need to live within their budget, invest wisely, and pay off all the debts they had. That way the will not have too much burden on their heads.

They also need to plan to give some of their money. Pastor Binney at winners praise center once said that: “When people give money away, it makes them feel good and gives them the sense of appreciation on what they have. ” The more people give the more the blessing comes their way and the more they feel a sense of security and stability. People also need to invest in making memories for themselves. Appreciate what they have as their life is changing in a better way and their dreams are coming true. Lottery also plays a role in most states. The history of lottery started long time ago in the early history of America.

The online gov. info library states that “Lotteries were frequently used in colonial-era America to finance public works projects such as paving streets, constructing wharves, even building churches. In the 18th century, lotteries were used to finance construction of buildings at Harvard and Yale. ” This shows that lottery has been around for a long time. Today, most states have adopted lottery system especially the computerized ones like mega millions and Powerball due to the world advancing technologically. This is so because these states have seen the growth of income that come from lotto.

Each state has rules and time frames in which a prize can be claimed. Some states allows people to be anonymous like Ohio while others don’t have that option. For example, in Indiana winners have 90 days before they claim their prize and their identity is revealed. In cases where the winning ticket isn’t claimed, the state will get back all the money that it contributed to the unclaimed jackpot. The money is distributed according to state rules. Even if the winner comes forward, every state that participates in lottery selling benefits from it.

The state imposes both federal and state taxes on the winner. Winners have a choice to take a pay out as a lump sum or as an annuity. If the payment is lump sum, taxes are paid out at once and annually if the prize is taken as an annuity. These winnings, of course, are subject to withholding for federal and state purposes. Even if the state doesn’t have a winner, they still benefit from it. After giving out the prizes, whatever the remainder goes to the state, and it’s up to the state to decide what to do with the money. In most states, these lottery proceeds are used for education purposes.

For example, in New York, a certain percentage of the state’s total education funding to local school districts come from lottery ticket sales. In California by state law, the money from lottery sales is used to supplement funding to public education on all levels from kindergarten through higher education. That has translated, since 1985, to $25 billion for public education. In Georgia as a result of funding through the lottery, more than 1. 6 million students have been able to attend colleges through Georgia’s HOPE scholarship program and more than 1. 3 million four-year-olds have attended pre-kindergarten.

(Forbes writer) In Some states like Texas, they use the money they get from lottery tickets sales and winnings to Fund for Veterans Assistance. Pennsylvania state website states that, “lottery sales in benefit senior citizen programs. This program involves serving food at the senior centers and as well as delivering them to senior homes. It also helps to lower prescription drugs for senior citizens. Pennsylvania is the only state in the US that use the lottery money especially for this reason. As of last year, lottery sales have provided about 22,700 hot meals for older residents.

While in Wisconsin the lottery sales go towards lowering property taxes. In his document Al Runde explained that “…the lottery tax credit has been the primary mechanism for providing property tax relief. ” Even though sales tax are not imposed on lottery sales, but the state have an advantage in sales tax increase. These sales taxes are generated from the sales people make when they go to buy a lottery ticket. One might buy a pack of cigarettes, a cup of coffee, or candy at the counter while they’re checking out. Lottery also plays a role in helping to support small

business in the country. Lottery retailer gets a percentage from their ticket sales. Hoosier lottery website states that Indiana lottery offers programs that are profitable for retailers including commissions on the sale and redemption of Hoosier Lottery tickets and a bonus for the sale of a jackpot or top prize-winning draw ticket. There are also even opportunities to receive bonus dollars through retailer quarterly incentive programs. One time at Martins supermarket, they were giving people free Powerball tickets when the jackpot reached to the amount of $500 million.

This shows that retailers really benefit from these lottery sales because if that has not the case they would not have been giving free tickets. It’s to their benefit. Another benefit of Lottery is found in the jobs created by these lotteries and the program they help to fund. In Oregon, their website states that 27% of Lottery funds are allocated for job creation and economic development, providing assistance for a variety of Oregon’s industries such as: manufacturing, high-tech, agriculture, fisheries, solar, medical, tourism, as well as small businesses.

People are able to provide for their kids and loved ones. In conclusion, Frederick D. Stocker writes that “it now seems that by the end of the decade the lottery and other gambling revenues may be part of the revenue structure in a good many states. ” Chances are that whether people chose to play lottery or not they still benefit in one way or the other. The states and the federal government also benefit from it in several ways. As for the individuals who play lotto all they need in enough education to make an adjustment in their lives.

Explain why there was mass immigration to the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 essay help cheap: essay help cheap

?Explain why there was mass immigration to the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 There was mass immigration to the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 for a combination of reasons, all of which are based around socio-economic, ideological, political, cultural and technological factors. America was considered at this time “The Great Melting Pot” due to immigrants from everywhere mixing into this one country, however, this immigration did not form a “melting pot” of cultures because each ethnic group had their own area in a town or even its own town.

For immigrants, America was seen as a place for achieving the dream of improving and having a better life, there they had freedoms and liberty, this is why immigration was not only from Europe but from other parts of the world. The other form of immigration was formed called migration. There was a lot of migration from African-Americans from poorer South to the more prosperous North; however, the migrating African-Americans were not welcomed, they suffered much the same way as they had in the South.

The changes in American society that immigration brought about were friction between newly arrived and older established groups, religion being the main one, with older groups (Protestants) and the newer ones(catholic). The changes in American politics that immigration brought about were very little; power was kept by the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants). Irish Americans began sticking together for collective political clout which brought about the significance of Tammany Hall.

Tammany Hall was notorious for the corruption in city and state politics that it fostered; it was built by local politics to support the Democratic Party and it provided immigrants with a social “safety net”. It also controlled businesses, influenced police, certain labour unions and voting. “Push” and “pull” factors are said to be a main cause of immigration to America. Push factors are reasons that generally push people out of their country; the push factors in Europe included population growth as Europe had better food and homes causing a population growth and so it soon became overcrowded.

Due to agricultural changes, landlords took advantage of city growth because of the over crowdedness and forced residents out in order for the land owners to farm in large areas. Also in agricultural changes, there was mass crop failure, poor farmers were in debt because of this, causing them to starve and so they chose to redeem themselves in America instead. The Industrial Revolution introduced factories which made cheaper materials that artisans could not compete with so because of their unemployment status, some decided to come to America.

Regarding religious and political chaos, Quakers from Norway and Jews from Germany left to avoid religious harassment, Germans also came as the German Revolution didn’t have the desired outcome. Not only that, but the persecution of Russian Jews and the economic collapse and starvation of Southern Italians influenced a lot of immigrants. Pull factors are factors that attracted immigrants to America. Considered to be the most attractive pull factor was freedom, as immigrants looked for a place to practice anything they desired.

Also, economic opportunities gave immigrants a reason to seek a better life, and they found it in America. Because of the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican Cession effect on America was gaining more than enough land, this attracted Europeans who faced overcrowding in their country. There were limited restrictions for immigrants to get into America but only 2% of immigrants were turned away. Therefore, there was mass immigration in the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 as the immigrants’ lives in their native countries was poor and they looked for a better place to live with freedom and opportunities which they found in America

The economies and diseconomies of scale best essay help: best essay help

The economies and diseconomies of scale Profit is the most important issue for a business, how to exploit the opportunities and maximize the profit has long been the top priority of the competition. Since the profit is simply the result by subtracting the expense from income, how to balance the relationship between input and output can be crucial and conclusive to a firm’s competitiveness and development. This essay will examine the issue of economies and diseconomies of scale. After first describing the types, it will consider its effects. Then, the essay will assess firms’ decision towards diseconomies of scale and provide solutions.

There are several types of economies of scale. One type of internal economies of scale is the Technical economies. Anderton (2000:320) states that the increasing and decreasing retributions to scale in return is the reason economies of scale exist, which is known as technical economies. They can arise in the production progress and the firm would benefit from better machinery. Sloman (2001:96) notes that large machines may be more efficient in the sense that more output can be gained for a given amount of inputs. For instance, no matter the size of a machine is, normally it can be operated by a single worker.

Therefore a small-scale business could not make full use of one. This introduces the concept of “indivisibilities”. It’s less likely to occur when the ratio of output is continuously increasing. However, the average cost of the machine will fall as the level of usage goes up. What’s more, Maunder (1992:327) clarifies the close connection between the principle of increased dimensions by stating that in the size of a globe enlarge more than commensurately within its length of the closed curve. In a word, the costs were in slow growth while the capacity has grown several times.

Another type of internal economies of scale is the managerial economies. Since the firm could have managed to pay for specialist staffs. Hall (2004:590) explains this through a vivid example that in a relatively small firm one executive has to be responsible for servicing, transporting, marketing. Similarly, every worker has to do many jobs and hardly possible to settle in an area of expertise if it is a small firm. Unlike those firms which are at low output levels, larger enterprises possess with rich and qualified personnel provide every single worker enough freedom to focus on one task and thus handle it more efficiently.

Financial economies is a further type of internal economies of scale. It’s obvious that tycoons have overwhelming superiority towards small firm when they try to raise finance. Maunder (1991:327)makes the pointed remark of it that the large firm can easily negotiate loans and enjoy favorable interest rates from banks and other loan institutions, or even form a consortium to provide sufficient fund for project since they will have large assets to offer as security.

Hall (2004:590) adds more evidence that large public limited companies can raise money by selling stock which the private firm cannot ever do. So far the essay have been demonstrating the internal economies of scale. However, the outside factors like the growth in the size of the industry in which the specific firm operates can have positive Impact on the economies of scale—-external economies of scale. Bannock(2001:115) illustrates it will arise because the enlargement of an industry can lead to the development of ancillary services of benefit to all firms.

For example, government might pick up pace in building and improving the local transportation systems due to the rapid growth of industry, which in turn reduces costs to individual firms Having described the variety types of economies of scale, the essay will now consider it in diseconomies of scale. The continuous expanding will lead to an exactly opposite effect on gaining profit. As firms continue their expansion, when it gets beyond a specific size, the cost per unit of output may show a distinct tendency—-start to increase.

The scale as mentioned above is called “diseconomies of scale”. Hall(2004:591) explains this through internal and external diseconomies. First of all, the internal diseconomies of scale are always arise mainly because of the problems of managing increasingly businesses. As firms grow larger and develop in many fields, the boundaries between each individual department would become smeared which may lead to potential conflict.

In order words, it’s a major concern for a large firm to reach mutual understanding between different sectors. A large firm is more like a complex system which involving many departments and staffs and information as well as hard organization and coordination. Hall(2004:591) claims that it is undoubtedly demanding and implacable to manage and coordinate more than thousand of staffs, billions of pounds, trillions of information and dozens of plans which all mean added effort,duty and surveillance.

In addition, Labour problems can be another reason for causing internal diseconomies of scale. Sloman (2001:97) comments that workers might feel ” alienated “and “isolated” if their job is both tedium and reduplicative. For example, as the expansion of the company, employees would gradually consider themselves as plain and insignificant as a gear in a giant machine. Stress, depression and similar negative feelings often result in shoddy work thus reduce the efficiency of their work.

Hall(2004:591) agrees this by stating that this feeling can make individual staff suffer from losing morale and confidence in reaching higher achievement. What’s more, despite the internal diseconomies that might limit the growth of business, external diseconomies would arise as well as Hall(2004:591) furthers his view that it is an inevitable part of the outcome of the overcrowding in industrial areas. Rentals, labor cost, raw and processed materials might rise as firms are all in intense competition for a limited amount indent.

In terms of the views above, Sloman(2001:97) gives strong supports that the shortage of skilled labor and customized raw materials will growing as well as the development of the whole industry, which will result in an inflation of prices and therefore hence the firms’ costs. Since there is an inherent limitation to the efficient functioning of management as Maunder(1991:328) mentioned. Enforce the rules and regulations of the firms and simplify the management systems and governance procedures can not only reduce the cost of supervising works, but also raises employee’s self-managerial ability and working efficiency.

Another effective way of doing this is by improving the communication networks. As the limitation of geography cannot be wiped out thoroughly, Hall (2004:591) suggests firms to control the transportation cost and improve the convenience of the provision of services. Last but not the least advice might be keeping the firm in a relatively small scale. perhaps it is the best simple recipe for getting rid of diseconomies of scale.

The Effects of Pressure on Students to get Good Grades essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Living in a society like the one we are living today, can be very challenging for students. As the world gets more competitive, students are getting more pressured to achieve their goals in life. Pressure have become one of the known factors to affect a student’s life. Anyone who passed through this stage has felt the same way. Getting good grades has become one of the goals students today are aspiring for.

It has been perceived that a good mark from school can place someone to a decent job and make that person stand out from others especially when it comes to interviews and conversations. With such belief, students neglect on the negative effects of the pressure they are encountering because they want to maintain high grades. There are few effects of pressure on students to get good grades such as, extreme stress, cheating during exam, and changing of the attitude.

Main point 1: Extreme stress All the stress experienced by a student from either parent or peer is considered one of the effects of pressure handed to them because of their want to have good grades. Normally, parents apply pressure upon the student in order to keep up in school and not allow the student to fall behind. However, a problem arises when the parent apply excessive pressure on the student. The effect of such pressure can lead to negative health of students.

Students tend to have lack of sleep – without having enough of sleep will cause the students’ body to become sick. Main point 2: Cheating during exam Students tend to cheat during exam when they become mentally and physically exhausted. We have been aware of plagiarism being the cause of many violations done by students. (Ex: can either be for their research paper, thesis paper, or just a simple hw) There are also incidents of cheating in examinations through copying other’s answers and putting them on the test paper, recognizing them as one’s own.

These sinful acts are the effects of the belief that good grades can send you off to better jobs and a more secured future. Main point 3: Changing of the attitude This particular outcome is definitely disturbing because values and morals become affected. According to an interview conducted by Palmer (2005) to Ms. Denise Clark Pope, students as she said, “know that cheating is wrong; they tell me they wish they did not do it”. As the statement goes, honesty, respect, and integrity have all been violated for the sake of possessing a good grade.

Conclusion In a nutshell, dealing with all the effects of pressure on maintaining an excellent grade comes with a price. It results in extreme stress, cheating and the worst of all, changing of the attitude. All these made a clear understanding of what learning really is about. It is not a matter of only getting a good grade but rather learning with understanding and receiving the grades that one truly deserves. As for this, students must realize that education is in fact teaching people not only academically, but morally.

Art Gallery argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

In completion of this assignment the art gallery that I chose to visit was Mark Gallery in Englewood New Jersey. When you walk up to the establishment there are floor to ceiling glass windows that allow you to see everything inside. Facing the gallery there were so many colors that enticed you to enter. The arrangements and art work was spaced out nicely not causing clutter. This allowed you to individually take in each piece on by itself. All of the pieces were very nice but the artist that caught my attention was Mr. Mark Oberndorf.

Oberndorf was born in New York but is currently residing in Bergren County New Jersey. He is a contemporary realist painter. Since the age of 10 he has been interested in the visual arts. At an early age some of his beginning works were illustrating his school yearbook to painting murals on his elementary school building. From 1995 to present Oberndorf has had art in various group and solo exhibitions and galleries. Currently his work is currently represented by Mark Gallery of Englewood New Jersey and Westwood Gallery in Westwood New Jersey.

I found several of his pieces interesting because they were so basic. Not meaning they did not have levels or dimensions but they put me in the mind of simpler times and relatable memories. His pieces display three dimensional effects on a two dimensional surface with natural lighting effects. All painting are created with oil on linen canvass. Such pieces as the “Wyckoff Train Station”, “Dairy Queen” and “Gas” all represent the Bergren County area and parts of New York prior to the gentrification phase. “Gas” depicts an old two pump station as you would see it in the 1970’s.

The piece of the “Dairy Queen” shows the classic franchise that was shaped somewhat of a barn prior to the new modernized look you may see today. I can remember as a kid having one of these in our neighborhood. We frequently visited it for a Sunday cone after attending church. I could not wait to stand in line for my soft serve on a cone. Lastly the “Wyckoff Train Station” is truly a classic single standing building not so big on the side of the tracks. Much dated compared to the enormous train stations and subway stations you see in the big cities such as New York.

Through viewing these pieces I would think this is his way of holding on to a piece of history, before all common landmarks that held tradition and memories were torn down. Prior to gentrification in many of our communities there were several sites or establishments that were a common thread to our community. Be it the mom and pop store on the corner to the old fashioned ice cream stand. Gentrification has erased these things with more modernized establishments that help to bring economic wealth for some but forces others out of the neighborhoods and communities that they have been a part of for quite some time.

Literature Review – Foreign aid rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

There are many competing theories underscoring why countries elect to contribute foreign aid to other countries. This is a difficult international phenomena to isolate, because there are many potential factors that could influence a country’s decision. Some countries are motivated to provide foreign aid to certain countries based on political ideologies, geopolitical strategic locations, or other foreign policy objectives. This paper begins by identifying the major debates in the literature regarding what motivates the provision of foreign aid by a country.

There seems to be clear divisions between political and strategic motivations to provide foreign aid as opposed to economic needs and policy performance or finally, political ideology. Major Debates in the Foreign Aid Literature There are many concurrent related debates in the foreign aid literature that do not necessarily address the direct question of what motivates countries to contribute foreign aid. Ngaire Woods identifies some of these related debates as including; financial capacity of donors, and best provision methods.

While these debates are tied to the question of why countries provide foreign aid, this paper focuses on the theorists and articles that provide the most useful responses to this specific research question. Political and Strategic Motivations for Foreign Aid Woods goes on to address why countries provide foreign aid by closely linking the foreign aid decisions of donor countries to their shifting security priorities. Woods argues that countries provide foreign aid on the basis of strengthening their own security. Woods states, “Most of the increase in US

Aid has been destined for projects designed to serve the security imperatives prevailing in the wake of September 11. ”2 Alberto Alesina and David Dollar argue that “direction of foreign aid is dictated by political and strategic considerations, much more than by the economic needs and policy performance of the recipients. ”3 They have also concluded that while foreign aid flows are affected by strategic concerns, foreign direct investments and other corporate economic decisions are determined more by stability in the receiving country and the positive returns on their investments.

Another finding indicates that countries might be using foreign aid to encourage democratization. They find that “The typical democratizing country gets a 50% increase in aid. ”4 Many Realists would side with this rationale behind foreign aid provision because it will strengthen US security interests abroad. Palmer, Wohlander, and Morgan make an intriguing finding. They created a “two-good” model of foreign policy that explains foreign aid provision as an option among foreign policy choices, and as a marked alternative to “the initiation of interstate conflict and participation in certain types of alliances.

Morgenthau makes a contribution that the “United States has interests abroad which cannot be secured by military means and for the support of which the traditional methods of diplomacy are only in part appropriate. ”6 Morgenthau’s comment justifies the use of multiple means to achieve the same strategic ends and implies there may not be a clear division across the identified camps in this debate and field after all. Economic and International Development Motivations for Foreign Aid Morgenthau states that some believe “foreign aid is the fulfillment of an obligation of the few rich nations toward the many poor ones.

Steven Radelet uses the compelling counterexample of President George W. Bush and his September 2002 National Security Strategy, which gave “rare prominence to development and aid alongside defense and diplomacy. ”8 Radelet goes on to describe the $10 billion in new funding to alleviate HIV/AIDS in Africa and the Caribbean. Rather than purely strategic or political considerations, Radelet describes this foreign policy shift as an indication of concern for development and direct international aid.

Radelet also rationalizes that there could be underlying motivations for this foreign policy shift that still maintain US strategic interests abroad. He argues that this HIV/AIDS funding still enhances US security by eliminating new sources of terrorists, US soft power, ideological encouragement, and satisfying a moral obligation. This final perspective is representative of many of Liberalism’s theorists, because soft power, diplomacy, and cooperation between nations are seen as the ultimate guarantee of safety.

Foreign Aid as a Tool for Spreading Political Ideology and Other Concerns Many theorists believe that spreading political ideology through foreign aid provision may not be the most effective strategy. Farah Abuzeid argues that “discrimination on the basis of standards of governance creates new complications. ”9 This has very important implications for new democracies and underdeveloped countries when competing for limited foreign aid, especially if democratizing countries are favored.

Another unintended potential consequence of engaging in foreign aid provision is highlighted by Stephane Pallage and Michel A. Robe who suggest that volatility in foreign aid provision is destabilizing for many countries in Africa. 10 Deborah Brautigam and Stephen Knack similarly argue that “…in many of the countries with poor governance records, aid continues to contribute a very high percentage of government budgets. ”11 Michael Edwards examines foreign aid provision from the perspective of the role in international relations of development non-governmental organizations.

Diplomacy remains paramount as Radelet indicates “historically most aid has been given as bilateral assistance directly from one country to another. ”13 Conclusion This critical survey of the relevant foreign aid literature indicates that there is very little discussion of the multiple motivations that coincide behind each country’s foreign aid decisions. As Morgenthau indicated, it is likely that there are multiple reasons or means employed to achieve various ends. For some of these theorists, the main objective in providing foreign aid revolves around achieving political stability for the donor country.

For others, the primary objective relates to lessening suffering around the world, and yet for others, foreign aid should be used to promote particular political ideologies like democracy. In this research paper, the objective is to instead, explore the possibility of competing objectives and perhaps a ranked order of objectives that could be achieved by priority. It will be difficult to assess intention on the part of a country’s foreign policy, but through data from sources like WikiLeaks and other pro-transparency databases, it is hoped that this question can be investigated.

Is the ontological argument the strongest argument for the existence of god, is it defendable? essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In this essay I will first explain the ontological argument and my reasons for choosing it. I will then discuss why I believe it is a better account for the existence of god than the teleological argument and the cosmological argument. I will then move onto discuss various theologians that oppose the ontological argument and critique their responses. The aim of the essay if to show the strength of the argument and to expose some key weaknesses with its criticisms.

Hopefully the essay will be convincing enough for the reader to not accept the words from Scott Aikin that the ontological argument is merely “the litmus test for intellectual seriousness”. It is interesting to note how this argument is able to deduce God’s existence from our very definition of god as existential claims rarely follow from conceptual ones. For example if I wish to prove that dragons exist I cannot merely reflect on the concept of dragons. I would need to use my senses in the real world to begin an empirical investigation. I would need to do exactly the same thing to prove that dragons do not exist.

We can clearly see that most existential claims, both negative and positive can only be established with some sort of empirical methodology. That being said, there can be one type of exception. For example, We are able to prove that there are no rectangular squares without checking every square in existence, because by definition it would be a contradiction if all squares were not square. The ontological argument therefore supposes that it is as much a contradiction to say there are rectangular squares as it is to say that god does not exist.

This for me is a different and interesting way of arguing for the existence of god. The argument first came about from St. Anselm in his Proslogium. It can be summarized as follows. 1) It is true by definition that god is a being than which none greater can be conceived. 2) God exists as an idea in the mind. 3) A being that is able to exist both in the mind and in reality is to be considered greater than a being, which only exists in the mind. 4) Therefore, if god is only an idea in the mind, we can imagine something that is greater than God. 5) We cannot imagine something greater than God.

It would be a contradiction. 6) Therefore, God exists. A crucial point of this argument is that existence in reality is a great-making property. To exist in reality is better to exist just in the mind. Take the idea of imagining a beer that exists only in your mind. You can make this beer however you want, it can be ice cold, hoppy, bubbly etc. but this beer is only in your mind and does not exist in reality. The beer you have imagined is useless if you want to physically drink it. Now compare the beer to one that not only exists in your mind but also in reality, surely you would say that the new beer is better?

From this then we can deduce that things that both exist in the mind and in reality are to be considered greater then those that only exist in the mind. This argument for me seems to be the most convincing compared to the cosmological and the teleological argument. The cosmological argument in short asserts that the universe had an “original cause”. The basic idea being that everything that moves is moved by something, that also had to have been moved by something else and so on. So the “original mover”, the one who began the universe would have to be God.

Just like the first domino in a cascade, the first domino is to be metaphorically applied to God. The proof for this theory would therefore come from the observations on the nature of causality in the exterior world. This theory is far less convincing, the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises. Inductive reasoning is a weak basis for an argument. It does not follow that from things in the universe having a cause, that universe has a cause. We do not have any experience of universes that are caused and therefore cant make such a claim.

Another argument that provides reasonable doubt came from David Hume who famously argued that “This does not prove, that every being must be preceded by a cause; no more than it follows, because every husband must have a wife, that therefore every man must be marry’d. The true state of the question is, whether every object, which begins to exist, must owe its existence to a cause: and this I assert neither to be intuitively nor demonstratively certain…” (David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Book 1: Of the Understanding, Part 3: Of knowledge of probability, Section).

The idea that everything does not necessarily need to have a cause is in my opinion the cosmological arguments ultimate downfall. The teleological argument also comes up short, it asserts that the world is so perfectly designed and so intricate that it must have a designer, i. e. god. The analogy of a watchmaker is used in order to explain the theory. Just like a watch has a designer so to does the universe. There are many reasons to why the argument is weak, however I will only briefly explain a few. As we saw with the cosmological argument the inductive nature of the argument makes it vulnerable.

Hume argues that just because things in the universe have designers, does not mean that the universe has a designer. He also asserts that there may be more than one designer, such is true with the universe. The infinite regress argument also leads me to doubt the plausibility of the argument. God must surely have a designer; something as magnificent as god must have a designer. This leads us to infinite regress. I also think that arguments from analogy are to be seen as weak as the inference from a watch to the universe is too large.

These are just a few reasons why I believe these two arguments to be inferior to the ontological argument. Obviously the ontological argument does have its weaknesses but I don’t think they are as damaging to the theory as the ones I have mentioned above. My reasoning for believing that the ontological argument is the best account for the possibility of god is simple. Anselm shows that the concept of god is not illogical, everyone has a concept of god in their mind, even a non-believer. Therefore because of this he must exist in reality also, as shown in Anselm’s above argument.

The argument is deductive and reaches clear and distinct conclusions. The argument leaves only one possibility, the existence of god. The main weaknesses of the ontological argument in my opinion came from Gaunilo and Kant. Here I will discuss Kant’s main argument and the possible responses that can be given. Gaunilo’s main objection is that we cannot go from defining something to assuming its existence as necessary. He uses the same logical argument that Anselm does, however he replaces god with the idea of the perfect island.

It is true by definition that the perfect island is an island that than which nothing greater can be conceived. 2) The island exists in my mind. 3) An island that exists both in our mind and in reality is greater than an island that only exists in my mind. 4) If the perfect island is only an idea in our mind then we can imagine something greater. 5) We can’t imagine something greater than the perfect island. It would be a contradiction 6) Therefore the perfect island exists. Gaunilo’s argument does raise problems with the original theory.

However they are not strong enough to dismiss the theory. Premise 1 of Gaunilo’s argument seems to be incoherent. The properties of a perfect island do not have intrinsic maximums. A perfect island can always be better, for example if the island had 100 trees, it could be greater with 101 trees and so on. There is no maximum number of trees that make it great. The island has no intrinsic maximum as the greatest possible island is incoherent. This is not the same with God as Anselm argues. God’s attributes such as power and knowledge have limits.

God knows everything and therefore it is conceptually impossible for him to know anything else. So Anselm’s argument will not work if the concepts that are conceptually essential to the idea of god do not have intrinsic maximums. The idea of God would be incoherent just as the perfect island is. However, as long as the relevant properties of God are omnipotence, omniscience and moral perfection, which all have intrinsic maximums. Then we can say that Anselm’s ontological argument has avoided the criticism raised by Gaunilo. The second argument comes from Kant.

He argues that existence is not a predicate of God. A predicate is property that we attribute to something when describing it. For example, the sky is blue. Blueness is one of the sky’s predicates. So all I am doing by saying the sky is blue is adding information about the subject. Kant believed that there was an essential difference between predicating something and asserting that it exists. if we look at the predicates of God, he is omnipotent, omniscient and perfectly good. These all make sense, however when we talk of existence it doesn’t add anything.

It only tells you that god is, it doesn’t tell you anything about what god is like, only that he is. So for Kant existence as a predicate is meaningless as it tells you nothing about the subject. This argument is fairly convincing, however in my opinion it is flawed. Take necessary existence instead of existence. Necessary things, it would have to be agreed are greater than contingent ones due to their nature, they are unable to not exist. Imagine two identical objects, one that exists necessarily and one that is contingent. The first must be seen as greater as it is not contingent.

Kant belief of existence not being a predicate does seem strange. Take another example of a child who has believed in Santa’s existence for his whole life. He then comes and asks as to whether or not Santa is real. He is told that Santa does not exist and the child takes this as the truth. If we follow Kant’s reasoning then the child has learnt nothing new. this surely must seem strange? The child has obviously learnt something new i. e. that Santa exists. would this then show that existence is a property that one is able to attribute to things. Thus the ontological argument survives Kant’s criticisms.

In conclusion I have showed why I believe the ontological argument to be the best theory for the existence of god. Also my reasoning behind why I believe both the cosmological and teleological arguments are not as convincing. they simply seem to have too many objections that give near definitive reasoning as to why the argument fails. The ontological argument in my opinion is the only defendable argument as I have shown with both Gaunilo’s and Kant’s objections. Overall Its clear that the ontological argument does have it flaws, however these can be overcome with the way we perceive both the ontological argument and its objection.

Zappos Case Analysis best college essay help: best college essay help

USA Today has been an innovative way for customers to receive news on a daily basis since 1982. Their innovation lies within the format of their bright, colorful and eye-catching paper, as well as in their shorter pieces that help to enlighten consumers without over powering them. Owned by Gannett Co. Inc. , a diversified international news, information and communications company, USA Today has every possibility of furthering their success in the news industry. Executive Summary:

In reading Case 1, USA Today: Innovation in an Evolving Industry*, it became apparent that USA Today is fighting to stay relevant in today’s news distribution culture. Currently USA Today is still operating with increasing profit margins, however they are losing touch with their intended cliental of Middle Americans. From 1982 until today, USA Today has been able to create a product which is able to adapt to the needs of it’s cliental, but their recent plateau and minor decrease in circulation, could send them into a spiral.

An increase in technologically savvy consumers, and the fight to produce the most up to date app to appease them places USA Today in a rat race against other leading market competitors. USA Today must push to the next level the fight to remain innovative, as they have for the last thirty years, in meeting their customer’s needs in new and unexpected ways.

Their chances to stay on top of their game and innovation will significantly increase f they continue to adapt their marketing strategies, as well as continue their use of value-added strategy to further enhance distribution of its proprietary content and ensure continued product differentiation. Situation Analysis: Internal: Since the first issue of USA Today launched on September 15, 1982, it has been an uphill battle for the company to fight to sustain their relevance and importance in the news world. The newspaper created a mission statement that explained their goal to make the newspaper enlightening, and

Enjoyable to the public, informative to national leaders, and attractive to advertisers. More or less, USA Today wanted to create an all-encompassing newspaper for the country to enjoy. From an internal standpoint, the employees of USA Today worked hard to give their readers what they wanted. With an all American staff and little coverage of the outside world, USA Today continued to meet the demands of their customers and fill the gap in the newspaper market. USA Today’s loyal employee base allows them to be quick, innovative and typically the first to make a splash in the news industry.

Their late hours for submission allows the company to send out the most current and up to date news, while still providing an outstanding standard of service that helps to achieve reoccurring customers. With employees that listen and take time to understand what the reader wants, USA Today has been able to flourish economically. Customer Environment: The overwhelming majority of USA Today’s circulation is within the United states. Most of the readers work in middle- to upper management positions and are often purchasing decision makers for their offices and households, as well as technology junkies and sports fans.

Most of USA Today’s customers participated in a wide range o leisure activities such as attending movies and traveling. The print newspaper’s readers are 69% male and 31% female, with a median age of 50 and a median household income of $91,683. For USA today. com the audience is balanced between men and women, and the median age for readers is only 30 years old. Customers of USA Today are drawn in by the bright colors, short stories and ability to cover important news happening in their country. External Environment: The external environment is what really holds USA Today at a standstill.

While, they are still producing print copies and having millions of daily readers- their competition is fierce. Fighting for number one positions against newspapers such a The Wall Street Journal, as well as The New York times leaves USA Today in a bind to find creative ways to stay in contact with their customers. The surge of use of technology, on top of instant access to news all across the world via the Internet for free, has potential to hurt not only USA Today’s print readership, but their online as well.

Other external factors that have potential to deplete USA Today’s loyal customer base are things like: cable networks, nationally syndicated terrestrial and satellite radio providers such as Sirius/XM, and even blog sites. It’s going to be important for USA Today to find a niche within all of these potential threats, and once again make a name for itself as a product that can provide something different. SWOT Analysis: Strengths: •Loyal customer base of consumers who have consistently purchased USA Today over the last 30 years.

•USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, Canada and the UK; reaching a wide fan base •Known for easy to read, easy to comprehend and up to date news •Ability to adapt with changes in technology, i. e putting their newspaper online Weakness •Decrease circulation; due to competitors •Decrease profits; due to decrease in circulation •High cost of printing; bright colors and pictures on every page cost money •Printing deadline is 4 hours before WSJ; WSJ will get more up-to-date news for their issues •Forced to downsize maintain profits- harmed image

Opportunity •Generate more revenue by partnering with other websites, like Hampton •The creation of a top of the line mobile application •Customizable app for your phone/tablet Threats •NY Times & Wall Street Journal •Network and Cable TV •TV news websites •AM/Satellite Radio •Negative online reviews •Declining AD revenue Goals, Objectives and Solution: After reading the case it’s apparent that our goal needs to push USA Today in the direction of reinventing themselves as not only a newspaper, but a multimedia application.

In order to take USA Today to the next level of a multi-media application several things have to happen. The first thing that needs to happen in order for USA Today to be once again taken as a serious threat, is the need to up the anti by actually creating an app that is accessible to all smart phones, tablets and even the newest rage of “smart televisions. ” The app that USA today needs to create should incorporate the other apps they have out now (games, gas prices, travel prices) and provide an easy to use way for their consumers to access the news, etc.

While, the app should remain a “free app,” something should be put in place that requires the user to pay X amount of dollars either a month, or year, in order to obtain full access to the entire app. By doing this, not only are you bringing in past loyal customers, but creating a new consumer base by offering unique options. Our goal is to take USA Today’s bright and creative ways, and mold them into something that technology junkies can use on a daily basis and receive the same amount of information as if they were subscribed to actual print copies.

The way we keep USA Today relevant is by keeping up with things that are actually relevant to their consumers, and technology is a consistent winner. An added bonus to creating a successful application, would be the stimulation of interest for advertising partnerships to be forms. With a formation of these partnerships, USA Today could begin to generate generous profits by selling advertisements to companies that would be accessible on their app. Thus the solution to the decline in readership for USA Today is to take it to the next level and provide outstanding DIGITAL service to their customers.

The Best Place I Have Ever Been college essay help free: college essay help free

Most people have been to another country before maybe it’s for business or family trip. The best place I have ever been is Maldives, one of the most beautiful countries in the world. Maldives is a country comprised by many small islands, which now people call this country is an island country. Language cannot express the feeling I have to this illustrious country. I still remember when I was 13 years old my mom and I decided to have a trip at somewhere on the earth.

I told her I want to go a place that I could eat every different kinks of food. Everyday is sunny and have beach near the place we live. The reaction she had at that moment was shocked, of course because there was a place could corresponded what had I described-The island country Maldives. We decided to go to Maldives, the mysterious place to us. First of all, we bought a lot of sun cream because the ultraviolet ray at there is extremely strong, usually the age of mine would got skin burned very serious.

We packed many summer clothes and diving tools, which I bought with the sun cream. Our flight landed at the airport of Sri Lanka, we needed to cross the board lane from this airport with our formal documents. Finally we arrived at our destination Maldives, everything in that country was totally different than China. The air much fresh than my home country and people on the island they were very friendly to us.

Houses were 100m close to the beach, you could go out with a few steps to swim in the sea. Everyday in the morning I would lay on the beach chair enjoy the sunshine. The best thing I ever did was having the life that a country’s president can’t even have. If I ever have another chance to go to Maldives I will not waste that chance. If I didn’t see it by myself I could not believe this place existed on the earth. Language cannot express how beautiful that country is.

Christian Leadership college essay help online free: college essay help online free

Human “character”, is the pattern of thinking and acting which runs right through someone, so that wherever you cut into them, you see the same person through and through [1]. The transformation of a person character is their virtue. Virtue is what happens when wise and courageous choices have become “second nature [2]. ” Wright differentiates a biblical framework from a Greek moral framework in that Jesus and his followers are offering the three-dimensional model toward Aristotle two-dimensional points [3].

Wright gives us excellent contrast between biblical and Greek moral framework and I agree with his positions. For example, Aristotle felt for someone to establish character they have to continually practice their strengths, he saw that the ultimate aim was to become the kind of character who would be able to act in the right way automatically, by the force of long training of habit. Jesus and Paul agreed; but they proposed a very different way by which the relevant habits were to be learned and practiced.

Also Aristotle saw that for one to be completely happy they needed moral strength called virtues, whereas Jesus and his followers highlighted qualities that Aristotle didn’t rate highly such as love, kindness, forgiveness [4]. Evaluate Wright’s position and note where you agree and/or disagree with him. Defend your positions. [1] Wright, N. T. After You Believe: Why Christian Character Matter. Copyright 2010. P. 24 [2] Ibid. 21 [3] Ibid. 35 [4] Ibid. 36 Character relates to Kouzes and Posner leadership model and Maxwell’s reflection in that Maxwell’s stresses the value of how we first have to work on yourself before we can work on others.

He states it is easier to teach what is right than to do what is right [5]. He also reflects that people do what they see. In this we cannot build something great out in the world until we’ve tried to build something great inside of us [6]. I think this is so important as it pertains to character is that it gives us the opportunity to learn who we are, and the ability to correct or work on negative flaws we do have so we do not unwillingly pass these flaws to others. Kouzes and Posner expresses that the climb to the top is arduous and steep.

The vision may be noble, and the cause may be just, but the work seems to never end [7]. People are tempted to give up, but leaders encourage the heart of each constituent to carry on [8]. Maxwell’s reflections in chapter 3 can co-exist in the above statements. If we can’t encourage ourselves and conquer pain and struggles how can we expect to help another person successfully deal with theirs. [5] Kouzes, M. James. Posner, Z. Barry. Christian Reflections on the Leadership Challenge. Copyright. 2004. P. 42 [6] Ibid. 43

Badaracco defines moral code as a set of values and principles that guide behavior [9]. As it pertains to moral flexibility he observes that Okonkwo has a narrow fixed moral code where he is not flexible in what he believes to be right. He feels no remorse for going against the values of his tribe and jeopardizing a traditional religious period of time, but accepts the punishment as he views moral code as a set of rules enforced by punishments; it is not to be evaluated or reflected upon [10].

Leaders must maintain a balance between “remaining true to their deeply held convictions and, at the same time, responding flexibility to the moral code and practical realities emerging around them” [11]. In Okanwko’s case as time passed his belief unfortunately swayed his character and questioned his ability as a leader. He subsequently lost his followers and was eventually banned from a community. Romans 13:2, “Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. [9] Badaracco, L. Joseph.

Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership Through Literature. Copyright. 2006. P. 31 [10] Ibid. 40 [11] Ibid. 52 Yes I do see tension between Badaracco moral flexibility and Kouzes and Maxwell values in that Okonkwo didn’t take any responsibility in his failure and lacked a great deal of remorse. Badaracco states, “A sound moral code requires an ongoing, open engagement with the moral and practical life that surrounds the leader. On some occasions, the clearest sign of a good moral code is flexibility rather than firmness” [12].

Kouzes/Posner states, “Leadership is both something you are and something you do. ” In other words, leadership is not just something you live but something you behave [13]. Okonkwo behavior represented who he really is and the content of his character. Kouzes/Posner states that people do what they see and his example was not good as it pertains to leadership. Okonkwo behavior was so fixed that he had no regard for going against the values of his tribe and jeopardized a traditional religious period of time, but rather accepted his punishment.

Leaders need both the ability to be sensitive to community feelings when situations that require moral reactions and to confront failures looking for explanations as why the results unfolded in a certain sequence [14]. [12] Badaracco, L. Joseph. Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership Through Literature. Copyright. 2006. P. 52 [13] Kouzes, M. James. Posner, Z. Barry. Christian Reflections on the Leadership Challenge. Copyright. 2004. P. 47 [14] Ibid. 41 Yes, there should be flexibility in one’s moral code. Moral code is a set of values and principles that guide a person behavior.

I do believe flexibility is plausible in that when we visit other cultures and societies they have their own specific belief system, holidays, and norms in which they go about living their life. Romans 13:1, “Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. ” Out of respect when we visit other cultures and come across people with different viewpoints than our own we should honor and respect their moral code for in the same respect we would want to receive the same measure of respect in our country as well.

Timothy 3:16 states, “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness. ” In the same perspective a person moral code should be flexible out of respect as it pertains to religious beliefs and customs not meaning we have to agree with their beliefs but we are to respect them. Leader’s level of respect should be held the most highest for,. Romans 13:2, “Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.

World Architecture best essay help: best essay help

I first decided to write about Alberti, but then seeing that we were allowed to write about any architect we’ve come across in this course, I thought to myself who would be better than Le Corbusier or Frank Lloyd Wright; cliche’ , but yet they’re the fathers of the modern Architecture. Alberti’s type of Architecture wasn’t in use and he’s only looked at as history. Modern Architecture is what we live in, what we breathe, what we see, it’s in our blood as Architects; it’s what people expect from us. I then went on to choose between Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.

I know much about Frank, but then I knew little about Le Corbusier. During my college years, his name was familiar, very famous between architecture students; we knew he was the god of modern architecture, we’ve heard about some of his buildings, yet we haven’t taken “architectural theories” – a college course that teaches us about modern architects among were Le Corbusier. It is very common that one doesn’t feel obliged learning about something unless it was homework. Doing this term paper about le Corbusier seemed about right; it was the only way I could learn much about him. Enough with un-useful chattering!

Architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light. ” Le Corbusier, Toward a New Architecture, 1923 Le Corbusier’s original name was Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris. He was born in Switzerland in 1887. He was born to an artistic family which influenced him; his dad was an artist and his mother was a musician and taught piano. Le Corbusier was more into art, thus he left his school at the age of 13 in order to learn art and engraving. Le Corbusier love for art grew he was learning to paint and becoming more familiar with art history, he wanted to continue his study and become a painter.

His master- L’Eplattenier, on the other hand, wanted him to become an architect. By the age of 20 he designed his first house- Villa Pallet, 1907. (“Le Corbusier biography”) Le Corbusier traveled to Italy in 1906 and got the opportunity to work with Auguste Perret, who was considered the French pioneer of reinforced concrete. This part of his life marked a great period for his development as an architect as he was famous for using steel and reinforced concrete; with the help of Perret. Le Corbusier continued his travel and later on worked with Peter Behrens from October 1910 until Match 1911.

(“Le Corbusier biography”) Le Corbusier’s first works focused on residential villas; he wanted to create affordable prefabricated houses. After World War I, Le Corbusier returned to his homeland and worked at his old school. During his stay at Switzerland, he developed theoretical studies on how to use modern techniques. The Domino house project illustrated all of his theories as it became the foundation of his architecture. (“Le Corbusier biography”) In 1923, Le Corbusier published his book “Toward a New Architecture” which illustrated his five points of Architecture.

These five points are found in his Villa Sovoye. Le Corbusier’s five point of Architecture are the following: •The Supports: Replacing walls with reinforced concrete columns •Roof Garden •Free designing of the ground plan •Horizontal window: allowing rooms to be lit equally •Free design of the facade (Le Corbusier ) Le Corbusier was also famous for his urban planning skills. His first attempt was the sixty-story Villa Contemporaine which was drawn on paper but yet never constructed. Another attempt was La Villa Radieuse (the Radiant City); a well improved version of Villa Contemporaine.

Le Corbusier was now aiming towards bigger projects, his next project was Chandigarh; his planned city in India. (archdaily) Le Corbusier found inspiration in Mathematical Geometry, and was mostly fond of DaVinci and his Mathematical concepts; the golden ratio and Fibonacci series. (archdaily) Among his magnificent buildings, there were two projects that –I believe, stood out. Villa Savoye was definitely was one these projects; to me, Villa Savoye was a must-know. Villa Savoye is located in Paris, France, and was constructed in 1929.

Villa Savoye is a great example of Modern country houses and is an example of international style. International style became famous in 1920’s and lasted for ten years; its main principles were set by the book of Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson. (“International Style”) International Style was very famous in Europe and America. Its most famous features were lights, plane surfaces, no decorations, and open interior spaces. The material that was used in the International Style was glass and steel, in addition to reinforced concrete which was a little less visible that the other two materials.

Many factors contributed to the rise of International Style: •A need for commercial, residential, and civic buildings rose. •Architects are getting bored of the buildings of that era as nothing of its decorative elements was contributing to its function; one of the many features of modern architecture is that the shape of the building should go along with its function, and no additional element should be added unless it was important to its function. •New building technologies were constructed especially after the industrial revolution; for example: cast plate glass.

(“International Style”) Villa Savoye was built on the international modern style, and it followed Le Corbusier’s five important points to architecture. The design of Villa Savoye was affected by Le Corbusier’s love for ships; he loved that you could feel free moving from deck to deck and this contributed to his spatial planning and as he came with his five point toward architecture. Villa Savoye has a spacious ground floor and allowed the movement from one room to another freely, as if you’re on a ship.

Another feeling of ships is that when you approach the Villa is appears as if it’s floating; Le Corbusier worked on achieving this by painting the exterior walls of the ground floor green which blended in nicely with the environment and made the first floor appear to be floating. (archdaily) Le Corbusier used horizontal windows following his five points and this made the facade look very simple; very undistinguished. Despite having too much windows, Le Corbusier was very clever by separating the Villa into public and private areas; the private areas were closed off yet these areas were somehow connected.

(archdaily) Le Corbusier created a roof garden that you can get to from the second floor plan through a series of ramp; a roof garden was another point listed among Le Corbusier’s five points. The entire villa was constructed with concrete and Le Corbusier made sure to keep it as simple as possible; he used only white color for exterior walls and a subtle color in the inside. Le Corbusier’s Villa was very dynamic; it was easy to move from one story to another with the use of stairs and ramps. Le Corbusier’s passion in Mathematics shows in his design for Villa Savoye as he used the Golden Section, and Human Proportions.

Another great example of Le Corbusier’s architecture is Notre Dame du Haut. Notre Dame du Haut was constructed in 1950 south east of Paris and is classified as the most important religious building of the 20th century. This project was a little different for the city of Ronchamp; Ronchamp was not into international style yet, thus building something as modern as Notre dame du Haut was something extraordinary and it might meet some critics. Le Corbusier was up for this challenge, he wanted to bring change to this site, and he wanted something to stand out; something feminine.

Notre Dame du Haut was a catholic chapel that took Mary as it symbol; both Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene. It is said that this catholic chapel represents Le Corbusier’s relationship with feminism; Le Corbusier combined between Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene to produce a unified Mary that expresses all aspects of feminism. (“Le Corbusier & Women; The Feminist Voyeur?. “) One of the most common features of Le Corbusier’s designs is the spatial relationship, which can also be seen in this chapel.

Le Corbusier was seeking something meditative and respective in purpose; as lights enter the chapel, sensation takes over you. (archdaily) Le Corbusier chose this irregular shape to indicate feminism; irregular sculptural walls and roof. As complicated as the form is, the plan of this chapel is very simple; it was two entrances, and inside there’s an alter and three chapels. (archdaily) Le Corbusier’s irregular shape and the way the walls were sloping toward the center of the chapel made it very important to choose the construction method very precisely; nothing can go wrong.

Le Corbusier chose concrete as it is an excellent material in holding the structure together, but this required thick walls; the thickness of the walls had to be 4’-12’ thick. (archdaily) The curved appears to be hanging above the building, while instead it rests on columns that are hidden inside the thick walls; however, this creates a space of 10 cm between the walls and the roof. On the other hand, the design of the windows was very creative. Having thick walls, a solution had to be made when it got to the lighting; windows aren’t going to be enough; fortunately for Le Corbusier, they more than just enough.

Carved windows into such thick walls helped achieving the effect that Le Corbusier looked for; meditative and reflective in purpose. (Archdaily) Corbusier was truly the father of modern Architecture; his designs were different and unique, and each design brought something new to the architecture. Corbusier depended on the function to work its way to the final form. You can’t but admire his intelligence and his dedication to his work and to the Architecture; I wish they can teach us this at College.

Coaching essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Both terms are processes that enable individuals or even corporate clients to achieve full potential. Although the terms are often used in the same sentences there are differences as well as similarities between the two. It is true that both are used to facilitate the exploration of needs, skills, motivations and thought processes. They are both designed to assist the individual or organisation in making lasting and tangible change. As mentioned previously there are differences between the two and here I have highlighted a number of them. Coaches do not need to have first- hand experience of the coachee’s line of work.

In contrast mentoring is normally where a more experienced individual who has knowledge and skill in the same field of work is paired with a less experienced person. To explain this further I have included definitions of both: Coaching is… “A process that enables learning and development to occur and thus performance to improve. To be a successful a Coach requires a knowledge and understanding of process as well as the variety of styles, skills and techniques that are appropriate to the context in which the coaching takes place” Eric Parsloe

Mentoring is… “off-line help by one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, work or thinking” Clutterbuck, D and Megginson, D. As a line manager I could use coaching techniques either in a formal setting or a more ad hoc way to successfully develop individuals within my team. The role of a mentor is one that does not normally have line management responsibility for the mentee. In regard to the process, a Coach asks probing and often thought provoking questions and would not normally offer advice/guidance.

A mentor on the other hand can provide guidance, taking a more directive approach. – Questioning techniques will often facilitate the individuals own thought processes in order to identify their own solutions and actions rather than been directed in an approach. This in turn encourages the individual’s commitment to their own development, change and growth. There can be a number of barriers to effective coaching for individuals and organisations. There can be a lack of understanding of the benefits of coaching and what coaching can achieve.

There can be the perception about the validity of coaching and cost-effectiveness by senior managers and team members and questions being raised in relation to the actual benefits of coaching. Businesses may not prioritise any implementation of coaching as part of their overall learning and development strategy. Therefore not ensuring that it is part of the wider change needed to implement coaching as part of the workplace. With organisations not seeing the value to the business. Organisational culture which can be full of red tape and process does can add additional barriers to embedding coaching practice into the workplace.

Coaching is a process to allow individuals to work out issues for themselves rather than be told what and how to do something. If the existing leadership style is one which focuses on short term results and a culture of individual achievements it may not consider the benefits of supporting and improving practice in all. The lack of vision may stifle the development of underperformers and even good performers to improve further. The lack of longer term investment could restrict longer term sustainable performance. The organisation, managers and individuals could all see that coaching is something that is just for underperformers.

The example needs to be set from the top down and at times senior managers are reluctant to utilise the strengths of their staff as the coaches themselves. There are many benefits to introducing coaching to an organisation. With one key benefit being an increase in performance. It can promote self-reliance, self-confidence, self-awareness and learning for individuals. It is proven that to be an effective method of self-development, which in turn promotes higher performance throughout the organisation. However, more interestingly mentoring can be used to increase diversity within organisations, this can create higher levels of management

opportunities for underrepresented groups, such as female employees. A study conducted in the USA by Ragins has proven that women have benefitted by a coaching approach cited a wide range of benefits for themselves as well as their organisation. This has included recruitment, retention of staff as well as increased productivity and a stabilising factor during change, support with succession planning and encouragement of knowledge sharing, providing a greater transfer of skills across the organisation. The skills, behaviours, attitudes, beliefs and values of the coach or mentor.

I think it is safe to say that the coach has several roles to perform; with the main objective being to develop the person being coached. This can be achieved by increasing self-confidence, identifying relevant and suitable topics for coaching as well as agreeing the setting of suitable planned tasks to support the learning process. Coaches need to have certain skills and knowledge to undertake the role. In my opinion a coach needs to be patient, supportive, interested, aware of others as well as self, attentive and perceptive.

Such elements underpin effective coaching and a genuine interest in the person being coached. Coaches need to have excellent interpersonal skills and there are various core skills that individuals should have in order to be effective. These will include; formulating effective questioning techniques. Followed by the ability to listen. A coach who has good listening skills will demonstrate this in a number of ways. Rephrasing and reflecting on the individual’s words but the tone of voice, body language and even use of silence are all powerful in their own right.

Creating rapport, paying attention to content and process, keeping an open mind as well as identifying limiting assumptions and beliefs are all linked to providing a supportive and safe environment for both coach and coachee. Furthermore the ability to give and receive feedback is also an important component. It is not just the coach that needs to be effective the coachee also needs to play a vitally important role in establishing a positive coaching relationship. This includes indentifying a suitable topic(s) for coaching, jointly setting realistic performance targets and creative methods of achieving them.

They must also take responsibility for their own development, this can include taking preparations before coaching meetings to maximise the development process. Be open and honest in their approach and accept constructive feedback on skill acquisition and their development progress. There are huge benefits to the coachee from an effective coaching relationship. It helps improve their performance and their effective use of skills and abilities. It can also help to increase job satisfaction and motivation. Leading to increased self esteem and abilities within their role.

However, the relationship also has advantages for the coach. These advantages can include improved communication, increased staff development, more effective delegation and their teams reaching higher levels of achievement. There are boundaries that need to be in place in order to work within a safe and structured manner. In the initial stages of the coaching relationship it is imperative that the coach and the coachee establish boundaries This requires the coach and coachee to work together to determine exactly what the coaching relationship is and what the objectives of the sessions should be.

Research conducted by Kenton and Moody (2001) found that there was mixed response when asking whether coaches saw a distinction between mentoring, counselling and coaching. Some stated that they made it very clear to the coachee that this was not counselling session or relationship. However, others stated they would allow the discussion and relationship to be directed by the coachee. What is evident is that before the coaching relationship starts the two individuals need to establish directly what is expected and define the boundaries of their relationship.

Not only does the coach need good communication skills they also need to be aware of and manage issues around any perceived power imbalances or differences in values between them. To be aware of your own values and boundaries is important and to be able to recognise those of the coachee is also important to establish a safe environment in order to undertake the coaching sessions. Some of the coaching process can be managed through ensuring and agreeing confidentiality boundaries, having a working agreement and having set review and evaluation points, including objectives set by the individual to bring back to the next coaching session.

The role of contracting and the process to effectively coach and mentor Although there are a number of different models used within the coaching environment The GROW Model is one of the best known and widely used coaching models. It provides a simple yet powerful framework for navigating a route through a coaching session, as well as providing a means of finding your way when lost. It is a simple model and can be used effectively by coaches with little coaching experience. With the key principles focusing on awareness and responsibility. GROW is an acronym for

Goal ; The goal of the conversation or the issue to be resolved. Reality: What the problem or issue is actually about, what is happening? Options: What are the choices available to the coachee to help resolve the issue? Wrap up (or Will): what is the commitment to change? Firstly, a session must have a Goal or outcome to be achieved. The goal should be as specific as possible and it must be possible to measure whether it has been achieved. So, having identified the goal, questions like “How will you know that you have achieved that goal?

” And had responses this will enable the process to move on. As well as knowing where you are trying to get to, you need to know where you are starting from – This is the Current Reality. This is a key part to the session and it is this that can give clarity to what the issue is allowing for a resolution to be found. Options is the next step, and it is here where the coach and coachee are able to explore what Options there are to resolve the issue brought to the session. The “W” is often taken to stand for a number of other elements of a session, all of which are important.

Myles Downey in his book “Effective Coaching” suggests it stands for “Wrap-up”; others have it standing for Will or What, Where, Why, When and How. But whatever is emphasised, the desired outcome from this stage is a commitment to action. Although the GROW process has been shown sequentially. In practice, it is a much less linear process which may start anywhere and revisit each of the stages several times. Following this model or any others designed to support coach and coachee gives structure and guidance to follow the process of a successful coaching session(s).

To help underpin the model process chosen by the coach agreeing a contract between coach and coachee is imperative. There are two forms of contract, Formal and informal. Formal contracting helps to agree in advance the number of sessions to be undertaken as well as other important aspects of the coaching agenda. Such as the purpose of the sessions for self, organisation and coach. The coaching goals, length of sessions, confidentiality, responsibilities for again, coach, coachee and organisation. Feedback to coachee and feedback to others, including line manager if coaching has been agreed for development needs.

Time and timekeeping. It is Ok to use part of the first session to look at the contract or to agree them prior to the first session. As well as formal coaching sessions, when time and agenda are agreed it is possible to use a less formal approach to coaching. The session could be as little as 10 mins long and part of a wider discussion when an individual is seeking clarification. Even though an informal coaching session needs less contracting, never the less objectives need to be identified and an “end point” needs to be agreed. Such as a designated amount of time to be agreed by coach and coachee.

Although the primary relationship in any coaching activity is between the coach and the individual, this is not the only important relationship. Other key stakeholders include the person representing the organisation’s interests – possibly HR and the individual’s manager. Both of these are interested in improving the individual’s performance and therefore their contribution to the organisation. When there are others with investment in a series of coaching sessions either for an individual or as part of the organisations desire to improve and sustain outputs.

It is very important to establish guidelines on confidentiality and information sharing early on to develop trust between the individual and coach, and the other multiple stakeholders. Ensuring that boundaries and confidentiality issues are agreed early provides all with a safe environment in which to work, grow and develop, not just individuals but the organisational culture. Often organisations use coaching models after an identification of some kind of learning or development need, either by the individual themselves or their line manager.

Once this has been identified, the next step is for the manager and the individual to decide how best the need can be met. Coaching is just one of a range of training and development interventions that organisations can use to meet identified learning and development needs. Its merits should be considered alongside other types of development interventions, such as training courses, mentoring or on-the-job training. Employee preferences should also be borne in mind. There is a danger that coaching can be seen as a solution for all kinds of development needs. It is

important that coaching is only used when it is genuinely seen as the best way of helping an individual learn and develop. Coaching supervision is a relatively new activity and little has been written about it. In the last two years, however, definitions have begun to emerge. these include: ‘Supervision sessions are a place for the coach to reflect on the work they are undertaking, with another more experienced coach. It has the dual purpose of supporting the continued learning and development of the coach, as well as giving a degree of protection to the person being coached’ (Bluckert 2004).

‘Coaching supervision is a formal process of professional support, which ensures continuing development of the coach and effectiveness of his/her coaching practice through interactive reflection, interpretative evaluation and the sharing of expertise’ (Bachkirova, Stevens and Willis 2005). ‘the process by which a coach, with the help of a supervisor, can attend to understanding better both the client system and themselves as part of the client–coach system, and by so doing transform their work and develop their craft’ (Hawkins and Smith 2006). these definitions agree that: Supervision is a formal process.

It is interpersonal, and can be undertaken one-toone, in groups or in peer groups. Reflection on client work is central to supervision. Its goals include developing greater coaching competence. Utilising supervision for coaches with more experienced coaches allows for individual personal development and allows three main aspects of qualitative work, development role and a resourcing function. Understand the principles of effective coaching and mentoring in practice and how to evaluate benefits To conclude I understand that coaching is not teaching. Although it does involve the sharing of information or experiences.

Coaches need to develop their own set of coaching principles which can be shared with the coaches. Boundaries and working agreements need to be set in order to clarify how the two individuals will work together. Confidentiality needs to be explicit as well as both parties understanding the limits to this confidentiality. To ensure a duty of care to the client as well as being bound to the legal issues of codes of ethics, as well as the individual organisations policies and procedures. Boundaries also need to be set in relation to their roles outside of the coaching sessions.

Time and place – when and where meetings are to take place and for agreed timings. Ongoing reviews – This can involve continual clarification of the role of the coaching sessions and what they involve. The understanding that the obligation of tasks is on the coachee. Ending the coaching sessions is the responsibility of the coach who needs to manage the end of the agreed number of sessions to avoid dependency from the coach. Time limited number of sessions is an appropriate way of managing the end as it avoids the risk of coachees becoming dependant or the feeling of being rejected.

Organisations use coaching to support its objectives. By evaluating coaching results the organisation is able to have a clear indication of the results achieved. However, evaluation can only be done if the coaching goals are established at the early stages of such an intervention. When coaching sessions are more formal then there should be a review stage incorporated into the process. This could include a three way meeting with individuals line manger or organisational representative, especially if they have been involved in teh objectives originally set. There are a number of evaluation methods used in coaching.

This allows for evaluation of individuals thoughts on coaching. However it is also important that the organisation is able to see tangible results. Return on Investment can be useful to understand how longer term projects and for those producing tangible results such as sales and outputs. Return on Expectation takes into account of soft skills, such as behaviour change, interperonsal benefits. These can be highlighted when asking individuals to undertake exit surveys as well as other more tangible results such as the reduction in sick leave.

Kirkpatrick discusses four levels of evaluation these look at both the individual and organisational benefits: these are: Reaction learning, behaviour and results. In conclusion, coaching is a method which can be used as a stand – alone investment or one that is linked to other organisational strategies to enable personal and organisational transitions. Coaching is a process and a tool used to motivate and inspire. Effective coaching allows the individual to explore what works for them and how they are able to be more effective within their organisation.

Black & Decker Case need essay help: need essay help

While Black & Decker is one of the 10 most known brand in the US, the brand’s branch selling tools to the professional-tradesmen, which was the original heart of consumers since the creation of the company, is facing a branding problem. Indeed, the entire range offered to the professional-tradesmen segment is considered by those buyers as a bad brand compared to Makita’s brand. The market shares highlight this rejection of B&D’s brand : B&D has only 9% whereas Makita has 50% of the tradesman segment’s shares.

The cause of this issue is not due of the quality of the products offered but only by the perception they have. The objective that the management has to reach is clear : increase market shares (from 9 to 20%) in this segment by giving to their products the credit in phase with the high quality they offer and emphasizing it with professional use. II. Strategic Situation Facing B&D’s Management A. Analysis of the Customers and the Market The market of Professional-Tradesmen is a $420 millions sized, composed of professional users who work in residential constructions and with the highest growth in its category (9%).

This is a interesting and competitive market with a level of renewal of $1000 per year by each customers, and an average expense of $300 per tools. These persons buy their tools by themself for their own use and they purchase it mainly in independently owned stores served by distributors (40%), Home centers (25%) and warehouse home centers (15%). Among this channel, the home centers is growing fastly. The characteristics demanded in this market are high performance, reliability and durability. To finish, they must appear professional and proud with the tools they use. B. Analysis of the Competition

Within this market, we can focus on two main competitors : Makita and Milwaukee. About market shares Makita overwrites the market with 50% whereas Milwaukee is about 10%. In addition there are others brands specialized in certain kinds of tools in which they are famous for. Milwaukee and Makita are very well known and perceived as to be the highest products quality providers. They practices prices-premium, especially Milwaukee. Makita, the principal competitor is distributed by all the channels, but its relationships with these distributors and retailers is “arrogant and dictatorial”.

Moreover, Makita is trying to interest the private “do it yourself” consumers without differentiation. This strategy could drive them to the same branding problem that B&D is facing. These competitors will be ready financially to face any actions that B&D could engage to gain market shares, especially by doing advertising. C. Analysis of Black & Decker (See Exhibit 1 : SWOT) B&D has a high brand awareness, but its quality perception in this segment is low whereas it is high in the industrial segment with the same products.

This fact and researches show that B&D offers a very high quality products. Indeed, they have developed their marketing strategy keeping a similar logo with the “use at home” brand, and a color very close to it (black to grey). This has conducted to a non-differentiation between the two brand by the Professional-tradesmen customers. The problem starts here : Professional are every day in contact with home consumers. They work for them, at their home and go mostly in the same stores to buy their tools.

They don’t want to use the same drills as their clients and also don’t want people think they use the same : this sounds not Professional. Above all, the Professional had been confused by this marketing mistake which does not instill the professional high quality required for their jobs. The Industrial segment is not touched by this phenomenon because it is not the same supply chain. They are aware about the quality and are not as sensible to the brand perception as the Professional are. B&D is present into all distribution channels excluding the Member Ship Club because of low prices.

D. Analysis of the Market Environment The market environment offer a good trend to this market. There are possibilities to always improve the performances and the quality of the products. The customers demand an important renewal which gives the product a maximum life cycle of three years and an average of one and half year (See Exhibit 2 : Life cycle). The channel “Home centers” is growing fast and represent a good opportunity of sales development. There is a trend of “do it yourself”, which drives home consumers to purchase professional tools. III. Strategic Alternatives Available

After this analysis, it appears that B&D’s brand is in such a risky position in this segment. Also, it can be seen that the B&D for Professional brand has really good strength to be salvageable, and to conquer the market, especially observing its high level of quality and awareness. But the brand must follow important changes to not be crushed totally. To solve the problem, Galli, Vice President of sales and marketing is thinking of three different strategy. The first would be to focus on the two other segment who are more successful and to just keep the Professional profitable.

This strategy is not viable because the brand will be kicked out of market in few times without doing anymore, and so the profitability would become highly negative. The opportunity to try to improve in this market and this segment is too important regarding the low financial risk. The second strategy would be to do sub-branding. This kind of strategy is in my opinion not enough drastic. Indeed, the bad reputation of B&D in the Professional segment is too rooted, there is a risk that they feel deluded and rejected the brand more.

The third strategy using the DeWalt name appears to be the best to solve the problem. It will erase the bad brand perception and give a new chance to the product, better differentiated and with a strong positive awareness. But it will cause internal incomprehension and also may be confusion to the Industrial and Consumers tools’ customers. IV. Recommended Strategy : Use DeWalt brand and more… A. Branding Recommendation The new brand has to display DeWalt in big position and also in little “serviced and distributed by B&D”.

At first the mention of B&D will give a better purchase interest and also will maintain the recognition of B&D as a provider of Professional for the home consumer who buy the other product still named under B&D brand. But after three years, the mention of B&D will disappear to let the DeWalt brand become a full brand. The main color will be yellow because no other brand is using it and it reminds the building industry. It will have to be a dull yellow mixed with dark black for other component. The brand brand will be accompanied by a powerful slogan such as “Proud and Strong”.

This brand would have to appear valuable and like the best for professional and only for them : the strongest, the more powerful and the safest. B. Marketing Mix Recommendations Into this new brand, only the product very competitive and in leadership will be conserved. The others will be added later if they are improved too high level of performance. This will ensure that the product range will be composed only by high quality products, what buyers are expecting. The design of all those products will be changed. The use of good quality materials is required.

In addition, many little options, accessories and details (antishock, integrated light, handy storage box … ), all mixed to make the last technological tools for hard uses which cares about its hard workers users. To convince on the liability of the new brand a warranty will be added. This warranty will be one year superior to the Makita’s one. With that we will offer a hotline service opened on working hours which allow consumer to ask for help with the product. The prices will be 7% superior to Makita’s products, and always inferior to Milwaukee’s ones.

The price sensitivity is not high in this type of purchasing, and to be a bit higher than Makita will be a proof of superiority. Also the year warranty in addition will convince the buyer about the price advantage. In terms of channels, the DeWalt new brand will go along all except the Membership Clubs that is not profitable and complectly dominated by Makita. A special focus will be made on the Home Centers and the independently owned stores by given to them specials advantages. To reach this segment effectively and efficiently, a campaign of direct personal mailing to all Professional will be used.

Demonstration of products in stores will be organized to show the product and proof its superiority. This will be to create discussion within the profession. The communication will be based on the DeWalt branding, coming on the Professional segment to fill in the complete needs of the market with very high performance. C. Timeline and Performance Goals See Exhibit 3. D. Consideration of Management Preference This strategy will have to reach minimum 20% market shares within three years and improve the operating income to at least 12%. People internal to the

firm may complain changing the brand name in the professional segment. This will be counteract by a large explanation before launching the brand, to all the firm on the situation supported by figures and transparency. The differentiation will have to appear like inevitable to grow. Exhibit 1 : SWOT Analysis of B&D Professional STRENGTHS High global awarness Good relationship with distributors and suppliers High quality of products Experience and historic in this market Big group company with high financial posibilities WEAKNESSES Not known as high quality product

Bad reputation in this segment Confusion with “at home uses” from the other B&D brands Rejection of the products OPPORTUNITIES Growth of the market Capabilty of doing best quality Growth of Home centers channel THREATS Many strong competitors Risk of losing on other segment if changes in this one Exhibit 2 : Life Cycle 10 tools = 3000$=> 1 tools = 300$ on average Every 1 years, 1000$ spent on renewal => 3,3 tools bought per year So the last tools are renewed 3 years later maximum and 1,5 years on average. Exhibit 3 : Timeline and Performance Goals

 Sell the old production. Mailing campaign Demonstration inside the stores Explain to the firm this new strategy Develop the sales Specialized media advertisment Showroom itinerant Develop the sales Remove B&D sign on the the DeWalt brand Accentuate margin Performance goals Maintaining the same level of sales Dump the old stock of products Grow the awaraness Sales up to 40% Grow the awaraness Sales up to 50% Grow awaraness arround DeWalt only

Health and Social Care college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship 1. A working relationship is different because of boundaries, professional codes of conduct, employer policies and procedures. In your working relationship you would be friendly have a different approach treat with equality you would know your role and responsibility you would not share personal information as you friends. 2. You work with different people doctors family colleagues give examples of how these are different 3.

As this sets out boundaries in your job role , enables you to know your role and responsibilities, knowing your own level of competence and skills, to know your job description Describe two types of working relationship in health and social care settings Relationships are probably the most involved and emotionally charged area of our lives. From the moment we are born we form relationships, each one requiring something different from us and giving us something different in return. In the health and social care setting there are many different working relationships.

These relationships will include: colleagues, manager, other professionals such as doctors/district nurse, service users and their family and friends Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role It is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role as this sets out boundaries in your job role, enables you to know your role and responsibilities. Knowing your own level of competence and skills, knowing your job description. How do you access full and up to date details of agreed ways of working in your line of work? Agreed ways of working is working within the rules set out by your employer.

Following policies and procedures of the company. Important to have up to date agreed ways of working as there may be changes in policies within the law. Your company may have to implement them to help protect the vulnerable Explain two way it is important agreed ways of working at your work place When people are deeply upset about something, they need to get their story out. This is a basic principle of mediation and one that’s important to remember. Often in a conflict, the parties are so focused on minutiae that they lose sight of the big picture and its implications.

As the mediator, you need to bring people back to reality by wrenching their attention away from the grain of sand and having them focus on the whole beach. Doing so may help resolution arrive at a startling speed. Explain two way it is important to work in partnership with others Partnership can be formed between a number of individuals, agencies or organisations with a shared interest. Partnerships are often formed to address specific issues and have a common reason for working together and could often formed to target a short or long term issues.

In order to achieve a good partnership partners need to communicate, co-ordinate, co- operate. There are two types of partnership working: multi agency working and integrated working. Multi agency working and an integrated working Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts Increased understanding: The discussion needed to resolve conflict expands people’s awareness of the situation, giving them an insight into how they can achieve their own goals without undermining those of other people.

Increased group cohesion: When conflict is resolved effectively, team members can develop stronger mutual respect, and a renewed faith in their ability to work together. Improved self-knowledge: Conflict pushes individuals to examine their goals in close detail, helping them understand the things that are most important to them, sharpening their focus, and enhancing their effectiveness. Define person centred values Person centred values means the people whom we support are able to be involved and included in every aspect of their care and support. For example: * their needs,* Assessments, * Care delivery, and, * Support planning. EXPLAIN WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO WORK IN A WAY THAT EMBEDS PERSON CENTRED VALUES. It is important to do this as person centred approaches, policies and procedures, as well as care practices should always put the people whom we support at the centre of the day-to-day activities, as well as including the residents and their families in the planning and maintaining of this. Explain why risk taking can be part of a person centred approach Taking risks means that you are able to choose and be in control of what you do.

You need to ensure that concerns about taking risks is not stopping you living the way you want to. A risk assessment can always be carried out to see if it is possible for someone to do something that they thought would not be possible. Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way Using an individual’s care plan will ensure that the person’s own needs and wishes are being met, rather than offering them a ‘choice’ of what is available.

Using their care plan, you can build on what they want and see where there are gaps that need to be addressed. How do you find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual? 1. You need to know their history because it may affect their care plan – for example a client (service user) who has been abused will need extra support. This also includes all past health issues and possible behaviour. 2. Part of working for equality and a high standard of care it is essential that client’s wishes are expressed. This is like anyone else on the planet.

A major part of the ‘wishes’ possess involves their deaths i. e. , would they like to buried, would they like someone to have some of their possessions. 3. To be able to formulate a care plan you must first find out what level of care a client needs going on their individual needs. Some clients may need extra support with washing/dressing. Other may need extra therapies such as hydro or music. How do you apply person centred values in day today work taking into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual?

Government policy should be founded on a clear, ambitious and measurable goal to improve the experience of patients and service users and to be delivered by a defined date. Setting an ambitious goal to improve patient experience should be reinforced by enhanced guarantees to patients with complex needs. These guarantees would include an entitlement to an agreed care plan, a named case manager responsible for co-ordinating care, and access to tableware and a personal health budget where appropriate.

Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support It is important to establish consent because it is a basic human right for everyone to have the choice. Much of the treatment or support the individual receives is either invasive or personal, so consent is essential as it protects providers against legal challenge. Asking for consent is also part of the codes of practice for social care. Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established A capacity assessment by a qualified professional should be carried out to see if the individual has the capacity to make decisions.

These steps should be taken by professionals as stated in five principles set on in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Describe how active participation benefits an individual Active participation is an approach that enables individuals to be included in their care and have a greater say in how they live their life in ways that matter to them. The benefits of active participation can be divided into primary benefits and secondary benefits. Identify three possible barriers to active participation Physical benefits including greater activity levels.

Increased independence and autonomy in what people do. An opportunity for individuals in health and social care settings to have a say in matters of direct concern to their lives. Support an individual to make informed choices Learning to communicate in an effective way and using this to inform the client of all possible choices. Everyone on this planet can communicate in one form or another – you need to take the time to learn how every individual client communicates. Explain how you can use agreed risk assessments Process to support the right to make choices

People who work in health and social care constitute a large and diverse workforce looking after a predominantly vulnerable population. Employees have the right to work in a healthy and safe workplace, and the people using services are entitled to care and support that is safe and takes their needs, freedom and dignity into account. Explain why a worker’s personal view should not influence an individual’s choices The consequences are that the individual making the choice may make a decision that they might later regret or worse, that has a devastating impact on their life.

A person should never make a decision based purely on the personal views of others but should instead gather all the available information and decide for themselves what course of action is right for them – it’s a case of what is good for the goose isn’t always good for the gander. Describe how support an individual to question or challenge decisions conceding them that are made by others They have the right to make their own choices and decisions under the Human Rights Act, as long as the decisions they make do not put them at risk of harm or injury and they have the mental capacity to make them.

You could support them to question or challenge by speaking on their behalf but you would need to know exactly what their wishes are, and record it for them to sign. Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked with well being Because if you don’t feel good about yourself or don’t have a sense of purpose or identity you tend to feel more depressed therefore your wellbeing will be effected Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well being Using what service in adult care? Do you mean the service OF adult care?

Those who give care should show respect for the elderly; be courteous, but also be friendly. Call the person by his/her last name unless invited to use the first. Don’t assume that ALL elderly people have forgotten everything they ever knew and are only good at bingo anymore. Support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self-esteem The first thing is that the person is an individual in their own right – you need to understand what they are about and not judge, pick the bright nuggets of information and use this as a a springboard to encourage self-esteem and their self-image.

As they talk about themselves you will be able to get a sense of self and where they are in their image. You need to feedback to them what was said as positive rather than the negative – if they say Ii am always failing” reply with ” really, you at least have the guts to try something out of your comfort zone – not everyone can do it” the negatives must be turned to positives but it takes time and consistency – and as their self-worth and esteem improves – you will find they will need less and less re-enforcing Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes wellbeing Donation centres have drop-off points for returning

old things for sale to help charitable areas. The scouts, Goodwill stores do these things. Roadside, creek, gulley, beach and parks welcome “clean-up crews”: volunteers who help together to pick up careless refuse, windblown trash.

Identify legislation relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting Legislations/codes of practice relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting are: The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Riddor 1995, COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health); Manual Handling operations regulations 1992; Health And Safety (First aid regulations 1981); Fire protection (Workplace) Regulations 1997; Food Safety Act 1990; Personal Protective Equipment and Management of Health and safety at work regulations 1999.

Describe two main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 is the main piece of legislation that covers work related health and safety in the workplace.

The main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer are Minimum handling and lifting; Ensure handling and lifting is carried out correctly and safely; Making sure all materials/equipment that is needed to be used is handled, stored and used safely; To be aware of any potential hazards and risks and how to reduce to liability of any accidents occurring; To be responsible for your own welfare and the welfare of others you are looking after; To wear the correct PPE at all times; Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of: Self

The employer or manager Other in the work setting The main responsibilities for yourself whilst at work in a health and social care setting are to not put yourself or others at risk, to report any hazards or unsafe conditions, to co-operate with your employers, to not tamper with or misuse equipment provided, to attend training, be aware of and follow policies and procedures. Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should not be carried out without special training It generally takes special training to repair teeth. Prescribing medicine takes special training also.

Explain how to access additional support and important relating to health and safety 1. Protect service users from harm and abuse 2. Be personally fit at work 3. Maintain health and safety at work 4. Assess risk associated with work 5. Report incidents at work Exampling why it is important to access health and safety hazards posed but the working set or by particular activities Than the individual will know how to behave when it comes to that specific situation Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified You should report it immediately to your supervisor.

You do not need to wait for an inspection team to come by. In fact, health and safety legislation requires employees to report hazards to their supervisor. Explain how risk assessments can help address dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns This follows from the previous dilemma question. Carrying out a risk assessment supports the individual to have their choice met in the safest way possible. For example, Freda doesn’t want to use her Zimmer frame any more. A risk assessment might show her that she can’t walk safely without some support, however she can manage with two sticks and she agrees to compromise.

You have supported her rights of choice and kept her as safe as you can under your duty of care. Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in own work setting Cuts and burns etc. in the kitchen, falls, back injuries though poor lifting techniques, strokes, heart attacks, diabetic emergencies, asthma attacks, allergic reactions and so on. Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur Procedures to be followed: ensuring and maintaining safety for individuals concerned and others e. g.clearing the area, safely moving equipment if possible; remaining calm; sending for help; assessing the individual for injuries; administering basic first aid if necessary and if trained to do so; staying with the injured/sick individual until help arrives; observing and noting any changes in condition; providing a full verbal report to relevant medical staff or others; completing a full written report and relevant documentation e. g. accident report, incident report; understanding the policies, procedures and agreed ways of working for the work setting Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling

This remains the basis of health and safety legislation, and “Sets out the general duties which employers have towards employees and members of the public, and employees have to themselves and to each other” (HSE, 1996) HSE leaflet “Health and Safety Regulation” (HSC 13) 1996 The Act states that employers must ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of their employees whilst at work and any other persons affected by their business activities. The Act is a general piece of legislation and not specific to moving and handling so is not considered here in detail.

Explain principles for moving and handling equipment and other objects safely The Manual Handling Operations Regulations define it as ‘any transporting or supporting of a load (including the lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving thereof) by hand or by bodily force’. In effect, any activity that requires an individual to lift, move or support a load, will be classified as a manual handling task. Identify three hazardous substances and materials that may be found in the working setting Asphyxiates

Pesticides Medicines Cosmetics or Substances produced in the chemical processes Storing hazardous substances Using hazardous substances Substituting it with another substance which presents less, or no risk; Using another process which doesn’t create a hazardous form of that substance. Disposing of hazardous substances and materials asbestos lead-acid batteries used engine oils and oil filters oily sludge’s solvents and solvent-based substances chemical wastes pesticides fluorescent light tubes Starting

Good practice in health and safety is good for your business – and it’s the law. HSE is here to help – our online advice and tools can help save you time and effort getting started. Spreading Outline emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting How you react in the event of fire depends on how well you have prepared for a fire emergency. Therefore, departments should ensure that all employees are familiar with the procedure to follow in the event of an emergency as outlined in the University’s Emergency Plan.

Explain why it is important to have security systems for recording and storing information in a health and social care setting Mainly because of HIPPA (Health Insurance Accounting and Portability Act) laws, which are designed to protect the medical records information of all patients. Because of HIPPA, hospital computer systems are accessed by employees via passwords, and unless an employee is entering or legitimately looking up information on a patient, that employee is not allowed to snoop through that patient’s records on a whim.

Describe how to access guidance information and advice about handling information in your line of work ineffective or insufficiently trained management unfair treatment unclear job roles poor communications poor work environment lack of equal opportunities bullying and harassment unresolved problems from the past an increase in workload Explain what actions to take at working when there are concerns ever over the recording, storing or sharing of information The Data Protection Act requires you to process personal data fairly and lawfully.

This section explains how to comply with this requirement, and gives examples of good practice in handling personal data. Explain employee’s roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Prevention and control of infection The employee’s role and responsibilities include: To ensure that their own health and hygiene not pose a risk to service users and colleagues To ensure effective hand washing is carried out when working with service users, giving personal care, handling/preparing food. To ensure they use protective clothing provided when needed and appropriate.

Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Employers’ roles and responsibilities include: making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work (e. g. posting information on notice boards, keeping an information file such as COSHH, training, and providing supervision) the need to keep records in relation to infection control using appropriate documentation to ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace

Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards when are relevant to the prevention and control of infection relevant to the preventions and control infection The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Both employers and employees are responsible for their own actions in the Work place. All reasonable steps should be taken when carrying out your work duties and all staff should have adequate health and safety training, and measures should be taken to ensure that policies and procedures are in place and adhered to.

Describe how local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of the infection Employees rights and responsibilities in the relation to the prevention and control of infection are to follow company’s policies and procedures, keep themselves safe and others, report any hazards which could lead to infection, attend relevant courses, use the PPE provided, keeping the work environment clean and tidy and to maintain good personal hygiene Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection Food handling, waste disposal, cross infection through skin contact or unclean equipment etc., but mainly poor practice. Illness or death, inquiry, loss of registration, criminal charges. Think about PPI, waste disposal, hand washing, cleaning and decontamination, risk assessments etc. Infection protection and control policy, health and safety policy, dealing with accidents and emergencies policy, first aid policy, food hygiene policy, medication (handling meds) policy etc.

Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organizational Individual – Short or long term illness, secondary conditions or further complications, depression, loss of trust in setting, death. Organisation – sanctions, loss of reputation and trust, closure, prosecution. Environment – distress of staff, individuals and families, unsettled atmosphere though loss of trust, disruption e. g. through an investigation and inspection or decontamination. Define the term risk A situation involving exposure to danger.

Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace the first part of your question relates to local policies which are dictated by local people’s views on what is important to them as well as what the professionals think is important – local and organisational policies have to consider local need and available local facilities. Describe the processes of carrying out a risk assessment 1. Identify the hazards 2. Decide who might be harmed and how 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution 4. Record your findings and implement them 5. Review your assessment and update if necessary

Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment Identify hazards. Analyse or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard. Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard. In practical terms, a risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc. that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made, you evaluate how likely and severe the risk is, and then decide what measures should be in place to effectively prevent or control the harm from happening.

Describe three different types of PPE and three USE PPE is equipment that will protect the user against health or safety risks at work. It can include items such as safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear and safety harnesses. It also includes respiratory protective equipment (RPE). State current relevant regulations and legislation relating PPE * Gloves- protect hands * Gowns/aprons-protect skin and/or clothing * Masks and respirators- protect mouse/

* Respirators- protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents. * Goggles- protect eyes * Face shields- protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes. Describe employer’s responsibilities regarding the use of PPE * It is the responsibility of employees to Ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace; * Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment.

* Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE. Describe employees in the application and removal of PPE The primary methods for preventing employee exposure to hazardous materials are engineering and administrative controls. Where these control methods are not appropriate or sufficient to control the hazard, personal protective equipment (PPE) is required. A work area assessment is required to determine the potential hazards and select the appropriate PPE for adequate protection.

Employees must receive training which includes the proper PPE for their job, when this PPE must be worn, how to wear, adjust, maintain, and discard this equipment, and the limitations of the PPE. All training must be documented. Describe the current practices in the application and removal of PPE PPE such as gloves, aprons and masks are single use items and should be disposed of after each procedure or activity to prevent cross-transmission of micro-organisms.

When these items are worn primarily to protect the wearer, the importance of their prompt removal between tasks on the same patient/client or between patients can easily be overlooked and give rise to the possibility of contamination. Describe the current procedures for disposal of used PPE Personal protective equipment – known as ‘PPE’ – is used to protect health care workers while performing specific tasks that might involve them coming into contact with infectious materials. Describe key principles of good personal hygiene

Their hands are washed after they’ve used the toilet Their genitals and anal area are washed every day Their face is washed daily They’re fully bathed or showered at least twice a week Describe the correct sequence for hand washing and when and why hand washing should be carried out the beginning of the shift preparing, handling and eating food donning gloves any patient contact clean/aseptic procedures entering/leaving clinical areas entering/leaving isolation cubicles preparing/giving medications using a computer keyboard in a clinical area

Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing The main products currently in use are: – Soap – Aqueous antiseptic hand wash solutions – Alcohol-based hand rubs – Others including emollient soap substitute, tea tree-oil based solutions, water-based solutions and hand wipes. Describe correct procedures that relates to skin care Work-related skin problems are very common. Although skin problems can happen in most workplaces, certain jobs present a higher risk, e. g. the health and social care sector.

The Importance of Physical Education professional essay help: professional essay help

In most of the schools, physical education is part of the curriculum. Apart from maintaining physical fitness, it includes training in the development and care of the human body It helps a person sharpen overall cognitive abilities and motor skills through athletics, exercise and various other physical activities. Seeing its benefits for the body and its effect on life, the importance of physical education can’t be ignored. Physical education inculcates in children the importance of maintaining a healthy body and teaches then the importance of regular fitness activity in daily routine, which in turn keeps them happy and energized.

This helps the children to maintain their fitness, develop their muscular strength and increase their stamina. Research has proved that children who actively participate in sports, be it team sports or dual and individual sports, have high self-confidence, which is very important for the development of a person’s character. Physical education instills the desire to participate, enjoy victory and take defeat positively, developing the overall personality of the character. By making children participate in sports, especially team sports, physical education also imbibes in them a sense of team spirit.

Children learn how to work as a team member, organize themselves and function together towards attaining a goal. This in turn improves a child’s overall communications skills and the ability to get along with different kind of people. Physical education helps one gain knowledge about the overall aspects of physical health. In today’s world, several health problems like obesity, anemia, bulimia, and even diabetes, are rampant amongst teenagers. Through physical education, teachers can promote the benefits of healthy andnutritious food and discourage them for having junk food by highlighting their ill effects. They can easily promote sound eating practices and guidelines for nutrition. Physical education also teaches about the importance of personal hygiene and importance of cleanliness. They guide the students by informing them about the important hygiene practices for maintain health and well being throughout the life. In addition to this, the physical education classes also cover an important aspect that the children have to deal with at the age of puberty.

Apart from health and knowledge benefits that students get from physical education, they also learn how to unwind and relieve themselves of stress and anxiety. Sports and other physical fitness activities offered in the physical education classes are a welcome break for the students. It won’t be wrong to say that children, who learn the importance of health and hygiene in their early ages, tend to grow up to be responsible and healthy adults who are well aware of the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Children who are provided good physical education are more likely to become responsible adults who know the importance of a healthy lifestyle.

The American Dream – Of Mice and Men essay help websites: essay help websites

The American Dream is a large theme on which the novella “Of Mice and Men” is based on. Each character strives to achieve their own dream, and some without realising. Dreams are very important in the novella, because without them nobody has anything to work towards and to motivate them in life. Lennie’s dream is probably brought up most throughout the novella, out of all the dreams. Lennie’s dream is to get ‘the fatta the lan” with a small place and rabbits. Lennie spends his whole life imagining the better life he could have, because of Lennie’s bad memory it’s constantly brought up and we are reminded of it.

Sadly Lennie’s dream is never achieved. People always assume that George’s dream is the same as Lennie’s, but nowhere in the novella does George actually mention they share the same dream. Whenever George is telling Lennie what they’ll do he uses the pronoun ‘we’ so it’s unclear whether George has the same dream as Lennie or if he’s just saying it to keep Lennie satisfied. Crooks is a very isolated character in the novella. As he is black and the only coloured man in Soledad he is discriminated against. Although he was born in California, the other men on the ranch still call him a ‘Niger’ and a ‘Negro’.

He has to live in a separate room to the bunk house and is not allowed in there to socialise or play cards because the other men, ‘they say I [he] stinks” As Crooks has been isolated and treated so badly for so long he no longer accepts charity and turns away people who try to care and talk to him. He also no longer believes in wishes or dreams and tells Lennie ” Ever’body wants a little piece of lan’… and nobody gets no land” which proves his disbelief in the reality of dreams. Although Crooks lets himself slip at one point and admits he could imagine him pleasantly hoeing a patch of garden on Lennie’s farm one day.

Curley’s wife is the only character to have had her dream vaguely accessible at one point. However she missed the opportunity and we find out later in the novella she deeply regrets not trying harder for it. When she was younger she met a guy who was involved with Hollywood but she never received the letter she was promised from him and she believed her mother had stolen it. Instead she ended up leading a miserable life with an unsuccessful marriage. It is never clear whether Curley has a direct dream he’s aiming for but by using our inference and deduction skills we can assume alot of things that could be Curley’s American dream.

In one instance, Curley is always very protective over his wife and doesn’t like her straying too far away from him. The other men on the ranch joke saying “He spends half his time lookin’ for her [Curley’s wife] , and the rest of the time she’s lookin’ for him [Curley]”. This could be from a previous experiences, he could’ve had a previous wife who left him for another man. We will never know why Curley is so protective but one point we do know is that part of his dream might be to have a loyal wife, who is faithful, and never chats to other men.

Candy is also a very isolated person in the novella, along with many other characters. Candy is the oldest man on the ranch and the only close companion he really had was his dog, who he ended up letting Carlson shoot. When Lennie and Crooks are talking about the dream land with a little place, Candy latches himself onto Lennie’s dream to have a couple of acres of land and ” a dog an’ rabbits an’ chickens. We’re [George, Lennie and Candy] gonna have green corn an’ maybe a cow or a goat” Although almost every character has their own American dream not one of them achieve it, which proves Crook’s point “It’s jus’ in their head”.

The American dream is not correct in this case because it says anything is attainable through hard work and all people can succeed through hard work, which isn’t true because Lennie, George and many of the other ranch workers have worked their whole lives to try and make enough money to get their own little place, but no one does. This shows she impossibility of the American Dream in a world with not enough freedom and contentment but too much inequality and unfairness. By Maisie Tang U4S

Essay Writing at Profs Only

5.0 rating based on 10,001 ratings

Rated 4.9/5
10001 review

Review This Service




Rating:











Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.