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The Issue Of Authority And Respect Essay my assignment essay help

, Research Paper

The issue of authorization and regard has been and will be an on-going issue between childs and their aged. In the narrative Red Dress by Alice Munro and the film Rebel without a Cause by Nicholas Ray the issue of authorization and regard comes up many times through the character actions. Authority and regard is straight linked to one another. It is really difficult to obey domination if you have no regard for authorization. In both the plant we have studied, all the characters have problem covering with the issues of authorization and regard for themselves and for others, they do non demo regard to their parents and hence does non look upon them as authorization figures.

In Alice Munro s the Red Dress, the storyteller and her best friend Lonnie have two wholly different relationships with their several defenders. The storyteller, without the reference of her male parent, is in attention of her female parent, whom she thinks butts in excessively much into her concern. She kind of resents her female parent for being so excessively close and nosey about her private life. Her female parent s narratives, which at one point seemed interesting to her, is now become melodramatic, irrelevant, and tiresome. She knows that her female parent merely means good but sometimes she wishes she could be like Lonnie. Lonnie is in attention of her male parent ; her female parent had passed off some clip before. Her male parent ne’er notices her and does non demo his fondness for her, she is reasonably much on her ain. The storyteller considers her as a Blue-Baby and privileged. The storyteller besides sees her female parent as shameless and obscene ; she tries to direct her friend s attending off from her female parent every bit much as possible. In the narrative, we are told by the storyteller that she was ne’er comfy for a minute in high school and was near to desperation at all times. She hated being called upon to make anything in forepart of an audience, whether it is the category or merely the instructor. She reveals that she hasn t accepted herself as who she is, ever wishing to be like person else, she hasn t learned to esteem herself as a turning adolescent which makes it difficult for her to understand the relationship between her female parent and herself. Since she lacks the proper apprehension and regard for her moth

Er and herself, the storyteller has problem seeing her female parent as an important figure, which makes her less tolerant to the other important figures in her milieus.

In the instance of Rebel without a Cause, the chief characters want to esteem their parents. They want to hold normal relationships with them but can non prehend it. They go out to look for it elsewhere alternatively. Which makes the audience feel sympathising towards them. They are identity-seeking adolescents alienated from the universe by their parents. Jim, Judy and John a.k.a. Plato is seeking for apprehension, company, and a sense of belonging. Jim is confused about his household as to who should be the adult male of the family. He sees his male parent as a poulet and he does non in anyhow want to go like him. He wishes he could see his male parent as a adult male, person he can esteem and person with authorization. Judy has communicating jobs with her parents throughout the film. She wishes for her male parent to demo more fondness for her. She seeks attending with her friends who are seen as problem doing teens. Plato has been deserted by his parents long ago and struggles to keep any sort of relationship with anybody. His actions, the shot of the puppies, the changeless prevarication to set up any involvement of his comrades, demo how emotionally-disturbed and despairing he is for any sort of relationship with anyone. He searches for connexion, person to go his household. Near to the terminal of the film, Jim, Judy and Plato run into up in an abandoned sign of the zodiac and feign to be a household. They learn to esteem and accept each other for who they are they don t make-believe to be anyone else. They find comfort within themselves and in a manner, becomes each other s household.

Authority and regard is so linked to each other. Before happening regard for anything or anybody, everyone has to larn to esteem himself or herself. When regard is found, it will surely go deeply easier to see things with authoritive position. It will besides do it easier to obey and understand authorization. It will do us stronger people, people who won t get swayed by others influence. Peoples who know what they want, people with regard and authorization.

Curfews Essay Research Paper Curfews unfair ineffective write my essay help: write my essay help

Curfews Essay, Research Paper

Curfews unfair, uneffective, and unconstitutional

When you hear politicians and constabularies speaking about acquiring tough on & # 8220 ; juvenile offense, & # 8221 ; you may conceive of a school shot, like those that have late occurred in Jonesboro, Arkansas, and Springfield Oregon. Others may remember Television cartridge holders of immature people, sometimes covered by masks or paper bags to conceal their individualities, being dragged off in handlocks, as the telecasting speaks of coursers runing from colza to robbery. But in America today, more childs are arrested for curfew jurisprudence misdemeanors so any other individual class of offense, including all violent crimes-combined. Everyone from jurisprudence enforcement to the President have endorsed tougher curfew Torahs as being the solution to America & # 8217 ; s offense sufferings, though none have of all time cited existent informations to turn out that directing 142,000 childs through the justness system for being out excessively tardily each twelvemonth reduces offense. They assume that anything that takes childs off the streets must cut down offense.

There is no justification to juvenile curfews ( which may explicate why the Supreme Court did non compose an sentiment on the affair ) . Restricting an American & # 8217 ; s freedom of motion is an obvious trespass over the First Amendment, and to saunter around a park or public square is barely the & # 8220 ; clear and present danger & # 8221 ; to the community normally required for such an violation. USA Today has described the Torahs as doing it & # 8220 ; a offense to be young. & # 8221 ; The American Civil Liberties Union & # 8217 ; s ( ACLU ) John Horwarth told the Washington Post that curfew Torahs infringe on the rights of & # 8220 ; all people, including the immature, to & # 8230 ; by and large move about

without intervention from governments unless and until they are really making something unlawful.” But a metropolis city manager or councilman has no demand for such rhetoric. Why worry about the First Amendment when one can claim to be cut downing the offense rate, yet affect no electors?

The Conference of Mayors conducted a study of 347 metropoliss with a population over 30,000. About 80 per centum of the surveyed metropoliss have a nighttime young person curfew, and 26 per centum of these metropoliss besides have a daytime curfew. Nine out of 10 of the metropoliss said that implementing the young person curfew was a productive usage of a constabulary officer & # 8217 ; s clip. Many said curfews give constabulary clip to concentrate on older felons.

Approximately 10 per centum of the metropoliss surveyed felt that curfew enforcement was non the best usage of an officer & # 8217 ; s clip. Some metropoliss besides complained that curfews increase the sum of paperwork they must treat. And some noted there is nowhere to take juvenile lawbreakers if their parents aren & # 8217 ; t place. The metropoliss that did non happen curfews a utile tool argued that nighttime curfews place the metropolis in the parental function and do more offenses during non-curfew hours.

It is hard to conceive of a more blazing misdemeanor of Constitutional rights than the curfew Torahs which restrict the motions of teens countrywide. The Supreme Court has refused to hear instances oppugning such Torahs, such as the Washington State Supreme Court & # 8217 ; s 1973 opinion which stated that & # 8220 ; mere sauntering or lounging on a public manner is lawful and the right of any adult male, adult female, or child. & # 8221 ; The Bill of Rights, seemingly, still is merely applicable to those whom the authorities wishes to affranchise.

Colorado and It’s Energy Sources high school essay help: high school essay help

I am lucky enough to live in the beautiful state of Colorado. Colorado has an extensive supply of conventional fossil fuel and renewable energy resources. Per EIA (Energy Information Administration) 2009, “The State contains several fossil fuel-rich basins, including the Sand Walsh, Eyepiece, Paradox, and San Juan basins in the west, and the Denver and Orator basins in the east. Ten of the Nation’s 100 largest natural gas fields and three of its 100 largest oil fields are found in Colorado.

Substantial deposits of bituminous, sub bituminous, and lignite coal are also found in the State. ” In the house that I live in Thornton Colorado, our primary types of energy are electricity, natural gas as well as a pellet-burning stove for the winter. Electricity is the foundation of the energy usage in Thornton. Per EIA, “Coal- and natural gas-fired power plants dominate electricity generation in Colorado. Coal-fired plants account for over seven-tenths of the State’s generation and natural gas-fired plants account for close to one-fourth.

Colorado produces coal from both underground and surface mines, primarily in its western basins, and large quantities of coal are shipped into and out of the State by rail. Colorado uses about one-fourth of its coal output and transports the remainder to markets throughout the United States. Colorado also brings in coal, primarily from Wyoming, to supplement local production. ” The earliest coalmine, The Denver Basin Orator Basin coalmine is inactive but Colorado does have 11 active mines.

Most of them are located in western Colorado and per CAM (Coal Mining Association), “The Total Value of Coal Produced in Colorado in 2011 is estimated to be $1. 1 Billion. ” While the monies these coalmines produce are a huge factor in Colorado economy the damage on the environment, Hess mines produce, are they worth the environmental damage in the end? I agree Barbara Frees when she states, “The mundane mineral that built our global economy and even today powers our electrical plants has also caused death, disease, and environmental destruction. Per The World Coal Association, “Coal mining, particularly surface mining requires large areas of land to be temporarily disturbed. This raises a number of environmental challenges, including soil erosion, dust, noise and water pollution, and impacts on local biodiversity. ” Not only is the current coal mining industry endangering the environment in Colorado the abandoned mines are destroying the environment as well. It is a known fact that coal production requires large quantities of water. Colorado has an abundance of lakes and streams but coal mining affects the natural marine and land-based wildlife.

Not to mention the people who use these water resources. Coal mining can lead to heavy metals like lead and arsenic entering these precious water recourses. Even though there has not been a resent case, in Colorado, of arsenic or lead poisoning, from coalmines, “They can produce enough contamination o causes a rapid and unique destruction of red blood cells and may result in kidney failure, which is uniformly fatal without proper therapy. Most cases of arsine poisoning have occurred with the use of acids and crude metals of which one or both contained arsenic as an impurity. Per the EPA (2011) The coalmines in Colorado also contribute to the air pollution crisis . Per Learner (2013), “The process of burning coal for energy produces greenhouse gases and other harmful pollutants, including carbon dioxide, mercury compounds, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Per unit of electricity, coal produces more pollution than any other eel source, according to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, all steps of coal energy production mining, transportation and cleaning produce greenhouse gas emissions.

Coal contains methane, a combustible and potent greenhouse gas. Methane’s global warming potential is 23 times greater than carbon dioxide. For safety reasons, methane vents into the atmosphere during coal processing. ” Denver, the capital of Colorado, has been notorious for its winter “Brown Cloud” starting in the sass’s. The “Brown Cloud” was formed due to a combination of carbon dioxide, mercury compounds as well as other pollution sources. Per Colorado Air Pollution Control Division, “2008 National Emissions Inventory estimates that 50 percent of CO emissions are from highway vehicle sources.

They also estimate that off highway sources contribute an additional 23 percent of emissions. ” Denver is located at the foot of the Rocky Mountains and Steve Spangles (2011) states, “this location makes it prone to temperature inversions in which warm air traps cooler air near the ground, preventing pollutants from rising into the atmosphere. ” Thus the “Brown Cloud” formed. The city of Thornton is located 10 miles north of Denver. Thornton has shared in this horrible air quality called “Brown Cloud”.

But the good news is coming from Alpine/Environs report for Colorado 2011, “Colorado coal- fueled power plants have reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides by 30 percent since 1999, compared with an average 8 percent reduction for all other sources. Coal- based electric generation accounted for 9 percent of the Colorado total ozone- related emissions in 2011. The Alpine Geophysics/Environ report also documents the significant reductions since 1999 in emissions contributing to fine particulates – sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (Voss) and direct PM emissions.

Colorado coal-based electric utilities have reduced these PM-related emissions by 43 percent since 1999, the largest reduction among all major source categories. ” Per Colorado Mining (2013), “Steps are taken in modern mining operations to minimize impacts on all aspects of the environment. By carefully pre-planning projects, implementing pollution control measures, monitoring the effects of mining and rehabilitating mined areas, the coal industry minimizes the impact of its activities on the neighboring community, the immediate environment and on long- term land capability.

I certainly hope this will come to fruition. These figures are staggering to me. My home usage of electricity last month for four people was 535 kilowatt hours used. Per The US Census (2010), there are 43,230 homes in Thornton. If the whole city used the same amount of electricity here is the calculation of the kilowatt hours the city would use in a year. 535 kilowatt hour x 12 months = 6,420 kilowatt hours per household a year 6,420 kilowatt hours per household x 12 months = 277,536,600 kilowatt hours are used per year in the City of Thornton. Natural gas is an extremely important source of my community’s energy.

Per Natural Gas. Org, “Natural gas is the cleanest of all the fossil fuels, as evidenced in the Environments I Protection Agency’s data comparisons in the chart below, which is still current as of 2010. Composed primarily of methane, the main products of the combustion of natural gas are carbon dioxide and water vapor, the same compounds we exhale when we breathe. ” However, they also state, “One issue that has arisen with respect to natural gas and the greenhouse effect is the fact that methane, the principle component of natural gas, is itself a potent greenhouse gas.

Methane has n ability to trap heat almost 21 times more effectively than carbon dioxide. ” As well as, “The use of natural gas does not contribute significantly to smog formation, as it emits low levels of nitrogen oxides, and virtually no particulate matter. For this reason, it can be used to help combat smog formation in those areas where ground level air quality is poor. ” The natural gas industry Joined with the EPA in 1993 and here are some of the findings due to this relationship: “In 1993, the natural gas industry Joined with EPA in launching the Natural Gas STAR Program to reduce methane emissions.

The STAR program has chronicled dramatic reductions to methane emissions, since that time: EPA STAR data shows a reduction in methane emissions each year for the last 16 years More than 904 Billion cubic feet (Bcc) of methane emissions were eliminated through the STAR program 1993-2009; and In 2009 alone, the program reduced methane emissions by 86 Bcc. Thus the increased use of natural gas in the place of other, dirtier fossil fuels can serve to lessen the emission of greenhouse gases in the United States. ” I believe there should be a significant swing to improved natural gas use in the electricity sector.

Cleaner natural gas vehicles need to be improved and engineered to become more cost effective. Industrial plants could use more natural gas to fuel their total systems instead of other, more polluting fossil fuels. If people would be concentrating on using more natural gas, it could reduce the emissions of smog surrounding the urban areas and would result in a cleaner and healthier air. I am fortunate enough to have a pellet-burning stove in the basement. This heats up the home in wintertime and will in effect make my home use less electricity and natural gas in the wintertime.

There are numerous types of stoves available, but we use the pellet-stove as its combustion conditions offer a sufficient oxygen supply and high temperature. Most of the organic substances is burnt in the stove and does not emit ash or other chemical substances, as some wood stoves can. The fire is contained in a heat box, which exhumes minimal smoke and gives off less creosote, which is the flammable byproduct of combustion that can cause the chimney fires. The pellets are made from recycled materials and are heavily compressed the dry fuel crates more heat.

This burn is hotter and cleaner than typical wood burning doves. A room needs an average of 5,000 Btu output from the stove per 200 square feet of space so we had to make sure to purchase a pellet-stove that would heat our home effectively. The disadvantages are the cost of the stove. It was a large start up cost to get the stove in the basement. The pellet bags come in 40 lbs so we needed to make sure we had to the extra storage space and we made sure the stove had a battery backup as the pellet stoves need a small amount of electricity to run the pellets through.

If the electricity is not working, we will have a pellet stove for at least 8 hours due to the eatery backup. Colorado unnaturally NAS an area called Rocky Flats, which used to produce nuclear weapons from, 1952-1989. Officially, Rocky Flats was shut down for repeated safety violations. These violations were brought to the attention of the EPA and FBI in 1987. The extent of the contamination has yet to be revealed biblically. Rocky Flats was added to the Pea’s “National Priorities List” in 2000. That is when the cleanup efforts began and the site became a wildlife refuge area.

Per Care 2 Make A Difference, (2013), “Congress proposed that the site be transformed into a wildlife refuge. The cleanup was declared complete in 2005, although the levels of present contamination were not shown to the public. ” The Rocky Mountain Peace and Justice Center hired independent contractors to test the soil at Rocky Flats. These contractors were not permitted to test the soil, on site, so they tested the soil outside the fence line and they found that the level of plutonium contamination has not changed since the sass’s.

Their results also showed, “Plutonium levels ranging from 0. 019-1. 579 Pico Curies per gram of soil. The typical level of background plutonium contamination in he Western US is usually no more than 0. 01 -so these are troubling findings. ” Per Moore and Dirtied Plutonium is forever (2013), “Plutonium particles in the soil at Rocky Flats will one way or another, sooner or later, come into people’s lungs and lives, since, with a half-life of 24,000 years, it poses a radiation hazard essentially forever.

Minute particles much smaller than germs get brought to the surface by burrowing animals, incautious humans, turbulent geology and extreme weather. Such particles can be carried near and far by the wind and inhaled by unsuspecting people, including children, the most vulnerable. Once inside the body, plutonium does its damage. The late Edward Martial, NCAR radio chemist, pointed out as early as 1970 that the radioactivity from plutonium dust particles at Rocky Flats is “millions of times more intense than that from naturally occurring radioactive dust particles (uranium) of the same size.

Minute amounts are sufficient to cause cancer. ” This is scary to me as how a government entity could let this damage happen in the first place. The US Fish and Wildlife Service, that run the refuge, say the soil contamination is not at unsafe level but they will not show any plutonium test results. How can they continue to not explain the dangers or to Just simply not tell the truth on this subject? My city of Thornton Colorado has used electricity, natural gas and wood burning stoves since the land was purchased and developed in 1953.

In 1955, there were 5,500 residents in approximately 1,200 homes. The impact of these energy sources have not had any more damage than what has been stated previously, in this essay, to the city I live in. I can say that the City of Thornton has developed a “Green Thornton Zone. ” The Green Thornton Zone has a motto, “The City of Thornton is omitted to the wise and careful use of resources and to developing and maintaining low-waste policies wherever feasible. ” I like this policy and feel comfortable that my city is doing whatever possible to save the environment.

I would recommend the City of Thornton use wind energy as a renewable energy source. Per Renewable Energy World. Com (2013), “We have been harnessing the wind’s energy for hundreds of years. From old Holland to farms in the United States, windmills have been used for pumping water or grinding grain. Today, the windmill’s modern equivalent – a wind turbine – can use the wind’s energy to generate electricity. Wind turbines, like windmills, are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and less turbulent wind.

Turbines catch the wind’s energy with their propeller-like blades. Usually, two or three blades are mounted on a shaft to form a rotor. A blade acts much like an airplane wing. When the wind blows, a pocket of low- pressure air forms on the downwind side of the blade. The low-pressure air pocket then pulls the blade toward it, causing the rotor to turn. This is called lift. The force f the lift is actually much stronger than the wind’s force against the front side of the blade, which is called drag.

The combination of lift and drag causes the rotor to spin like a propeller, and the turning shaft spins a generator to make electricity. ” I feel this energy would not only save the environment and it does not have nearly the environmental negative impact as coal or natural gas production does. With coal, being the worst I believe wind power would save the air, water and land we live on. It would take up land usage but wildlife could adapt to wind power much better than a coalmine. People in Thornton and all over Colorado have to realize what damage coalmines sites really do the environment.

If the city adapted wind power energy as a source, they could show the residence what NRC (Natural Resources Defense Council) says, “Wind power is an affordable, efficient and abundant source of domestic electricity. It’s pollution-free and cost-competitive with energy from new coal- and gas-fired power plants in many regions. ” Every single organism known to man would benefit from this conversion and I personally do not understand why renewable energy is not used more efficiently.

Laughter Therapy an Effective Treatment Essay Sample argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

1. This assignment contains TWO ( 2 ) undertakings that is set in the linguistic communication of the printed faculty for the class. Answer ALL.

2. Answer in English.

3. Download the linguistic communication version of the assignment templet concerned from the MyVLE for readying and entry of your assignment. Your assignment should be typed utilizing 12 point Times New Roman fount and 1. 5 line spacing.

4. Your assignment should be between 2500 to 3000 words excepting mentions. The figure of words should be shown at the terminal of your assignment. Do non copy the assignment inquiry and instructions to your reply.

5. You must subject your assignment TO YOUR FACE-TO-FACE TUTOR. You are advised to maintain a transcript of your submitted assignment for personal mention.

6. Your assignment must be submitted between 15th – 17th March 2013 or Tutorial 4. Submission after 17th March 2013 or Tutorial 4 will NOT be accepted.

7. Your assignment should be prepared separately. You should non copy another person’s assignment. You should besides non plagiarize another person’s work as your ain.


This assignment accounts for 30 % of the Markss for the class mentioned and shall be assessed based on the Rubrics or Answer Scheme.

You would be informed of the assignment grade before the Final Semester Examination commences.


Warning: The submitted assignment will automatically undergo a similarity cheque. If plagiarism is detected. Markss would be deducted as follows:

• Assignments with 10 – 30 % convergence with others: 20 % tax write-off from the entire Markss scored. • Assignments with 31 – 50 % convergence with others: 40 % tax write-off from the entire Markss scored. • Assignments with more than 50 % convergence with others: Zero grade would be given.


Public Speaking is the communication of cognition that is apprehensible. Through enlightening addresss. people are able to give others the benefit of their acquisition and expertness. For this assignment you are given two undertakings:

( a ) write an enlightening address ; and
( B ) show your address.


You are invited to give an enlightening address to a group of people. Pick a subject that is interesting to you. that you think will involvement your audience. OR you can pick any subject from given below.

1. “Eating Healthily With A Busy Lifestyle” .
2. “Laughter Therapy – An Effective Treatment” .
3. “Overcoming shyness” .

A. Written ASSIGNMENT ( 20 Marks )

1. You can compose utilizing the guidelines below:

Introduction: ( Show relevancy to the audience during this subdivision )

• Attention-getter: narrative. existent or rhetorical inquiry. quotation mark. surprising fact or statistic. etc. • Thesis statement: the chief point or thought of your address • Preview of Main Points: Preview your upcoming chief points

Be certain to transition swimmingly from attn-getter. to thesis & amp ; prevue of chief points. to the organic structure ( Main Point 1 ) . Continue to utilize passages to travel swimmingly from one point to the following and on to the decision.

• Main Point 1.
– Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 1 ( a ) – Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 1 ( B ) These are backed up by Supporting Material: definition. statistics. illustration. illustration/story. testimony. compare/contrast. Use vocal commendations when appropriate.

• Main Point 2.
– Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 2 ( a ) – Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 2 ( B ) These are backed up by Supporting Material: definition. statistics. illustration. illustration/story. testimony. compare/contrast. Use vocal commendations when appropriate.

1. Extra supporting thoughts
2. Extra supporting thoughts

• Main Point 3.
– Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 3 ( a ) – Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 3 ( B ) These are backed up by Supporting Material: definition. statistics. illustration. illustration/story. testimony. compare/contrast. Use vocal commendations when appropriate.

• Main Point 4.
– Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 4 ( a ) – Supporting Ideas/Subtopic of Main Point 4 ( B ) These are backed up by Supporting Material: definition. statistics. illustration. illustration/story. testimony. compare/contrast. Use vocal commendations when appropriate.

• Summarize Main Points:
• Provide closing ( shuting statement. quotation mark. narrative. etc. ) :

• Note: Each point should be elaborated with important illustrations. You may add any other points deemed appropriate

2. Reminder: you must carry on research on chosen subject. and have at least 4 beginnings in your bibliography.


1. You need to fix 8 ( min ) -12 ( soap ) MS PowerPoint slides based on the content of your paper ( written assignment ) for a 8-10 minute talk ( unwritten presentation ) .

2. Use phrases instead than whole sentences to compose the text of your slides. Use numbered/bulleted lists to organize and present main/supporting thoughts on a given slide.

3. Make your slides visually interesting by utilizing suited colorss for the background and embedded symbols and images as appropriate.

4. You can fix a presentation slides utilizing the guidelines below:

Slide 0Self-Intro

Slide 0Title

Slide 1Introduction

Slide 2Introduction

Slide 3Main point 1 + illustrations

Slide 4 Main point 1 + illustrations

Slide 5Main point 2 + illustrations

Slide 6Main point 2 + illustrations

Slide 7Main point 3 + illustrations

Slide 8Main point 3 + illustrations

Slide 9Main point 4 + illustrations

Slide 10Main point 4 + illustrations

Slide 11Conclusions

[ Sum: 30 Markss ]

WRITTEN PAPER ( 20 Markss ) :

Assessment Criteria Descriptors Marks ( Marks Allotment ) Very Good to Excellent: Substantial and knowing development of assigned subject ; thoughts are relevant to topic ; thoughts suitably and interestingly selected ; thoughts logically and coherently stated ; supported and sequenced ; overall coherence achieved. 9-12 Average to Good: Some cognition of assigned subject ; equal scope of thoughts ; thoughts are largely relevant to topic but lack inside informations ; slackly organised but chief thoughts stand out ; limited CONTENT & A ; ORGANISATION support ; logical but uncomplete sequencing. ( 12 Markss ) Poor to Fair: 5-8 Limited cognition of the assigned subject ; thoughts are of small substance and inadequate ; thoughts are slightly baffled or disconnected ; lacks logical sequencing and development.

0-4 Very Good to Excellent: Very effectual usage of complex sentence construction ; sophisticated and effectual scope of vocabulary ; appropriate registry ; few grammatical mistakes. 7-8 Average to Good: Effective simple sentences ; equal scope of vocabulary ; several grammatical mistakes LANGUAGE but intending non obscured. 4-6 ( 8 Markss ) Poor to Fair: Major jobs in usage of simple sentences ; limited and insistent pick of vocabulary ; frequent grammatical mistakes doing ill-defined significance. 0-3 Entire Marks 20

1. Oral PRESENTATION ( 10 Markss ) :

Component Forms Tonss
Excellent presenter who presents thoughts coherently and clearly ; uses appropriate voice volume Effective Presenter and modulation ; uses suited lingual looks ; communicating is non at all affected by minor mistakes ; natural and no reading of prepared slides. 9-10 Satisfactory presenter who is able to show thoughts coherently and clearly most of the clip. Good Presenter uses acceptable voice volume and modulation ; uses some suited lingual looks ; communicating by and large non affected by mistakes ; some reading from prepared slides but non too7-8 obvious. Less than satisfactory presenter ; some thoughts are lost or confounding. utilizations inappropriate voice Fair Presenter volume ( excessively soft ) or modulation ; uses hapless lingual looks ; communicating sometimes affected by major mistakes ; some reading from prepared slides. 5-6 Poor Presenter Poor presenter with small or no communicating taking topographic point ; shows inability to execute undertaking ; can non react to audience ; incoherent and hapless usage of linguistic communication characteristics ; entire reading from 0-4 prepared slides. Entire Marks 10

TOTAL= 30 Markss


1. Mention to Module Topic 7 which discusses Group Interaction Skills for composing the address. You are advised to come up with your ain illustrations for each state of affairs mentioned. You could mention to Topics 8. 9 and 10 of your Module to steer you in composing the debut. organic structure and decision of the address. You could get down your address with citations. inquiries. life experience etc.

2. Search the Internet utilizing Google. Yahoo or any other suited hunt engine for more information on group interaction accomplishments. Use assorted combinations of the keywords taken from the notes given under each sub-heading in the assignment inquiry. Remember to beginning information from reputable web sites such as university or college sites.

3. Note the URL or web reference of utile web sites that you entree. Write down besides the writer and page rubric ( if available ) . and the day of the month you accessed the page so that you can include the information in your mentions page at the terminal of your paper.

4. Use a unvarying coloring material strategy for the background in your MS PowerPoint slides. Make certain that your text in the slides is non excessively long-winded. In other words. make non simply transcript and paste paragraphs or even whole sentences from your paper. Summarise and utilize numbered lists and/or bulleted lists to show your chief thoughts and back uping points. Remember that you are fixing the slides to speak about the thoughts contained in them. non to read continuously from the slides!

5. Use images and/or drawings to do your slides interesting but these in writing elements must be relevant to the content of your presentation. If you want to associate short picture cartridge holders to your presentation. make talk with your coach to see if it may be executable. You could mention to Topic 9 of your Module to fix the slides


1. Please assist the pupils construction both their paper and the MS PowerPoint presentation slides. Check to see that the headers and sub-headings of the address and the slide presentation organize a consistent whole.

2. Advice pupils on facets of content and administration every bit good as ( academic ) linguistic communication manner so that they are able to revise their work consequently.

3. When possible. assist pupils with accessing the Internet for relevant information that they can utilize in their address or presentation. Rede them about how they can avoid plagiarism when sourcing information i. e. by summarizing. rephrasing. citing. noticing on and documenting the information that they obtain from assorted beginnings. State them how to utilize the APA manner ( 6th ed. if available ) of documenting resources/references.

4. Examine/Mark pupil assignments and enter the several student’s Markss into the OMES.

Cuban Embargo Essay Research Paper United StatesCuba write essay help: write essay help

Cuban Embargo Essay, Research Paper

United States-Cuba Relations and the Economies

Economic countenances can be and are a valuable tool for implementing international norms and protecting our national involvements. The U.S. Policy of using economic force per unit area in Cuba originated shortly after Fidel Castro came into power in 1959. The United States foremost imposed a full trade trade stoppage on Cuba on February 3, 1962, after the Kennedy Administration became positive that Castro was traveling quickly toward the constitution of a totalitarian government in confederation with the Soviet Union. Castro had non merely confiscated U.S. and other Cuban and foreign-owned belongingss on the island, but had been supplying indiscriminate support for violent revolution throughout the Americas as portion of his attempts to transport on the & # 8220 ; Continental battle against the Yankees, & # 8221 ; which he considers to be his & # 8220 ; true destiny. & # 8221 ; The trade stoppage was officially begun by President, John F. Kennedy, and has been supported by all consecutive Presidents. The U.S. trade stoppage has had a major impact on the Cuban economic system affecting trade, rewards, and occupations ; and in add-on, it has affected many United States concerns both straight and indirectly. The Helms-Burton Act is one of the major measures sing trade with Cuba, and it has encountered much resistance and contention both in the United States and abroad. Merely late was the intelligence media prohibition in Cuba lifted leting American journalists to acquire intelligence from within Cuba. Health attention in Cuba is besides a major concern and is strongly affected by the Cuban Embargo.

Our policy on Cuba is exemplifying of one of the chief ends of economic countenances to promote our friends and Alliess to follow policies that can progress our common involvements. Our Alliess and merchandising spouses disagree with our trade stoppage and have urged us to change the commissariats of the Libertad Act, besides known as the Helms-Burton Act named after its chief patrons.

Cuba s economic system is in complete confusion as a direct consequence of Castro s insisting on adhering to a damaged economic theoretical account that of communism. The impact of the U.S. trade stoppage was offset during the Cold War old ages by five to six billion dollars in subsidies a twelvemonth from Russia. The economic jobs in Cuba were exacerbated by the death of the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. yearly gave about five billion dollars in subsidies to the Castro authorities. However, the Communist government dedicated a majority of these financess to keeping an over-sized military machine and to a monolithic internal security setup. With the prostration of the Soviet Union, Cuba suffered a 35 % diminution in its gross domestic merchandise between 1989 and 1993, uncovering an inherently dysfunctional economic system. 1

In order for the communist authorities to last, they had to set about certain limited economic reforms because of these jobs coupled with the go oning trade stoppage. In the mid-1990s, the Cuban authorities began to let private citizens to offer certain services under rigorous authorities examination. Then in 1997, they introduced heavy revenue enhancements that forced many of these people out of concern. In this sector, employment peaked at 206,000 in 1996, and so fell to 170,000 in 1997.2 The Cuban authorities has actively encouraged foreign investing, but forbids private investing by Cuban citizens, go forthing it hostile to private endeavor. Not until 1993, did the Cuban authorities make it legal for Cubans to possess U.S. dollars. Since so, it has become the major currency. Failure by the Communists to establish major economic reforms has fostered the development of a big black market and vividly turning corruptness. Those with entree to dollars can buy imported goods at government-run dollar shops. To gain dollar tips, many skilled individuals, such as physicians, instructors, applied scientists, and scientists are working in more remedial occupations in eating houses or as taxi drivers. However, the Cuban authorities has non employed any believable attempt to follow market-based policies and continues to maintain tight control over the extremely centralised economic system. Over 80 % of the work force are employed by the state.3

To promote a democratic passage in Cuba, Congress passed the Cuban Democracy Act ( CDA ) in 1992, which tightened the trade stoppage by forbiding American owned or controlled subordinates located abroad from making concern with Cuba.

The countenances will besides hold an unforeseen indirect consequence on the American economic system excessively. In add-on to the immediate impact of countenances on trade with the mark, Cuba, many American concerns will endure. American business communities claim that the effects of even limited one-sided trade countenances will travel good beyond the targeted sectors. They besides argue that the effects of such action will be given to linger long after the trade stoppage is lifted because U.S. signifiers will come to be regarded as undependable providers. Exports lost today may intend lower exports after the countenances are lifted because U.S. houses will non be able to provide complementary parts, replacing parts, or related engineerings. These indirect effects may widen beyond the canonic merchandises and even beyond the clip period in which the countenances are imposed.

Jobs in the export sector of the economic system tend to pay better than the mean rewards. Therefore even in the full employment economic system that the U.S. is basking now, the loss of exports still means a loss in rewards the export pay sector premium. The export sector pay premium is approximately 12 to 15 per centum, taking into history both direct and indirect employment. In 1995, the mean wage in the fabrication sector was about $ 34,020, so the premium paid by the export sector was about $ 4080 per worker ( 12 % of $ 34,020 ) . What these figures mean is that, as a effect of U.S. countenances, workers likely lost between $ 800 million and $ 1 billion in export sector pay premiums in 1995.4

In some periods in the last two decennaries, when the U.S. economic system was non booming with full employment, and when occupations were non readily available, the loss of these exports may hold added to the unemployment axial rotations. But even if the loss of exports had a zero consequence on unemployment, it surely reduced the figure of good paying occupations. If the following 20 old ages see similar applications of countenances in the United States, the cumulative loss of pay premiums could be around $ 20 billion ( 20 old ages times approximately $ 1billion a twelvemonth ) .5 This is a heavy cost for us, and does non even take into history less touchable costs like doing U.S. companies seem undependable as providers and handing over concern to foreign rivals.

U.S. concerns are alarmed by the proliferation of trade countenances by federal, province, and local authoritiess and are forcing for statute law doing it harder to utilize commercialism as a arm in international differences. USA*Engage and its 632 concerns and organisation members argue that one-sided trade countenances seldom work, and frequently, they do blowbacks and have a bad affect ion American involvements. Most of the analysis of the effectivity of economic countenances suggests they have limited public-service corporation for altering the behaviour or authoritiess of mark states. Previous research at the Institute for International Economics concluded that US countenances had positive results in fewer than one in five instances in the 1970s and 1980s.6 Much less is known about the costs of economic countenances for the U.S. economic system.

Foreign investing in Cuba has failed terribly to run into the government & # 8217 ; s ain outlooks. Many of the states that had committed investing barely reached what they had really promised.Originally targeted at $ 500 million per twelvemonth when new steps to pull foreign investing were introduced in 1990, the three-year investing sum ( FY 90-91 to 92-93 ) hardly reached $ 500 million.7

For 30 old ages, the United States had a media prohibition curtailing the media from holding outstations in Cuba. American intelligence agency were closed down in Cuba in 1969 when Castro s authorities expelled the last members of the Associated Press who had been runing in the state. Almost 30 old ages subsequently, in February 1997, President Clinton stated that 10 intelligence organisations would have licences leting them to restart operations in Cuba. The determination to raise the intelligence media limitations came at a clip when inquiries refering dealingss with Cuba began to do policy rifts between the United States and our European Alliess.

Despite this minor grant made by the White House refering the media webs, the policies of the Clinton Administration remained avidly anti-Castro. Clinton s chief purposes refering Cuba are to proclaim democratic reforms in the authorities and convey an terminal to four decennaries of communism in Cuba.

During Clinton s first term in office, he signed into jurisprudence, a measure that imposed countenances on any state that chose to make concern with the Castro authorities, the Helms-Burton Act. Our European Alliess argued that the jurisprudence was an effort by the United States to command the foreign policies of other states. And they vowed to dispute the jurisprudence before the freshly formed World Trade Organization ( WTO ) .

After Cuban combatant jets shot down two rider planes without warning in February 1996, President Clinton showed no vacillation in subscribing this measure into jurisprudence. Part of his purposes were to direct Cuba a powerful message that the United States will non digest farther loss of American life, 8 as Clinton stated himself. The measure targets companies making concern in Cuba in an effort to barricade important international investing sought by the Cuban authorities. It allows Americans to action companies that profit from the belongings the Cuban authorities has confiscated in the past 35 old ages, a judicial admission many U.S. Alliess have shown resistance for. One of the major grounds for the infliction of the trade stoppage was the Cuban Government s failure to counterbalance 1000s of U.S. companies and persons whose belongingss, big and little, were confiscated after the revolution. They specifically targeted and took belongings owned by U.S. subjects. Under the Cuba claims plans in the 1960s, the U.S. Foreign Claims Settlement Commission certified 5,911 valid claims by U.S. subjects against the Government of Cuba.9 The Castro authorities besides took belongings from 1000s of Cubans, some of whom have since become U.S. citizens. Under the jurisprudence, any individual who makes usage of belongings confiscated from Americans by Castro s authorities can be denied entry into the United States. Cuban-American Representative Ileana Ros-Lechtin, R-Florida, said the measure will punish those who have become Castro s new frequenter saints: the foreign investors who callously traffic in American confiscated belongings in Cuba to gain from the wretchedness of the Cuban worker. 10 The measure besides urges the president to seek an international trade stoppage against Cuba, but presently, no other economic power observes an trade stoppage. Cuba doesn T seem really concerned though. The chief victim of this jurisprudence will be the United States itself, said Paul Taladrid, Cuba s deputy curate for foreign investing, because it will hold to confront the resistance of the remainder of the universe, or its closest Alliess. 11

Although many U.S. Alliess oppose parts of the policy, they have said that they agree with us on the cardinal end of promoting democracy and human rights in Cuba. Even when back uping Cuba s declaration at the UN General Assembly against the U.S. trade stoppage of Cuba, The European Union made clear its resistance to Cuba s human rights policies. The best known and most controversial parts of the Act are Title III and Title IV which created a private cause of action in U.S. Courts and prohibits visas and entry into the United States to those who traffic in confiscated belongings claimed by a U.S. national. The commissariats extend good beyond America s legal range. These commissariats prompted the European Union to originate a ailment against the U.S. in the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) . Canada and Mexico called for audiences under the commissariats of NAFTA.

Many think that the Act is a ill-conceived rule ; critics claim that it attempts to sabotage the government of Castro by striping him of difficult currency. This is ineffectual, non merely because the U.S. finds itself entirely in its policy of insulating Cuba ; although sometimes a alone policy may be the right 1. Both Canada, the biggest investor in the island state, and the European Union are still poised to revenge against the United States. American Alliess reject the thought of doing foreign policy under menace of case. Although the United States has such a job with other states non endorsing the trade stoppage, an awkward illustration is still extant. After the foundati

on of the province of Israel, an Arab boycott penalized foreign houses for making concern with the new province. America justly opposed this policy ; now it must fix to change by reversal itself.

U.S. Alliess in Europe and Latin-America are ashen over Helms-Burton ; by what right, they ask, do U.S. Courts presume to enforce countenances against aliens making their ain concern in Cuba? Several of these states have passed antagonizing Torahs leting their citizens to action in their tribunals if Helms-Burton instances are brought against them in the United States. All this does is go forth a possible legal rat s nest profiting cipher but the attorneies.

Helms-Burton in subdivision 306 ( B ) gives the President authorization to suspend the commissariats leting cases against sellers for consecutive periods of six months if he finds that such a measure is necessary to the national involvements of the United States and will hasten the passage to democracy in Cuba. President Clinton has already exercised this option several times to pacify the dissention from our Alliess.

We have been able to pull off this serious dissension with our close Alliess and trading spouses and progress the publicity of democracy in Cuba. Under Secretary Eizenstat reached an & # 8220 ; Understanding & # 8221 ; with the EU in April 1997 under which the EU agreed to suspend its WTO instance and step up its attempts to advance democracy in Cuba. The parties besides agreed to negociate subjects on belongings confiscated in dispute of international jurisprudence, including belongings in Cuba, and rules on conflicting legal powers. These treatments are in a important stage and, if an understanding is reached, the Administration will discourse with Congress the possibility of obtaining authorization to relinquish Title IV of the Act.

There is a big organic structure of misconceptions about the present province of wellness attention in Cuba, including the false accusal that it is the U.S. policy to deny medical specialty or medical supplies and equipment to the Cuban people. The terminal of Soviet subsidies forced Cuba to confront the existent costs of its wellness attention system. Unwilling to follow the economic alterations necessary to reform its dysfunctional economic system, the Castro authorities rapidly faced a big budget shortage. In response, the Cuban Government made a calculated determination to go on to pass money to keep its military and internal security setup at the disbursal of other precedences & # 8211 ; including wellness attention. In 1995, Cuba & # 8217 ; s imports totaled $ 2.8 billion dollars, yet merely $ 46 million dollars & # 8211 ; merely 1.5 % of overall foreign purchases & # 8211 ; on medical imports for its 11 million people. By comparing, Cuba & # 8217 ; s neighbour, the Dominican Republic, spent $ 208 million dollars on medical imports for its 7.5 million citizens in 1995.12

The US trade stoppage does NOT deny medical specialties and medical supplies to the Cuban people. As stipulated in Section 1705 of the Cuban Democracy Act of 1992, the U.S. Government routinely issues licences for the sale of medical specialty and medical supplies to Cuba. The lone demand for obtaining a licence is to set up for end-use monitoring to guarantee that there is no sensible likeliness that these points could be diverted to the Cuban military, used in Acts of the Apostless of anguish or other human rights maltreatments, or re-exported or used in the production of biotechnological merchandises. Independent non-governmental organisations, international organisations, or foreign diplomats can execute monitoring of gross revenues.

Since 1992, 36 of 38 licence petitions have been approved to U.S. companies and their subordinates to sell medical specialty and medical equipment to Cuba. Gross saless have included such points as thalamonal, depo-provera, paediatric solutions, panpipes, and other points. The Department of Commerce declined the other two petitions for licences it received for failure to run into legal criterions. Both of these exclusions to the general policy of commercial medical gross revenues occurred in 1994.13

Furthermore, the U.S. trade stoppage on Cuba affects merely U.S. companies and their subordinates. Other states and companies are free to merchandise with Cuba. Should Cuba take non to buy from the U.S. , it can buy any medical specialty or medical equipment it needs from other states. Such third-country minutess merely cost an estimated 2 % -3 % more than purchases from the U.S. as a consequence of higher transportation costs.

The indispensable component of the calamity of the Cuban people is non the United States Cuba struggle ; instead, it is the battle of 11 million people who seek to asseverate their human self-respect and repossess the unalienable political, economic and civil rights that were taken off from them by the Castro government. The Cuban people have been victims of one of the most oppressive governments of the 20th century. The systematic misdemeanor in Cuba of each and every human right recognized in the United Nations & # 8217 ; Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been dependably documented in recent old ages at the UN Human Rights Commission and by respected human rights organisations throughout the universe. The truth is at that place for all that wish to see. Impervious to the distressing life conditions of the people, the smothering deficiency of autonomy, and to reiterate international calls for democratic alteration, Castro stanchly clings onto the reins of absolute power.

– Key TO HELP End THE Oppression

Keep the trade stoppage until irreversible economic and political reforms taking to democratic capitalist economy are in topographic point. Tightening the economic prison guards may take to more perturbations and public violences, every bit good as increased repression as Castro struggles to stay in power. However, the trade stoppage remains the lone effectual instrument available to the U.S. authorities in seeking to coerce the economic and democratic grants it has been demanding of Castro for over three decennaries. Keeping the trade stoppage will assist to stop the Castro government more rapidly.

Admit no more Cuban refugees into the U.S. beyond the 20,000 per twelvemonth agreed to during dialogues in September of 1994.14 Leting the unrestricted entry of Cuban refugees during the Cold War was valid and necessary while Castro & # 8217 ; s government was still powerful and its political control of the island was unchallenged. But fortunes have changed in the past old ages, as the Clinton Administration realized when it changed U.S. policy toward Cuba during the August of 1994 refugee crisis. Continuing to let Cuban refugees unrestricted entry to the United States serves merely to protract Castro & # 8217 ; s regulation by supplying him a much-needed safety valve to alleviate the force per unit area of turning societal discontent.

Canada, halt pampering Castro and get down naming for existent alterations. The Clinton Administration was successful in acquiring the United Nations to reprobate the military government in Haiti. There is no ground it can non exercise every bit persuasive diplomatic force per unit area to acquire similar declarations sing Cuba through that organic structure. The Administration should endeavor to convert the international community non to make concern with Cuba until the gaols are emptied of all political captives, until Castro & # 8217 ; s inhibitory security forces are disbanded, all illicitly confiscated belongingss and assets are returned to their rightful proprietors or appropriate compensation is paid, the fundamental law and Torahs of Cuba are reformed to legalise free endeavor and private ownership of belongings, free-market policies are adopted, and democratic elections are held in a pluralist political context which allows the Cuban people to elect the leaders they choose.

At the same clip, Castro & # 8217 ; s intransigency has non slowed attempts by many of these states, including NAFTA spouses Mexico and Canada, to spread out trade dealingss with Cuba. The U.S. should utilize its purchase as the most of import trading state in the hemisphere to rectify this. For illustration, the NAFTA trade relationship carries an inexplicit understanding with the shared end of constructing a trade zone in the Western Hemisphere based on free markets and regard for democracy. Those rules apply to all other states in the Americas seeking closer trade dealingss with the U.S. and U.S. investing to assist develop their economic systems. The Clinton Administration should non be timid in pressing its instance in this respect.

Prepare for the possibility that Castro & # 8217 ; s prostration could unleash a drawn-out period of societal and political agitation, and possibly even civil war, in Cuba. U.S. policy toward Castro long has idealized an result in which Cuba makes a peaceable passage to a free-market democracy. With Castro & # 8217 ; s prostration more likely in the close term than of all time before, nevertheless, the U.S. authorities does non look to hold a policy for covering with the likeliness that it will take topographic point amid bloodshed, armed struggle, and pandemonium. The U.S. authorities should seek to develop flexible responses for Castro & # 8217 ; s death, depending on whether it takes topographic point in a clime of force or peaceable passage. And should fix now for the passage that could get down without important warning.

Reinforce the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo in expectancy of onslaught by pro-Castro forces. The Clinton Administration should see the possibility that a despairing Castro might try to arouse a violent U.S. military response which could startle Cuban support for the government based on old frights, nurtured for decennaries by Castro & # 8217 ; s propaganda machine, of & # 8220 ; Yanqui & # 8221 ; imperialism and colonialism. The Administration should reenforce the base with tactical aircraft and at least a brigade-sized combat unit capable of keeping off a surprise onslaught.

Provide fiscal and other support to more than 150 heretical groups within Cuba that are fighting to convey down Castro. Such groups include the Catholic Church, which is dedicated to peaceable alteration. No support should be provided to dissident groups purpose on triping violent alteration, for the United States must avoid inflaming anti-American sentiment at all costs. Dissident groups dedicated to peaceable alteration will be the footing on which a civil society will be created in a post-Castro Cuba, and their growing should be encouraged and supported in much the same manner the Reagan Administration clandestinely supported Lech Walesa & # 8217 ; s Solidarity labour motion in Poland after soldierly jurisprudence was imposed in late 1981. Such support would include funding of publications and income subsidies to allow dissenters to back up themselves and their households.

Increase the airing activities of Radio Mart. These broadcasts should press the Cuban people to convey down Castro peacefully and should stipulate that under no fortunes will the U.S. interfere militarily in Cuba & # 8217 ; s domestic personal businesss. They should besides emphasize that what the U.S. wants is a stable, friendly relationship with a democratic, free-market Cuba and that the U.S. is willing to negociate with the Cuban authorities every bit long as Castro implements the comprehensive political and economic reforms he needs to resuscitate his stalled economic system.

The 32-year-old trade trade stoppage against Cuba may eventually be bring forthing its intended consequences of destabilising the island & # 8217 ; s communist authorities and weakening Fidel Castro & # 8217 ; s control of the Cuban people. Castro has resisted alteration since losing the Soviet Union & # 8217 ; s fiscal support, but his concluding prostration may be closer than of all time before. However, he continues his splanchnic abhorrence of democracy and the free market, all the piece demanding the trade stoppage be lifted without status. It seems clear that Castro believes his endurance flexible joints on the trade stoppage & # 8217 ; s riddance. Paradoxically, merely as Castro & # 8217 ; s communist authorities may be near to falling, a chorus of voices in the U.S. has risen to name for the lifting of the trade stoppage. They cite several grounds: to ease the agony of the Cuban people, to capitalise on the trade and investing chances other states allegedly are basking in Cuba, and to set up the bases of a free-market economic system that in clip will oblige democratic reforms as good. But the greatest donee would be Fidel Castro, whose 35-year-old communist absolutism would be fortified nightlong if he were allowed entree to the one million millions of dollars in fiscal assistance from many-sided bureaus, recognition warrants, and investing that would get down fluxing into Cuba.

The United States must non abandon the Cuban people by loosen uping or raising the trade trade stoppage against the Communist government. Alternatively, the U.S. authorities must reject all force per unit areas to ease the trade stoppage until all of the aims for which it was imposed are achieved. Anything less would represent an unacceptable breach of religion with the Cuban people, who today are among the really few people left in the universe who still suffer the ferociousness of a communist absolutism.


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According to Thrall (2000), tariff levels in highly developed nations have skimmed down dramatically, and now average approximately 4 percent. Tariff levels in developing nations of the world have also been reduced, although they still remain relatively high, averaging 20 percent in the low-and middle-income countries. Non-tariff barriers to trade, such as quotas, licenses and technical specifications, are also being gradually dismantled, but rather more slowly than tariffs. Regional Trade Agreements (Arts) have also become very fashionable in the form of Free Trade Areas and Customs Unions.

The WTFO lists 76 that have been established or modified since 1948. The major ones are the European Union (ELI); the North American Free Trade Area (NONFAT); Mercury covering Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Chile; APES, covering countries in the Asia and Pacific region; SEAN covering South-East Asian countries, and SACS, covering countries in southern Africa. The liberalizing of trade has led to a massive expansion in the growth of world trade relative to world output. While world output (or GAP) has expanded fivefold, the volume of world trade has grown 16 times at an average compound rate of Just over 7 percent per annum.

In some individual countries, notably in South-East Asia, the growth tot exports has exceeded ten percent per annum. Exports have tended to grow fastest in countries with more liberal trade regimes, and these countries have experienced the fastest growth of GAP (Thrall, 2000). Foreign trade can be defined as commercial transactions (in goods and/or services) across international frontiers or boundaries. Foreign trade plays a vital role in estimating economic and social attributes of countries around the world.

The workings of an economy in terms of growth rate and per-capita income have been based on the domestic production and consumption activities and in conjunction with foreign transactions of goods and services. Further, the role of foreign trade in economic development is considerable and the relationship between openness and economic growth has long been a subject of much interest and controversy in international trade literature. The classical and neo-classical economists attached so much importance to foreign trade in a nation’s development that they regarded it as an engine of growth.

Over the past several decades, the economies of the world have become greatly connected through international trade and globalization. Foreign trade has been identified as the oldest and most important part of a country’s external economic relationships. It plays a vital and central role in the development of a modern global economy. Its impact on the growth and development of countries has increased considerably over the years and has significantly contributed to the advancement of the world economy.

The impact of foreign trade on a country’s economy is not only limited to the quantitative gains, but also structural change in the economy and facilitating of international capital inflows. Trade enhances the efficient production of goods and services through allocation of resources to countries that have comparative advantage in their production. Foreign trade has been identified as an instrument and driver of economic growth (Franken and Roomer, 1999). It has been stated theoretically and proven empirically that economic openness contributes to the level of the economy (Errors and Denizen (201 1); Shaky (201 1); Chuddar et al (2010)).

This is because in a competitive environment, prices get lower and the products become diversified through which consumer surplus emerges. Gains from specialization and efficiency are also further advantages of economic openness. Hence, it is quite reasonable that economies generally desire to be economically open. Of the various objectives of foreign trade, the promotion of economic growth and stability holds more weight. Various researchers have, in their various research works, delved into studying the numerous advantages and gains obtainable from trade between economies.

As a result, there has therefore been an increasing interest in the study of foreign trade and its benefits particularly to developing countries. However, (recent) empirical investigations have not been able to show how healthy or otherwise, vastly (or scarcely) opened boarders are to economic growth. Actual gains from trade rather than gains accrued to vastly or scarcely open boarders are most often, the major points of discourse in most research. To this end, this research work concerns itself with examining how porous the Nigerian economy should be towards foreign trade.

How exactly wide and receptive should the economy accommodate foreign trade in the quest for sustained long run economic growth? This study focuses extensively on the trade pattern of Nigeria over the years with more attention on the various trade policies or programs that and been adopted over the years. Relevant trade theories ranging trot classical theories to contemporary trade theories shall be highlighted. The Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GAP) shall be used as the indicator for the economic growth of Nigeria. The study time frame shall be restricted to fall between 1980 and 2011.

The relevant questions in this research are: What has been the pattern of international trade in Nigeria? Has trade openness in Nigeria stimulated economic growth? To what extent should the economy be open to foreign trade in the quest for sustainable long run growth and development? Therefore, the main objectives of this paper are to: (1) examine the pattern of international trade in Nigeria. 2) determine if indeed, trade openness stimulates economic growth in Nigeria and, (3) determine the extent to which the economy should be open to foreign trade in the quest for sustainable long run growth and development.

Congregation analysis is adopted for this study to test for the long run relationship between trade openness and economic growth in Nigeria. Individual variable relationship between the various trade openness indicators and economic growth variable (Real GAP) will be established and actual functional relationships will be determined using the LOS estimation method. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test for stationary will also be conducted for the variables of interest. Secondary data would be used in this study.

The relevant data to be used would be sourced from the Central Bank of Insignia’s statistical reports, annual reports and statement of accounts for the years under review. The remaining part of the paper is structured as follows: in Section 2 we present a brief review of related literature alongside relevant trade and growth theories while Section 3 provides some stylized facts about the subject matter. Section 4 is on the Research Methodology and Empirical Result. In Section 5, we conclude the research work. 2. Review of Related Literature and Theories.

Openness refers to the degree of dependence of an economy on international trade and financial flows. Trade openness on the other hand measures the international competitiveness of a country in the global marked. Thus, we may talk of trade openness and financial openness. Trade openness is often measured by the ratio of import to GAP or alternatively, the ratio of trade to GAP. It is now generally accepted that increase openness with respect to both trade and capital flows will be beneficial to a country. Increased openness facilitates greater integration into global markets.

Integration and globalization are beneficial to developing countries although there are also some potential risks (aloha and Rakish, 2002). Trade openness is interpreted to include import and export taxes, as well as explicit non tariff distortions of trade or in varying degrees of broadness to cover such matters as exchange-rate policies, domestic taxes and subsides, competition and other regulatory policies, education policies, the nature of the legal system, the form of government, and the general nature of institution and culture (Baldwin, 2002).

One of the policy measures of the Structural Adjustment Programmer (SAP) adopted by Nigeria in 1986 is Trade Openness. This meaner the dismantling of trade and exchange control domestically. Trade liberalizing has been found to perform the role of engine of growth, especially via high real productivity export (Baden, 1993). He argued that with export, a nation can take advantage tot division tot labor and procure desired goods and services from abroad, at considerable savings in terms of inputs of productive resources, thereby helping to increase the efficiency of the export industry.

Export Roth sets up a circle of growth, so that once a country is on the growth path, it maintains this momentum, of competitive position in world trade and performs continually better relative to other countries. The doctrine that trade enhances welfare and growth has a long and distinguished ancestry dating back to Adam Smith (1723-90). In his famous book, and inquiry into nature and causes of the wealth of nations (1776), Smith stressed the importance of trade as a vent for surplus production and as a meaner of widening the market thereby improving the division of labor and the level of productivity.

He asserts that “between whatever places foreign trade is carried on, all of them derive two distinct benefits from it. It carries the surplus part of the produce of their land and labor for which there is no demand among them, and brings back in return something else for which there is a demand. It gives value to their superfluities, by exchanging them for something else, which may satisfy part of their wants and increase their satisfaction.

By meaner of it, the narrowness of the labor market does not hinder the division of labor in any particular branch of art or manufacture from being carried to the highest perfection. By opening a more extensive market for whatever part of the produce of their labor may exceed the home consumption, it encourages them to improve its productive powers and to augment its annual produce to the utmost, and thereby to increase the real revenue of wealth and society’ (Thrall, 2000).

We may summarize the absolute advantage trade theory of Adam Smith, thus, countries should specialize in and export those commodities in which they had an absolute advantage and should import those commodities in which the trading partner had an absolute advantage. That is to say, each country should export those commodities it produced more efficiently because the absolute labor required per unit was less than that of the prospective trading partners. (Applecart and Field, 1998) In the 19th century, the Smithsonian trade theory generated a lot of arguments.

This made David Richard (1772-1823) to develop the theory of comparative advantage and showed rigorously in his principles of political economy and taxation (1817) that on the assumptions of perfect competition and the full employment of resources, countries can reap welfare gains by specializing in the production of those goods with the lowest opportunity veer domestic demand, provided that the international rate of exchange between commodities lies between the domestic opportunity cost ratios.

These are essentially static gains that arise from the reallocation of resources from one sector to another as increased specialization, based on comparative advantage, takes place. These are the trade creation gains that arise within customs to trade are removed between members, but the gains are once-for-all. Once the tariff barriers have been removed and no further reallocation takes place, the static gains are exhausted. The static ins from trade stem from the basic fact that countries are differently endowed with resources and because of this the opportunity cost of producing products varies from country to country.

The law of comparative advantage states that countries will benefit if they specialize in the production of those goods for which the opportunity cost is low and exchange those goods for other goods, the opportunity cost of which is higher. That is to say, the static gains trot trade are measured by the resource gains to be obtained by exporting to obtain imports more cheaply in terms of resources given up, compared to producing the goods oneself. In other words, the static gains from trade are measured by the excess cost of import substitution, by what is saved for not producing the imported good domestically.

The resource gains can then be used in a variety of ways including increased domestic consumption of both goods (Thrall, 2000). Baldwin (2003) has demonstrated persuasively that countries with few trade restrictions achieve more rapid economic growth than countries with more restrictive policies. As poverty will be reduced more quickly through faster growth, poor countries could use the trade liberalizing as a policy LOL. Trade liberalizing reduces relative price distortions and allows those activities with a comparative advantage to expand and consequently foster economic growth.

Poor countries tend to engage in labor-intensive activities due to an overabundance of available labor. Thus the removal of trade barriers in these countries promotes intensive economic activity and provides employment and income to many impoverished people. On the other hand, the pursuit of trade-restrictive policies by labor endowed poor countries distorts relative prices in favor of capital-intensive activities. The removal of trade barriers could lead to a decline in the value of assets of protected industries and therefore to the loss of Jobs in those industries.

This implies that trade liberalizing has distributional effects as industries adjust to liberalized trade policies. Economist Ann Harridan’s 1991 paper makes a synthesis of previous empirical studies between openness and the rate of GAP growth, comparing the results from cross- section and panel estimations while controlling for country effects. Harrison concluded that on the whole, correlations across openness measures seem to be positively associated with GAP growth – the more open the economy, the higher the growth rate, or the more protected the local economy, the slower the growth in income.

On the other hand, trade restrictions or barriers are associated with reduced growth rates and social welfare, and countries with higher degrees of protectionism, on average, tend to grow at a much slower pace than countries with fewer trade restrictions. This is because tariffs reflect additional direct costs that producers have to absorb, which could reduce output and growth. Franken and Aroma (1999) and Irwin ND Torero (2002) in their separate and independent studies also suggested that countries that are more open to trade tends to experience higher growth rates and per-capital income than closed economy.

Klaxon and Rodriguez – Clare (1997) used general equilibrium model to establish that the greater number of intermediate input combination results in productivity gain and higher output, despite using the same capital labor input which exhibit the economics increasing international trade return to scale. Nigeria is basically an open economy with international transactions constituting a significant proportion of her aggregate output. To a large extent, Insignia’s economic development depends on the prospects of her export trade with other nations.

Trade provides both foreign exchange earnings and market stimulus for accelerated economic growth. Openness to trade may generate significant gains that enhance economic transformation. This meaner that, there will be diffusion of knowledge and innovation amongst other open economies tot the world . Trade openness has been hailed for its beneficial effects on productivity, the adoption and use of better technology and investment promotion – which are channels for stimulating economic growth. Over the years, Nigeria has identified deeper trade integration as a meaner to foster economic growth and to alleviate poverty. 2. Theoretical Review 2. 1. 1 TRADE THEORIES: Trade as Engine of Growth. The origins of trade can be traced to the absolute and comparative advantage as well as Heckler Olin theories Momma, 2001). The theory of absolute advantage was formulated by Adam Smith in his famous book title “Inquiry into the nature and the wealth of Nations” 1776. The theory emanated due to the demise of mercantilism. Smith argued that with free trade each nation could specialize in the production of hose commodities in which it could produce more efficiently than other nations and import those commodities it could not produce efficiently.

According to him, the international specialization of factors in production would result in increase in the world output. Thus this specialization makes goods available to all nations. 2. 1. 2 Comparative Advantage Theory This theory was propounded David Richard. The theory assumed the existence of two countries, two commodities and one factors of production. To him a country export the commodity whose comparative advantage lower and import commodity whose imperative cost is higher. The theory also assumed that the level of technology is fixed for both nations and that trade is balanced and rolls out the flow of money between nations.

However, the theory is based on the labor theory of values which states that the price of the values of a commodity is equal to the labor time going into the production process. Labor is used in a fixed proportion in the production of all commodities. But the assumptions underlying is quite unrealistic because labor can be subdivided into skilled, semiskilled and unskilled labor and there are other factors of production. Despite the limitations, comparative cost advantage cannot be discarded because its application is relevant in explaining the concept of opportunity cost in the modern theory of trade. . 1. 3 Heckler-Olin Trade Theory The theory focuses on the differences in relative factor endowments and factor prices between nations on the assumption of equal technology and tastes. The Model was based on two main propositions; namely; a country will specialize in the production and export of commodity whose production requires intensive use of abundant resources. Secondly, countries differ in factor endowment. Some countries are capital intensive while some are labor intensive.

He identified the different in pre-trade product prices between nations as the immediate basis of trade, the prices depends on production possibility curve (supply side) as well as the taste and preference (demand side). But the production possibility curve depends on factor endowment and technology. To him, a nation should produce and export a product for which abundant resources is used be it capital or labor. The model suggests t developing countries are labor abundant and therefore they should concentrate in he production of primary product such as agricultural product and they should import capital intensive product I. . Manufactured goods from the developed countries. The model also assumes two countries, two commodities and two factors and that two factors inputs labor and capital are homogeneous. The production function is assumed to exhibit constant return to scale. However, the theory is not free from criticism and this because factors inputs are not identical in quality and cannot be measured in homogeneous units. Also factor endowment differs in quality and variety. Relative factor prices reflect differences in relative factor endowment- supply therefore outweigh demand in the determination of factor prices.

Despite this criticism, trade increases the total world output. All countries gain from trade and it also enables countries to secure capital and consumption of goods from the rest of the world. 2. 2 THEORIES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH Economic growth is best defined as a long term expansion of productive potential of the economy. Trend growth is the smooth path of long run national output I. E. It requires a long run series of macroeconomic data which could be twenty years or ore.

The trend of growth could be expanded by raising capital investment spending as a share of national income as well as the size of capital inputs and labor supply, labor force and the technological advancement. There are different schools of thought that have discussed the causes of growth and development and they are discussed below. 2. 2. 1 Neo-classical Growth Theory. This was first propounded by Robert Solos over 40 years ago. The model believes that a sustained increase in capital investments increased the growth rate only temporarily, because the ratio of capital to labor goes up.

The marginal product of additional units is assumed to decline and thus an economy eventually moves back to a long term growth-path with the real GAP growing at the same rate as the growth of the workforce plus factor to reflect improving productivity. Neo-classical economists who subscribe to the Solos model believes that to raise an economy long term trend rate of growth requires an increase in labor supply and also a higher level of productivity of labor and capital. Differences in the rate of technological change between countries are said to explain much of the variation in growth rates.

The neo-classical model treats productivity improvements as an exogenous variable which meaner that productivity improvements are assumed to be independent of the amount of capital investment. 2. 2. 2 Endogenous Growth Theory. To them, they believe that improvements in productivity can be attributed directly to a faster pace of innovation and external investment in human capital. They stress the need for government and private sector institutions to encourage innovation and provide incentives tort individual and business to be inventive .

There is also central ole of the accumulation of knowledge as a determinant of growth I. E. Knowledge industries such as telecommunication, electronics, software or biotechnology are becoming increasingly important in developed countries. The proponent of endogenous growth theory believes that there are positive externalities to be exploited from the development of a high value added knowledge economy which is able to developed and maintain a competitive advantage in fact growth within the global economy.

They are of the opinion that the rate of technological progress should not be taken as a constant in a growth model- government policies can rearmament raise a country growth rate if they lead to move intense competition in markets and help to stimulate product and process innovation. That they are increasing returns to scale from new capital investment and also private sector investment is a key source of technical progress and that investment in human capital is an essential ingredient of long term growth. . 2. 3 Harrow – Dammar Growth Model Harrow-Dammar opined that economic growth is achieved when more investment leads to more growth. They theory is based on linear production function with output given by capital stock (K) tines a constant. Investment according to the theory generates income and also augments the productive capacity of the economy by increasing the capital stock. In as much as there is net investment, real income and output continue to expend.

And, for full employment equilibrium level of income and output to be maintained, both real income and output should expand at the same rate with the productive capacity of the capital stock. The theory maintained that for the economy to maintain a full employment, in the long run, net investment must increase continuously as well as growth in the real income at a rate sufficient enough to maintain full capacity use of a growing stock of capital. This implies that a net addition to the capital stock in the form of new investment will go a long way to increase the flow of national income.

From the theory, the national savings ratio is assumed to be a fixed proportions of national output and that total investment is determined by the level of total savings I. E. S = SYS which must be equal to net investment, l. The net investment which is I = AK = KAY because K has a direct relationship to total national income. And, therefore SYS = KAY which simply meaner AY/ Y is growth rate of GAP that is determined by the net national savings ratio, s and the national capital output, K in the absence of government, the growth rate of national income will be positively related to the saving ratio I. . The more an economy is able to save and invest out of a given GAP, the greater the growth of GAP and which will be inversely related to capital output ratio. The basis of the theory is that for an economy to grow, it should be able to save and invest a certain proportion of their GAP. The basis for foreign trade rests on the fact that nations of the world do differ in heir resource endowment, preferences, technology, scale of production and capacity for growth and development.

Countries engage in trade with one another because of these major differences and foreign trade has opened up avenues for nations to exchange and consume goods and services which they do not produce. Differences in natural endowment present a case where countries can only consume what they nave the capacity to produce, but trade enables them to consume what other countries produce. Therefore countries engage in trade in order to enjoy variety of goods and services and improve their people’s standard of living. . Some Stylized Facts.

Nigeria is Sub-Sahara Africans second largest economy, with nominal 2006 GAP of $Bonn (at APP) behind South Africans $Bonn. It has also been one of Africans fastest growing economies, outpacing South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and most of its neighbors with a CARR of 7% over the past 10 years. However, its growth has been more erratic due to the high reliance on natural resources (see further UNDO, Human Development Report 2007). Despite the fast pace of growth and the strong resource endowment, Nigeria has so far not increased its GAP per capita beyond that of its mailer and resource-poor neighbors.

It’s GAP per capita is below that of Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, and it is only 12% that of South Africa. Poverty and the rural nature of the Nigerian economy put pressure on financial services institution to innovate and to reach out to poor customers. Insignia’s economy is heavily reliant on the oil and gas sector. It makes up more than 40% of the GAP (Natural Resources and Industry), and accounts for virtually 100% of exports and 80% of budgetary revenues for the government. Nigeria is the world’s 12th largest producer of oil, mainly applying the US.

Next to natural resources the most important sector is agriculture, accounting for approximately 35% of GAP. A large portion of this is subsistence farming with declining productivity. This composition of GAP is quite unlike that of its neighbors, due to the importance of natural resources in the country. The natural resources sector is one of the drivers of sophistication in the financial services industry. While rising oil and gas prices have had a strong positive effect on GAP, exports and government revenues over time, it has however, not been Insignia’s only river of growth.

For instance, in 2007 political unrest in the Delta region affected oil production, but strong growth in the non-oil sector meant that overall GAP still grew by 5. 8%. The non-oil sector has grown at a 7% CARR over the past 10 years. This growth is expected to remain robust, due to good performances in certain sectors of the economy, particularly in communications, wholesale and retail trade, and construction; the financial sector will play a key part in facilitating further growth in the economy.

Hence, as a result of the large volume of oil export in Nigeria, it is clear hat foreign trade is essential in ensuring foreign earnings which should enrich the nation’s foreign exchange/national reserves with a view to exploring such surpluses into growth related activities for the country. 4. Research Methodology and Empirical Result This section basically concerns itself with the methodology of the research as well as presenting the result of econometric estimation and gives explanation of various findings.

The importance of this section lies in its quantitative and empirical content within which the purpose of this study would be Justified. Also of importance in this heaper is the overall findings and validation of hypothesis tested. This section is therefore divided into two namely: model specification and general discussion of results obtained from the various unit root test, LOS estimation as well as the congregation analysis. 4. Model Specification Following the production attention theory which snow now the level tot a count productivity depends on foreign direct investments (FED), trade openness (OPEN), exchange rates (EXERT) and government expenditure (JEEP), we specify our model showing how the interplay of these chosen variables actually affect the economic growth of Nigeria. The mathematical model will be based on the methodology adopted by Jude and Pop-Silages (2008) for the countries Romania and Karakas; Mohammed and Giovanni (2005) for 42 developing countries.

However for this study, we make some slight adjustments to the adopted methodology to suit the scope within which this study covers. The model used for this study has been so chosen because of its relevance to the Nigerian environment and availability of data. The dependent variable chosen for this study as proxy for economic growth is the real gross domestic product, written as RIGID. The explanatory variables are: Exchange ate, Foreign Direct Investment, Government Expenditure and Trade Openness.

Mathematically, the functional relationship between variables of interest is as written below: RIGID = f(VPN, EXERT, FED, JEEP) ? Writing the above equation explicitly in an econometric sense, we have: RIGID = With a view to lingering equation (it), we apply the Logarithmic function thus: Whereћ , and are regression parameters and is the standard error term, which is a random variable and has well defined probabilistic properties. Also, OPEN = Degree of openness, determined by the sum of total imports and exports, divided by total output I. E.

EXERT = Real exchange rate in Nigeria FED = Foreign Direct Investments from abroad to the country JEEP = Government Expenditure in the country. The signs on the variables are based on the priori expectations from theory, which is the direction of the relationship between the respective independent variables and the explained or dependent variable. The Real GAP variable is included to capture the growth and activity of the economy. How well an economy is performing, how rich an economy is, as well as how the condition of general well-being in an economy is re all captured in the RIGID variable.

The degree of openness, OPEN, measured as the ratio of the sum of total export and total imports to the GAP. According to Allege and Sousaphone (2013), African economies can be regarded as largely open in view of OPEN at an average of about 104. 85% over the period of study and 82. 26 per cent in 2007 only. Open economies are preferred by market seeking and efficiency seeking investors since there are fewer trade re

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Essay Research Paper Gamma HydroxyButyrate personal essay help: personal essay help

Gamma Hydroxybutyrate Essay, Research Paper

Gamma HydroxyButyrate ( GHB )

Essay written by therat420 @

GHB, or Gamma-Hydroxy Butyric Acid is an elating chemical with

medical, recreational, and potentially entheogenic utilizations. It is a normal

constituent of mammalian metamorphosis. It is of course found in every

cell in the human organic structure and is most decently considered a food. It

is believed to be a neurotransmitter, although it is still unknown as to

whether it exhibits all of the belongingss required to be considered one.

GHB was foremost synthesized about thirty old ages ago by Dr. H. Laborit. He

was a Gallic research worker interested in researching the effects of GABA

( gamma-aminobutyric acid ) in the encephalon. Over the old ages many

research workers have studied GHB? s effects. In Europe it is used as a

general anaesthetic, a intervention for insomnia and narcolepsy, an assistance

to childbirth, a intervention for alcohol addiction and intoxicant backdown

syndrome and many other things. During the 1980 & # 8217 ; s it was available

over the counter for its ability to excite growing endocrine release

which AIDSs in fat decrease and musculus edifice. Now it is really popular

as a recreational drug due to its pleasant alcohol-like hangover- free

high and strong sexual effects. Some street footings include Liquid X,

Liquid Ecstacy, Georgia Home Boy, Grievous Bodily Harm, and Scoop.

GHB is non approved in the US and has been banned from

nonprescription sale by the FDA ( 1990 ) . GHB has non yet been

scheduled as a controlled substance by the DEA, and hence simple

ownership is non illegal. GHB continues to be sold to legalize

research labs and scientists for research intents but selling it

specifically for human ingestion, particularly while doing claims

about its wellness benefits, is a misdemeanor of current FDA ordinances and

policy. In some European states, GHB is an sanctioned drug available

by prescription. The Federal control may hold been an act to protect

the pharmaceutical industry from competition from a safer, more

effectual and less expensive option to kiping pills.

There are many side effects and concerns associated with this drug.

GHB affects the release of Dopastat in the encephalon, normally doing

effects runing from relaxation to kip at low doses. Overall the

consequence is similar to that of intoxicant. The difference is that continuance is

somewhat longer and the katzenjammer effects are somewhat less and the

unpleasant and unsafe overdose consequence of perchance doing

temporarily unrousable slumber, or coma, at high doses. The effects of

GHB are to a great extent affected by one? s organic structure weight, interactions with other

chemicals, and single reaction. Some people find GHB utile for

handling insomnia, others use it to handle alcohol addiction. Some use it as a

replacing for intoxicant. The effects can be broken down by the dosage


Low Dose: .5 to 1.5g

This frequently causes effects similar to those of 1-3 drinks of intoxicant. At

this dose, the user can fell a mild relaxation, increased sociableness,

somewhat decreased motor accomplishments, mild giddiness, and other effects

similar to mild alcohol poisoning.

Medium Dose: 1-2.5g

This increases the relaxing effects and the physical disequilibrium

experienced. Some study increased grasp for music, dance,

or speaking. Many study positive temper alterations. There is some slurring

of address, absurdity, and little incoherence. Some study increased

feelings of sickness and grogginess. There are some studies of

pro-sexual effects, an addition in haptic sensitiveness, relaxation,

increased male erectile capacity and heightened experience of

orgasm, although some adult females report that this is harder to accomplish.

Heavy Dose: 2.5g +

A heavy dosage can increase feelings of disequilibrium in many people

to the point of experiencing really ill. ( One ground the GHB has gained

ill fame as a Club Drug is that some people experience highly

positive feelings on Heavy Doses of GHB. ) Reports of euphory,

experiencing music deeply, joyous dance, and other really positive effects

are common. An excess one-fourth gm can be the difference between

euphory and emesis.

Overdose: can be small as 2g

One major job with GHB as an belowground recreational

substance is tha

T it has a crisp dose-response curve, which can be

hard to pull off with the assorted non- criterion readyings

available to the uninformed purchaser. Another major job is that

uninformed users frequently mix intoxicants with GHB, which drastically

increases the opportunity of purging and unconsciousness.


While many overdoses consist chiefly of heavy slumber, some are

life-threatening. GHB Poisonings are characterized by really low

external respiration, paroxysms, purging, being wholly non responsive

even to? deep hurting? , fixed students, etc.

After Effectss:

Some people feel drowsy, sleepy, or groggy after the effects wear off.

The katzenjammer from low and average doses of GHB is normally mild or

non existent. Some people do describe experiencing somewhat? fuzzy-headed?

the following twenty-four hours. Some besides report experiencing refreshed, happier, and more

alarm the twenty-four hours after usage. Using GHB more than one time a hebdomad can do

significantly increased negative after effects.

These are the feelings that the user may see but it is besides

of import to understand what GHB is making inside the organic structure.

GHB temporarily inhibits the release of Dopastat in the encephalon. This

may do increased Dopastat storage and subsequently increased Dopastat

release when the GHB influence wears away. This consequence could be the

ground why users that awake in the center of the dark is more

common with usage of higher GHB doses, and the general feelings of

increased wellbeing, watchfulness and arousal the following twenty-four hours. GHB besides

stimulates pituitary growing endocrine release. It besides induces

? singular hypotonus? or musculus relaxation. It is deriving popularity

in France and Italy as an assistance to childbearing. It causes a? spectacular

action on the dilation of the neck, ? decreased anxiousness, greater

strength and frequence of uterine contractions, increased sensitiveness

to oxytocic drus, saving of physiological reactions, a deficiency of respiratory

depression in the foetus, and protection against foetal cardiac anoxia.

GHB besides causes a protein saving consequence which reduces the rate at

which proteins in the organic structure are broken down, which along with the

growing endocrine, underlies its common usage as an assistance to

muscle-building and fat loss.

Anaesthetic doses of GHB are accompanied by a little addition in blood

sugar degrees, and a important lessening in cholesterin. Respiration

becomes slower and deeper. GHB has been called an about ideal

slumber bring oning substance. Small doses produce relaxation, repose

and sleepiness which make it highly easy to fall asleep of course.

The primary disadvantage to GHB? s usage as a slumber assistance is it? s short

term influence, which is about three hours. GHB shows great promise

in the intervention of alcohol addiction. In Europe, one of its primary utilizations is

to alleviate backdown symptoms, cravings, and anxiousness among


There are four chief prosexual belongingss:

1 ) disinhibition,

2 ) heightening of the sense of touch,

3 ) sweetening of male erectile capacity

4 ) increased strength of climax

All four together rise the intent of utilizing this drug as a

? date-rape? drug.

GHB is available as an odorless, colorless, and about tasteless liquid.

Sometimes it is available as a pulverization, or in a capsule.

GHB is evidently a really powerful, unsafe, and habit-forming drug.

When non taken with attention it can ensue in terrible encephalon harm, coma,

even decease. It is non presently illegal to hold ownership of the drug,

nevertheless, it is illegal to sell, purchase, or do it. There are different

doses depending on weight and organic structure of the person. Its street

footings include Georgia Home Boy, Liquid X, Liquid Ecstacy, Grievous

Bodily Harm, and Scoop. It is frequently used as a date-rape drug due to

its ability to do relaxation, decreased motor accomplishments, a short euphoric

period, grogginess, little incoherency, and physical disequilibrium.

With really heavy usage, many people report really serious physical

dependence. Stoping all of a sudden consequences in anxiousness, inability to kip,

experiencing like the bosom is jerking, and frequently really unpleasant and

potentially unsafe effects. Many heavy users have reported being

able to taper off their usage to zero by cut downing their consumption easy over

2-3 hebdomads. Best advice? Don? T attempt this at place childs.

The Loss of Faith Essay Sample college admission essay help: college admission essay help

It is really hard for a immature adolescent to maintain religion in a God during a crisis. This can be really good shown in Elie Wiesel’s fresh Night. This novel is a personal. first individual history of a immature kid. named Eliezer. and his clip in a concentration cantonment with his male parent. It shows how Elie’s religion. one time strong and improbably vivacious. becomes about nil. Be it through the loss of faith one of his wise mans has. or seeing human organic structures burn around you. or seeing a incapacitated immature male child. seeking to acquire air as his organic structure bents from a noose. All picks and determinations. though have a starting point. and Elie’s get downing point was when 1 he looks up. began to lose religion in the Godhead God.

Elie used to hold a really strong religion in God. He had such a strong religion that he wanted to analyze the Kabbalah as a adolescent. but the Kabbalah is meant to be taught at the age of at least 30. He besides prayed to God every twenty-four hours and wanted to be a rabbi when he grew up. This all began to alter. when one of his wise mans. Moishe the Beatle was expelled from Sighet. the town where he lived for being a foreign Jew. After several months. Moishe returned. but he was non the same adult male who he used to be. Harmonizing to Elie. “Moishe was non the same. The joy in his eyes was gone. He no longer sang. He no longer mentioned either God or Kabbalah. ” ( Weisel. 7 ) Though this didn’t straight affect Elie. it began to works a little seed of uncertainty in God. Two old ages after this experience. though. Elie see’s something that causes him to lose about all religion in God.

Ellie arrived at Auschwitz in the spring of 1944 after being kept in a hot. crowded. disease- ridden boxcar. Upon his reaching. he could see ash. which looked like snow. and he could smell firing human flesh. Others who were there were stating that the Nazis were firing the Jews and cremating them alive. Elie could non believe it. until they separated him from his female parent and sister whom he ne’er saw once more. The Nazis so made Elie. his male parent. and other male subsisters walk right past the fires where they were firing people. The Jews began to declaim the Kaddish. or the supplication of the dead. and as one can see. Elie began to lose all religion in God. He thought as his people were declaiming the supplication “For the first clip. I felt choler lifting within me. Why should I consecrate His name? The Almighty. the ageless and awful Maestro of the Universe. take to be soundless. What is at that place to thank Him for? ” ( Weisel. 33 ) Weisel. though. has yet to see one concluding act that begins to do him lose religion in God about wholly.

Watching a immature kid dice right before your eyes is a awful thing to witness. Watching a kid panting for his last breath while being hung is a life altering event. Elie saw a immature kid being hung right in forepart of him. The immature kid was associated with some Rebels within Buna. so the Nazi’s. as penalty. and to put an illustration. They hung him and others who broke the regulations. As the smothering kid was hanging on his snare. panting for his last breath. Elie heard a adult male behind him inquiring “ ‘For God’s interest. where is God? ’ And from within me ( Elie ) I heard a voice reply: ‘Where His is? This is where- hanging here from this gallows…’” ( 65 ) Elie had come to the decision that God was dead and was powerless against the Nazi’s. Elie has now given up his religion in God.

By the clip Elie gets out of the concentration cantonment on April 10th. 1945. he has seen more horrors and suffered more hurting as adolescent than many grownups have their full life. Be it through the loss of his male parent. to the decease of the remainder of his household. to even being beaten and starved to approach decease twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours upon being in the concentration cantonment. Elie’s religion in God is about gone. because he watched a immature kid bent before his eyes. he saw his ain instructor lose complete religion in God. and he even saw people’s organic structures firing before him.

Elie had a wholly sensible ground to give up his religion in God. But. he didn’t lose his full religion. By the clip he reached maturity. he became a practicing Jew. Ishmael thanks God for maintaining him alive during his stay at the concentration cantonment during his Nobel Prize credence Speech on December 10. 1986. He said ; “Words of gratitude. First to our common Creator. This is what the Judaic tradition commands us to make. At particular occasions. one is duty-bound to declaim the undermentioned supplication: ‘Barukuh atah Adonai… shehekhyanu vekiymanu vehiganu lazman hazeh’- Blessed be Thou- for giving us life. for prolonging us. and for enabling us to make this twenty-four hours. ” ( 117 )

Gay And Lesbian Essay Research Paper Historians english essay help: english essay help

Gay And Lesbian Essay, Research Paper

Historians have traced homosexual imagination to the really start of American film, with the Thomas Edison movie The Gay Brothers ( 1895 ) , directed by William Dickson, in which two work forces dance together. Female imitators and adult females playing male functions, both fixtures in late-19th-century music hall and theatre, began looking in split- and one-reel movies of the 1900s. Today this work can look more overtly gay or sapphic than it did in its clip, when the impression of homosexual desire was more purely forbidden & # 8212 ; despite the frequence of gender camouflages and same-sex bonding in popular amusement. By the teens, nevertheless, American comedies were trusting on the audience ‘s acknowledgment of homosexual types. In Algie The Miner ( 1912 ) , a one-reeler produced by Alice Guy-Blach? , Billy Quirk was a pantywaist who wants to go a cowpuncher. Quirk besides played a dandy in the two-reeler The Barber ( 1918 ) , in which the Chaplin impersonator Billy West styles his hair with girlish threads. Behind The Screen ( 1916 ) has the existent Chaplin snoging Edna Purviance when she ‘s disguised as a male child ; large bully Eric Campbell descry them and starts laping approximately, mocking what he thinks are two cheery lovers, until Chaplin wallops him. In the five-reel A Florida Enchantment ( 1914 ) , directed by Sidney Drew, Edith Storey eats a charming seed that changes one ‘s gender, and she turns into a pants-wearing woman-chaser in a crafty public presentation of masculine bearing and attitude. Drew, who besides starred, tries a seed himself and is shortly softening about with the hallmark effeminate idiosyncrasies. When he dresses as a adult female, an angry rabble runs him off a wharf and into the ocean & # 8212 ; at which clip Storey awakens from her dream. In the 1920s, Stan Laurel showed a preference for effeminate wit in his solo two-reelers. The Soilers ( 1923 ) , his send-up of the rugged actioner The Spoilers, includes a femme homosexual cowpuncher who adores the butch work forces around him. Laurel himself was the effeminate making alarm in With Love And Hisses ( 1927 ) , one of his first movies with Oliver Hardy. As a comedy couple, the brace made Liberty ( 1929 ) , directed by Leo McCarey, in which the male childs are at large cons who shed their prison attire but unwittingly slip on each other ‘s pants. The movie ‘s running joke has them seeking to conceal and exchange bloomerss, merely to be invariably caught together with their bloomerss down by aghast passersby. Leo White in Erich von Stroheim ‘s The Devil ‘s Passkey ( 1920 ) and George K. Arthur in Irene ( 1926 ) were emasculate frock interior decorators as amusing alleviation ; more serious imagination came from producer/director Cecil B. De Mille, who spiced up an orgy scene in Manslaughter ( 1922 ) with some sapphic caressing, and Alla Nazimova, who starred in and produced Salome ( 1923 ) , a conventionalized version of the Oscar Wilde drama, reputedly filmed with an all-homosexual cast.The first old ages of sound saw & # 8212 ; and heard & # 8212 ; the same effeminate characters of the soundless epoch, with dandified chorus male childs and costumiers in the 1929 musicals Why Bring That Up? and The Broadway Melody. The Motion Picture Production Code, adopted by Hollywood in 1930, included homosexualism among its many tabu, but effeminate wit, where the character was more nonsexual than homosexual, persisted with such 1934 musicals as Wonder Bar and Myrt And Marge. Franklin Pangborn had played “ Viola tricolor hortensiss ” since the ’20s but did his best work in talking pictures such as the 1933 movies Merely Yesterday, International House, and Professional Sweetheart. Edward Everett Horton fluttered through The Front Page ( 1931 ) and The Gay Divorcee ( 1934 ) , and “ Viola tricolor hortensis ” wit besides punctuated Our Betters ( 1933, directed by George Cukor ) , Sailor ‘s Luck ( 1933, directed by Raoul Walsh ) , Laurel and Hardy ‘s The Midnight Patrol ( 1933 ) , Mae West ‘s She Done Him Wrong ( 1933 ) , and Chaplin ‘s Modern Times ( 1936 ) . Name Her Savage ( 1932 ) had an uninhibited scene set in a homosexual saloon, Sandra Shaw played a cross-dressing adult female in Blood Money ( 1933 ) , and the gender-swap travesty The Warrior ‘s Husband ( 1933 ) was filled with homosexual and sapphic insinuation. More serious movies besides had homosexual state of affairss. A tuxedoed Marlene Dietrich takes a rose and a buss from a immature lady in Morocco ( 1930 ) , directed by Josef von Sternberg. Greta Garbo dresses as a adult male in Queen Christina ( 1933 ) , directed by Rouben Mamoulian ; Christina kisses Elizabeth Young, and claims she ‘ll decease non an old amah but “ a unmarried man. ” Hell ‘s Highway ( 1932 ) alluded to homosexualism in prison, and in De Mille ‘s The Sign Of The Cross ( 1932 ) Charles Laughton played Nero as the effeminate, childish maniac the Emperor truly was. Dracula ‘s Daughter ( 1936 ) brought an titillating border to Gloria Holden ‘s bloodlust for adult females. But when Lillian Hellman ‘s drama The Children ‘s Hour was filmed that twelvemonth by manager William Wyler, its sapphic subject was cut and the movie was re-titled These Three. Besides in 1936, Katharine Hepburn was disguised as a male child for manager George Cukor ‘s Sylvia Scarlett. A box-office floating-point operation, it hurt their callings and inhibited other drag comedies from researching transgender and homoerotic feelings.Cary Grant explodes, “ I ‘ve merely gone GAY all of a sudden! ” to explicate the negligee he ‘s have oning in Bringing Up Baby ( 1938 ) , directed by Howard Hawks. Afterward, homosexual mentions become progressively rare. Judith Anderson played a subtly sapphic character as the housekeeper obsessed with her dead kept woman in Rebecca ( 1940 ) , directed by Alfred Hitchcock. More overtly homosexual was the elegant condemnable Joel Cairo, played by Peter Lorre in John Huston ‘s The Maltese Falcon ( 1941 ) ; Sydney Greenstreet as Casper Gutman and Elisha Cook Jr. as his “ gunsel ” Wilmer were about as uncloseted. Billy Wilder ‘s The Lost Weekend ( 1945 ) included Frank Faylen as Bim, an intimidating homosexual male nurse. In Alfred Hitchcock ‘s Rope ( 1948 ) , John Dall and Farley Granger played slayers based on the 1920s liquidators Leopold and Loeb. Like their real-life theoretical accounts, the characters are lovers, but the movie keeps their homosexualism wholly in the wordless shading of the histrions ‘ public presentations. Independent film makers James Watson and Melville Webber used titillating imagination, homosexual and heterosexual, in their experimental movie Lot In Sodom ( 1933 ) . The alleged “ immoral ” capable affair of Children Of Loneliness, a 1939 exploitationer, kept the movie unreleased until 1953. Its prophylactic narratives depict a adult female brought back from the threshold of sapphism ( while her “ inborn ” seductress gets hit by a truck ) , and a immature adult male who feels more female than male and so commits self-destruction. In 1947, the 17-year-old Kenneth Anger shooting Fireworks in his parents ‘ place and made one of the polar daring movies. He ‘d ne’er once more do anything every bit homoerotic as the crewmans of Fireworks, who pose for him and so rupture him apart ( although his Scorpio Rising ( 1963 ) recognizes the homosexual impulses in the biker scene ) . A adolescent Curtis Harrigton worked in a similar vena with his 1946 short Fragment Of Seeking. Willard Maas collaborated on such gay-themed psychodramas as Images In The Snow ( 1948 ) , The Mechanicss Of Love ( 1955 ) , and Narcissus ( 1956 ) . Gregory Markopolous ‘ vision of male beauty is already at work in his early movies Du Sang, De La Volupt? Et De La Mort ( 1948 ) , Swain ( 1950 ) , and Flowers Of Asphalt ( 1951 ) .In 1950 Hollywood glanced at sapphism with the women’s-prison movie Caged and with Young Man With A Horn, where Lauren Bacall finds her girlfriend more interesting than Kirk Douglas. A subtler homosexuality characterized Robert Walker ‘s liquidator in Hitchcock ‘s Strangers On A Train ( 1951 ) , or the teenage Plato, played by Sal Mineo, who loves the older male child Jim, played by James Dean, in Rebel Without A Cause ( 1955 ) , directed by Nicholas Ray. Director Vincente Minnelli filmed Robert Anderson ‘s drama Tea And Sympathy ( 1956 ) ; John Kerr was the college pupil everyone thinks is homosexual until an older adult female lets him turn out otherwise. Tennessee Williams ‘ drama Suddenly Last Summer was filmed by manager Joseph L. Mankiewicz in 1959. Scripted by Williams and Gore Vidal, it delivered a incubus history of a homosexual adult male devoured by the starvation boys he has exploited. The following twelvemonth, an effort by Roman general Laurence Olivier to score his slave Tony Curtis was cut from manager Stanley Kubrick ‘s Spartacus ; the scene was eventually restored for the movie ‘s 1991 re-issue.In 1962, four of import movies featured homosexual content. More than 25 old ages after These Three, producer/director William Wyler dependably filmed The Children ‘s Hour, with Shirley MacLaine perpetrating self-destruction when she realizes that the sapphic rumours about herself are true. Sidney Lumet directed Arthur Miller ‘s A Position From The Bridge, in which Raf Vallone implicates his ain gender by impeaching another adult male of being homosexual ; finally he excessively kills himself. Advise And Consent, produced and directed by Otto Preminger, has a scene in a cheery saloon ; it besides has a self-destruction, when politician Don Murray is blackmailed for a past homosexual crack. In A Walk On The Wild Side, directed by Edward Dmytryk, Barbara Stanwyck is a brothel dame in love with prostitute Capucine. She survived the movie ( although Capucine got changeable! ) , and cleared a way for sapphic subplots in the mid ’60s. Shelley Winters was a dame with a hankering for Lee Grant in The Balcony ( 1963 ) , Joseph Strick ‘s movie of the Jean Genet drama. Jean Seberg ‘s mental patient is openly bisexual in Robert Rossen ‘s Lilith ( 1964 ) . Candice Bergen was the nice college miss who ‘s besides “ Sapphic ” in Lumet ‘s The Group ( 1966 ) . Teenage Sue Lyon aroused more than a chaperone ‘s involvement from Grayson Hall in The Night Of The Iguana ( 1964 ) , John Huston ‘s movie of Tennessee Williams ‘ drama ; she evoked similar feelings from Margaret Leighton in Seven Women ( 1966 ) , the last movie of manager John Ford.The sapphic and cheery civil-rights motion grew significantly in the ’60s, climaxing in the epoch-making rebellion at New York ‘s Stonewall saloon in June of 1969. The decennary ‘s movies reflected these alterations, most notably in two docudramas: Shirley Clarke ‘s Portrait Of Jason ( 1967 ) , an interview with black streetwalker Jason Holliday, and Frank Simon ‘s The Queen ( 1968 ) , about a transvestic beauty competition in New York. Drag wit began utilizing homosexual and transgendered characters in the comedies The She Man ( 1967 ) , The Producers ( 1968 ) , Candy ( 1968 ) , and The Gay Deceivers ( 1969 ) . Most dramas conflated cheery work forces with criminalism: Gunn ( 1967 ) , The Boston Strangler ( 1968 ) , The Detective ( 1968 ) , P.J. ( 1968 ) , Riot ( 1969 ) . John Huston ‘s Reflections In A Golden Eye ( 1967 ) , adapted by Chapman Mortimer and Gladys Hill from Carson McCullers ‘ novel, starred Marlon Brando as an Army officer facing his pent-up homosexualism. More conventional was The Sergeant ( 1968 ) , in which Rod Steiger kills himself after coercing a buss on a soldier. Estelle Parsons admits her feelings for Joanne Woodward with an unprompted buss in Rachel, Rachel ( 1968 ) , directed by Paul Newman. Lovers Anne Heywood and Sandy Dennis kiss even more readily in The Fox ( 1968 ) , from D.H. Lawrence ‘s novel, but the Reaper is still inevitable for at least one of them, after they get intruded upon by heterosexual spokesman Keir Dullea. The most expressed play of the epoch came from producer/director Robert Aldrich, accommodating Frank Marcus ‘ drama The Killing Of Sister George ( 1968 ) . Beryl Reid is the uncloseted soap-opera actress who loses her occupation and her lover Susannah York to web shark Coral Browne. Aldrich even shared some of their familiarities with the audience, but the movie was rated X for its capable affair. So excessively was Midnight Cowboy ( 1969 ) , directed by John Schlesinger: The really thought of a movie about a gigolo in New York was plenty to curtail it to grownups. But the movie was a box-office hit, doing stars of Dustin Hoffman and Jon Voight, and it was finally re-issued uncut with an R-rating. In the early 1960s homosexual subjects were celebrated in landmark daring movies. Jack Smith ‘s hallucinating authoritative Fire Animals ( 1963 ) met with legion legal fusss because of its nakedness and transvestitism. Markopolous made several movies with powerful homoerotic imagination, most notably Twice A Man ( 1963 ) and The Illiac Passion ( 1967 ) . Andy Warhol ‘s Blow Job ( 1964 ) was a 35-minute close-up of a immature adult male ‘s face as he receives unwritten sex. Warhol directed characteristics covering with the gay-sex-for-hire scene & # 8212 ; My Hustler ( 1965 ) , I A Man ( 1967 ) , Bike Boy ( 1967 ) & # 8212 ; but kept progressively to bring forthing and allow Paul Morrissey direct, write, and cast the movies. They made a m

emorable series with former pro Joe Dallesandro, starting in 1968 with Flesh and Lonesome Cowboys. Warhol also appreciated transvestism, and Mario Montez was the leading lady in films with writer Ronald Tavel, such as Screen Test (1965). Morrissey had a similar eye and discovered Holly Woodlawn for Trash (1970) with Dallesandro; he also co-starred her with Jackie Curtis and Candy Darling in Women In Revolt (1972). At this time John Waters was making obscene black comedies which extolled crime and exalted his 300-lb. male heroine, Divine: Multiple Maniacs (1970), Pink Flamingos (1972), and Female Trouble (1974); his later, Divine-less Desperate Living (1977), a lesbian fairy tale, was one of the wildest of all his films. Other notable gay- and lesbian-themed underground films of the ’70s include the drag troupe the Cockettes in Tricia’s Wedding (1971); Jim Bidgood’s sensual fantasy Pink Narcissus (1971); the films of Jan Oxenberg, such as A Comedy In Six Unnatural Acts (1975); and the films of the late Curt McDowell, including Thundercrack! (1975) and Loads (1980). Director William Friedkin filmed Mart Crowley’s play The Boys In The Band (1970), in which a group of unhappy but witty gay men lacerate each other and themselves. Mervyn Nelson’s Some Of My Best Friends Are… (1971) echoed that “sad young men” approach with its habitu?s of a gay bar. Michael York was a busy bisexual in both the black comedy Something For Everyone (1970), directed by Harold Prince, and the musical Cabaret (1972), directed by Bob Fosse. Homosexuality was used to typify sleaziness and evil, from the animated features of Ralph Bakshi (Heavy Traffic, 1973; Coonskin, 1975) and blaxploitation films (Cleopatra Jones, 1973; Cleopatra Jones And The Casino Of Gold, 1975), to espionage dramas (The Kremlin Letter, 1970; The Tamarind Seed, 1974; The Eiger Sanction, 1975), cop actioners (The Laughing Policeman, 1973; Magnum Force, 1973; Freebie And The Bean, 1974; Busting, 1974; The Choirboys, 1977), and prison films (Fortune And Men’s Eyes, 1971; Caged Heat, 1972; Scarecrow, 1973). Homosexual rape mars the backwoods trip of Deliverance (1972), and promiscuous hetero Diane Keaton gets murdered by a gay man in Looking For Mr. Goodbar (1977). The revelation of homosexuality was still causing suicides in Ode To Billie Joe (1976) and The Betsy (1978), and lesbians and gay men were still providing cheap laughs in There Was A Crooked Man (1970), M*A*S*H (1970), Little Big Man (1970), For Pete’s Sake (1974), Sheila Levine Is Dead And Living In New York City (1975), and The Goodbye Girl (1977). Less impressive were condescending comedies that focused on homosexuality: Norman, Is That You? (1976), The Ritz (1976), and A Different Story (1978). But there were also gay supporting characters who were actually funny, such as Antonio Fargas in Next Stop, Greenwich Village (1976) and Car Wash (1976), or Michael Caine in California Suite (1978). In A Perfect Couple (1979), Robert Altman treated his gay and lesbian characters with respect, and gay dramas were offered by the independent films Saturday Night At The Baths (1973) and A Very Natural Thing (1973). Director Sidney Lumet and writer Frank Pierson delivered a box-office hit with Dog Day Afternoon (1975), a smart, fact-based comedy/drama starring Al Pacino as a bank robber who’s trying to finance his male lover’s sex-change operation. Among television films, That Certain Summer (1972) featured Hal Holbrook as a gay father coming out to his son; A Question Of Love (1978) starred Gena Rowlands as a lesbian mother fighting for custody of her child; Sergeant Matlovich Vs. The U.S. Air Force (1978) with Brad Dourif dramatized a real-life challenge to the military’s ban on homosexuality. The collaborative Mariposa Film Group made the landmark documentary Word Is Out in 1977, interviewing 26 lesbians and gay men of various ethnicities, ages, and life experiences. Since then, several other important documentaries have been filmed. Robert Epstein and the late Richard Schmiechen made The Times Of Harvey Milk (1984), an account of the openly gay San Francisco City Supervisor who was assassinated in 1976; Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman made Common Threads: Stories From The Quilt (1989), about a few of the lives memorialized in the AIDS Quilt, and The Celluloid Closet (1996), a history of Hollywood’s treatment of homosexuality. Greta Schiller’s Before Stonewall (1984) offers a valuable history of gay and lesbian life. Jennie Livingston’s Paris Is Burning (1990) is a unique look at the drag balls of gay blacks and Latins. Schmiechen’s Changing Our Minds: The Story Of Dr. Evelyn Hooker (1992) examines the psychologist whose work persuaded the American Psychiatric Association to no longer classify homosexuality as a mental disorder. Arthur Dong’s Coming Out Under Fire (1994) documents gay and lesbian life in the armed forces during World War II. Adi Sideman’s Chicken Hawk: Men Who Love Boys (1994) looks at the North American Man/Boy Love Association. Wigstock: The Movie (1994) puts the New York drag fest on the screen. Heather MacDonald’s Ballot Measure 9 (1995) covers the defeat of anti-gay legislation in Oregon. In 1980 the filming of William Friedkin’s Cruising was hounded by protesters who insisted his thriller about a psycho in the gay S scene would heighten social prejudices and encourage bashing. That same year, Gordon Willis directed Windows, in which evil lesbian Elizabeth Ashley stalks good heterosexual Talia Shire. Evil gay men came to foul ends in American Gigolo (1980) and Deathtrap (1982). Other films completely diluted their homosexual themes: The heroine’s lesbianism in Alice Walker’s novel The Color Purple was expunged almost entirely from the 1985 film directed by Steven Spielberg; so was the gay side of Japanese writer Yukio Mishima in Paul Schrader’s biopic Mishima (1985). But the decade also saw well-meaning dramas that tried to deal respectfully with homosexuality. In Making Love (1982), written by Barry Sandler and directed by Arthur Hiller, a man leaves his wife for another man; in John Sayles’ Lianna (1983), a woman leaves her husband for another woman. Robert Towne’s Personal Best (1982) starred Mariel Hemingway as a bisexual athlete. Kiss Of The Spider Woman (1985), from Manuel Puig’s novel, had William Hurt as a gay prisoner who becomes the lover of his cellmate, political activist Raul Julia. Last Exit To Brooklyn (1989) adapted Hubert Selby Jr.’s novel; Stephen Lang was the striking worker who comes to recognize his own gay urges. Television contributed An Early Frost (1985), with Aidann Quinn as a gay man with AIDS, and Consenting Adult (1985), from the coming-out novel by Laura Z. Hobson. Zorro, The Gay Blade (1981), starred George Hamilton as a sissy swashbuckler, and Partners (1982), had hetero cop Ryan O’Neal undercover as a gay man. Other ’80s comedies were more gay-positive, notably Blake Edwards’ transgender farce Victor/Victoria (1982) and Torch Song Trilogy (1988), written by and starring Harvey Fierstein. Other important films include the Neil Simon comedies Only When I Laugh (1981) and Biloxi Blues (1988), the remake To Be Or Not To Be (1983), and The Hotel New Hampshire (1984). The era’s best work, however, came from the independents. Mala Noche (1985), the first feature of writer/director Gus Van Sant, was a classic portrait of unrequited gay love. Paul Morrissey creatively filmed Alan Bowne’s play about teenage hustlers in Forty Deuce (1982) with Kevin Bacon. Anne Carlisle played both a woman and a gay man in the imaginative Liquid Sky (1982), which she also co-scripted with writer Nina V. Kerova and producer/director Slava Tsukerman. Donna Deitch’s Desert Hearts (1985) and Sheila McLaughlin’s She Must Be Seeing Things (1987) were intelligent romantic dramas about lesbians. The late writer/director Arthur J. Bressan Jr. made dramas about intergenerational gay love in Abuse (1983) and the AIDS crisis in Buddies (1985). The plague also informed As Is (1986), directed by Michael Lindsay-Hogg, and Parting Glances (1986), directed by the late Bill Sherwood. In the ’90s, despite such drag-queen comedies as To Wong Foo, Thanks For Everything! Julie Newmar (1995) and the mega-hit The Birdcage (1996), an adaptation of the hit French farce La Cage Aux Folles, Hollywood has stuck to the prejudices of earlier years. The smash Basic Instinct (1992), directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Joe Eszterhas, starred Sharon Stone as a bisexual villain, and its filming aroused protests as vehement as the attacks on Cruising. Equally furious was the response to the hit thriller The Silence Of The Lambs (1990), directed by Jonathan Demme and written by Ted Tally, which equated homosexuality and transgenderism with insanity and murder. David Cronenberg’s Naked Lunch (1991), made a dour, homophobic film out of William Burroughs’ funny, gay-positive novel. Fried Green Tomatoes (1991) adapted Fannie Flagg’s book but deleted the lesbian relationship between its young women. Both The Prince Of Tides (1991), directed by Barbra Streisand, and Barry Levinson’s Sleepers (1996) pressed audience buttons about gay rapists preying on boys.Two recent major releases have treated gay themes seriously. Cronenberg’s M. Butterfly (1993), adapted by David Henry Hwang from his fact-based play, starred Jeremy Irons as a French diplomat in China who gives government secrets to his longtime lover, a singer with the Chinese Opera — without ever knowing that she’s really a man. Demme’s Philadelphia (1994), written by Ron Nyswaner, starred Tom Hanks as a gay man fighting the discrimination he faces as a person with AIDS. Television produced two reality-based dramas: And The Band Played On (1993) adapted the late Randy Shilts’ book about the Reagan administration’s slow response to AIDS; The Colonel Margarethe Cammermeyer Story (1994) starred Glenn Close as an open lesbian fighting to stay in the military. Again the most noteworthy films have come from independents. Openly-gay writer/directors Gus Van Sant and Todd Haynes both released major films in 1991. Van Sant’s My Own Private Idaho (1991), starring River Phoenix and Keanu Reeves, merged a story of two young hustlers in Oregon with Shakespeare’s Henry IV for a surreal, funny, and moving tale of love and betrayal. Haynes’ Poison intercut three stories, including homoerotic sequences from Jean Genet’s autobiographical novel The Miracle Of The Rose. Christine Vachon, the producer of Poison, brought several other important films to the screen: Swoon (1992), Tom Kalin’s look at the gay love between the murderers Leopold and Loeb; the lesbian comedy/drama Go Fish (1994), directed and co-scripted by Rose Troche; Postcards From America (1994), Steve McLean’s adaptation of writings by the late David Wojnarowicz; I Shot Andy Warhol (1996), about Valerie Solanas’ attempt on Warhol’s life; and Stonewall (1996), a British dramatization of the birth of the modern-American gay-rights movement. Other independent films dealing with homosexuality include Gregg Araki’s boy-meets-boy-meets-gun tale, The Living End (1992); The Hours And Times (1991), Christopher M?nch’s speculation on John Lennon’s relationship with Beatles manager Brian Epstein; Longtime Companion (1990), a touching drama of loves lost to AIDS, directed by Norman Ren? and written by Craig Lucas; and the bisexual farce The Wedding Banquet (1993), directed and co-scripted by Ang Lee. Among the noteworthy films in 1995 were Maria Maggenti’s lesbian romance The Incredibly True Adventure Of Two Girls In Love; the gay romantic comedy Jeffrey, from the play by Paul Rudnick; and Roy Cohn/Jack Smith, a filming of the late Ron Vawter’s stage triumph in which he played the closeted and homophobic arch-conservative Roy Cohn, and the totally uncensored, visionary artist Jack Smith — both of whom died of AIDS in the 1980s. More recent independent releases include Larry and Andy Wachowski’s Bound (1996), a lesbian version of film noir with Jennifer Tilly and Gina Gershon; Johns (1996), Scott Silver’s drama of hustling teenage boys; and in 1997 Joe Mantello’s heartfelt, funny and very-human comedy Love! Valor! Compassion! adapted from Terrence McNally’s multi-award winning 1995 play. Despite the pressures of homophobia, American films have made classic accounts of lesbian and gay life in the hundred years since The Gay Brothers. This body of work augurs well for the next hundred years of movies.

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