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The Link Between Cyber-Bullying and Suicide english essay help online

When people hear the word “bully” they often think of the tough guy in school who seems to push and shove his peers into lockers and take away their lunch money. The idea of this type of bully has become popular and many people today would consider it a means of toughening up and is also widely known as an inevitable part of growing up or a phase in a child’s life. Recently there has been a rise in a new form of bullying; cyber bullying. With the fast acting rise of technology and the expanding power and popularity of the internet there’s a new bully in town and it exists in your child’s computer.

This type of torment is extreme, causing young people to take their lives. Additionally to the adolescents who successfully take their life, many of them still attempt and continue to strongly think about suicide. Teenagers have easy access to dozens of social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Tumblr, which allow other individuals to hide their true identity. Many of these websites have the option to make yourself anonymous where you can send any user a comment without them knowing who send it. It is also very easy for an individual to make a fake profile and attack other individuals that way.

Individuals don’t always keep their identities a secret, many times groups of students target another student and send them harsh comments like “go kill yourself already” and “the world would be better off without you”. Amanda Todd, a Vancouver-area teenager who posted a story to YouTube last month about being cyber-bullied, was found dead Wednesday night in Coquitlam, Canada. Authorities believe she committed suicide (Grenoble, Ryan). This 14 year old girl committed suicide on October, 11, 2012 due to cyber bullying. Previous to her death, Todd posted a video on YouTube telling her story with a series of flash cards.

The torment began, according to Todd’s YouTube video, after she flashed a man onlinewhen she was in seventh grade. One year later, she said, he tracked her down onFacebook and forwarded her topless photo to everyone. She was bullied at each schoolshe went to, beat up by angry girls and attempted to kill herself by drinking bleach(Grenoble, Ryan). Even after Todd attempted to commit suicide by drinking bleach bullied still targeted her by writing things like “you should’ve drank more bleach” on her Facebook wall. Individuals still continue to target her by posted negative comments on her R. I.

P fan page. Another teenage girl who continues to receive negative comments even after her death is Phoebe Prince who committed suicide in 2010 at age 15. “Girls at Phoebe’s school reportedly called her a “wh**e” and a “bi**h,” viciously harassing her in person and on Facebook. At least one student gloated after Phoebe took her own life, “I don’t care that she’s dead. ” (Holladay, Jennifer)” Cyberbullying has spread so quickly with the wide spread of internet. According to the 2009 AP-MTV Digital Abuse Study done by Janice Gatti, 50% of people age 14-24 have experienced digitally abusive behavior.

Surprisingly enough we might be a cyber bully without even knowing. Many individuals post some negative comments on YouTube or Tumblr without even knowing or thinking about how the other person might feel but certain individuals do this regularly and these are the cyber bullies. Another suicide linked to cyber bullying is the death of 16 year old Jessica Laney. Laney being bullied on a website called ask. fm where users interact by asking each other questions is what caused her to commit suicide. Posts on Laney’s page range from the innocent – “What class do you like the most? ” to the shockingly cruel – “Why are you so ugly? and “Just kill yourself. You’re worthless” (Murray, Rheana). Close friends to Laney spoke about their friends death. “You get compliments sometimes, but it’s those negative comments that bring youdown,” close friend Cheyenne Ellsmore told local station. “There are just things youshouldsay and things you shouldn’t,” said another friend, Lisa Arthur. “And on Ask. fm,none of that should be said” (Murray Rheana). Laney’s parents spoke briefly about their daughter’s death as well and mentioned that their daughter also had a history of mental health issues but the cyber bullying is what pushed her over the edge.

It is impossible to ignore a cyber bully when all they want to do it attack you as an individual. We go on our social networking sites to enjoy and express ourselves not to have ourselves attacked by anonymous people or our classmates. According to the Cyber Bullying Research Center, Even though less than 10% of middle-school students reported being cyber bullied in the previous days, approximately 43% reported experiencing one of the several experiences that could be defined as cyber bullying. Among the most commonly experiences included: receiving and email that make them upset (18. %, not including spam), receiving an instant message that made them upset (15. 8%), and having something posted on their MySpace that made them upset (14. 1%). Everyone at one point receives at least one negative comment aimed towards us but these individuals who commit suicide over these cyber bullies are extremely targeted and are hit with something that may easily affect them or have been targeted for a long amount of time. Victims of cyber bullying who commit suicide have negative comments aimed at them daily. From their looks to how they are to what they do, comments involving any of these are not easily dealt with.

An individual whose homosexuality was targeted by a cyber bully was Tyler Clementi, an 18 year old who committed suicide in 2010. His college roommate streamed a video live from their room while Clementi was with another boy. Just a day later, at 8:42 p. m. , Clementi posted this terse status update on Facebook: “Jumping off the gw bridge. Sorry” (Nadine, Shabeeb). Homosexual individuals are a big target for cyber bullies. A 2005 Harris poll found 90 percent of gay and lesbian teens say they’ve been bullied inthe past year.

And nearly two-thirds of these students feel unsafe in school, according to a2009 survey by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network. In September alone,three other teens took their own lives after homophobic taunting (Nadine, Shabeeb). A second target to cyber bullies because of his homosexuality was Seth Wash, who committed suicide at age 13 in 2012. On Oct. 1, 600 people crammed the First Baptist Church in Tehachapi to remember SethWalsh, a 13-year-old who liked Pokemon, dance music and reading the Bible–and whohad (somewhat reluctantly) acknowledged to understanding family members and friendsthat he liked other boys.

Seth had been teased relentlessly; it started when he was infourth grade, according to his grandmother Judy Walsh. “By sixth grade, kids werestarting to get mean,” she says. “By seventh grade, he was afraid to walk home fromschool” (Cloud, John) According to Gay Bullying Statistics, gay and lesbian teens are two to three times as more likely to commit suicide than other youths. About 30 percent of all completed suicides have been related to sexual identity crisis. Students who also fall into the ay, bisexual, lesbian or transgendered identity groups report being five times more likely to miss school because they feel unsafe after being cyber bullied due to their sexual orientation. About 28 percent out of those groups feel forced to drop out of school altogether. Although more and more schools are working to crack down problems with bullying, teens are still continuing to bully each other due to sexual orientation and other factors.

Today only a few stated have laws against cyber bullying but there is more that needs to be done. It’s not okay for people to attack other individuals online forcing them to commit suicide. Our laws are not keeping pace with technology,” Klein said in an interview with CNN. “No longer is bullying only confined to the schoolyard. It is now piped in an instant through victims’ computers and onto the devices they carry in their pockets. This legislation will help provide protections to those who need it, as well as send a strong message about the seriousness of this destructive behavior” (Cyberbullying Crackdown). Parents and teenagers can help prevent cyber bulling. Parents can talk to their children advising them the negative and positive effects of writing about someone online.

If you see your friend posting a comment on someone’s social networking site, stop them, even if it looks like it can do no harm, it may cost a life. If you see a case of cyber bullying tell someone else, when you see something it might not seem so damaging but it’s after someone takes their life away when the regret starts to hit them and them it’s too late. If you are experiencing cyber bullying stay off your computer for a while, don’t go on your social networking sites because the more you read them the more it will affect you.

Don’t take part in cyber bullying, you might think your just posting a few innocent comments but you are going to affect someone. There is definitely a connection between cyber bullying and suicide. Other factors like mental disorders can also increase the risk of suicide but in cyber bullying, one small push is enough to take someone over the edge. For example, a girl with major depression who might already have suicidal thoughts and is starting to become cyber bullied, being cyber bullied would be that push to commit suicide. Individuals sometimes aren’t aware that their words can cost a life.

You might think that you’re just giving your opinion but to the other person those are harmful words, and after a life is taken apologies don’t bring the person back. A negative comment could mean the difference of one more life being taken away. Young teenagers need to be taught that saying things online can have huge consequences. Targeting some online means no escape for the victim. You might think that just because you’re not saying this one negative comment to an individual in person doesn’t mean it’s not going to affect them.

Social Care computer science essay help: computer science essay help

A duty of care is a legal responsibility towards a person requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that could harm others. Generally, a duty of care arises where one person or group undertakes an activity which could reasonably harm another, either physically, mentally, or economically.

Duty of care affects my own work role as it is my duty of care to use proper moving and handling techniques when moving residents, to use equipment properly, to express if there is a risk such as a wet floor by leaving a warning sign, to maintain cleanliness or my self and residents to prevent infection control and also advise residents against going places that could pose a risk such as the cellar, attic or outside pond.

Question 2 2. 1 Dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and individuals rights could be a person not wanting to take their medication each individual has the right to refuse medication but it is my duty of care to promote encouragement that the person has there medication. The person may want to go outside for a walk but may be immobile or not know where they are and could put themselves in danger.

Other dilemmas could include alcohol or requesting certain foods when the person may have diabetes or be allergic or drinking coffee before bed if they have trouble sleeping. 2. 2 I could get additional support and advice about how to resolve such dilemmas from maybe the person’s doctor or there family may be able to give me guidance on the best way to advice the person against certain requests whilst maintaining a person centres approach.

Question 3 3. 1 I could respond by firstly listening to make sure i really understand the issues, discuss a plan of how I will deal with the complaint and any outcome the person is seeking, Arrange a meeting with the person making the complaint and key people involved in the complaint to discuss the issues, keep the person informed of how your complaint is progressing and lastly arrange for a formal investigation to take place if necessary. . 2 The main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints are: A timeframe A verbal response A mutually agreed time and place for a meeting A written response Follow up – where if the matter remains unresolved the complaint needs to be put into writing for a higher authority’s awareness.

China Social Structure best essay help: best essay help

It will outline the different class’s that make up contemporary China’s social structure and give a detailed outlook and perspective on each class, and show what change they have undergone since the opening of China’s economy in the late 1970’s and introduction to a market based economy. The greatest outcome will see how the transfer of the class’s from a socialist dictated economy and society during the Mao era, rapidly changed and fused into the modern market based economy of today’s China.

This essay should also indict who has benefited most from such a quick and bold move to a market economy, and those who have lost out and not been so lucky as others due to the open door policy of China which was introduced in 1978, by then Chinese Premier Deng Xiao Ping (??? ). This essay will take each class individually and contrast them to other class’s, both those that existed during the Maoist era of pre-1978 and the class’s that have emerged as a result of the economic reforms pursued by China since the opening of its economy and internal reforms where introduced.

Lastly it will look at if China’s communist party has steered away from the founding ethics of a socialist economy to that of a capitalist one due to social class division and what effect this can have on China in the near distant future. Firstly looking at the Peasant class, one of the three original social class’s during the Maoist period of 1949-1978, (the other two being the working class and the cadre class). The peasant class, along with the working class during Maoist China were dubbed the proletariat class, in comparison the relatively small but evident cadre class.

The rural-urban divide has always been existent in Chinese society, largely based on economic and geographical contributions. However throughout the Maoist era, peasant’s standard of living; to a certain extent were raised. With the abolishment of savage landlords which persisted during the imperial and republican times and the introduction of many yet simple beneficiaries to rural areas of China, peasant’s standard of living from 1949-1976, actually rose significantly, ‘On the one hand, standards of living can be seen as improved due to the absence of warlords, bandits, landlord, and local tyrants.

The government invested a lot in agriculture, especially water conservancy, irrigation works, chemical fertilizers, and agricultural machinery…. The life expectancy of peasants increased from less than forty years before 1949 to more than sixty years in the 1970s’[1] Simple improvements in education and health, the fundamentals of any society to prosper were drastically improved by the so called “barefoot” teachers and doctors.

However, prosperity was limited due to collectivisation of all the land available for agriculture, restricting peasant’s income and also led to the disaster of the Great Leap Forward campaign, which saw many peasants suffer in comparison to their urban counterparts. Restrictive movements of people from rural to urban also led to a stagnated peasant society, with the introduction of the household registration system (?? ) , ensuring that peasants and their families never had the chance to seek a more prosperous life in the cities or enjoy the benefits of those of urban household with hukou registration.

The reforms of 1978 first and profoundly had an immediate effect on rural areas. This came with the abolishment of the commune system, establishment of free market practice in the countryside with agricultural products and the thriving success of the Town and Village Enterprises (TVE’s). By 1993, 145 million peasants had become members of the working class; however they would be referred to as peasant worker, and not urban worker due to the hukou registration system. (Li Yi, China Startifictaion, p. 105).

Many rural inhabitants, after the reform era had taken jobs in cities, albeit as a floating population, due to the strictness of the hukou household registration system most rural registered workers in cities today don’t enjoy the benefits of their urban registered counterparts, of housing, health care and schooling for their children. Most rural areas are also responsible for development of their own areas, with little support from the government, taxes and fees remain high in proportion in the countryside, as is the cost and low opportunities of schooling and further education. Li Yi China Stratification p. 192)Peasants also missed out largely in China’s great economic boom during the 1990’s and early 2000’s, with China’s economic annual growth an average of 9% in recent years, peasant income has increased, but rather in some cases decreased (Li Yi China Stratification p. 219). Peasants are in a sense stuck within their boundaries due to the Household Registration System, or hukou. This social “apartheid” has created a massive imbalance between the coastal urban areas and the mainly rural western half of China.

Urban household registered hukou holders had much of the states benefits in housing, education healthcare and employment ( Fei Ling Wang, Chinese Society, Change, conflict and resistance, (New York, Routledge, 2000). But as with the opening reforms of the late 1970’s, not all urban households and workers have managed to benefit, with that creating class differences even within China’s urban populace. Throughout the Maoist era, most urban employment was contingent within State Owned Enterprises(SOE’s), with workers benefiting from the system dubbed the “iron rice bowl”.

This system, commonly a factor of socialist geared economies and societies was the benefits urban state employees enjoyed throughout Mao’s reign. Benefits included housing, food rations, healthcare insurance and education of employee’s children. The “iron rice bowl” also supplied life long work and benefits to those who were employed with work units, danwei (?? ) and simplified that throughout the socialist market era, little social conflicts and imbalanced occurred amongst the urban working class.

As of 1978, as much of 78% of urban labour force were recipients of this “iron rice bowl” welfare. [2] Starting with the reforms initiated by Deng Xiao Ping, slowly the “iron rice bowl” was withdrawn and open competitiveness was encouraged. Seen as extremely costly to the state, SOE’s would now undergo huge transformation. “Grasp the big, release the small” was now in effect, with SOE’s that were making a loss to face closure, and the ones that remained facing intense competition from the more effectively run foreign enterprises and privately run sector.

This in effect led to high levels of lay offs, never heard or seen of during the Mao regime, with estimates as high as 60 million, with an overall figure including those waiting on employment reaching 100million. [3] The huge amount of layoffs had never been experienced in China, and the sheer pressure on the state took hold, not all of employees who had lost their “iron rice bowl” could find work, due to the fact, they had worked in industries all their lives that largely included the same repetitive work, and had no grasp of competitiveness.

Much of the lay offs were women, and above average age workers, the category that will find it hardest to find re employment. Much lacked a good education, having experienced the chaos of the cultural revolution of 1966-1976, which saw China’s education, especially upper levels deteriorate. This urban class, dubbed the xiagong, literally went from complete stableness in the “iron rice bowl” system to a complete foundation less society. Alongside the rural migrants of the “floating population”, who’s number in cities is rising, coincided with the now jobless former state urban workers. Competition for employment was extensive.

With a poor social security service, or none at all, these former secure workers now faced a much tougher life to secure an income to support themselves and families, with wages below the average of urban household incomes, ‘it is not surprising that by early 2000, 73 per cent of China’s urban population had incomes below the national average, and just 27 per cent were above it,’[4] A real sense of anxiety surely crossed the minds of those who lost out, having gone from a society that provided everything to one now having to defend for themselves with the handicap of age, lack of education and skills that were needed to fill the positions now open to the market economy. Not only did they see there jobs and way of lives disappear, state benefits also dried up, or were not enough to help support this group of former state workers. The numbers who fell into poverty, which is classified depending on which city it is in China reached startling highs of almost 13 per cent of urban population, 40-50million, [5] in 2001. The unemployment figures, relating from state owned enterprises and cooperatives seems to have increased as of 2001, with China’s acceptance into the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

The state-society model, developed throughout the Maoist years seems threaten, with the massive layoffs of these ordinary workers, however much of the managerial staff and cadre’s who where involved in the running of these SOE’s have benefited, becoming prime shareholders, re allocated to improved positions of employment and benefits that go with that, again dividing urban class standards, ‘People working in rich work units could easily get a comfortable spacious apartment, while those in poor work units remained in near-slum conditions. Work units ability to provide housing varied between state and collective sectors and with bureaucratic rank. While work unit housing was allocated to satisfy needs (large or multigenerational families were allocated first and got more living space) spacious and quality units were a work units resources and served as incentives to reward political and managerial authority, seniority , professional expertise, and social connections. ’[6] At the expense of the ordinary workers losing their occupations in the numbers, a new class of highly educated, well positioned (through connections like guanxi (?? ) and entrepreneurial class has reaped the real rewards of the booming Chinese economy of the recent years. Have the government and the ruling Communist Party really shown nepotism away from its own founding base of the working class? What can the workers do t voice their concerns, in a country that restricts free speech and emotion? Any organisations of protests are met with harsh retaliations, and those accused of such activities are harshly dealt with. Taking the example of the Daqing petroleum protest of March 2002, in Daqing Heilongjiang province, the state must address and deal with these challenges sensitively, knowing that a lot rests on its outcome.

In dealing with large scale outbreaks of protest like this the state has developed a ‘divide-and-rule strategy, encouraging employed workers to keep their distance from the protests, and intentionally causing the rank and file among the unemployed to believe that the protests are to blame for the cancellation of payments’[7]. This form of catch-22 policy has so far deemed successful in maintaining stability and control over any protest or arguments amongst the newly found unemployed “iron rice bowl” employees. This has allowed the government to keep on track with its promotion of the market based economy on a whole, as well formulating a large labour surplus into the workforce. The urban working class has definitely been the class that has lost most in the post-reform era of China, while a new class has benefited at their downfall.

Reform era China has provided vast opportunities in newly emerging industries and privately owned, foreign invested or created from scratch enterprises have thrived. However demand for educated, well positioned workers, has left modern China with a development of a “middle class”. It is hard to say what exact characteristics make up this “middle class”, as in comparison to western middle class society, it is far from a following example, like the ownership of cars as common in western income families in the west is obviously not matched in China. In terms of income, an annual household income of 60,000-500,000 yuan is thought to qualify a household as middle strata levels. 8] This newly educated class, with social guanxi is the new driving force of China’s growth, with the closing of SOE’s and rising capitalist activity in the Chinese economy. Newly developed entrepreneurs, officially welcome into the Communist Party in 2001, by invite of the Three Represents, have been behind much of China’s economic activity, able through connections, know how, and close connections to the party(Goodman, New Rich in China, p34-36) been able to secure funds to help develop their prestige. Professionals and managers have also been on ends of high salary turnovers, seen to the state as vital in its strategic to immense economic activity.

Favours from the state also passed their way through to this new elite group, with property and housing given at lower rates, ‘the massive sale of public housing to employees throughout the 1990s occurred at highly subsidized prices for the existing housing stock, or alternatively employees were given the option of buying newly built houses while the work unit carried the lion’s share in construction or purchasing costs…buying extensively to cater for the needs of their professionals and other employees. ’ [9] These new homes ‘awarded’ to the newly emerging elites are often found close to the best schools and other community services, creating so called neighbourhood apartheid. An estimated 20-30 billion yuan was lost due to under value sales of land, ( www. internationalviewpoint. org/spip. php? article751) . So why has the state in turn favoured the class that had been, during the Maoist era received massive vocal attacks? Well in dealing with the massive under performing

SOEs , the state could and did look to the emerging capitalists as a source of absorbing the loose employment that spilled out of the massive state owned unemployed. Capitalists are thought to have accounted for between 70-85% of China’s GDP ( Li Yi, China Stratification, p137), without this China may well have internally collapsed, unwilling to disband its loss making enterprises and not indulging into a market economy. This system, albeit seeming unfair, is following in Deng Xiao Ping’s approach of allowing some people to get rich first’. However this route, of eventually reaching a society where the middle class is prominent and thriving will take time and the correct policies and approach, with careful management.

Air Pollution rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth’s ecosystems.

Usually, primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone — one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

About 4 percent of deaths in the United States can be attributed to air pollution, according to the Environmental Science Engineering Program at the Harvard School of Public Health. [citation needed] MAJOR PRIMARY POLLUTANTS PRODUCED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY INCLUDE: * Sulfur oxides (SOx) – especially sulphur dioxide, a chemical compound with the formula SO2. SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulphur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain. 2] This is one of the causes for concern over the environmental impact of the use of these fuels as power sources. * Nitrogen oxides (NOx) – especially nitrogen dioxide are emitted from high temperature combustion. Can be seen as the brown haze dome above or plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO2. It is one of the several nitrogen oxides. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants. * Carbon monoxide – is a colourless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas.

It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood. Vehicular exhaust is a major source of carbon monoxide. * Carbon dioxide (CO2) – a colourless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration * Volatile organic compounds – VOCs are an important outdoor air pollutant. In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs). Methane is an extremely efficient greenhouse gas which contributes to enhanced global warming.

Other hydrocarbon VOCs are also significant greenhouse gases via their role in creating ozone and in prolonging the life of methane in the atmosphere, although the effect varies depending on local air quality. Within the NMVOCs, the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene and xylene are suspected carcinogens and may lead to leukemia through prolonged exposure. 1,3-butadiene is another dangerous compound which is often associated with industrial uses. * Particulate matter – Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas.

In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Some particulates occur naturally, originating from volcanoes, dust storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, and sea spray. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and various industrial processes also generate significant amounts of aerosols. Averaged over the globe, anthropogenic aerosols—those made by human activities—currently account for about 10 percent of the total amount of aerosols in our atmosphere.

Increased levels of fine particles in the air are linked to health hazards such as heart disease,[3]altered lung function and lung cancer. * Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease. [4][5] * Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper. * Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) – harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use. * Ammonia (NH3) – emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor.

Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous. * Odors — such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes * Radioactive pollutants – produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon. SECONDARY POLLUTANTS INCLUDE: Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog. Smog is a kind of air pollution; the word “smog” is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern smog does not usually come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions that are acted on in the atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. * Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs.

Ozone (O3) is a key constituent of the troposphere. It is also an important constituent of certain regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. * Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) – similarly formed from NOx and VOCs. Minor air pollutants include: * A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants.

Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive. * A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potential significant impacts on human health and the environment.

Iriomote Wild Cat need essay help: need essay help

There are many endangered animals in our world, and very few are critically endangered. One animal species that is critically endangered is the Iriomote Wild Cat. Key points to the Iriomote Wild Cat’s endangerment are habitat loss, not being well known, and feral domestic cats. The first part of the wild cat’s endangerment, and the most major is habitat loss. Iriomote Wild Cats live on the small island of Iriomotejima, southwest of Japan, the island is a meer 116 miles wide. Plus, Iriomotejima is one of the fastest developing regions in the world. This not very good for the cats.

The iriomote cat mainly inhabits the lowland coastal regions of the island which bring it into direct conflict with the islands human population. Futhermore, any small, restricted population must be considered at risk and this coupled with the increased loss of habitat can only serve to highlight the need for further research and increased conservation efforts. We need to protect the cats! Iriomote cats are doing their best to protect themselves, we need to help by decreasing land development. The second part of the cat’s endangerment is not being well known.

The Iriomote cat was first discovered in the mid 1960’s. As soon as they were discovered, it was estimated 83-108 cats were living on the island. That’s not good for being a newly found species. It is estimated an Iriomote wild cat’s lifespan is 10-12 years, and reaches maturity after 10-12 months. These cats develop very fast. The lifestyle of the wild cat is not very well known, although is thought to hunt by night. In addition, it’s also been revealed that prey ranges from mammals to varied species of birds and reptiles, to fish and insects.

This is a very interesting range of prey. Perhaps by figuring out more information on the cat, we can help save them. The final key to the Iriomote wild cat’s endangerment is feral and domestic cats. Iriomote cats weigh between seven-nine pounds, and a body length just under two feet, all of these characteristics are very similar to domestic and feral cats. Due to this, there is often crossed breeding between the very similar cats, but doing this threatens to dilute the wild cat’s genes. This can destroy Iriomote cats.

Another issue is hunting and prey. There is always close competition between the cats, which often causes the Iriomote to prey on livestock. Letting this happen can decrease the Iriomote numbers further. Feral and domestic cats cause unneeded competition for Iriomote cats. In conclusion, habitat destruction, being a rare species, and other cats are destroying the Iriomote Wildcat Population. As of the last survey taken, there were less than 100 of them left. Let’s work together to save the Iriomote cats, and perhaps even other endangered animals!

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