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The Effects of Post-Colonialism and Hybridity in a Culture argumentative essay help online

Post-Colonialism is how a culture changes after ideas are dominated by new beliefs on how ways life should be. Hybridity, when talking about post-colonialism, can be described in two different ways. Hybridity can be viewed as a mixture of groups or cultures in which one then compliments the other so that a new group or culture is formed. Either group or culture will then practice with an understanding from both beliefs. In the other view of hybridity it shows the overall loss of identity, or the process of identifying oneself among a different culture.

Each of these definitions of hybridity is expressed through the writings of Amitav Ghosh’s The Glass Palace, Robert J. C. Young’s Postcolonialism, and Gandhi. Amitav Ghosh expresses hybridity in The Glass Palace through characters who adapt to the mixture of culture, and to those who experience the loss of their identity because of this mixture. In Robert J. C. Young’s Postcolonialism, the example of Algerian rai music is described as a hybrid genre.

Hybridity can also be seen through the early writings of Gandhi according to the European education system and how it completely evolved from the previous form of education established in India. Each society is forced into an overlapping culture with their dominating colonial power, changing every aspect of their previously known lifestyle, thus having to adapt to the new style of living. When talking about hybridity in the sense of mixture, The Glass Palace shows hybridity through the change of clothing styles.

Saya John is normally dressed in the traditional “longyi” because of his country, but as colonial power it’s imposed on his lifestyle, he then begins to dress in more traditional European clothing. The transformation to the European style of clothing symbolizes his overall transition into a hybrid culture. In Robert J. C. Young’s, Postcolonialism, the example of Algerian rai music is described as a hybrid genre due to the combination of various Spanish, French, and Arabic influences found within the single category of music. He writes, “rai does not consist of one kind of music that can easily be

described in general terms. It has always been mobile and shifting as it changes its functions and locations, its instruments and its audiences” (Young 70). Rai music changed due to the hybrid culture in which it was founded. It became a mix of sounds and phrases from multiple regions, forming an entirely new expression of music. One of the simplest forms of social expression was changed due to the combination of multiple cultures. Both the transformation of clothing styles and development of rai music illustrates the definition of hybridity in the sense of a mixture of two cultures.

Views of hybridity can be seen by some aspects of post-colonial like: political structure, economic strategies, and social models of a culture. In Ghosh’s The Glass Palace, Rajkumar, an orphan from Burma, takes on a new economic role due to the combination of his previously known culture with that of the Europeans. Originally, Rajkumar himself served as a source of labor in the teak lumber yards, yet as he gains knowledge with age, he acquires a teak yard of his own using procedures similar to those of the Europeans.

He uses the British tactic of maintaining slave labor for economic advancement. The lifestyle that Rajkumar attains is a direct result of colonial rule and power. The British colonizers were able to change the entire economic system of the teak yards, and once Rajkumar was exposed to this, his original ideas about labor were transformed as well. During his confrontation with Uma, Uma states, “What you and your kind have done is far worse than the worst deeds of the Europeans” (Ghosh 214).

Uma’s reference to the slave labor, Rajkumar, has been enforcing in his camps displaying the fact that he has not only blended with the culture of the British, but he has surpassed their traditional actions. This reinstates the other idea of hybridity causing the loss of oneself. Rajkumar is no longer able to identify with his previous Burmese culture, but rather he has transitioned into a European mindset. A similar instance pertaining to the overall loss of oneself can also be seen through Dolly’s character in The Glass Palace.

She is originally from Burma, but she spends the majority of her time in India with the Royal family. Due to her location, she encounters a first-hand experience of a lifestyle under colonial domination. She experiences an overall loss of identity with her previously known territory and culture. During her conversation with Uma, she is asked whether she would ever want to return to Burma. She responds by saying, “Never…if I were to return to Burma now, I would be a foreigner-they would call me a kalaa like they do Indians–a trespasser, an outsider from across the sea” (Ghosh 96).

Dolly refers to herself as a foreigner when referring to her homeland. By going through a lifestyle under British rule in another country, she has completely lost a sense of who she once was, and is unable to identify with her previously known culture. The idea of Dolly referring to herself as a “foreigner” within her own homeland displays the loss of herself and her identity which represents the meaning of hybridity. Dolly’s emotions towards herself and her homeland are compared throughout the writings of Gandhi.

The elements of hybridity are interpreted through the exploration of Britain’s imperial rule over India. The education system in India had completely evolved in its transition to a post-colonial territory. The traditional form of education in India was transformed into that of the traditional European education, causing both social and political elements of hybridity to form throughout the territory. Gandhi speaks against this transition, stating that “[they] should have today a free India…not as if they were foreigners in their own land…” (Gandhi 127).

Similar to Dolly, many Indians had begun to lose their identity, and felt as though they were foreigners in their own land. There was not a single sense of their previous culture that remained within themselves, or their daily routines. The Glass Palace portrays various pieces of hybridity through each of the characters and their positions in their society and culture. Rajkumar is able to learn positive economic benefits from the combination of British tactics and traditional Burmese standards. However, Uma’s perspective embodies the second definition of hybridity.

She believes that Rajkumar has fully transitioned into the European culture, leaving no trace of his previous Burmese identity to be found. And Dolly takes on this perspective for herself, completely losing her previous identity and culture due to the colonial-dominated area she grew up in. Between clothing styles, genres of music, political structures, economic developments, and social models of a culture, hybridity has emerged throughout post-colonial areas, and is still affected the daily lives of the people in societies and cultures today.

Traffic Problem in Phnom Penh buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Nowadays our unpaved roads as well as paved roads in Phnom Penh city seem to be unsafe. Moreover, its traffic is really fiendish. People not only don’t respect the traffic officers, but also disobey the law. In this case, there are many accidents happen every month. Thus, in order to make our streets safer and traffic better, we have to do some things such as educating people more about traffic law, widening the streets, and enforcing the law. First, educating people more about traffic law is an effective strategy to make the streets safer and reduce traffic problem.

For example, when people know clearly about traffic law they will try to obey it, for if they break it directly, there will be an awkward situation. Furthermore, traffic law will simultaneously provide education and morality to people which lead to understanding, safety, and traffic problem reduction. Another reason is widening the roads. It is a great factor which can really make our traffic better. Large roads make travelers easy to travel from one place to the others with worrying about traffic jam.

Also, it can cut down traffic accident and modernize our city as well. Finally, enforcing the law is the other effective aspect which can permanently better the traffic and make streets safer. In this case, government should impose a heavy fine on those who contravene the traffic law and sentence many years imprison for those who crush someone into death, in order to alert people not daring to commit such things. On the whole, these three strategies are the good ways to improve our traffic system.

The savage male essay help for free: essay help for free

Yanomamo a tribe of American Indians are labeled as the ‘fierce people’. They are one of the most aggressive, warlike, male-oriented people in the world. Yanomamo male is usually covered with wounds and scars due to quarrels, duels and military raids. Women are also covered with scars and bruises as a result of violent encounters with seducers, rapists and husbands. Yanomamo is a hot-tempered, drug-taking, warrior-husband.

Kind husbands merely hurt and mutilate, the fierce one wound and even kill them. Women are expected to serve promptly and respond without protest. Unproved violence against women helps to prove that they are capable of deadly assault, he ‘image’, is prominent if he publicly beats his wife with a club. Women are used as scapegoat to vent their anger. A brother of a runaway sister struck her with because their (he and her husband’s) relationship was disturbed.

The male supremacy is also the exercise of the use of hallucinogenic drugs which helps them to ignore extremes of pain and overcome fear during duels and raids. Yanomamo are victimized from childhood, she gets punished if she retaliates her little brother who hits her. Marriage is like, men are exchangers and women the exchanged, marriage is “dragging something away,” divorce as “throwing something away. ” Yanomamo women expect to be manhandled by their husbands. They find it difficult to imagine a world in which husbands would be less brutal.

Male chauvinist is expressed in duels. The scars made by the duels are souvenirs which they are proud of. They shave their heads and rub red colour so that each scar stand out clearly. War is a favourite lifestyle of the Yanomamos. Even the best of allies behave in a fierce and aggressive manner. A friendly feast is unpredictable until the last guest leaves. Extreme act of bravery, a warrior may slip into the enemy village and kill somebody who is sleeping in a hammock.

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Beauty can be defined by various attributes. Some people believe beauty lies in the physical being of a person while others believe that beauty lies within. I believe that beauty encompasses both aspects, but inner beauty is the most important. Physical beauty is not something you can control as easy as your inner beauty. I know that we have plastic surgeons and various diet plans to help our physical beauty but we have to work with the beauty that God gave us.

Physical beauty cannot be determined by one individual because one person might think that someone is attractive, physically, but another has a different idea of attractiveness. Therein lies the statement “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. ” The people that have the same view of beauty are the ones that usually end up together in a lasting relationship. Physical beauty, though, can lose its attractiveness if the inner beauty doesn’t equal the physical side.

An example of this would be if you saw a very attractive person and upon meeting that person and getting to know them you discover that they do something you dislike, i. e. cuss, disgusting table manners, etc. The physical beauty starts to diminish when the inner beauty lacks. Inner beauty, on the other hand, doesn’t usually diminish the physical attributes of an individual, unless the person judging the beauty is shallow and only enjoys the physical beauty of an individual. A lot of times, the inner beauty, or personality, of someone outshines the physical beauty.

How many times have you seen someone that is not necessarily physically “good looking” win you over as a friend based on their personality? Humor, kindness and communication skills are important assets in determining your inner beauty. First impressions are important when meeting someone new. The first impression is determined upon the outward appearance of an individual most of the time. Many people, though, reserve their judgment of a first impression until after they have had time to talk to that person. These people, like me, understand the importance inner beauty plays in getting to know someone.

People have physical and personality flaws, but I believe the personality flaws outweigh the physical ones. I want to be able to talk to someone, share stories of common interest and enjoy hanging out with someone versus being the sidekick of a gorgeous model. Don’t get me wrong, I am not saying that all attractive people do not have good personalities but I am saying that a gorgeous person with personality flaws would not be as enjoyable to hang out with as someone that has a great personality and physical flaws. I’ll take the physical flaws over personality flaws any time.

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Critical Discourse Analysis of Political Campaign Ads and Speeches. AB English Thesis. College of Arts in Sciences, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato. Adviser: RICELI C. MENDOZA, PhD The study aimed to analyze the different political campaign ads and speeches of the candidates running for a certain office and employed the Critical Discourse Analysis framework.

Specifically, it sought to analyze the linguistic features of political campaign ads and speeches, determine the issue on social services addressed in the political ads and speeches and determine the attitude of students towards political campaign ads and speeches. Political campaign advertisements and speeches of Emmanuel “Manny” Pinol and Emmelou “Lala” Talino-Mendoza (candidates for governor in North Cotabato. ) Jabib M. Guiabar, Herlo Guman and George Tan (candidates for mayor in Kabacan, North Cotabato) were gathered summer of 2013.

Respondents involved a total of 60 composing of 30 students from AB Political Science and 30 from AB English who were enrolled from the University of Southern Mindanao. They answered the questionnaire on attitude on political campaign ads and speeches. Results revealed that affixation, reduplication, alpahabetism and acronyms were the dominant linguistic features in the ads and speeches. In terms of syntax, the word pattern, placement of modifiers, and imperatives were present. The social services addressed in the political speeches were education, corruption, health services, and poverty.

The attitude of the respondents on the political campaign ads revealed that students agreed that the political campaign ads showed sincerity and commitment. Howerever, the students were undecided if the candidates used dirty and vulgar words in their political campaign ads. On the political campaign speeches, the results concluded that the students believed the campaign speeches evoke confidence. However, the students were undecided if the candidates who delivered the speeches increased voter’s awareness.

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Shay’s Rebellion was the revolt of Western Massachusetts farmers against their state legislature because they felt they were being unequally represented. The intention of this paper is to analyze the problems that led to Shays’ Rebellion and to describe the casual relationship it had with the ratification of the U. S. Constitution. Being able to help protect and support their personal lifestyles, which included their homes farms, and families was why Daniel Shays and other Western Massachusetts farmers started the rebellion. Farming was what the farmers relied on in order to live.

Many farmers lost just about everything they owned because the Massachusetts legislature’s refused to create more paper currency, lower taxes, and judicial reform. Shays’ Rebellion prompted Americans to ask themselves just how strong their government was. Flaws were exposed in the Articles of Confederation, which helped create a new form of government thanks to the men who recognized those flaws. The rebels involved in Shays’ Rebellion, including Shays who was a Captain under Washington, were veterans of the recent Revolutionary War.

After putting in their service for the Continental Army and winning independence for America, the farmers were hoping to get back to their everyday life on the farm. However, the Revolutionary War left the United States with substantial debt as well as a devastating economic depression, leaving the farmers in trouble from the start. The Articles of Confederation did not give the federal government the right to tax; it could only request money from states. The Massachusetts government did not hesitate to impose such high taxes on the farmers.

Conflicts quickly ensued between the farmers and the Massachusetts legislature. The legislature did not show respect or pity for the state’s farmers. Most of the legislators were wealthy merchants who only looked out for themselves and relied on the farmers for much of the state’s tax revenue. By having the government put the farmers in jail and auctioning off their farms because of unpaid debts, the 2 merchants began to have an upper authority over the farmers in Massachusetts.

Not having property made farmers lose their right to vote. The farmers were in desperate need for more currency in the state. Having the state produce more money would have helped farmers pay their debts instead of being tried in court. The legislature wanted to avoid inflation and did not want the face value of money to decline so it denied their appeal. The need of money was a significant influence to the spark of Shays’ Rebellion. Shays finally had enough of what he believed were unconstitutional acts.

He sent a letter to the Selectman of East Springfield regarding information that “the General Court are about adopting measures to bring the leaders of the late risings of the people to condign punishment, you are directed to assemble immediately all the inhabitants of your town, and provide that the town are furnished with ammunition, the militia with arms, and organized with officers agreeable to law. ” Many times did the farmers try and petition to the Massachusetts legislature and also the governor James Bowdoin, but nothing was solved and the Debtors Courts went along with their hearings.

Shays rallied hundreds of others farmers to protest against the state. Shays’ Rebellion took over the courthouses one by one beginning in Northampton. Being able to occupy and maintain control of the courthouses in Massachusetts meant that no more farmers would unjustly represented in court. In order to put an end to the chaos Shay’s Rebellion created, Massachusetts assembled its own army to fight back against the rebels. A letter from Worcester stated that the troops that supported the Massachusetts army came in with “high spirits, and additions are making to their numbers.

It is true that many of Shays Party are much dispirited, others I am told are boisterous. ” In Springfield, on January 25, 1787, Shays’ Rebellion tried to seize federal arsenal hoping it would have made them a 3 stronger and more serious force. Unfortunately, their plan failed because the arsenal was being successfully guarded by Major General William Shephard. Shays’ Rebellion was chased out by Shephard and his men, as they soon after found trouble by General Benjamin Lincoln and his militia.

As many farmers were captured, Shays was able to avoid getting caught and escaped to Vermont. This altercation was a key turning point in Shays’ Rebellion. John Hancock issued a proclamation, which was an attempt made to end Shays’ Rebellion. Hancock, portraying mercy and forgiveness, informed the people that the rebels involved may have been misled in their participation, and if those rebels were to come forward by September 12, 1787 and pledge an oath of allegiance to the state, their actions should be forgiven.

In the proclamation, Hancock states, “and I cannot but believe, that the good sense of my fellow-citizens, the regard the people have for the Constitution of civil government established by themselves; their knowledge of their true interest; the obvious necessity of good government by the sword, will unite all ranks and orders of men, in the pursuit of peace, good order and good obedience to the laws. ” Hancock knew a stronger form of government was a must. Hancock shortly after was elected as the new governor of Massachusetts.

As governor, Hancock lowered the unbearable taxes, and instantly issued a pardon for the members involved in Shays’ Rebellion. Shays’ gave Americans a scare because it made them think not only about what the consequences may have been if the revolt was successful, but it also made them think about future rebellions taking place over oppositions in government. There is no telling as to what Shays followers would have done if they had seized the federal arsenal in Springfield. Originally, the rights Shays’ 4

Rebellion was supposed to be accomplished in a nonviolent manner. The government knew that “the people are willing to lay down their arms on the condition of a general pardon, and return to their respectful homes. ” The legislature was wrong to abuse its powers against Shays and the farmers of Western Massachusetts. The farmers efforts to take action and not allowing courts from having their legal proceedings along with releasing fellow farmers out of jail, made the people question how safe their society was under its form of government.

Shays’ Rebellion had a lasting effect on Massachusetts and also on the federal government. It helped show some of the weaknesses the government had at the time and the changes it needed to make. The rebellion proved to other states that equal representation was needed in states in order to keep all citizens satisfied. All in all, Shays’ Rebellion had an important message for the framers of the Constitution in 1787.

Mashawer case study buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Case Study Questions: 1. What kinds of applications are described in this case? What business functions do they support? Answer: The applications described in this case are: PDA, centralized application and SCADA. The business functions that the case supports: Manufacturing and production, finance and accounting and human resources. 2. What are the benefits from equipping their riders with PDAs? Answer: Through this technology Mashaweer decreases the amount of errors due to the fact that the messenger is tied to an automated process where he receives his tasks through the PDA handheld. And also to manages the following: 1.

Tracking the order items progress. 2. Track the collecting of order fees. 3. Messaging the riders. 4. Track the cash and expenses. 5. Synchronizing data periodically and at the beginning of each shift. 3. Was it a good decision to expand the business to Cairo? What are the implications of information systems? Answer: Yes it was a good decision to expand the business to Cairo since the succeed in Alexandria. The implications: Mashaweer heavily depends on technological advances that occur every day and depends on the tools so it benefit from the advancements and prices reductions that continuously take place.

As a result Mashaweer’s total costs will be decrease, enabling it to decrease its prices and further improve its quality to become even more convenient for a large number of people. 4. Do you think that Mashaweer will be able to accomplish their future strategy and sustain its market share? Answer: Yes Mashaweer will be able to accomplish their future strategy and sustain its market. 5. Do you think in near future, the competition between Mashaweer and Wassaly will be aggressive? Why? Answer: No, because Wassaly is operating in much smaller scale than Mashaweer does.

Mashaweer has several advantages that make it very hard for others to compete: Database of thousands of loyal clients. Self-investment is manageable. Highly qualified and carefully selected riders due to the high salaries compared to the delivery sector in Egypt. Various revenue streams. Being the owner of the IT Company Innov8 fosters technology integration in Mashaweer. Also Mashaweer has several unique selling propositions the main two aspects are being the first in the market and the only of its kind. Also the flexibility of their service.

No harmful of telling white lies easy essay help: easy essay help

Lying. We are all liars. We lie to others, and we lie to ourselves. Anyone who says they never lie is the biggest liar of all. From childhood onwards, we are bombarded with the message that honesty is always the best policy, from teachers, parents, religion and society in general. But, there are times when lying is permissible, particularly the little white lie. It is permissible when it saves a life, for the cause of peace, to spare another person’s feelings and to provide comfort.

If saying a small lie will preserve life, that may be the right thing to do. First of all, people are telling white lies because of psychology factor. Psychology is how the mind influences behavior in a particular area of life. By telling white lies, they will always think positive eventhough they have critical problems. For example, healthcare providers have not been honest as patients assumed. Sometimes they felt patients couldn’t handle the truth, particularly that relates with diseases and dying. Thus, they telling white lies trying to cheer patients up.

Other than that, parents not feel guilty for telling their children white lies of The Tooth Farry because it is good for their development, by stimulating their imagination. Besides that, white lies are acceptable in some careers like military intelligence and undercover police work. But, as a general policy, honesty is the best policy. The undercover is carried to gather information about ongoing and future criminal activity as well as disrupt these activities and arrest those involved. Examples of crimes are manufacture and distribution of drugs, kidnapping of children or teenagers and street gangs.

Undercover work is ethical because it is carried to protect the citizens in that city. Lastly, in relationship, there are times when we might even tell a lie, in order to protect someone’s feelings, or prevent a conflict. Can love survive without little white lies? Of course not. Sometimes when people lie to the ones they love, it is because they are valuing something more than honesty. For instance, when a wife asked her husband if she was getting too fat. Her husband had to lie to avoid a conflict and argument with his wife.

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In early January 2006, Littlefield Technologies (LT) opened its first and only factory to produce its newly developed Digital Satellite System (DSS) receivers. Littlefield Technologies mainly sells to retailers and small manufacturers using the DSS’s in more complex products. Littlefield Technologies charges a premium and competes by promising to ship a receiver within 24 hours of receiving the order, or the customer will receive a rebate based on the delay. The product lifetime of many high-tech electronic products is short, and the DSS receiver is no exception.

LT managers have decided that, after 268 days of operation, the plant will cease producing the DSS receiver, retool the factory, and sell any remaining inventories. As this is a short life-cycle product, managers expect that demand during the 268 day period will grow as customers discover the product, eventually level out, and then decline. In the initial months, demand is expected to grow at a roughly linear rate. Demand is then expected to stabilize. Eventually, demand should begin to decline at a roughly linear rate. Although orders arrive randomly to LT, management expects that, on average, demand will follow the trends outlined above.

Management’s main concern is managing the capacity of the factory in response to the complex demand pattern. Delays resulting from insufficient capacity undermine LT’s promised lead times and ultimately force LT to turn away orders. In particular, if an order’s lead time exceeds the quoted lead time, then the revenue for that order decreases linearly, from $1000 for the quoted lead time (24 hours) to $0 for the maximum lead time (72 hours). Assignment It is now mid-February 2006, and LT has started to notice that a few of their receivers have been delivered after their due dates.

In response, management has installed a high-powered operations team (your team) to manage the factory’s capacity. For the next 168 simulated days (one week in real-time), your team must buy and/or sell machines to maximize the factory’s overall cash position after the 268 days. Currently, the factory has one board stuffing machine (at Station 1), one tester machine (at Station 2), and one tuning machine (at Station 3). The number of machines can be changed at each station by clicking on a station, and then clicking on “Edit Data” in the menu that pops up.

You may also change the way testing is scheduled. Currently, jobs at the tester are scheduled First-In-First-Out (FIFO), but you can give priority status either to the short initial tests (Step 2) or to the long final tests (Step 4). When the assignment begins, there will already be 50 days of history available for your review, representing the period from early January through mid February. The factory simulator will run at a rate of 1 simulated day per 1 real hour for the next week. After the assignment window ends, an additional 50 days of simulation will be executed at once.

Thus, there will be a total of 268 days of simulation corresponding to a product life time of about 9 months. Full control of the Littlefield Technologies factory will be turned over to your capable hands at 2pm on Thursday, February 9, 2006. For three days prior to that time (from Monday, February 6 through the start time on Thursday), you will be allowed to access the Littlefield factory in order to observe, download and analyze data from the first 50 days of operations. After this simulation is over, you can check the status of your factory, but the factory will no longer be running.

You can (and should) use your team’s knowledge of forecasting and capacity management, including the concepts and tools from your textbook, to help LT managers maximize their profit. Your data analyses do not have to be super-sophisticated – in fact, simpler is often better … sometimes even a graph will do – you just need to demonstrate that your data analysis supports the actions you take within the factory. Case Questions to Answer in Your Deliverable As part of their contract with you, Littlefield managers want your team to perform data analyses supporting the actions you take in their factory. Managers want you to answer the following:

1Using data from the period prior to Day 50, estimate the capacity of the machine at Station 1. Can you do the same for the machines in Station 2 and Station 3? (Hint: What seems to be the maximum number of jobs processed by a machine in one day during this period? ) 2. Using demand data, forecast (i) total demand on Day 100, and (ii) capacity (machine) requirements for Day 100. (Hint: Assume demand was very close to zero on Day 1. Also, see Appendix 1 for some helpful hints on forecasting using Excel. ) 3. Around Day 100, create forecasts for (i) total demand on Days 130, 150, and 170, and (ii) related capacity (machine) requirements.

Choose your own data periods. List any assumptions you made to create your forecasts. ) How well did you do with these forecasts? 4. Predict on which days (i) demand levels out, and (ii) demand starts to decrease? (Hint: Use a moving average (MA) to track the demand over time. See Appendix 2 for helpful hints. ) Team Deliverable Your team should turn in a 2-3 page summary of what actions you took during the week you had access to the factory, why you took those actions, and in retrospect whether you think your team did the right thing. Show analysis to justify your conclusions.

The top-performing team in each class will be invited to present their capacity management approach during a subsequent class session. Report Guidelines Your report should be single-spaced, and should be written as a memo to the managers of Littlefield Technologies. Your summary should be about 2-3 pages in length. A structure for a good report will include the following sections: Introduction Problem Statement Recommendations/Actions Taken This section may include data analysis, equations, etc. Resulting Outcomes Evaluation of Outcomes Appendix (optional, but highly recommended)*

Up to 2 pages of data analysis, equations, etc. *You are allowed to include an appendix (up to two additional pages) that presents regressions, forecast equations, or any other data analysis you perform during your control of the factory. Grading Your team’s grade will be based on the content of your report. The top performing team in each class will receive 10 points extra credit added to their case score, which includes credit for their class presentation. The second and third best performing teams in each class will receive 4 and 2 points extra credit added to their case score, respectively.

Grading on your written report will be at the instructor’s discretion. Note that insightful, in-depth analyses of why your team did or did not do well can bring up your grade, regardless of your actual simulation performance. Helpful Resources – Statistical Analysis/Forecasting/Capacity Analysis If you are unsure about how to perform a regression analysis or other data analysis using the data from the Littlefield Technologies system, stop by during office hours and ask your MD021 instructor. He/she can show your team how to perform useful data analysis using Excel or SPSS.

Helpful Resources – Littlefield System MBA student Kevin Phillips will hold office hours in Fulton 413 on Monday, February 6 and Wednesday, February 8, 12-4pm, and on Friday, February 10, 9am-1pm. Teams and/or team leaders will be able to ask Kevin questions about using the Littlefield Technologies online website, how to log into it, how to buy/sell machines, how to download data to Excel, and any other question related to the Littlefield Technologies website. Kevin will not answer any questions about how to solve the case – he doesn’t know the answer. Appendix 1 – Forecasting With Excel

Since you have been told that demand is increasing linearly on average, and demand will be increasing during the forecast period, you will need to construct a trend forecast (see Stevenson, p. 77). Thus, your forecast equation will be: Yt = ? + ? t In order to construct this forecast, we need to estimate the slope (? ) and the intercept (? ). Since demand is 0 on Day 0 and still very close to 0 on Day 1, assume that ? = 0. Then, you only need to calculate the slope (? ). In Excel, you can calculate the slope for a trend forecast using the regression SLOPE(known_y’s, known_x’s) function.

Create a column of integers from 1 to X (representing Days 1 to X) – these will be your known_x values. Download the observed customer demand data (i. e. , customer job arrivals) from the Littlefield simulation for these same days. Place them in a column next to your known_x values. You should now have two columns of the same length. The column of demand data is your known_y values. Put the ranges into the function, and viola, it will calculate an estimate of the slope (? ) for you. You can then plug into the above forecasting equation. Remember that the estimated value of ?should become more accurate as you collect more data during the simulation (at least while demand is still moving in the same direction), so you may want to update your forecasts as you go along. For more information on using these in Excel, search for the terms “slope” or “regression” in the Excel Help window. Appendix 2 – Tracking Data Using Moving Averages Sometimes operations analysts want to track historical data sets, and smooth out the data. Smoothing data helps to remove the randomness, and thus, provides a better idea of the underlying direction of the data on individual days.

Moving average indexes can help one do this, by averaging out the randomness on an individual day. A common index to use is a centered moving average. For example, a 3-period centered moving average of demand for Tuesday would be calculated as: Moving_Average_DemandTuesday = (DemandMonday + DemandTuesday + DemandWednesday)/3 In the Littlefield simulation, where demand is known to be increasing and/or decreasing throughout certain long periods during the simulation, such an index helps to average out the increases/decreases before and after acertain day, leaving the analyst with a better estimate of average demand on each day. In your analysis, you may want to try out a few different centered moving averages – I’ve found that longer centered moving averages (e. g. 9 period or 11 period centered moving averages, or even longer) tend to work better on the Littlefield data. Once you calculate such moving averages, you can then simply examine the average values by eye to determine where the demand data seems to level off and where it starts to decrease.

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DNA is the blueprint for life, it is found in the nucleus of cells on the chromosomes. It is found in many cell organelles, such as plasmids in bacteria, chloroplasts in plants, and mitochondria in both plants and animals. DNA helps us to perform many actions in solving crimes, and also helps us to do scientific studies that were not possible until recently. DNA has a double helix structure, its sugar phosphate backbone, made up of deoxyribose and a phosphate group are held together by hydrogen bonds and base pairs. These bases are adenine and guanine, thymine and cytosine.

There are coding and non coding parts of DNA, the non coding part is called an intron, this may not seem to have a function but it helps to keep the structure of the helix by coiling, regulates when genes are expressed and is also used in DNA replication. Non-coding regions of DNA between genes are the satellite DNA, this is a simple base sequence repeated many times. It’s not all non-coding DNA though, the coding parts of the DNA are known as exons. Science and technology is used for genetic diversity, selective breeding is used especially in farming for livestock.

Selective breeding means artificial selection means the controlled breeding of animals or plants by humans so only individuals with specific characteristics can reproduce. Farmers use this technique to get the best quality cattle and produce from the animals they have. To get the best animal possible, for example a milk cow, the farmer will select the best cows from the heard to breed from, these may be the ones with the largest udders or biggest milk yield, he will then breed from this animal, and the F1 offspring will be raised and used for milk.

In the F1 generation he will do the same again, selecting the best cows from the generation, the F2 generation will have the most favourable characteristics and will have lost any of the unfavourable characteristics as they have been bread out of the stock. The farmer then has the most favourable genetic characteristics in his heard to breed from. However this has its downfalls, by choosing selective breeding you reduce the gene pool. Allele frequency is reduced and this leaves the heard vulnerable to contracting infections and diseases, they have lost their ability to adapt and produce immune reactions.

When DNA of two species, one being radioactively labelled, are heated to separate the strands. The mixture is cooled to allow the complementary bases to form hydrogen bonds. Some of the strands formed will be hybrids. These hybrids will be extracted then heated, the higher the heat needed to separate the strands the more hydrogen bonds between the strands, therefore the more closely related the species are. This process is known as DNA hybridisation, it is used to determine species and how closely related they are.

This is important as it allows us to determine how closely related species are and thus if they will be able to breed and have viable off spring. Genetic engineering is very important in allowing us to develop medical cures as well as for other uses, such as food production. Reverse transcriptase is the process of isolating a gene; the process will allow us to produce things such as insulin to help people suffering from diabetes. Retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hold information in the form of RNA, using an enzyme known as reverse transcriptase, it catalyses the production of DNA from RNA.

A cell that produces the protein is selected, for example the beta cells from the islets of Langerhans in the human pancreas. These cells have large quantities of the relevant mRNA, this is therefore extracted. Reverse transcriptase is then used to make DNA from RNA. This DNA is known as complimentary DNA because it is made of the nucleotides that are complimentary to the mRNA. To make another strand of DNA, the enzyme DNA polymerase is used to build up the complimentary nucleotides on the cDNA template. This double strand is the required gene, in this case human insulin.

Scientists can produce this to make injections to give to sufferers of diabetes. All organisms use defensive measures against invaders, bacteria are often invaded by viruses that inject their DNA into them and take over the sell. Some bacteria produce enzymes that cut up the viral DNA. One process produces blunt ends and other produces sticky ends. Each type of restriction endonuclease cuts a double DNA strand at a specific sequence of bases, known as the recognition sequence. When this occurs between two opposite base pairs it leaves blunt ends.

The other method produces sticky ends; the staggered ends leave parts of the DNA unpaired and therefore available to form new bonds. The restriction endonuclease identifies the recognition sequence and cuts the DNA, however instead of cutting in a straight line the cut is staggered leaving bases unpaired. The nucleotides on the end are complimentary to the ones on the other side because they used to pair. If the same restriction endonuclease is used to cut DNA, then all the fragments produced will have ends that are complimentary, this means the single stranded end of a fragment can bond with the single stranded end of another fragment.

Once the sticky ends have paired up an enzyme known as DNA ligase is used to join the two fragments together. A vector is a carrier DNA molecule into which the desired gene can be inserted. Usually, the vector is a plasmid. This is a small, circular piece of DNA often found in bacteria in addition to their functional DNA. The plasmids are modified so that they have two or more genes for resistance to antibiotics. They should also contain a sequence that can be recognized by the same restriction enzyme used to cut the fragments.

The site that is cut should be in one of the genes for antibiotic resistance. Cut the genome with restriction endonuclease and mix with the plasmid that has also been cut with the same enzyme so that the sticky ends of the fragments and the plasmid are complementary. Hopefully, some fragments will insert into the plasmid DNA before either segment joins with itself. The fragments are added to the plasmids with different outcomes. One is the plasmid rejoins, or the fragment joins with plasmid but the fragment does not contain the desired gene.

Alternatively the fragment joins with plasmid, however this time the fragment does contain the desired gene or finally it is unsuccessful and the fragment joins with itself. Some plasmids will now contain the recombinant DNA fragment, other plasmids; however will not contain a fragment. If the plasmids are recombinants then one of the antibiotic resistance genes will have been disrupted. However, the other gene for antibiotic resistance will still be intact. Add this mixture of recombinant and non-recombinant plasmids to bacteria. Some will take up the plasmids if they are in calcium chloride solution.

The bacteria are transferred to a plate containing the antibiotic ampicillin. Those bacteria that have taken up any plasmid will be resistant to the antibiotic so will survive and form colonies. These bacteria will include recombinant and non-recombinant plasmids. These colonies are then replicated onto plates containing the antibiotic tetracycline. Those bacteria with recombinant plasmids will not survive because the fragment has disrupted the gene for resistance. The method can be used to create antibiotic resistance. Recombinant DNA

Brand extension summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Brand extension as a growth strategy has been employed in many companies and has increased its popularity in the recent decades. It also has gained a lot of attention from academic field. The use of established brand names to enter new product categories or classes is defined as brand extension (Keller and Aaker, 1992). Brands are important and are becoming more crucial for a company to survival in today’s fierce competitive business world.

Brand names are among a company’s most valuable assets (Klink and Smith, 2001). A brand name defines a unique quality, function, characteristic, promises, and trust which make it distinguishable from other products. Brand can be produced, just like any product, by the company (Karin, 2010). Obviously, using an existing brand name can substantially reduce the risk of introducing new product and thus enhance the opportunity of fast profit growing.

According to Byron (1993), the reason why brand extension is so popular is because it can create growth in the cost leading competition, redefine a new direction of a business or firm, gain economic scale in advertising, introduce new products without advertising and achieve new products’ success through endowing it with the goodwill but gain trial and distribution in an easier way. Brand extension has been discussed by lots of researchers (Aaker, 1991; Keller, 1993; Peter, 1989), some of them hold the opinion that brand extension can be broadly classified into two general categories: vertical extension and horizontal extension.

Horizontal extension includes line extension and category extension (Peter, 1989). Having studied 276 brand extensions cases, Tauber (1990) uses 7 types of categories to understand different ways of brand extension, trying to show the numbers of possibilities in brand extension depending on company’s products and customer franchise. Other researchers classify brand extensions into 3 types: range extension, line extension and brand extension (Hamish and Peter, 2008). Well-implemented extensions can offer a number of advantages

to companies: reduce the cost of developing a new brand, increase efficiency of promotional expenditures, allow for packaging and labeling efficiencies and so on (Kevin 2003). The successful sectors in brand extensions have been widely discussed by many scholars. Successful brand extension depends on many considerations, including the appropriateness of a company’s corporate structure, ability of personnel in the new market, and also 1 requires a favorable prior attitude toward transferred from current branded products to a new product (Boush & Loken, 1991; Reddy, Holak & Bhat, 1994).

Keller (2003) argues that most companies are more concerned about when, where and how the brand should be extended instead of whether it should be extended. Several advantages for a brand extension strategy: increase efficiency of promotional expenditures, reduce the cost of introductory and follow-up marketing programs and so on (Keller & Aaker, 1992; Keller, 2003; Kim & Sullivan, 1998). In practice, therefore, brand extension has become a widely accepted growth strategy for many companies.

The most typical and well-known case might be Virgin, it extended its original brand to many other businesses like: jeans, airline, vodka, mobile and etc.. Other famous brands, like Coca-Cola, it has different categories, classical, diet and regular. Sports brand, Nike and Adidas, both extend their brand names to all kinds of sport related clothing. Additionally, the well-known piano producer, Yamaha, also stretches its brand and enters into motorbike industry. 1. 2 Problem discussion

Although countless cases can be listed as successful brand extensions examples, while the advantages of brand extensions have been widely discussed, there are also quite a lot of failures which cannot be ignored. Statistics shows that there is an unexpected 84% failure rate among brand extension in some categories (Ernst & Young 1999; Marketing, 2003). David Talyor (2004) argues that only 50 percent brand extensions survive after three years which in other words, employing brand extensions can be gambling the company’s money on the black at the roulette table.

Additionally, some experts keep claiming that brand extension should be avoided (Ries & Trout, 2000). Aaker (1990) has pointed out that brand extension may bring serious damage to company’s original products and result in a decrease in growth. It can hurt parent brand image and encounter retailer resistance as well. An inappropriate brand extension could create damaging associations that may be very difficult for a company to overcome (Kim and Lavack, 1996).

Some researchers argue that brand extension can dilute the parent brand while new brand may fail to fulfill the needs of consumers as a whole (Roedder, Barbara and Christopher, 1998; Keller, 2003; Xie, 2008). Few of previous researchers (David, 2004; Kim and Sullivan, 2007; Matt, 2001), however, use practical case studies when considering both challenges and opportunities together in brand extension. In addition, most of researches focus on 2 brand extension as a whole regardless of different brand extension types.

Category brand extension, for instance, has not been widely studied and discussed. When implementing brand extension strategy, opportunities along with challenges might occur at the same time which can bring contrasting consequences to a company. Category brand extension as one of the brand extension types has been employed in some companies. Thus, it is worthy further studying in this area to figure out the two aspects of category brand extensions. 1. 3 Research purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the challenges and opportunities in brand extension.

The factors that help a company to fulfill successful brand extension will be analyzed. While, the reasons why a company fail in brand extension will also be discussed. Thus, to get a better understanding of knowledge in brand extension, particularly in the cases of category brand extension. 1. 4 Research question From the problem discussion above, it is interesting to pose the following question in this study: What are the challenges and opportunities a company faces when implementing brand extensions strategy? 1. 5 Delimitations

Brand extensions is a broad concept, that is why the theoretical part will be delimited by focusing on brand transfer, which also means introducing new products under an existing brand name. In this paper, the authors will delimit on discussing Aaker’s brand equity model to identify the challenges and opportunities of brand extensions. Empirical delimitations have also been taken into considerations. There are various types of companies that have succeeded in brand extension and the products they manufacture, the resources they require can vary at a large scale, as well as those failed.

Therefore, the authors will delimit this study by comparing two companies: Yamaha Corporation and Virgin Group. Both of these companies are category brand extension, which means they use the existing parent brand name when stretching their products to another different category. 3 2 Literature review 2. 1 Brand extension Brand extension is now a quite popular and frequently used strategy in brand management. The history of brand extension can be traced back to the 1960s (Gamble, 1967). It started to get popular in the 1980s, and keeps on increasing in the 21th century.

It is reported that as many as 70 percent of new products were launched with existing brand names on certain brands in 1980s (Buday, 1989), and the number is continuously increasing nowadays. Brand extension, also named as brand stretching, is using an established brand name to enter a new product category (Aaker and Keller, 1990). Brand extension is sometimes a choice full of risks, as can be seen in the high percentage of failure examples. Famous failure examples such as Virgin and Miller provide learning experience in real cases.

In a word, it is very important for managers to know how to reduce the risk of brand extension in order to achieve success. 2. 1. 1 Types of brand extension Brand extension classifications can be showed in figure 1. 1. This figure introduces brand extension in an easier, clearer and more systematical way. Figure 1. 1 Brand extension classifications. (Adapted from Peter, 1989; Pitta & Katsanis, 1995; Keller, 2003, pp. 577) line extension horizontal extension category extension Brand extension up scale vertical extension down scale Horizontal extension includes line extension and category extension (Peter, 1989).

Pitta and Katsanis (1995) define it as extending a parent brand to a new product in the same product class or to a product which is completely new for the company. The definition includes two aspects which bring out the difference between line extension and category extension. In line extension, however, the parent brand is used to 4 introduce a new product within a product category currently served by the parent brand. In category extension, the parent brand is used to enter a different product category from what currently served by the parent brand (Keller, 2003).Line extension has been discussed in many studies of plenty of scholars (Ina, 2010; Kim and Sullivan, 1998; Kim and Mary, 1998; Rise, 2009) while compare to line extension, category extension does not cause such attentions. Vertical extension is defined as introducing a similar brand to the same product category while being different in quality and price (Keller & Aaker, 1992). Additionally vertical brand extension can be divided into up-scale and down-scale brand extension ((Kim & Lavack, 1996; Xie, 2008).

According to the definition, it can be concluded that up-scale extension refers to a higher quality and higher price point as compared to the parent brand. Whereas, down-scale extension means extending a brand with lower quality and price. For example, Nikon offers cameras in different categories. But within the 35mm SLR category, Nikon’s offerings include the N90, N70, and N50. All of these cameras are intended for essentially the same application, but are different in quality level and price. 2. 1. 2 Benefits for brand extension

Brand extension is always seen as a way for companies to seek growth while introducing a new product (Carolin, 2007). As it is a phenomenon in strong competitive market, previous studies report that failure rates are 80 percent of the extension (Volkner and Sattler, 2006). With such a high rate of failure, brand extension is still one of the most popular ways for companies to develop. There are reasons why it is so attractive and profitable. Economic benefit should be the first dynamic of brand extension. In the world of cash, one of the greatest profits everybody wants to seek is economic benefit.

According to Tauber (1988), the economic as well as the business world, is now a cost controlled and cost based world. Brand extension can be considered as a costly effective outcome for new categories, the sales of parent brand will increase when employing brand extension. On the other hand, brand extension can also reduce the cost of launching a new product (Jean-noel, 1993). It is well known that much more investments are required while introducing a new brand to the market, such as advertisement, and this factor motivates managers to use the way of brand extension.

It is because brand extension can help in gaining financial scale in the field of advertising (Roberts and McDonald, 1989). One of the most 5 popular and effective but costly ways of branding is advertising. Good advertising makes great contribution to the development of brand products. But advertising needs a big amount of investments into the market to compete with competitors. Brand extension can achieve the efficiency of advertising (Smith and Park, 1992). In addition, brand extension can also become an advisable way to introduce a new product without advertising (Hasting, 1990).

This can also lower the cost and provide easier chances for the new product when entering into the market. Secondly, brand extension reduces the risk of the new brand while entering the market (Jean-noel, 1993; Lain, 2002). It is considered that the parent brand is famous if brand extension is applied, because the new product can earn market share and customers more easily with the help of the reputation of parent brand. Customers will be attracted as they share the loyalty and trust the brand image of parent product (Aaker and Keller, 1990).

In this case, the risk and chance fail for the new product can be reduced (David Taylor, 2004), since the name of the parent brand can attract a group of customers based on their loyalty. Also, this is an easier way to compete with the competitors. Moreover, brand extension expands parent brands’ consumer base and eventually assists in developing parent brand franchise. 2. 1. 3 Risks of brand extension Even though there are thousands of reasons and benefits of brand extension, no matter how attractive it is, brand extension is full of risks. The probability of success is uncertain and unpredictable.80% of the failure examples tell that brand extension is a two-side sword. Many managers are motivated by brand extension, since the new product can be introduced with the image and the popularity of the parent brand. It is acquiesce that the parent brand is a famous brand when implementing brand extension. Consequently, once the brand extension is failed, the image of the parent brand will surely suffer from negative influence. A wide selection of extensions confuses consumers (Quelch and Kenny, 1994) and then will reduce the parent brand’s original image, consumers’ loyalty and brand equity at the same time.

Much worse, it will bring down consumers’ trust and belief in the brand name (Ian, 2010; Loken and John 1993; Milberg, Park and McCarthy 1997; Sullivan 1990). Take the example of Coca-Cola, in order to compete with the biggest competitor Pepsi, in 1980s Coca-Cola Company introduced new flavor coke, but customers didn’t like the new coke which resulted in the decrease of the sales of original taste coke. 6 Brand extension might cause psychopathy conflict of customers, weakening of exiting associations, and the sharp image of the parent brand can be fuzzed (Aaker, 1990).

Besides, it might also reduce the market share and number of customers. Take the example of Scott Company, Kleenex was the strongest brand of toilet paper in American during that time. But the Scott introduced Kleenex facial tissue to the market what made customers feel strange when using the tissue. Famous American advertisement science expert, Al Ries, even commented on the product as: Kleenex toilet paper and Kleenex tissue, which one is for nose? Later on, Procter & Gamble’s product, Charmin toilet paper took place of Scott in the toilet paper. Another risk is changing the position of the brand.

For a new product, there will be a strong restriction regarding the positioning. The positioning of the new product should be close to the parent brand to realize synergy effects, otherwise, risks might appear (Carolin, 2007). GOLDLION is a famous Chinese clothing brand for men, which was popular for a time. Its slogan is “Goldlion, men’s world”. With the development of Chinese clothing market especially for women’s clothes, Goldlion started to promote its own brand for women’s clothes, but somehow ended up with a fuzzy image to the original brand.

Indeed, Goldlion’s women collection is not as popular as men’s. The positioning of Goldlion is men’s clothing and has been well known among customers for years. Once the new collection for women came out, customers changed the image of the brand and in return they got confused about the product (MBA library). From all the literatures listed above, it is expected that a company might confront both challenges and opportunities when implementing brand extension strategy.

However, category extension has not been discussed independently as a type of brand extension. Neither have specific cases and examples been further implied to related theory. 2. 2 Brand equity Branding is all about creating differences (Keller, 2003). Consequently, the brand equity concept is about the importance of the role of the brand in marketing strategies. Brand equity provides a common concept for interpreting marketing strategies. Brand equity can be defined differently by different approaches: consumer based view and company based view.

Consumer based brand equity is the most widespread nowadays due to the importance markets given to the brand evaluation from the consumer’s point of view (Ilias & Anastassios, 2010). Aaker (1991) defines brand equity as a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol, which add to or subtract from the value provided by a 7 product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s customer. By the other words, the differential effect that brand has on the customer’s response to the marketing of that brand.

Therefore, the brand equity that a company enjoys is the essential piece that reflects the performance of the company and is the guide towards future strategies and decisions. Keller (1993) refers brand equity as the differential effect of brand knowledge on customers’ response to the marketing of a brand. Keller (2003) stresses that in order to understand the brand equity, it should be realized that the power of a brand lies in what resides in the minds of customers. In Keller’s consumer-based brand equity theory, brand awareness and brand image are used as two components.

Many more scholars have explained and developed the definition of brand equity: Based on Aaker’s (1991) and Keller’s (1993) conceptualizations of brand equity, Yoo and Donthu (2001) developed and validated the multi-dimensional consumer based brand equity (MBE) model. In their study, there is a comparatively high positive relationship between brand equity and purchase intention as well as between brand equity and brand attitude across all consumer groups. Solomon and Stuart (2002) put brand equity as the value that a brand has for a particular organization or company.

They explain that brand equity provides a competitive advantage because it gives the brand the power to capture and hold onto a larger share of the market and to sell at prices with higher profit margins. Moreover, Brady, Cronin, Gavin and Roehm (2008) state that brand equity implies a way of superiority. It is a perception of belief that extends beyond mere familiarity to an extent of superiority that is not necessarily tied to specific action. Nam, Ekinci and Whyatt (2011) study a sample of 378 customers in hotel and restaurant industry by testing a model of five dimensions which as a result further develops Aaker’s brand equity theory.

Modified Aaker’s brand equity model The theoretical framework of this paper explains the challenges and opportunities of brand extension based on modified Aaker’s brand equity model. There are five categories in Aaker’s brand equity model: brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and other proprietary brand assets. Four categories of Aaker’s brand equity model are further discussed. Later on authors use the modified model to analyze two cases of category brand extensions from the collected data in empirical part.

Relationships between brand equity and brand extension success can be found. 8 Researches show that a brand’s equity has an impact on the success of extensions: Carolin (2007) argues that higher brand equity has higher chance for extension success. Pitta and Katsanis (1995) state that there seems to be a relationship between brand equity and brand extensions. Herr, Farquhar and etc. (1996) study the relationship between brand awareness and the evaluation of brand extensions, and they find the relationship between the parent category and the target category of the proposed extension.

Moreover, Glynn and Brodie (1994) find that the brand-specific associations are important to evaluate brand extensions. Hem and Iversen (2003) explore the effects of brand loyalty towards the original brand on the evaluation of brand extensions. In their study, a high affective relationship towards the parent brand may reduce the evaluation of brand extensions while high loyalty towards the parent brand is important for reaching a positive evaluation of extensions.

The conceptualization and structure of Aaker’s brand equity contain five categories (Aaker, 1991): brand loyalty, brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality and other proprietary brand assets. The last category represents elements like patents, trademarks and channel relationship. Brand equity can generally add value for customers by helping them process and store a lot of information about the products and brands. Brand equity can also potentially add value for the company. It can provide a platform for growth via brand extension. As showed in figure 2.1, the network indicates the glue that ties each piece together and enhances solidity to the brand. Figure 2. 1: Modified brand equity model (Original model is from Aaker, 1991, pp. 17). 9 Perceived quality Brand awareness Brand Equity Brand associations Brand loyalty 2. 3. 1 Brand awareness Brand awareness is defined as the ability of a buyer to recognize that a brand is a member of a certain product category. Brand awareness reflects the presence of the brand in the mind of customers. It should occur regardless of environmental conditions such as time and locations.

Consumers may link the related brand knowledge to the brand name, which finally constitutes brand equity (Aaker, 1991). Aaker argues that consumers in general turn their attention towards a recognized brand rather than an unfamiliar brand. Brand awareness can be characterized according to depth and breadth. The depth of brand awareness concerns the likelihood that a brand element will come to mind and the ease with which it does so. The breath of brand awareness concerns the range of purchase and usage situations where the brand element comes to mind.

The breadth of brand awareness depends, to a large extent, on the organization of brand and product knowledge in memory (Keller, 1998). Moreover, for some low involvement products, brand awareness is sufficient to create sales (Dennis and Lea, 1995). Since consumers spend little time or effort on the consumption decision of low involvement products, familiarity with the brand name may be enough to determine purchase. 10 Aperia (2001, cited in Kollander and Lejon, 2007. ) claims that brand awareness is essential for a company because of the following three different reasons.

Firstly, brand awareness is crucial for a company to communicate the attributes that follow with the brand. Secondly, brand awareness establishes a relationship between the company and the customer. Finally, brand awareness symbolizes to the customer that the product is of high quality. 2. 3. 2 Brand loyalty Loyalty is a core dimension of brand equity which is a measurement of the attachment that a customer has to a brand (Aaker, 1991). Keller (1998) also explains that brand loyalty is often measured in a behavioral sense through the number of repeat purchases.

If a customer prefers to go to McDonald’s instead of Max, it is because the customer has brand loyalty towards McDonald’s. Repeat purchase of the brand, however, may not represent commitment, it may merely represent acceptance of the brand (Assael, 1998). Loyalty reflects how likely a customer will change to another brand, especially when that brand makes a change, probably in price. Aaker (1991) convinces that loyalty demands a long term strategy from the company perspective to position and presents the brand as a necessary ally in the mind set of consumers.

But once loyalty is gained, it can bring value: The marketing costs will be heavily reduced when the majority of the customers become loyal to the brand; As an effect of brand loyalty, the trade leverage of the brand will be facilitated in terms of an increase in distribution hubs; The company will be able to acquire more time to respond to competitive threats. Brand loyalty also gives a company some protection from competition and greater control in planning their marketing programs (Kotler, 1994). Aaker (1991) uses a brand loyalty pyramid to differentiate the different levels of brand loyalty.

In this pyramid, the bottom loyalty level is the non-loyal buyer who is completely indifferent to the brand, whereas the top level is committed customers who are very likely to recommend the brand to others. The main goal for a company is to execute actions that can influence consumers in the lower levels to become more loyal towards the brand. 2. 3. 3 Brand associations Brand association is defined by Aaker (1991) as anything linked in memory to a brand. It also refers to any brand knowledge relating to the brand in the customer’s mind. 11

Keller (1998) noted that brand association can affect consumers’ purchasing decisions based on the recall of brand information. Brand associations are very essential for a brand to be different from others and to acquire unique values. Three types of brand associations are: attributes, benefits, and attitudes. Brand attitudes are the other types which are defined as consumers’ overall evaluations of a brand. This might be abstract criteria but it is of importance as well (Tuominen, 1999), because they often form the basis for actions and behavior that consumers take with the brand.

In addition, Keller (1998) has explained that brand attitudes can be formed on the basis of benefits about product-related attributes and functional benefits and/or beliefs about non-product-related attributes and symbolic and experiential benefits. Brand association can provide the basis for an extension (Aaker, 1991). Since brand association involves product attribute or consumer benefits that provide a reason to buy and use the brand, it will result in purchasing the extended brand because of the fit between the brand name and a new product.

Perceived quality According to Aaker (1991)’s definition, perceived quality refers to the customer’s awareness of products’ superior quality in relation to other products. To what extent a customer is aware of product quality of a particular brand might depends on past experiences from practical use or possible feedbacks/comments from others. In this case, a product considered of high quality can be perceived by the consumer as poor quality depending upon the consumer’s expectations of the product and vice versa.

Aaker (1991) also argues that a strong brand with respect to perceived quality will be able to extend further, and will find a higher success probability than a weaker brand. 12 3 Methodology 3. 1 Research method According to Bryman and Bell (2007) there are two methods in social research, quantitative and qualitative. The quantitative method is characterized by many respondents and uses figures and quantities to describe the reality. A quantitative research should be conducted by measuring indicators which can explain or indicate the respective concept.

Meanwhile, a qualitative research emphasizes more on the words the respondents use and leaves more freedom to the answers of the respondents. The qualitative method makes use of text in writing and is more interpretive in its nature. It is also usually limited to a fewer number of respondents and looks more into the depth of the problem or issue. In this study, qualitative research method is used because it allows flexibility and openness which enables the process to be interactive. Two contrasting cases will be analyzed because Hantrais (1996, cited on Brymanand Bell 2007) suggests that a comparative design may be able to seek explanations for similarities and differences or to gain a great awareness and a deeper understanding of the issue. Because two cases will be studied, qualitative research method will provide a deeper insight into the empirical data and thus in return enhance the possibility of getting a better understanding of the research question. 3. 2 Research approach In general, two research approaches are used in social research, inductive and deductive. Inductive approach is moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories (Saunders & Thornhill, 2009).

It also refers to when the researcher starts by making observations of the reality without having reviewed the theories in that given area. Whereas, the deductive approach is described as going from theoretical approach to empirical. The reasoning is conducted from the more general to the more specific and the conclusion follows logically from available facts. As specific case study is used to find observations and to analyze and generalize the findings comparing to theoretical overview, deductive research approach is going to be employed through this study. 3. 3 Data collection

There are mainly two different ways to collect data: primary and secondary data 13 collection. Primary data is gathered from original sources by the researcher whilst secondary data is gathered from existing sources (Pervez et al. , 1995). The literature being used in this study is secondary data which is cited in course books, published articles and Internet resources. The courses books are derived from Halmstad University library. The published articles are derived from Halmstad University database and Google article. All references are listed at the end of the paper.

In order to proceed to the case study, two companies which represent successful example and unsuccessful example respectively have been chosen. The successful example is the Yamaha Corporation while the failure example is Virgin Cola in Virgin Group. The reasons why these two companies are chosen are because firstly, both of them are category extension. They both stretch their business into other different fields compared to the parent brand. Second is they are international companies enjoying a worldwide famous reputation. Each of them has a long history and attracts a great number of customers.

Interviews and observations are two of the most frequently used primary data collection methods for empirical data. But they usually cost a lot of time and money. Whilst, secondary data is more economical, as the cost of collecting original data is saved (Rajendar, 2008). The two companies used in empirical data are located in the UK and Japan respectively, which brings us the difficulty in collecting primary data. Besides, the two companies are both worldwide global companies. There are enough data on their official website from which authors can ensure the reliability of the data.

Both cases in the empirical data are derived from the Internet. The data of Yamaha Corporation is from the following sources: Yamaha annual report 2010, Yamaha annual report 2011, Yamaha factbook 2011 and Yamaha official website. The data of Yamaha history and marketing performance has been reorganized and summarized. The Data of Virgin Group is from the following sources: The official website of Virgin Group as well as the companies’ official websites under the home page, other data related to details is reorganized and summarized from websites, books and articles (Tom Bower, 2005; Matt Haig, 2001; David Taylor, 2007).

 Reliability and Validity In order to test the reliability and the validity in this qualitative research, LeCompte and Goetz (1982, cited on Bryman & Bell, 2007) identify the reliability and the 14 validity as external and internal respectively. External reliability means the degree to which a study can be replicated, and internal reliability means all the research members should agree about what they say and hear.

Internal validity refers to the degree to which researchers’ observations and the theoretical ideas match, while external validity means the degree to which findings can be generalized across social settings. To maximize the chance of reliability and validity, the authors collect empirical data from the companies’ official websites to ensure the reliability of the data. The literature framework used in the paper is modified from Aaker’s brand equity model which is believed to be very valid and reliable in brand management research. The authors analyze the empirical data by comparing it to the theory presented in the theory

Discovering Psychology “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

This course overviews the foundations of psychology as the field applies to everyday life. The physical and mental aspects of psychology are traced through lifespan development with emphasis on psychological health and wellness. Further study focuses on personality; thinking, learning and memory; motivation and emotions; and gender and sexuality. Based in various historical traditions, the course is set in the context of contemporary psychological principles. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents:

University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Hockenbury D. H. & Hockenbury S. E. (2014) Discovering psychology (6th ed. ). New York, NY: Worth Publishers. All electronic materials are available on the student website.

Week One: A Brief History of Psychology The Brain and Mind Details Due Points Objectives 1. 1 Describe the major perspectives in the field of psychology. 1. 2 Identify research methods used by psychologists. 1. 3 Identify major ethical issues in the field of psychology research. 1. 4 Identify major structures and functions of the brain. Readings Read Ch. 1 of Discovering Psychology. Readings Read Ch. 2 of Discovering Psychology. Participation Participate in class discussion. 8 Substantial post per week, Weeks run Tuesday-Monday 2 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions.

You will have Two discussion question per week, First must be completed by Thursdays, the second by Saturday 2 Activities and Preparation Watch The Field of Psychology – Interactive Tutorial located at the following link: http://media. pearsoncmg. com/pcp/pcp_94123_psych_axia/lesson_01/select. htm Learning Team Instructions Resource: Learning Team Toolkit Complete the Learning Team Charter. End of Week 1 Monday Individual Introduction to Psychology Worksheet Complete the Introduction to Psychology Worksheet located on the student web page. End of week 1 (Monday) 10 Week Two: Learning and Memory Details

Due Points Objectives 2 2. 1 Compare classical and operant conditioning. 2. 2 Interpret a learning experience through the lens of observational learning. 2. 3 Describe sensory, short-term, and long-term memory in relationship to each other. Readings Read Ch. 5 of Discovering Psychology. Readings Read Ch. 6 of Discovering Psychology. Participation Participate in class discussion. 8 Substantial post per week, Weeks run Tuesday-Monday 2 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. You will have Two discussion question per week, First must be completed by Thursdays, the second by Saturday 2

Activities and Preparation Watch the Learning with Change and Experience and Memory – Interactive Tutorial located at the following link: http://media. pearsoncmg. com/pcp/pcp_94123_psych_axia/lesson_04/select. htm Individual Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper describing a single, informal learning experience that someone could have. You may describe, for example, how someone could become afraid of heights, why a particular food or smell moves him/her emotionally, or why he/she dislikes elevators. The experience must be concrete and can be a singular experience or an experience that occurs over a longer period.

Describe the experience by applying learning theories to the steps involved in the learning experience. You are going to look at the experience from different learning perspectives-classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. Be sure to include the following in your paper: Describe how what was learned could have occurred through classical conditioning. Identify the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response. Explain how what was learned could have occurred through operant conditioning.

Describe the behavior, consequence, and reinforcement. Indicate the schedule of reinforcement, if applicable. Address how the learned experience could have occurred through observational learning. Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Due end of week 2 (Monday) 10 Learning Team Memory Discussion Submit a 300- to 500-word summary of the discussion of the following: Explain the three stages of memory. How might understanding how our memory works help us learn? End of week two (Monday) 2 Week Three: Thinking and Intelligence Motivation and Emotions Details Due Points Objectives

 Summarize theories of intelligence. 3. 2 Compare different approaches to motivation. 3. 3 Classify the range of emotions and related theories. 3. 4 Explore the connection between psychological needs and motivation. Readings Read Ch. 7 of Discovering Psychology. Readings Read Ch. 8 of Discovering Psychology. Participation Participate in class discussion. 8 Substantial post per week, Weeks run Tuesday-Monday 2 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. You will have Two discussion question per week, First must be completed by Thursdays, the second by Saturday 2

Activities and Preparation Watch the Motivation and Emotion – Interactive Tutorial located at the following link: http://media. pearsoncmg. com/pcp/pcp_94123_psych_axia/lesson_07/select. htm Individual Psychological Needs Paper Write a 500- to 700-word paper about psychological needs as represented in Maslow’s hierarchy. Include the following: Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Does this hierarchy make sense to you? Explain your answer. How does Maslow’s hierarchy relate to motivation? Which need to you find most challenging? Why is this need challenging? Why?

Format your paper according to APA standards. End of Week 3 (Monday) 8 Learning Team Motivation and Emotion Worksheet Complete the Motivation, Emotions, and Intelligence Worksheet located on the student web page. End of Week 3 (Monday) 8 Week Four: Lifespan Development Personality Details Due Points Objectives 4 4. 1 Outline physical, social, and cognitive development from childhood to late adulthood. 4. 2 Compare theories of personality development. 4. 3 Explain ways personality can be assessed. Readings Read Ch. 9 of Discovering Psychology. Readings Read Ch. 10 of Discovering Psychology.

Participation Participate in class discussion. 8 Substantial post per week, Weeks run Tuesday-Monday 2 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. You will have Two discussion question per week, First must be completed by Thursdays, the second by Saturday 2 Activities and Preparation Watch the Children’s Social Status tutorial located at the following link: http://media. pearsoncmg. com/pcp/pcp_94178_psych_axia/sim_social_status/index. html Individual Personality Paper Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper about personality. Include the following: Describe four perspectives of personality.

Compare three theories of personality development. How is personality assessed? What are the benefits of these assessments? What issues need to be considered with some personality assessments? Format your paper according to APA standards. End of Week 4 (Monday) 10 Learning Team Development Matrix Complete the Development Matrix located on your student web page. End of Week 4 (Monday) 10 Week Five: Psychological Disorders Psychological Health Details Due Points Objectives 5 5. 1 Describe perspectives on normal versus abnormal behavior. 5. 2 Identify the major classifications of psychological disorders.

Explain treatment approaches for psychological disorders. 5. 4 Describe how people cope with stress. 5. 5 Describe the physical, emotional, and cognitive effects of stress. Readings Read Ch. 12 of Discovering Psychology. Readings Read Ch. 13 of Discovering Psychology. Readings Read Ch. 14 of Discovering Psychology. Participation Participate in class discussion. 8 Substantial post per week, Weeks run Tuesday-Monday 2 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. You will have Two discussion question per week, First must be completed by Thursdays, the second by Saturday 2 Individual

Psychotherapy Matrix Complete the Psychotherapy Matrix. End of Week 5 (Monday) 12 Learning Team Coping with Stress Presentation Develop a presentation on strategies to cope with stress and promote wellness. The presentation can be an 8- to 10-slide Microsoft PowerPoint, pamphlet, or brochure. Online students are to also provide detailed speaker notes. Describe physical, emotional, and cognitive effects that stress can have on an individual. Explain two to three effective strategies that can reduce stress. Describe how the strategies can reduce the negative effects of stress on physical, emotional, and cognitive.

End of Week 5 (Monday) 10 Copyright University of Phoenix® is a registered trademark of Apollo Group, Inc. in the United States and/or other countries. Microsoft®, Windows®, and Windows NT® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other company and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. Use of these marks is not intended to imply endorsement, sponsorship, or affiliation. Edited in accordance with University of Phoenix® editorial standards and practices.

Pareto Efficiency admission essay help: admission essay help

For the Union, it is preferable to have a high health care over a high pension. For management, it is preferable to have a low health care over low pension. Intuitively, this means that an efficient agreement would be to have high health care and low pension. b.

Pension Health CareUnionManagementPareto LowLow03Yes LowHigh152Yes High Low51No HighHigh200Yes

Option three, high pension and low health care is Pareto inefficient. You can see that visually in the graph (it is below the line of efficiency) and in the chart as well. It is Pareto efficient because both parties stand to gain from an alternative- the union would gain ten points if they moved to low pension and management would gain one.

c.As you can see, the Pareto efficient agreements do not change. This is because the preferences didn’t change per say, just the scale of the preferences. Just as in part b, high pension- low health care is Pareto inefficient because both groups would gain from moving to low pension- high health care.

Pension Health CareUnionManagementPareto LowLow030Yes LowHigh1520Yes High Low510No HighHigh200Yes

Level of technological supportTimingGuaranteeNorthstarGeneral Data SystemsPareto Efficient? S1I18Yes530160N S1I18No420260Y S1I24Yes250300Y S1I24No0440Y S2I18Yes670100N S2I18No560200Y S2I24Yes370230N S2I24No120370Y S3I18Yes9000Y S3I18No790100Y S3I24Yes45080N S3I24No200220N


b.With these reservation points, the highlighted agreements are now Pareto efficient and acceptable to both parties. Level of technological supportTimingGuaranteeNorthstarGeneral Data SystemsPareto Efficient? S1I18Yes530160N

S1I18No420260Y S1I24Yes250300Y S1I24No0440Y S2I18Yes670100N S2I18No560200Y S2I24Yes370230N S2I24No120370Y S3I18Yes9000Y S3I18No790100Y S3I24Yes45080N S3I24No200220N

c. It depends on how much the price may change. If the price is going to change greatly, it could drive Northstar’s possible points to zero. If this were the case, then previously non-Pareto efficient outcomes would become Pareto efficient outcomes.

Software Requirement Specification computer science essay help: computer science essay help

The description and overview of everything included in this SRS document is explained here. Also, the purpose for this document is described and a list of abbreviations and definitions is provided. 1. 1 Purpose The purpose of this document is to give a detailed description of the requirements for the ”Department Attendance and CPE Management” software. It will illustrate the purpose and complete declaration for the development of system. This document is primarily intended to be proposed to the CSE department’s office staff and the staff-in-charge for CPE management.

Scope The ”Department Attendance and CPE Management” is a Computer based software system which is capable of the following : 1) The CPE management system has in it the details about the conferences that are organised in the college, the conferences attended by the students or staff from SSN and also the details of the Guest Lectures that took place. 2) It keeps track of the conference title, the type of conference, the type of participants, sponsor and resource person of conferences organised in the college.

On demand, the system can generate details such as number of workshops organised within a period, number of conferences organised for students/ staff/ both and other required reports. 4) The attendance system monitors the attendance record of all the students in the department period wise. The system also maintains period wise accumulation of attendance of all students in each subject. 5) This system keeps track of marks obtained by students in each of the Unit Tests in all subjects. The records are maintained for all three Unit Test cycles.

The system includes features that can generate reports such as class wise Unit Test mark sheets, period wise accumulation of attendance on demand. 1. 3 Definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations Term Definition Admin/Administrator System administrator who is given specific permission for managing and controlling the specific part of the system. CPE Management Keeping track of different conferences, workshops and guest lectures attended or organized by staff and students Student Attendance The attendance and mark details of each student in the department DACM system

Department Attendance and CPE Management 1. 4 References [1]IEEE Software Engineering Standards Committee, “IEEE Std 830-1998, IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirements Specifications”, October 20, 1998. [2] Pressman, Roger (2010). Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach. Boston: McGraw Hill. 1. 5 Overview A general description, including characteristics of the users of this project, the product’s hardware, and the functional and data requirements of the product is portrayed in the Overview. General description of the project is discussed in section 2 of this document.

Section 3 gives the functional requirements, data requirements and constraints and assumptions made while designing the system. Section 3 also gives the specific requirements of the product, external interface requirements and gives detailed description of functional requirements. 2. Overall description An overview of the whole system is given here. The system is explained in its context to show how the system interacts with other systems and introduce the basic functionality of it. It will also describe what type of stakeholders who will use the system and what functionality is available for

each type. 2. 1. Product perspective This Department Attendance and CPE Management system will be a package used by the Department of CSE to improve the efficiency in maintaining the attendance and mark database of the students and facilitating in keeping track of conferences, workshops and guest lectures attended and organised by staff or students. 2. 1. 1. User interfaces The DACM system will be placed available to the office staff and the staff-in-charge with separate login so as not to end up in chaos.

There will be a login page which will prevent unauthorized use. 2 An interface for managing and updating student marks and attendance will be available to the office staff after authentication. Reports can also be generated via the interface. 3 The CPE management system to be managed by the staff-in-charge after authentication will have an interface to update details about conferences organized by the department, conferences attended by staff and guest lectures delivered by staff. Reports can be generated periodically via the interface. 2. 1. 2.

Hardware interfaces The DACM system is intended to be platform independent. Therefore no specific hardware is excluded. But it will at least work on x86 systems without any additional porting efforts. There is a necessity of a printer if a hard copy of the reports is needed. Moreover, no special hardware is needed for software operation. 2. 1. 3. Software interfaces The DACM system is intended to be operating system independent. Therefore no specific operating system is excluded. Databases would be configured using SQL and the front end will be designed using Java.

Memory constraints This DACM system is expected to use no more than 512 MB of RAM and 100 MB of external storage. 2. 2. Product functions With this software system, the management of student attendance and mark details by the department’s office and the CPE management by the staff-in-charge will be hassle-free. Updates are done on a button-click and the reports are available instantly. Any sort of information can be gathered with a great ease. 2. 3. User characteristics There are two types of users who use this system.

Staff-In-Charge :The department staff who uses this system to keep track of the events organized and attended by staff and students of the department and generates reports for a particular period. 2 Office Staff:The office staff who inputs the system with the student details, Unit Test marks and periodical attendance and generates reports for a particular period. 2. 4. Constraints The Network connection is a constraint for the application. Since the application fetches data from the database over the same network, it is crucial that there is a network connection preferably a LAN connection for the application to function.

Further the capacity of the database also affects the system since the database is shared between both applications it may be forced to queue incoming requests and therefore increase the time it takes to fetch data. 3. Specific Requirements The functional and quality requirements of the system are described here. It gives a detailed description of the system and all its features. 3. 1 External interface requirements The DACM system will use the standard input/output devices for a personal computer. This includes the following: Keyboard Mouse

Monitor Printer 3. 2 Functional Requirements Functional requirements define the fundamental actions that system must perform. The functional requirements for the system are divided into two main categories 1 Department Attendance Management: a The system after authentication can collect information of students such as i Student Register Number ii Student Name iii Student Class (Semester) and Section iv Subjects v Unit Test Marks vi Attendance b The office staff will also be capable of updating these details especially, the marks and attendance.

Required type of reports for each class or student can be generated depending on the constraints specified by the office staff. 2 CPE management: a The staff-in-charge after authentication can enter information about the conferences, seminars and workshops organised in the college. b The staff-in-charge can then add entries whenever staff have attended these events in other institutions or have delivered guest lectures in other institutions. c Provisions for generating periodic reports based on staff and students are also available. 3. 3 Non Functional Requirements

Non Functional requirements define the needs in terms of performance, logical database requirements, design constraints, standards compliance, reliability, availability, security, maintainability, and portability. 3. 3. 1 Performance Requirements Performance requirements define acceptable response times for system functionality. The system developed must comply with the following non-functional requirements: 1 The load time for user interface screens shall take no longer than two seconds. 2 The log in information shall be verified within five seconds. 3 Queries shall return results within five seconds.

Software Quality Attributes. The graphical user interface of the DACM system is to be designed with usability as the first priority. The application will be presented and organized in a manner that is both visually appealing and easy for the user to navigate. There will be feedbacks and visual cues such as notifications to inform users of updates. 3. 3. 3 Fault Tolerance The system is designed to tolerate faults to certain extent. Improper data such as wrong username or password is acceptable up to 3 times after which the system will be locked for 10 minutes. 3. 3.

Security Requirements Security of the system is guarded primarily through proper authorization. The system is resistant to hackers as it cannot be hacked through brute-force and such other attacks. 3. 3. 5 Platform constraints The DACM system shall run in any Microsoft Windows/Linux environment that contains Java Runtime and the SQL database. 3. 3. 6 Logical Database requirements Since this system handles voluminous data for numerous students, the database plays a major role in determining the system security and performance. SQL database will be used to store and retrieve the information.

DIsney stereotypes college essay help online: college essay help online

In today’s world, gender stereotypes are still ongoing in today’s media. Most tv shows, movies or advertisments follow these stereotypes due to what has society has indoctrinated in our minds as the gender stereotype of men being the toughest of the tough and muscular, when women are seen as innocent, happy and pure. An example of gender stereotype in a media would be the Walt Disney film, Beauty and the Beast, the film is about a woman named Belle; she is perceived as a young, pleasant, and beautiful woman who gains attention from all the men in town.

She catches the eye of an antagonist named Gaston, a muscular and testerone pumping wealthy hunter that sees himself as someone that can get anything he wants whenever he wants. All if not most of Disney films are of a story of a woman who looks for more out of her life, wish to get out of her comfort zone to either prove someone or something that they could achieve it while gaining romantic interest in or simply gaining a romantic interest through curiosty or human conflict as in Mulan The gender stereotypes observed in this film was like any other Walt Disney film.

There is always a damsel in distress, the antagonist and Prince Charming. The roles for women in the film were portrayed as young, beautiful and in some cases were shown off with very revealing clothing as the triplets that adored Gaston. It was as if the flaunting of women had become a social normality even in children’s films. The role for men in the movie were of opposite polarity. It was either strong, masculine and attractive like Gaston or old and not handsome like Belle’s father and the men in the village she had lived in.

It had come to my attention that Gaston was the only handsome man throughout the film. The beast was difficult to analyze as a gender stereotype as although he fit the masculine prerequisite, he did not fill the attractive part until later in the film when the curse he had was broken which then he became into a long haired handsome man that could suit as a king. Gender sterotypes are rampant in Disney films, only recently were things mixed around. I believe that this film can impact a person’s point of view on the means of being male or female.

Disney films have been a major part of many people’s lives, in most people’s mind, this wouldn’t be our first and final Disney movie so theoretically if more films with this type of idea on gender were to be watched then indoctrination would begin. The more we do of the same thing or watch something, we would be accustomed to the ideals of the subject material. It is simple as that; an example would be, in the United States we have a set amount of meals: Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner.

We were indoctrinated or conditioned to know that from the beginning of our lives that there are three meals a day and if all goes well then dessert would be included. Our views on subjects depend on three variables: what we are exposed to at an early stage, with repetition, or what we are told what is right and wrong from our superiors. (be it society or family values) All in all, I believe with enough effort, anything can and will change someone’s views once conditioning begins.

A TV show that promotes a positive image of males would be in my opinion, the show called Breaking Bad. Although this may sound like a bad choice, put it this way. The TV series talks about a man named Walter White: a chemistry teacher in high school who is diagnosed with cancer. He is shocked with the news that he didn’t have that long and realizes that his current income would not suit his family’s needs when he passes on. At first, he could not comprehend the fact that his life was coming to an end sooner than he thought; he had then met a student in his class named Jessie.

Jessie had sold him some marijuana to soothe his needs, which then fast forwarded into him and Jessie making a near pure formula methamphetamine. The money wasn’t enough for Walt’s needs which soon led him to dangerous men like Tuco and Gustavo Fring who both end up being killed by the duo. With all the money he had in the tens of millions, Skyler and Walt begun to launder money with the help of Saul Goodman in their car wash business, Skyler is Walt’s wife who had disapproved of his actions at first but soon warmed up to his actions due to it benefitting her and their two children for years to come.

Each character in the show had their good intentions: Hank wanted to stop the meth flow in Alberquerque, Walt wanted to have a future for his family when he leaves, Jesse needed money to take care of his girlfriend and child at the time, and Mike wanted to leave money for his daughter when he escapes to start a new life. Although their actions may outweigh the good they wanted for who they loved, their intentions were good no matter the cost. It brings a good light to males that they are always looking out for one another whether it is noticed or not, same with the female characters.

“The Lottery” and “A Good Man is Hard to Find” global history essay help: global history essay help

After reading both short stories I was left feeling disgusted and cold. “The Lottery” left me with an overwhelming sense of astonishment and wonder, while “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” simply stunned me. Within the two literary pieces, I found that both of the authors wrote using distinguished themes, symbols, foreshadowing, irony, suspense, and many other literary device to aid their reader. Additionally, I would classify both works into the fictional genre of suspense, also known as thriller.

I fell more into Jackson’s work than O’Conner’s, and I think that was because there was a huge suspense factor within “The Lottery”; more than in “A Good Man Is Hard to Find. ” In fact, suspense was the first thing that caught my attention in the first reading. Jackson started off by setting the scene for the said “Lottery,” and I, right-off-the bat began to wonder to myself what the “winner” of the lottery was going to gain; little did I know there was no winner, but only an ultimate loser. Jackson continued to build suspense within the entire piece by suppressing the details of the village’s lottery until the very last line.

I was especially taken over by suspense as Mr. Summers went through the entire ritual step-by-step, and I was still dazed as to what the lottery “winner” was going to reveal. Because Jackson built such strong levels of suspense and opened up a sense of wonder in her reader, the conclusion of her short story was much more bold, shocking, and deplorable. Along with building of suspense, Jackson also used powerful foreshadowing to keep her reader engaged in the story. The main foreshadowing that she incorporated was within the character of Tessie, Mr. Hutchinson’s wife.

Firstly, Tessie arrives to the lottery late, after she has forgotten that it’s the 27th of the month in June as she does the daily dishes. Her late arrival immediately sets her apart from the other three hundred villagers in attendance of the lottery. In addition to just being late, Mr. Summers, the lottery conductor, calls Tessie out for being tardy in front of everyone, when he states “thought we were going to have to go on without you. ” This statement clearly foreshadows that something weird or negative may happen to Tessie later on in the story. Next, the theme that I found within “The Lottery” was the power of tradition.

The piece is a story of a village who knows nothing more than having a lottery on the 27th of every June, the members of the town are not concerned with the harshness or cruelness of their tradition, all they know is that when it happens each year, they have to be there. On top of them not caring about how disgusting it is, they have no reason to conduct this murder each year; the only reason is to be faithful to their tradition. I also noted a strong symbol within “The Lottery,” the black box containing the blank or dotted white sheets of paper that are used to conduct the lottery.

The black box represents the tradition of the lottery. The box is worn, torn and bet up after many hears of use, but the people of the village refuse to replace it because it is a part of the strong lottery tradition. This quotation from the fifth paragraph, “Mr. Summers spoke frequently to the villagers about making a new box, but no one liked to upset even as much tradition as was represented by the black box,” proves that the villagers are not going to accept the box being fixed, or accept a new box, simply because they take pride in every part of their village’s senseless ritual.

In “A Good Man Is Hard to Find,” I found the theme to be the vague description of “a good man. ” I thought this to be true because the grandmother deems every male character in the story to be a “good man,” but she never names the precedent for one to gain such a title. This is true in life as well, because people, women especially, always negate men if they are not “good” or “good enough”; but those people never set the standard as to what makes a man “good. ” Finally, in the second piece I found the grandmothers hat to symbolize her being a lady.

She is concerned with wearing the hat in the car so anyone that comes across them with know that she is ladylike. In the end of the story when she is close to the end of her life, the brim of her hat falls off, representing the end of her life as a lady. I was impressed with the writing of both of pieces, because of the suspense, but I was not particularly drawn to the topic or plot line of either “The Lottery,” or “A Good Man Is Hard to Find. ” I found both pieces to be a little on the weird side, but I am glad that I have been exposed to a new genre of literature.

Turnaround Strategy grad school essay help: grad school essay help

The two broad turnaround strategies that may be followed by Public and Private companies are Strategic and Operating. Strategic turnarounds can be branched into activities that comprises of a change in business strategy for competing in the same business and those that involve for entering a new business or businesses. Operating strategies does not involve altering the business level strategies and usually focuses on increasing revenues, decreasing cost, decreasing assets or a combination effort.

Our research work mainly focuses on existing corporates that applies Strategic turnaround strategies to reverse a major decline in their performance. Repositioning Strategy Repositioning is an entrepreneurial strategy that puts its emphasis on growth and innovation. This strategy answers the declining situation in an organization by devising out a new definition of the mission and its core activities. The organization can choose to stay and become more dominant in the existing market or by diversifying itself into new markets and products.

In some of the cases the management may think that the current resource capabilities of a company can achieve a greater competitive advantage, if applied to a new market segment by successfully integrating and making a fit between the capabilities of the firm and the external environment. The repositioning strategy acknowledges the notion of diversification and provides an opportunity for a firm to leverage on it existing resources such as financial and technical capabilities to come up with related or unrelated products. However, the success of this strategy is highly dependent on the management to effectively select the right portfolio mix.

Nike was successful in pursuing related diversification when it decided to launch beach styled sport clothing (Hurley) as a business line. The impact of this entrepreneurial strategy applied in the private sector has been researched in 11 empirical studies. Out of 11, only two of these find that the repositioning strategy has no impact on the financial recovery . From the remaining 9 studies, 7 of them has clear evidence that repositioning has a positive impact on the firms performance. Focusing on the Core Activities This turnaround relates to a particular niche or a focus strategy (Porter,1980,pp. 38–40). This strategy doesn’t involve a complete redefinition of the business but it tries to bring in a strategic change for refocusing on a particular product/market mix. Sometimes this strategy is chosen when a firm loses its focus by adding new product lines or customers while still trying to compete with its historical product/market mix. A classic extension failure example would be Coca-Cola launching “New Coke” in 1985. [33] Although it was initially accepted, a backlash against “New Coke” soon emerged among consumers.

Not only did Coca-Cola not succeed in developing a new brand but sales of the original flavour also decreased. Coca-Cola had to make considerable efforts to regain customers who had turned to Pepsi by focusing on its core brand. Outsourcing Outsourcing is a strategy that addresses an organization’s position within the value chain it operates. It shares some similarity with the focus strategy as this process calls for focusing on the activities where the firm is more profitable and to outsource the remainder activities to the third parties who can perform them more efficiently.

Traditionally, outsourcing strategy has been applied more to the finance and Information system departments. In 2008 Chrysler made news in which it announced that several hundred technology workers would lose their jobs as it was moving with plans to outsource their IT department. The rationale behind this step was to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the company while making it more flexible to the environmental changes. The Management Process One of the widely researched and generalized Turnaround strategy is the replacement of the current Top Management Team of the business suffering from declining performance.

Alot of turnaround experts sees that replacing the CEO is one the most important ingredient for recovering a business. The rationale behind this is that the top management has a certain set of beliefs about running a business, many of which must be wrong for the current decline in performance to arise. Previous researchers who have studied the turnaround strategies have also asserted that the turnaround efforts are begun with the top management being replaced mainly due to thefact that the new management brings in a new understanding of the factors affecting a firm’s performance, enabling productive change to occur. However, regardless of the evidence provided above, not all of the turnaround strategies require a change in their top management. Some of them can be successfully accomplished through the incumbent management. The decision whether to change the current management or not are dependent on a number of factors, e. g. the causes of decline (Some decline may occur because of unmanageable external factors), the industrial differences as well as the firm resource situation.

Concept of sin, punishment and redemption in The Scarlet Letter essay help writer: essay help writer

The Scarlet Letter is a book about sin, punishment, and the hope of redemption. The book is about the life in colonial Boston of Hester Prynne, Her husband Roger Chillingworth, and Hester’s lover Arthur Dimmesdale. The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a very complex and can be interpreted in many ways. Throughout the novel the Concept of sin, punishment, and redemption was portrayed through Hester Prynne, Aurthur Dimmesdale and Roger Chillingworth on many ways and on many levels. An element of this theme is sin. The whole bases of the novel are on the sin of Hester and Dimmesdale committed.

The sin of adultery had great consequences and haunted both of them until the day they died. In the time this novel was written adultery should have been condemned with murder, but some of the town’s people took pity on Hester because no one knew what happened to her husband. Although the women of the town did not agree with the decision. In this novel, Chillingworth is considered as worst sinner. In the case of The Scarlet Letter the wrong, or sin, is adultery: a very serious breach of Christian morality. A young woman, Hester Prynne, has been found guilty of adultery and must wear a scarlet letter “A” on her dress as a sign of shame.

Furthermore, she must stand on the scaffold for three hours, exposed to public humiliation. Hester’s punishment is purely social. She has to stand on the platform of the pillory, with the people gazing curiously at the scarlet letter on her breast. Society has decreed that she shall wear throughout her life a scarlet letter on the boson of her gown. This is the stigma that Hester has to carry always. She becomes a social outcast. Children follow her and shout at her. Strangers gaze at the scarlet on her bosom and make no secret of their contempt for her.

She is cruelly treated by society. Her numerous acts of service as a Sister of Mercy do soften the world to some extent, but do not secure her its pardon. Society continues to be firm and harsh. Any other woman in place of Hester would have been won over to the side of the Devil or the Black Man. But the inherent goodness of Hester and her maternal solicitude for Pearl keep her away from any further evil. Crime and penalty are dealt here both on personal and social level. The act of adultery is a crime against the individual, that individual being the wrong husband or wife.

But adultery is also a crime against society. Hester Prynne has by her adulterous action, wronged her husband Chillingworth and that is what she tells him in so many words. The wrong that she has done to her husband is a crime to a personal level. But as a member so society she is also a sinner. Hester herself does not consider her adulterous action to be a serious crime or sin. For the reason, she does not experience any deep sense of guilt even after society has pronounced his judgment upon her. Hester believes in the sanctity of love relationship between her and Dimmesdale.

The scarlet letter ‘A’ is the stigma that Hester has to carry always for her misdeed. Children follow her and shout at her. She is cruelly treated by the society. But the inherent goodness of Hester and her maternal solitude to Pearl keep her from further evil. Her crime is the serious one and her punishment is great. But it must be pointed out that the punishment comes from the society and is unaccompanied by any pangs of the society. Hester believes in the sanctity of the love relationship between her and Dimmesdale. “What we did”, she says to Dimmesdale in the forest, “Had a consecration of its own.

We felt it so; we said so; we said so to each other. ” Dimmesdale produces an impression of weakness and timidity. He aggravates his sin of adultery by his prolonged concealment of it and he further aggravates it by trying to keep up an appearance of piety. As the novel is primarily a story of fall of a great priest, we can easily defy Dimmesdale as the tragic hero. His life is also one long misery. He succumbs to temptation once again when in the course of his forest interview with Hester; he agrees to flee from Boston with her, though he could not stick to it.

This action also leads him to collapse and makes him a tragic hero. His weakness magnifies rather than lessens the power of story. His fight is internal. His confession to the public is in of the noblest climaxes in stories to tragedy. Dimmesdale’s castigation comes purely from within. Society does not punish him because it does not know that he is a greater sinner of adultery and also of hypocrisy. He is all the time haunted by the sense of guilt. The fact of concealment serves only to intensify his misery. He undergoes various kinds of penance including vigils, fasts and flagellation.

Society does not play the least part in the mental torture, though the role played by Chillingworth cannot be ignored. However, the crime that Dimmesdale done is severe and the more bitter crime is his being hypocrite. But he receives his punishment and through it Hawthorne shows us his noble characteristics. In the forest interview with Dimmesdale, he suggests that they escape from Boston so that they can lead a new life, but she does not do so because, as has been said above, she does not consider her relationship with Dimmesdale to be immoral or sinful.

But, as he tells Hester in the forest, it is all reparation and no penitence. One night he even mounts the scaffold as an act of expiation. But, as the author remarks, it is a mockery of penance and not true amend. Soon after this forest interview, he hardens himself and determines to make a public confession of his sin. He carries out his resolves to unburden his heart, and in a few minutes, meets his end on the scaffold. This incident is the climax of his spiritual development.

He confesses his guilt and gives away his life, but he has established his right to a place in heaven by virtue of his act of genuine repentance and confession. As Hawthorne points out, a man like Dimmesdale should not commit a crime like adultery. Crime is for the hardened individual who is strong enough to crush the voice of his conscience. Society does not play the least part in the mental torture which Dimmesdale undergoes, though the role played by Roger Chillingworth in this connection can not be ignored.

Chillingworth persecutes Dimmesdale and does so in a subtle manner. He greatly aggravates the suffering of the poor minister. Because Reverend Dimmesdale’s health has begun to fail, the townspeople are happy to have Chillingworth, a newly arrived physician, take up lodgings with their beloved minister. Being in such close contact with Dimmesdale, Chillingworth begins to suspect that the minister’s illness is the result of some unconfessed guilt. He applies psychological pressure to the minister because he suspects Dimmesdale to be Pearl’s father.

One evening, pulling the sleeping Dimmesdale’s vestment aside, Chillingworth sees something startling on the sleeping minister’s pale chest: a scarlet “A”. Chillingworth’s misshapen body reflects the evil in his soul, which builds as the novel progresses, similar to the way Dimmesdale’s illness reveals his inner turmoil. The outward man reflects the condition of the heart. Chillingworth the wronged husband turns into a fiend when he dedicates his life to a hideous event. Hester goes through the punishment but she does not need the purification because she does not commit any crime.

Love cannot be called a crime, though society tortured her. Dimmesdale is the real sinner and we see him going through his mental purification for seven years. He understands his sin and he confesses his crime before his death. We can call Chillingworth a great sinner here because he is not a good husband and he also chooses a way to torture Dimmesdale which is also a kind of hypocrisy from social point of view. On Election Day, Dimmesdale gives what is declared to be one of his most inspired sermons. But as the procession leaves the church, Dimmesdale stumbles and almost falls.

Seeing Hester and Pearl in the crowd watching the parade, he climbs upon the scaffold and confesses his sin, dying in Hester’s arms. Later, witnesses swear that they saw a stigmata in the form of a scarlet ‘A’ upon his chest. According to the legal statutes at the time and the prevailing sentiment of keeping in accordance with a strict interpretation of the Bible, adultery was a capital sin that required the execution of both adulterer and adulteress–or at the very least, severe public corporal punishment. In Christian Belief, people who die with secret sin, they are more sinners.

Hester Prynne, Dimmesdale and Roger Chillingworth both commit sin. Hester and Dimmesdale confess to the people and get redemption but Chillingworth does not confess to the people and for this reason he does not get redemption. Chillingworth is died as a sinner but Dimmesdale and Hester freed from sin. For this reason, we can consider Chillingworth as a worst sinner. Sin and knowledge are linked in the Judeo-Christian tradition. The Bible begins with the story of Adam and Eve, who were expelled from the “Garden of Eden” for eating from the “Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil”.

As a result of their knowledge, Adam and Eve are made aware of their disobedience, that which separates them from the divine and from other creatures. Once expelled from the Garden of Eden, they are forced to toil and to procreate – two “labors” that seem to define the human condition. The experience of Hester and Dimmesdale recalls the story of Adam and Eve because, in both cases, sin results in expulsion and suffering. But it also results in knowledge – specifically, in knowledge of what it means to be human.

For Hester, the scarlet letter functions as her passport into regions where other women dared not tread leading her to “speculate” about her society and herself more “boldly” than anyone else in New England. As for Dimmesdale, the “cheating minister” of his sin gives him sympathies so intimate with the sinful brotherhood of mankind, so that his chest vibrates in unison with theirs. In the end, Hawthorne has mainly dealt with the idea of ‘Sin, Punishment, and Redemption’ and he believed in sin and pre-destination like a true puritan. He inherited his Puritanism from his ancestors.

Juvenile justice university essay help: university essay help

In the United States we have two parallel systems that deal with individuals that commit crimes and or offenses against society. First we have the criminal justice system, a court which deals with adults who commit various crimes. Secondly, we have the juvenile justice system, a court designed especially for minors and is generally thought to help rehabilitate the offender. The salient difference between these two systems, as Mitcheal Ritter puts it, “is the use of distinct terminology to refer to their similar procedures.

State and federal legislatures intended this terminological variation to avoid stigmatizing children as “criminals” and to dissociate the juvenile system from the criminal justice system” (Ritter 2010, 222). The major issue I intend to look at it is whether or not we should abolish the juvenile justice system. First, we will look at the position of keeping the current system, why it needs to stay in place, and why in the long run it is the most beneficial to the juvenile.

Second, we will examine the research of Barry Feld, one of the most influential advocates on why it needs to be abolished because of the lack of constitutional rights that a juvenile does not receive while being tried under the Juvenile justice system. Thirdly, I will be looking at each party’s positions and critiquing it to see it what the strong and weak points are. Finally, I will present my own opinion on whether to keep it, abolish it, or create a whole new system altogether.

To try a juvenile in adult court is by no means the right decision. In this section we will look at evidence and arguments on why the juvenile justice system should not be abolished. Juveniles are different from adults and therefore should not be allowed to stand trial in the criminal justice system. Children are not well enough developed mentally, as compared to an adult, to be tried in the adult correctional system. This is why many people take the stance, “no way should we get rid of the juvenile justice system.

The “director of the state’s (Washington) Bureau of Juvenile Detention Services is seeking to keep 16- and 17-year-old offenders out of the state’s criminal justice system” (McNeil 2008). To lock up a child in an adult correction facility is by no means the right idea even if they are “separate” from the adults. If a juvenile commits an “adult crime” like robbery, theft or in most cases drug crimes, a quick fix is to incarcerate that individual in an adult prison to punish him and protect society.

While this may work for adults, it is inappropriate for a youth. Advocates argue that we must keep the juvenile justice system because “many studies also have found that significantly harsher punishments are meted out to juveniles in adult court when compared with juveniles in juvenile court, particularly for serious or violent offenses” (Kurlycheck and Johnson 2010, 727).

Sending a juvenile to adult court at such a young age can be problematic for the child, because the court wants to be strict with the child by showing them that their behavior will not be tolerated and because in adult court the child will miss out on educational and rehabilitative programs more readily available in juvenile detention facilities. Kurlycheck and Johnson argue that “Juvenile courts are characterized by disposition options that fundamentally differ from adult courts in their symbolic meaning, punitive and treatment alternatives, and punishment goals” (2010).

In a study in Pennsylvania, Kurlycheck and Johnson compared a sample of juveniles tried in juvenile court with juveniles who were transferred to adult court and showed that the adult courts were harsher on the juvenile: “On average, their sentences were 80 percent more severe than for their young adult counterparts” (Kurlycheck and Johnson 2010, 729). Juveniles should not be allowed to be tried in adult court because studies have shown that many “juveniles function at levels similar to disabled adults who lack competence; not because of diagnosable mental health problems, but because of developmental immaturity” (Katner 2006, 507).

The theory that sentencing a youth to an adult prison will reduce recidivism and hope that the experience will “scare him straight,” is invalid. Research shows that “experiences with adult jails and prisons show that those facilities may instill fear but are otherwise emotionally—and often physically—dangerous for youth” (Butler 2011, 114). Finally, Frank Zimring argued that “young law violators are less culpable, and thus deserve less punishment—no matter what kind of court might try and sentence them” (Kurlycheck and Johnson 2010, 729).

Kurlycheck and Johnson also confirm what Katner is saying by explaining that “adolescents are at psychosocial disadvantages in terms of responsibility, peer influence, temperance, and perspective; they are less able to foresee future consequences of their actions” (Kurlycheck and Johnson 2010, 729). Youths in the detention system have an average IQ of 85, as compared to the national average of 100, and about 60% “in detention meet the criteria for at least one mental disorder” (Butler 2011, 111).

Research by Howard N. Snyder, Ph. D. , director of Systems Research at the National Center of Juvenile Justice, shows that “ 68% of committed males were diagnosed with a mental health disorder, and research indicates that the percentage is greater for females in commitment facilities, 50% of committed males had a substance abuse diagnosis” (Katner 2006, 509). If a youth has a mental illness “then it is our responsibility to address those needs. A state has no right to refuse adjudicated juveniles.

It is the juvenile justice system’s legal and ethical responsibility to admit them, and make provisions for their safe and secure care and treatment” (Smith 2012). The American Public Health Association found in their Cox proportional hazard study “that better mental health services reduced the risk of initial and subsequent juvenile justice involvement by 31%” (Foster, Qaseem, and Connor, 2004) and had stronger results with more serious offenders. Their findings said that “improved mental health services reduced the risk of juvenile justice involvement” (Foster, Qaseem, and Connor, 2004).

“We must remember that the juvenile justice system is meant to reduce recidivism, help the individual with their struggles, and integrate them back into the community. “When a juvenile offender is reintegrated into the community after a year being counseled, treated, and taught, the community is safer than it would be if that same delinquent youth were incarcerated for five years and released with no preparation to respect himself and society and to avoid repeating the same behavior.

In Missouri, for example, only 8 percent of juvenile delinquents return to the justice system within three years; the national average is over 50 percent” (House 2010). “Decreasing recidivism has both immediate and long-term benefits. It has been estimated that juveniles who become adult offenders cost society between $1. 5 and $1. 8 million each” (Macomber, Skiba, Blackmon, Esposito, Hart, Mambrino, Richie, Grigorenko 2010, 224). Therefore, successful education is one of the most important tools that a juvenile can have while locked up.

According to the Journal of Correctional Education, quality education and successful employment “is viewed, unequivocally, as the most powerful tool in recidivism reduction, rehabilitation of juvenile delinquent […]into a socially productive, healthy, and happy adult” (Macomber, Skiba, Blackmon, Esposito, Hart, Mambrino, Richie, Grigorenko 2010, 225). However, the article does note that the level of education that is delivered to juveniles while incarcerated is nationally recognized as being far from as effective as it should be.

Society wants our youths to succeed, be successful, and be normal members of society. That is why many advocates believe in keeping them out of the criminal justice system because they want to help bring these individuals back into society. Advocates for this system believe that juvenile justice systems are the best because once a juvenile is locked up in an adult correctional system, that individual “will have a criminal record that follows them for life, which would not be the case if they had been tried in family court” (McNeil 2008).

Once a child is labeled as a criminal in society (labeling theory,) not only will it be hard for him to apply for a job with his adult criminal record, he will also carry the label of “criminal” over his head while back in society. In this section we will be looking at why it is a good idea to abolish the juvenile justice system. Barry Feld is one of the major advocates for abolishing the juvenile justice system. He believes the system should be thrown out because juveniles are frequently not afforded their constitutional rights in juvenile court.

Barry Feld, a law professor from the U of M and an expert on the juvenile justice system, says the juvenile justice system needs to be abolished. He claims that “within the past three decades, judicial decisions, legislative amendments, and administrative changes have transformed the juvenile court from a nominally rehabilitative social welfare agency into a scaled-down, second-class criminal court for young people. These reforms have converted the historical ideal of the juvenile court as a social welfare institution into a penal system that provides young offenders with neither therapy nor justice” (Feld 1997, 68).

In light of these failures, Feld is proposing that the juvenile court be integrated into the traditional criminal court system. Feld talks about how the juvenile justice system lacks constitutional rights for youth offenders. Several important Supreme Court decisions help change and shape the “criminalization” of the juvenile court. In the case of In Re Winship,“the court required states to prove juvenile delinquency by criminal law’s standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt” (Feld 1997, 73). In the U. S.

Supreme court case of In Re Gault, the court said that juveniles accused of crimes must be afforded many of the same rights that adults get. These rights would be the 5th amendment of right against self-incrimination, the 6th amendment right to confront witnesses, the right to timely notification of the charges and the right to be represented by an attorney. Even though the Supreme Court ruled this way, Feld says that “lawyers seldom appeared in juvenile courts” and when the juvenile was on trial the “judges did not advise juveniles of their rights” and did not appoint counsel (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 330).

Feld cites two associations, the American Bar Association and American Children at risk, that reported that many youths in the juvenile justice system were not represented by counsel and of the lawyers who represented juvenile “lacked adequate training and failed to provide competent representation” (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 330). If this would happen in the criminal justice system, the case would risk dismissal or being overturned on appeal. Even if a juvenile does have a defense lawyer, many attorneys seldom if ever appeal the decision of the juvenile court judge.

Judges are continuing to allow juvenile rights continue to be trampled upon by allowing juveniles to waive their right to an attorney without allowing them to consult with one of their parents or an attorney. Feld and Schaefer say that “in most states, judges gauge juveniles’ waivers of rights by assessing whether they were “knowing, intelligent, and voluntary” under the “totality of the circumstances” test. They rejected special procedures for youths and endorsed the adult standard to evaluate juveniles’ waivers of Miranda rights.

” When a juvenile is arrested or brought into custody, he should not be allowed to talk to anyone unless his parent or lawyer is present. Feld wants both the criminal and juvenile system to be combined into one in hopes to reduce many constitutional violations, such as a juvenile waving his right to Miranda warnings. He says that many juveniles do not understand a Miranda warning or counsel advisory well enough to make a valid waiver” (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 331). This is a major risk for first time offenders because they may not know what they are agreeing to.

Juveniles who have gone through the system before may start to get a grasp on the concept of Miranda about as well as adults but “substantial minorities of both groups failed to grasp at least some elements of the warning” (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 331). To help reduce these constitutional violations, Feld believes that state courts should “adopt sentencing guidelines for juveniles, which now exist only in adult courts” (Furst 1991). Feld believes that many sentences are based on “where the juvenile lived than the crime” (Furst, 1991).

In Feld’s study, “urban criminals face stiffer penalty,” he found that “urban juveniles receive harsher sentences for the same crimes than their rural and suburban counterparts” (Furst 1991). Felt said that urban courts detained youths that were charged with felonies around ? the time; “rural counties detained them one-tenth of the time and suburban counties one-thirteenth” (Furst 1991). Feld says that “no reasons exist to believe that rural youths are more competent than urban juveniles to waive legal rights, but rural judges appoint attorneys far less often than do their more formal, urban counterparts” (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 332).

Feld says that juveniles are very immature and lack a lot of experience. They require the assistance of counsel to understand legal proceedings, to prepare and present a defense, to negotiate guilty pleas, and to ensure fair adjudications (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 350). How is it fair that adults can have lawyers present at their trial and not juveniles? He says that increased efforts to have lawyers present at juveniles trials have remained the same. Feld says that with his data from 1994 and 1999 have predicted the outcome for youths to receive attorneys present at trial.

The data is quite surprising that “youths convicted of felony and status offenses show a decrease in odds of representation, whereas youths convicted of misdemeanor offenses show an increase in the odds of having an attorney” (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 349). One of the most important rights we have in our judicial system is the right to a jury trial. However, Feld argues is that while the right to a jury trial “is a crucial procedural safeguard when states punish offenders, the vast majority of jurisdictions uncritically follow McKeivers lead and deny juveniles access to juries “ (Feld 1997, 87).

When judges and juries apply Winship, the reasonable doubt standard, differently, it allows them to convict youths more easily in juvenile court than in adult criminal court with the same evidence. Feld say that the constitution as well as state juvenile statutes allow delinquents to have formal trials with attorneys present. But in reality the actual quality of representation that the juvenile receives is far from optimum.

One of his reasons for abolishing the juvenile justice system is because “the criminalization of juvenile courts, most states provide neither special procedures to protect youths from their own immaturity nor the full panoply of adult procedural safeguards. Instead, states treat juveniles just like adult criminal defendants when treating them equally places youth at a practical disadvantage” (Feld 1997, 87). Feld argues that some scholars believe that rehabilitative juvenile court or a juvenile version of a criminal court “simply will not work as their supporters intend” (Crawford 2001).

Because of this, Felt proposes that an integrated criminal court would be a better solution. He believes this model is the best because “society recognizes youths as being less mature and more susceptible to peer influence” (Crawford 2001) so the court could offer what he calls “youth discounts” for sentencing. This would take into consideration the youth’s age and apply it towards his crime. In his model he is not talking about crime reduction, “remove what he considers to be the drama of waivers to adult courts” (Crawford 2001).

Feld claims it will remove double talk and hypocrisy because justice officials claim rehabilitation as their goal when the reality of their actions is coercion and punishment” (Crawford 2001). As long as the youth discount is integrated into the criminal court system, it can provide youth offenders with better legal protection, ensure they are granted the same constitutional rights that adults get, and most importantly, that juveniles would receive humane consequences from judges. Feld agrees that youths do deserve shorter sentences compared to adults when being tried for “comparable crimes.

” However, there does not need to be separate courts for this. Feld says that the juvenile court system will not survive because it represents a “temporary way-station on the road to substantive and procedural convergence with the criminal court” (Feld 1997, 132). For both of these court systems to work, Feld says there must be an “integrated criminal justice that formally recognizes adolescent as a development continuum may effectively address many of the problems created by our binary conceptions of youth and social control” (Feld 1997, 132).

Advocates for the juvenile justice system believe that juveniles should have their own court system. In order for the juveniles to be properly protected, educated and rehabilitated, there cannot be two systems. Many juveniles are not sufficiently mentally developed to stand trial in the adult court system. Recall that The American Public Health Association said that “better mental health services reduced the risk of initial and subsequent juvenile justice involvement by 31%” (Foster, Qaseem, and Connor, 2004). Once the juvenile entered the detention center and was given appropriate care and treatment, the risk of juvenile justice involvement in the future was reduced. Many advocates argue that we must keep the juvenile justice system because “many studies … have found that significantly harsher punishments are meted out to juveniles in adult court when compared with juveniles in juvenile court, particularly for serious or violent offenses” (Kurlycheck and Johnson 2010, 727). The study said that of the juveniles tried in adult court, about 80% received harsher punishments compared to their youth counterparts.

In order for us to have fair trial systems we cannot try youth with the same standards of adult. Advocates also believe that a juvenile should not be locked up in any adult facility because it would set the child up for more harm from stronger and more powerful adults. Research has shown that “experiences with adult jails and prisons show that those facilities may instill fear but are otherwise emotionally—and often physically—dangerous for youth” (Butler 2011, 114). I do not see any advantage to put a juvenile in the same cell or facility of another adult.

The juvenile justice system is meant to rehabilitate the offender, not make him worse. We want the child to come out better than when he went in. In the adult court the minor would leave with a criminal record which could negatively affect his chances at getting a job once released. In juvenile court their record is usually protected. I do agree with what Feld says about having a juvenile be granted his constitutional right to an attorney, jury trial and correct understanding to Miranda warnings. He makes a big case about how juveniles are rarely granted these rights. I strongly agree with Feld’s statement regarding this.

Many of these youth are waving their right to an attorney without the knowledge of what the consequences might be. Because some judges are allowing this to happen in the juvenile court, Feld make a convincing argument for these youth to be tried in an adult court. This may prevent any further constitutional violations. If an adult was treated this way, the case would have a high probability of being thrown out. If a juvenile is not granted these rights, there is no way he can expect a fair trial. Feld is correct that courts need to follow In Re Winship and In Re Gault.

These are the rights granted to the juvenile, for a judge not to follow them would be unprofessional and most of all unconstitutional. Feld says that the juvenile court system will not survive because it represents a “temporary way-station on the road to substantive and procedural convergence with the criminal court” (Feld 1997, 132). I do not agree with this at all. In the juvenile justice system is designed help rehabilitate the offender, if the system is to work correctly; it will not be a temporary way-station. I do recognize that there are some fall backs to the system, but it needs to be run correctly.

The idea of “youth discounts,” if implemented correctly could work. However judges might over abuse their power towards the juvenile. These youth discounts would be totally up to the discretion of the judge. This could pose a problematic issue for the youth if the judge does not follow the guidelines of “youth discounts. ” If judges cannot follow constitutional guidelines of Winship and Gaulti do not believe they would be able to follow a rule of youth discounts. Feld has a good idea behind his youth discounts, however I do not believe judges would follow these rules.

His last argument is that youths do deserve shorter sentences compared to adults when being tried for “comparable crimes. ” If the juvenile system is abolished this concept would have to be enforce. I still see it being problematic for the child to serve time in an adult facility. We want to rehabilitate the child, not solely focus on punishing him or her. There is no telling how this system would be implemented. A judge could use this power to unfairly sentence certain youth to longer sentences the he deems necessary. As I have stated earlier, juveniles have different maturity and educational levels compared to adults.

That is why many of these youths still need to be tried in a system where a judge is specialized in juvenile crimes. Author Position Now that we have had a chance to examine the arguments for and against abolishing the juvenile system, our issue is which side should we take and why? It is difficult to pick one side, and therefore I propose a hybrid version. Using strengths from both sides, I believe we can come to a conclusion that will be most beneficial for the juvenile, and our court system, and one that will meet constitutional standards.

In order to accomplish all of this we will be looking at concepts, resources, and management. Applying all three of these criteria we will be able to see why the combination of them will result in the best outcome. We will be ending the juvenile system as it currently exists, but instead of getting rid of it all together, there will be some changes to the “adult system” to help incorporate these new guidelines. As I have stated multiple times above, our concept of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and get the child ready to be brought back into society again.

If the juvenile justice is to work correctly it would give the juvenile the necessary skills to be brought back into society. Society accepts this concept because the juvenile is still young, and society is willing to give that individual another chance. Society believes this because the juvenile is put under the ‘obligation’ to grow himself/herself to be fitted to the perceived values of the society. If this is done successfully, the concept of rehabilitation has worked successfully Currently the juvenile justice system needs to be combined with parts of the adult system to work effectively.

Mainly, the concept of having a fair trial is something all adults get in “adult court. ” The juvenile justice system offers the minor educational and mental help through trained and effective services; something that the adult court rarely offers. It has also been stated that the juvenile dentation centers are better at offering rehabilitate skills through classes such as anger management which is essential to any delinquent wanting to enter society again. If the juvenile was just thrown into an adult correction facility, there is a slim chance that he would have access to the proper education that he would need.

It is unlikely that the adult system has classes targeted for their needs. As I have stated earlier from the research, juveniles are far less mental and educationally developed compared to adults, that is why a system to house juveniles is still the best system. The adult system houses individuals from 18 on up. If the delinquent is rehabilitated in a facility with individuals his own age, this might provide a better learning environment. The adult system is more focused on punishing the individual for their crimes and second, to possibly rehabilitated the adult offender.

In a juvenile dentation center, their main goal is to rehabilitate the offender, not solely punish them for their crimes. Therefore, the juvenile justice system must take into account the opportunity to grow as a good person without any kind of stigma attached. Part of their rehabilitative process might involve apologizing to the victim. This would result in no father threat to the victim, and help the offender to know the impact of his crime. The last concept is if the juvenile is to be properly rehabilitated he needs to be in a safe environment, one that is targeted for his age group and level of education.

While in the detention center, he or she is given the chance to learn and be properly educated, a skill that he or she might not have received while in the “outside world. ” Barry Feld makes a convincing argument for abolishing the juvenile justice system with his argument that it does not afford the juvenile his constitutional rights. He believes that in order to fix this issue, the juvenile justice system need to be abolished and merged with the adult system. We are using Feld’s idea to merge the system but not abolish the resources and many benefits that come with the juvenile justice system.

We will be using not one system but a hybrid of both. We must think of it as a system that only exists on paper not in different court systems. To award trial by jury, Miranda warnings, and the right to counsel only to adults does not represent a fair and balanced justice system. Juveniles must have the same rights that adults are entitled to. If an adult was arrested, questioned by police, brought to court without legal representation and informed the judge of all these violations, the case and evidence would be thrown out.

That is why when creating this hybrid system we are using Feld’s resource of the adult court to create a new justice system for juveniles to ensure they are awarded all the rights adults are. First and foremost, juveniles must be accorded their constitutional rights. Juveniles are by definition young, inexperienced, and not as mentally and emotionally developed as adults. Special protections must be given to them to insure that they are granted their rights. Judges are continuing to allow juveniles to waive their right to Miranda when many are not aware of what they are without a parent or legal advisor.

Juveniles who have gone through the system before may start to get a grasp on the concept of Miranda about as well as adults but “substantial minorities of both groups failed to grasp at least some elements of the warning” (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 331). Even if a lawyer was appointed, they (the lawyer) “seldom appeared in juvenile courts” and when the juvenile was on trial the “judges did not advise juveniles of their rights” and did not appoint counsel (Feld and Schaefer 2010, 330). Feld makes a major point of In Re Winship and In Re Gault (discussed above) to prove that even though these are laws exists, many courts overlook or

ignore them, ultimately denying juveniles their rights to a fair trial. Constitutional rights cannot be overlooked, which is why I believe Feld’s argument of abolishing the juvenile justice system as it stands has merit, and the advantages of the adult system must be incorporated, without the negative consequences to juveniles. I propose that no juvenile be allowed to waive his Miranda rights without first consulting with a court appointed attorney. I further propose that no juvenile be allowed to waive his right to attorney, as can be done in adult court. Every juvenile should be represented by an attorney throughout the case.

I propose that the juvenile have the right to a trial by jury in all felony offenses. If the offense is a misdemeanor or gross misdemeanor, the juvenile would still be tried before the juvenile court judge. In both misdemeanor/gross misdemeanor and felony level offenses, however, the dispositional alternatives would be within the traditional juvenile court system. There would be no adult sentencing in any misdemeanor/gross misdemeanor offense, and no adult sentencing for felony level offenses without the juvenile being certified to stand trial as an adult.

Without good dispositional alternatives, we will not be able to make our hybrid juvenile system work. I am using this hybrid system to represent all non-serious crimes. One of the most important systems that needs to be retained is the educational system. As discussed earlier, “successful education is one of the most important tools that a juvenile can have while locked up. ” If this is eliminated any hope of rehabilitating the juvenile goes out the window. One of the main goals of the juvenile justice system if to reduce the recidivism rate and to rehabilitate the individual with the skills necessary to return them to society.

This will require enhanced special education opportunities. Many of the juveniles who are incarcerated have an average IQ of 85, as compared to national average of 100. So, even if they did attend public school, one study put their “literacy skills […] at least one standard deviation or two years behind” (Macomber, Skiba, Blackmon, Esposito, Hart, Mambrino, Richie, Grigorenko 2010, 225) their school mates in the same grade. To make sure this educational program will work, part of what I am proposing is that the court must require these individuals to participate.

Math and reading are generally key important educational programs, but the detention facility also needs to offer other programs such as anger management, developing social skill, and educational classes on a variety of areas that the juvenile might lack. If the juvenile does not agree to these terms and conditions, they will be tried in adult court and sentenced to the adult correctional facility. It is not just education that many of these juveniles lack. Some 68% of committed males were diagnosed with some kind of mental health disorder, along with 50% of committed males having a substance abuse diagnosis.

If these juveniles were put into the adult program, these issues might not ever be recognized or if they were, risk a high chance of never being treated. We need to provide adequate psychological support services to those who need them. If a youth has a mental illness “then it is our responsibility to address those needs. A state has no right to refuse adjudicated juveniles. It is the juvenile justice system’s legal and ethical responsibility to admit them, and make provisions for their safe and secure care and treatment” (Smith 2012).

If these mental issues are treated right now versus in the future, it very well might drastically reduce the recidivism rate. It has been estimated that juveniles who become adult offenders cost society between $1. 5 and $1. 8 million each” (Macomber, Skiba, Blackmon, Esposito, Hart, Mambrino, Richie, Grigorenko 2010, 224). This will ultimately be a substantial saving to the taxpayers, free up the jail for serious offenders, and get juveniles the help that many of them desperately need.

One of the last resources I am taking from the juvenile justice system to create our new “hybrid” system is the idea that the juvenile keeps his record sealed. We don’t want the juvenile to reenter society with a labeling affect over his head having him believe he is still a criminal. If his juvenile record is sealed, and the juvenile can apply for a job without putting his conviction down on his employment application, this will increase the odds of gaining employment and becoming rehabilitated. The job training and educational classes he can receive while incarcerated will enhance his opportunities for

Ethics and Moral Rights college application essay help: college application essay help

The textile industry in Bangladesh employs three million people and makes up 80% of the country’s exports (ABC News 2013). However, there is a history of unsafe working conditions and deaths (Ahmed and Peerlings 2009; Ahmed 2004, 38). A factory collapse recently killed over 1000 workers and as a result, various companies are signing a safety accord (Ferguson and Jolley 2013). This is an ethical decision that can impact those company’s stakeholders. The decision can be made under various ethical models, such as moral rights, social justice (Waddell, Jones and George 2011, 148) and utilitarianism (Duska 2007, 22-25).

This paper will argue that the accord should be signed according to the utilitarian model. The moral rights model argues that decisions should be made to protect fundamental rights of stakeholders and do no harm (Casali 2011, 489). The poor working conditions in Bangladesh violate the concept that workers, who are stakeholders (Phillips 1997, 52-53), have a right to safety (Byrne 2011, 499; Gavai 2010, 13). Inaction will harm workers by failing to improve conditions, which is the purpose of the accord. Under this model, the accord should be signed to protect workers’ rights.

The social justice model argues that benefits and harms should be distributed fairly among all stakeholders (Waddell, Jones and George 2011, 148). The accord will improve working conditions for workers. However, improvements are costly (Ahmed and Peerlings 2009). The increased costs reduce profit and potentially harm shareholders. As such, under the justice model the accord should not be signed as it benefits one group and harms another. Under classical utilitarianism, the goal is to increase the good or happiness for the largest group (Jones and Phelps 2013, 354).

However, the modern interpretation is increasingly moving towards a strategic model aiming to improve profitability (Yim and Fock 2013, 282, 293-294). Companies using Bangladeshi factories and operating in Australia need to take consumer ethics into account. As Australia is a low power distance country with consumers that will less easily accept unethical behaviour (Hofstede 1980; Swaidan 2012, 206), under the enlightened self-interest model of CSR, improving ethical standards by signing the accord will improve profits (Duska 2007, 9).

According to utilitarianism, the accord can increase good for workers, shareholders and customers, therefore it should be signed. The Bangladesh workers’ rights problem can be examined from multiple ethical standpoints, including moral rights, social justice and utilitarianism. Under moral rights and utilitarian models the accord should be signed, whereas under social justice it should not. This paper argues that based on the utilitarian model of ethics, the accord should be signed by any company using Bangladeshi factories.

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How does Trader Joe’s design jobs for increased job satisfaction and higher performance? Trader Joe’s give its appreciation for its employees to increase job satisfaction and higher performance. They puts its money where its mouth is. The starting benefits at Trader Joe’s include medical, dental, and vision insurance, company paid retirement, paid vacation and a 10% employee discount. “Trader Joe’s compensate workers well. The core of this allegiance is a wage and benefits package that is typically far more competitive than that of most companies in the supermarket industry.

Wages may attract high-quality employees, but wages are not necessarily the reason they remain loyal, as any human resources expert can attest. Employees stay because Trader Joe’s has created a culture of success: an environment in which everyone does the same job at one time or another and a place where people’s opinions are respected and talents are nurtured. “(Excerpted from Trader Joe’s Adventure, by Len Lewis) 1. How does Trader Joe’s design jobs for increased job satisfaction and higher performance?

“Trader Joe’s has designed jobs to increase job satisfaction by showing appreciation in providing more benefits to their employees than other chain grocers. They provide starting benefits including medical, dental, and vision insurance, company-paid retirement, paid vacation, and a 10% employee discount, Pg. w-100. ” Traders Joes also recruits people with certain personality traits that the company wants in their stores. They are able to enrich their employees with knowledge of their products that they are selling, as well as inducing customer involvements.

As a result, they are able to have higher job performance because they are able to train and nurture their employees to have the same values and philosophy as the company, as well as granting supreme employee benefits. 2. In what ways does Trader Joe’s demonstrate the importance of each responsibility in the management process planning, organizing, leading, and controlling? There are several ways to demonstrate the importance of each responsibility. First, the buyers will travel all over the world to search the great foods and buying direct from the producer to lower the costs.

Second, Trader Joe’s carry only 1500-2000 products so that the customer are easy to choose. Third, Trader Joe’s managers are hired only from within the company. The future leaders should be enroll in training programs such as Trader Joe’s university the foster in them the loyalty necessary to run stores. Fourth, when something happen, Trader Joe’s will quick to respond and post their action alerts on their web site. 2. In what ways does Trader Joe’s demonstrate the importance of each responsibility in the management process–planning, organizing, leading and controlling?

For Trader Joe’s, they are able to demonstrate the importance of each responsibility in the management process by establishing a plan to serve quality products with natural ingredients, inspiring flavors, and buying direct from the producer whenever possible, pg. w-99. They also organize their stores to limit its stock, carrying about 1,500 to 2,000 products compared to retail mega-markets with 25,000 to 45,000 products. Through leading, Trader Joe’s support their future leaders by hiring managers only from within the company.

Future leaders enroll in training programs called, Trader Joe’s University that foster in them the loyalty necessary to run stores according to both company and customer expectations, pg. w-100. Lastly, Trader Joe demonstrated the responsibility in controlling by placing standards to sell natural based ingredient products, as well as striving to offer the highest quality type foods. 3. Describe the methods that show Trader Joe’s knows the importance of human capital? Since Trader Joe’s makes such an effort to acquire qualified personnel they strive to retain their employees.

Trader Joe’s is aware that retaining responsible, knowledgeable, and friendly employees will be significant to the customer service they provide. 4. Explain the value chain as it pertains to Trader Joe’s? In my opinion the value chain at Trader Joe’s begins with its employees and the methods utilized by Trader Joe’s to make them good at providing excellent customer service. “Employees are encourage to taste and learn about the product” this results in employees who are able to share their experience and expertise of the products they are selling to the consumer.

Creating a helpful and customer service environment, which consumers appreciate. 5. 1. It has an extremely loyal following; it’s almost gone beyond being cult,” said Tod Marks, senior project editor for Consumer Reports. “Trader Joe’s is not conventional by any means, in terms of product mix. ” With shelves stocked with unusual store brand items, like cookie butter, Thai lime and chili cashews and wasabi roasted seaweed snacks, Sue Forsyth, a 64-year-old from Brighton, said shopping at Trader Joe’s is “like an adventure.

The food options are really unique,” said Brielle Berman, a 22-year-old Rochester resident. “I just picked up a bag of coconut chips. Where else are you going to find coconut chips? ” Additionally, Marks, who conducted a survey last year of the leading 52 supermarket chains in the country, said Trader Joe’s is affordable and provides top-notch service. “They are very efficient operators and one of the best stores that offer the best prices,” he said. “They do a good job. Not many supermarkets are better. ” 2. The magic is that Trader Joe’s focuses on Quality rather than Quantity.

By carrying fewer items TJ tries to make sure that each of the product they do carry on their shelves is a Quality product and meets up to it’s standards. Also buy having fewer items it’s able to negotiate better prices from the suppliers and thus passes it on to the customer. On average I find TJ to be much cheaper than Whole Foods but the quality is the Benchmark for all to follow. One the things I love at the TJ is the bakery section, they have fresh bread baked in everyday from a local baker. This means the money goes back to the community, lesser transport costs, freshest bread for the customer and decent prices.

Not to mention the bread is free from High fructose corn syrup!! 3. To remain competitive in the future, organizations will need to abandon their ideas of information hoarding and embrace knowledge sharing. Competitive success will be based less on how strategically physical and financial resources are allocated, and more on how strategically intellectual capital is managed — from capturing, coding and disseminating information, to acquiring new competencies through training and development, and to re-engineering business processes.

The move from an industrially-based economy to a knowledge or information-based one demands a top-notch knowledge management system to secure a competitive edge and a capacity for learning. An organization’s ability to quickly tap into wisdom gives it a competitive edge in the marketplace. As a result, knowledge is displacing capital, natural resources, and labor as the basic economic resource.

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This paper will discuss the role of caring along with the Benner model’s seven domains and my level of proficiency in each domain. Each level of proficiency will be explored to show my strengths as a professional and also areas that I could improve on as a professional nurse. With the areas that need improvement I will show support through supportive rationale with a research article. I will describe how I plan on gaining proficiency in my area of needed improvement, all while using critical thinking and written communication skills. Role of caring The role of caring as a registered nurse is an ever changing role.

We as nurses must find the time to wear several different hats throughout the day even sometimes multiple hats at one time are needed to care for the patient at hand. Nursing theorist Jean Watson defines caring as a humanitarian science, and offers ten behaviors that demonstrate that. They are, in descending order: attentive listening, comfort, honesty, patience, responsibility, providing information so that the patient can make an informed decision, touch, sensitivity, respect, and calling the patient by name (Vance 2009). These are the multiple hats we as nurses must wear throughout the care of our patients.

They are not complicated, but yet to the patient they make them feel like a real person rather than just another patient in a bed. As I practice nursing on an almost daily basis I utilize the different roles and adapt to the needs of my patient based on their needs. Every patient you come across has a different perspective on the care they are to receive, have received or received already. Not only am I as a nurse adapting to the patients most prominent needs, I am also adapting, overcoming and helping the patient’s family with their needs as well. Caring goes beyond just the patient.

It goes to the whole support system who is involved in the care of the patient. As I see it, you cannot help a patient to heal if one he/she is not cared for, and two if he/she’s support system is not cared for. The most important thing I do as a nurse, or so I think, is when I walk into the patients room I ask them their name (to identify I have the right patient) but then I also ask the patient what he/she likes to be called so I am not offending them with a nickname or with a name like “Honey”. By doing this I make the patient feel like they are in control and often times this can help them to be more open in their needs.

Benner model domains and level of proficiency Benner discusses seven domains; The helping role, the teaching-coaching function, the diagnostic and patient monitoring function, effective management of rapidly changing situations, administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions and regimens, monitoring and ensuring the quality of healthcare practiced, and organizational work role competencies. Within each domain you can be at a different stage depending on your experience level and your professional stage. These stages range from novice to expert. Novice is one who is unfamiliar with a situation and needs complete guidance.

This would be someone who is still in nursing school, or a very recent graduate. The next step up is advanced beginner. These people have relevant knowledge of the situation, but are still guided by the rules. These individuals still have a hard time grasping the whole picture. These would be your new floor nurses who don’t have a lot of experience on their own. Next is competent. These people have the ability to plan appropriately and discern which aspects are relevant verses irrelevant. They have the ability to alter rules as the situation warrants them.

These nurses would be your nurses who have over a year of hands on experience and feel confident in their patient care. After competent comes proficient, with this stage, skills have matured exponentially and they have the ability to ascertain information from subtly changes. This individual has begun the implementation of intuition to assist the skill set. These would be your nurses with three plus years of experience. Lastly we have the stage of expert. With this stage the ability to fully utilize intuition without the need for reliance on contemplating alternatives for diagnosis and treatment is met. These are your seasoned nurses.

The ones who know what to do and how to do things without help from anyone else. These nurses are usually the best to learn information from and best to help the novice stage. Helping role In the helping role, I find myself to be in the proficient stage, although my nursing career is still fresh and new I have always found the need to help people. Before I began my career journey to become a registered nurse, I was a nurse’s aide for three years. I learned so much from the expert nurses at that time of what I aspired to be when I finally did achieve my goal and get my registered nurse degree and license.

Just the ease of listening to a patient for those five extra seconds to let them voice their concerns, helps the patient feel very involved in their own care. Helping a patient is also helping the family that comes along with that said patient. I recall working one night in an emergency room when a little Amish family came in. The child they brought was not breathing so well and had a blue tint to him. The triage nurse rushed the child back to a room and asked the parents to wait in the waiting room until they got the boy stable. The look on the mothers face was that of agony.

I asked her if she needed anything while she waited. Her response was, “I just need someone to sit and pray with me”. Now my beliefs may not be that same of hers but I did just that. I sat next to her while she said her prayers and just that little gesture made her feel the care she and her family were receiving was extraordinary. It was not a good outcome for the boy, but when they ended up leaving the mother did stop and give me a hug and said “Thank you for everything you have done”. It was a moment I will never forget. Teaching-coaching role

In the teaching-coaching function domain, I find myself to be in the proficient stage. I am the kind of person who whole heartedly believes the saying “see one, do one, teach one”. I can remember my very first time watching a seasoned registered nurse start an intravenous catheter (IV) on a patient and by just observing and asking questions while she started the line I have been able to start an IV on the first try every time on a patient. After starting probably thousands of IV’s I have been able to teach new persons the technique that I have learned and how to feel confident in maintaining the vein.

Little things like starting an IV may not seem difficult, but the first few times as a brand new nurse I know how some can feel, and help calm their nerves with little extra techniques I have acquired through observing and asking questions. With the model of “see one, do one, teach one” I have found through my own experience that a hands on approach to learning is the best way for myself and other fellow nurses to gain the required knowledge of this profession. We as nurses are the patient advocate and are always hands on with the patient and their needs.

Diagnostic and patient monitoring function Diagnostic and patient monitoring function I find myself to be in the advanced beginner/ competent level. Depending on the situation at hand I feel I am in the end stages of advanced beginner and the beginning stages of competent. When it comes to “plain old” medical surgical patients I feel very confident in the diagnostic and monitoring functions, but when it comes to critical care or trauma patients I have a hard time with cardiac monitoring and some of the critical lab work just by a quick look at them to determine what is wrong with the patient.

I am sure over time and working in the emergency room longer with training and hands on I will move up in the competencies. I understand my cardiac rhythms on paper when I am able to sit down and count the little boxes and look thoroughly at the strip, but to just stand next to the monitor bed side I find it difficult to pick up on some rhythms.

Along with the laboratory values, I can pick up on the critical values and that something is off, but to look at for instance blood gases, I cannot just glance at it and determine whether they are in metabolic or respiratory acidosis, alkalosis and compensating or non-compensating, unless I sit down and figure out the values. Effective management of rapidly changing situations Effective management of rapidly changing situations I find myself to be in the competent level. I was in the military for five and a half years and I know all too well that situations can change at any given time.

I am now a registered nurse in a remote area hospital that does not have all the latest technology or services available to patients. When I came into nursing, I knew I wanted to be in a critical care area or an emergency room. I love the adrenaline rush that comes with the changing situations. Even though that gets my adrenaline pumping I still know how to keep a cool and calm manner to be able to critically think and help resolve the situation quickly and in the best nature for the patient. I love the fast pace and ever changing patients in an emergency room and the fact that time does matter for patient care in this area.

I can recall a patient who came to our emergency room for sudden onset of headaches. To many headaches are a daily occurrence and we don’t think much of them. But for this young lady who was 24 weeks pregnant with her third child, I just got that gut feeling something was not right. The doctor ran tests and ordered blood work, but since we are such a rural area and have limited resources the doctor thought it was best to just send her home. Before she was discharged I ran one last set of vitals on her and as I was doing this she started to have a seizure.

I recognized this as her having toxemia and knew she needed more care. With my judgment I was able to convince the emergency room doctor that she needed further care and she was transferred to Women and Children’s Hospital of Buffalo for further evaluation. It turned out she was very toxic and ended up delivering the baby the next night at 24 weeks and 5 days. Both mother and baby did very well and are both now at home well and recovering. Administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions and regimens Administering and monitoring therapeutic interventions and regimens I find myself to be in the advanced beginner stage.

I have not had a lot of experience with patients who are monitored over a course of a treatment to watch and maintain their levels therapeutically. I do however know that certain drugs cause certain issues for patients when they get out of therapeutic range and how to educate patients on those issues. I believe this is more of a primary physician’s office with say Coumadin and prothrombin time levels. In the hospital we only see patients for a very short period of time, and as we do try to keep their levels normal and therapeutic, we also don’t follow the patient closely enough like a primary doctor’s office would.

I do recall monitoring a patients lithium levels for therapeutic ranges while they were admitted to the hospital. This patient was brought to the emergency department for what appeared to be a stroke. He had slurred speech, confusion, dizziness, and ataxia or in-coordination of his arms and legs. We started a work up on him and soon found from his blood levels and past medical history that the patient had elevated lithium levels and this is what was causing these stroke like symptoms. We closely monitored this patient and admitted him to the medical/surgical floor for further evaluation and monitoring.

Monitoring and ensuring the quality of health care practices Monitoring and ensuring the quality of health care practiced, I find myself to be in the competent stage. I see firsthand “old timers” who have become very complacent in the way they work and the way they do certain interventions. Being a recent graduate who is working in an emergency department, I know first had that complacency is never good. The simplest things like washing your hands, or wearing gloves to start IV’s is not only in the policies for the hospitals safety but it’s in place for the safety of me as a nurse and the patient as well.

I know I never want to take any infectious disease home to my family and by monitoring and ensuring my practices in health care are done properly it is going to keep myself and my family safe. After watching these “old time” nurses remove one finger from a glove to start an IV and then watching the same nurse have to go through a series of testing because she had an exposure to the needle and was not safe guarded by the policy and procedures we have in place, was enough for me to learn her lesson and always wear gloves regardless of how hard it is to feel the veins.

I would rather miss an IV start than have to go through the series of testing and the unknown of whether the patient has an infectious disease or not. Organizational work role competencies Organizational work role competencies, I believe I am in the advanced beginner stage. I have only been working with the hospital I work in for about 6 months. Every hospital or healthcare provider has different work role competencies and organizational sets. I believe I follow the hospital’s competencies well but over time I will learn all of them and the extent of them and this will help me better myself as a professional.

As time goes on every nurse, myself included, learns the policies and procedures for the establishment they are working in. It may happen by a course of remediation or from seeing another co-worker not following the rules and get reprimanded, but eventually over time, I will become more proficient at the organizational work role competencies. I do find myself in alignment with my hospitals core values already though. I find this to be an important aspect to a place of employment and employee retention. If your values are not the same as those of the establishment you work in, it becomes very difficult.

My place of employments core values are; Compassion, dignity, integrity, excellence, stewardship and social responsibility. In compassion they inspire hope and bring comfort to those they serve by caring for their physical, spiritual, and social needs. For dignity they respect the sacred worth and diversity of each person. Integrity they demonstrate through their daily actions, the courage to speak and act honestly. Excellence is shown by their commitment to improving quality in all that they do. Stewardship is managing human, environmental, and financial resources responsibly.

Social responsibility they are called to serve each other, protecting the rights of all while advocating for the poor and vulnerable. All of which I strongly believe in and practice. Professional Strengths/Area for improvement As nursing is an ever changing profession with new technologies and new advances, I find myself to be strengthened in my career with the ability to adapt and over come. Every hospital system has a different computer operating system they use to document patient care and medication administration. Ever hospital has a different time or way of charting, whether it is positive charting or negative charting only.

Whether you have to scan a patient’s identification bracelet before giving medications or not is different at every facility. This is where I believe both my strength and weakness or area for improvement lay. I am not very computer savvy when it comes to learning new systems and sort of get stuck in my ways about how charting should be done. In the article “Use of the electronic medical record for trauma resuscitations: How does this impact documentation completeness” it explains in detail the problems we as emergency room nurses run into while caring for critical or trauma patients and the completeness of our electronic charting.

When you are in a critical or trauma setting you care more about caring for the actual patient then about the computer system at hand. When it comes to the charting on these patients, it is very helpful to have one nurse designated to charting and documentation alone. This nurse usually will write in on a progress note all the times things are happening and medications or interventions are given or performed. This way the nurse in charge of that patient can go back and document accurately the times and events in the computer system. The only downfall with this method is if the documenting nurse misses something, or forgets to write it down.

Myself personally would rather have the time to care for the patient and worry about the documentation later. In the organizational work role competency, I believe this is the reason I find myself to be an advanced beginner and need for the most improvement. Some ways I have found for improvement in myself and to help advance my career as a professional registered nurse and maintain a competent proficiency level in all categories are to continue my education. In the computer world and advancing technologies there are many classes and different help classes that can assist in the growing knowledge of the computer world.

I would continue my daily use of the computer system and ask questions when I was unsure of where or how to chart something. In the article “Risk assessment in the electronic age: application of the circle of caring model”, it shows how using electronic charting in the mental health field is difficult as the assessment tool is not very accurate. The article goes on to discuss how nurses have helped to change the way the assessment tool functions and helped adapt the new way of charting for the facility. This is an important component to electronic charting, as we the nurses are the ones using the system day in and day out.

Our feedback is what will help the health informatics technicians to change the program and be more realistic in our daily care of the patients. As a professional nurse I have always completed the surveys that come around asking what we like or don’t like about the computer system, or what changes would we make. Some things I understand are in the system a certain way and cannot be changed, but I have seen firsthand things are changed to accommodate the working nurses’ needs of charting. Professional goals Just as health care is changing, my professional goals are ever changing as well.

I have the urge to learn. I have the need to acquire as much knowledge as I can and my ultimate goal is to become a nurse practitioner in an emergency room or trauma center. I love the fast pace of the emergency room and with that love and my passion to continue learning I hope this goal is obtainable. The only thing holding me back from this goal is my other goals in life such as family. When you have two young children and another on the way, as much as my love for learning and my drive can push me professionally I have to look at what is best for both professional and family life.

Summary In this paper I discussed the role of caring along with the Benner model’s seven domains and my level of proficiency in each domain. Each level of proficiency was explored to show my strengths as a professional and also areas that I could improve on as a professional nurse. With the areas that need improvement I showed support through supportive rationale with a research article. I described how I plan on gaining proficiency in my area of needed improvement, all while using critical thinking and written communication skills. Conclusion

I enjoyed writing this paper to see the areas of my professional career that need more tender loving care and educational backings. I will one day obtain my professional goal of nurse practitioner and continue my career in the health care field. I enjoy the rewards of helping a patient or a family member of the patient in all aspects of their health needs, whether it be someone to just listen to them, or that person who helps bring their loved one back to life. I enjoy the fast paced of the emergency room even if it means computer charting and scanning patients for medication administration.

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I hereby declare that this report is my original research work compiled and has never been submitted to any organization for the fulfillment of internship requirements and other requisites. Every good work is certainly impossible to accomplish single-handedly. Therefore, it is with heartfelt gratitude that I convey my sincere thanks to my family, and best friends for the great encouragement and support that you have given to me again and again. I would like to thank Ms Ngo Ha Thu – Deputy Head of Translation and Interpreting Division for providing us with such a perfect guideline of the report on internship.

I also would like to give my deepest thanks to the director, all of the in Thang Long Technical Joint Stock Company for granting me permission to use their office space and facilities, and especially to Ms. Tam who has been a wonderful supervisor for their help during my internship at the company. The last thank I would like to give Nhung, my four-year classmate at the university for her enthusiatic help so that I can accomplish this report. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report is a short description of two month intership carried out as compulsory component of Bachelor’s program at the university. In this report, I would like to present the basic information about Thang Long Technical Joint Stock Company where I had my internship, the work I did and the lessons I grasped during the internship as well as my self-evaluation on this internship. THE MAIN CONTENTS 1. OVERVIEW OF THANG LONG TECHNICAL JOINT STOCK COMPANY AND THE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT: 1. 1.

Introduction of Thang Long Technical Joint Stock Company: Thang Long Technical Joint Stock Company, known as ThangLong Tech is a small private enterprise located on the Floor 1, DN 2, OCT2, Zone X1, North Linh Dam, Dai Kim ward, Hoang Mai District, Hanoi. Thang Long Tech is recognized as an independent consultant unit by Ministry of Construction. It registers to operate in the field of inspection, judicial examination all over the country. It provides consultancy and building technical services including: -Observation of geotechnics and deformation of constructed structures.

Investigation for soil conditions for construction project and hydrogeological investigation. -Inspection of the quality of the completed building works. -Testing construction material, building structures. -Consulting and doing tasks in terms of measuring and making maps. -Surveying and evaluation of the affects to the environment. Thang Long Tech is also one of not quite a few companies which have a laboratory standardized and acknowledged by Ministry of Construction based on the system of standard laboratory of Ministry of Construction of Vietnam.

The Laboratory, namely LAS-XD33 is certified to do the tests in the following main fields: -Soil characteristics: To do tests to determine the soil characteristics -Material for construction: To test the criteria in terms of mechanics and physics of material such as sand, stone, cement, steel bar, bricks, mortar, cement concrete, asphalt concrete … -In-situ tests: To inspect the quality of concrete structures on the site, to do the static load tests, to do ultra-sonic tests for bored piles, to measure the settlement of the construction works, to measure the earth resistance,… -Tests on constructed embankments and leveled grounds on site: To determine the density, to measure in-situ CBR, to measure the flatness and flexure of the ground… The organization of ThangLong Tech is briefly illustrated in the following diagram: 1. 2. Introduction of the Finance and Personel Department: In my internship, I was arranged to work in the Finance and Personel Department. Because Thang Long Tech is a small company, one departmant is in charge of both Finance Department and Personel Department. The former, Finance Department is in charge of the following functions: -Keep business account of businesss activities of the company under the Ordinance on Accounting and Statistics of the State .

Summarize business results, prepare accounting and statistical reports, analyze business activities for checking the implementation of the plans of the company . -Record and reflect accurately, timely and systematically the company. s capital as well as loans, settlement of funds for the mobilization of supplies, materials, goods in production -Keep track of the company’s debt , reflect and propose plan of revenues and expenditures by cash and other forms of payment, perform internal work . -Draw the balance sheet quarterly, yearly on schedule And the latter, Personnel Department is in charge of the following functions: -Manage all staff’s resumes, deal with procedure and regimes of recruitment, appointment, dismissal, discipline, bonus, retirement …

Manage labour, staff’ salaries, build the total salary fund, approve the salary allocation, expenditures of the company and the laboratory -Manage administrative documents, papers, records and corporate seal Implementation of common storage materials and important documents . -Develop work schedules, briefing schedules, meetings -Monitor attendance of employees of the company -Prepare the corporate capacity profile 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE INTERNSHIP: The first week of the internship was spent on getting familliar with the working style and making aquaintance with people in the department. I could not start working without understanding the way the company works and getting to know about other employees.

Therefore, at first I had to learnt about the companies and its activities, then build the relationship with my co-workers. My very first task is to observe the operation of the Finance and Accounting Department. Everyday the company starts working at 8. 00 A. M and finishes at 12. 00 A. M. , and contines at 1 P. M. and ends at 5 P. M. All workers have to press their finger in the fingerprint time attendance machine before and after working. This time and attendance system records when employees start and stop work, so it enables to have a full control of all employees working hours. Therefore, rarely did I see the staff come late when working there.

Ms Tam, my supervisor always comes 15 ealier to clean the room and make tea for everyone. She is very friendly and helpful. She supported me very much. During working hours, except a twenty-minute break to relax and chat, all are always busy with their missions. I observed how they worked, what they worked and tried to compare with the knowledge I had learnt at the university: the similarities as well as the differences. My supervisor gave me the documents relating this department such as official despatches, contracts, vouchers, and so on to read before assigning me a specific task. She also showed me the location and how to store these documents so that I could do when they were busy or went out for work.

When having received official dispatch, open the monitoring book of received official dispatch, record the number of the dispatch, the date of writing the dispatch, the date of receiving the dispatch, the contents of the dispatch, and the issuing agencies. Then, the dispatch is stored in file in order of the date of receipt. In terms of sent official dispatch, firstly, write a dispatch according to the requested content, then summit it to the director for his approval and signature. After that, open the monitoring book of sent official dispatch, record the number of the dispatch, the date of writing the dispatch, the contents of the dispatch, and the received agencies. A copy of the sent dispatch is also stored in file in order of the date of receipt. Finally, the dispatch is sent to the received agencies. With regard to economic contracts, Contracts are drafted based on contract templates.

When drafting the contract, remember to write fully and accurately the party A, the party B, and the contract value. Because conducting material test for conctruction works is one of two major services of ThangLong Tech, so each contract usually includes the estimated cost and unit price of testing. After being drafted, the contract is submitted to the director for his signature. Then it is sent to the partner for their approval and signature. After having the signature and seal of both two parties, the contract is made four copies, each party keeps two. After completing all work in the contract, liquidation of contract will be stored along with the contract.

After more than a week, I was quite familiar with these document, I was assigned to draw up some types of documents based on templates including quotation, request for payment. When doing these tasks, I could not only have a chance to practice the knowledge of commercial corresspondence I have been studying this semester, but also enhance my computing skills. Besides, I also got used to performing some basic office tasks such as answering phones, copying documents, scanning papers, affixing the seals, or even how to fix a printer paper jam. At first, I did those tasks awkwardly because they were quite strange. But hitherto I did them effortlessly and even habitually.

Although these things seem very easy and are totally unrelated to my study, they are really basic skills which any employee needs how to do. And thanks to those experiences, now I get more confidence to apply for an office job. The company has its own laboratory, so this department is only reponsible for appending the company’s seal the labotory’s seal on test results and give them to customers. When giving results, for loyal customers or companies signing the contract with the company, the accountant check and take over at the end of the month and customers make payment by tranferring; for others, based on test orders, the accountant writers receipt voucher, then give the treasurer to collect money.

Right at the beginning of the second week, following the instruction of my supervisor, I studied the cash payment process, so had a thorough grasp of the requirements as well as steps of this process, specifically: -Based on test orders or accceptance report of conplete volume signed by both two parties, the accountant writes receipt voucher, submits it to the director for his signature, then give it to the treasurer. The treasurer directly collects money and records in receipts and expenses register. -All receipts must be recorded on the receipt with all the signatures of the payer, the treasurer, the accountant and chief accountant. -Information on the receipt is recorded in the cash book and related books (sales book, debt book, payment in advance book). -The receipts more than 20 million will be deposited into the bank account. In case of the company ‘s plan to pay for the suppliers, the receipts will be kept in safes for payment.

At the end of everyday, the accountant prints daily receipt report and submits it to chief accountant for her approval. -At the end of each month, the treasurer and the accountant check cash balance, compare receipts in the cash book with them in account book. After a few weeks studying and observing, I tried to write receipt vouchers and enter data into accounting software under the instruction of the accountant. I learnt these accounts in Principles of Accounting at the university, but I had not chance to practice in reality before, so initially I was quite unfamiliar with them. Actually, it is not a hard work, but it requires carefulness, meticulosity and preciseness.

This is of great importance because the results of accounting will affect the data and information presented on the balance sheet and financial statement. The documents with errors which are not yet signed by director and handed over to customers can be easily corrected. However, it is a complicated case when the documents with errors handed over to customers needs to be got back and modified. The accountant has to write cancellation reports with the signatures of both two sides. This may ruin not only the company’s reputation, but also the director’s trust. This procedure relating to the cancellation reports was actually new to me because it is not taught at the university. Concerning payment vouchers, I only observed the accountant writing them, but understood this process.

When there are the application form for payment, application form for reimbursement, application form for payment in advance, the accountant checks the related documents and the amount of money, submits them to the director for his signature. Then, the accountant writes payment vouchers, proposes them to chief accountant and the director for their signatures, and finally gives them to the treasure. The treasure directly allots money to the applicants. Because it is a domestic small private enterprise, English is not commomly used in the company’s activities. However, there are some contracts with foreign or joint venture companies, so I also had a chance to access to documents in English such as contract templates, official dispatches, commercial correspondence.

Sometimes I was assigned translation of technical documents including contracts, confirmation, project managament schedule,…………………….. from Vietnames to English or vice versa. It is indeed the hardest challenge I had to deal with in my internship. All of them were technical terms that I had never seen before. It was really tough and I met many difficulties because frequently there were some Vietnamese words I even did not understand their meanings. I could ask techicians from time to time, but most of time I had to study by myself. Firstly, I looked up their meanings in the dictionary, and then search for their images to choose the right word for translation.

I got headache and my head was taut like a violin string whenever being assigned this task.. Gradually, I got accustomed with this assignment. It required very much time and efforts, therefore, I also learnt quite a few difficult words and new knowledge in engineering and construction field. In a nut shell, working in this department, I had opportunity to not only revise what I have learnt at the university but also to broaden my knowledge and brush up on my skills. 3. SELF REFLECTION ON MY INTERNSHIP: 3. 1. Evaluation on my targeted goals: My objectives on the internship are: -Enhance my communication skill -Practice my knowledge into the workplace -Do some translation if possible

To some extent, those objectives I set are fulfilled although I did not have chance to use my English and work with numbers much. However, I gained a lot of lessons and experience in the workplace and real life. 3. 2. Evaluation on the internship: On the whole, the internship was a useful experience. I have find out what my strengths and weaknesses are; I gained new knowledge about accouting as well as construction field, and improved my skills in doing office stuff. I achieved many of my learning goals, however for some the conditions did not permit to achieve them as I wanted. In terms of my strong points, I am quite confident in my punctuality and responsibility to the work and assigned tasks.

I also follow the rules of the company in general and of the Finance and Accounting department in particular. In addition, I am energetic and active to learn new things related to my major and soft skills. Even I aslo get used to with the things which are not related directly to my profession because I believe they will be helpful in my future career. Refer to my weaknesses, because I had not done any part-time job before, so I did not any working experience. On the very first days, I felt everything in the workplace very unfamiliar. Luckily, my supervisor is very friendly and helpful, she guided and instructed me enthusiatiacally, little by little so that I could get used to with the work.

The second difficuly was that I was lazy at reading newspapers about social and economic knowledge social as well as other daily issues, therefore, sometimes it prevented me from discussing with my co-workers in the twenty-minute break. Whenever they mentioned a topic or term I do not know, I just sat in quiet and listened to them. Finally, although I had a chance to apply the knowledge into practice, the internship was not long enough for me to carry out the tasks skillfully. Besides, I realized that the theories in books cannot always be applied to the reality. The exercises we did in the text book are much simpler than the situations in the real world. What we learnt in the books should be applied flexibly in practice.

Generally, the basic knowledge and skills acquired at the university are necessary for students during the internship. To some extent, they are the benchmarks for students to be able to study further and explain and analysis economic related matters. In order to enter the labor market, however, the students are obliged to prepare for themselves the deep knowledge on their future profession. CONCLUSION In conclusion, in spite of many difficulities and challenges, the two-month internship helped me gained a lot of practical experiences and improved office skills. This is also a chance for me to realize my strengths I need to develop as well as weaknesses I need to overcome so that I can do my job in the future

Barriers and information university essay help: university essay help

 Identify who relevant partners would be in own work setting Social services Carers SENCO Speech Therapist Ofsted Health Visitor GP (Doctor) Paediatrician Physiotherapist Identify who relevant partners would be in your own work setting In are pre-school setting the relevant partners are as follows Child and adolescent mental health services (camhs) Health visitors GPs and GP nurses

Social Services and or social worker Police Educational psychologist Teachers Early years worker Speech and language therapist Birth to five Ofsted Parents Special educational needs coordinator (S. e. n. c. oPsychologist 1. 2 Identify who relevant partners would be in own work setting. -social services -Carers – speech therapist – Ofsted -gp -health visitor -paediatrician -pschyologist -SENCO – teachers -police 1.

Explain why working in partnership with others is important for children and young people Partnership (Multi-agency working) is driven by a desire for collaborative advantage and can offer many positive outcomes: improved outcomes for children and families through access to a wider range of services benefits for staff and services, such as less replication between different service providers increased efficiency in the delivery of services through better links between different providers MU 2. 9 understand partnership working in services for children and young people

Explain why working in partnership with others is important for children and young people. It is important to work in partnership with others because all agencies can share information and concerns to create a holistic view about children and young people in their care when any need arises, to help to keep the children safe from harm and promote their welfare, to diagnose a special need quickly in children and get the help that is needed to the child/family as soon as possible without confusing the child or their families.

And as a pre-school setting it is good to know that you are not on your own if any concerns should arise about a child in the setting and that specialist help is available to all the children and young people if required. 1. 1 Explain why working in partnership with others is important for children and young people? When working with children and young people in your setting it is very important to work in a team as it can be positive for the children to see. If you work well in a team you will enjoy your work and the children will benefit from that, it should improve their learning and development.

It is also important to work in partnerships to build a relationship and to gain trust from the children and their families. You will learn a lot from working together such as the children’s likes and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses, the way they need to be looked after and there education. Working with team members and parents will help you set boundaries and expectations of behaviour in their setting. The children will learn what is acceptable behaviour which will make them feel secure 1. 1 Explain why working in partnership with others is important for children and young people

Partnership is driven by a desire for collaborative advantage and can offer many positive outcomes, like benefits for staff and services such as less replication between different service providers. It helps them see others point of view and it keeps them from being selfish, it helps young people interact with others to achieve a goal, and it helps them develop socially. It’s important to work in partnership with others so that all agencies can share information and concerns about children and young people in their care, it also helps to keep the children safe and away from harm. 1. 4 Identify barriers to partnership working

Inconsistency between professionals To many stake holders placing to many demands Incorrect information being supplied Incorrect knowledge being contributed. 1. 4 Identify barriers to partnership working? Y Colleagues may not know information when and how to share information Y Parents may not speak very good English so might be difficult to communicate and share information Y Staff and… 1. 4: Identify barriers of partnership working. Inconsistency between professionals, Personal barrier, Information barrier, Gender barrier, Language barrier, Incorrect information being supplied and by Incorrect knowledge being contributed1.

Identify barriers to partnership working. * Incorrect information being supplied * Incorrect knowledge being contributed * Unwelcoming 1. 3) Define the characteristics of effective partnership working A partnership can be formed between a number of organisations, agencies or individuals with a shared interest. Most partnerships have a common reason for working together. They are often formed to target specific short- or long term issues. The characteristics of effective partnership working are as follows, Involve agencies working together for mutual benefit

Have an aim that is agreed and understood by all the partners Put the child and their family at the centre of the partnership Have clear, effective leadership Identify the role of each partner, which is understood by the others in the partnership Sharing of… 1. 3 Define the characteristics of effective partnership working A partnership can be formed between a number of organisations, agencies or individuals with a shared interest. Most partnerships have a common reason for working together and specific objectives. They are often formed to target specific short- or long-term issues.

The key principles of partnership working are openness, honesty and agreed shared objectives. When partners cooperate to coordinate their activities and communicate regularly, partnerships tend to have a greater impact on end users. Partnerships can work in a variety of ways and different models will suit different settings. • • • • • • • • • • • • • involve agencies working together for mutual benefit have an aim that is agreed and understood by all the partners put the learner at the centre of partnership working focus on a high-quality learning experience leading to sustainable progression have clear, effective…

Define the characteristics of effective partnership working? The characteristics are as follow Y Good Communication Y Maintaining confidentiality Y Staff should plan to meet all children’s needs and to work with the parents and careers to ensure this is done Y Treat everybody fairly Y To share information when needed and pass it on to relevant people Y To ensure there is respect and trust between partners Y Partners have similar ethos or system of believes Y Have clear and effective leadership Y Have an aim that is agreed and understood by all partners Y Work closely with parents and careers 1.

Define the characteristics of effective partnership working. Partnership can be formed between a number of organisations, Agencies or individuals with a shared interest. Most partnerships have a common reason for working together. They are often formed to target specific short- or long term issues. The characteristics of effective partnership working are as follows, Involve agencies working together for mutual benefit Have an aim that is agreed and understood by all the partners Put the child and their family at the centre of the partnership Have clear, effective leadership. A practitioner needs to be* Clear about his/her role * Aware of the roles of other professionals * Confident about his/her own standards * Respectful of the standards and targets that apply to other services * Respectful of contribution of others working with children, young people and families 2. 1)Describe Why Clear and Effective Communication Between Partners Is Required It is important that both sides communicate effectively to make sure that information will be shared in a clear way understood by everyone in order to achieve the same best possible solution and with the attention to the particular child.

In order to communicate properly people have to discuss all the options so everyone’s opinion is considered and value, show respect and listen to each other, build a bond so the trust between each other is developed, show knowledge of the child so that the best support can be given and summarize and explain so that everyone understand and the choice can be made.

When exchanging information with other professionals the practitioner should make eye contact , speak loudly and clearly, understand that others may have a different opinions so respect that and adapt the way of speaking to the person that you talking to(maybe has hearing difficulties, speech difficulties or English is a second language) There are many examples why the communication needs to be established in order to help the child, support and meet their needs.

For example • Child is autistic; child needs a specialist who help him in his learning development and a adviser who will support him, both need to communicate together to meet all his needs and share information about the child to support him and his development in best possible way.

Child attend two different nurseries because his mother is studying and working in two different places and it is not possible for the child to stay in the same nursery the whole time; the key person needs to share the information about the child’s development and learning so both can work together to meet all his needs , interests and things the child do during the day so the activities will not be repeated in both places • There is a suspicion of a child been neglected at home. The social worker is investigating this matter. She requested a documents from the nursery manager.

The documents are bad quality, poor written. 2. 2) 2. 2 Identify policies and procedures in the work setting for information sharing. Every setting should have policies that encourage effective and clear communication when sharing information. Policies and procedures should include policies relating to multi-agency working, managing transition from one setting to another and ensuring continuity of care between settings and carers. All policies should be available to those who need to know basis and they may be shared with colleagues, parents, carers and other settings as well as with other agencies and services.

The main point is: • The staffs at the work setting needs to be aware that they cannot keep secrets with a child. When you record your information about the child write it exactly how they said and not what you think. You can share the information with manager, head care worker, or head teacher. • Well Being: Adult and child need to be safe and for whatever reason keep your information secret. The wrong person could receive the information and put the adult and child’s safety at risk. • Every matter relating to safe guarding is confidential.

The staffs at the work settings need to know that they have professional responsibility to share information with other agencies in order to safe guard children. • The head of the centre or the designated member of staff will disclose any information about child to other member of staff on a need to know basis only. • All the staff at the work setting aim to ensure that all the parents and carers can share their information with confidence that will be used to enhance the welfare of their children • Development records ( observation, planning ,photographs,…. ) are confidential ,and the parents have access if it’s required .

Personal records ( name, address ,admissions form) are also confidential . • Welfare requirement (medical condition) are confidential and don not share it with others parents. • Accident records/ incidents reports: You have to keep… 2. 3 As a mother I went to pick up my child from Preschool setting. Some parents and I were waiting in school yard. Children were coming and were greeted by their parents. The preschool assistant, not a first time, loudly called a father of a boy and referred to him that his child is horribly behaved, he ignored her and that he is spiteful.

The father began to shout at his son, he aggressively pulled his son towards him and shook him and left the premises. As a mother I felt uneasy, frightened, scared, confused. The preschool assistant evoked negative polemics. Something’s not right. What? This situation should not arise at all. The preschool assistant failed to protect child’s and parent’s privacy. The preschool assistant should had invited the parent to a meeting where she should had discussed the matter privately.

If the preschool assistant after his/her observations over longer time comes to conclusion that it will be in child’s best interest to seek professional advice she/he should report it to her/his manager. The preschool can seek consent from a person with parental responsibility to sharing information with other organisation. If carefully recorded observations on the child will show that there are repeated physical signs of abuse marks on arms or face or body (map must be created for future reference) it must be reported to manager.

The consent from the person in parental responsibility is not required if there is suspicion it may place the child at greater risk. Any information passed on a child must be recorded for future references. Any information passed on a child that may be concern must be discussed with Leading personal/Manager. Me as a parent I complained to Preschool management because of their employee malpractice. I was asked by parent at my preschool if she can take photographs of her child and child’s friends.

I agree with the parent on giving her phone numbers of children’s parents in question. She must ask permission. 2. 4) Practitioners must make sure they record information clearly, accurately and up to date. The parents should have a free access to their children files, information should not be kept for longer than necessarily and always stored in a secure place. Every setting should have policies and procedures about how to record and store information which meet Ofsted requirements and are according with the government law Data Protection Act 1998.

The policies should include information about different ways when comes to record information such observations, risk assessment, incidents, medical information about the child or special diet requirements, concerns or information about the child progress, record of any meetings or conversations with the parents and other professionals. Keeping records of every work it’s an essential part of a job when working with children. When recording information practitioner must: – consult with the manager if he is unsure – check any spelling errors

When using a computer , store them in a place where nobody else have access to – keep the information clear, short and as accurate as possible so the other member can carry on if the key person is absent – avoid using children’s names and pictures to maintain confidentiality – when writing in observation sheet the record must show that the child’s needs has been met and identified – in case of any concerns about the child practitioner must contact the manager first before making any notes – some information needs to be recorded in a specific format or using specific templates according to Common Assessment Framework – information which are stored on the computer must have the encryption software which design to encrypt computer data in a

way that it cannot be recovered without access to the key It is important to keep the record information clearly so everyone who will ever need to have an access to them will not struggle to understand them or read them. 2. 5) research the data protection act then say how your setting keeps it . 2. 6 Explain why and how referrals are made to different agencies Referrals are important for the child to get the best possible outcomes and by practitioners doing observations and recording evidence this is made possible for the child to be referred to the correct professional, for example; a child with hearing difficulties may need to be referred to a support service for deaf children or children who have impaired hearing. Panels are usually made up of different agencies and these panels look at and decide the best possible decision that will benefit the child.

These panels have been set up to aim towards a target to ensure a child’s needs are identified and assessed quickly and referred to the appropriate setting, coordinate provision through the development of partnership with parents, settings and different agencies and support inclusion in mainstream early years settings. The earlier the Childs needs are identified means the child will get the best possible support. If children do not get the help they need at the right time, this could have an effect on the child’s well being. Parent’s permission is vital in order for their child to be referred and they must be kept well informed at all times. Early intervention teams have been set up in England to work with children with additional needs from birth to the end of EYFS. The early year’s intervention team will be part of the multi-agency panel enabling referrals to be made between settings.

Early year’s intervention team promote inclusive practice, provides advice support and training in settings, supports transitions into schools, ensures that parents are fully aware of and involved in any referral process and they liaise with parents, carers and multi-agency professionals MLA “Describe Why Is Important to Record Information Clearly , Accurately, Legibly and Concisely Meeting Legal Requirements” StudyMode. com. 07 2013. 2013. 07 2013 . MLA 7 “Describe Why Is Important to Record Information Clearly , Accurately, Legibly and Concisely Meeting Legal Requirements. ” StudyMode. com. StudyMode. com, 07 2013. Web. 07 2013. . CHICAGO “Describe Why Is Important to Record Information Clearly , Accurately, Legibly and Concisely Meeting Legal Requirements. ” StudyMode. com.

Accessed 07, 2013. http://www. studymode. com/essays/Describe-Why-Is-Important-To-Record-1818045. html. 3. 1)Identify the reasons for partnerships with carers Working with carers is an essential aspect of work with children and young people because: • Gives the children a sense of security • Helps families to feel comfortable with sharing the child’s care • Encourages the sharing of information • Promotes discussion of issues affecting the child • Encourages the family to become involved in the settings activities • Contributes to a positive atmosphere in the setting • Fosters opportunities to consult with/get feedback from families.

Describe how partnerships with carers are developed and sustained in own work setting In an early years setting carers should be made to feel welcome in the setting, carers should be greeted by their name and practitioners wearing name badges could help so new staff will know who they are or a notice board with all staff pictures and information about their role. To develop and sustain partnership with carers the following could help: Valuing diverse family backgrounds- lots of different types of families love and care for children correctly. For example, backgrounds will reflect: • Different cultures, religions, beliefs and relationships between adults • That some children live with family members others than their parents • That some children live with carers that are not related to by blood • That some children divide their time between more than one home • That some children may live within social care facilities rather than a family home

Describe circumstances where partnerships with carers may be difficult to develop and sustain It may be difficult to establish and develop partnerships when carers do not wish to become involved. This could be because: • they are working or have other commitments- appointments such as parents evening can be arranged to share a child’s development with their parent or carers if the carer is short of time to discuss things unplanned. MLA Identify the reasons for partnerships with carers Working with carers is an essential aspect of work with children and young people because: • Gives the children a sense of security • Helps families to feel comfortable with sharing the child’s care • Encourages the sharing of information • Promotes discussion of issues affecting the child

Encourages the family to become involved in the settings activities • Contributes to a positive atmosphere in the setting • Fosters opportunities to consult with/get feedback from families. Describe how partnerships with carers are developed and sustained in own work setting In an early years setting carers should be made to feel welcome in the setting, carers should be greeted by their name and practitioners wearing name badges could help so new staff will know who they are or a notice board with all staff pictures and information about their role. To develop and sustain partnership with carers the following could help: Valuing diverse family backgrounds- lots of different types of families love and care for children correctly.

For example, backgrounds will reflect: • Different cultures, religions, beliefs and relationships between adults • That some children live with family members others than their parents • That some children live with carers that are not related to by blood • That some children divide their time between more than one home • That some children may live within social care facilities rather than a family home Describe circumstances where partnerships with carers may be difficult to develop and sustain Describe circumstances where partnerships with carers may be difficult to develop and sustain It may be difficult to establish and develop partnerships when carers do not wish to become involved. This could be because: • they are working or have other commitments- appointments such as parents evening can be arranged to share a child’s development with their parent or carers if the carer is short of time to discuss things unplanned”Ct227. 3″ StudyMode. com. 10 2012. 2012. 10 2012 .

The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide on Seed Germination summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

First recognized as a chemical compound in 1818, hydrogen peroxide is a clear, colorless liquid most often used for cleaning or disinfecting(Britannica, 2013). Since pure hydrogen peroxide is unstable, it is found in stores as an aqueous solution. The chemical formula for hydrogen peroxide is H? O? which means there are two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms in the compound(Liebeskind, 2013). Seed germination is simply the process in which a seedling sprouts from a seed and begins it’s growth. The most important factors for seed germination is the temperature, the presence of oxygen and the exposure to water.

For a seed to germinate, the temperature must be between 60 and 75 degrees fahrenheit. Oxygen and water must be present as well. Lastly the seed must be exposed to light(Britannica, 2013). The hypothesis for the experiment is “If seeds are put into different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, then the highest concentration will germinate the most amount of seeds. ” What was hoped to learn was if hydrogen peroxide would be effective in fertilizer and in the growth of plants. When an article stating that hydrogen peroxide was approved for use in plant fertilizer the idea of this experiment was constructed.

The first step to the experiment was to measure 250 mL of pure water in a beaker then pour it into a glass along with 5 mL of hydrogen peroxide and soak one paper towel in the solution. Next, the paper towel was gently wrung out and placed in the plastic bag folded up neatly and evenly. Subsequently, ten seeds were laid across the paper towel and the bag was sealed with a small layer of air left in the bag. Then the seeds were observed everyday for 7 days. Lastly, after the 7 days were over, the amount of seeds that germinated was tallied and recorded.

The graphs and tables showed that hydrogen peroxide had a very minor effect on the speed of the germination of a seed. Although each concentration of hydrogen peroxide had a faster growth average than pure water, the increase in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide showed no pattern in the speed of seed germination. The purpose of this experiment was to find if hydrogen peroxide would be effective in plant fertilizer and in the growth of plants. The goal was to conduct an experiment that mimicked a seed in soil but made it possible to see the seed at all times.

The hypothesis was “ If seeds are put into different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, then the highest concentration will germinate the most amount of seeds in the least amount of time”. In the experiment, it was found that hydrogen peroxide had no significant effect on the speed of the germination of a pinto bean and the hypothesis was rejected. It was found in previous experiments that hydrogen peroxide helps with the growth of plants because of the two oxygen molecules found in hydrogen peroxide ( H? O?)  rather than just the one molecule found in water( H? O). For example, an experiment conducted by The Department of Microbiology in Nigeria proved that hydrogen not only promotes seed germination but also kills bacteria that may form during the process of germination. The findings of this experiment may be the result of the seeds not absorbing enough water due to the amount of seeds in one bag. A difference that could have been made on the experiment conducted is the amount of seeds placed in one bag so the seeds could have absorbed more water.

Another element that may have contributed to the results was the type of seed used. The pinto beans may not react the same to hydrogen peroxide as other seeds may. Perhaps using a few different types of seeds in the experiment may have had an effect on the conclusion. Lastly, the percentage of hydrogen peroxide in each solution may not have been enough to have an effect on the germination of the seeds. A refinement made to the experiment could be the percentages of the hydrogen peroxide in each solution. They could have been increased and the differences expanded more.

Ella Minnow Pea my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

In the book Ella Minnow Pea, the linguistic world around them is eroding as the roots of their native language is slowly decaying as the days go by. During this time of confusion, hate, and misunderstanding the villagers must unite, for if they do not, the loved ones around them will start to fade away as well. The struggles they face between friends, family, and neighbors will challenge the close knit relationships they’ve spent a lifetime building in their small island community.

The challenges will test their moral framework, as once close friends may be the very reason for their own demise. During this time of hardship, many of the villagers seek answers from the late linguistic genius himself, the great Mr. Nevin Nollop. Mr. Nollop is highly honored by the villagers for crafting the infamous pangram “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog”, a sentence composed of all the letters of the alphabet with very few of the characters being used multiple times.

This glimpse of peer literary genius is the reason that the people of the small island village respect and honor the vocabularian’s wisdom in these times of communication turmoil. Nevin Nollop cherished the written and spoken language of his people and before his death he expressed, “Love one another, push the parameter of this glorious language. Lastly, please show proper courtesy; open not your neighbor’s mail. ” (Dunn, 74)This is the quotation I will seek to apply outside of the written pages of Ella Minnow Pea.

In times of distress people’s moral decisions can be influenced by deep rooted emotions and can cloud the judgments we make about others. This is why many teachings ask us to think before we act. Before responding to a situation, we need to understand what effect our actions have on the lives of others. This conscious thought process can be summarized by the Golden Rule. The Golden Rule is a moral building block that has been endorsed by many cultures and religions around the world that emphasizes the importance of mutual respect and civility for one another.

Treat others as you would like to be treated, embodies true introspection and forces us to respond to actions as if we were in the same situation, and apply it. Apply it by imagining yourself in the other persons’ position and ask yourself how you would like to be treated in this given circumstance. The elegant meaning of the Golden Rule has been embraced and interpreted by many religions all over the world including: Hindu, Buddhism, Judaism, Muslim and Christianity.

The teachings of Buddha advocate to “Hurt not others with what pains yourself” (Udanavarga 5:18), or as interpreted in Islam scripture, “No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. ”(Hadith of an-Nawai 13) There are also several references to the Golden Rule in the Holy Bible of Christianity such as; “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” (Mark 12:28-31) and “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” These translations of the Golden Rule can relate to the phrase by Nevin Nollop by simply stating to love one another.

Treat everyone as you would like to be treated. It is this the mutual respect for one another that will help us to progress in the darkest of times. In conclusion, Nevin Nollop’s quote, “Love one another, push the parameter of this glorious language. Lastly, please show proper courtesy; open not your neighbor’s mail” (Dunn, 74) has a deeper meaning than to just respect you neighbors mail, but to respect and love your neighbor as much as you love yourself.

Marks and Spencer Advertising Strategy college application essay help: college application essay help

Marks and Spencer is an international multi-channel retailer that has been running for 129 years. It now operates in “over 50 territories worldwide” and employs “almost 82,000 people”, (Marks and Spencer plc, 2013). It’s dependence on its origin country; the UK is progressively being reduced due to its international focus. M&S’ UK turnover consists of 54% food and 46% general merchandise, including home ware, clothing, lingerie etc. It is currently growing its e-commerce and has expanded to the finance business with its M&S Bank branch.

Clothing has been lately an aspect of concern for the company, as sales of clothing have “slipped back for the ninth consecutive quarter”, (The Guardian, 2013). This has created a 9. 1% fall in half-year profit. For this reason, according to M&S Chief Executive, they are currently working on having “more innovation and choice than ever before”, (Bolland, 2013). However, according to retail analyst for the BBC, “The company is too risk averse and is unwilling to break the mould of its traditional ways of doing business”, (Conlumino, 2013).

The affordable fashion market in the UK has been described as “challenging” by Chief Executive Bolland. The fashion industry requires radical and innovative measures for success, which M&S has not dared to implement until now. Marks and Spencer’s fashion competition is becoming increasingly tough and aggressive. Retailer Next overtook M&S “as the UK’s biggest fashion retailer, in July 2012”, (Nairn, 2012).

Primark, its older rival has “an expected 5 billion pounds in clothing sales in 2014”, (The Guardian, 2013) this is a very close figure to M&S, with the potential possibility of performing above it. CAMPAIGN STRATEGY Marks and Spencer decided to adopt a fairytale theme for its Christmas 2013 campaign, focusing on its men and women ware collections as well a their lingerie collection playing a strong role. The adverts’ message claims to “Believe in Magic and Sparkle” and is based on a collection of fairytale stories including Alice in Wonderland, Red Riding Hood and The Wizard of Oz.

It encourages the audience to believe in the true Christmas spirits while taking them through a range of mind-blowing and fantasy settings that communicate the wide range of festive products available in the store. The advertising campaign was developed by the advertising agency RKCR/Y&R and also includes its Christmas party food range on the table set during the ‘Tea Party’. The company has tried to emphasize its quality by bringing to the advert loved fairy tales in a glamorous offset.

Christmas is a key selling season for M&S and thus their Executive Director of Marketing & Business Director claimed how they wanted to “recapture the magical essence of Christmas that customers tell is synonymous with M&S”, (Bousquet-Chavanne, 2013). In terms of the media channels, Marks and Spencer “is shifting its marketing approach to digital first”, (Vizard, 2013). This means that its strategy is launching campaigns online (through Youtube and its Website) before the use of Above The Line advertising (appearing in TW or print), this is a way to engage better with its consumers.

The campaign was first launched on the 4th November online and two days after the TV debut took place. The whole campaign had a very strong focus on engaging their target audience through social media, allowing shoppers to vote via Twitter and Facebook on a name for the highland terrier which features in its campaign. The main purpose of the campaign is to create awareness to their target audience and recover primarily in terms of clothing sales (increase them). Further objectives of the campaign are to attract its target market for a bigger range of their products.

By integrating food and general merchandise such as clothes and home ware in the advert, M&S aims to take advantage of cross-fertilising across food and clothing, as opposed to other retailers. Finally, the objective of moving to digital marketing is to become multichannel and prove its ecommerce savvy, as according to head of digital store development, “A “frightening number” of M&S customers still do not consider it as a multichannel retailer when they are shopping online”, (Zuurbier, 2013). In terms of its target audiences, Marks & Spencer has always aimed to target different age groups, using its advertisements to expand the generations.

By using well-known celebrities such as Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, David Gandy and Helena Bonham-Carter, it attracts customers from different segments, thus the main character Rosie can appeal to every woman, being neither too common nor too unattainable. However, although reaching out to an adult market segment with its range of winter clothes and festive feasts, M&S has widely aimed to target a younger market, thus engaging them in a wide Social Media campaign and well-known models. In terms of its reach, the M&S advert was broadcasted to a mass audience by using ABT advertising and OL advertising.

It is currently “wining the Christmas TV battle in terms of social, with 58. 8 million mentions on Twitter and 160,000 interactions on Facebook”, (Kindred, 2013). The campaign also created a #magicandsparkle hashtag, which allowed the brand to measure further the impact on social networks, with it being mentioned over 3,500 times. The advert is available internationally with 948. 533 views in Youtube and British TV cannels. The advert was first launched on TV 6th of November and is showing at a daily basis currently and until the end of the Christmas holidays (2 months approx).

The use of social media has been a key element in this last Marks & Spencer’s campaign for two main reasons. First of all, M&S are trying its best to understad consumers’ tastes and what they really want. Social media allows the company to ‘listen’ to what customers are saying in real time, thus having direct feedback and evaluation of their efforts immediately. Secondly, one of their main current objectives is to expand its online market share, thus they want to be perceived as a ‘multichannel’ retailer for online shopping.

According to the head of digital store development, “A frightening number” of regular customers do not consider it as a main online shopping point, and social media through the campaigns enables a connection between the consumers and M&S online platforms and therefore a direct link to purchase. The media channels have played a crucial role in transmiting their campaign to the desired public. The shift on its marketing approach, by launching campaigns online and on social media before print and TV enabled a closer relationship with the online consumers and a way of creating an experience and a feeling with the campaign.

The use of mass media by broadcasting the advert through british TV channels reaches most families that could potentially buy at the physical stores, whereas the online platforms reach audiences that could potentially make purchases at the E-store. The main aim of the campaign was to attract customers of all demographic groups and promote the new products that the company is offering. M&S image is in search of improved quality and consistency, and they wanted to transmit this to their audience.

However, the key issue in this campaign is whether it really communicated a clear ‘message’ and whether it is appeals to the correct target market. M&S, being a multi-department store with different product and option offerings, should thoroughly consider how the different product rages and collectoos are segmented. Usually, M&S was using its ads to span the generations, always including different groups. However, by trying to appear as a ‘improved quality’ brand and creating an advertising campaign featuring actual and trendy celebrities, there is a high risk of detering its core group of older and more simple shoppers.

In terms of attracting the younger audience, there is a high risk involved because this segment is yet not convinced about M&S products being for them, so the efforts to attract this dangerous and risky segment might loose focus on their main and loyal customers. A controversial question on this topic is whether the use of celebrities such as the model Rosie Huntington-Whiteley and David Gandy are associated with the image and main values of the brand. M&S is usually chosen by consumers who regard the brand as trustworthy, caring, straightforward and wise, being their old heritage a plus for consumer loyalty.

Although the celebrity endorsement can create a high amount of awareness and the models can appear as desirable, the brand is unnecessarily being elevated more than necessary, and going a complete different way to its all-time values. It is therefore questionable whether the ‘all things to all ages’ appeal is reflected in the advert. The AIDA model can be used to evaluate the four main points of an advertising campaign, regarding Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action.

The process is used by marketers to ensure that the desired result occurs from the campaign and M&S campaign follows all of the steps: Attention: By presenting the beautifully-made video with well-known celebrities it is catching the audience’s attention. The use of its fairytails theme can help purchases identidy the problem of needing the products offered by the firm to complete its christmas holidays. Interest: Once M&S had the prospects’ attention, the way to maintain the interest in the campaign was to keep the audiences engaged by creating social media activity and repeating the story in different media channels.

Desire: In the desire stage, the range of products showed in the advert are exposed on a way that are tempting and desired by the customers, so that they want to purchase de product. Action: The final step was to persuade the prospects to take immediate action. By using online platforms, creating a direct link to purchase and by limiting the range of products to the christmas season, M&S is creating sense of urgency by encouraging action within a specific time frame. This call to action is essential for the advert to influence the growth in sales.

Marks and Spencer has been suffering from decreasing sales throughout the last years, and instead of focusing on targeting a unclear market segment, it should promote its heritage and history, which is why it is stil considered to be number one multi-department store in the UK. The advertising campaign is beautifully made and has exquisite production values and gorgeous sets but it does not appeal to the right audience. There is an unclear linkage between the advertising and the heart of the brand as experienced by the stores.

The celebrities do not represent what the clients are neither what they want to be, as they are unreachable and extravagant. The magical essence of the advert and the ‘high glamour’ that it wants to communicate has nothing to do with the brand. M&S should focus on one emotional point that can reach its most loyal clients, whereas this advert looses focus by trying to appear and image that is nothing to do with the brand. Even though M&S has captured a lot of attention, the call to action remains unclear, although impact on sales cannot be analysed until after Christmas.

Process of Diffusion and its importance in living organisms buy essay help: buy essay help

Diffusion is the movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient i. e. from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. For a diffusion system to be efficient, it should have a large surface area so that high amount of substances can be exchanged at a time. It should also have a thin membrane and a continuous supply of substances, as a thin membrane means that the diffusion pathway would be short, and the continuous supply helps maintain a concentration gradient, which is essential for diffusion to take place.

There are two main types of diffusion; simple and facilitated. Simple diffusion is when a small, non-polar molecule such as CO2 and Oxygen passes through the phospholipid bilayer. A carrier protein is not needed for this type of diffusion to take place. Facilitated diffusion, however, requires carrier proteins transport molecules across the membrane, as the molecules are polar or are too large to pass through the lipid bilayer. Examples of these molecules are sodium and potassium ions, and glucose.

Diffusion is essential for living organisms as it is a feature of a number of processes which control and supply vital substances to the body. It occurs throughout the human body, and without it, cells and body tissue could not get important nutrients for survival. In humans and animals, diffusion is needed during respiration. It is the way oxygen travels from the lungs to the red blood cells in the blood and the way carbon dioxide travels from the blood to the lungs from where it can be exhaled.

In the oxidative phosphorylation stage of aerobic respiration, diffusion is vital in getting the protons across the potential gradient from the inter-membranal space to the inner membrane to phosphorylate ADP and an inorganic P to ATP which is the universal energy carrier. Without this, we will be unable release energy in respiration and therefore will die. Oxygen continues down the concentration gradient into mitochondria organelles as the final electron acceptor and is reduced to water. The cells in our body also take up nutrients from the blood by diffusion.

Humans and animals cannot make nutrients, so they get the nutrients from the food they eat. Once a nutrient arrives at a cell, it is still inside a blood vessel while the cell lies outside. The lack of nutrients inside the cell, and between the cell and the blood vessel, creates a concentration gradient between the blood vessel and the cell. Due to the lower concentration in the cell, the nutrient diffuses through the blood vessel wall and into the cell. Diffusion is essential in water reabsorption in the kidney for the removal of excess Na and Cl ions. If this process is not done, the osmotic state would be affected.

Diffusion is also extremely important in excretory systems of human beings. For example in a urinary system, if the body doesn’t consume enough water, then water is diffused back in the body and vice versa. Diffusion is responsible for our nerves to function as the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft, so that the next nerve cell can pick up the signal and pass it along. In the case of plants, diffusion is the very important process because plants transfer food particles from the phloem and water particles from the xylem through the process of diffusion and osmosis.

When there’s excess water in the plants, this water needs to be removed, and this is done by the process of transpiration, which requires diffusion. Also, diffusion is an essential process in exchange of gases. Plants get carbon dioxide and release oxygen through diffusion. Photosynthesis also requires diffusion in a number of steps. Moreover, roots absorb water and salts from the soil which is transferred from roots to leaves through the process of diffusion. Diffusion is an important process in the lives of plants.

Water is an important component of all cells, and water moves into plant cells by the process of osmosis. Osmosis is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. When there’s excess water in the plants, this water needs to be removed by transpiration. In this process, water vapour evaporates from the surface of a leaf by diffusion through the open stomata. Many plant nutrients reach the root surface via diffusion through the soil solution. Some nutrient molecules diffuse across root cell membranes into the cytoplasm or from the cytoplasm of the endodermal cells into the xylem tissue.

Also, diffusion is an essential process in exchange of gases. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide diffuses from the atmosphere through the stomata and into the air spaces of leaves and oxygen is also released via diffusion. In photoynthesis water must diffuse into the plant or bacterial cell. It is then destroyed in what is commonly called the light dependent reactions. It is separated into Hydrogen ions and oxygen. The oxygen is released into the air via diffusion and the Hydrogen ions are used to

Produce ATP and reduced NADP. Since the water is used up, more is needed to keep the process up, so more water diffuses into the cell. In order for the plant to produce sugars from the carbon dioxide that has diffused into the cell as, it must enter the chloroplast. This is where the light independent reactions occur. The carbon dioxide is used up along with some of the ATP to make sugar. As the sugar is made and relocated this creates a carbon dioxide deficit in the chloroplast, causing more Carbon dioxide to diffuse into it.

Diffusion also plays a role in the movement of photosynthetic products such as sugars into the phloem for transport throughout the plant. Because cellular membranes are composed of a lipid bilayer, lipid-soluble materials use simple diffusion to cross the membrane surface. Substances with low lipid solubility can move across membranes via facilitated diffusion. In this process, the substance binds to a transporter molecule, which transports the substance across the membrane and down its concentration gradient.

Childhood Exposure to Domestic Violence, From Witness to Victim melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

The phrase “exposure to domestic abuse” covers a wide range of perception. In 2002, it was estimated that there approximately 3. 2 million, documented cases of children witnessing domestic violence in America (Stiles, 2002). The different types of domestic violence children are exposed to may range from verbal, emotional to physical. The scope of exposure includes more than just seeing the abuse.

Family violence has an extensive history; the concept that it transcends through generations has and remains a widely received and constant topic in the family violence literature exposure expands past what the child sees or hears it reaches into the future to the long term effect (Smith, Ireland, Park, Elwyn, Thornberr, 2011). Exposure to domestic violence extends years down the road to include conscious and subconscious actions and decisions that the now, adult child makes.

These adult actions and decisions could possibly have, in some cases, very negative effects on the decisions the child makes for the duration of their life (Smith, et al. , 2011). There are several studies that are based on the long term effect of exposure to domestic violence. There is a need for a deeper look into the choices when involving adult intimate relationships. What are the bases for adults, who were exposed to domestic abuse as a child, when entering an intimate relationship?

Some will choose to break the cycle of abuse or follow in the example they had as a child and become abusive or abused in their intimate relationships. Review of literature The research on adults who were exposed to domestic violence as a child is limited. There are available quantitative researches but several of them do not contain in-depth accounts of adults who were exposed to domestic between their parents. Researchers have studied the issue of children who witness domestic violence and often becoming abusers or victims of domestic violence in adulthood (Cappell & Heiner, 1990).

The social learning theory discusses how children be subjected to witnessing domestic violence as children brings about the same type of violence as they enter adult relationships (Cappell & Heiner, 1990). The concept of domestic violence being a learned behavior is also addressed in the social learning theory (Feerick & Haugaard, 1999). Social learning theory maintains that individuals observe the behavior of others, especially the contingencies that follow a person’s actions in a particular situation, and then emulate these actions in a similar situation (Bandura, 1977).

In many cases when children witness domestic abuse between their parents, they tend to conclude that physical violence is sometimes appropriate to achieve behavioral change in an intimate relationship (Bandura, 1977). Some of the attitudes acquired during childhood because of the exposure to the violence manifest in their adult relationships and may be there reason for the perpetuation of domestic violence for both perpetrators and victims through generations (Cappell & Heiner, 1990). Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this proposed study is to learn about children who are exposed to domestic abuse and what influence that exposure has on their adult relationships. From the outcome of the study, the goal would be to develop a solution to help prevent children from going from witnessing abuse to becoming a victim or an abuser, regardless of the exposure, as adults. There are already significant evidence available that documents the negative effects on children who were exposed to domestic violence (Alexander, Mcdonald, & Paton, 2005).

There needs to be more study on the adults who witnessed domestic violence as children to understand their childhood experiences and the effect it has had on the adult experiences in relationships. The beginning point to help the children is helping the parents. Parents’ actions and decisions are essential in the long term effect of the decisions their children make as adults. Exposure to domestic abuse as a child can contribute to a generational cycle of domestic abuse (Smith, et al. , 2011). This study will help grasp a grip on the effects that exposure to domestic abuse growing up, has on children in their adult relationships.

Effects of exposure have negative responses, which include depression, behavior problems in childhood, and increased risk for becoming a perpetrator or victim of abuse in their adult relationships (Benj, 2010). The conclusion for this study is to; have an understanding of the effect of domestic abuse and stop the continuation it the generational cycle of abuse. Hypotheses and Research Questions RQ: Are children who are expose to domestic abuse while growing up, more likely to become abusers/abused as adults than the child who was not exposed to domestic abuse while growing up?

Null Hypothesis: Children exposed to domestic abuse are no more likely to become abusers/abused as an adult than children not exposed to domestic abuse. Research Hypothesis: Children exposed to domestic abuse are more likely to become abusers/abused as an adult than children not exposed to domestic abuse. Definitions of terms Violence Violence is an extreme form of aggression, such as assault, rape or murder and it has many causes, including frustration, exposure to violent media, violence in the home or neighborhood, and a tendency to see other people’s actions as hostile even when they’re not.

Domestic Violence There has been some issue with definitions of the terminology domestic violence. In researching the different definitions in this proposal the term domestic violence will be used in the following way, violence among intimate partners, includes controlling through intimidation, verbal, sexual, and physical abuse. Violence could also include financial abuse and any other type of control. Any type of assault or that an adult uses against another adult involved in intimate relationship (Missouri Coalition Against Domestic Violence {MCADV}, 2000, 2009).

Although violence usually refers to violence between partners, the phrase family violence is used to refer to abuse between other family members, for example elder abuse and child abuse by parents (Salcido, Weithorn, & Behrman, 1999). The American Psychological Association Task Force on Violence and the Family in 1996 defined domestic violence as “A pattern of abusive behaviors including a wide range of physical, sexual, and psychological maltreatment used by one person in an intimate relationship against another to gain power unfairly or

maintain that person’s misuse of power, control, and authority” (Walker, 1999, p. 23). Exposure to domestic violence The phase exposure to domestic violence refers to children experiencing a scope of domestic violence, which refers to verbal abuse as well as physical abuse to a parent, or even trying to stop the violence (Salcido et al. , 1999). Witnessing domestic violence The phrase witnessing domestic violence is used to describe and instance when a child is present in the room when the violence happens. Assumptions

In 2010 According The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, There was an estimated 3 in 10 women and 1 in 10 men in the United States who had been victim of rape, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner and reported at least one incident of experiencing these or similar forms of violent behavior in the relationship (Black, Basile, Breiding, Smith, Walters, Merrick, Chen,& Stevens, M. R. , 2011) and in many of these instances a child is present. Through interaction, observation, cognitive and personal characteristics children acquire their behaviors and values (Bandura, 1986).

Methods and Procedures This will be a descriptive research, the study will be based on a combination application of quantitative and perspectives. The study will be set to determine those children who were exposed to domestic violence who later became abusive or was involved in an abusive relation. The method used will be a longitudinal case study, in order to observe the selected group at different selected intervals as they age to determine if there were any instances of abuse or being abused (Cozby, 2009). The observations will be focused on relationships after reaching the age of adulthood.

The study will expand over a period of 30 years with interval survey, interviews conducted every 5 years for observation of relationship stats and development check. Population Participant will be selected through random sampling, with participants from a domestic abuse center. The study group will be a group of 100 children, male and female between the ages of 6-16, of various races from the Permian Basin area of Texas various races 6-16, Procedures In preparation for the research study, informed consent statements and confidentiality form swill be prepared. There will be confidentiality forms for all involved with taping of interviews.

Consent forms for any audio taping that may be done, during the interviews will also be prepared. Interview and survey questions will be developed. Time schedules for interval surveys. Instruments Instruments used during the study time would also include questionnaire surveys, interviews using open ended questions and Conflict Tactics Scale. The additional instruments will be administered separately over the period of the study. Each 5 year interval there will be a survey of some form to determine status of effect of the exposure to abuse when the participant was a child.

Data Analysis Discussion Potential outcomes from the study would be that having exposure to domestic abuse a child did affect the relationship choices the participants made as an adult. The effects may be different depending on the gender of the participant or at what age they were a witness to the abuse. There could be a separation in the results as to whether those who were the abuser or victim, if the males tended to be the abusers or they were very protective of their mate because of what they say as a child.

Inspected outcomes is to show how the participant felt when they witnessed the abuse and why they feel the abuse happened or why they feel they abuse their partner or why they are or were a victim of abuse. The most substantial result would be the root of whether children from abusive homes are later abusers or become victims more often than those who grew up in non-abusive homes. Uncovering the root of the cycle of abuse and taking the research further to see if there is a way to help bring knowledge and awareness to communities to prevent domestic abuse. Implications Domestic Violence is an expanding issue in our country.

This issue has been existing for years and is now increasing more rapidly. There has been research that shows that in many of the reported cases of domestic violence a child has been present to witness the abuse. Research indicates that witnessing domestic abuse as a child has adverse long term affects. My proposal is for further research in this area, with emphasis on the a effect witnessing domestic abuse as a child has on adult relationships. The purpose and goal is to decrease the rates of abuse and to decrease the continuing rate of the revolving generational cycle of domestic abuse.

References Alexander, H. , Macdonald, E. , & Paton, S. (2005). Raising the issue of domestic abuse in school. Children & Society, 19, 187-198. American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family. (1996). Violence and the family. Washington, D. C. : American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www. apa. org/search. aspx? query=violence Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Is lottery a good idea narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Lottery is one of the best things that has ever happened to human kind especially those that dream high and but their dreams don’t come to life because they don’t have what it takes to make it happen. Lotteries are in various categories such as sweep stakes, scratch off, the Jackpot and even the green card lottery. The lottery that is being focused in this argument is the jackpot one. When individuals or people in general buy the lottery ticket their hopes are high, and they anxiously await with anticipation hoping to win. If they don’t win, they never give up, for they know that there is always next time and they keep playing.

Some people urge that playing lottery is a bad idea because people end up getting addicted to it, or that it affects them psychologically. They could lose friendships and family member’s trust in some way. This could be true to some extent, but the possibilities of what happens after people win the lottery is in their hands. People buy lottery tickets and spend their money on it for all sorts of reasons. They want to pay off their bills, go to vacations, buy a car, or maybe a new home whatever situation they are in people have hope that lottery can fix it. It is some kind of a rescue fantasy.

It’s like their money is buying some kind of hope for them. The moment they spent that dollar, they can’t help but to think what their life will be like if they win. Where they will go? What they will buy? The list goes on and on. I urge that lottery is actually a good idea, especially if people are intelligent enough to play wisely, and use the money they’ve won to create a life of endless possibilities. The arguments below are some of the reasons why lottery is a good idea. When individuals play lottery the one and only thing that is in their mind is the money.

This is so because in the world we live in, money is the way people get the things they need and want. When the buyer finds out that their ticket has winning numbers, especially the huge jackpot they will jump with joy. The new money will change a lot of things in their life. All of a sudden they have money to buy things they want. This also means that their economic and social status changes too. One example is of a woman in California who won $112 million. She gave her brother and father some money. She also gave some money to a charity program to fund an art program for children.

This is one of the examples that people who win the lottery can do so much with the money since their live hood is elevated, they belong to the Elite. Just like this woman, people get happier as their money increases to the level where they are pretty much comfortable. Also their mental well-being improves. Things can only get bad if people fail to plan when they have that winning ticket. The first thing people have to do is to give themselves time to get used to the wealth before they start spending it. They need to plan ahead if they have to do well.

They need to decide where they will be in years to come to avoid from “riches to rags” scenario. People feel overwhelmed if they don’t have a clear life goal. Winners should also be able to have a team of financial and legal advisers. They have to choose a Lawyer and Accountants so they can work together to help them. Carefully check each of them and make sure there is nothing in their files that has been filed against them. People also need to live within their budget, invest wisely, and pay off all the debts they had. That way the will not have too much burden on their heads.

They also need to plan to give some of their money. Pastor Binney at winners praise center once said that: “When people give money away, it makes them feel good and gives them the sense of appreciation on what they have. ” The more people give the more the blessing comes their way and the more they feel a sense of security and stability. People also need to invest in making memories for themselves. Appreciate what they have as their life is changing in a better way and their dreams are coming true. Lottery also plays a role in most states. The history of lottery started long time ago in the early history of America.

The online gov. info library states that “Lotteries were frequently used in colonial-era America to finance public works projects such as paving streets, constructing wharves, even building churches. In the 18th century, lotteries were used to finance construction of buildings at Harvard and Yale. ” This shows that lottery has been around for a long time. Today, most states have adopted lottery system especially the computerized ones like mega millions and Powerball due to the world advancing technologically. This is so because these states have seen the growth of income that come from lotto.

Each state has rules and time frames in which a prize can be claimed. Some states allows people to be anonymous like Ohio while others don’t have that option. For example, in Indiana winners have 90 days before they claim their prize and their identity is revealed. In cases where the winning ticket isn’t claimed, the state will get back all the money that it contributed to the unclaimed jackpot. The money is distributed according to state rules. Even if the winner comes forward, every state that participates in lottery selling benefits from it.

The state imposes both federal and state taxes on the winner. Winners have a choice to take a pay out as a lump sum or as an annuity. If the payment is lump sum, taxes are paid out at once and annually if the prize is taken as an annuity. These winnings, of course, are subject to withholding for federal and state purposes. Even if the state doesn’t have a winner, they still benefit from it. After giving out the prizes, whatever the remainder goes to the state, and it’s up to the state to decide what to do with the money. In most states, these lottery proceeds are used for education purposes.

For example, in New York, a certain percentage of the state’s total education funding to local school districts come from lottery ticket sales. In California by state law, the money from lottery sales is used to supplement funding to public education on all levels from kindergarten through higher education. That has translated, since 1985, to $25 billion for public education. In Georgia as a result of funding through the lottery, more than 1. 6 million students have been able to attend colleges through Georgia’s HOPE scholarship program and more than 1. 3 million four-year-olds have attended pre-kindergarten.

(Forbes writer) In Some states like Texas, they use the money they get from lottery tickets sales and winnings to Fund for Veterans Assistance. Pennsylvania state website states that, “lottery sales in benefit senior citizen programs. This program involves serving food at the senior centers and as well as delivering them to senior homes. It also helps to lower prescription drugs for senior citizens. Pennsylvania is the only state in the US that use the lottery money especially for this reason. As of last year, lottery sales have provided about 22,700 hot meals for older residents.

While in Wisconsin the lottery sales go towards lowering property taxes. In his document Al Runde explained that “…the lottery tax credit has been the primary mechanism for providing property tax relief. ” Even though sales tax are not imposed on lottery sales, but the state have an advantage in sales tax increase. These sales taxes are generated from the sales people make when they go to buy a lottery ticket. One might buy a pack of cigarettes, a cup of coffee, or candy at the counter while they’re checking out. Lottery also plays a role in helping to support small

business in the country. Lottery retailer gets a percentage from their ticket sales. Hoosier lottery website states that Indiana lottery offers programs that are profitable for retailers including commissions on the sale and redemption of Hoosier Lottery tickets and a bonus for the sale of a jackpot or top prize-winning draw ticket. There are also even opportunities to receive bonus dollars through retailer quarterly incentive programs. One time at Martins supermarket, they were giving people free Powerball tickets when the jackpot reached to the amount of $500 million.

This shows that retailers really benefit from these lottery sales because if that has not the case they would not have been giving free tickets. It’s to their benefit. Another benefit of Lottery is found in the jobs created by these lotteries and the program they help to fund. In Oregon, their website states that 27% of Lottery funds are allocated for job creation and economic development, providing assistance for a variety of Oregon’s industries such as: manufacturing, high-tech, agriculture, fisheries, solar, medical, tourism, as well as small businesses.

People are able to provide for their kids and loved ones. In conclusion, Frederick D. Stocker writes that “it now seems that by the end of the decade the lottery and other gambling revenues may be part of the revenue structure in a good many states. ” Chances are that whether people chose to play lottery or not they still benefit in one way or the other. The states and the federal government also benefit from it in several ways. As for the individuals who play lotto all they need in enough education to make an adjustment in their lives.

Explain why there was mass immigration to the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 essay help cheap: essay help cheap

?Explain why there was mass immigration to the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 There was mass immigration to the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 for a combination of reasons, all of which are based around socio-economic, ideological, political, cultural and technological factors. America was considered at this time “The Great Melting Pot” due to immigrants from everywhere mixing into this one country, however, this immigration did not form a “melting pot” of cultures because each ethnic group had their own area in a town or even its own town.

For immigrants, America was seen as a place for achieving the dream of improving and having a better life, there they had freedoms and liberty, this is why immigration was not only from Europe but from other parts of the world. The other form of immigration was formed called migration. There was a lot of migration from African-Americans from poorer South to the more prosperous North; however, the migrating African-Americans were not welcomed, they suffered much the same way as they had in the South.

The changes in American society that immigration brought about were friction between newly arrived and older established groups, religion being the main one, with older groups (Protestants) and the newer ones(catholic). The changes in American politics that immigration brought about were very little; power was kept by the WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants). Irish Americans began sticking together for collective political clout which brought about the significance of Tammany Hall.

Tammany Hall was notorious for the corruption in city and state politics that it fostered; it was built by local politics to support the Democratic Party and it provided immigrants with a social “safety net”. It also controlled businesses, influenced police, certain labour unions and voting. “Push” and “pull” factors are said to be a main cause of immigration to America. Push factors are reasons that generally push people out of their country; the push factors in Europe included population growth as Europe had better food and homes causing a population growth and so it soon became overcrowded.

Due to agricultural changes, landlords took advantage of city growth because of the over crowdedness and forced residents out in order for the land owners to farm in large areas. Also in agricultural changes, there was mass crop failure, poor farmers were in debt because of this, causing them to starve and so they chose to redeem themselves in America instead. The Industrial Revolution introduced factories which made cheaper materials that artisans could not compete with so because of their unemployment status, some decided to come to America.

Regarding religious and political chaos, Quakers from Norway and Jews from Germany left to avoid religious harassment, Germans also came as the German Revolution didn’t have the desired outcome. Not only that, but the persecution of Russian Jews and the economic collapse and starvation of Southern Italians influenced a lot of immigrants. Pull factors are factors that attracted immigrants to America. Considered to be the most attractive pull factor was freedom, as immigrants looked for a place to practice anything they desired.

Also, economic opportunities gave immigrants a reason to seek a better life, and they found it in America. Because of the Louisiana Purchase and the Mexican Cession effect on America was gaining more than enough land, this attracted Europeans who faced overcrowding in their country. There were limited restrictions for immigrants to get into America but only 2% of immigrants were turned away. Therefore, there was mass immigration in the USA between the years 1890 and 1914 as the immigrants’ lives in their native countries was poor and they looked for a better place to live with freedom and opportunities which they found in America

The economies and diseconomies of scale best essay help: best essay help

The economies and diseconomies of scale Profit is the most important issue for a business, how to exploit the opportunities and maximize the profit has long been the top priority of the competition. Since the profit is simply the result by subtracting the expense from income, how to balance the relationship between input and output can be crucial and conclusive to a firm’s competitiveness and development. This essay will examine the issue of economies and diseconomies of scale. After first describing the types, it will consider its effects. Then, the essay will assess firms’ decision towards diseconomies of scale and provide solutions.

There are several types of economies of scale. One type of internal economies of scale is the Technical economies. Anderton (2000:320) states that the increasing and decreasing retributions to scale in return is the reason economies of scale exist, which is known as technical economies. They can arise in the production progress and the firm would benefit from better machinery. Sloman (2001:96) notes that large machines may be more efficient in the sense that more output can be gained for a given amount of inputs. For instance, no matter the size of a machine is, normally it can be operated by a single worker.

Therefore a small-scale business could not make full use of one. This introduces the concept of “indivisibilities”. It’s less likely to occur when the ratio of output is continuously increasing. However, the average cost of the machine will fall as the level of usage goes up. What’s more, Maunder (1992:327) clarifies the close connection between the principle of increased dimensions by stating that in the size of a globe enlarge more than commensurately within its length of the closed curve. In a word, the costs were in slow growth while the capacity has grown several times.

Another type of internal economies of scale is the managerial economies. Since the firm could have managed to pay for specialist staffs. Hall (2004:590) explains this through a vivid example that in a relatively small firm one executive has to be responsible for servicing, transporting, marketing. Similarly, every worker has to do many jobs and hardly possible to settle in an area of expertise if it is a small firm. Unlike those firms which are at low output levels, larger enterprises possess with rich and qualified personnel provide every single worker enough freedom to focus on one task and thus handle it more efficiently.

Financial economies is a further type of internal economies of scale. It’s obvious that tycoons have overwhelming superiority towards small firm when they try to raise finance. Maunder (1991:327)makes the pointed remark of it that the large firm can easily negotiate loans and enjoy favorable interest rates from banks and other loan institutions, or even form a consortium to provide sufficient fund for project since they will have large assets to offer as security.

Hall (2004:590) adds more evidence that large public limited companies can raise money by selling stock which the private firm cannot ever do. So far the essay have been demonstrating the internal economies of scale. However, the outside factors like the growth in the size of the industry in which the specific firm operates can have positive Impact on the economies of scale—-external economies of scale. Bannock(2001:115) illustrates it will arise because the enlargement of an industry can lead to the development of ancillary services of benefit to all firms.

For example, government might pick up pace in building and improving the local transportation systems due to the rapid growth of industry, which in turn reduces costs to individual firms Having described the variety types of economies of scale, the essay will now consider it in diseconomies of scale. The continuous expanding will lead to an exactly opposite effect on gaining profit. As firms continue their expansion, when it gets beyond a specific size, the cost per unit of output may show a distinct tendency—-start to increase.

The scale as mentioned above is called “diseconomies of scale”. Hall(2004:591) explains this through internal and external diseconomies. First of all, the internal diseconomies of scale are always arise mainly because of the problems of managing increasingly businesses. As firms grow larger and develop in many fields, the boundaries between each individual department would become smeared which may lead to potential conflict.

In order words, it’s a major concern for a large firm to reach mutual understanding between different sectors. A large firm is more like a complex system which involving many departments and staffs and information as well as hard organization and coordination. Hall(2004:591) claims that it is undoubtedly demanding and implacable to manage and coordinate more than thousand of staffs, billions of pounds, trillions of information and dozens of plans which all mean added effort,duty and surveillance.

In addition, Labour problems can be another reason for causing internal diseconomies of scale. Sloman (2001:97) comments that workers might feel ” alienated “and “isolated” if their job is both tedium and reduplicative. For example, as the expansion of the company, employees would gradually consider themselves as plain and insignificant as a gear in a giant machine. Stress, depression and similar negative feelings often result in shoddy work thus reduce the efficiency of their work.

Hall(2004:591) agrees this by stating that this feeling can make individual staff suffer from losing morale and confidence in reaching higher achievement. What’s more, despite the internal diseconomies that might limit the growth of business, external diseconomies would arise as well as Hall(2004:591) furthers his view that it is an inevitable part of the outcome of the overcrowding in industrial areas. Rentals, labor cost, raw and processed materials might rise as firms are all in intense competition for a limited amount indent.

In terms of the views above, Sloman(2001:97) gives strong supports that the shortage of skilled labor and customized raw materials will growing as well as the development of the whole industry, which will result in an inflation of prices and therefore hence the firms’ costs. Since there is an inherent limitation to the efficient functioning of management as Maunder(1991:328) mentioned. Enforce the rules and regulations of the firms and simplify the management systems and governance procedures can not only reduce the cost of supervising works, but also raises employee’s self-managerial ability and working efficiency.

Another effective way of doing this is by improving the communication networks. As the limitation of geography cannot be wiped out thoroughly, Hall (2004:591) suggests firms to control the transportation cost and improve the convenience of the provision of services. Last but not the least advice might be keeping the firm in a relatively small scale. perhaps it is the best simple recipe for getting rid of diseconomies of scale.

The Effects of Pressure on Students to get Good Grades essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Living in a society like the one we are living today, can be very challenging for students. As the world gets more competitive, students are getting more pressured to achieve their goals in life. Pressure have become one of the known factors to affect a student’s life. Anyone who passed through this stage has felt the same way. Getting good grades has become one of the goals students today are aspiring for.

It has been perceived that a good mark from school can place someone to a decent job and make that person stand out from others especially when it comes to interviews and conversations. With such belief, students neglect on the negative effects of the pressure they are encountering because they want to maintain high grades. There are few effects of pressure on students to get good grades such as, extreme stress, cheating during exam, and changing of the attitude.

Main point 1: Extreme stress All the stress experienced by a student from either parent or peer is considered one of the effects of pressure handed to them because of their want to have good grades. Normally, parents apply pressure upon the student in order to keep up in school and not allow the student to fall behind. However, a problem arises when the parent apply excessive pressure on the student. The effect of such pressure can lead to negative health of students.

Students tend to have lack of sleep – without having enough of sleep will cause the students’ body to become sick. Main point 2: Cheating during exam Students tend to cheat during exam when they become mentally and physically exhausted. We have been aware of plagiarism being the cause of many violations done by students. (Ex: can either be for their research paper, thesis paper, or just a simple hw) There are also incidents of cheating in examinations through copying other’s answers and putting them on the test paper, recognizing them as one’s own.

These sinful acts are the effects of the belief that good grades can send you off to better jobs and a more secured future. Main point 3: Changing of the attitude This particular outcome is definitely disturbing because values and morals become affected. According to an interview conducted by Palmer (2005) to Ms. Denise Clark Pope, students as she said, “know that cheating is wrong; they tell me they wish they did not do it”. As the statement goes, honesty, respect, and integrity have all been violated for the sake of possessing a good grade.

Conclusion In a nutshell, dealing with all the effects of pressure on maintaining an excellent grade comes with a price. It results in extreme stress, cheating and the worst of all, changing of the attitude. All these made a clear understanding of what learning really is about. It is not a matter of only getting a good grade but rather learning with understanding and receiving the grades that one truly deserves. As for this, students must realize that education is in fact teaching people not only academically, but morally.

Art Gallery argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

In completion of this assignment the art gallery that I chose to visit was Mark Gallery in Englewood New Jersey. When you walk up to the establishment there are floor to ceiling glass windows that allow you to see everything inside. Facing the gallery there were so many colors that enticed you to enter. The arrangements and art work was spaced out nicely not causing clutter. This allowed you to individually take in each piece on by itself. All of the pieces were very nice but the artist that caught my attention was Mr. Mark Oberndorf.

Oberndorf was born in New York but is currently residing in Bergren County New Jersey. He is a contemporary realist painter. Since the age of 10 he has been interested in the visual arts. At an early age some of his beginning works were illustrating his school yearbook to painting murals on his elementary school building. From 1995 to present Oberndorf has had art in various group and solo exhibitions and galleries. Currently his work is currently represented by Mark Gallery of Englewood New Jersey and Westwood Gallery in Westwood New Jersey.

I found several of his pieces interesting because they were so basic. Not meaning they did not have levels or dimensions but they put me in the mind of simpler times and relatable memories. His pieces display three dimensional effects on a two dimensional surface with natural lighting effects. All painting are created with oil on linen canvass. Such pieces as the “Wyckoff Train Station”, “Dairy Queen” and “Gas” all represent the Bergren County area and parts of New York prior to the gentrification phase. “Gas” depicts an old two pump station as you would see it in the 1970’s.

The piece of the “Dairy Queen” shows the classic franchise that was shaped somewhat of a barn prior to the new modernized look you may see today. I can remember as a kid having one of these in our neighborhood. We frequently visited it for a Sunday cone after attending church. I could not wait to stand in line for my soft serve on a cone. Lastly the “Wyckoff Train Station” is truly a classic single standing building not so big on the side of the tracks. Much dated compared to the enormous train stations and subway stations you see in the big cities such as New York.

Through viewing these pieces I would think this is his way of holding on to a piece of history, before all common landmarks that held tradition and memories were torn down. Prior to gentrification in many of our communities there were several sites or establishments that were a common thread to our community. Be it the mom and pop store on the corner to the old fashioned ice cream stand. Gentrification has erased these things with more modernized establishments that help to bring economic wealth for some but forces others out of the neighborhoods and communities that they have been a part of for quite some time.

Literature Review – Foreign aid rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

There are many competing theories underscoring why countries elect to contribute foreign aid to other countries. This is a difficult international phenomena to isolate, because there are many potential factors that could influence a country’s decision. Some countries are motivated to provide foreign aid to certain countries based on political ideologies, geopolitical strategic locations, or other foreign policy objectives. This paper begins by identifying the major debates in the literature regarding what motivates the provision of foreign aid by a country.

There seems to be clear divisions between political and strategic motivations to provide foreign aid as opposed to economic needs and policy performance or finally, political ideology. Major Debates in the Foreign Aid Literature There are many concurrent related debates in the foreign aid literature that do not necessarily address the direct question of what motivates countries to contribute foreign aid. Ngaire Woods identifies some of these related debates as including; financial capacity of donors, and best provision methods.

While these debates are tied to the question of why countries provide foreign aid, this paper focuses on the theorists and articles that provide the most useful responses to this specific research question. Political and Strategic Motivations for Foreign Aid Woods goes on to address why countries provide foreign aid by closely linking the foreign aid decisions of donor countries to their shifting security priorities. Woods argues that countries provide foreign aid on the basis of strengthening their own security. Woods states, “Most of the increase in US

Aid has been destined for projects designed to serve the security imperatives prevailing in the wake of September 11. ”2 Alberto Alesina and David Dollar argue that “direction of foreign aid is dictated by political and strategic considerations, much more than by the economic needs and policy performance of the recipients. ”3 They have also concluded that while foreign aid flows are affected by strategic concerns, foreign direct investments and other corporate economic decisions are determined more by stability in the receiving country and the positive returns on their investments.

Another finding indicates that countries might be using foreign aid to encourage democratization. They find that “The typical democratizing country gets a 50% increase in aid. ”4 Many Realists would side with this rationale behind foreign aid provision because it will strengthen US security interests abroad. Palmer, Wohlander, and Morgan make an intriguing finding. They created a “two-good” model of foreign policy that explains foreign aid provision as an option among foreign policy choices, and as a marked alternative to “the initiation of interstate conflict and participation in certain types of alliances.

Morgenthau makes a contribution that the “United States has interests abroad which cannot be secured by military means and for the support of which the traditional methods of diplomacy are only in part appropriate. ”6 Morgenthau’s comment justifies the use of multiple means to achieve the same strategic ends and implies there may not be a clear division across the identified camps in this debate and field after all. Economic and International Development Motivations for Foreign Aid Morgenthau states that some believe “foreign aid is the fulfillment of an obligation of the few rich nations toward the many poor ones.

Steven Radelet uses the compelling counterexample of President George W. Bush and his September 2002 National Security Strategy, which gave “rare prominence to development and aid alongside defense and diplomacy. ”8 Radelet goes on to describe the $10 billion in new funding to alleviate HIV/AIDS in Africa and the Caribbean. Rather than purely strategic or political considerations, Radelet describes this foreign policy shift as an indication of concern for development and direct international aid.

Radelet also rationalizes that there could be underlying motivations for this foreign policy shift that still maintain US strategic interests abroad. He argues that this HIV/AIDS funding still enhances US security by eliminating new sources of terrorists, US soft power, ideological encouragement, and satisfying a moral obligation. This final perspective is representative of many of Liberalism’s theorists, because soft power, diplomacy, and cooperation between nations are seen as the ultimate guarantee of safety.

Foreign Aid as a Tool for Spreading Political Ideology and Other Concerns Many theorists believe that spreading political ideology through foreign aid provision may not be the most effective strategy. Farah Abuzeid argues that “discrimination on the basis of standards of governance creates new complications. ”9 This has very important implications for new democracies and underdeveloped countries when competing for limited foreign aid, especially if democratizing countries are favored.

Another unintended potential consequence of engaging in foreign aid provision is highlighted by Stephane Pallage and Michel A. Robe who suggest that volatility in foreign aid provision is destabilizing for many countries in Africa. 10 Deborah Brautigam and Stephen Knack similarly argue that “…in many of the countries with poor governance records, aid continues to contribute a very high percentage of government budgets. ”11 Michael Edwards examines foreign aid provision from the perspective of the role in international relations of development non-governmental organizations.

Diplomacy remains paramount as Radelet indicates “historically most aid has been given as bilateral assistance directly from one country to another. ”13 Conclusion This critical survey of the relevant foreign aid literature indicates that there is very little discussion of the multiple motivations that coincide behind each country’s foreign aid decisions. As Morgenthau indicated, it is likely that there are multiple reasons or means employed to achieve various ends. For some of these theorists, the main objective in providing foreign aid revolves around achieving political stability for the donor country.

For others, the primary objective relates to lessening suffering around the world, and yet for others, foreign aid should be used to promote particular political ideologies like democracy. In this research paper, the objective is to instead, explore the possibility of competing objectives and perhaps a ranked order of objectives that could be achieved by priority. It will be difficult to assess intention on the part of a country’s foreign policy, but through data from sources like WikiLeaks and other pro-transparency databases, it is hoped that this question can be investigated.

Is the ontological argument the strongest argument for the existence of god, is it defendable? essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

In this essay I will first explain the ontological argument and my reasons for choosing it. I will then discuss why I believe it is a better account for the existence of god than the teleological argument and the cosmological argument. I will then move onto discuss various theologians that oppose the ontological argument and critique their responses. The aim of the essay if to show the strength of the argument and to expose some key weaknesses with its criticisms.

Hopefully the essay will be convincing enough for the reader to not accept the words from Scott Aikin that the ontological argument is merely “the litmus test for intellectual seriousness”. It is interesting to note how this argument is able to deduce God’s existence from our very definition of god as existential claims rarely follow from conceptual ones. For example if I wish to prove that dragons exist I cannot merely reflect on the concept of dragons. I would need to use my senses in the real world to begin an empirical investigation. I would need to do exactly the same thing to prove that dragons do not exist.

We can clearly see that most existential claims, both negative and positive can only be established with some sort of empirical methodology. That being said, there can be one type of exception. For example, We are able to prove that there are no rectangular squares without checking every square in existence, because by definition it would be a contradiction if all squares were not square. The ontological argument therefore supposes that it is as much a contradiction to say there are rectangular squares as it is to say that god does not exist.

This for me is a different and interesting way of arguing for the existence of god. The argument first came about from St. Anselm in his Proslogium. It can be summarized as follows. 1) It is true by definition that god is a being than which none greater can be conceived. 2) God exists as an idea in the mind. 3) A being that is able to exist both in the mind and in reality is to be considered greater than a being, which only exists in the mind. 4) Therefore, if god is only an idea in the mind, we can imagine something that is greater than God. 5) We cannot imagine something greater than God.

It would be a contradiction. 6) Therefore, God exists. A crucial point of this argument is that existence in reality is a great-making property. To exist in reality is better to exist just in the mind. Take the idea of imagining a beer that exists only in your mind. You can make this beer however you want, it can be ice cold, hoppy, bubbly etc. but this beer is only in your mind and does not exist in reality. The beer you have imagined is useless if you want to physically drink it. Now compare the beer to one that not only exists in your mind but also in reality, surely you would say that the new beer is better?

From this then we can deduce that things that both exist in the mind and in reality are to be considered greater then those that only exist in the mind. This argument for me seems to be the most convincing compared to the cosmological and the teleological argument. The cosmological argument in short asserts that the universe had an “original cause”. The basic idea being that everything that moves is moved by something, that also had to have been moved by something else and so on. So the “original mover”, the one who began the universe would have to be God.

Just like the first domino in a cascade, the first domino is to be metaphorically applied to God. The proof for this theory would therefore come from the observations on the nature of causality in the exterior world. This theory is far less convincing, the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the premises. Inductive reasoning is a weak basis for an argument. It does not follow that from things in the universe having a cause, that universe has a cause. We do not have any experience of universes that are caused and therefore cant make such a claim.

Another argument that provides reasonable doubt came from David Hume who famously argued that “This does not prove, that every being must be preceded by a cause; no more than it follows, because every husband must have a wife, that therefore every man must be marry’d. The true state of the question is, whether every object, which begins to exist, must owe its existence to a cause: and this I assert neither to be intuitively nor demonstratively certain…” (David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Book 1: Of the Understanding, Part 3: Of knowledge of probability, Section).

The idea that everything does not necessarily need to have a cause is in my opinion the cosmological arguments ultimate downfall. The teleological argument also comes up short, it asserts that the world is so perfectly designed and so intricate that it must have a designer, i. e. god. The analogy of a watchmaker is used in order to explain the theory. Just like a watch has a designer so to does the universe. There are many reasons to why the argument is weak, however I will only briefly explain a few. As we saw with the cosmological argument the inductive nature of the argument makes it vulnerable.

Hume argues that just because things in the universe have designers, does not mean that the universe has a designer. He also asserts that there may be more than one designer, such is true with the universe. The infinite regress argument also leads me to doubt the plausibility of the argument. God must surely have a designer; something as magnificent as god must have a designer. This leads us to infinite regress. I also think that arguments from analogy are to be seen as weak as the inference from a watch to the universe is too large.

These are just a few reasons why I believe these two arguments to be inferior to the ontological argument. Obviously the ontological argument does have its weaknesses but I don’t think they are as damaging to the theory as the ones I have mentioned above. My reasoning for believing that the ontological argument is the best account for the possibility of god is simple. Anselm shows that the concept of god is not illogical, everyone has a concept of god in their mind, even a non-believer. Therefore because of this he must exist in reality also, as shown in Anselm’s above argument.

The argument is deductive and reaches clear and distinct conclusions. The argument leaves only one possibility, the existence of god. The main weaknesses of the ontological argument in my opinion came from Gaunilo and Kant. Here I will discuss Kant’s main argument and the possible responses that can be given. Gaunilo’s main objection is that we cannot go from defining something to assuming its existence as necessary. He uses the same logical argument that Anselm does, however he replaces god with the idea of the perfect island.

It is true by definition that the perfect island is an island that than which nothing greater can be conceived. 2) The island exists in my mind. 3) An island that exists both in our mind and in reality is greater than an island that only exists in my mind. 4) If the perfect island is only an idea in our mind then we can imagine something greater. 5) We can’t imagine something greater than the perfect island. It would be a contradiction 6) Therefore the perfect island exists. Gaunilo’s argument does raise problems with the original theory.

However they are not strong enough to dismiss the theory. Premise 1 of Gaunilo’s argument seems to be incoherent. The properties of a perfect island do not have intrinsic maximums. A perfect island can always be better, for example if the island had 100 trees, it could be greater with 101 trees and so on. There is no maximum number of trees that make it great. The island has no intrinsic maximum as the greatest possible island is incoherent. This is not the same with God as Anselm argues. God’s attributes such as power and knowledge have limits.

God knows everything and therefore it is conceptually impossible for him to know anything else. So Anselm’s argument will not work if the concepts that are conceptually essential to the idea of god do not have intrinsic maximums. The idea of God would be incoherent just as the perfect island is. However, as long as the relevant properties of God are omnipotence, omniscience and moral perfection, which all have intrinsic maximums. Then we can say that Anselm’s ontological argument has avoided the criticism raised by Gaunilo. The second argument comes from Kant.

He argues that existence is not a predicate of God. A predicate is property that we attribute to something when describing it. For example, the sky is blue. Blueness is one of the sky’s predicates. So all I am doing by saying the sky is blue is adding information about the subject. Kant believed that there was an essential difference between predicating something and asserting that it exists. if we look at the predicates of God, he is omnipotent, omniscient and perfectly good. These all make sense, however when we talk of existence it doesn’t add anything.

It only tells you that god is, it doesn’t tell you anything about what god is like, only that he is. So for Kant existence as a predicate is meaningless as it tells you nothing about the subject. This argument is fairly convincing, however in my opinion it is flawed. Take necessary existence instead of existence. Necessary things, it would have to be agreed are greater than contingent ones due to their nature, they are unable to not exist. Imagine two identical objects, one that exists necessarily and one that is contingent. The first must be seen as greater as it is not contingent.

Kant belief of existence not being a predicate does seem strange. Take another example of a child who has believed in Santa’s existence for his whole life. He then comes and asks as to whether or not Santa is real. He is told that Santa does not exist and the child takes this as the truth. If we follow Kant’s reasoning then the child has learnt nothing new. this surely must seem strange? The child has obviously learnt something new i. e. that Santa exists. would this then show that existence is a property that one is able to attribute to things. Thus the ontological argument survives Kant’s criticisms.

In conclusion I have showed why I believe the ontological argument to be the best theory for the existence of god. Also my reasoning behind why I believe both the cosmological and teleological arguments are not as convincing. they simply seem to have too many objections that give near definitive reasoning as to why the argument fails. The ontological argument in my opinion is the only defendable argument as I have shown with both Gaunilo’s and Kant’s objections. Overall Its clear that the ontological argument does have it flaws, however these can be overcome with the way we perceive both the ontological argument and its objection.

Zappos Case Analysis best college essay help: best college essay help

USA Today has been an innovative way for customers to receive news on a daily basis since 1982. Their innovation lies within the format of their bright, colorful and eye-catching paper, as well as in their shorter pieces that help to enlighten consumers without over powering them. Owned by Gannett Co. Inc. , a diversified international news, information and communications company, USA Today has every possibility of furthering their success in the news industry. Executive Summary:

In reading Case 1, USA Today: Innovation in an Evolving Industry*, it became apparent that USA Today is fighting to stay relevant in today’s news distribution culture. Currently USA Today is still operating with increasing profit margins, however they are losing touch with their intended cliental of Middle Americans. From 1982 until today, USA Today has been able to create a product which is able to adapt to the needs of it’s cliental, but their recent plateau and minor decrease in circulation, could send them into a spiral.

An increase in technologically savvy consumers, and the fight to produce the most up to date app to appease them places USA Today in a rat race against other leading market competitors. USA Today must push to the next level the fight to remain innovative, as they have for the last thirty years, in meeting their customer’s needs in new and unexpected ways.

Their chances to stay on top of their game and innovation will significantly increase f they continue to adapt their marketing strategies, as well as continue their use of value-added strategy to further enhance distribution of its proprietary content and ensure continued product differentiation. Situation Analysis: Internal: Since the first issue of USA Today launched on September 15, 1982, it has been an uphill battle for the company to fight to sustain their relevance and importance in the news world. The newspaper created a mission statement that explained their goal to make the newspaper enlightening, and

Enjoyable to the public, informative to national leaders, and attractive to advertisers. More or less, USA Today wanted to create an all-encompassing newspaper for the country to enjoy. From an internal standpoint, the employees of USA Today worked hard to give their readers what they wanted. With an all American staff and little coverage of the outside world, USA Today continued to meet the demands of their customers and fill the gap in the newspaper market. USA Today’s loyal employee base allows them to be quick, innovative and typically the first to make a splash in the news industry.

Their late hours for submission allows the company to send out the most current and up to date news, while still providing an outstanding standard of service that helps to achieve reoccurring customers. With employees that listen and take time to understand what the reader wants, USA Today has been able to flourish economically. Customer Environment: The overwhelming majority of USA Today’s circulation is within the United states. Most of the readers work in middle- to upper management positions and are often purchasing decision makers for their offices and households, as well as technology junkies and sports fans.

Most of USA Today’s customers participated in a wide range o leisure activities such as attending movies and traveling. The print newspaper’s readers are 69% male and 31% female, with a median age of 50 and a median household income of $91,683. For USA today. com the audience is balanced between men and women, and the median age for readers is only 30 years old. Customers of USA Today are drawn in by the bright colors, short stories and ability to cover important news happening in their country. External Environment: The external environment is what really holds USA Today at a standstill.

While, they are still producing print copies and having millions of daily readers- their competition is fierce. Fighting for number one positions against newspapers such a The Wall Street Journal, as well as The New York times leaves USA Today in a bind to find creative ways to stay in contact with their customers. The surge of use of technology, on top of instant access to news all across the world via the Internet for free, has potential to hurt not only USA Today’s print readership, but their online as well.

Other external factors that have potential to deplete USA Today’s loyal customer base are things like: cable networks, nationally syndicated terrestrial and satellite radio providers such as Sirius/XM, and even blog sites. It’s going to be important for USA Today to find a niche within all of these potential threats, and once again make a name for itself as a product that can provide something different. SWOT Analysis: Strengths: •Loyal customer base of consumers who have consistently purchased USA Today over the last 30 years.

•USA Today is distributed in all 50 states, Canada and the UK; reaching a wide fan base •Known for easy to read, easy to comprehend and up to date news •Ability to adapt with changes in technology, i. e putting their newspaper online Weakness •Decrease circulation; due to competitors •Decrease profits; due to decrease in circulation •High cost of printing; bright colors and pictures on every page cost money •Printing deadline is 4 hours before WSJ; WSJ will get more up-to-date news for their issues •Forced to downsize maintain profits- harmed image

Opportunity •Generate more revenue by partnering with other websites, like Hampton •The creation of a top of the line mobile application •Customizable app for your phone/tablet Threats •NY Times & Wall Street Journal •Network and Cable TV •TV news websites •AM/Satellite Radio •Negative online reviews •Declining AD revenue Goals, Objectives and Solution: After reading the case it’s apparent that our goal needs to push USA Today in the direction of reinventing themselves as not only a newspaper, but a multimedia application.

In order to take USA Today to the next level of a multi-media application several things have to happen. The first thing that needs to happen in order for USA Today to be once again taken as a serious threat, is the need to up the anti by actually creating an app that is accessible to all smart phones, tablets and even the newest rage of “smart televisions. ” The app that USA today needs to create should incorporate the other apps they have out now (games, gas prices, travel prices) and provide an easy to use way for their consumers to access the news, etc.

While, the app should remain a “free app,” something should be put in place that requires the user to pay X amount of dollars either a month, or year, in order to obtain full access to the entire app. By doing this, not only are you bringing in past loyal customers, but creating a new consumer base by offering unique options. Our goal is to take USA Today’s bright and creative ways, and mold them into something that technology junkies can use on a daily basis and receive the same amount of information as if they were subscribed to actual print copies.

The way we keep USA Today relevant is by keeping up with things that are actually relevant to their consumers, and technology is a consistent winner. An added bonus to creating a successful application, would be the stimulation of interest for advertising partnerships to be forms. With a formation of these partnerships, USA Today could begin to generate generous profits by selling advertisements to companies that would be accessible on their app. Thus the solution to the decline in readership for USA Today is to take it to the next level and provide outstanding DIGITAL service to their customers.

The Best Place I Have Ever Been college essay help free: college essay help free

Most people have been to another country before maybe it’s for business or family trip. The best place I have ever been is Maldives, one of the most beautiful countries in the world. Maldives is a country comprised by many small islands, which now people call this country is an island country. Language cannot express the feeling I have to this illustrious country. I still remember when I was 13 years old my mom and I decided to have a trip at somewhere on the earth.

I told her I want to go a place that I could eat every different kinks of food. Everyday is sunny and have beach near the place we live. The reaction she had at that moment was shocked, of course because there was a place could corresponded what had I described-The island country Maldives. We decided to go to Maldives, the mysterious place to us. First of all, we bought a lot of sun cream because the ultraviolet ray at there is extremely strong, usually the age of mine would got skin burned very serious.

We packed many summer clothes and diving tools, which I bought with the sun cream. Our flight landed at the airport of Sri Lanka, we needed to cross the board lane from this airport with our formal documents. Finally we arrived at our destination Maldives, everything in that country was totally different than China. The air much fresh than my home country and people on the island they were very friendly to us.

Houses were 100m close to the beach, you could go out with a few steps to swim in the sea. Everyday in the morning I would lay on the beach chair enjoy the sunshine. The best thing I ever did was having the life that a country’s president can’t even have. If I ever have another chance to go to Maldives I will not waste that chance. If I didn’t see it by myself I could not believe this place existed on the earth. Language cannot express how beautiful that country is.

Christian Leadership college essay help online free: college essay help online free

Human “character”, is the pattern of thinking and acting which runs right through someone, so that wherever you cut into them, you see the same person through and through [1]. The transformation of a person character is their virtue. Virtue is what happens when wise and courageous choices have become “second nature [2]. ” Wright differentiates a biblical framework from a Greek moral framework in that Jesus and his followers are offering the three-dimensional model toward Aristotle two-dimensional points [3].

Wright gives us excellent contrast between biblical and Greek moral framework and I agree with his positions. For example, Aristotle felt for someone to establish character they have to continually practice their strengths, he saw that the ultimate aim was to become the kind of character who would be able to act in the right way automatically, by the force of long training of habit. Jesus and Paul agreed; but they proposed a very different way by which the relevant habits were to be learned and practiced.

Also Aristotle saw that for one to be completely happy they needed moral strength called virtues, whereas Jesus and his followers highlighted qualities that Aristotle didn’t rate highly such as love, kindness, forgiveness [4]. Evaluate Wright’s position and note where you agree and/or disagree with him. Defend your positions. [1] Wright, N. T. After You Believe: Why Christian Character Matter. Copyright 2010. P. 24 [2] Ibid. 21 [3] Ibid. 35 [4] Ibid. 36 Character relates to Kouzes and Posner leadership model and Maxwell’s reflection in that Maxwell’s stresses the value of how we first have to work on yourself before we can work on others.

He states it is easier to teach what is right than to do what is right [5]. He also reflects that people do what they see. In this we cannot build something great out in the world until we’ve tried to build something great inside of us [6]. I think this is so important as it pertains to character is that it gives us the opportunity to learn who we are, and the ability to correct or work on negative flaws we do have so we do not unwillingly pass these flaws to others. Kouzes and Posner expresses that the climb to the top is arduous and steep.

The vision may be noble, and the cause may be just, but the work seems to never end [7]. People are tempted to give up, but leaders encourage the heart of each constituent to carry on [8]. Maxwell’s reflections in chapter 3 can co-exist in the above statements. If we can’t encourage ourselves and conquer pain and struggles how can we expect to help another person successfully deal with theirs. [5] Kouzes, M. James. Posner, Z. Barry. Christian Reflections on the Leadership Challenge. Copyright. 2004. P. 42 [6] Ibid. 43

Badaracco defines moral code as a set of values and principles that guide behavior [9]. As it pertains to moral flexibility he observes that Okonkwo has a narrow fixed moral code where he is not flexible in what he believes to be right. He feels no remorse for going against the values of his tribe and jeopardizing a traditional religious period of time, but accepts the punishment as he views moral code as a set of rules enforced by punishments; it is not to be evaluated or reflected upon [10].

Leaders must maintain a balance between “remaining true to their deeply held convictions and, at the same time, responding flexibility to the moral code and practical realities emerging around them” [11]. In Okanwko’s case as time passed his belief unfortunately swayed his character and questioned his ability as a leader. He subsequently lost his followers and was eventually banned from a community. Romans 13:2, “Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment. [9] Badaracco, L. Joseph.

Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership Through Literature. Copyright. 2006. P. 31 [10] Ibid. 40 [11] Ibid. 52 Yes I do see tension between Badaracco moral flexibility and Kouzes and Maxwell values in that Okonkwo didn’t take any responsibility in his failure and lacked a great deal of remorse. Badaracco states, “A sound moral code requires an ongoing, open engagement with the moral and practical life that surrounds the leader. On some occasions, the clearest sign of a good moral code is flexibility rather than firmness” [12].

Kouzes/Posner states, “Leadership is both something you are and something you do. ” In other words, leadership is not just something you live but something you behave [13]. Okonkwo behavior represented who he really is and the content of his character. Kouzes/Posner states that people do what they see and his example was not good as it pertains to leadership. Okonkwo behavior was so fixed that he had no regard for going against the values of his tribe and jeopardized a traditional religious period of time, but rather accepted his punishment.

Leaders need both the ability to be sensitive to community feelings when situations that require moral reactions and to confront failures looking for explanations as why the results unfolded in a certain sequence [14]. [12] Badaracco, L. Joseph. Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership Through Literature. Copyright. 2006. P. 52 [13] Kouzes, M. James. Posner, Z. Barry. Christian Reflections on the Leadership Challenge. Copyright. 2004. P. 47 [14] Ibid. 41 Yes, there should be flexibility in one’s moral code. Moral code is a set of values and principles that guide a person behavior.

I do believe flexibility is plausible in that when we visit other cultures and societies they have their own specific belief system, holidays, and norms in which they go about living their life. Romans 13:1, “Let every person be subject to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those that exist have been instituted by God. ” Out of respect when we visit other cultures and come across people with different viewpoints than our own we should honor and respect their moral code for in the same respect we would want to receive the same measure of respect in our country as well.

Timothy 3:16 states, “All Scripture is given by inspiration of God and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness. ” In the same perspective a person moral code should be flexible out of respect as it pertains to religious beliefs and customs not meaning we have to agree with their beliefs but we are to respect them. Leader’s level of respect should be held the most highest for,. Romans 13:2, “Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.

World Architecture best essay help: best essay help

I first decided to write about Alberti, but then seeing that we were allowed to write about any architect we’ve come across in this course, I thought to myself who would be better than Le Corbusier or Frank Lloyd Wright; cliche’ , but yet they’re the fathers of the modern Architecture. Alberti’s type of Architecture wasn’t in use and he’s only looked at as history. Modern Architecture is what we live in, what we breathe, what we see, it’s in our blood as Architects; it’s what people expect from us. I then went on to choose between Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright.

I know much about Frank, but then I knew little about Le Corbusier. During my college years, his name was familiar, very famous between architecture students; we knew he was the god of modern architecture, we’ve heard about some of his buildings, yet we haven’t taken “architectural theories” – a college course that teaches us about modern architects among were Le Corbusier. It is very common that one doesn’t feel obliged learning about something unless it was homework. Doing this term paper about le Corbusier seemed about right; it was the only way I could learn much about him. Enough with un-useful chattering!

Architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light. ” Le Corbusier, Toward a New Architecture, 1923 Le Corbusier’s original name was Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris. He was born in Switzerland in 1887. He was born to an artistic family which influenced him; his dad was an artist and his mother was a musician and taught piano. Le Corbusier was more into art, thus he left his school at the age of 13 in order to learn art and engraving. Le Corbusier love for art grew he was learning to paint and becoming more familiar with art history, he wanted to continue his study and become a painter.

His master- L’Eplattenier, on the other hand, wanted him to become an architect. By the age of 20 he designed his first house- Villa Pallet, 1907. (“Le Corbusier biography”) Le Corbusier traveled to Italy in 1906 and got the opportunity to work with Auguste Perret, who was considered the French pioneer of reinforced concrete. This part of his life marked a great period for his development as an architect as he was famous for using steel and reinforced concrete; with the help of Perret. Le Corbusier continued his travel and later on worked with Peter Behrens from October 1910 until Match 1911.

(“Le Corbusier biography”) Le Corbusier’s first works focused on residential villas; he wanted to create affordable prefabricated houses. After World War I, Le Corbusier returned to his homeland and worked at his old school. During his stay at Switzerland, he developed theoretical studies on how to use modern techniques. The Domino house project illustrated all of his theories as it became the foundation of his architecture. (“Le Corbusier biography”) In 1923, Le Corbusier published his book “Toward a New Architecture” which illustrated his five points of Architecture.

These five points are found in his Villa Sovoye. Le Corbusier’s five point of Architecture are the following: •The Supports: Replacing walls with reinforced concrete columns •Roof Garden •Free designing of the ground plan •Horizontal window: allowing rooms to be lit equally •Free design of the facade (Le Corbusier ) Le Corbusier was also famous for his urban planning skills. His first attempt was the sixty-story Villa Contemporaine which was drawn on paper but yet never constructed. Another attempt was La Villa Radieuse (the Radiant City); a well improved version of Villa Contemporaine.

Le Corbusier was now aiming towards bigger projects, his next project was Chandigarh; his planned city in India. (archdaily) Le Corbusier found inspiration in Mathematical Geometry, and was mostly fond of DaVinci and his Mathematical concepts; the golden ratio and Fibonacci series. (archdaily) Among his magnificent buildings, there were two projects that –I believe, stood out. Villa Savoye was definitely was one these projects; to me, Villa Savoye was a must-know. Villa Savoye is located in Paris, France, and was constructed in 1929.

Villa Savoye is a great example of Modern country houses and is an example of international style. International style became famous in 1920’s and lasted for ten years; its main principles were set by the book of Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson. (“International Style”) International Style was very famous in Europe and America. Its most famous features were lights, plane surfaces, no decorations, and open interior spaces. The material that was used in the International Style was glass and steel, in addition to reinforced concrete which was a little less visible that the other two materials.

Many factors contributed to the rise of International Style: •A need for commercial, residential, and civic buildings rose. •Architects are getting bored of the buildings of that era as nothing of its decorative elements was contributing to its function; one of the many features of modern architecture is that the shape of the building should go along with its function, and no additional element should be added unless it was important to its function. •New building technologies were constructed especially after the industrial revolution; for example: cast plate glass.

(“International Style”) Villa Savoye was built on the international modern style, and it followed Le Corbusier’s five important points to architecture. The design of Villa Savoye was affected by Le Corbusier’s love for ships; he loved that you could feel free moving from deck to deck and this contributed to his spatial planning and as he came with his five point toward architecture. Villa Savoye has a spacious ground floor and allowed the movement from one room to another freely, as if you’re on a ship.

Another feeling of ships is that when you approach the Villa is appears as if it’s floating; Le Corbusier worked on achieving this by painting the exterior walls of the ground floor green which blended in nicely with the environment and made the first floor appear to be floating. (archdaily) Le Corbusier used horizontal windows following his five points and this made the facade look very simple; very undistinguished. Despite having too much windows, Le Corbusier was very clever by separating the Villa into public and private areas; the private areas were closed off yet these areas were somehow connected.

(archdaily) Le Corbusier created a roof garden that you can get to from the second floor plan through a series of ramp; a roof garden was another point listed among Le Corbusier’s five points. The entire villa was constructed with concrete and Le Corbusier made sure to keep it as simple as possible; he used only white color for exterior walls and a subtle color in the inside. Le Corbusier’s Villa was very dynamic; it was easy to move from one story to another with the use of stairs and ramps. Le Corbusier’s passion in Mathematics shows in his design for Villa Savoye as he used the Golden Section, and Human Proportions.

Another great example of Le Corbusier’s architecture is Notre Dame du Haut. Notre Dame du Haut was constructed in 1950 south east of Paris and is classified as the most important religious building of the 20th century. This project was a little different for the city of Ronchamp; Ronchamp was not into international style yet, thus building something as modern as Notre dame du Haut was something extraordinary and it might meet some critics. Le Corbusier was up for this challenge, he wanted to bring change to this site, and he wanted something to stand out; something feminine.

Notre Dame du Haut was a catholic chapel that took Mary as it symbol; both Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene. It is said that this catholic chapel represents Le Corbusier’s relationship with feminism; Le Corbusier combined between Virgin Mary and Mary Magdalene to produce a unified Mary that expresses all aspects of feminism. (“Le Corbusier & Women; The Feminist Voyeur?. “) One of the most common features of Le Corbusier’s designs is the spatial relationship, which can also be seen in this chapel.

Le Corbusier was seeking something meditative and respective in purpose; as lights enter the chapel, sensation takes over you. (archdaily) Le Corbusier chose this irregular shape to indicate feminism; irregular sculptural walls and roof. As complicated as the form is, the plan of this chapel is very simple; it was two entrances, and inside there’s an alter and three chapels. (archdaily) Le Corbusier’s irregular shape and the way the walls were sloping toward the center of the chapel made it very important to choose the construction method very precisely; nothing can go wrong.

Le Corbusier chose concrete as it is an excellent material in holding the structure together, but this required thick walls; the thickness of the walls had to be 4’-12’ thick. (archdaily) The curved appears to be hanging above the building, while instead it rests on columns that are hidden inside the thick walls; however, this creates a space of 10 cm between the walls and the roof. On the other hand, the design of the windows was very creative. Having thick walls, a solution had to be made when it got to the lighting; windows aren’t going to be enough; fortunately for Le Corbusier, they more than just enough.

Carved windows into such thick walls helped achieving the effect that Le Corbusier looked for; meditative and reflective in purpose. (Archdaily) Corbusier was truly the father of modern Architecture; his designs were different and unique, and each design brought something new to the architecture. Corbusier depended on the function to work its way to the final form. You can’t but admire his intelligence and his dedication to his work and to the Architecture; I wish they can teach us this at College.

Coaching essay custom essay help: custom essay help

Both terms are processes that enable individuals or even corporate clients to achieve full potential. Although the terms are often used in the same sentences there are differences as well as similarities between the two. It is true that both are used to facilitate the exploration of needs, skills, motivations and thought processes. They are both designed to assist the individual or organisation in making lasting and tangible change. As mentioned previously there are differences between the two and here I have highlighted a number of them. Coaches do not need to have first- hand experience of the coachee’s line of work.

In contrast mentoring is normally where a more experienced individual who has knowledge and skill in the same field of work is paired with a less experienced person. To explain this further I have included definitions of both: Coaching is… “A process that enables learning and development to occur and thus performance to improve. To be a successful a Coach requires a knowledge and understanding of process as well as the variety of styles, skills and techniques that are appropriate to the context in which the coaching takes place” Eric Parsloe

Mentoring is… “off-line help by one person to another in making significant transitions in knowledge, work or thinking” Clutterbuck, D and Megginson, D. As a line manager I could use coaching techniques either in a formal setting or a more ad hoc way to successfully develop individuals within my team. The role of a mentor is one that does not normally have line management responsibility for the mentee. In regard to the process, a Coach asks probing and often thought provoking questions and would not normally offer advice/guidance.

A mentor on the other hand can provide guidance, taking a more directive approach. – Questioning techniques will often facilitate the individuals own thought processes in order to identify their own solutions and actions rather than been directed in an approach. This in turn encourages the individual’s commitment to their own development, change and growth. There can be a number of barriers to effective coaching for individuals and organisations. There can be a lack of understanding of the benefits of coaching and what coaching can achieve.

There can be the perception about the validity of coaching and cost-effectiveness by senior managers and team members and questions being raised in relation to the actual benefits of coaching. Businesses may not prioritise any implementation of coaching as part of their overall learning and development strategy. Therefore not ensuring that it is part of the wider change needed to implement coaching as part of the workplace. With organisations not seeing the value to the business. Organisational culture which can be full of red tape and process does can add additional barriers to embedding coaching practice into the workplace.

Coaching is a process to allow individuals to work out issues for themselves rather than be told what and how to do something. If the existing leadership style is one which focuses on short term results and a culture of individual achievements it may not consider the benefits of supporting and improving practice in all. The lack of vision may stifle the development of underperformers and even good performers to improve further. The lack of longer term investment could restrict longer term sustainable performance. The organisation, managers and individuals could all see that coaching is something that is just for underperformers.

The example needs to be set from the top down and at times senior managers are reluctant to utilise the strengths of their staff as the coaches themselves. There are many benefits to introducing coaching to an organisation. With one key benefit being an increase in performance. It can promote self-reliance, self-confidence, self-awareness and learning for individuals. It is proven that to be an effective method of self-development, which in turn promotes higher performance throughout the organisation. However, more interestingly mentoring can be used to increase diversity within organisations, this can create higher levels of management

opportunities for underrepresented groups, such as female employees. A study conducted in the USA by Ragins has proven that women have benefitted by a coaching approach cited a wide range of benefits for themselves as well as their organisation. This has included recruitment, retention of staff as well as increased productivity and a stabilising factor during change, support with succession planning and encouragement of knowledge sharing, providing a greater transfer of skills across the organisation. The skills, behaviours, attitudes, beliefs and values of the coach or mentor.

I think it is safe to say that the coach has several roles to perform; with the main objective being to develop the person being coached. This can be achieved by increasing self-confidence, identifying relevant and suitable topics for coaching as well as agreeing the setting of suitable planned tasks to support the learning process. Coaches need to have certain skills and knowledge to undertake the role. In my opinion a coach needs to be patient, supportive, interested, aware of others as well as self, attentive and perceptive.

Such elements underpin effective coaching and a genuine interest in the person being coached. Coaches need to have excellent interpersonal skills and there are various core skills that individuals should have in order to be effective. These will include; formulating effective questioning techniques. Followed by the ability to listen. A coach who has good listening skills will demonstrate this in a number of ways. Rephrasing and reflecting on the individual’s words but the tone of voice, body language and even use of silence are all powerful in their own right.

Creating rapport, paying attention to content and process, keeping an open mind as well as identifying limiting assumptions and beliefs are all linked to providing a supportive and safe environment for both coach and coachee. Furthermore the ability to give and receive feedback is also an important component. It is not just the coach that needs to be effective the coachee also needs to play a vitally important role in establishing a positive coaching relationship. This includes indentifying a suitable topic(s) for coaching, jointly setting realistic performance targets and creative methods of achieving them.

They must also take responsibility for their own development, this can include taking preparations before coaching meetings to maximise the development process. Be open and honest in their approach and accept constructive feedback on skill acquisition and their development progress. There are huge benefits to the coachee from an effective coaching relationship. It helps improve their performance and their effective use of skills and abilities. It can also help to increase job satisfaction and motivation. Leading to increased self esteem and abilities within their role.

However, the relationship also has advantages for the coach. These advantages can include improved communication, increased staff development, more effective delegation and their teams reaching higher levels of achievement. There are boundaries that need to be in place in order to work within a safe and structured manner. In the initial stages of the coaching relationship it is imperative that the coach and the coachee establish boundaries This requires the coach and coachee to work together to determine exactly what the coaching relationship is and what the objectives of the sessions should be.

Research conducted by Kenton and Moody (2001) found that there was mixed response when asking whether coaches saw a distinction between mentoring, counselling and coaching. Some stated that they made it very clear to the coachee that this was not counselling session or relationship. However, others stated they would allow the discussion and relationship to be directed by the coachee. What is evident is that before the coaching relationship starts the two individuals need to establish directly what is expected and define the boundaries of their relationship.

Not only does the coach need good communication skills they also need to be aware of and manage issues around any perceived power imbalances or differences in values between them. To be aware of your own values and boundaries is important and to be able to recognise those of the coachee is also important to establish a safe environment in order to undertake the coaching sessions. Some of the coaching process can be managed through ensuring and agreeing confidentiality boundaries, having a working agreement and having set review and evaluation points, including objectives set by the individual to bring back to the next coaching session.

The role of contracting and the process to effectively coach and mentor Although there are a number of different models used within the coaching environment The GROW Model is one of the best known and widely used coaching models. It provides a simple yet powerful framework for navigating a route through a coaching session, as well as providing a means of finding your way when lost. It is a simple model and can be used effectively by coaches with little coaching experience. With the key principles focusing on awareness and responsibility. GROW is an acronym for

Goal ; The goal of the conversation or the issue to be resolved. Reality: What the problem or issue is actually about, what is happening? Options: What are the choices available to the coachee to help resolve the issue? Wrap up (or Will): what is the commitment to change? Firstly, a session must have a Goal or outcome to be achieved. The goal should be as specific as possible and it must be possible to measure whether it has been achieved. So, having identified the goal, questions like “How will you know that you have achieved that goal?

” And had responses this will enable the process to move on. As well as knowing where you are trying to get to, you need to know where you are starting from – This is the Current Reality. This is a key part to the session and it is this that can give clarity to what the issue is allowing for a resolution to be found. Options is the next step, and it is here where the coach and coachee are able to explore what Options there are to resolve the issue brought to the session. The “W” is often taken to stand for a number of other elements of a session, all of which are important.

Myles Downey in his book “Effective Coaching” suggests it stands for “Wrap-up”; others have it standing for Will or What, Where, Why, When and How. But whatever is emphasised, the desired outcome from this stage is a commitment to action. Although the GROW process has been shown sequentially. In practice, it is a much less linear process which may start anywhere and revisit each of the stages several times. Following this model or any others designed to support coach and coachee gives structure and guidance to follow the process of a successful coaching session(s).

To help underpin the model process chosen by the coach agreeing a contract between coach and coachee is imperative. There are two forms of contract, Formal and informal. Formal contracting helps to agree in advance the number of sessions to be undertaken as well as other important aspects of the coaching agenda. Such as the purpose of the sessions for self, organisation and coach. The coaching goals, length of sessions, confidentiality, responsibilities for again, coach, coachee and organisation. Feedback to coachee and feedback to others, including line manager if coaching has been agreed for development needs.

Time and timekeeping. It is Ok to use part of the first session to look at the contract or to agree them prior to the first session. As well as formal coaching sessions, when time and agenda are agreed it is possible to use a less formal approach to coaching. The session could be as little as 10 mins long and part of a wider discussion when an individual is seeking clarification. Even though an informal coaching session needs less contracting, never the less objectives need to be identified and an “end point” needs to be agreed. Such as a designated amount of time to be agreed by coach and coachee.

Although the primary relationship in any coaching activity is between the coach and the individual, this is not the only important relationship. Other key stakeholders include the person representing the organisation’s interests – possibly HR and the individual’s manager. Both of these are interested in improving the individual’s performance and therefore their contribution to the organisation. When there are others with investment in a series of coaching sessions either for an individual or as part of the organisations desire to improve and sustain outputs.

It is very important to establish guidelines on confidentiality and information sharing early on to develop trust between the individual and coach, and the other multiple stakeholders. Ensuring that boundaries and confidentiality issues are agreed early provides all with a safe environment in which to work, grow and develop, not just individuals but the organisational culture. Often organisations use coaching models after an identification of some kind of learning or development need, either by the individual themselves or their line manager.

Once this has been identified, the next step is for the manager and the individual to decide how best the need can be met. Coaching is just one of a range of training and development interventions that organisations can use to meet identified learning and development needs. Its merits should be considered alongside other types of development interventions, such as training courses, mentoring or on-the-job training. Employee preferences should also be borne in mind. There is a danger that coaching can be seen as a solution for all kinds of development needs. It is

important that coaching is only used when it is genuinely seen as the best way of helping an individual learn and develop. Coaching supervision is a relatively new activity and little has been written about it. In the last two years, however, definitions have begun to emerge. these include: ‘Supervision sessions are a place for the coach to reflect on the work they are undertaking, with another more experienced coach. It has the dual purpose of supporting the continued learning and development of the coach, as well as giving a degree of protection to the person being coached’ (Bluckert 2004).

‘Coaching supervision is a formal process of professional support, which ensures continuing development of the coach and effectiveness of his/her coaching practice through interactive reflection, interpretative evaluation and the sharing of expertise’ (Bachkirova, Stevens and Willis 2005). ‘the process by which a coach, with the help of a supervisor, can attend to understanding better both the client system and themselves as part of the client–coach system, and by so doing transform their work and develop their craft’ (Hawkins and Smith 2006). these definitions agree that: Supervision is a formal process.

It is interpersonal, and can be undertaken one-toone, in groups or in peer groups. Reflection on client work is central to supervision. Its goals include developing greater coaching competence. Utilising supervision for coaches with more experienced coaches allows for individual personal development and allows three main aspects of qualitative work, development role and a resourcing function. Understand the principles of effective coaching and mentoring in practice and how to evaluate benefits To conclude I understand that coaching is not teaching. Although it does involve the sharing of information or experiences.

Coaches need to develop their own set of coaching principles which can be shared with the coaches. Boundaries and working agreements need to be set in order to clarify how the two individuals will work together. Confidentiality needs to be explicit as well as both parties understanding the limits to this confidentiality. To ensure a duty of care to the client as well as being bound to the legal issues of codes of ethics, as well as the individual organisations policies and procedures. Boundaries also need to be set in relation to their roles outside of the coaching sessions.

Time and place – when and where meetings are to take place and for agreed timings. Ongoing reviews – This can involve continual clarification of the role of the coaching sessions and what they involve. The understanding that the obligation of tasks is on the coachee. Ending the coaching sessions is the responsibility of the coach who needs to manage the end of the agreed number of sessions to avoid dependency from the coach. Time limited number of sessions is an appropriate way of managing the end as it avoids the risk of coachees becoming dependant or the feeling of being rejected.

Organisations use coaching to support its objectives. By evaluating coaching results the organisation is able to have a clear indication of the results achieved. However, evaluation can only be done if the coaching goals are established at the early stages of such an intervention. When coaching sessions are more formal then there should be a review stage incorporated into the process. This could include a three way meeting with individuals line manger or organisational representative, especially if they have been involved in teh objectives originally set. There are a number of evaluation methods used in coaching.

This allows for evaluation of individuals thoughts on coaching. However it is also important that the organisation is able to see tangible results. Return on Investment can be useful to understand how longer term projects and for those producing tangible results such as sales and outputs. Return on Expectation takes into account of soft skills, such as behaviour change, interperonsal benefits. These can be highlighted when asking individuals to undertake exit surveys as well as other more tangible results such as the reduction in sick leave.

Kirkpatrick discusses four levels of evaluation these look at both the individual and organisational benefits: these are: Reaction learning, behaviour and results. In conclusion, coaching is a method which can be used as a stand – alone investment or one that is linked to other organisational strategies to enable personal and organisational transitions. Coaching is a process and a tool used to motivate and inspire. Effective coaching allows the individual to explore what works for them and how they are able to be more effective within their organisation.

Black & Decker Case need essay help: need essay help

While Black & Decker is one of the 10 most known brand in the US, the brand’s branch selling tools to the professional-tradesmen, which was the original heart of consumers since the creation of the company, is facing a branding problem. Indeed, the entire range offered to the professional-tradesmen segment is considered by those buyers as a bad brand compared to Makita’s brand. The market shares highlight this rejection of B&D’s brand : B&D has only 9% whereas Makita has 50% of the tradesman segment’s shares.

The cause of this issue is not due of the quality of the products offered but only by the perception they have. The objective that the management has to reach is clear : increase market shares (from 9 to 20%) in this segment by giving to their products the credit in phase with the high quality they offer and emphasizing it with professional use. II. Strategic Situation Facing B&D’s Management A. Analysis of the Customers and the Market The market of Professional-Tradesmen is a $420 millions sized, composed of professional users who work in residential constructions and with the highest growth in its category (9%).

This is a interesting and competitive market with a level of renewal of $1000 per year by each customers, and an average expense of $300 per tools. These persons buy their tools by themself for their own use and they purchase it mainly in independently owned stores served by distributors (40%), Home centers (25%) and warehouse home centers (15%). Among this channel, the home centers is growing fastly. The characteristics demanded in this market are high performance, reliability and durability. To finish, they must appear professional and proud with the tools they use. B. Analysis of the Competition

Within this market, we can focus on two main competitors : Makita and Milwaukee. About market shares Makita overwrites the market with 50% whereas Milwaukee is about 10%. In addition there are others brands specialized in certain kinds of tools in which they are famous for. Milwaukee and Makita are very well known and perceived as to be the highest products quality providers. They practices prices-premium, especially Milwaukee. Makita, the principal competitor is distributed by all the channels, but its relationships with these distributors and retailers is “arrogant and dictatorial”.

Moreover, Makita is trying to interest the private “do it yourself” consumers without differentiation. This strategy could drive them to the same branding problem that B&D is facing. These competitors will be ready financially to face any actions that B&D could engage to gain market shares, especially by doing advertising. C. Analysis of Black & Decker (See Exhibit 1 : SWOT) B&D has a high brand awareness, but its quality perception in this segment is low whereas it is high in the industrial segment with the same products.

This fact and researches show that B&D offers a very high quality products. Indeed, they have developed their marketing strategy keeping a similar logo with the “use at home” brand, and a color very close to it (black to grey). This has conducted to a non-differentiation between the two brand by the Professional-tradesmen customers. The problem starts here : Professional are every day in contact with home consumers. They work for them, at their home and go mostly in the same stores to buy their tools.

They don’t want to use the same drills as their clients and also don’t want people think they use the same : this sounds not Professional. Above all, the Professional had been confused by this marketing mistake which does not instill the professional high quality required for their jobs. The Industrial segment is not touched by this phenomenon because it is not the same supply chain. They are aware about the quality and are not as sensible to the brand perception as the Professional are. B&D is present into all distribution channels excluding the Member Ship Club because of low prices.

D. Analysis of the Market Environment The market environment offer a good trend to this market. There are possibilities to always improve the performances and the quality of the products. The customers demand an important renewal which gives the product a maximum life cycle of three years and an average of one and half year (See Exhibit 2 : Life cycle). The channel “Home centers” is growing fast and represent a good opportunity of sales development. There is a trend of “do it yourself”, which drives home consumers to purchase professional tools. III. Strategic Alternatives Available

After this analysis, it appears that B&D’s brand is in such a risky position in this segment. Also, it can be seen that the B&D for Professional brand has really good strength to be salvageable, and to conquer the market, especially observing its high level of quality and awareness. But the brand must follow important changes to not be crushed totally. To solve the problem, Galli, Vice President of sales and marketing is thinking of three different strategy. The first would be to focus on the two other segment who are more successful and to just keep the Professional profitable.

This strategy is not viable because the brand will be kicked out of market in few times without doing anymore, and so the profitability would become highly negative. The opportunity to try to improve in this market and this segment is too important regarding the low financial risk. The second strategy would be to do sub-branding. This kind of strategy is in my opinion not enough drastic. Indeed, the bad reputation of B&D in the Professional segment is too rooted, there is a risk that they feel deluded and rejected the brand more.

The third strategy using the DeWalt name appears to be the best to solve the problem. It will erase the bad brand perception and give a new chance to the product, better differentiated and with a strong positive awareness. But it will cause internal incomprehension and also may be confusion to the Industrial and Consumers tools’ customers. IV. Recommended Strategy : Use DeWalt brand and more… A. Branding Recommendation The new brand has to display DeWalt in big position and also in little “serviced and distributed by B&D”.

At first the mention of B&D will give a better purchase interest and also will maintain the recognition of B&D as a provider of Professional for the home consumer who buy the other product still named under B&D brand. But after three years, the mention of B&D will disappear to let the DeWalt brand become a full brand. The main color will be yellow because no other brand is using it and it reminds the building industry. It will have to be a dull yellow mixed with dark black for other component. The brand brand will be accompanied by a powerful slogan such as “Proud and Strong”.

This brand would have to appear valuable and like the best for professional and only for them : the strongest, the more powerful and the safest. B. Marketing Mix Recommendations Into this new brand, only the product very competitive and in leadership will be conserved. The others will be added later if they are improved too high level of performance. This will ensure that the product range will be composed only by high quality products, what buyers are expecting. The design of all those products will be changed. The use of good quality materials is required.

In addition, many little options, accessories and details (antishock, integrated light, handy storage box … ), all mixed to make the last technological tools for hard uses which cares about its hard workers users. To convince on the liability of the new brand a warranty will be added. This warranty will be one year superior to the Makita’s one. With that we will offer a hotline service opened on working hours which allow consumer to ask for help with the product. The prices will be 7% superior to Makita’s products, and always inferior to Milwaukee’s ones.

The price sensitivity is not high in this type of purchasing, and to be a bit higher than Makita will be a proof of superiority. Also the year warranty in addition will convince the buyer about the price advantage. In terms of channels, the DeWalt new brand will go along all except the Membership Clubs that is not profitable and complectly dominated by Makita. A special focus will be made on the Home Centers and the independently owned stores by given to them specials advantages. To reach this segment effectively and efficiently, a campaign of direct personal mailing to all Professional will be used.

Demonstration of products in stores will be organized to show the product and proof its superiority. This will be to create discussion within the profession. The communication will be based on the DeWalt branding, coming on the Professional segment to fill in the complete needs of the market with very high performance. C. Timeline and Performance Goals See Exhibit 3. D. Consideration of Management Preference This strategy will have to reach minimum 20% market shares within three years and improve the operating income to at least 12%. People internal to the

firm may complain changing the brand name in the professional segment. This will be counteract by a large explanation before launching the brand, to all the firm on the situation supported by figures and transparency. The differentiation will have to appear like inevitable to grow. Exhibit 1 : SWOT Analysis of B&D Professional STRENGTHS High global awarness Good relationship with distributors and suppliers High quality of products Experience and historic in this market Big group company with high financial posibilities WEAKNESSES Not known as high quality product

Bad reputation in this segment Confusion with “at home uses” from the other B&D brands Rejection of the products OPPORTUNITIES Growth of the market Capabilty of doing best quality Growth of Home centers channel THREATS Many strong competitors Risk of losing on other segment if changes in this one Exhibit 2 : Life Cycle 10 tools = 3000$=> 1 tools = 300$ on average Every 1 years, 1000$ spent on renewal => 3,3 tools bought per year So the last tools are renewed 3 years later maximum and 1,5 years on average. Exhibit 3 : Timeline and Performance Goals

 Sell the old production. Mailing campaign Demonstration inside the stores Explain to the firm this new strategy Develop the sales Specialized media advertisment Showroom itinerant Develop the sales Remove B&D sign on the the DeWalt brand Accentuate margin Performance goals Maintaining the same level of sales Dump the old stock of products Grow the awaraness Sales up to 40% Grow the awaraness Sales up to 50% Grow awaraness arround DeWalt only

Health and Social Care college essay help near me: college essay help near me

Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship 1. A working relationship is different because of boundaries, professional codes of conduct, employer policies and procedures. In your working relationship you would be friendly have a different approach treat with equality you would know your role and responsibility you would not share personal information as you friends. 2. You work with different people doctors family colleagues give examples of how these are different 3.

As this sets out boundaries in your job role , enables you to know your role and responsibilities, knowing your own level of competence and skills, to know your job description Describe two types of working relationship in health and social care settings Relationships are probably the most involved and emotionally charged area of our lives. From the moment we are born we form relationships, each one requiring something different from us and giving us something different in return. In the health and social care setting there are many different working relationships.

These relationships will include: colleagues, manager, other professionals such as doctors/district nurse, service users and their family and friends Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role It is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role as this sets out boundaries in your job role, enables you to know your role and responsibilities. Knowing your own level of competence and skills, knowing your job description. How do you access full and up to date details of agreed ways of working in your line of work? Agreed ways of working is working within the rules set out by your employer.

Following policies and procedures of the company. Important to have up to date agreed ways of working as there may be changes in policies within the law. Your company may have to implement them to help protect the vulnerable Explain two way it is important agreed ways of working at your work place When people are deeply upset about something, they need to get their story out. This is a basic principle of mediation and one that’s important to remember. Often in a conflict, the parties are so focused on minutiae that they lose sight of the big picture and its implications.

As the mediator, you need to bring people back to reality by wrenching their attention away from the grain of sand and having them focus on the whole beach. Doing so may help resolution arrive at a startling speed. Explain two way it is important to work in partnership with others Partnership can be formed between a number of individuals, agencies or organisations with a shared interest. Partnerships are often formed to address specific issues and have a common reason for working together and could often formed to target a short or long term issues.

In order to achieve a good partnership partners need to communicate, co-ordinate, co- operate. There are two types of partnership working: multi agency working and integrated working. Multi agency working and an integrated working Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts Increased understanding: The discussion needed to resolve conflict expands people’s awareness of the situation, giving them an insight into how they can achieve their own goals without undermining those of other people.

Increased group cohesion: When conflict is resolved effectively, team members can develop stronger mutual respect, and a renewed faith in their ability to work together. Improved self-knowledge: Conflict pushes individuals to examine their goals in close detail, helping them understand the things that are most important to them, sharpening their focus, and enhancing their effectiveness. Define person centred values Person centred values means the people whom we support are able to be involved and included in every aspect of their care and support. For example: * their needs,* Assessments, * Care delivery, and, * Support planning. EXPLAIN WHY IT IS IMPORTANT TO WORK IN A WAY THAT EMBEDS PERSON CENTRED VALUES. It is important to do this as person centred approaches, policies and procedures, as well as care practices should always put the people whom we support at the centre of the day-to-day activities, as well as including the residents and their families in the planning and maintaining of this. Explain why risk taking can be part of a person centred approach Taking risks means that you are able to choose and be in control of what you do.

You need to ensure that concerns about taking risks is not stopping you living the way you want to. A risk assessment can always be carried out to see if it is possible for someone to do something that they thought would not be possible. Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way Using an individual’s care plan will ensure that the person’s own needs and wishes are being met, rather than offering them a ‘choice’ of what is available.

Using their care plan, you can build on what they want and see where there are gaps that need to be addressed. How do you find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual? 1. You need to know their history because it may affect their care plan – for example a client (service user) who has been abused will need extra support. This also includes all past health issues and possible behaviour. 2. Part of working for equality and a high standard of care it is essential that client’s wishes are expressed. This is like anyone else on the planet.

A major part of the ‘wishes’ possess involves their deaths i. e. , would they like to buried, would they like someone to have some of their possessions. 3. To be able to formulate a care plan you must first find out what level of care a client needs going on their individual needs. Some clients may need extra support with washing/dressing. Other may need extra therapies such as hydro or music. How do you apply person centred values in day today work taking into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual?

Government policy should be founded on a clear, ambitious and measurable goal to improve the experience of patients and service users and to be delivered by a defined date. Setting an ambitious goal to improve patient experience should be reinforced by enhanced guarantees to patients with complex needs. These guarantees would include an entitlement to an agreed care plan, a named case manager responsible for co-ordinating care, and access to tableware and a personal health budget where appropriate.

Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support It is important to establish consent because it is a basic human right for everyone to have the choice. Much of the treatment or support the individual receives is either invasive or personal, so consent is essential as it protects providers against legal challenge. Asking for consent is also part of the codes of practice for social care. Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established A capacity assessment by a qualified professional should be carried out to see if the individual has the capacity to make decisions.

These steps should be taken by professionals as stated in five principles set on in the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Describe how active participation benefits an individual Active participation is an approach that enables individuals to be included in their care and have a greater say in how they live their life in ways that matter to them. The benefits of active participation can be divided into primary benefits and secondary benefits. Identify three possible barriers to active participation Physical benefits including greater activity levels.

Increased independence and autonomy in what people do. An opportunity for individuals in health and social care settings to have a say in matters of direct concern to their lives. Support an individual to make informed choices Learning to communicate in an effective way and using this to inform the client of all possible choices. Everyone on this planet can communicate in one form or another – you need to take the time to learn how every individual client communicates. Explain how you can use agreed risk assessments Process to support the right to make choices

People who work in health and social care constitute a large and diverse workforce looking after a predominantly vulnerable population. Employees have the right to work in a healthy and safe workplace, and the people using services are entitled to care and support that is safe and takes their needs, freedom and dignity into account. Explain why a worker’s personal view should not influence an individual’s choices The consequences are that the individual making the choice may make a decision that they might later regret or worse, that has a devastating impact on their life.

A person should never make a decision based purely on the personal views of others but should instead gather all the available information and decide for themselves what course of action is right for them – it’s a case of what is good for the goose isn’t always good for the gander. Describe how support an individual to question or challenge decisions conceding them that are made by others They have the right to make their own choices and decisions under the Human Rights Act, as long as the decisions they make do not put them at risk of harm or injury and they have the mental capacity to make them.

You could support them to question or challenge by speaking on their behalf but you would need to know exactly what their wishes are, and record it for them to sign. Explain how individual identity and self-esteem are linked with well being Because if you don’t feel good about yourself or don’t have a sense of purpose or identity you tend to feel more depressed therefore your wellbeing will be effected Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well being Using what service in adult care? Do you mean the service OF adult care?

Those who give care should show respect for the elderly; be courteous, but also be friendly. Call the person by his/her last name unless invited to use the first. Don’t assume that ALL elderly people have forgotten everything they ever knew and are only good at bingo anymore. Support an individual in a way that promotes a sense of identity and self-esteem The first thing is that the person is an individual in their own right – you need to understand what they are about and not judge, pick the bright nuggets of information and use this as a a springboard to encourage self-esteem and their self-image.

As they talk about themselves you will be able to get a sense of self and where they are in their image. You need to feedback to them what was said as positive rather than the negative – if they say Ii am always failing” reply with ” really, you at least have the guts to try something out of your comfort zone – not everyone can do it” the negatives must be turned to positives but it takes time and consistency – and as their self-worth and esteem improves – you will find they will need less and less re-enforcing Demonstrate ways to contribute to an environment that promotes wellbeing Donation centres have drop-off points for returning

old things for sale to help charitable areas. The scouts, Goodwill stores do these things. Roadside, creek, gulley, beach and parks welcome “clean-up crews”: volunteers who help together to pick up careless refuse, windblown trash.

Identify legislation relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting Legislations/codes of practice relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting are: The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Riddor 1995, COSHH (Control of Substances Hazardous to Health); Manual Handling operations regulations 1992; Health And Safety (First aid regulations 1981); Fire protection (Workplace) Regulations 1997; Food Safety Act 1990; Personal Protective Equipment and Management of Health and safety at work regulations 1999.

Describe two main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer The Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 is the main piece of legislation that covers work related health and safety in the workplace.

The main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer are Minimum handling and lifting; Ensure handling and lifting is carried out correctly and safely; Making sure all materials/equipment that is needed to be used is handled, stored and used safely; To be aware of any potential hazards and risks and how to reduce to liability of any accidents occurring; To be responsible for your own welfare and the welfare of others you are looking after; To wear the correct PPE at all times; Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of: Self

The employer or manager Other in the work setting The main responsibilities for yourself whilst at work in a health and social care setting are to not put yourself or others at risk, to report any hazards or unsafe conditions, to co-operate with your employers, to not tamper with or misuse equipment provided, to attend training, be aware of and follow policies and procedures. Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should not be carried out without special training It generally takes special training to repair teeth. Prescribing medicine takes special training also.

Explain how to access additional support and important relating to health and safety 1. Protect service users from harm and abuse 2. Be personally fit at work 3. Maintain health and safety at work 4. Assess risk associated with work 5. Report incidents at work Exampling why it is important to access health and safety hazards posed but the working set or by particular activities Than the individual will know how to behave when it comes to that specific situation Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified You should report it immediately to your supervisor.

You do not need to wait for an inspection team to come by. In fact, health and safety legislation requires employees to report hazards to their supervisor. Explain how risk assessments can help address dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns This follows from the previous dilemma question. Carrying out a risk assessment supports the individual to have their choice met in the safest way possible. For example, Freda doesn’t want to use her Zimmer frame any more. A risk assessment might show her that she can’t walk safely without some support, however she can manage with two sticks and she agrees to compromise.

You have supported her rights of choice and kept her as safe as you can under your duty of care. Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in own work setting Cuts and burns etc. in the kitchen, falls, back injuries though poor lifting techniques, strokes, heart attacks, diabetic emergencies, asthma attacks, allergic reactions and so on. Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur Procedures to be followed: ensuring and maintaining safety for individuals concerned and others e. g.clearing the area, safely moving equipment if possible; remaining calm; sending for help; assessing the individual for injuries; administering basic first aid if necessary and if trained to do so; staying with the injured/sick individual until help arrives; observing and noting any changes in condition; providing a full verbal report to relevant medical staff or others; completing a full written report and relevant documentation e. g. accident report, incident report; understanding the policies, procedures and agreed ways of working for the work setting Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling

This remains the basis of health and safety legislation, and “Sets out the general duties which employers have towards employees and members of the public, and employees have to themselves and to each other” (HSE, 1996) HSE leaflet “Health and Safety Regulation” (HSC 13) 1996 The Act states that employers must ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of their employees whilst at work and any other persons affected by their business activities. The Act is a general piece of legislation and not specific to moving and handling so is not considered here in detail.

Explain principles for moving and handling equipment and other objects safely The Manual Handling Operations Regulations define it as ‘any transporting or supporting of a load (including the lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving thereof) by hand or by bodily force’. In effect, any activity that requires an individual to lift, move or support a load, will be classified as a manual handling task. Identify three hazardous substances and materials that may be found in the working setting Asphyxiates

Pesticides Medicines Cosmetics or Substances produced in the chemical processes Storing hazardous substances Using hazardous substances Substituting it with another substance which presents less, or no risk; Using another process which doesn’t create a hazardous form of that substance. Disposing of hazardous substances and materials asbestos lead-acid batteries used engine oils and oil filters oily sludge’s solvents and solvent-based substances chemical wastes pesticides fluorescent light tubes Starting

Good practice in health and safety is good for your business – and it’s the law. HSE is here to help – our online advice and tools can help save you time and effort getting started. Spreading Outline emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a fire in the work setting How you react in the event of fire depends on how well you have prepared for a fire emergency. Therefore, departments should ensure that all employees are familiar with the procedure to follow in the event of an emergency as outlined in the University’s Emergency Plan.

Explain why it is important to have security systems for recording and storing information in a health and social care setting Mainly because of HIPPA (Health Insurance Accounting and Portability Act) laws, which are designed to protect the medical records information of all patients. Because of HIPPA, hospital computer systems are accessed by employees via passwords, and unless an employee is entering or legitimately looking up information on a patient, that employee is not allowed to snoop through that patient’s records on a whim.

Describe how to access guidance information and advice about handling information in your line of work ineffective or insufficiently trained management unfair treatment unclear job roles poor communications poor work environment lack of equal opportunities bullying and harassment unresolved problems from the past an increase in workload Explain what actions to take at working when there are concerns ever over the recording, storing or sharing of information The Data Protection Act requires you to process personal data fairly and lawfully.

This section explains how to comply with this requirement, and gives examples of good practice in handling personal data. Explain employee’s roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Prevention and control of infection The employee’s role and responsibilities include: To ensure that their own health and hygiene not pose a risk to service users and colleagues To ensure effective hand washing is carried out when working with service users, giving personal care, handling/preparing food. To ensure they use protective clothing provided when needed and appropriate.

Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection Employers’ roles and responsibilities include: making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work (e. g. posting information on notice boards, keeping an information file such as COSHH, training, and providing supervision) the need to keep records in relation to infection control using appropriate documentation to ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace

Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards when are relevant to the prevention and control of infection relevant to the preventions and control infection The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 Both employers and employees are responsible for their own actions in the Work place. All reasonable steps should be taken when carrying out your work duties and all staff should have adequate health and safety training, and measures should be taken to ensure that policies and procedures are in place and adhered to.

Describe how local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of the infection Employees rights and responsibilities in the relation to the prevention and control of infection are to follow company’s policies and procedures, keep themselves safe and others, report any hazards which could lead to infection, attend relevant courses, use the PPE provided, keeping the work environment clean and tidy and to maintain good personal hygiene Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection Food handling, waste disposal, cross infection through skin contact or unclean equipment etc., but mainly poor practice. Illness or death, inquiry, loss of registration, criminal charges. Think about PPI, waste disposal, hand washing, cleaning and decontamination, risk assessments etc. Infection protection and control policy, health and safety policy, dealing with accidents and emergencies policy, first aid policy, food hygiene policy, medication (handling meds) policy etc.

Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organizational Individual – Short or long term illness, secondary conditions or further complications, depression, loss of trust in setting, death. Organisation – sanctions, loss of reputation and trust, closure, prosecution. Environment – distress of staff, individuals and families, unsettled atmosphere though loss of trust, disruption e. g. through an investigation and inspection or decontamination. Define the term risk A situation involving exposure to danger.

Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace the first part of your question relates to local policies which are dictated by local people’s views on what is important to them as well as what the professionals think is important – local and organisational policies have to consider local need and available local facilities. Describe the processes of carrying out a risk assessment 1. Identify the hazards 2. Decide who might be harmed and how 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution 4. Record your findings and implement them 5. Review your assessment and update if necessary

Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment Identify hazards. Analyse or evaluate the risk associated with that hazard. Determine appropriate ways to eliminate or control the hazard. In practical terms, a risk assessment is a thorough look at your workplace to identify those things, situations, processes, etc. that may cause harm, particularly to people. After identification is made, you evaluate how likely and severe the risk is, and then decide what measures should be in place to effectively prevent or control the harm from happening.

Describe three different types of PPE and three USE PPE is equipment that will protect the user against health or safety risks at work. It can include items such as safety helmets, gloves, eye protection, high-visibility clothing, safety footwear and safety harnesses. It also includes respiratory protective equipment (RPE). State current relevant regulations and legislation relating PPE * Gloves- protect hands * Gowns/aprons-protect skin and/or clothing * Masks and respirators- protect mouse/

* Respirators- protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents. * Goggles- protect eyes * Face shields- protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes. Describe employer’s responsibilities regarding the use of PPE * It is the responsibility of employees to Ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace; * Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment.

* Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE. Describe employees in the application and removal of PPE The primary methods for preventing employee exposure to hazardous materials are engineering and administrative controls. Where these control methods are not appropriate or sufficient to control the hazard, personal protective equipment (PPE) is required. A work area assessment is required to determine the potential hazards and select the appropriate PPE for adequate protection.

Employees must receive training which includes the proper PPE for their job, when this PPE must be worn, how to wear, adjust, maintain, and discard this equipment, and the limitations of the PPE. All training must be documented. Describe the current practices in the application and removal of PPE PPE such as gloves, aprons and masks are single use items and should be disposed of after each procedure or activity to prevent cross-transmission of micro-organisms.

When these items are worn primarily to protect the wearer, the importance of their prompt removal between tasks on the same patient/client or between patients can easily be overlooked and give rise to the possibility of contamination. Describe the current procedures for disposal of used PPE Personal protective equipment – known as ‘PPE’ – is used to protect health care workers while performing specific tasks that might involve them coming into contact with infectious materials. Describe key principles of good personal hygiene

Their hands are washed after they’ve used the toilet Their genitals and anal area are washed every day Their face is washed daily They’re fully bathed or showered at least twice a week Describe the correct sequence for hand washing and when and why hand washing should be carried out the beginning of the shift preparing, handling and eating food donning gloves any patient contact clean/aseptic procedures entering/leaving clinical areas entering/leaving isolation cubicles preparing/giving medications using a computer keyboard in a clinical area

Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing The main products currently in use are: – Soap – Aqueous antiseptic hand wash solutions – Alcohol-based hand rubs – Others including emollient soap substitute, tea tree-oil based solutions, water-based solutions and hand wipes. Describe correct procedures that relates to skin care Work-related skin problems are very common. Although skin problems can happen in most workplaces, certain jobs present a higher risk, e. g. the health and social care sector.

The Importance of Physical Education professional essay help: professional essay help

In most of the schools, physical education is part of the curriculum. Apart from maintaining physical fitness, it includes training in the development and care of the human body It helps a person sharpen overall cognitive abilities and motor skills through athletics, exercise and various other physical activities. Seeing its benefits for the body and its effect on life, the importance of physical education can’t be ignored. Physical education inculcates in children the importance of maintaining a healthy body and teaches then the importance of regular fitness activity in daily routine, which in turn keeps them happy and energized.

This helps the children to maintain their fitness, develop their muscular strength and increase their stamina. Research has proved that children who actively participate in sports, be it team sports or dual and individual sports, have high self-confidence, which is very important for the development of a person’s character. Physical education instills the desire to participate, enjoy victory and take defeat positively, developing the overall personality of the character. By making children participate in sports, especially team sports, physical education also imbibes in them a sense of team spirit.

Children learn how to work as a team member, organize themselves and function together towards attaining a goal. This in turn improves a child’s overall communications skills and the ability to get along with different kind of people. Physical education helps one gain knowledge about the overall aspects of physical health. In today’s world, several health problems like obesity, anemia, bulimia, and even diabetes, are rampant amongst teenagers. Through physical education, teachers can promote the benefits of healthy andnutritious food and discourage them for having junk food by highlighting their ill effects. They can easily promote sound eating practices and guidelines for nutrition. Physical education also teaches about the importance of personal hygiene and importance of cleanliness. They guide the students by informing them about the important hygiene practices for maintain health and well being throughout the life. In addition to this, the physical education classes also cover an important aspect that the children have to deal with at the age of puberty.

Apart from health and knowledge benefits that students get from physical education, they also learn how to unwind and relieve themselves of stress and anxiety. Sports and other physical fitness activities offered in the physical education classes are a welcome break for the students. It won’t be wrong to say that children, who learn the importance of health and hygiene in their early ages, tend to grow up to be responsible and healthy adults who are well aware of the benefits of a healthy lifestyle. Children who are provided good physical education are more likely to become responsible adults who know the importance of a healthy lifestyle.

The American Dream – Of Mice and Men essay help websites: essay help websites

The American Dream is a large theme on which the novella “Of Mice and Men” is based on. Each character strives to achieve their own dream, and some without realising. Dreams are very important in the novella, because without them nobody has anything to work towards and to motivate them in life. Lennie’s dream is probably brought up most throughout the novella, out of all the dreams. Lennie’s dream is to get ‘the fatta the lan” with a small place and rabbits. Lennie spends his whole life imagining the better life he could have, because of Lennie’s bad memory it’s constantly brought up and we are reminded of it.

Sadly Lennie’s dream is never achieved. People always assume that George’s dream is the same as Lennie’s, but nowhere in the novella does George actually mention they share the same dream. Whenever George is telling Lennie what they’ll do he uses the pronoun ‘we’ so it’s unclear whether George has the same dream as Lennie or if he’s just saying it to keep Lennie satisfied. Crooks is a very isolated character in the novella. As he is black and the only coloured man in Soledad he is discriminated against. Although he was born in California, the other men on the ranch still call him a ‘Niger’ and a ‘Negro’.

He has to live in a separate room to the bunk house and is not allowed in there to socialise or play cards because the other men, ‘they say I [he] stinks” As Crooks has been isolated and treated so badly for so long he no longer accepts charity and turns away people who try to care and talk to him. He also no longer believes in wishes or dreams and tells Lennie ” Ever’body wants a little piece of lan’… and nobody gets no land” which proves his disbelief in the reality of dreams. Although Crooks lets himself slip at one point and admits he could imagine him pleasantly hoeing a patch of garden on Lennie’s farm one day.

Curley’s wife is the only character to have had her dream vaguely accessible at one point. However she missed the opportunity and we find out later in the novella she deeply regrets not trying harder for it. When she was younger she met a guy who was involved with Hollywood but she never received the letter she was promised from him and she believed her mother had stolen it. Instead she ended up leading a miserable life with an unsuccessful marriage. It is never clear whether Curley has a direct dream he’s aiming for but by using our inference and deduction skills we can assume alot of things that could be Curley’s American dream.

In one instance, Curley is always very protective over his wife and doesn’t like her straying too far away from him. The other men on the ranch joke saying “He spends half his time lookin’ for her [Curley’s wife] , and the rest of the time she’s lookin’ for him [Curley]”. This could be from a previous experiences, he could’ve had a previous wife who left him for another man. We will never know why Curley is so protective but one point we do know is that part of his dream might be to have a loyal wife, who is faithful, and never chats to other men.

Candy is also a very isolated person in the novella, along with many other characters. Candy is the oldest man on the ranch and the only close companion he really had was his dog, who he ended up letting Carlson shoot. When Lennie and Crooks are talking about the dream land with a little place, Candy latches himself onto Lennie’s dream to have a couple of acres of land and ” a dog an’ rabbits an’ chickens. We’re [George, Lennie and Candy] gonna have green corn an’ maybe a cow or a goat” Although almost every character has their own American dream not one of them achieve it, which proves Crook’s point “It’s jus’ in their head”.

The American dream is not correct in this case because it says anything is attainable through hard work and all people can succeed through hard work, which isn’t true because Lennie, George and many of the other ranch workers have worked their whole lives to try and make enough money to get their own little place, but no one does. This shows she impossibility of the American Dream in a world with not enough freedom and contentment but too much inequality and unfairness. By Maisie Tang U4S

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