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The Epic of Gilgamesh history essay help

The story of Gilgamesh was one of the world’s first literary works but most importantly the very first epic. “An epic or heroic poem is a long narrative poem, on a serious subject [that was] written in a grand or elevated style, centered on a larger-than-life hero” (Lynch). Because it was only recited orally for many centuries it was forgotten and vanished until “it was recorded at Sumer in the late third millennium B. C. E” (Fiero 19).

The story of Gilgamesh is about an arrogant ruler, who changes because of an immense love and friendship with his companion Enkidu, it is a story about the wisdom he acquires with his journeys, and the inevitability of death. The story begins with the introduction of the two main characters, Gilgamesh and Enkidu. The love these friends will stumble upon for each other makes both of them change as individuals. From their initial encounter they will discard part of their own lives and give a piece of them to each other. Gilgamesh, the king of Uruk is described as two thirds god and one third human.

The Gods bestowed upon him courage, strength and beauty. “In our first view of him, Gilgamesh is the epitome of a bad ruler: arrogant, oppressive and brutal” (Lawall 10). He has no consideration for the people in Uruk he forces labor upon them, kills their sons and rapes their daughters, leaving “neither the warrior’s daughter nor the wife of the noble” (Lawall 13). The people of Uruk soon get irritated with Gilgamesh’s ways and pray to the gods to make his equal so that he may see his own evil ways and ultimately change.

Aruru, the goddess of creation then creates Enkidu, the second main character, as a counterpoint to Gilgamesh. Far different from Gilgamesh he still contains his strength. “His body was rough, he had long hair like a woman’s […] his body was covered with matted hair […] he was innocent of mankind” (Lawall 13). Gilgamesh is told of Enkidu and his immense strength and devises a plan to overpower him by seducing him with a harlot so that he may grow weak and loose the powers of the beasts.

Close to the biblical story of Adam and Eve, Enkidu is stripped of his primitive self and his innocence by the harlot. Gilgamesh has accomplished to civilize Enkidu there by weakening him as an individual. “The thoughts of a man were in his heart now” (Lawall 15) and he had become aware of the ways of the world. Meanwhile through Gilgamesh’s dreams he is told that a friend whom he will love like he would a woman is going to rescue him in this time of need. Enkidu then arrives at Uruk to challenge Gilgamesh but instead become friends, marking the beginning of Gilgamesh’s complete transformation.

The journey to fight Humbaba, the guardian of the forest was Gilgamesh’s next component of change. Deciding to kill the evil in the land for the sake of his people gave him some wisdom and connection to the people, something Enkidu had already begun doing. By facing Humbaba in the forest Gilgamesh makes a name for him and changes the outlook of the people in the kingdom. Although the journey was at first only beneficial for him it would later be helpful in his own journey to become a more justly and praiseworthy ruler. The death of Enkidu also significantly changes Gilgamesh.

After the killing of Humbaba, Ishtar deeply wanted to marry Gilgamesh but he refused. Extremely enraged she asked her father for the Bull of Heaven to kill him, which failed. Instead Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill the Bull of Heaven and feast, for now they were heroes, “endowed with great courage and strength, celebrated for [their] bold exploits” (American Heritage Dictionary). She then puts a curse on Enkidu which leads him to a great sickness and finally after twelve days, to his death. Gilgamesh could not be anymore devastated about the loss.

We can see his anguish when he says “the joyful people will stoop with sorrow; and when you have gone to the earth I will let my hair grow long for your sake, I will wander through the wilderness in the skin of a lion” (Lawall 30). Gilgamesh mourns Enkidu’s death by making the people weep over his death. By using garments such as he did and wandering like his old companion he is able to keep a part of Enkidu close to him and ultimately gain something from him. Following this, Gilgamesh comes to a realization that his day will soon come too “How can I rest, how can I be at peace?

Despair in my heart. What my brother is now, that shall I be when I am dead. (Lawell 30). This will lead Gilgamesh to his quest for eternal life, it is in this journey where we he will find his real destiny. Gilgamesh’s quest is to find Utnapishtim who was the only mortal to receive everlasting life. In an effort to erase humankind because of an uproar, the gods sent a big flood and asked Utnapishtim to build a boat to save himself. “Tear down your house and build a boat, abandon possessions and look for life, despise worldly goods and save your soul alive” (35).

Here we are able to see another biblical reference to the Old Testament. Just as Noah did when he was warned of such a disaster, so did Utnapishtim. Because they were the only mortals to survive, the gods gave him and his wife everlasting life to live at the mouths of the rivers. When Gilgamesh finally reached Utnapishtim he also gave him a chance at immortality. “As for you Gilgamesh who will assemble the gods for your sake, so that you may find that life for which you are searching? […] only prevail against sleep for six days and seven nights” (38). But his attempt failed.

Just as Siduri, the woman of the vine had for told Gilgamesh that he“[would] never find that life for which [he was] looking” (Lawall 32) for. Before Gilgamesh returns to Uruk Utnapishtim tells him of a plant that will restore his youth. Despite its hard catch, he obtains it to give to the old men in his kingdom. But while bathing, a serpent snatches the plant and immediately his skin sheds to a new form. Most commonly in religious text serpents symbolize evil but here the gift of immortality is taken by the serpent because this destiny is forbidden for Gilgamesh.

Although he did not achieve his most desired attribute Gilgamesh acquired many other things. From his journey of killing Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven to the death of his dearest friend Enkidu he most definitely gained more wisdom, ultimately understanding the people which in turn gained their trust and the glory. His failed attempt at his most endearing and significant journey to find immortality led Gilgamesh to find the meaningfulness of being human. Gilgamesh finally understood his true destiny. “You were given the kingship, such was your destiny, everlasting life was not your destiny”.

Hih Accounting Strategy argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

I am going to talk about HIH insurance’s Corporate accounting scandals. Background: HIH insurance was formed as a small insurance company in 1968. Its main business was to underwrite workers compensation insurance in Australia. The company expanded its operations into property, commercial and professional liability from the mid 1980s. During this period, it also moved into the UK and the US insurance markets. In the US, the focus was on workers compensation insurance. Public liability and professional indemnity insurance were its main specialisations in the UK.

Corporate governance The HIH Royal Commission Report attributed the failure of the company to two key factors. First, claims arising from insured events in previous years were much greater than the company had provided for in its accounts, thus leading to an overstatement of reported profits. This is known as ‘under-reserving’ or ‘under-provisioning’. The second factor concerns the further mismanagement of HIH through poorly conceived and badly executed acquisitions. The insurance risks were not properly identified and managed.

There was an environment where unpleasant information was hidden from the Board or filtered or sanitised to reduce discomfort or undue questioning from the Board. And there was a lack of sceptical questioning and analysis by senior management, by the board and, arguably, by the auditors Accounting issues: Provisions for expected future claims Evidence presented before the HIH Royal Commission indicates that the prudential margin approach is common industry practice due to the inherent uncertainties in predicting claims.

Yet HIH almost always employed the central estimate and did not apply a prudential margin. The consequence was not only to take an overly optimistic view of claims provisions but to continually overstate reported earnings. Accordingly, if one assumes a lower amount of claims is likely to be made on outstanding policies this will generally make profits look more substantial than otherwise would be the case, given an inverse relationship between profits and provisions for future claims (that is, liabilities).

According to Main (2003, p. 107) and Westfield (2003, pp. 38 and 43) the approach to profit determination at FAI and HIH was to chose a targeted profit number and to alter the provisions to effectively arrive at that arbitrary figure. Not only did this approach appear to violate the spirit of the accounting standard but it would eventually result in large losses being reported should actual claims exceed the amounts that were previously provisioned. Earnings management using reinsurance contracts

HIH appears to have obscured its optimistic provisioning by entering into so-called financial reinsurance arrangements with other parties. Reinsurance is a process “whereby a second insurer, in return for a premium, agrees to indemnify a first insurer against a risk insured by the first insurer in favour of an insured” According to AASB1023, for a transaction to be accounted for as insurance or reinsurance, there must be a transfer of risk to the reinsurer.

The standard does not describe, either in qualitative or quantitative terms, what degree of risk transfer is required. Without examining the intricate details of the actual transactions entered into by HIH, these contracts, in effect, “promised that no claim would be made on a specific reinsurance policy” (Main, 2003, p. 115). The overall objective was to use reinsurance to offset any likely increase in claims liabilities on the balance sheet with a corresponding recovery under a reinsurance contract. Accounting for goodwill

In acquiring the shares of FAI, HIH gave consideration which, in total, amounted to $300. 5 million. This acquisition was initially recorded in 1999 in the consolidated financial statements of HIH as comprising $25 million of net tangible assets and $275 million of purchased goodwill. Subsequently, another $163 million of FAI-related “goodwill” was added to this intangible asset account so that by the year 2000 this goodwill account had a balance of $438 million (HIH Royal Commission Report, 2003, Section 7. 1. 4).

Justice Owen contended that the goodwill adjustments (and reinsurance transactions referred to earlier) became techniques for concealing under-reserving problems inherent in FAI’s insurance portfolio. Conclusion: In conclusion, HIH insurance has several factors lead the company collapses- 2 corporate governance problem and 3 accounting issues. ‘under-provisioning’ and mismanagement are two factors of corporate governance. Provisions for expected future claims; Earnings management using reinsurance contracts and Accounting for goodwill are 3 factors of accounting governance.

Walmarts Organizational Structure history essay help: history essay help

In 1962, in Roger, Arkansas, Sam Walton had this brilliant idea that American consumers needed a different type of store so he opened Wal-Mart on the other hand in the same year, Dayton Hudson corporation opened “The first Target store in 1962 in the Minneapolis suburb of Roseville, Minn. , with a focus on convenient shopping at competitive discount prices. Today, Target remains committed to providing a one-stop shopping experience for guests by delivering differentiated merchandise and outstanding value with its Expect More. Pay Less® brand promise.

Target currently is the second largest general merchandise retailer in America, with Target. com consistently being ranked as one of the most-visited retail Web sites. ” (Target. com) Organizational Structure is a way that an organization arranges people and jobs so that it can be executed and its goals and objectives can be met. Wal-Mart was constructed into a three product divisional structure. The successful world retailer’s business categories include Wal-Mart Stores, Sam’s Club, and International stores. Wal-Mart was built on three beliefs such as great customer service, striving for excellence, and respecting other individual.

Like Wal-Mart, Target also strives on customer satisfaction. Targets objective is to make themselves the preferred shopping destination for their guests by giving them vale, innovation, and an outstanding experience. (Target, 2010) Wal-Mart and Target, being the two largest retail stores in the U. S. , are focused on providing their customers with great products and low prices. Their Organizational structure is vertical; however with the way that it is growing, it is more horizontal due to the fact that it is expanding globally.

With Target being vertical as well, they focus the marketing on the middle class while Wal-Mart gets a lower class. Wal-Mart is breaking out into being more global but Target is just branching out to global countries such as India. With Wal-Mart having over 8500 retail locations under 55 banners in 15 countries and having more than 2 million people on their team “Target Corporation is an upscale discount retailer that provides high-quality, on-trend merchandise at attractive prices in clean, spacious and guest-friendly stores. In addition, Target operates an online business, Target. com.

Minneapolis-based Target serves guests at 1,763 stores in 49 states and at Target. com, and also operates 37 distribution centers nationally. Target also has more than 355,000 team members worldwide and is consistently recognized as an employer of choice. ” (Target,2010) Both companies are focused on going above and beyond their objectives and providing great value, products, and services. Their differences occur when Wal-Mart aggressively lets everyone who wants to save money where they need to go. Target goes after the middle class shoppers who want more name brand products at a general price.

As we look at Wal-Mart’s Organizational Function, their marketing plan is simplicity. Their competitors are retail stores that focus on the same products and services, but however, Wal-Mart stays ahead of the competition by thriving off being the leader of low prices. Their approach is monopolistic because they are the most convenient as far as location and store hours. They offer twenty four our services and they have many locations to go to. The Wal-Mart supercenters are making it hard for a lot of stores to stay open and even struggling with the profits of the stores such as grocery stores.

Wal-Mart offers a variety of products and services which includes Auto-Care, Optical Department, Urgent Care facilities, hair and nails, Home & Garden department, fast food chain, food products, clothes, and jewelry. They also use advertising with television ads and online services as well for a marketing approach. With the advertising, they let their customers know that they have the lowest prices of any retailer and they will continue dropping if another competitor tries to beat their quality and prices.

Organizational Function of Finance within Wal-Mart is that every businesses goal is to make a profit worth staying in business for. Organizational Function of Finance comes with trying to figure out when is the need to let some of your employees go in order to increase operational efficiencies, support strategic growth plans and help reduce their overall costs. Now the organizational function of Human Resources within Wal-Mart makes it mandatory for employees to train on diversity and ethics.

They also conduct more training sessions on leadership, customer ervice, and mentoring programs. Organizational Design is the alignment of structure, process, rewards, metrics and talent with the strategy of the business. Organizational Design may involve strategic decisions, but is properly viewed as a path to effective strategy execution. Departmentalization in a corporation means for a corporation to be divided into different divisions and each division within the company has its own goals and task to accomplish. A divisional structure is broken down into three different areas such as product, market, and geographic.

Managers have a responsibility to focus on the structure of the store and bring in positive results. Another organizational design is product structure, market structure, and geographic structure. Geographic structures groups their employees based on the geographical location which Wal-Mart uses this structure because it has stores running globally. Finally matrix structure groups their employees by function and product within the different departments. This structure is one of the most difficult structures.

An example is Sam’s Club and Wal-Mart International being organized as follows, sales department, customer service, and accounting. However Sam’s Club is a little bit different because they would have the same departments, but have their own projects and tasks. In conclusion, Wal-Mart being a successful retail store has a horizontal Structure. It was compared and contrasted to the second largest retail store in Target. Organizational functions in marketing are simplicity and constantly push for being the low price leader.

Organizational function in finance has a goal of keeping their CEO happy and customers happy at all times. Organizational function in human resources and operation is where they often train in different areas such as diversity and ethics. Organizational design helps Wal-Mart determine what best fits them and their corporation as a whole.

The Doctrinal Basis Of Liability devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

There are three areas of doctrine of importance to banks. The first concerns the general standard of care the law expects, once a duty of care has been established, whether that be in contract, tort, or fiduciary law. Then the potential liability of a bank is explored as a fiduciary, constructive trustee, or an accessory. Finally, there is brief mention of some emerging standards of liability which have primarily a statutory base. 1. 1. Reasonable Care and Skill

A duty of reasonable care and skill for anyone providing a service (including giving advice) runs through contract, tort, and fiduciary law. After a mass of conflicting case law, notably the challenge to concurrent liability in contract and tort posed by the banking case, Tai Hing Cotton Mill Ltd v Liu Chong Hing Bank (1986), it is now settled that a claimant may seek compensation for economic loss caused through the failure to exercise reasonable care and skill in both contract and tort.

As for fiduciary law, it has long been the position that a fiduciary (including a trustee) must act or advise with reasonable care and skill. There is long-established authority, in the context of bills of exchange that a bank can be in breach of its duty of reasonable care and skill in failing to make inquiries. Factors such as the standing of the customer, the bank’s knowledge of the signatory, the amount involved, the need for prompt transfer, the presence of unusual features, and the scope and means for making reasonable inquiries may be relevant. . 2. Fiduciary Law (i) Fiduciary Duties and Their Negation

Apart from the duty of care key prescriptions are that fiduciaries (1)Should not permit their private interests to conflict with their duty to a beneficiary of the duty; (2)Should not permit their duties to one beneficiary to conflict with their duties to another; (3)Should not make a secret profit, i. e. a profit from their position which is undisclosed to their beneficiaries; and (4)Have a duty of confidentiality.

While contracts may modify the scope of fiduciary duties, however, it cannot be that contract can be invoked to negate them regardless of the circumstance. Thus, since many private customers will not necessarily expect their bank to be conducting conflicting corporate-finance business, it will be difficult to imply a contract term negating the undivided loyalty the bank may owe if it is a fiduciary. (ii) Trustees and Agents Fiduciary duties are clearly imposed on trustees and agents. The position with trustees is relatively straightforward.

In acting as a trustee of an estate or investment fund a bank must not invest with itself. But a bank will not be in breach of its fiduciary duties if the trust instrument empowers it to open accounts or make deposits or investment with itself, despite its being the trustee. The fiduciary duties attaching to an agent vary, with the nature of the agency. Thus, the bank instructed simply a buy or sell securities has fewer fiduciary duties than if it is the manager of a discretionary fund. (iii) Banks as Financial Advisers and Facilitators need: To furnish all relevant information, relevant in making investment decisions.

To give best advice it can. •To obtain the best terms for the customers. Woods v. Martins Bank Ltd is an old authority, where the bank advised A to invest in B, which was heavily indebted to it. It is still good law although, since it predated Hedley Byrne, it was necessary to find a fiduciary relationship if liability was to be imposed for negligent advice. 1. 3. Knowing Receipt, Inconsistent Dealing and Assistance (i) Knowing Receipt

For this form of liability it must be shown, first that the funds have been disposed of in breach of trust, fiduciary duty, or as a result of some other unconscionable dealing. Moneys held on trust and misapplied are obviously caught. So, too, are misapplied corporate moneys since historically directors have been treated as if they were trustees of the property of the company under their control, so that any wrongful disposition is a breach of trust. The second prerequisite to an action in knowing receipt is that the bank must have received the claimant’s funds for its own benefit.

Tracing has a role here: the bank must have beneficially received funds which are traceable as representing those of the claimant. Thirdly, liability for knowing receipt demands knowledge on the part of the bank that there has been a payment in breach of trust, fiduciary duty etc. (ii) Inconsistent Dealing A bank receiving funds in circumstances which do not constitute knowing receipt can still be liable if those funds are subsequently applied for its own benefit (‘inconsistent dealing’).

At that point the bank must know that the funds involved are subject to a trust or fiduciary duty and that what it is doing with them is in breach of that. (iii) Assistance Even if a bank is not liable for knowing receipt, it may be liable as an accessory for dishonest assistance. Assistance is a form of accessory liability, which sits alongside other forms of accessory liability in equity, such as the receipt of information in breach of confidence, and including breach of trust or fiduciary duty. What are the prerequisites for accessory liability?

First, there has to be a breach of trust or fiduciary duty. Second element in assistance is fault. One gloss in this context is the suggestion in the oft-cited case of Barnes v. Addy (1874) that for assistance there has to be ‘a dishonest and fraudulent design on the part of the trustee’. This may be defended as a way of narrowing the potential liability of accessories such as banks. However, it is now clear that there is no need to establish fraud on the part of the trustee or fiduciary, and an innocent breach of duty is sufficient.

Emerging Standard: Due Diligence, Suitability, Good Faith Due diligence as a standard emerged from securities law: in the United States a bank involved in a public offer of securities must make its own investigations (in relation to statements for which it takes responsibility), in other words it is obliged to undertake ‘due diligence’ in relation to the issuer and the issue. This seems to be part of a growing trend to make banks statutorily liable for unlawful activities which they facilitate by their operations, unless they an demonstrate due diligence. Suitability too is a concept most developed in the area of securities regulation. It imposes a liability on those marketing securities which are incompatible with the needs of customer. Closely associate good faith with notions such as fairness, honestly, and reasonableness. In other words, it means simply that in the performance of a contract both parties are assumed to agree not to do anything to impede its performance, or to injure the right of the other to receive its benefits.

The good-faith doctrine has been invoked in the context of banking, requiring a bank to disclose material information to a commercial counterparty. 2. Duty to advise and the liability for the advice given Some situations clearly involve a bank in giving advice. Advice on reorganization, mergers and acquisitions financing, and so on is the staple diet of investment (merchant) banking. In other situations a bank may assume the role of financial adviser. However, many banking services are not associated with giving advice.

The legal issue is whether there is any obligation on a bank to proffer advice in this situation. The second matter addressed is a bank’s liability if it actually does give advice, the advice is faulty, and the customer incurs a loss. 2. 1. Duty to advise (i) The General Rule Generally speaking, one party will be under no obligation to advise another about the nature of the transaction, its prudence, or other features. So, too, in banking, English courts have held that the bank providing an account for a customer need not advise on the risks, or on the tax implications, of certain payments in relation to it.

Nor need it advise customers of a more advantageous type of account it is now providing. However, there is a rather clear difference between these and some of the other services and transactions of the modern multifunctional bank. Take the bank selling its own products-be they derivatives to commercial customers, or insurance policies, or interests in a collective investment scheme to private customers. (ii) Situations imposing a duty to advise The first situation where the law imposes a duty to advise is a misrepresentation –a failure to speak or act can constitute conduct which misleads.

Thus a half-truth may constitute a misrepresentation, as where a bank canvasses the advantages, but not the risks, of a transaction with a customer. The bank must tell the whole story. A bank’s advertising may be relevant in this respect. Secondly, there can be liability for a failure to disclose in precontractual negotiations if there has been a voluntary assumption of responsibility to do so and reliance by the customer because the court held that the bank was liable when its manage failed to explain clearly to the wife, the effect of a charge over a joint property to secure the husband’s borrowing from the bank.

Thirdly, in Cornish v. Midland Bank, Glidewell LJ said that once a bank enters upon the task of advising a customer, it is obliged to explain fully and properly about the nature of the borrowing. Fourthly, if a relationship is fiduciary in character, then disclosure is necessary if a person is to avoid liability for putting interest above duty, or duty to one above duty to another. Fifthly, at common law a bank which takes a guarantee is bound to disclose unusual features in the transaction which has been guarantee.

Finally, the duty to advise can be imposed as a result of regulation. (iii) The Advice Required (If Any) Advice may translate into the legal concept of notice, as where the bank must give notice in relation to a conflict of interest. Complete disclosure of all relevant facts known to the fiduciary is required. Advice must, of course, be honestly given-otherwise it is fraudulent. Generally speaking it must also be accurate. Some advice involves highlighting the terms of the contract being entered (or at least some of them).

Another approach is to require advice about the alternative on offer-in terms, say, of repayment methods, interest rates, charges, and commissions. Perhaps the most effective advice in relation to some banking transactions is advise, about the attendant risk. The standard demanded here may be objective, although it could also be associated with an obligation on the bank to take steps to ensure that this particular customer understands the risks. 2. 2. Liability for advice given

Bank’s promotional material, may lead to the conclusion that it has taken on the responsibility of the borrower’s financial adviser. There is greater chance of liability when the bank advises unsophisticated customers; in several cases the English courts have held that a bank was liable when its bank manager failed to explain clearly to a wife the effect of a charge taken over joint property to secure a husband’s borrowings. Negligent advice can obviously occur in the range of matters in which banks become involved.

Examples includes credit references; failure to pass on information on when a bank enters upon the task of advising a potential borrower about the attendant risks of a particular facility; statements by bank that it will make available to a customer adequate funds to enter a contract with a third party; advice about investments; and assurances that workout plans are heading in the right direction, and that the bank is optimistic about an agreement being reached. In Hedley Byrne the bank avoided liability because of a disclaimer in the reference.

In would seem right as a matter of policy for a bank to be able to avoid the consequences of giving negligent advice by suitable notice to those receiving it. As a matter of policy, whether this is regarded conceptually as aborting liability or a exempting from liability already begotten is beside the point. The central issue in practice should be whether the disclaimer of , or exemption from, liability has been made clear to those being advised so they are in no doubt that the bank is washing its hands of the consequences if the advice proves inappropriate or wrong.

A small print clause in a document given to those being advised is unlikely to satisfy this test. In English law the matter is handled by applying the unfair contract terms legislation. The seminal case recognizing the tort of negligent advice, Hedley Byrne & Co. Ltd. V. Heller & Partners Ltd, involved advice given about a customer’s creditworthiness in a bank reference. As subsequently interpreted, Hedley Byrne liability depends importantly on an assumption of responsibility by a bank, a sufficiently proximate relationship between the bank and the customer or third party, and on there being reliance on the statement.

Assumption of responsibility an proximity are, in large part, legal fictions, and in practice a court will have regard to factors such as the purpose for which the statement was made and communicated, the bank’s knowledge that the advice was needed for a particular purpose, the relationship between the bank and the person relying on the advice, and the size of any class to which the latter belongs.

As regards “disclosure” (and this includes electronic disclosure), it is worth repeating here what was said in Woods v. Martins Bank Ltd [1959] 1 Q. B. 5 at 60, where Salmon J. said “It cannot be too clearly understood that solicitors owe a duty to the court, as officers of the court to make sure, as far as possible, that no relevant documents have been omitted from their client’s list”. Barclays Bank v O’Brien [1994] 1 AC 180. A husband and wife agreed to a second mortgage secured on their home to help out the husband’s ailing company. The necessary documents were sent to a branch with instructions to ensure that the couple were aware of what they doing and to take legal advice on the matter.

This did not occur. The wife signed the documents, relying on her husband’s explanation of the situation (that it involved ? 60,000 for 3 weeks). When the debt reached ? 154,000, the bank ordered the house to be repossessed. At appeal, the court held that misrepresentation to the wife had occurred, the bank was fixed with constructive notice and the wife’s equitable right was enforceable against the bank. The case of Royal Bank of Scotland v Etridge was decided by the Lords in a Judgment handed down on 11th October 2001.

The case set standards for lending institutions where guarantees are given by a third party. It also sets standards for Solicitors who take on the task of advising those third parties. The most important point for lending institutions, thinking of enforcing their security is that cases of this nature need to be tested on their facts. It will make the lower Courts think very carefully whether cases which are perceived as ”hopeless” should be struck out at an early stage. The decision in this series of appeals mitigates against early strike out.

It could mean that lending institutions no longer have a quick route by which to realize the security and in many cases they will be locked into trials which could prove lengthy and expensive.

Managerial Economics medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Appalachian Coal Mining believes that it can increase labor productivity and, therefore, net revenue by reducing air pollution in its mines. It estimates that the marginal cost function for reducing pollution by installing additional capital equipment is MC = 40P where P represents a reduction of one unit of pollution in the mines. It also feels that for every unit of pollution reduction the marginal increase in revenue (MR) is MR = 1,000 – 10P How much pollution reduction should Appalachian Coal Mining undertake?

Set MC = MR and solve for P 40P = 1000-10P 40P + 10P = 1000 50P = 1000 P = 1000/50 P = 20 units of pollution reduction MR = 1000 – 10(20) MR = 1000 -200 MR = 800 MC = 40(20) MC = 800 By installing additional capital equipment Appalachian Coal Mining can reduce the pollution by 20 units of pollution with the Marginal cost of 800. Therefore, the increase in capital will decrease the amount of pollution and will benefit both the company and the world with the reduction in pollution. Any company that invests capital to clean the environment is making the right choice no matter how much or how little it fixes, anything reduction s better than nothing.

Therefore Twenty-first Century Electronics should hire two guards b. If the cost of a stolen radio is $25,what is the most the firm would be willing to pay to hire the first security guard? Guard one = (50 – 30) * 25 Guard one = 20 * 25 Guard One = 500 The first security guard would be paid the maximum amount 500 c. If each security guard is paid $200 a week and the cost of a stolen radio is $50, how many security guards should the firm hire? MC = 200 Marginal Benefit (4) = (14-8)*50 MB = 6 * 50 MB = 300 TB = (50-8) * 50 – (4*200) = 1300

Therefore they should hire four guards @ $ 50 cost of stolen radio CH 4. . The director of marketing at Vanguard Corporation believes that sales of the company’s Bright Side laundry detergent (S) are related to Vanguard’s own advertising expenditure (A), as well as the combined advertising expenditures of its three biggest rival detergents (R). The marketing director collects 36 weekly observations on S, A, and R to estimate the following multiple regression equation: S = a + bA + cR where S, A, and R are measured in dollars per week. Vanguard’s marketing director is comfortable using parameter estimates that are statistically significant at the 10 percent level or better.

System Analysis of Ebay compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

The term Ebay shouldn’t be a stranger to most people that have access to a working computer and internet connection. But for those who are not familiar with the corporation, Ebay Inc is an American multinational company that conducts its business mainly over the internet. Founded in 1995, Ebay Inc. tarted off serving as an online auction house for anyone that wants to sell something to anyone that wants to buy something. The company has been fast growing and reported net revenue of just over US$11. 65 billion for the year 2011. US$68. 6 billion was the total value of goods and products sold over Ebay worldwide by over 100 million active users in the last year (Ebay 2012).

According to the companies website, to complement its core business of helping millions of users buy and sell safely over the internet, Paypal was acquired by Ebay in year 2002 for US$1. billion (2012). Later in 2008, Ebay also acquired Fraud Sciences, an Israeli company that deals with online risk tools to strengthen Ebay and Paypal’s fraud detection. Keeping up with current trends, Ebay also launched the Ebay app in 2008, helping many sellers and buyers to keep track of the items that they are interested in while on the go. Instead of having to stay by the computer while waiting for an auction on an item to end before going out, buyers can now watch the items from their smartphones and put in last minute bids. The app also syncs with the pc on all activity.

For example, if you viewed an item on the computer, it will also turn up on your smart phone in the recently viewed section. There is also a barcode reader function that can help the user make a better, more informed purchase decision by searching for the product on the Ebay database to see if there are any better deals online. Formal Systems Model Inputs ? Staff ? Server ? Customer Support Sellers Receive Orders Check InventoryCheck Payment Organize Shipment Buyer Receives FeedbackExamine Feedback Conflict Resolution Maintain/Update Website & Server

Output ? Shipped product ? Customer satisfaction As mentioned above, Ebay provides a platform for sellers and buyers from all over the world to come together to conduct a business transaction all from the comfort of their own homes. Therefore, Ebay isn’t really the party that is conducting the sales; they are more of a referee whereby sellers or buyers can contact Ebay in the event of conflict. For that reason, Ebay does not play an active role within the entire buying/selling process, it merely provides its hosting services and maintaining the website.

There are however certain guidelines that users of the website have to adhere to, these include prohibited sales of tobacco, alcohol, firearms, live animals and many more. The site also has certain regulations regarding payment terms and timeframe. The site also encourages that buyers and sellers attempt to settle all differences among themselves before approaching Ebay. In consequence, the site management will only interfere or act in the event of an unresolved conflict between the two parties. Ebay tries to prevent fraud and buyers remorse by implementing a compulsory feedback system.

Every buyer is required to rate the user that sold the item to them on a few categories using a 5 star rating system; 1 being the lowest and 5 being the highest. The 4 criteria’s are * Items as described * Communication * Postage time * Postage and handling charges Other than that, users are required to leave a short 70 characters comment about the transaction in general. Feedback will then be registered by the system and added to the individual buyers or sellers page, allowing other users to identify with sellers or buyers that are not so easy or nice to deal with.

This use case begins when a potential buyer visits the Ebay website to login or register with the intent of buying something. 2. Validates login details of the buyer or registers the new user. 3. Buyer searches site for all listings fulfilling his/her search terms for an item that he/she may wish to bid on. 4. The buyer selects the item that he/she wishes to place a bid on from all the listings and places a bid. 5. Registers the buyers’ bid and informs the seller that someone has placed a bid on the item that he/she has listed. More than one buyer may bid for the same item during the auction period.

The system registers all biddings and informs other buyers that the item that they have been outbid. Finally, the system closes on an auction and notifies the buyer with the highest bid that he/she has won the auction. The system also informs the seller about this as well. 6. Buyer then selects the payment and delivery option. 7. The system will sum up the total amount payable by the buyer. 8. Buyer confirms the sales total and enters credit card details or Paypal details and confirms delivery address. 9. Confirms payment and delivery and sends out a confirmation email to the registered email address.

1984 Reflection my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

George Orwell’s 1984 is a haunting vision of a future with no future; a future where technology controls every aspect of an individual’s life. Orwell introduces the concepts of The Ministry of Truth, The Thought Police, and Big Brother. These omniscient entities continually monitor the movements, speech, and writings of every citizen. Through a simple, yet complex game that required each student to become a citizen of the fabled land of Oceania, I have learned how intricate it would be to live in an overbearing society. As I read 1984, I had a much more vivid imagination of the book.

I imagine London when I read 1984. The proles exist today, as they always have, and I suppose, as they always will. I understood the manner of the people. I understood the annoyances and ugliness of the reality that it shows. I particularly resonated to the description of the razor blade situation: namely, that in the futuristic world of 1984, razorblades and other necessary conveniences like electrical or housing maintenance are so scarce that improvisation is a must. Winston Smith represents the human spirit, this is explicitly said in the torture scene.

The human spirit is the siprit of rebellion against obvious repression, the subversion of conformity when it needs and rightly needs to be oppressed, and the curiousity of one’s sense of place in the world, whether of history or their biography. In numerous occaisions, Smith defies the party line, by writing his thoughts in a diary, and by having thoughts at all; he goes against the doctrines that are unquestionable by society. The moral of the story is that the human spirit is mutable. Despite objecting against the party, every person, like the human spirit in general, has its limitation.

Every person has their “Room 10”, the point at which all debate or objection or will power is to be thrwarted in a sense of fear and self-preservation. The story of 1984 is the failure of the human spirit. Winston refused to be a martyr and accept certain death as an enemy of a party, but instead, it is uncertain if he ends up being killed by the party, but it is certain, that his spirit is killed when he defects to the party and his romantic love. Re-writing history does make me think a bit. There are many people who question the figures about the deaths after World War II.

A certain story about historical events are given and accepted. While it is in the space of historical debate and scholarship to question history and our interpretation of history, there is an almost unbearable prejudice and normative impulse to leave some issues as unquestionable. People who question the 9/11 attacks or interpret it in a way different to the ‘official story’, or the ‘six million’ figure of the holocaust, are labelled as eccentric at best or somehow deviously immoral at the worst. There are some aspects or tidbits of history or our political sentiment that are almost like INGSOC’s party line.

I have no position about questioning historical figures, although the social acceptance of positive discrimination and ‘diversity’ policies  to the extent of undermining meritocracy and the status of elite (viz meritocracy) institutions are abhorrent. Doublespeak. Although not as obvious as in 1984, I remember back in the late 90s how I heard two things: hospitals and experiences in the NHS are terrible, and, hospitals are getting increasnigly better, more hospitals are being built, targets are being met and exceeded, and more money is being put into hospitals.

Healthcare was doublespeak. Contradictory to the point of being completely obscrue as to what the clear and balanced truth was. I suspect that a similar ‘doublespeak’ will happen with higher education in the near future. Ministries. The government ministries, whenever I hear the names of them, make me laugh out loud. There is a ministry for sport and a ministry for culture. I suspect that the culture secretary is a philistine fool, and I suspect that the sport secretary is pyhsically unfit.

Although this is a personal insult more than an argument; a serious point must be made as to the kind of extent such a ministry can genuinely help rather than hinder the object of their ministry. How much, for instance, can a ministry of sport help either an individual sport, or sport as a whole. There are some sports which are so established not to be really addressed by a government (except when it goes wrong). Football has a national and international federation where conduct is managed and there is some sucess to the bureaucracy of this organisation, insofar as football is a beloved pasttime.

A similar case may be said of Rugby, and to a lesser extent, Cricket. It is a fair point to make that sports that do not have commercial help do need governmental support. Athletes must maintain ‘amateur’ status in order to compete for international competitions like the olympics, and finding financial support will always be difficult. However, to have a ministry of sport by definition is to establish a notion of an ‘establishment’ of sports. To focus on olympic sports is to ignore underground or emerging sports.

A similar point can be made of culture. Do we support avant garde movements that are too new to be known whether they will succeed or be fruitful? or, does the place of a government ministry place unhealthy support towards certain kinds of perspectives on art, culture and archictecture (consider the unhelpful case of Prince Charles on debates concerning modern archictecture). How should we interpret this book? There are many people who consider ‘Orwellian’ as an adjective for the current political and social climate.

I don’t think that is very accurate, for the fascistic control of the government and the overt nature of the ‘thought police’ is too far away from how control is established. As a side point, I wonder how Foucault would have thought of 1984. Perhaps he did indeed read it. I should check out if he did know of it. Foucauldian is perhaps a more apt depiction of the degrees of control over conduct than Orwellian. The discourses of the mid-20th centruy had advanced with the end of Stalinism. A next step of reading 1984, if one is trying to apprehend our notion of the current age, should be complimented by reading Foucault.

Food Culture medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Or do the potential dangers involved in the new technology pose too great a risk? * Supporters of GM foods say: GM crops are the logical next step in agriculture, and they have never been proven to be harmful to human beings. The next generation of GM crops could produce health benefits–such as vegetables with extra vitamins or fruit containing important vaccines and antibiotics–that would be immensely helpful to developing countries. * Critics of GM foods say: Interfering with the genes of plants could disturb entire ecosystems and result in unintended environmental and health consequences.

Also, because the plight of developing nations is the result of far broader issues of social injustice, no amount of GM food could truly fix the problems there. Genetically modified (GM) food has become so common in the U. S. that most people do not even know when they are consuming it. But it is widely estimated that up to 70% of all processed food in U. S. supermarkets contain ingredients that have been altered at the genetic level. GM ingredients can be found in certain brands of peanut butter, potato chips and margarine, among many other types of food.

GM foods–also referred to as genetically engineered foods–are created when an organism’s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the molecular basis for heredity in most living things, is altered in some way. Agricultural biologists can modify existing genes, transplant genes from one organism’s DNA into another’s or even synthesize entirely new structures and insert them into a plant’s DNA. Although the alteration of genes is a fairly new technology, scientists have already invented a variety of new organisms, such as coffee beans that do not contain caffeine and onions that can be chopped without inducing tears.

See 1999 Genetically Engineered Food] Nearly all GM foods on the market, however, come from just four types of crops: corn, cotton, canola and soybeans. Those plants are altered so that they produce their own insecticide, for example, or become immune to particular brands of pesticides. Since 1996, when the first GM soybean was introduced, the use of GM crops in the U. S. has increased at an incredible rate. But because the technology behind GM foods is relatively new, many fear that there has not been enough testing to prove that it is completely risk-free.

Europeans, for example, have been highly skeptical of any benefits they might gain from GM foods. Many nations in the European Union (EU) have effectively banned imports of what they refer to as “Frankenfoods,” a reference to the famous story of the fictional monster assembled by Dr. Frankenstein from miscellaneous spare parts. The U. S claims that the EU’s anti-GM food policy violates free trade laws. Many questions remain regarding the future of GM foods. Should they continue to be sold in the U. S. , even though they may have unforeseen negative consequences?

Or should the U. S. take a cue from the EU and limit the selling of GM foods until they are unequivocally proven to be risk-free? Do the possible future health benefits of GM foods–such as fruits and vegetables with extra vitamins and vaccines built into their DNA–cancel out any potential risks that the new technology brings? Supporters of GM foods say that since there has been no evidence of GM foods harming humans, it is reasonable to assume that they are safe for consumption. GM food backers denounce criticism of genetic engineering as fear-mongering.

Besides, they argue, no new technology is without a certain degree of risk. GM food supporters believe that the possible health benefits of GM foods overwhelm any possible dangers. Supporters of biotech crops also maintain that if GM food technology is allowed to develop, it may prove to be instrumental in eliminating world hunger. Future GM foods could be fortified with increased nutrients, which would make it easier for people in impoverished nations to enjoy a healthy diet, supporters say. Opponents of GM foods, however, argue that the idea that global hunger could be eliminated by biotech crops is deceptive.

They maintain that since hunger is caused mostly by poverty, GM foods would not be an adequate long-term solution to the problem. GM food critics say that the notion that biotech crops can end hunger is merely a public-relations stunt crafted to rally public support for the new technology. Critics of GM foods also point to several studies indicating that rats, when fed a diet of GM vegetables, develop serious health problems. Because the technology behind GM foods is so new, opponents argue, there is no way of knowing how it will affect the health of consumers.

Critics further contend that introducing genetically altered plant life into stable ecosystems could alter the fragile biosphere in ways no one can accurately predict. The Development of Agricultural Biotechnology In February 1953, Francis Crick, a British biophysicist, entered a pub in Cambridge, England, and announced, “We have discovered the secret of life! ” Crick and his partner, the Chicago-born geneticist James Watson, were celebrating because they had just established that the physical structure of DNA follows a “double helix” pattern, which is a geometric shape resembling a twisted ladder.

The genetic information of any given organism is coded within its DNA as a sequence of nucleotides, which form the “rungs” of the double helix. Building upon that discovery, another pair of scientists, Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer, created the first-ever transgenic organism in 1973. Cohen and Boyer used a special “restriction enzyme” to cut out a specific gene sequence from a toad’s DNA. They then pasted the genes into the DNA of an Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterium. As the bacterium reproduced, Cohen and Boyer observed that each successive generation contained the same toad gene that they had originally spliced into the E. oliDNA.

The success of Cohen and Boyer’s experiment helped to lay the groundwork for all future developments in the field of genetic engineering. In 1977, scientists discovered that the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which ordinarily causes a type of cancer in plants, could be manipulated to carry beneficial types of genes into plant cells. Biologists, who at this point were learning how to create new gene sequences from scratch, replaced the tumor-causing genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens with synthetic genes that protect plants from drought or pestilence.

When scientists exposed plants to those modified bacteria, some of those plants began to exhibit the desirable characteristics without developing any of the cancerous tumors. The field of agricultural biotechnology expanded rapidly after that breakthrough. In the early 1980s, researchers developed new methods of transferring genes into plant cells. One such method involves a piece of machinery called the Biolistic Particle Delivery System, also known as the “gene gun. ” The gene gun fires minuscule gold pellets, coated in genetic material, through plant tissue.

In theory, as the “bullets” pass through the tissue, they leave behind their foreign genes, which eventually work their way into the plant’s DNA. Like the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method, however, the gene gun technique has a relatively low success rate. Scientists say that does not matter; because of the rapid rate at which cells multiply, one successful gene transfer could create entire fields of modified plants. The first genetically altered plant was developed in 1983. Luis Herrera-Estrella, a Mexican scientist, used the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method to insert antibiotics into a tobacco plant’s genetic structure.

However, it would take more than 10 years until a GM food was commercially available in the U. S. Throughout the 1980s, scientists working for large biotechnology companies such as Monsanto Co. and DuPont Co. continued developing new GM crops, but none of those crops reached U. S. consumers because they lacked approval from any regulatory bodies. In May 1992, that all changed. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) declared that GM foods did not differ fundamentally from non-GM foods, and could therefore be sold without government regulation.

The FDA’s policy statement also assigned responsibility to the biotechnology companies for any potential health hazards resulting from their GM foods. Yet despite that landmark statement, biotechnology companies, seeking to allay public concern, submitted their foods for FDA approval anyway. In 1994, the Flavr Savr tomato, developed by Calgene Inc. to maintain a longer shelf life, became the first GM crop to receive FDA approval. The tomato sold well initially, but due in part to high development costs and dwindling sales, it was discontinued in 1997.

During that same year, Monsanto absorbed cash-poor Calgene into its ever-expanding biotech empire. The Rapid Expansion of GM Crops Monsanto, based in St. Louis, Mo. , was formed in 1901 as a manufacturer of saccharine, an artificial sweetener. Over the course of the 20th century, it evolved into an agricultural chemical company, creating and marketing popular weed-killing herbicides such as Lasso, Ramrod and Roundup. Monsanto shifted its focus from chemicals to biotechnology in 1981.

In 1996, the company introduced a genetically modified soybean that was immune to glyphosate, the primary active ingredient in Roundup herbicide. Farmers who planted that soybean could spray their entire fields with Roundup, killing all the weeds but leaving the crop unharmed. The Roundup Ready soybean, as Monsanto calls it, was later joined by similarly modified strains of corn and canola. The introduction of Roundup Ready crops helped to spark a global explosion in the GM food market. Today, nearly 200 million acres of GM crops have been planted worldwide, up from 4. million acres in 1996, according to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications.

Roughly 120 million acres of GM crops are found in the U. S. alone, with Monsanto representing a significant percentage of that acreage. Nearly 90% of the GM soy, canola and cotton grown in the U. S. , for example, originates from Monsanto’s labs. Most GM crops have been modified to be either herbicide- or insect-resistant. Herbicide-resistant plants–such as Monsanto’s Roundup Ready line–are immune to the weed-killing chemicals found in commercial herbicides.

Insect-resistant crops are modified to create a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), that is naturally toxic to several harmful species of insects, such as the pink bollworm and the tobacco budworm. Because the plants themselves are poisonous to insects, farmers do not need to spray their crops with pesticides, which harm the environment. Biotechnicians also say modifications like those lead to more efficient farming and, in turn, result in higher crop yields. In the future, scientists say, crops will be modified to perform a host of beneficial biological duties.

Second-generation GM crops will be more nutritious and more flavorful, stay ripe longer, and resist drought conditions, they say. Some involved in the marketing of GM crops predict that in the near future, vaccines for diseases such as polio and typhoid will be delivered to developing nations in vegetables such as tomatoes and corn. One GM crop with enormous medical potential is so-called golden rice. That GM rice contains increased levels of beta-carotene, which the human body converts into vitamin A. Golden rice was first developed by scientists in Switzerland in 2000 and was perfected by British scientists in March 2005.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as many as 500,000 children go blind yearly due to a lack of vitamin A. Some biotechnicians believe that golden rice, which has not yet been made available to consumers, could eliminate such cases of blindness. Many consumers remain skeptical about GM crops, however, and several regulatory miscues have done little to reassure them. In 2000, for example, a batch of StarLink corn, a type of GM corn that had not been approved for human consumption, appeared in processed food products such as taco shells.

Several people who ate the taco shells sustained allergic reactions, which some experts said were directly related to the StarLink corn. Many products were recalled, and consumer confidence in GM corn was drastically reduced. GM corn was back in the headlines in 2005. The Swiss biotech company Syngenta AG alerted the U. S. in December 2004 that it had been accidentally distributing an experimental, unapproved strain of insect-resistant GM corn since 2001. Representatives from Syngenta told regulators that this particular strain, known as Bt 10, was very similar to an approved and widely distributed strain of corn, Bt 11.

Still, Syngenta issued a statement in March 2005 saying that all Bt 10 corn and unused Bt 10 seeds had been destroyed or isolated. Then, in May 2005, the British newspaper the Independent reported that a secret study carried out by Monsanto showed that rats developed blood and kidney abnormalities after eating a diet of MON 863, a strain of GM corn created by Monsanto. Those abnormalities indicated to doctors that either the rats’ immune systems were weakening or their bodies were making certain biological adjustments necessary to fight tumors.

In a statement, Monsanto defended its product, saying that the rat study had been submitted to regulatory bodies such as the European Food Safety Authority, which went on to approve the sale of the corn. MON 863 is also planted and sold in both the U. S. and Canada. In some cases, Monsanto has discontinued certain kinds of its GM crops. For example, Monsanto halted production of its insect-resistant GM potato in 2001 and its Roundup Ready GM wheat in 2004. In both instances, Monsanto issued a statement saying it was simply trying to concentrate on other crops, and that GM wheat and GM potato production would eventually be resumed.

But some people involved in the anti-GM movement say lack of confidence in GM technology–by both consumers and farmers–weighed heavily on Monsanto’s decision to discontinue each product. GM Food Policy in the U. S. and Europe GM foods have become a fact of life in the U. S. Although the only GM whole food widely available in the U. S. is a strain of virus-resistant papaya, roughly 70% of all processed foods purchased in U. S. supermarkets contain GM ingredients. That is mostly due to the prevalence of GM corn and soy, which are used to make common additives such as lecithin and corn syrup.

Although most Americans consume GM foods on a regular basis, a significant portion have expressed skepticism about them. For example, an ABC News poll conducted in 2003 found that 55% of respondents would be less likely to buy a food if they knew it had been genetically modified. Still, U. S. consumers have proven to be less outspokenly anti-GM than their counterparts in the EU, and it is far easier to find food containing GM ingredients in U. S. stores than it is in Europe. Some experts believe that one of the reasons the GM food industry has made such headway in the U. S. s because Monsanto, the country’s leading agriculture-chemical company, has spent millions of dollars lobbying Congress and the White House.

In 1997, at the dawn of the GM revolution, Monsanto spent $4 million persuading President Bill Clinton (D, 1993-2001) and his administration to pressure the EU into accepting Monsanto’s GM grain. That same year, Monsanto welcomed Mickey Kantor, a former Clinton aide, onto its board of directors. Some opponents of GM foods believe that this political influence has reaped many benefits for Monsanto, including the ongoing lack of labeling laws for GM foods sold in the U. S. See 2005 Labeling Genetically Modified Foods (sidebar)] In the EU, on the other hand, 54% of European citizens surveyed said they would never accept GM foods, and 31% would accept them only if they were highly regulated.

Experts say that European skepticism about GM foods can be traced to several sensational food crises that erupted in the late 1990s, such as a “mad cow” disease scare in England and the discovery of chickens tainted with the toxic chemical dioxin in Belgium. Although neither of those incidents was related to genetic engineering, many believe they made Europeans nervous about the idea of GM foods.

In 1999, the influential British medical journal the Lancet published a controversial study by the biochemist Arpad Pustzai. The study concluded that rats who were fed GM potatoes developed stomach ailments and weakened immune systems. The study touched off an immense controversy in Europe; some claimed that Pustzai’s research was scientifically unsound, while others accused Pustzai’s detractors of engaging in smear tactics. As a result of Pustzai’s study, the mad cow scare, and other incidents, public opinion of GM foods in the EU is extremely low.

Consequently, the EU’s bureaucratic process for approving GM foods “is arguably the strictest in the world,” says Simon Barber of the European Association for Bioindustries. The EU’s GM food labeling laws are widely seen as the world’s toughest, and in five EU member countries–France, Germany, Luxembourg, Greece and Austria–it is illegal to plant certain GM crops. That hard-line stance has angered leading GM food exporters. In April 2004, the U. S. , Canada and Argentina–the world’s three leading producers of biotech crops–asked the World Trade Organization (WTO) to review the EU’s anti-GM food policy.

The three countries say that the EU’s stance violates free trade laws, because many European nations will not accept food imports unless they are specifically labeled as non-GM. The WTO is scheduled to present a preliminary decision on the GM food case in August 2005. There have been some signs that the EU is succumbing to that pressure. In May 2004, the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, lifted an unofficial six-year moratorium on the sale of GM foods when it voted to approve the sale of Syngenta’s Bt 11 corn to consumers.

The move was criticized by environmental advocacy groups such as Greenpeace, a nonprofit international coalition of environmentalists. By overturning the unofficial ban, the European Commission chose “to defend U. S. farmers and narrow agro-business interests,” says Eric Gall of Greenpeace. Still, most EU member countries will not accept imports of GM foods. GM Food Supporters Embrace New Technology Supporters of GM foods point to a plethora of health benefits that could develop if the technology is allowed to advance.

In the near future, supporters say, GM foods could be capable of delivering crucial vaccines and vitamins to massive amounts of people. Furthermore, they say, crops could also be modified to withstand harsh climate conditions, thereby ensuring that every growing season is a productive one. The Competitive Enterprise Institute, a corporately financed nonprofit think tank, points out that current insect-resistant GM crops help the environment by eliminating the need for spraying dangerous pesticides, which can pollute waterways.

Advocates of biotech food also maintain that there have been no reported instances of humans suffering any ill effects from eating GM crops. If GM foods were bad for you, supporters ask, why have no widespread health crises been reported in the U. S. , where GM corn, soy, cotton and canola are ubiquitous? Supporters also note that the American Medical Association, the National Academy of Sciences, the World Health Organization, the Institute of Food Technologists and the United Nations have all determined that GM foods are not fundamentally different from non-GM foods.

Responding to critics’ charges that biotech foods should not be sold until they have been proven, unequivocally, to be completely free from risk, GM food supporters maintain that there is no such thing as a risk-free new technology. Such thinking is “unrealistic and unwise,” writes Norman Borlaugh, a professor of international agriculture at Texas A&M University in College Station. “Indeed,” he writes, “‘zero biological risk’ is not even attainable. ” The nonpartisan Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) has also accepted GM foods as a viable technology with huge potential benefits.

Gregory Jaffe, the director of CSPI’s biotechnology project, says that there is a risk involved in GM foods, but, if scrutinized, nearly anything could be said to have a risk factor. “If you did a risk assessment for a peanut today,” he says, “it would not necessarily be approved. ” Another common argument made by GM food backers is that biotechnology is simply a refinement of a process–the introduction of genes into preexisting organisms–that occurs in nature on a daily basis.

A “Brief Biotech Timeline” found on Monsanto’s British Web site, for example, starts from “thousands of years ago,” when people first began using bacteria to make beer and bread, and includes Gregor Mendel’s mid-19th-century studies of plant genetics, which proved that plants passed down physical characteristics to successive generations through their genes. Scientists have used Mendel’s discoveries to crossbreed plants, creating a variety of plant hybrids with desirable traits.

GM food supporters say that new technologies–like the gene gun and the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens–are simply an extension of hybridization. Many supporters also point out that GM crops could prove to be a boon to developing nations that cannot adequately provide their people with food. In its report to the international community on GM crops, which was released in May 2004, the U. N. said that GM foods, with their possibility for greater crop yields and added vitamins, represent one of the best chances the world has of eliminating global hunger.

Some supporters of GM food technology have expressed frustration that activists are protesting something that could become a major weapon in the worldwide fight against malnourishment and poverty. Proponents of GM foods say that those who protest biotechnology companies like Monsanto should look at the potential health benefits that GM crops could provide, particularly to poverty-stricken developing countries.

Opposition to GM foods amounts to nothing more than “horror at the thought of change [and] romantic rhapsodizing about the virtues of traditional life,” writes New York Times columnist Paul Krugman. Too bad that the wretched of the earth will, as usual, pay for the fantasies of the affluent. ” Critics Warn of Potential Health Consequences Opponents of GM crops say that the technology is still too new and untested to be so prevalent in the marketplace. They contend that altering an organism’s genes is in no way an update of nature. “In nature, when would… a pesticide-producing bacterium [interbreed] with a potato? ” writes Liane Casten, president of Chicago Media Watch, a nonprofit organization. Critics point to instances where unmodified plants have become “contaminated” by nearby GM crops.

In 2004, for instance, experiments concluded that a strain of Monsanto’s Roundup Ready grass spread its genetically altered pollen into fields as far as 13 miles away. Many environmentalists say they fear that once GM crops are planted, the modified genes they carry will be irretrievably integrated into the ecosystem. Any unintended negative side effects that may develop as a result of those modified genes would become part of the agricultural landscape for good, they warn. Some organic farmers, who pride themselves on their nonuse of pesticides and insecticides, warn that GM foods could make organic farming impossible.

Organic farmers who grow fruit and vegetables near fields of GM crops fear that their own crops could become “contaminated” by altered genes, effectively ruining their plants’ organic status. “This is a situation where if you adopt a technology, it could ruin my livelihood,” says Theresa Podoll, executive director of the Northern Plains Sustainable Agriculture Society, an organic farming group. GM food opponents also maintain that the relatively new field of biotechnology has not been properly tested for potential health hazards.

The FDA’s process for approving GM foods is far too lenient, critics say. The FDA “approves GM foods for public consumption simply by comparing the nutritional content of GM and non-GM foods, and checking a database of known allergens,” write Kirsten Schwind and Hollace Poole-Kavana of the Institute for Food and Development Policy, an anti-hunger think tank. “According to the logic of the FDA, we are the guinea pigs. ” Another concern critics have with the proliferation of GM foods is that it will lead to an increasingly centralized agricultural industry.

Large multinational corporations like Monsanto stand to profit most from GM technology, while small farmers–particularly those trying to grow organic food–face nearly insurmountable odds just to keep their farms afloat, opponents say. Critics also express distaste at the idea of a small handful of major companies controlling what the nation eats. “We can’t let the multinational corporations hand everything to us,” says Sam Cantrell, president of Maysie’s Farm Conservation Center, a nonprofit organization dedicated to ecologically sustainable agriculture methods.

Such critics argue that the profit-at-all-costs attitude of huge corporations is diametrically opposed to what the goal of the agriculture industry should be: to produce healthy, safe food using environmentally responsible growing techniques. Furthermore, the claim that GM foods could help to end world hunger is unfounded, critics say. They point out that world hunger is caused by deep-rooted social injustices.

“Hunger is caused by a lack of access to basic human rights, including good education, health care, housing and living wages–in the United States and throughout the world,” Schwind and Poole-Kavana write. Hunger is also caused by racism and inequality. GM crops fundamentally cannot end hunger because hunger isn’t caused by a lack of food. ” Some opponents of GM foods question biotechnology companies’ commitment to ending world hunger. Jared Diamond, a professor of physiology and geography at the University of California at Los Angeles, argues that if GM food corporations truly cared about aiding the developing world, they would create GM foods more suitable to warmer climates, such as cassava, millet and sorghum.

Other critics have suggested that GM food companies are cynically cultivating the idea that genetically altered food can end world hunger in order to rally support for their cause. “There are plenty of other safe, more economical ways to bring food to the starving,” Casten writes. “But those ways don’t make fortunes for biotech CEOs or result in big campaign contributions for politicians. ” Will GM Foods Prove to Be Safe? In June 2005, the Biotechnology Industry Organization, a trade organization of biotechnology companies that includes Monsanto, held its annual convention in Philadelphia, Pa.

Nearly 19,000 members of the biotech industry attended the convention, while a “counterconvention” of GM food protesters called “BioDemocracy,” at a nearby park attracted just 1,200 people. The relative paucity of protesters speaks to the lack of public outcry over GM foods in the U. S. as compared with Europe, where a lack of popular support for genetically engineered crops has effectively shut them out of supermarkets in the EU. “A GM-organism label in Paris or Berlin might as well be a skull-and-crossbones,” writes John Feffer in the American Prospect.

The U. S. ontinues to lock horns with the EU in a bitter trade dispute over GM food imports. Meanwhile, in the U. S. , the average consumer eats GM foods several times a day in products such as breakfast cereal, salad dressing and cookies. Although many polls suggest that a majority of Americans would like to see labels affixed to food that has been genetically engineered, food companies are not required to do so in the U. S. Supporters of GM foods say that such labels would be pointless; after all, like the FDA, supporters do not consider GM foods to be different from non-GM foods in any fundamental way.

The American Dream Represented by Dee in Alice Walker’s cheap essay help: cheap essay help

The American Dream is the pursuit of life, liberty, and happiness. Since the United States became an independent country in 1776, Americans have pursued their own dreams, all hoping to earn money, own land, and lead a life not dictated by anyone else. In Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use,” Dee is a shining example of an American pursuing her dream and succeeding at it. Dee came from a background of poverty. Her lineage includes slaves and farm workers that were never able to better themselves enough to rise above the poverty. She knew since she was little that the country was not for her.

She wanted an education. She wanted to move to the city. So Dee worked very hard from the time she was a child to become educated and literate enough to go to college. Dee accomplished that, and when she got there met more people similar to her. She met African Americans that felt they need not be hindered by their poor backgrounds. One of the wonderful things about America is that there is no caste system. A man or a woman may be born poor and uneducated, but he or she does not have to stay that way. Americans can be as successful as they set their minds to. Dee was born with this mentality.

Her background did not mean much to her in respect of how successful she would be in life. “Everyday Use” begins with Mama and Maggie, Dee’s younger sister, awaiting Dee’s arrival. She is coming home for a visit after being away at college in the city for a long time. When she arrives she looks much different than Mama and Maggie. She is dressed in a way that can be described as stylized African clothes. She is wearing a bright orange African styled dress, is wearing big gold jewelry, and is wearing her hair in a natural afro. She has also brought with her a man that could be her husband, she does not say for certain.

The man greets Mama with the Muslim greeting “Asalama leikum”, and since Mama cannot pronounce or perhaps remember what he says his name is, she calls his Asalama leikum throughout the story. Dee announces she has also changed her name to Wangero, because the name Dee was given to her by the people that oppressed her. Dee takes many pictures of the house and of Mama and Maggie. She asks for the lid of an old butter churn that one of Dee’s uncles made himself. Dee is hoping to capture the poverty from which she came, and take it home with her to the city to show her friends.

Eventually she asks for some old family quilts. At this point Mama gets angry with Dee. Mama had offered the quilts to Dee a long time ago, but then Dee did not want them. Now they are promised to Maggie. Dee argues with Mama that the quilts need to be properly displayed, and that Maggie will just put them to everyday use. Eventually Mama wins and Dee leaves without the quilts. One interpretation of Dee in “Everyday Use” is that she has a very misguided view of her heritage. She would rather identify with the Africans that she has never been exposed to than with her more direct lineage.

Dee was a family name, but because she associated it with the slave owners that owned her family, she chose to give herself a new name. Furthermore, all Dee’s life she has wanted nothing more than to get away from her poverty stricken country home, but now, all of the sudden, she wants pictures of it, and wants to bring pieces of it back home with her. It is not wonder why Mama is confused and a little upset by Dee’s actions. It does however, make good sense. Clearly, Dee did hate her home when she was a child. Mama even alluded that house fire that burned down their first home may have been caused by Dee.

Dee absolutely did hate her home and everything it represented: slavery, poverty, illiteracy. Dee is an adult now, she is educated now. Now she can look back on her past and have a sense of accomplishment and pride in herself for getting out of there. It is no surprise she wants pieces of her past to with her into her future. They will remind her of why she works so hard. They will remind her every day what her American Dream is, and how she must work at achieving it every day. Dee embodies the American Dream. She was born into poverty, the descendant of slaves, but she did not want to stay that way.

Dee wanted to be an educated proud woman, living in the city. Dee accomplished that. Dee became strong and independent. She hated where she came from but now she can appreciate it. Dee finally got to a place in her life where she can accept her past, as unfortunate as it was, as a huge factor in getting her where she is now. If she had not come from such a bad background, she may not have been motivated enough to better herself. Further reading into the actual life of Alice Walker would reveal that she too, was born in poverty, and she too moved to the city for an education.

Walker became a member of “The Movement,” and advocate for African American civil rights. One may view Dee as Walker’s interpretation of herself. Both are strong willed women that achieved their own American Dreams, and would serve as exceptional role models for anyone else with a similar dream.

Portugal Telecom Part a Case “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

All business units are at a different life cycle Not able to extract information from the system of what was bought from suppliers and who had bought it * From supplier, we know that the company misuse included electricity wastage and under utilization of unnecessary corrosion protection on some network materials * Every department was issuing RFPs and conducting individual negotiation with suppliers.

Existing Purchasing Department only possessed clerical and administrative skills * Major purchases were being made by IT outsourcers and by the Engineering Department and both lack negotiation skills. Little or no information was shared between departments * No history of price benchmarking * Little or no effort was made to develop new suppliers which gave current suppliers no incentive to improve Analysis: The procurement department currently lacks negotiation skills because they only have the ability to do clerical and administrative work. The purchasing categories that deserve the most attention: * Software currently has a 10 year contract with a benefit of transparent auditing however there is no IT strategy or planning team within the PT which mean everything is left to PT SI.

PT needs to approach this category and organize a strategy team * Switching costs are very high and involved a set of proprietary hardware and software. Need to evaluate the cost and benefits for the company in the long run. * Advertising & Media is only being handled by an agency. PT needs to question and evaluate the agency’s strategy and whether PT is really enjoying the best conditions in the market * Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) standards are too specific technical requirements which narrows PT suppliers to only 3 suppliers.

PT needs to revaluate their standards because this might be costing them. The timing of renewing contracts or not has to be carefully evaluated. The fleet services is about to renew their contract however PT should look at other suppliers that have shown interest in bidding in order to get the best contract for PT. Recommendations: * Hire a skillful negotiator to train the procurement department to be able to handle purchasing.

A purchasing department should be established immediately however the scope of the department is to bring people who are responsible from other department to discuss strategy and supplier evaluations. We can educate the negotiators without creating major disruptions. * Purchasing process policies for RFPs, negotiation, supplier evaluation policies should be implemented * PT should invest in information system in order to keep a clear history and record for themselves in purchasing. Any system that is capable to hold a large database of information and be able to streamline the procurement purchasing process

Finacial Studies best college essay help: best college essay help

“I hereby declare that this paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the Master of Science of Management degree is my own work and that all contributions from any other persons or sources are properly and duly cited. I further declare that it does not constitute any previous work whether published or otherwise.

In making this declaration I understand and acknowledge any breaches of the declaration constitute academic misconduct, which may result in my expulsion from the program and/or exclusion from the award of the degree. The build-to-order supply chain management strategy (BOSC) has been attracted the attention of both researchers and practitioners, given its successful implementation in many companies including Dell, Apple, and BMW. Financial performance of enterprises that adopted BOSC also has been attached the interests by the researchers and practitioners. This Thesis will study the Finance Performance of Dell Inc. and its major competitors, including Apple, Hewlett Packard and Lenovo.

There are four sections in this introductory chapter, which aims to help the reader to understand the structure of this thesis. The first section is Research objectives and then followed by scope of the research and method. Some terminologies are also listed for reader easy to follow. Finally, the structure if this thesis is outlined in the last session. 1. 1 Research Objectives Business activities of a company always attract certain attention from various market participants such as associates, investors, competitors or authorities, who are expressly or by implication interested in its financial results.

The third parties are able to estimate financial performance by analyzing accounting statements available for public use. Financial analysis serves as a primary tool for this purpose. The main idea of financial analysis is to obtain enough of key values, that represent objective and exact financial situation within a company: its profits and losses, structural changes in assets and liabilities, level of competitiveness, relations with debtors and creditors. This analysis can be used both for estimation of current financial condition and for its prediction in the nearest or more remote future.

The scope of the research The aim of this research studies the financial statement of Dell Incorporation “Dell” to understand the financial performance of the company. A comparative analyze studies of the financial performance of the firms. A case study to compare in according to the financial ratios of Dell Inc and its competitors, including Apple Inc, Hewlett-Packard and Lenovo, to study the liquidity, profitability, activity, investors ratios and qualitative information from the annual report.

The objective is through the research to find out that Dell whether is a sound firm that compare with other same industry firm and to invest into Dell if an investor wants to select a company for investment. In order to study of the financial performance of Dell, a research question is also established – “Should people invest their money into the share of Dell Inc? ” 1. 3 Research Method Descriptive Research method will be used; DELL INC. and its major competitors, Apple, Hewlett-Packard and Lenovo will be studied.

Main sources of information for the thesis are the accounting reports available for public: balance sheets and income statements. Methodology of financial analysis includes variety of specific instruments like ratios, indicators and coefficients suitable for their own purposes. The analysis also implies researching of changes over time. It is true that financial analysis means thorough explanation of each received result. All financial ratios in the thesis were calculated using Excel environment based on formulas presented in theory chapter.

All results were gathered in summary tables. There are many advantages of this approach such as convenience, stability and popularity of the software and relative accessibility (or easiness of use). Additionally, special analysis templates have been created especially for the thesis. With the help of these templates, the calculation routine has been reduced literally in six times. Nevertheless, regardless of the amount of calculations, all results have been grouped in the most compact resulting tables as possible. 1. 4 Terminologies

This introduction presents some terminologies that can help the reader easier to read through the thesis. PCs: Most commonly refers Personal computer, a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals Desktop: Desktop computer, a personal computer designed to fit on a desk Mainframes: computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, and financial transaction processing. Server: A server is any combination of hardware or software designed to provide services to clients.

When used alone, the term typically refers to a computer that may be running a server operating system, but is commonly used to refer to any software or dedicated hardware capable of providing services. Laptop: A laptop is a personal computer designed for mobile use small enough to sit on one’s lap Workstation: A workstation is a high-end microcomputer designed for technical or scientific applications. Designed for one person at a time, they are commonly connected to a local area network and run multi-user operating systems. The term workstation has also been used to refer to a mainframe computer terminal or a PC connected to a network.

Motherboard: A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in some complex electronic systems, such as modern personal computers. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board. Mac: Macintosh, it is a series of several lines, for example Mac mini, iMac, MacBook, Mac Pro etc. of personal computers designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. The Macintosh was introduced on January 24, 1984; it was the first commercially successful personal computer to feature a mouse and a graphical user interface rather than a command-line interface. . 5 Structure This thesis is made up of six chapters.

The first is an introduction, which is given here to provide an overview of this study and address the scope and method of this research. Separate review of previous research on computer manufacturing industry and its common supply chain models. And framework to analysis the finance performance of Dell Inc also could be found in second chapter. The relevant literature is listed in these reviews, paving the way for the remainder of the study. Empirical studies to Dell Inc and its competitor by using structured framework other issues are listed in Chapter Three.

This chapter contains most of the theoretical element, conceptually defining the components of finical analysis. Chapter Four reports the research findings. The items to visualize each component of the financial analysis framework are found here, some of which are the latest figures while some of them were historical data. Chapter Five discusses the findings and recommendations are suggested. The last chapter also gives the summary and conclusions of this study. The limitations of this study and the opportunities for future research are also addressed in this chapter.

This marks the end of this chapter. The next one is going to giving an overview the computer manufacturing industry, supply chain models in computer industry and financial analysis framework. Chapter 2 Literature review Following the introduction given in the last chapter, this section attempts to cover the literature relevant to computer manufacturing industry and the enterprises to be studies. This chapter also reviews the previous work on financial analysis framework. The review therefore aims to set out the focus of this thesis in primarily on the financial performance.

This chapter is divided into four sections. Section 2. 1 gives the overview of computer manufacturing industry. Section 2. 2 provides ideas of supply chain models leading to the comparison of traditional supply chain push model against BTO, pull model. Section 2. 3 and section 2. 4 deal with literatures of financial assessment and analysis. 2. 1 The computer manufacturing industry The Major computer manufacturing companies are now Apple, Acer, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, Sun Microsystems, and Dell. The industry is highly concentrated: the top 50 companies hold 90 percent of the market.

Competitive Landscape Demand is tied to consumer and business income. The profitability of individual computer companies depends on purchasing and production efficiencies, and on technological expertise. Large companies have economies of scale in purchasing and production. Small companies can compete successfully by specializing in certain products or by developing superior technology. Products, Operations & Technology Major products include PCs, printers, monitors, mainframes, servers, and disk drives. PCs (including desktop, laptops, and workstations) make up 40 percent of industry revenue.

Input/output devices such as printers, monitors, keyboards, and mice make up 25 percent of revenue; mainframes and servers make up 20 percent; and disk drives make up percent. The manufacturing process for PCs consists of integrating circuit boards, disk drives, and input/output devices into a final product. Companies typically assemble PCs from components bought from other manufacturers. Key components like “motherboards” are specially made for a particular product, while disk drives and other components may be off-the-shelf parts. Despite automation gains, some assembly work is still labor-intensive.

Manufacturers of specialized devices like printers, monitors, and disk drives may also buy some components from outside vendors. The manufacture of some products requires highly sophisticated machinery. Although components and other materials can usually be bought from a variety of vendors, some components are available from just a few suppliers. For example, Intel is the major supplier of processor chips for PCs. Many components are bought from foreign vendors and many US band manufacturers have foreign manufacturing operations, mainly in Asia.

Computer manufacturers rely heavily on technology to produce better products and lower costs. Research and Development spending at large manufacturers generally varies between 5 and 15 percent of product revenue, and can be higher for smaller companies or low for pure assemblers, like Dell. Patent licensing is common and patent disputes are frequent. Technological advances can rapidly make products obsolete. The life cycle for a product is often less than 18 months, which is based on a common industry concept called Moore’s Law, which states the capacity of a computer chip must double every two years to keep up with evolving technology.

Moore’s Law has held true for several decades. 2. 2 The Build-to-Order Model Build-to-order (BTO) is defined as the process of manufacturing quality products based on the needs of a customer at competitive prices (Gunasekaran, 2005). The objective of BTO supply chain management in organizations is to maximize customer satisfaction by providing customizable products with a short lead-time and minimum inventory and production. BTO responds to customer needs by adjusting production to their specifications. This customization of products varies depending on the type of product.

When implementing a BTO strategy, a company must have a close relationship with the suppliers, distributors and contract manufacturers. To make BTO successful, the firm must adopt focused inventory practices. In the case of BTO in the computer industry, just in time, or JIT is a widely used inventory strategy. 2. 2. 1 Gaining Competitive Advantage through BTO: The Computer Industry Among the companies in the computer industry, Dell is the most successful. Dell started using the BTO model at the beginning of its corporate history and continues to use it today.

Dell uses third and fourth party logistics service providers, which include distribution companies such as DHL, FedEx, and UPS. Third party logistics (3PL) is defined as managing logistics services beyond transportation. This includes shipping, storage, and value-added services. Fourth party logistics (4PL) is defined as the integration of all companies involved in the supply chain. 2. 2. 2 MTS vs. BTO Changed Competitive Advantage Supply chains today are increasingly moving from made to stock (MTS) to a build-to-order (BTO) system.

This is happening so that firms can attempt to gain competitive advantage in an ever-changing market place (Prasad, 2005). There are continuums of relationships between BTO and MTS environments. The continuums contain a variable for postponement, which ranges from pure customization to no customization. Generally, postponement in the computer industry is more towards the side of pure customization, although certain products contain modularization, which puts the amount of postponement closer toward the center of the continuum. In MTS environments, this level of postponement would be none.

MTS environments are more product-oriented that customer-oriented, and make their products in hopes that there will be a demand for them. In BTO environments, the customers drive the demand and they dominate what they want from the company. Therefore, the company has to customize the products to the individual customers’ wants and needs. Given the greater need of customization in BTO environments, it is important that information flows are attained to sustain the BTO environment. Because BTO environments have less freedom and fewer options in operating independently from customer demand, postponement strategies are extremely important.

In order to operate in a BTO environment and focus on providing customized products, management must focus on making the important changes from MTS and BTO environments. 2. 2. 3 Flexibility Flexible manufacturing systems and JIT together also help to allow manufacturers to customize products that are of higher quality and at lower prices to the customer (Sharma, 2005). BTO markets driving by mass customization and e-commerce are forcing retailers and manufacturers to shorten planning cycles and lead times (Gunasekaran, 2005).

Due to flexible manufacturing and the emergence of BTO, along with economies of scale, product life cycles have shortened considerably (Sharma, 2005). 2. 2. 4 Just-in-Time Just in time, or JIT can be defined as “a philosophy of continuous and forced problem solving that supports lean production”. JIT uses a “pull” system of production rather than the traditional “push” system. “Pull” refers to how the inventory is moved through the production system when it is needed, rather than when it is completed. JIT eliminates waste and reduces lead-time in production.

The BTO model often incorporates JIT its manufacturing processes. JIT has “fostered undeniable improvements in manufacturing efficiency”. JIT is also consistent with the objectives of the BTO strategy (Christensen, 2005). When BTO and JIT are used simultaneously, there are tremendous manufacturing cost savings, particularly in the areas of smaller raw materials inventories, reduced finished goods inventories, fewer space requirements, and more flexibility. Dell’s inventory management system is based on the concepts of JIT because, as previously stated, the company keeps very low inventory levels for short periods of time.

Health Information Management homework essay help: homework essay help

Health information management (HIM) is the practice of maintenance and care of health records by traditional (paper-based) and electronic means in hospitals, physician’s office clinics, health departments, health insurance companies, and other facilities that provide health care or maintenance of health records.

With the widespread computerization of health records and other information sources, including hospital administration functions and health human resources information, health informatics and health information technology are being increasingly utilized in information management practices in the health care sector. (wikipedia. rg/wiki/Health_information_management) Health information management’s standards history is dated back to the introduction of the American Health Information Management Association, founded in 1928 “when the American College of Surgeons established the Association of Record Librarians of North America (ARLNA) to ‘elevate the standards of clinical records in hospitals and other medical institutions.

Retrieved 2010-01-08. In 1938, AHIMA was known as American Association of Medical Record Librarians (AAMRL) and its members were known as medical record experts or librarians who studied medical record science. The goal of this career was to raise the standards of keeping records in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The individuals involved in this profession were promoters for the successful management of clinical records to guarantee their precision.

In 1970 the organization changed its name to the American Medical Record Association (AMRA). Medical records professionals found employment in hospitals, health clinics, insurance companies, and other organizations that used medical records. In 1991 the organization became known as the American Health Information Management Association. As the organization grows, so does the need for more education in the field.

The Administration has more responsibilities and more areas to govern; therefore their knowledge must also increase continually. Continuing education is a requirement for most employers. The Commission on Accreditation for Health Informatics and Information Management Education (CAHIIM) defines standards which higher education health information management and technology programs must meet to qualify for accreditation.

Students who graduate from an accredited associate’s, bachelor’s or certificate program are qualified to sit for their respective exams for certification as a Registered Health Information Technician (RHIT) – via graduation from an accredited associate or certification program – or Registered Health Information Administrator (RHIA), which requires education through an accredited bachelor or certification program.

The History and Significance of the Fourth Amendment descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. ” -Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution (4) A search as described in the Constitution is defined as when an expectation of privacy that society considers reasonable is infringed by a governmental employee or by an agent of the government.

A seizure refers to the interference with an individual’s possessory interest in property. To meet the criteria of an unreasonable seizure, the property’s owner must have had a reasonable expectation of privacy in the items seized. (2) The 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution was added as part of the Bill of Rights on December 15, 1791. It deals with protecting people from the searching of their homes and private property without properly executed search warrants. In 1604, Judge Sir Edward Coke first identified this right in England. In the case of Semayne (v.

England) the judge ruled that, “The house of every one is to him as his castle and fortress, as well for his defense against injury and violence as for his repose. ” He determined that subjects of the kingdom had the right to protection even from the king’s representatives in cases of illegal search and seizure. He also noted conversely, that lawfully conducted searches were perfectly acceptable. The precedence this case established has remained a part of English law up until today. (1) The most noteworthy English case dealing with the right to freedom from illegal search and seizure is Entick vs.

Carrington, 1765. Royal representatives acting on the orders of Lord Halifax had broken into the home of a private citizen named John Entick. The royal representatives had believed that Mr. Entick had materials that were critical of the king and his policies. While conducting this illegal search, they broke into locked desks and boxes and confiscated multiple items and documents. Mr. Entick had maintained throughout the trial that his items were confiscated through illegal search and seizure.

The court ruled that Mr.Halifax had no legal authority to order this search and that probable cause that a crime had been committed had not been proven. The warrant had also allowed for a general seizure of any items the representatives deemed necessary, not specifying precisely what they were looking for or what they could confiscate. Just as important, there were no records kept of what the representatives confiscated from Mr. Entick’s home during the illegal search. The ruling by Chief Justice, Lord Camden declared that the government did not have absolute authority over its citizens with issues concerning privacy.

It could not act as an organized renegade force, but had to stay within the rule of law. Camden also declared the warrant and the type of behavior it allowed subversive “of all the comforts of society” and the issuance of a warrant for the seizure of all of a person’s papers rather than only those believed to be criminal in nature “contrary to the genius of the law of England”. The ruling also stated that the government had not only no right to act in this irresponsible manner but had the responsibility of safeguarding its citizens and their private property against unlawful searches.

During the same period in Colonial America, the British had thought of the American colonies as a subservient subsidiary of England. Americans had very few rights, if any, with the British using our citizens for monetary gain and cheap labor. They started the practice of using outlandish taxes on whatever they could to maximize earning potential for the kingdom. The colonists countered by developing elaborate smuggling operations in order to avoid these taxes. To counter the widespread smuggling, English officials started issuing “writs of assistance”.

These were used as legal search warrants but were often if not always broad based and unspecific in terms. These writs were widely used by customs agents in order to circumvent the search and seizure laws. This allowed them to enter and search any property they wanted to without fear of recourse. This forced citizens to cooperate with “tax collectors” and subjected them to random interrogations about their use of customed goods. This started a widespread problem of “illegal” searches and seizures in Colonial America.

These writs once they were issued remained legal and enforceable until six months after the death of the king who issued them. When King George II passed in 1760, the government officials were required to obtain new writs. Opposition of these new writs were led by Advocate General of the Vice-Admiralty Court James Otis. He argued that the writs conflicted with English Constitutionalism. His words against writs are still used in phrases today, “A man’s house is his castle; and whilst he is quiet, he is as well guarded as a prince in his castle.

This writ, if it should be declared legal, would totally annihilate this privilege. ” John Adams, who witnessed Otis’ impassioned oration, afterward declared: “Every man of an immense crowded audience appeared to me to go away, as I did, ready to take arms against Writs of Assistance. Then and there was the first scene of the first act of opposition to the arbitrary claims of Great Britain.

Then and there the child Independence was born. ” It was Adams, so inspired by Otis’ words, who later drafted Article Fourteen of the Massachusetts Declaration of Rights of 1780, which served as the model for the Fourth Amendment. 3) In the present day, the search and seizure laws particularly affect law enforcement officials. These laws restrict their actions when performing a criminal investigation. Law enforcement may only conduct a search if individualized suspicion motivates the search. The fourth amendment also prohibits general searches, unless extraordinary circumstances place the general public in danger. In Harris v. United States (1947), the courts approved as ”reasonable” the warrantless search of a four-room apartment pursuant to the arrest of the man found there.

A year later however, a court majority set aside the conviction based on evidence seized by the warrantless search pursuant to an arrest and adopted the ”cardinal rule that, in seizing goods and articles, law enforcement agents must secure and use search warrants wherever reasonably practicable. ” (5) This rule was set aside two years later in 1950 by another reconstituted majority which adopted the premise that the test ”is not whether it is reasonable to procure a search warrant, but whether the search was reasonable. ‘ Whether a search is reasonable, the Court said, ”must find resolution in the facts and circumstances of each case. ” (6) However, the Court returned its emphasis to the warrant itself.

”The [Fourth] Amendment was in large part a reaction to the general warrants and warrantless searches that had so alienated the colonists and had helped speed the movement for independence. In the scheme of the Amendment, therefore, the requirement that ‘no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause,’ plays a crucial part. ‘ (7) Therefore, ”the police must, whenever practicable, obtain advance judicial approval of searches and seizures through a warrant procedure. ” (8) During the 1970’s the courts were divided as to which standard should take precedence. For years the popular view was that warrantless searches were unreasonable, except for a few exceptions. Gradually, in the ever changing annals of the justice system, varied expectation of privacy laws allowed the courts to broaden its view of permissible exceptions and the parameters of those exceptions. .

Science vs. Religion my essay help uk: my essay help uk

The debate between religion and science has been going on for years, clashing together with different ideologies. The argument combines historical and philosophical approaches to contest to each side, battling to disprove each other. While religion is based on faith, using the will of God to guide them in their observations, scientists use experiments to find discoveries based on facts. The conflict between religion and science hasn’t been fiery in modern times, compared to the years where science was inferior to religion, but the topic has still been brought up in discussion.

Can someone be both a scientist and a religious person? Although they may both pursue knowledge, there methodologies are completely different, pitting each other into heated discussions. In our past lecture with Brother Guy Consolmagno, he argues that Christianity isn’t completely based on faith in God. The church is also continuously studying the universe, like scientists, trying to learn more about our origins. Comparable to science, ideals in the church changes, and aren’t always set in stone.

The Bible may be the guide for most religious people, but there are also different interpretations of the Bible that people find to counteract certain claims. Guy uses evidence that the first medieval Church universities started the modern study of astronomy. The university learned: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music courses, which showed that it was like any other university teaching students for a better career. The university may be Christian based, but it didn’t ignore what science offered them. According to Guy, Jesuits run 25% of all observations in Europe.

They helped create the definition of a “year,” based on our four seasons. Despite the differences between religion and science, Guy believes that we can comingle ideas from both sides to progress our studies of the universe even further. (Consolmagno) One of the topics in The Constant Fire introduces James Clerk Maxwell, one of the great physicists in his time, and his view of religion and science co-existing with each other. Maxwell formulated equations that explained electric and magnetic fields and the unification of these concepts into electromagnetism.

Maxwell’s equations and mathematical laws are the reason why we have radio, television, and all electronic technology today; although he constructed scientific laws for his devotion to science, he was also a devout Christian. “I believe…that Man’s chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy him forever. ” (Maxwell) He attended church regularly, read scripture before going to sleep at night, and even committed the entire psalms to memory. It showed that his religious belief was unyielding, despite his scientific advances in society.

At the same time I think that each individual man should do all he can to impress his own mind with the extent, the order, and unity of the universe, and should carry these ideas with him as he reads [the Bible]. ” (Maxwell) Learning about the universe through a different perspective doesn’t waver doubt; instead, it enriches spiritual understanding. Maxwell set an example showing how his experience in science was an aspiring journey to glorify his God. (Frank) The Constant Fire also explains Isaac Newton’s perception of his work towards science contrary to his religious beliefs.

Newton asserted himself as a “priest of nature. ” Like any religious person, he believed there was a God of absolute power. Although, he also believed that his work was exploring God’s greatness, making science a way of explaining his creation. “It is the perfection of God’s works that they are all done with the greatest simplicity. He is the God of order & not confusion. ” (Newton) Both scientific philosophy and religion were inseparable, as both concepts bounced off each other.

Even coming from one of the greatest scientists in the orld, like James Maxell, Newton concluded that there ironically was no warfare between science and religion. (Frank) Science comes from the creativity of an individual making up a new hypothesis. Religion comes from varied interpretations of how they view the spiritual being they worship. We don’t have enough evidence from the universe to commit to a godless path, and we are too knowledgeable enough to pledge to a specific religious ideal. I believe there is such thing as a middle ground: taking the possibility of new ideas and building an equal foundation.

I still keep to the constitution of scientific theory composing our world, but I also keep multiple hypotheses in mind. We should be open-minded, and explore the different possibilities of the unfathomable unknowns of our universe. I’m not afraid to ask the lingering question science and religions try to explain.

Essay on Jacksonville compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

There isn’t too much to do here besides the basic attractions. A few malls, a few parks, and some clubs, but that’s not all that special. It becomes extremely mediocre after a couple years, and months if you’re from a city such as New York or California. But hey, what can you do about it? You have to play with the cards you are dealt there’s no reshuffling. Duval County, The Bang Em, 904, whatever you want to call it, that’s my town. I’ve been going to the Regency Mall since I was in elementary school.

Then it was just about the arcade and a toy store. Middle school, it was the place to be, but I never really had money to do anything there. High school was when I got sick of it because I went there for everything. Shoes, clothes, females, food; you name it. So by the time I was a sophomore, I was already sick and tired of the mall. Now even my cousin in middle school doesn’t want to go to the mall because he said it’s not cool, so you could even cross that off of the list. With not much to do in middle school, sometimes you drift into the wrong path.

I grew up in a not so nice neighborhood. So I sort of fell down that path, but luckily I had family members to keep me on the right road. However, I have friends that are locked up, don’t have a job, and some that have passed away due to that. I won’t get deep into details because they are fairly explicit, but it basically consisted of drugs, power, and guns. I was kind of confused about their reasoning for doing this. So I started asking why they did that, and you know what the answer was? “Ain’t nothing else to do” or “I get bored”.

At the end of the day that’s what it comes down to, what you’re provided with. Vibe to music, dance, and have a good time; that’s what you’re supposed to do at a club. But now that these once upon a time children with “nothing to do” are eighteen and up; that’s not the case. They still vibe to the music, still dance, but they don’t give everybody a satisfactory time. When they go out they are high, drunk, and ready to fight. That’s how they entertain themselves since there really isn’t much to do here. So it all winds down to the activities that were available to them in their adolescence.

Supposedly, Walt Disney was going to bring Disney World to Jacksonville before he decided on Orlando. But the city didn’t want to have an amusement park. Though this is a rumor many believe that it’s true or claim they have legitimate sources. But regardless, just think about if he would’ve received the okay. Could that one extra attraction have changed the way my friends grew up? Or would ‘The Bang Em Ville’ still be the same ordinary city? I’m sure your answer to that question reflects if you agree with my opinion or not.

Business Biblical Worldview essay help online: essay help online

This paper will explore what a Biblical Worldview is and present a Biblical Worldview process of contracts, ownership and responsibility. A Biblical Worldview is a view that holds to the belief that there is absolute moral truth; no one can earn their way into Heaven with good deeds; the Bible is 100 percent correct in all aspects; Jesus Christ lived a life free of sin while He was on earth; and God is omnipotent, omniscience, and the ruler of the universe (Barna Group, 2009).

It has been proven that one’s worldview has a powerful impact on the way he conducts his everyday life and the choices made in any given situation (Barna Group, 2009). One living by a Biblical Worldview is less likely to use profanity; to misuse media; to gamble away money; and to abuse alcohol (Barna Group, 2009). The person with a Biblical Worldview is more likely to be honest; be more civil towards others, and make proper sexual choices (Barna Group, 2009). There exists a belief that a person develops a primary worldview by the time he reaches age 13.

The teen and early adult years refine the worldview and then it is passed on to others throughout their life as an adult (Barna Group, 2009). A contract is an agreement that is enforceable by the law. It is created when two or more persons agree to do something or agree to not do something (Liuzzo, 2010, pg. 79). All involved parties must be competent. A competent person is one that is of legal age and possesses normal mental health (Liuzzo, 2010, pg. 80). “All contracts are agreements, but not all agreements are contracts” (Luizzo, 2010, pg. 9).

In business, contracts are used to employ people and to sell goods, and to sell services (Luizzo, 2010, pg. 79). For a contract to be enforceable legally it must contain certain elements. There must be an offer made to one party and acceptance by another party; there must be consideration; all involved must mutually agree; all parties must be competent; there must be proper form; and the expected performance of the contract must legal (Luizzo, 2010, pg. 79-80). Because of the definition of contracts, there is a tendency to view it as a hysical experience with no spiritual implications at all (Chester, n. d. ).

Buying, producing, selling and serving take place in the tangible physical world but it is taking place just below the intangible spiritual world connecting them together (Chester, n. d. ). The prophet Elisha saw the connection in 2 Kings 6:17, NASB, ”Then Elisha prayed and said, “O LORD, I pray, open his eyes that he may see. ” And the LORD opened the servant’s eyes and he saw; and behold, the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha. Here in the tangible physical world they appeared to be doomed, however, in the intangible spirit world they were victorious. (Chester, n. d. ).

The physical aspects of life must line up with the spiritual aspects in a business with a Biblical Worldview. Any business that lasts is organized to line up philosophically, values wise and has the principles that demonstrate the nature of God (Chester, n. d. ). A contract or agreement that holds to a Biblical Worldview would not mirror the lop-sided contract held between Jacob and his uncle Laban. The contact between Laban and Jacob was legal.

Both Laban and Jacob were competent, as they are both equals (Mabee, 1980, pg. 194). Though the agreement had all of the necessary elements of the Biblical time to make it legal, Laban did not adhere to the contract. Laban set out to cheat Jacob at every turn. The initial agreement was for Jacob to work at “Laban, Inc. ” seven years for Rachel’s hand in marriage but he ended up working 14 years for her instead due to Laban’s trickery. Altogether Jacob worked for Laban a total of 20 years with Laban changing his wages (the agreement) ten times, “You know that I have served your father with all my strength.

Yet your father has cheated me and changed my wages ten times”, (Genesis 31:6-7, NASB). As a Christian, the business owner is to honor any made agreements and contracts, as this mirrors the attributes of God. The Bible admonishes the believer to “Let your no be no and your yes be yes”, and anything outside of that is evil doing (Matthew 5:37, NASB). James 5:12, NASB also warns, “But above all, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath; but your yes is to be yes, and your no, no, so that you may not fall under judgment.

Christian business owners who hold to a Biblical Worldview understand and accept the fact that God owns everything (Tacket, 2012). “Hear, O My people, and I will speak; I am God, your God…For every beast of the forest is Mine, The cattle on a thousand hills” (Psalm 50:1-10, NASB). God tells us in Haggai 2:8, NASB that He even owns the silver and gold (money) everyone seeks after, “The silver is Mine and the gold is Mine,’ declares the LORD of hosts. ” Jehovah God is simply loaning it to one and requires good stewardship over the things He has granted.

Reflection Paper essay help app: essay help app

For this assignment, you should compose a 4-page double-spaced paper that addresses how the principles that you have learned throughout this course have changed your understanding of what it means to be a Christian. You will submit your paper in Module/Week 7. You should choose three of the following topics to write about in your paper: 1. Did Jesus claim to be God? 2. Did Jesus need to be born of a virgin? 3. Does the Bible have authority?

How do the arguments for the existence of God influence your view of the supernatural? 5. Does it matter if Jesus was raised bodily, or is spiritual resurrection sufficient? 6. How can we be confident that Jesus is returning? 7. Why are personal testimonies important in sharing the gospel? 8. If a person is a Christian, does it matter how they live their life? 9. What can your local church do to better communicate God’s love to your community? NOTE: If there are other topics you would like to address, please email them to your instructor.

As you respond to the prompt, reflect on the concepts that you have learned throughout the course, and apply them to your specific topic. Be sure to integrate the information that you learned through the textbook readings, the assigned article readings, the lecture videos, and any other related content that you may have encountered during the course. Your paper should also: 1. Describe the course concepts that are related to your topic, demonstrating your reflection and analysis.

Do not simply summarize what was presented in class. 2. Demonstrate real ownership of the ideas that you present by providing unique insight as evidence of your careful consideration of the topic. 3. Provide a logical link between the description of the concepts from the course, and the conclusions or implications that you draw in your reflection. In other words, your conclusion should be logically derived from the application of the course concepts to the description of your topic.

Demonstrate learning initiative by exploring conclusions and implications beyond the boundaries of our classroom discussion. 5. Focus on depth of understanding, rather than breadth of coverage. Format your paper in a MS Word document with 12 point, Times New Roman font and one-inch margins. Review the Reflection Paper Grading Rubric to see the specific grading criteria by which you will be evaluated before submitting your paper. Structure your paper in the following format (inserting the headings within the paper): I.

Introduction (one paragraph introducing the three topics that you will address) II. Section One (first topic: approximately one page in length) III. Section Two (second topic: approximately one page in length) IV. Section Three (third topic: approximately one page in length) V. Conclusion (one paragraph summarizing your areas of progression in Christian thought) VI. Grading Rubric (this must be copied and pasted into the end of your paper)

The 400 Blows by Truffaut Commentary essay help websites: essay help websites

After viewing “the 400 blows” one feels a very strong connection between the filmmaker and the subject of the film which turns out to be present even more than anticipated since the film is indeed semi-autobiographical and most of the events depicted in the film are directly inspired from Truffaut’s own troubled youth and his uneasy relationship with his parents (Neupert, History, 182).

However, what one would expect from a “new wave” film is not directly noticeable at first sight like it is in Breathless (Godard, 1960), although, as soon as we delve deeper into dissecting the movie we discover that it is far from being ordinary and it is full of unexpected twists relating to both from and content.

First, the really insightful approach I felt was the point of view in which Truffaut chooses to tell us the story and the way he portrayed children and especially the main protagonist Antoine (Jean-Pierre Leaud) as fully aware of what is happening to him, thus, avoiding all sorts of cliches about children as Amis du Film noted in its review: “the real novelty of the 400 Blows was that Antoine is not a tearful, fearful child but rather a real person and a survivor” (Neupert, History, 184).

The scene that depicts this the most is most probably when he first decides to leave the house, after he is caught claiming that his mother is dead as an excuse to missing a day at school, to sleeps at a printing press. He takes this decision without hesitation or anxiety about the future and then goes back to school the next day as if nothing unusual has happened to him. Most certainly this rebellious behavior and this original viewpoint of an independent and self aware 13 years old boy appeals to teenagers who were a central audience to the French New Wave films (Neupert, History, 15).

Second, what one can notice in most scenes is that the acting and even the filming is very simple, natural and spontaneous which Truffaut explains as “…a very instinctive way…had a documentary side to it…” (Graham and Vincendeau, Critical Landmarks, 196) which in many ways contrasts with the classical movies of the same period, in addition to the use of many techniques which later on became associated with New Wave cinema like the use of available light, realistic settings, interruptions of the narrative, and most importantly an open ended finale.

The second scene that affected me the most was the one where we see Antoine at the children detention center being interviewed by a psychologist that we do not see. What surprised me the most was reading that Truffaut’s intention was not to have him sitting alone but it was rather a decision taken at the post-production stage as the actress was not available that day and they shot Antoine’s part independently in view of shooting the psychologist later on and insert it, however, once done he finally decided to keep Antoine alone in the frame (Neurpert, History, 187) which became one of the most memorable moments of the whole movie.

This scene is where we, as audience, get a very intimate encounter with Antoine which makes us feel compassionate but at the same time distant from this mutinous child and his behavior; it captures a true moment of haziness and confusion which remains with us up until the very last frame of the movie.

Finally, once can’t escape commenting on Antoine’s most renowned freeze frame at the very end of “the 400 blows” (Neupert, History, 177) which in many way reminds us of the Mona Lisa’s strange smile that fluctuates depending on the angle of view, and keeps us wondering about its significance; A question that lingers: what would the future hold for this child? The answer could be in any possible direction with no reservations whatsoever on the outcome.

Nevertheless, most probably this is the true essence of what Truffaut wished to relay, an eternal ambiguity which would keep on fascinating us for years to come.

Compare and Contrast Union and Confederacy in Civil War college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The challenges that the Union and the Confederacy faced during the Civil War were very different. Critical weaknesses that seemed unfit for war, plagued the opposing American forces, and would serve to be a continuous obstacle that would need to be conquered by patriotism of the people, for their opposing views. To allow for both sides to be competitive, the efforts put forth had to mold to the varied needs of the armies by both the civilian population and their militaries.

To the people in the south the similarity to the colonists in the Revolutionary War, was assimilated to their separatist cause in the Civil War and would be their drive to compete with the dominating Northern states. This mindset started the Confederacy in the Civil War, despite many disadvantages, with the confidence in defeating Union forces, before becoming overwhelmed and being defeated after four well fought years. The original seceding states of the Confederacy consisted of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

The people of these states saw themselves extremely different than that of the northern states both politically and culturally, and felt continuous pressure from the population dominating in the northern states to conform to northern ideals. It seemed the only and best option to keep the southern way of life was to become an independent Confederate nation. That idea to become a separate nation was not a sudden idea when Lincoln came into office; it was simply not recognized by previous presidents, which would allow for the issue to hit its climax when he was elected.

By the time Lincoln came into office, talks of revolution were already at its tipping point, but as stated by Lincoln, “Both parties deprecated war, but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came. ” Feeling sympathy and the same operation as the seceding states Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee joined the Confederate forces demanding to be an independent nation.

As soon as Lincoln was sworn in, his address to the nation was in attempt to create peace, reassuring the rebellious southern states that their way of life would not change and the president has no legal right to issue any enforcement to take away their freedoms or customs. He also gave warning in affect stating if an action was to start civil war it must be of a southern militant deed to warrant an assault from the Federal Army. The south did not adhere to Lincolns warning because southern independence was Jefferson Davis’, and his followers’ priority.

The first Confederate assault came on April 13th and 14th 1861 when Jefferson Davis ordered an attack on Ft. Sumter. On April 15th Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to enlist in the armed forces for 90 days. The response from Lincoln’s call to action in the Northern public to fill the volunteer spots was overwhelming. Large numbers of young men from every northern state volunteered to keep the nation whole. Lincoln believed that with the overwhelming population difference between the north and south that the rebel army of the south would be crushed in a matter of days.

The first battle of the war demonstrated just how confident the Federal Government was in their efforts to crush the Confederate army. Lincoln ordered General Irvin McDowell to lead the first attack on the Confederate army in the summer of 1861, in what has been come to be known as Battle of Bull Run (Manassas). McDowell led 35,000 new, eager Union troops against less than 20,000 Confederates. The Federal Government was so confident in their expected victory they invited the troop’s friends and families watch the Union army defeat the rebel Confederates.

Soon after the Union army arrived, and opened up fire on the smaller rebel army, unexpected Confederate reinforcements came around the side of the Union’s main force. The Confederate reinforcements lead by Stone Wall Jackson did not show their flags and wore very similar uniforms as the Union army, which in turn fooled McDowell’s forces and leading them to believe that they were Union reinforcements.

It was well believed until Jackson’s forces began unloading rounds on the Union army stopping McDowell’s forces from advancing, holding the line like “a stone wall. As the new Union recruits witnessed battle for the first time and felt the lack of preparation, they were quick to retreat back to Washington DC. The Southern victory and the tens of thousands of lives lost proved to the Union that this war was not going to be easily won. The southern states although far less populated and without initial means to manufacture war supplies did have the strengths to be very competitive.

Strong, experienced Confederate leadership in their practiced military, and the overall will power to protect their way of life would prove to be their reatest assets. Jefferson Davis became the president of the Confederacy and was a model leader. He developed a distinguished political career with many years served in the senate, he was a West Point graduate, the former Secretary of War, and a veteran of the Mexican American War. He was the ideal candidate for a president in war times. He had the advantage of having General Robert E. Lee commanding his army after Joseph Johnston was injured in The Battle of Bull run. Robert E.

Lee due to strong respect, character and performance in the Mexican American war was Lincoln’s first choice as the Union general but Lee’s patriotism to his home state of Virginia would ultimately lead him to be commander of the Confederacy. Over one third of Federal Army’s officers would join Lee in fighting with the Confederate army. The Northern states did not prove to have the same strengths in leadership. Lincoln’s political career consisted of one uneventful term in the House of Representatives.

The extent of his military background was a short time spent as head of a small militia that moved Native Americans out of Illinois in 1832. He was tall, gangly, and had some feminine characteristics that did not allow for him to have the strong presence that Jefferson Davis had. A strong military general was hard for Lincoln to find that could win battles, multiple would become general to soon be replaced. The public in the North would also not have the same drive to defeat the south.

For the northern population, battles would not be fought on their home land, and if the war was lost the way of life for the Union would not change. This would serve to be one of the largest challenges to overcome for the Union military. It would not be until General Grant would start proving his strong ability to win battles for Lincoln in the west and replace McClellan as commander for his army that the war would start to be in Union favor. Grant used the strengths the north had and used them to exploit the south’s weakness.

The Union army was more equipped with men, weapons, and transportation via rail road. Grant was relentless on his attacks on the south and would find a knack for putting his soldiers in harm’s way to ensure victory, because he had more expendable men and he knew the south did not have that luxury. Eventually he would order raids on key southern cities, demoralizing southern civilians, and soldiers alike. The most famous of which was General Sherman’s “March to the Sea,” where he made his way through Atlanta leaving the city in ruins, and marched to Savannah to capture it and claim it for the Union.

After the heart of the south was conquered by Union forces, Confederate troops felt the war hit too close to home and the young southern soldiers wanted to go home to protect their families. The troops were running out of food, supplies, and after hundreds of thousands of troops died, the war was soon coming to an end. General Lee felt the struggle to be futile and the advances of the north to have taken too many lives. He noticed the families left by the young men supporting the Confederacy were not able to support themselves and starving; hope was next to gone and defeat was very near.

General Lee’s last forces were in Petersburg just a few miles outside Richmond, the capital of the Confederate Army, which was abandoned on April 2nd 1865 surrounded by General Grant’s army. On April 3rd Richmond was captured by the Union. Lee was pursued by Grant until, on April 9th 1865, Lee finally surrendered. Two weeks after Lee’s surrender the rest of the Confederate forces followed. With Lee’s surrender, he expected to be killed alongside his troops for treason, but Grant, whom had great respect for Lee, graciously accepted his surrender and told Lee and his tired troops to go home and plant crops to make it through winter.

Lincoln and Grant alike, recognized that the Northern cause was simply to keep the nation whole, and that though the southern part of the country rose up and fought to separate, they were still part of the same country and did not lose track of what they were fighting for. The efforts the Confederate and the Union armies had to put forth and the tolls the nation had to pay were more costly than anyone could have predicted.

Through their efforts the Confederate forces overcame lack of supplies, troops, food, and transportation for four years. The sheer will power, labors, efforts, and lives that the military and southern civilians sacrificed defeated the Union’s expectations. The Union however would overcome their weak military leadership and prove to be victorious by overwhelming the south with their much larger military, and their ability to manufacture and supply their troops with all necessary means to win a war.

Elastic and Inelastic Demand college essay help near me: college essay help near me

The demand for newspaper is inelastic while the supply for newspaper is elastic in the short run. This means the quantity demanded for newspaper does not respond strongly to price changes but the quantity supplied for newspaper is responsive to price changes in the short run. (Mankiw, 2009) The demand is inelastic because newspaper has very few substitutes. Although online news is getting popular nowadays, the majority still prefer to read the papers. Besides, newspaper is a necessity which people read every day to know what happens around the world.

Newspaper has a broadly defined market and it has no good substitutes. (Mankiw, 2009) The supply of newspaper is elastic because firms that produce manufactured goods such as newspapers can run their factories longer in response to a higher price. (Mankiw, 2009) From the graph, we can derive the table below: Without TaxWith TaxChange Consumer SurplusA+B+CA- (B+C) Producer SurplusD+E+FF- (D+E) Government Revenue -B+D+ (B+D) Total SurplusA+B+C+D+E+FA+B+D+F- (C+E) Consumer surplus decreases by the area B and C while producer surplus decreases by the area D and E after a tax is imposed.

Both tax levied on sellers and tax levied on buyers place a same size of wedge between the price that buyers pay and the price that sellers receive (Mankiw, 2009). Regardless of how the tax is levied, buyers and sellers share the tax burden (Mankiw, 2009). Buyers pay more and sellers receive less. Meanwhile the government revenue from collecting taxes increases by the area B and D. As a result, total surplus decreases by the area C and E causing a deadweight loss.

Tax has made both consumers and producers worse off and it decreases the overall welfare of society. The equilibrium quantity falls after a tax is imposed causing the market of newspaper to shrink. (300 words) Task 2 Negative consumption and production externalities are considered harmful to society. A negative externality is the adverse and uncompensated impact of one person’s actions on the wellbeing of a bystander. (Mankiw, 2009)

Negative consumption externalities cause a difference between private benefit and social benefit (Tutor2u, n. d. as social benefit takes into account of both the private benefit and the adverse impact of one person’s actions on the wellbeing of society. When the marginal private benefit > marginal social benefit, a negative consumption externality exists (Tutor2u, n. d. ). The intersection of the marginal-private-cost curve and the marginal-social-benefit curve determines the optimal output level. From the diagram, we can know that it is less than the market equilibrium quantity. This shows that the good is over-consumed. There will be a deadweight loss of economic welfare.

Negative production externalities cause a difference between private cost and social cost because social cost takes into account of both the private cost and the external cost. When the marginal social cost > marginal private cost, a negative production externality exists (Tutor2u, n. d. ). This means that the cost to society of producing one good is larger than the cost to the producers (Tutor2u, n. d. ). The optimal output level is determined by the intersection of the marginal-private-benefit curve and the marginal-social-cost curve.

It is also less than the market equilibrium quantity according to the diagram above. Again there will be a deadweight loss. Because both the negative consumption and production externalities lead markets to produce a larger quantity than is socially desirable, the markets are inefficient. Thus market failures happen as markets fail to maximize total surplus, causing deadweight losses. Therefore negative consumption and production externalities are considered harmful to society. (Mankiw, 2009) The production of rare earth will cause negative production externality to society.

This is because the refinery of rare earth ore will generate radioactive waste which is seriously harmful to human beings. Recent protests in Kuantan to stop Malaysian government from letting Lynax, a giant Australian Mining Company to build the world’s largest refinery for rare earth metal in Gebeng and Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad’s recent comments about the radioactive waste in Perak have made Malaysians recall back the incident of Bukit Merah during 1980s (Mariam Mokhtar, 2011). In 1982, Asian Rare Earth (ARE) which is a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical began operating its rare earth plant in Bukit Merah.

ARE extracted yytrium (a rare earth) from monazite, one of the minerals found in amang for use in high technology products. Both monazite and the waste contain thorium hydroxide, which has a half-life of 13. 9 billion years. Cancer-causing radon gas is released during decay of thorium. (Mariam Mokhtar, 2011) Because of the radioactive waste, the residents of Bukit Merah suffered very serious harmful effects. Not only there is a high incidence of cancer rate, the residents suffer birth defects and leukemia.

Jayabalan, a general practitioner physician and toxicologist who treated the leukemia victims, carried out a survey and proved that the number of miscarriages in the village was higher than the national average (Mariam Mokhtar, 2011). A sample test on 60 children had found that their bloodstreams contain high levels of lead (Mariam Mokhtar, 2011). According to New York Times, Lai Kwan, the former workers of ARE, has spent the last 29 years taking care of her son from her pregnancy while working in ARE’s refinery, who was born with severe mental and physical disabilities (Bradsher, 2011).

The harmful effects of radioactive waste are long term. Parents of those children who were born with birth defects and leukemia have to take care of their children for the whole life time. The victims of Bukit Merah incident still suffers today. After a long-drawn battle and petition of the residents against ARE, Japanese environmentalists and politicians stepped in and persuade ARE to close the refinery in 1992. Mitsubishi Chemical agreed to fix the problem and subsequently spend $100 million to clean up the site.

American History Since 1865 essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

While women once had few life options beyond isolation in the domestic sphere, what historical developments presented new opportunities for women in society? I. Introduction A. This paper will be written in essay form to explore historical developments which presented new opportunities to women. In our history women traditionally led and managed a domestic lifestyle that kept them in the home serving and caring for the family.

Over the years, since the founding of our great nation the roles of women have changed quite dramatically. From the isolation of domestic lifestyles and traditions, to the leaders in businesses and politics, the role of women has significantly shown astonishing progress. In this paper I will outline how over the years, since the founding of our great nation, the roles and employment rights of women have changed quite dramatically.

Topic Sentence #2: The first major step towards autonomy for women in American history was the establishment of the Daughters of Liberty. A. Supporting Evidence: “Emerging out of the patriotic enthusiasm of the 1760s and 1770s, Daughters of Liberty supported the American revolutionary cause by joining boycotts against British goods. Some colonial women demonstrated their support for the boycott by spinning wool and flax, others by forming anti-tea leagues” (Norton, Liberty’s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800, (1980).

B. The establishment of the Daughters of Liberty emerged out of the patriotic enthusiasm of the 1760s and 1770s. C. So What: The meetings made a political statement by focusing attention on the need for frugality and industry in colonial households and by providing a way for American women to contribute to the struggle against Britain. III. Topic Sentence #3: World War II served as a major pivotal point in the professions that women held. A.

Supporting Evidence: “Approximately 1,600,000 women joined the workforce etween 1914 and 1918 in Government departments, public transport, the post office, as clerks in business, as land workers and in factories, especially in the dangerous munitions factories, which were employing 950,000 women by Armistice Day (as compared to 700,000 in Germany)”(Firstworldwar. com, 2009). B. Explanation: With so many men going to war, there was a large gap in employment and, in response. It was for this reason that there was such a large influx of women employees in the work force. C. So What: World War 1 was a pivotal time for women.

This is because it gave women an opportunity to prove themselves in a male-dominated society, doing more than cleaning the house and tending to the children. IV. Topic Sentence #3: In 1964, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act barred discrimination in employment on the basis of race and sex (NYSUT: A Union of Professionals, 2009). A. Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s, federal and state governments have enacted a number of laws that bar an employer from discriminating against employees on almost any grounds, aside from the quality of the employee’s work or the nature of his or her personality.

B. Aggrieved individuals can file a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which is responsible for enforcing individual Title VII claims against private employers. The Department of Justice (DOJ) enforces Title VII against state and local governments, but only after the EEOC has conducted an initial investigation (USLEGAL inc, 2010). C. This statute served as a model for subsequent anti-discrimination laws. It established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to investigate complaints and impose penalties.

V. Conclusion: In conclusion, let’s review the major topics of this paper. The organization of the Daughters of Liberty was noted as the first major step towards women entering the workforce. Followed by the surge of employment attained by women during World War I. Then on to the Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination towards gender when hiring.

Pulp Fiction Analysis my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Can one character make an entire script move with reason? In the script “Pulp Fiction” by Quentin Tarantino Vincent Vega is that voice of reason that makes the entire script move. In the script “Pulp Fiction” by Tarantino Vincent Vega is portrayed and used as the voice of reason, and always uses logic to get to his final assumptions. In the first scene we come across Vincent he is talking to Jules about his trip to Europe. Vincent uses something that most countries have in common, which is “MacDonald’s”(2); this is also something that Jules can relate to.

Vincent explains what they call a quarter pounder with cheese; they call it a “Royale with Cheese”(2). Vincent uses small things to explain how different countries eat their food for example Vincent talks about what they use in Holland instead of ketchup, they uses mayonnaise. “I seen ’em do it. And I don’t mean a little bit on the side of the plate, they fuckin’ drown ’em in it. ”(2). In the next scene we see Vincent Vega use logic to figure out whether or not they should have shotguns.

Jules just assumes that they need shotguns, because shotguns are better than their . 45’s that they have. Vincent on the other hand asks questions about the amount of people in the room “so there could be five people up there? ”(3) Jules responds with possibly, this is when Vincent says, “we should have fuckin’ shotguns”(3).

In Vincent’s and Jules’ last argument about how Jules thinks it was a miracle that all the bullets missed when the young man shot at him, Vincent says it was a freak occurrence “ever seen that show “COPS? I was watchin’ it once and this cop was on it who was talkin’ about this time he got into this gunfight with a guy in a hallway. He unloads on this guy and he doesn’t hit anything. And these guys were in a hallway. It’s a freak, but it happens. ”(72). The next part of the scene we see Vincent’s . 45 go off on Marvin accidentally, which just proves Vincent’s argument that “this shit happens”(72) We really see Vincent’s logical views on life come out when he is on his date with Mia.

Mia orders a five dollar shake, and Vincent can’t figure out why its five dollars “a shake, milk and ice cream? ”(19), “you don’t put bourbon in it or anything”(19). Once again we see Vincent asking questions to get a logical answer. When the shake arrives Vincent wants to taste the shake to see if it tastes like its worth, “I don’t know if it’s worth five dollars, but it’s pretty fuckin’ good. (19)” At the end of their date Vincent goes into the bathroom to gather his thoughts instead of acting out on his emotions and possibly messing up with the big man’s wife.

While Vincent is gathering his thoughts and calming himself down Mia overdoses on his heroin, this is where we see the theme being that if Vincent doesn’t have enough information on a situation it turns bad, the same thing happens when he goes to the bathroom and leaves Jules in a situation with two thieves. The last situation is when Vincent walks out of the bathroom only to be left alone Butch and Butch guns him down. We notice Vincent use the bathroom as a place to gather himself when he doesn’t have enough information, but when he returns from the bathroom the situation has always worsened.

In conclusion Vincent uses logic to understand situations instead of just running into situations. Tarantino has Vincent’s use of the bathroom not work out for him in the long run, he is trying to get the point across that thinking logically is great, but not when you completely stop the world around you and try to return to it, it will never work in your favor. You have to think on your feet, especially being a hit man like Vincent and Jules are.

Vision Care Market Segment professional essay help: professional essay help

Since then, Hoya developed technological expertise and expanded its business activities into four main areas: Information Technologies (making mask blanks and photo-masks for semiconductor devices and liquid crystal panels, optical lenses, and glass memory disks for hard disk drives), Vision Care (providing eyeglasses and operating contact lenses retail shops, as well as making intraocular lenses for cataract surgery), Medical Business (providing the endoscopic system and other accessories), and Imaging Systems (producing SLR/compact digital cameras and interchangeable lenses as well as digital camera lens module and micro-lens).

The following graph shows that Vision Care represents a significant portion of Hoya’s sales. [pic] Hoya has become a diversified global company with direct operations in 24 countries around the world. Recently, Hoya was ranked within the top 100 global technology companies by Business Week. The following graph shows the proportion of global sales by region. [pic] The following marketing plan even though highlights many aspects of the company as a whole it focuses on the global eyeglass lens business, more specifically on the EX3 Super High Vision coated lens product.

EX3 coating is an anti-reflective coating, a scratch resistant, water-repellent coating that outperforms glass and is among the best in the industry in terms of quality. 2. Situation Analysis The market for eyeglass lenses felt the impact of the economic recession that followed the global financial crisis. In developed countries, consumers wore lenses longer before buying replacement ones, and purchasing sentiment fell for high-value-added products. Market polarization became more pronounced. Prices fell and eyeglass lenses were increasingly commoditized as major eyeglass retailers expanded flat-price and 2-for-1 promotions to drive traffic.

At the same time, independent opticians saw growth in high-performance eyeglass lenses customized to each individual customer’s eyes and lifestyle. In emerging economies such as India and China, rising standards of living due to rapid economic development saw a growing number of customers purchase high-performance lenses, resulting in firm growth. In the eyeglass lens business, in Japan Hoya saw lower revenues year after year, as a result of market contraction due to the declining population and falling prices.

In the United States, sales were down as consumption dropped in the aftermath of the financial crisis and the yen was strong against the dollar. Sales also fell in natural resource-based economies such as Canada and Australia as consumer sentiment weakened. In the European market, by contrast, sales grew despite the strong yen. This was because Hoya was able to offset price declines with higher volumes in some markets, and sales of high-value-added lenses grew. Sales were up in Asia as well, on the back of higher volumes and robust demand for high-value-added eyeglass lenses amid economic development. . Company Analysis 2. 1. 1.

Goals Hoya is striving to become a global leader, providing high value by developing business portfolio centered on its expertise in optical technologies. Its corporate mission: “Dedicated to innovation in information technology, lifestyles and culture, HOYA envisions a world where all can enjoy the good life, living in harmony with nature. ” In the Vision Care division Hoya’s motto is “Science You Can See”, which is a promise of real technological innovation in proprietary lens materials, advanced optical designs and superior lens finishes. 2. 1. 2. Focus

The Company’s first priority has been technical innovation and creativity. Every one of Hoya’s products represents the essence of the company’s accumulated technologies and expertise. For lens wearers, a Hoya anti-reflection coating means exceptional durability and long lens life, unequaled scratch resistance and virtual optical perfection with easy-to-clean and aesthetically appealing surfaces. At Hoya, achieving excellence in scratch-resistant and anti-reflection coatings is a passion. Perhaps more than any other aspect of ophthalmic lens technology, superior coatings have served to separate Hoya, and its customers from the competition.

Culture To realize its Vision, Hoya has established a set of management principles that guide every decision and action in order to earn the trust of all those who have a stake in Hoya’s success. These principles are translated into actions that contribute to economic prosperity, social progress, and cultural advancement. They are: Commitment to society – Hoya strives to be a responsible corporate citizen that carries out its activities with respect for the environment and in compliance with legal and ethical practices.

Commitment to customers – Hoya strives to provide safe, high-quality products and services that offer true value in an effort to increase customer satisfaction. Commitment to shareholders – strives to increase corporate value by improving business results and maintaining growth. The goal is to pay fair dividends and give shareholders a return on investment that meets their expectations. Commitment to employees – Hoya respects the personality and individuality of each employee and offers employees opportunities to maximize their initiative and creativity in a safe and fulfilling work environment.

Dedication to innovative management – constantly strives to create new value through innovation and creative technology. Hoya takes a global perspective while respecting local culture and customs. 2. 1. 4. Positives From this position of strength, Hoya provides Eye Care Professionals with a continuous stream of new technologies and products that support a progressive practice. Partnering with HOYA Vision Care provides the differentiated Eye Care Professional practices with sustainable competitive advantages which are mandatory for success in today’s demanding environment.

Hoya’s accumulated expertise and ongoing research and development effort on proprietary hi-index materials, advanced processing and coating technologies, and functional spectacle lens designs, are the guarantee for value-added spectacle lenses. Super Hi Vision EX3 coating provides twice the scratch resistance of any AR coating available while maximizing light to the eye to optimize sight. The result is a more durable lens with minimal glare. Super Hi Vision EX3 also features an improved hydrophobic layer, providing a finish that resists smudges, fingerprints, dirt and water for a clear view in any condition.

The many benefits of a good anti-reflective coating can be ruined by scratches. But, by combining Super Hi Vision EX3’s unbeatable scratch resistance with Hoya’s anti-reflective and hydrophobic properties the new coating offers extreme scratch resistance, extreme reflection protection, and extreme clean vision. For more information on EX3, and to see proof on its extreme scratch resistance, visit www. betterthanglass. com! 2. 1. 5. Negatives EX3 coating is a high end product that can only reach the customers through eye care professionals which will act as intermediaries on the sale of the product.

This makes the product dependant on the selling skills of the eye care professionals or even on the simple fact if eye care professional is willing to promote the product. There could also exists a conflict of interest from the eye care professional’s perspective due to the fact that they would rather sell a product that has a shorter lifetime to ensure repeat sales of glasses, therefore ensuring economies of scale from repeat sales. In addition, since this is a high end product the pricing is on the expensive side which especially during an economic downturn is difficult to sell and the market segments based on income would shrink.

Portrayal of Black Women in Media writing essay help: writing essay help

The stereotypical misrepresentations of African-American women and men in popular culture have influenced societal views of Blacks for centuries. The typical stereotypes about Black women range from the smiling, a sexual and often obese Mammy to the promiscuous Jezebel who lures men with her sexual charms. However, the loud, smart mouthed, neck-rolling Black welfare mother is the popular image on reality television.

These images portrayed in media and popular culture create powerful ideology about race and gender, which affects daily experiences of Black women in America. With few healthy relationships portrayed in the media, Black women are left to make decisions based on the options they have and the options they perceive. Therefore, it is not difficult to understand why Black women are the least likely to marry in the climate of the over-sexed woman and a pimp. The media has always played a big role in how people perceive different cultures through such media outlets such as radio, television, and internet.

I felt that the portrayal of African-American women would be a good topic for this paper, because all race of women but especially black women have had negative stereotypes in media and I feel that they have had the most tainted image in people’s eyes. This paper is important because a lot of people can learn about the struggles that these women have had to overcome through these years. This is a part of American culture no matter if we are male, female, black or white. Topics like this need to be brought up more often so people can learn from mistakes and learn how to forgive people for past judgments’.

Addressing these issues can also help social behavior. Also discussed in this paper is the history of how black women were treated during slavery and how that may affect the way they are still being portrayed in media. I will talk about some of the prominent women that opened the door, such as Hattie McDaniel, Nina Mae McKinney, Oprah Winfrey, Patti Labelle and Cicely Tyson. Elaborate on some of negative and positive stereotypes that the media has put out, and our own personal opinions.

Also using view points from certain critics and prominent figures in the media world. According to journalist Tionna Smalls, she exclaimed in her article entitled “Dark Skinned Vs. Light Skinned: The Black Man’s Dilemma”, the slave owners would divide the slaves up by dark nigger and light nigger. The dark skinned slave would work on the plantation doing chores, picking cotton and nurturing the land. The light skinned slave would live in the plantation, cooking and taking care of the field masters children.

Also the light skin female was admired by the master and even a sexual desire while the darker slave was treated like trash. Tionna goes on stating that after slavery the light skin female was put on a pedal stool in the family because being white was viewed as being right or pure, anything close to that was close to purity. If you take a look at most Hollywood movies, a good majority of the actresses are fair skinnend. One of the first African American female actress was Nina Mae McKinney whom as been inducted into the Black Filmmakers Hall of Fame.

Since she was black she was only offered low budget films and looked at as the standard barer for future lead roles when using black women. Fredi Washington was a light skin, light eye female and was described as being too beautiful to play a maid but wasn’nt offered romantic leads. Her skin was so pale that some advised her to “pass” for white. But she refused to deny her heritage. As a result She was often passed over for the prime roles offered to black women like the “maid” role, for which studios felt she wasn’t “black enough.

On the other hand, when performing in non-maid roles, as in the film she would be forced to wear dark makeup to prevent audiences from viewing her as a white woman and, subsequently, as a white woman in a romantic entanglement with the black male protagonist since such portrayals violated the anti-miscegenation codes in early cinema. Around 10 years ago, every video you came across had a light skinned girl as the lead video girl. These light skinned girls were dressed the best, nice make up and they were good to go.

These videos made the average light skinned girl look like a Spanish, Asian, or white female and that took the fantasy of some black man’s sexual desire toward a white girl and placed all into their light skinned dream. These visual images forced guys all around, to believe that every light skinned girl was pretty with long hair. The music industry feels that people want to see light skinned girls with long hair singing love songs.

Destiny Child’s group member Kelly Rowland is a very attractive dark skinned female, but doesn’t get a lot of attention ecause Beyonce’ is the light skinned one, therefore deemed the prettier, more talented, money cow. African-American women portrayed in music has gotten a lot better recently but they still have obstacles to overcome. Female artists such as Beyonce and Alicia Keys have been noted as prominent role models by little girls no matter the rule rall over the world. They ‘re songs have lyrics that empower women to be the best that they can with or without a man. A lot of the underlying topics are independence, strong, intelligent.

One group of African-American women who have a positive portrayal in music are gospel singers such as Yolanda Adams, Mary-Mary, and CeCe Winans. The main reason they’ve probably viewed as positive is because their songs talk about worshiping the lord. But a lot of young African=American women do look up to these females. Black women also get more opportunities now and days then they have before. It’s common to see someone like Beyonce performing at the Grammy’s , Mtv Awards, or American Music Awards opening and closing act. Twenty or thirty years ago you might have not seen that.

With all the progress discussed in the previews paragraph black women still face negative stereotype in music, sure which are deserved and others that are nut. A lot of black female rappers get viewed in a bad light for the lyrics and the provocative clothing that they wear in their music videos. A lot of their lyrics bring out or talk about a lot of sexual indevendous, which is somewhat inappropriate for their audience which sometimes consists of little girls as young as ten years old. They also talk about how it’s okay to do anything to try to please a man which gives girls less empowerment.

They also wear a lot of provocative clothing and wear stuff to show off their bodies. They wear a lot of halter tops which show off their stomach. They also wear shirts that push-up or point out there chest areas. They show a lot of cleavage and wear tight jeans and spandex to showcase their buttocks area. One of the most common and oldest stereotypical images is that of the “mammy,” generally a servant responsible for domestic duties and rearing children. She often is portrayed as the antithesis of American standards of beauty – overweight, with exaggerated buttocks and breasts and wearing a head rag.

Mammies are seen as nurturers, women good at comforting and taking care of others, but also verbally aggressive. It hasn’t been just white producers and writers who have perpetuated these negative images, she points out. Keenen Ivory Wayans and Damon Wayans’ comedy show, “In Living Color,” contains a lot of negative imagery of African-American women. On the other hand, she cites “The Fresh Prince of Bel Air” and “Roc” as examples of programs that do not demean black females, showing them as strong and capable.

Jewell contends that the media’s stereotypical portrayal of African-American women has real-life consequences. “It affects how the majority culture treats black women. As a result of media images, many people have inaccurate and negative expectations about how African-American women should act and look. Only when these stereotypical images are replaced with more accurate representations will we see changes in societal perceptions and expectations of African-American women. ” Black women have also progressed a lot on TV. You see a lot of positive portrayals such as Oprah Winfrey and the Tyra Banks show.

These women are shown to be very well educated and classy black women who have came from the bottom end up to make it to the top. Oprah has the longest running and more popular talk show for years. It seems like everyone in the media tends to love her and she’s like God’s gift to women. You also see black women in prominent roles such as host on shows such as Good Morning America and The View. I believe putting women in these roles shows how much our culture has grown. When young black women see that they can aspire to be these things it makes it easier for them to believe.

As a country we still need to improve a little bit on the portrayal of African-American women. One negative stereotype that I see a lot is young black teenagers who are pregnant and have some type of baby father drama. Every time I turn on a show like Maury or Jerry Springer you see these women in this type of role. Then when these ladies come on these shows there personalities are showed as loud mouth ignorant young girls. They’re shown as if they have no class and not having a civil or a proPer up bringing.

Violence and Youths academic essay help: academic essay help

Many parents argue that the violence that their children are being exposed to is harmful because if they see their idols doing it on television, than it must be acceptable for them to do in real life. This essay will outline the problems with television violence and its effect on the younger population. According to kidshealth. org, the average American child will watch about 200,000 acts of violence on TV before the age of 18. 200,000 acts of violence before the age of 18 can be detrimental to the mental health of a child. That number is way too high, although it does not mention the severity of the violent scenes.

The severity of violence on television that youths are exposed to depends on what the show is rated. Different programs have different ratings, which are called television content rating systems. The different ratings for the United States include: TVY, TVY7, TVY7FV, TVG, TVPG, TV14, and TVMA. Each rating is for a different age group and for a certain type of person. First off, the rating of TVY is the lowest rating as far as age is concerned. This rating is for all ages 2 or older, although it is usually for the children ages 2-6.

Whether animated or live-action, the themes and elements in this programming are specifically designed for a very young audience. These programs are not expected to frighten younger children. The next content rating bracket is called TYV7, which is directed to children 7 years and older. Shows with this rating may not be appropriate for some children under the age of 7. They may contain crude or suggestive humor, mild fantasy violence, or content considered too scary to be shown to children under seven. Next, is the TVY7FV bracket, which is intended for audiences 7 or older with fantasy violence in the show.

This rating is given to shows that have more fantasy violence, hence the FV in the rating name. Shows that may carry this rating include action adventure shows and some Japanese anime. The fourth content rating is called the TVG rating. The “G” in this rating stands for general audience. Although shows with this rating are not necessarily targeted to children, they can be enjoyed by a variety of age groups. Networks that air informational, religious, or otherwise generally inoffensive content usually apply a TV-G rating to all of their shows, unless otherwise noted.

Additionally, programming directed at pre-teens and teens are given the TV-G rating for mild language and innuendo. The next rating that is given is the TVPG rating, which stands for parental guidance suggested. This rating signifies that the program may be unsuitable for children under the age of 9 or 10 without adult supervision. Many parents may want to watch it with their younger children. Various game shows and most reality shows are rated TV-PG for their suggestive dialogue, suggestive humor, and/or coarse language.

TVPG is when some programs offer some sub-ratings, which may include: D for some suggestive dialogue, L for infrequent coarse language, S for sexual situations, and V for moderate violence. The final two content ratings that are given are the TV14 and TVMA ratings, which carry the same sub-ratings as TVPG, however there are stronger acts of language, violence, sexual situations, and suggestive dialogue as the rating goes from TVPG to TV14 to TVMA. With the ratings that are given to each show, it should not be difficult for parents to monitor what their children watch.

However, there are parents out there who are either not present when the child is watching television they should not be watching or they simply do not care. The violence that is being watched on shows with a TV14 rating and a child who is 10 years old is not acceptable. Children are very easily influenced and having this 10 year old child watching a program that is not supposed to be for children under 14 is very wrong and is why there are children who become violent and aggressive in school and other activities. In a report conducted by the Department of Canadian Heritage, it is believed hat “children of different ages watch and understand television in different ways, depending on the length of their attention spans, the ways in which they process information, the amount of mental effort they invest, and their own life experiences” (media-awareness. ca). In this report, there are different age groups that certain ages are broken down into. Infants are considered to be children up to 18 months, while toddlers are children that are 18 months to 3 years old. Next, is early childhood or preschool age, which is children ages 3 to 5.

After that age group, we have middle childhood or elementary school ages 6 to 11. The last bracket for a child is called the adolescence bracket, which is children from ages 12 to 17. With infants, the child can pay attention to a television for short periods of time, but the attention stresses a great amount of effort. Additionally, an infant is usually more interested in their own activity during the program than they are to the actual program. It is hard for an infant to pick up on certain adult content because of their attention span and the fact they are too young to really understand.

However, they can see certain images that may stick with them and allow them to trigger these violent thoughts when they are a little more grown up. It is suggested by researchers that “TV violence sometimes begs for imitation because violence is often promoted as a fun and effective way to get what you want” (kidshealth. org). As stated in the previous paragraph, kids are easily influenced by acts they see on TV. For example, there is a recent show that has come out on Showtime called “Shameless”. The premise of the show follows the dysfunctional family of Frank Gallagher (main character), a single father of six children.

While he spends his days drunk, his kids learn to take care of themselves. In this program, there are so many outrageous and unbelievable events that occur that it makes the show so popular. On every episode, there are situations that arise that exploit the use of violence. After the violence is shown, it is portrayed as fine to do because in most violent scenes, the result is either laughter or a congratulation of some sort. What makes this worse is the fact that these violent acts are being done by children of the ages of 8-17.

It is not being suggested that children who are not of age are watching this show, but it is not known whether or not these kids are watching. If they see one of the Gallagher’s beating another child up with a baseball bat, than that kid will think it is something he/she can do. This is not the message that television should be sending to today’s youth. On many shows, there are the “good guys” and there are the “bad guys”. The violence on these programs is usually done by the “good guys”, although there are certain times when the “bad guys” are being violent.

Children who watch the shows with these two different groups of people are taught to like the good guy and agree with that he does. Children see the good guy as a role model type figure who they eventually learn to admire and take after. At a young age, parents tell their kids that it is not acceptable to hit, bite, kick or scratch. On these shows, when children see the good guy kick or hit the bad guy, what are they supposed to think? Do they listen to that their parents told them about how it is not acceptable to do those acts?

Or do they follow after their role model who they have been programmed to like and admire and in fact kick and hit other children? The idea of right and wrong comes into play here as kids can be very confused in these situations. As researchers study the effects of television violence and the behavior of children, there has been one study done that shows that violence does cause aggressive behavior in children. A study done by Oracle proves this theory. The experiment was the researchers split a group of kids into two different groups, Group A and Group B.

They showed Group A a videotape of a child acting very aggressively with a doll. The girl in the video hit and kicked the doll. The children in Group B were shown a tape in which the same girl was having a tea party with the same doll. Later in the experiment, they put the Group A kids in a room alone with an exact copy of the doll used in the video. Children in Group A responded by hitting and kicking the doll and acted aggressively. The children in Group B were also put in a room alone with the doll and they played very nicely with it.

There are similar studies that show how violence on television increases the likelihood that children who watch violent programs will demonstrate aggressive behavior towards others. There are certain statistics that prove the effects of television violence on the youth. According to thinkquest. org, 73% of individuals who commit crimes in cartoons and children’s shows go unpunished in violent scenes. The shows that permit the character who commits the crime to go unpunished shows children that it is permissible to commit a crime because there will be no consequences.

As we know, this is not the case in the real world. Another interesting statistic, according to thinkquest. org, is that 47% of violent television programs show the victim going unharmed, especially in cartoons. The character in a cartoon is shown getting hit by a car or something along those lines and they are able to get right back up as if nothing happens. Although older persons know that cartoons are fictional and that does not happen, younger children do not know this so they have the impression now that violence does not hurt others. Certain television programs diminish the value of life.

What is meant by this is that if a cartoon character is killed, the other characters do not really seem to care, and go on with their life as if the killed off character never existed. Some shows will have the other characters laugh if one of the characters dies. If children are taught that death is funny or unreal, they will not respect their lives because television violence desensitizes them to death. In addition to violence on television influencing a child’s behavior, sleeping issues may arise. Not only are younger children influenced by violence on TV, but older children are easily influenced and affected as well.

If a child, either younger or older, sees a violent or scary scene/image on the television, naturally they will become frightened and afraid. Parents will reassure them that these images are not real or even possible, and they think that the child will listen. Just telling kids that these images are not real will not comfort them and it may cause troubled sleep and nightmares in some cases. Not only could this affect the child’s life in the present, but it could also affect their future. A child that is exposed to enough violence to have nightmares may grow up to become completely insane.

It is not proven how many cases such as this have actually occurred, but it is a definite possibility that this could occur. A suggestion that could help television monitor who watches what show is to have a password for the show/rating. For example, if a certain station is playing a show that is TV14, and there is a younger population who has been known to watch it, the station should create a password system where who are of a certain age know the password and can access the show. This not only puts pressure on the television station, it puts pressure on the parents as well to help monitor what the children are watching.

The password idea has already been installed in some programming and it seems to work. Parents who know the passwords are not going to tell the child the password, but instead they type it in themselves. The monitoring of children’s television watching can possibly help with the effects of television violence mentioned throughout. In conclusion, television violence and the effect it has on children is starting to be noticeable in today’s society. With children lashing out at others and misbehaving, it can be assumed that children are acting this way due to television programs.

Personal Crime Analysis cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Boston is a large city which is located in Massachusetts. The estimated population of Boston in July of 2008 was 645,169 (City Data, 2011). Crime within the city of Boston has over the years been steadily declining. Though most major crimes in the FBI crime index have shown small percentages of decline from previous years, there are some areas of crime such as burglary that have shown an increase over the years. As the population of Boston increases it is essential that the levels of crime within the city are analyzed to reduce the levels of criminal activity while providing a safe community for citizens to reside in.

Boston Crime Analysis Amanda McGuire CJA 354 Criminal Law January 23, 2012 Boston Crime Analysis Boston is a large city which is located in Massachusetts. The estimated population of Boston in July of 2008 was 645,169 (City Data, 2011). Crime within the city of Boston has over the years been steadily declining. Though most major crimes in the FBI crime index have shown small percentages of decline from previous years, there are some areas of crime such as burglary that have shown an increase over the years.

As the population of Boston increases it is essential that the levels of crime within the city are analyzed to reduce the levels of criminal activity while providing a safe community for citizens to reside in. Homicide For the large population of Boston the murder rate has been effectively addressed due to the continued decrease in the number of murders and arrest rates. In 2006 there were 75 murders in Boston which has been reduced down to 50 in the year 2009 with the downside of only half of these murders resulting in an arrest (City Data 2011).

Boston has recognized a trend in murders being gang related and have since increased their efforts in targeting gangs to further reduce the number of homicides (McKee, 2010). Rape Over the years the crime statistics pertaining to rape cases have been continually declining. The number of rape cases is estimated to be more than double what is reported each year based on the fact that many rape cases go unreported due to embarrassment, fear, or the belief that the victim brought this act upon themselves (Rape, Abuse, & Incest National Network, 2009).

According to the Boston Police Department, in 2009 the number of rape cases reported total was 269 while only 12 arrests were made based on these 269 reports. Recently in Boston, a teenage boy was convicted of raping two young boys aged 5 and 7 (Morse, 2011). Due to the large emotional strain put on these two young boys the parents did not allow the children to testify against the accused and the teenage boy walks free (Morse, 2011). Robbery The robberies in Boston have been showing a decrease compared to 2007 when robberies were down to 2,242 (Boston Police Department, 2011).

The current rate of robberies is at 2300 which is a large increase between 2007 and 2009. There has been a large string of robberies in Boston which the police have been attempting to solve. Within one month in Boston had experienced three bank robberies and one store robbery, all suspected to be committed by the same individual (Scripps TV, 2010). Aggravated Assault The Boston definition of aggravated assault is not defined by the FBI.

The FBI describes the aggravated assault as “an unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily njury” though this assault is often accompanied by a weapon or means that can result in death or great harm; there is not a need for injury to be present from the weapon (Patton, 2008). Boston requires the accused to be in a rage due to the victim who tempted the accused to the point where the accused is expected to use deadly force and knowingly attack the victim (Patton, 2008). So although the rate of aggravated assault has been declining over the course of the last four years it is possible that the number of assaults according to FBI standards is higher. Burglary

Of all the major crimes being committed, burglary is the one crime that has not seen a large decrease in reports over the years. While the crime rates have remained relatively similar the steps being taken to reduce the number of burglaries within Boston have seem to be working. In 2006 the yearly total of burglaries was down to 4121 yet over the course of three years the burglary crime rate has decreased to a total of 2955 burglaries in 2009 (City of Boston 2011) . The Boston burglaries have decreased even though individuals are getting to the point where they are robbing Churches.

Larceny Larceny is the largest crime reported in Boston. Throughout the city in 2009 there were 17,069 reports of larceny, and possibly many more that have gone unnoticed or unreported. This is a decline from previous years where reports neared 16000 (Boston Police Department, 2011). Larceny is a large crime in Boston and results in many trusting individuals being accused. Within Boston there have been Priests that have been found guilty of larceny totaling $500,000 from the Churches.

Larceny is a crime within Boston that requires additional police involvement (Hearst Television, 2010). Vehicle Theft Vehicle theft in Boston has been declining due to the Boston Police Departments increased involvement in vehicle theft. In 2006 the vehicle thefts in Boston totaled 4076 (Boston Police Department, 2011). Each year since 2006 there has been an approximate decline of 1,000 vehicle theft reports each year. The 2009 vehicle theft reports only totaled 2287 (Boston Police Department, 2011).

The Boston Police Department have continued their efforts to reduce the number of vehicle thefts in Boston and in 2009 made large accomplishments. Boston Police uncovered a car shop that was participating as a chop shop, repainting stolen vehicles, changing vehicle identification numbers, and selling these stolen vehicles to customers who were unaware that they were purchasing stolen vehicles (Newport Television, 2010). Jail Overcrowding As the economy declines, the temptation for crime increases as the funding for government offices decreases.

Due to a lack in funding, Boston has seen budget cuts that are forcing the closure of jails and the transfer or early release of inmates (Hearst Television, 2011). As more inmates are being transferred to jails that are already at full capacity the overcrowding becomes a large problem for the city. Though most jails in the area are at full capacity there is one that has beds still available yet cannot fill their beds due to a state law restricting the jail from housing inmates with serious felonies (Hearst Television, 2011).

The criminal justice system of Boston cannot afford to house the inmates due to budget cuts and overpopulation yet the citizens of Boston cannot afford to live among criminals who have not served their full amount of time due to overcrowding. Conclusion Though the crime rates in Boston, Massachusetts have been slightly decreasing over the years there is still a need for improvement by the police department to address areas of crime trends that have yet to be resolved.

The increased numbers of burglaries within Boston and the large number of larceny cases should prove to be areas of concern for the Boston Police Department to address. Overall, the analysis of the Boston Criminal Justice System shows many areas of the crime statistics to be declining with increased police involvement. The jail system of Boston has experienced some levels of overpopulation which can be resolved through loosening the laws and restrictions on jails within the area that have large areas of free space available.

Winter Time in Wisconsin: a Descriptive Essay devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

A number of sensations are used to describe how winter time in Wisconsin can be thought of as a bitter season. Just walking from outside to the car in the winter, causes me great annoyance. Above my head, snowflakes dance down from the sky and prick my face like hundred of pins and needles, casting an icy, cold, stinging agitation all over my skin. The freezing cold breeze whistles in my ears.

The air swirls around me in all directions and nips at my body, leaving a venom that causes my nose, ears, and hands to go numb. This frigid air makes my skin grow under my clothes, sending goose bumps all over my body. It is so cold that warm tears slowly stream down my rosy cheeks. No matter where I look, I must squint my eyes, for I am being blinded by the brilliantly fluorescent snow that reaches across the ground like a thick blanket.

Exhaling, I see my warm breath gather into a warm cloud in front of me. Inhaling, I taste and smell nothing but the cold air that is causing my mouth to go dry, and my nose to run. I must walk slowly and carefully to remain balanced. I pray that the slippery and crunchy ice do not work together with gravity to overtake me and send me crashing to the cold, hard ground. It almost seems like a lifetime has passed by the time I arrive safely at my ice-covered car.

Mccance & Widdowson’s Tables of Food narrative essay help: narrative essay help

Introduction Food composition tables are absolutely basic tools for the work of the dietitian and the human nutritionist. Every dietary prescription is built on the data in the food tables. Every study of the relationship between diet and health depends on the use of food tables to calculate nutrient intake. It is essential therefore that those who use the tables fully understand how they are compiled and what are their limitations. Food tables need to re? ect the foods eaten in the culture in which they are to be used, in terms of the types of foods and their origins.

Where used to analyse dietary intake data, recipes that re? ect the local cultural patterns are an additional requirement. As agricultural and food manufacturing practices change, the food tables need to evolve to keep up with them. In the UK we are fortunate in having an excellent set of food tables. They have evolved over a period of now nearly 60 years and there is a continuing rolling programme for updating. However, this does mean that the tables exist in several editions. Users need to understand when each edition appeared and how each differed from its predecessors.

They need to know which edition has been used to analyse a given study. If embarking on a reanalysis of old data they need to choose the most appropriate version. If embarking on analysis of a new study, they need to use the most recent data. If buying nutrient analysis software they need to know which version of the tables are built into the programme, whether the writers of the software will provide regular updates as new data become available and whether the package has facilities for the user either to add new foods or to update old ones. This paper brie? reviews the evolution of the UK food tables and seeks to clarify some confusions that have appeared in recent years. First and second editions of McCance and Widdowson McCance and Widdowson’s Tables of Food Composition evolved from early work by R. A. McCance. In 1925 he was given a grant by the Medical Research Council to study the amount of carbohydrate in foods used in the treatment 1 Correspondence: Dr Alison E. Black, Medical Research Council, Dunn Clinical Nutrition Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2DH, UK. © 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd 2 A. E. Black and A. A. Paul t the point of consumption. They included published data mainly from the third edition of McCance and Widdowson, information from manufacturers, the nutrient composition of a substantial number of recipes calculated from data in the third edition and experimentally determined moisture loss, and a limited number of special analyses carried out by the Laboratory of the Government Chemist. The DHSS tables went through several versions. The ? rst (pilot 1963) version was re? ned for the second (1967) version by dropping items not used and adding some found to be necessary.

A third (1969) version was essentially a rearrangement and renumbering of the foods items in the second version. The food tables remained unpublished but were readily available and widely used by those conducting dietary surveys in the 1960s and 1970s. A quick way to identify which set of tables has been used in the coding of any particular survey is to look at the Code Number for a frequently used food. The codes numbers for ‘milk, ordinary’ for example in 1963, 1967 and 1969, respectively, were 7104, 701 and 008. of diabetes. Later he conducted studies in particular on the composition of eat (McCance & Shipp, 1933) and fruit and vegetables (McCance et al. , 1936). The ? rst edition of the food tables (McCance & Widdowson, 1940) was compiled from data mainly from these early studies and also included some recipes. A second edition published in 1946 (McCance & Widdowson, 1946; Widdowson, 1961) included more of the important wartime and post war foods, but was otherwise little changed. The third edition of McCance and Widdowson The third edition of McCance and Widdowson (McCance & Widdowson, 1960) was the ? rst one familiar to many dietitians still practising.

It was published in 1960 and expanded on the earlier editions (Widdowson, 1961) by including values for vitamins and amino acids. The former were drawn mainly from a thorough search of the literature and the latter from a combination of literature data and new analyses. A wide range of basic foods was covered in this edition including many new analyses, but a only a limited number of recipes were incorporated. Code numbers ranged from 1 to 663, but total entries numbered 797 as many entries for ? sh, fruit and nuts included both an entry for edible portion and an entry for the food weighed with nonedible waste (skin, bones, cores, shells).

These used the same code number with and without the suf? x a. An account of this revision was given to the British Dietetic Association by Dr Widdowson herself in 1960 (Widdowson, 1961). The fourth edition of McCance & Widdowson (MW4) The fourth edition of McCance and Widdowson’s food tables was published in 1978 (Paul & Southgate, 1978). The principles used in compiling this edition were fully set out in the general introduction to the tables, which is essential reading for dietitians. This was a major revision with approximately two thirds of the data being updated by new analyses or literature values.

There was extensive consultation with dietititans and many new foods were added (Southgate & Paul, 1978). This edition included more recipes than the third edition, but nevertheless not as many as the DHSS tables. Code numbers range from 001 to 969. There are two true supplements to the fourth edition of McCance & Widdowson in that they contain data additional to MW4 and are not revisions of MW4 data. These are: 1 First supplement to MW4 (Paul et al. , 1980). Amino acids and fatty acids per 100 g of food. © 1999 Blackwell Science Ltd, J Hum Nutr Dietet 12, 1–5 The DHSS Food Tables

During the 1960s and 1970s the Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) embarked on a series of national surveys of different sections of the population using 7day weighed diet records. Molly Disselduff (from the DHSS), the late Jean Robertson (from the MAFF) and Jean Marr (from the MRC) prepared a set of food tables for analysing these surveys. Known as ‘The DHSS Food Tables’, these were set up to cope with food as reported McCance & Widdowson’s Tables of Food Composition The foods listed and their code numbers are the same as in MW4. 2 Second supplement to MW4 (Tan et al. , 1985). Immigrant foods.

This supplement contains foods selected from MW4 with code numbers as in MW4, together with many additional items given codes in 5000 series (5001–5237). These items were later incorporated into the revisions of MW4 and thus these data have all been superseded. 3 Revisions of the fourth edition of McCance & Widdowson After publication of the supplement on immigrant foods, MAFF, in association with the Royal Society of Chemistry, embarked on a staged revision of the whole of the fourth edition of McCance & Widdowson. The revision has been completed and published in sections, taking each of the major food groups in turn.

Although not so designated, these ‘Nine Supplements’ effectively constitute the true ? fth edition of McCance and Widdowson. The table below lists the nine supplements, the code numbers used in each and the reference with date of publication. The most recent supplement in the series covers fatty acids (MAFF, 1998). Food code numbers are retained as in the revisions 1–9 above, any new foods being assigned numbers within the appropriate food group. The so-designated ? fth edition of McCance and Widdowson (MW5) The single volume compilation of selected items that was published as the Fifth Edition f McCance and Widdowson (Holland et al. , 1991b) has caused much confusion. Many have thought it to be a complete revision of the fourth edition. It is not. It is a limited compilation of data selected from the food tables available at the time of publication. It contains data from the ? rst four revised sections, namely cereals, milk, vegetables and fruit (Revisions 1–4 above). These still remain the most recent published data. For the remaining food groups, however, the data were taken from the fourth edition of McCance and Widdowson.

Thus the data for ? sh, meat and miscellaneous foods in MW5 came from MW4 and are now out of date as they have been superseded by subsequent revisions (Revisions 5–9 above, known as the supplements to the ? fth edition). This publication (MW5) is still widely used, particularly by students, since, as a single volume, it is more convenient and cheaper than the ‘Nine Supplements’. However, it is essential to recognize (i) that it does not contain the complete set of data available and (ii) that a large part of the data is not now the latest available data.

Model United Nations college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Model UN or Model United Nations. After browsing the internet and MUN’s website, I have found lots of information. Now I am going to share this with you. MUN is an academic simulation of the United Nations that aims to educate participants about current events, topics in international relations, diplomacy and the United Nations agenda.

Model United Nations simulates United Nations, International Organizations, and governmental bodies such as the World Health Organization, the ASEAN Regional Forum, and government cabinets – in which participants are assigned to represent countries, organizations, or leaders in order to debate pressing international issues. Over a series of committee sessions, the delegates have to work together constructively in order to introduce working papers and eventually draft resolutions.

The session’s end when the committee votes on all the introduced draft resolutions, generally choosing to adopt a single document that addresses the problem being discussed. The sessions are moderated by a Chair and are (with the exception of some Specialized Agency committees) run under rules of parliamentary procedure. Participating in Model United Nations is an excellent way to develop one’s negotiation skills, learn effective communication skills and form solutions with peers from around the world, as well as to broaden one’s perspective on a variety of international topics.

In today’s era of rapid globalization, the leadership, organizational, creative, and personal skills that you develop will be useful for any career! Few university students, let alone business and government leaders, have the opportunity to take part in a conference of this magnitude with this global scale! So, MUN is like an organization where has students as participants. It can be a group not only for students of college and universities in world but also for school students and youth. Its groups are usually formed as a club, conference, or class.

A class can be a full semester class called “Model United Nations” or just one class period devoted to a short simulation. It organized conferences worldwide and its conferences can be a school-wide, local, regional or international gathering of Model United Nations students who come together over a period between one and five days. There are various formats which are followed in Model United Nations Conferences and the most widely used model was developed by Shivish Soni and has been adopted by various conferences all over the world.

Participants research a country, take on roles as diplomats, investigate international issues, debate, deliberate, consult, and then develop solutions to world problems. Now MUN is in Bangladesh. The first MUN was organized by UNYSAB (United Nations Youth and Students Association of Bangladesh) in association with UNAB and UNIC- Dhaka in October, 2002 on terrorism in observance of the UN day. This all about Model United Nations (MUN).

Why Antony Lost Against Octavian college essay help near me: college essay help near me

After all, he was in fact the great Julius Caesar’s second in command. Through much of the internal conflict of his time, he did astoundingly maintain at least some support in Rome. However, his failing to acknowledge Octavian’s military and political potential was his first mistake. Octavian learned that as Julius Caesar’s adopted great nephew, he was entitled to be the legal principle heir of all that belonged to Caesar.

Although taking on such a role was a high risk to his own safety, making him a target by association with Caesar and his agenda, he pressed forward with an insatiable ambition. Possibly driven by the Roman cursus honorum, a lust for power and riches, and a desire for avenging the death of his great uncle, Octavian already had an advantage from the beginning. The citizens of Rome were promised a sum of money, but had been refused payment by Antony. The young New Caesar stepped in and raised his own money by selling his land and giving it to the people.

Though only a mere 18 or 19 years of age, had not served in any Roman political capacity, nor had any military achievements under his belt, young Octavian had managed to muster up some support in Rome using only his newly assumed name, Caesar, and his overly liberal donations to the people. He was their connection to their beloved general, Julius Caesar, the “son of a god. ” Octavian began to reinforce his strength with his personal forces with Caesar’s former loyal veterans. Underscoring his status as heir to Caesar and armed with a rising, dedicated military force of his own, he boldly marched to Rome.

It was now that he was a definite political threat to Antony. However, Antony seemingly ignored this fact as he remained away from Rome in the east. Another major reason for losing was his lack of political support from Rome. Generally many viewed him as a brilliant general. He had a reputation of fighting alongside his own comrades at the front line, right in the heat of battle. This fact curried the favor of his legions from the ground up. Conversely, others viewed his personal life as detrimental to his reputation and by extension his ability to be a successful leader.

Even prior to the assassination of Julius Caesar, he was slowly digging his own political grave. Plutarch reports that he was lazy, had a bad temper, and cavorted other men’s wives. His personal lifestyle later led to his lack of support from the general populace and the senate. It is reported that Cicero, an oratory enemy, stated that general members of society who are upright and moral “intensely disliked him, and were disgusted” by his drunkenness, making a showy display of his extravagances, and frolicking other men’s women.

Cicero’s speeches and publication of propaganda against Antony deeply impacted the Senate’s view of him. In fact, an army was sent to defeat him for bullying Lepidus in Cisalpine Gaul, whom Rome viewed as the rightful governor. It was largely Cicero’s oratory speeches that shifted the public opinion to such an extent that the Senate was moved to declare him an enemy of the state, driving him out of Italy. In the end, Antony loses his reputation and support from the state, something every rising, successful commander needs in order to survive and thrive in Roman politics.

If only he would have remained in Rome, he could have at least had the opportunity to defend his position as Caesar’s second in command and repaired his reputation. However, in his absence, it was Octavian and Cicero who was there to slowly demolish his chances at political and military success. The alleged poor choice of habits that governed his personal affairs were generally recognized as a trigger for the increased factional schisms that eventually would prove injurious to his political career and ultimately an desertion from the Senate.

Antony’s dealings with Cleopatra and Egypt proved to further soil his reputation among the Romans. His abandonment of the beloved Octavia, his legal Roman wife, in lieu of Cleopatra, a foreigner, didn’t sit well with the general public opinion in Rome. After having twins and yet another son with Cleopatra, he was deeply indebted to her, possibly both emotionally and politically. Onlookers must have imagined how such attachment must have been negatively viewed as deeds of a traitor in Rome.

To top it all off, although by illegal means by Octavian it was later realized that Antony had secretly recorded in his will that the kingdoms conquered by Egyptian warfare be divvied up to the Egyptians, not Rome. This fact further alienated Antony as what he truly was, an enemy of the state, eliminating any possible assistance from Rome. As Rome hears the news, Octavian is gathering more and more backing from Rome in pursuit of Antony. In what some would say is the deciding battle in the drama with Antony and Octavian, two large forces collide at Actium in western Greece in 31 B.

Controversy on the Mixing of African and Cuban Culture college essay help service: college essay help service

The personal narratives, “Afrocubanismo and Son” by Robin Moore, “Dance and Social Change, “Rumba” by Yvonne Daniel, and “Buena Vista Social Club” by Dir. Wim Wenders offer an extensive look at the Afro-Cuban music and dance. Moore writes his article based on the Son. Son is a mixture of African and Spanish influence. Daniel in both of her articles talks about rumba, which is a dance and music genre that originated in Cuba in the mid 1800s. She talks about the different kinds of rumba, which are the Yambu, the Guaguaco, and the vacunao.

Wenders is providing us with an image of how Cuban musicians play their music, providing us with some the most popular songs from Cuba. Thousands of African slaves were brought to Cuba, and although treated like animals, their music has had a major influence on Cuban that any other type of music from other countries, creating a bond between both cultures. I found all three articles very informative. Moore, Daniel, and Wenders exposed a number of new information into my mind, and maybe into any other individual that didn’t had much knowledge about Cuban music and dance.

As an example, I hadn’t thought about the fact that after much discrimination against Africans, they were going to end up mixing their music and dance with African music and dance. I really like the fact that Cubans ended up accepting part of Africans Culture. Although, we see that the government in many occasion prohibited the people to play the Son and many other influences from African Culture, it was not enough from them to stop the people from mixing both cultures. We also see in “Buena Vista Social Club” a man who brings together a group of mostly aging and forgotten artists.

I don’t like the fact that political events and social issues have played a role in the segregation of these artists. I don’t believe that those people should have been discriminated in such way just because they were mixing both cultures. As the slaves were able to buy their freedom an increased interaction and ethnic mixing among Cubans and Africans was the result. As I was reading that both cultures began to combine, it came to my mind that African people really have a nice heart because by uniting with Cubans they are demonstrating that they had forgiven all the suffering they went through.

An example of they unity is the son, and the different kinds of rumba mentioned by Daniel and Moore. We see that the people that were coming together were mostly from working class Cubans and Africans. I find it shameful that most rich people weren’t accepting African culture, and to make it worse ended up making people like those musicians that we see in Buena Vista to be forgotten. In reading Daniel’s articles, I was able to see how people enjoy dancing rumba and many other kinds of dances. And how people especially among the working class uses dancing and music as a way to blow off steam and have fun.

Now, I can see why African were always dancing and singing, because that way they could forget about the pain and suffering that they were going through. I didn’t like the fact that the government was calling most of the dancing and music from Africa “immortal”. I don’t believe that it was appropriated to call their dancing that way. In conclusion, although there was a lot of controversy on the mixing of both cultures, it wasn’t enough to stop the people from mixing it. It was like a destiny meant by God to mix those cultures, to create not just Afro-Cuban culture, but Cuban Culture.

Interpersonal Conflict in Film easy essay help: easy essay help

There are times when the interpersonal relationships we share with our loved ones, friends, and family do not always meet eye-to-eye. Many times we find ourselves disagreeing with what the other person said. When this happens, it is crucial to pay attention to the way we react and communicate our thoughts without stirring up more conflict. The example presented in this essay is from a 2005 film, Hitch; a scene is shown of the main couple having an argument over one making assumptions and jumping to conclusions.

The conflict was not handled effectively because assumptions were made, the character jumped to conclusion, and because the issue became worse then it should have been. In the film Hitch, the characters, Hitch and Sarah, start arguing because she finds out that he is the “Date Doctor” from someone that was not a reliable source. She then goes over to his place, because they had plans for dinner, and she starts latching out at him because she is upset and feels he played her.

He did not know why she was acting so strange but still tried to continue on with the evening he had planned for the both of them. She finally asks him about what he does, but he does not give her any information since he is already annoyed at the fact that she was acting childish. This made her more upset and she started throwing food at him which then made him throw food at her and she just stormed out of there and went home. She completely assumed he was the one that gave men ways to go around and play with girls.

This was not true and had she confronted him using basic assertion, which is the lowest level of assertion to resolve conflict (Sole, 2011), and would have asked him if what the other man had said was true, the night would have probably ended in better terms. After she assumed Hitch was the “Date Doctor,” she went ahead and jumped to conclusions about him and wrote a negative article saying he was a manipulator and could get any man in bed with any women. Instead of writing that article about him she could have confronted him with the information she had and asked him about it.

There are always two sides to a story and just like she later found out that her source was unreliable, it was hard for her to repair the damaged she had already made. Had she not jumped to conclusion and taken a different approach to the situation, the result would have had a better result. Once the article had been published, things became bad not only between them but also the other characters in the film. It shows that one little mistake came make it worse for many people. The main character lost his job because of it and people were thinking he did sometime terrible, which was not the case.

If she had better communication with him from the beginning when the issue broke out and had she explained to him what she was thinking instead of reacting in a way that only made things worse, the outcome would have been very different. In conclusion, this film had this great example of what happens when we do not communicate effectively. Many times we can make assumptions about the issue or about what the person is trying to say and do not get clear thought as to what is really the issue. We jump to conclusions thinking we know what is going on without first thinking things through.

This will not allow us to communicate right and will keep a barrier between the relationships. Doing these thing can make things worse and only get more people involved when it could be something that could have been avoided from the start.

M&a Case argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

Operations and management were not successfully integrated as “equals” because of the entirely different ways in which the Germans and Americans operated: while Daimler-Benz’s culture stressed a more formal and structured management style, Chrysler favored a more relaxed, freewheeling style (to which it owed a large part of its premerger ? nancial success). In addition, the two units traditionally held entirely different views on important things like pay scales and travel expenses. As a result of these differences and the German unit’s increasing dominance, performance and employee satisfaction at Chrysler took a steep downturn.

There were large numbers of departures among key Chrysler executives and engineers, while the German unit became increasingly dissatis? ed with the performance of the Chrysler division. Chrysler employees, meanwhile, became extremely dissatis? ed with what they perceived as the source of their division’s problems: Daimler’s attempts to take over the entire organization and impose their culture on the whole ? rm. 3 While cultural con? ict often plays a large role in producing merger failure, it is often neglected when the bene? ts of a potential merger are examined.

For instance, following the announcement of the AOLTimeWarner deal, a front-page Wall Street Journal article (Murray et al. 2000) discussed possible determinants of success or failure for the merger (such as synergies, costs, competitor reaction, and so forth). The only clear discussion of possible cultural con? ict is a single paragraph (out of a 60-column-inch article) revealing how the “different personalities” of AOL’s For instance, one joke told at Chrysler is: “How do you pronounce DaimlerChrysler? ‘Daimler’ the ‘Chrysler’ is silent. ”

Steve Case and TimeWarner’s Gerald Levin re? ect cultural differences between the two ? rms. A similar article (Jubak 2000) included a single paragraph entitled “What could go wrong with the synergy strategy. ” Moreover, in these sorts of short, cursory, obligatory discussions of possible cultural con? ict, there is rarely discussion of what steps might be taken if there is dramatic con? ict. While culture may seem like a “small thing” when evaluating mergers, compared to product-market and resource synergies, we think the opposite is true because culture is pervasive.

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