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The Solitary Reaper Essay Research Paper the english essay help

The Solitary Reaper Essay, Research Paper

the lone harvester.

& # 8220 ; The Solitary Reaper & # 8221 ; by William Wordsworth is a romantic verse form written by Wordsworth while going through the Scots Highlandss.

It is written in first individual narrative and Wordsworth about seems to be speaking to himself, but at the same clip he is explicating a narrative to the reader. He tells of an experience of watching a & # 8220 ; lone upland young girl & # 8221 ; working in some Fieldss and singing. Wordsworth is in awe and admiration of the adult females & # 8217 ; s voice and the tone of the verse form is happy and it about is a verse form of congratulations.

The subject of the verse form seems to be the beauty of voice and vocal, and the consequence it leaves upon a individual. Wordsworth says in the last two lines, & # 8220 ; the music in my bosom I bore, long after it was heard no more & # 8221 ; . This shows the impact that the adult female & # 8217 ; s vocalizing had on him and how he could still hear the vocalizing in his head long after he had encountered the adult female.

Many linguistic communication techniques were used in & # 8220 ; The Solitary Reaper & # 8221 ; . These helped make an impact on the reader and do the verse form more gratifying.

Alliteration was used to consequence in the 4th line of the 2nd stanza & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; Among Arabian sands & # 8221 ; . The repeat of the soft missive & # 8220 ; A & # 8221 ; axial rotations off the lingua and leaves a memorable consequence on the reader.

The usage of oculus rime is shown in the first stanza, where in the 2nd and 4th lines the last word is & # 8220 ; lass & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; base on balls & # 8221 ; severally. These two words at first glimpse expression like they should rime but really wear & # 8217 ; T when read over. This causes the reader to halt and believe. They may even look over the lines once more. This technique sticks in the head.

Assonance is shown in the 5th line of the last stanza – & # 8221 ; I listened, motionless and still & # 8221 ; . The repeat of the & # 8220 ; I & # 8221 ; sound in & # 8220 ; listened & # 8221 ; and & # 8220 ; still & # 8221 ; creates vowel rhyme and is easy read.

In the 2nd stanza Wordsworth creates an image of the adult female & # 8217 ; s voice by literally comparing it to a birds. & # 8220 ; A voice so thrilling Ne & # 8217 ; er was heard, In springtime from the cuckoo-bird & # 8221 ; . This gives the reader an thought of how beautiful the adult female & # 8217 ; s voice was.

In the first line of the 3rd stanza, Wordsworth asks a rhetorical inquiry. & # 8220 ; Will no 1 state me what she sings? & # 8221 ; . Although the reader could non perchance reply this inquiry, it demonstrates Wordsworth & # 8217 ; s admiration at the vocal of the adult female. It causes the reader to halt and contemplate different subjects of the vocal, as does Wordsworth in the latter lines of the stanza. & # 8220 ; Or is it some more low ballad, Familiar affair of today? & # 8221 ; . This besides is a rhetorical inquiry.

This verse form consists of four poetries, with the first and last poetry being indistinguishable in rhyme formation and the 2nd and 3rd poetry besides being indistinguishable. The rhyme strategy is ABCBDDEE, FGFGHHII, JKJKLLMM, NOPOQQRR. The beat is in iambic tetrameter with accent on every 2nd syllable. The dominant rime and beat in the verse form leaves impact on the reader and makes the verse form pleasant to read as it makes the words flow. Rhyme and rhythm give a happy tone on the verse form.

I found the verse form & # 8220 ; The Solitary Reaper & # 8221 ; by William Wordsworth really pleasant to read. One could easy associate to the rime and beat of the verse form. The subject of the beauty of voice and vocal is good portrayed as the verse form itself is really song like and leaves a gay consequence on the reader.

Henry Thoreau Essay Research Paper Henry David english essay help: english essay help

Henry Thoreau Essay, Research Paper

Henry David Thoreau was born in Concord, Massachusetts, on July 12, 1817. He was born to parents that were really intelligent, yet hapless and insignificant. Despite their battle with poorness, & # 8220 ; their place was a centre of fondness and vivacity. & # 8221 ; Thoreau was the 3rd of four kids and he showed an early love of nature and was the & # 8220 ; scholar & # 8221 ; of the household, traveling on to larn many linguistic communications. Because Henry showed so much promise as a pupil, his parents sent him to Concord Academy. He subsequently went on to go to Harvard College. With the aid of his aunts, and by making uneven occupations and tutoring, he managed to afford the tuition. Interestingly plenty, he graduated from Harvard in 1837 as an honor pupil and a talker at beginning, yet he was still unknown. During his life-time, Thoreau tried his manus at an mixture of uneven occupations. His first experiment was with instruction. He, along with his older brother John, opened a private school, but the school was forced to shut down after John became badly in 1841. He lived with his friend and fellow bookman Ralph Waldo Emerson, maintaining house and making jobs in exchange for rent and board. In 1843, he journeyed to the place of Emerson s brother William to tutor. Soon after the decease of John in 1842, Thoreau went to populate at Walden Pond, partly as a testimonial to his darling brother. When he returned from Walden in September of 1847, he once more performed an mixture of occupations. He hired himself out as a painter, carpenter, Mason, or a day-laborer believing & # 8220 ; the business of a day-laborer to be the most independent of any, & # 8221 ; he besides became interested in appraising land and went on to go one of the best surveyors in Concord. He even made clip to lend to the household pencil-making concern by contriving a graphite floatation procedure which made Thoreau pencils superior to those of rivals. During his travels, Thoreau besides lectured on issues such as bondage. He was an effectual talker, but lacked Emerson s accomplishment of to the full pass oning with his audience. His last jaunt was made to Minnesota in 1861. He left, trusting that the trip would better his wellness, which had been badly damaged by bronchitis several old ages earlier. The Minnesota trip weakened him further doing him to decease shortly afterwards to tuberculosis on May 6,1862. Despite his short life, he suffered many grudges. He was engaged to be married to Ellen Seawall immature in life, but she left him for his older brother and best friend John. Subsequently on she besides dumped John for another adult male go forthing the two brothers bosom broken. Two old ages subsequently, his brother of tetanus at the age of 27. That twelvemonth his sister besides died ; she was 36. These events left him saddened and partly caused his retreat to Walden. Thoreau wrote many things while he was alive, and many of his narratives and essays gained much acclamation after his decease. He began composing Journals, a daily recording of many of his thoughts and observations. It would travel on to cross about 14 volumes and go a depot of advanced thoughts. During his life, The Transcendental Club ( of which he was a member ) published & # 8220 ; The Dial & # 8221 ; ( 1840-44 ) a magazine to which he contributed many essays and verse forms. However, besides the essay & # 8220 ; Civil Disobedience, & # 8221 ; Thoreau would likely ne’er have become a authoritative author if he had non

written Walden. Walden was written during Thoreau s stay at Walden Pond, an jaunt

which lasted over 2 years. Walden was written as Thoreau conducted his “experiment in living.” The 26 months he spent at his cabin at Walden Pond were condensed into a work spanning one year. It took him many drafts and nearly 10 years before he could eventually publish the book in 1854. It did not gain immediate popularity, but it has stood the test of time, gaining status as a classic novel, well worth being read. As one reader commented: Almost all of the richness of Thoreau is in Walden. In is revelation of the simplicity and divine unity of nature, in his faith in man, in his own sturdy individualism, in his deep-rooted love for one place as an epitome of the universe, Thoreau reminds us of what we are and what we yet may be. Many of Thoreau’s political views stemmed from the fact that he took an early interest in abolition. He spoke at several antislavery conventions, especially in the Northern states. He was the first person to defend John Brown after the raid on Harper s Ferry. He did so in an October 30 speech in Concord, Mass., solidly aligning himself with the radical sector of the antislavery movements. He believed Brown to be ” A man of rare common sense and directness of speech, as of action: a transcendentalist above all, a man of ideas and principles,” Two of his famous essays, “Slavery in Massachusetts” (1854) and ” A Plea for John Brown” (1859), display his strong feelings about the abolitionist movement. One of his most famous works is “Civil Disobedience,” (1849), and it is considered to be the most widely read of all American essays. In 1845 while living at Walden Pond, Thoreau refused to pay the poll tax. He was resisting slavery, as paying the tax to essentially gave support in Congress to southern leadership, represented by the Mexican War and by appalling laws concerning slavery. His refusal to pay the tax led to a night in jail, after which an anonymous source paid the tax for him. “Civil Disobedience” gave birth to “the concept of pacific resistance as the final instrument of minority opinion. The essay includes many transcendental themes including: celebration of the individual, non- conformity, the rights of the minority, and a new kind of government with the potential to be greater than democracy. He was not an anarchist, but he did believe “that government is best which governs least.” He also believed the following: That men s lives are more important than the state, for the state is the servant and not the master of men, and that man is duty-bound to resist the state if it encroaches upon his integrity. He was a strong believer in passive resistance writing: “Unjust laws exist; shall we be content to obey them, or shall we endeavor to amend them and obey them until we have succeeded, shall we transgress them all at once A minority is powerless when it conforms to the majority; it is not even a minority them; but it is irresistible when it clogs by its whole weight.” It is believed by many that after writing “Civil Disobedience” he imagined that the masses would eventually begin passive resistance against the government. In the century that has passed, the state has grown larger and the individual smaller than he ever could of imagined as he penned: There will never be a really free and enlightened state, until the state comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent power, from which all its own power and authority are derived, and treats him accordingly.

Heather Arnold Essay Research Paper college essay help online: college essay help online

Heather Arnold Essay, Research Paper

Democracy is a signifier of authorities in which citizens agree to work together in governing a province. Today, the indispensable characteristics are that citizens bee free? in address and in assembly. This understanding between the citizens must be accomplished in order to organize viing political parties, so all electors are able to take the campaigners in regular elections. The tem democracy comes from the Grecian words demos, intending people, and kratia, significance regulation. The first democratic signifiers of authorities developed in Grecian city states in the 6th century BC. Although the term demos is said to intend merely the hapless, Aristotle? s Fundamental law of Athens shows that all citizens were included and to the full participated in the authorities. Minor leagues, adult females, slaves, and aliens were even included, although about 90 per centum of the population were non citizens. Then the Greek democratic constitutions collapsed. Democratic thoughts did non re-emerge until the 17th century. The new United States of America became the first modern democratic province. In the 20th century, most provinces have called themselves democratic. Aristotle wrote that constitutional democracy might be the ideal signifier of authorities. ? A adult male is by nature a political animate being. He believed that the community and its people try to make good in the eyes of the authorities. Everyone is equal, whether they be a solon, a male monarch, or a family director. They all have the same rights. The authorities should be divided into smaller parts instead than one big authorities. Nothing is broken faster than a adult male? s word. A adult male is trusted to do a promise and to maintain that promise. Aristotle besides believe that everything starts out little and simple. Then it grows and grows, organizing the circle of life. This besides includes communities going metropoliss and provinces. Communities start out as households, the eldest governing the remainder of the household. Even a household needs some type of authorities. Another belief is that everything is natural. What is meant to be will go on. It is the people? s mistake if they are non willing to accept the truth and allow nature take its class. If people refuse to hold with what is meant to be, the whole organic structure shall be destroyed. If a adult male is unable to populate in society, he must be either a animal or a God. He is no portion of the province. A societal inherent aptitude is inborn in all work forces by nature. What is meant by a democratic authorities? This state? s ethical motives are based on a fundamental law. Everything in the Constitution of the United States is a basic cognition to everyone in America today. Three philosophers are celebrated for act uponing our American signifier of authorities. These philosophers are John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Locke argued that the political province was made to protect the? natural rights? of the citizen to life, autonomy, and belongings. If the province does non carry through that warrant, the people have the right to subvert the authorities. These rights remain with the person. Harmonizing to Hobbes, the person? s natural rights to be self-governed was given by the agencies of a societal contract to an absolute swayer. The natural province of worlds is a changeless war with each other ; their lives are awful, barbarous, and short. Each adult male could make as he pleases, and in the mode that he chooses. Hobbes concluded that a rebellion against the province interruptions society? s basic contract,

and is punishable by jurisprudence. Rousseau stated that political authorization reflects the general will of the people. One of import rule is freedom, which the province is created to continue. The province is a created brotherhood and expresses the general will of the people. The general will is to procure freedom, equality, and justness within a province, irrespective of the will of the bulk. The most of import of these is that worlds are fundamentally good, and the natural goodness of the person can be protected from the perverting influences of society. Individual sovereignty is given up in order for these ends to be accomplished. Society must be dealt with. The component of Rousseau? s thought is besides viewed as the footing of dictatorship? s, where a dictator interprets the general will. All three of these work forces believed in the thought that all work forces are born free, intending that all work forces all work forces are non born bound by any certain state. They besides believed that all work forces strive for an order in life, and strive to stay free. These work forces do non desire to be on the underside of the societal totem pole, so to talk, and make what the can to break themselves and their lives. Men besides form by understandings, by organizing contracts. This brings us to composing these contracts, such as a fundamental law. A societal contract is written down between those who wish to be governed and those who wish to regulate, illustration being President Clinton regulating the United States. This contract defines and regulates the dealingss among members of society and between the person and regulating authorization. Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau besides believed that if a leader is chosen and is non honest to and for the people, he can be removed from his political office. If a adult male agrees to be governed, he besides agrees to obey the jurisprudence. No adult male has the right to put down another adult male? s jurisprudence. This must include the penalties? dished? out for a offense he has committed. Take, as an illustration, a adult male who has merely murdered another adult male. No adult male shall hold the right to kill anyone else. Therefore, he gets the electric chair, deadly injection, or some serious gaol clip. The Torahs are different in each province, but they all revolve around the same rule. Man is the best of animate beings when perfected, but he is non separated from jurisprudence or justness. The Torahs of justness are influential for privation of natural support. If a adult male did non hold to be governed, there would be entire lawlessness. And if he that Judgess, Judgess falsely in his ain or any other instance, he is answerable to the remainder of mankind.Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau helped act upon some of our establishing male parents of this great state, along with an English philosopher named James Harrington. He believed that a strong in-between category is necessary for a stable democracy. He besides believed in a limited, balanced government.Another adult male who helped act upon our establishing male parents was Alexis de Tocqueville. He helped set up the European position of the United States as the land of limitless chance, equality, and political wisdom. He felt that democracy was an inevitable force. He feared that the thoughts that he valued would be jeopardized by the dictatorship of the majority.All of these influences mentioned were taken into consideration when the Constitution of the United States was written. If you read the Constitution, you will detect that it has the same basic subject as these work forces? s thoughts and beliefs.

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Genetic Engineering Essay Research Paper Throughout history essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Familial Engineering Essay, Research Paper

Throughout history, adult male has been bettering his race through engineering. Several of these progresss have been questionable, but none are near to a certain engineering today. A engineering that splicings, alters, and manipulates cistrons from one person to bring forth coveted features in the same single & # 8230 ; the engineering of familial technology. This technological tool is doubtless altering society? s relationship with nature, medical specialty, and possibly it? s ain cultural values. The 21st century society is non prepared or even willing at times to accept the moral and ethical contentions familial technology is making.

The viing goods in familial technology, i.e. making a stronger, more advanced human race vs. a natural selective procedure created by God, are virtually impossible to avoid and hold placed a impermanent clasp on the advancement of this new engineering and society? s moral position. From a spiritual point of view, familial technology is triping an ethical exigency within society, and doing this new scientific discipline to be cast in a dim visible radiation. These persons of society believe that familial technology is non natural and defies the order of things. There are many spiritual groups that feel familial technology should non be considered for any ground whatsoever. Rev. Robert A. Martin provinces: ? It appears that from the beginning, God reserved for Himself the right to make populating psyches? . Others claim that many of the ethical issues being raised about familial technology are based in divinity, the concern for continuing human self-respect and single freedom. This somehow parallels to the issue of abortion and whether or non it is morally right. Religion is the root of many single personal values and beliefs about societal affairs such as familial technology and abortion. Many besides believe that familial technology will do unobserved catastrophes because once we decide to get down the procedure of human familial technology, there will be no logical topographic point to halt and there will be no turning back. If diabetes, reaping hook cell anaemia, and malignant neoplastic disease are to be cured by changing human cistrons, why non continue to other? upsets? such as nearsightedness, colour sightlessness, and left-handedness? It is possible that scientists will travel excessively far and genetically change features that will pervert society.

From the scientific base point, familial technology can assist us make a stronger, more advanced human race by increasing nutrient production, revolutionise new medical specialties, even heighten human intelligence, physical beauty and strength. Diseases could go diminished and cleaned out of worlds? familial make-up. For illustration, if one parent had a bad cistron or some type of familial disease, it could be removed from the embryo and replaced with another? clean? cistron. This procedure would surely be good for twosomes who are sterile and want to hold kids. However, the maps of all the cistrons are non known, merely these of a really little per centum of the entire cistrons in beings such as worlds. Thingss such as harvests and other workss are one of the things that have been experimented on and even released into the environment. This is particularly unsafe because scientists are non to the full certain of what could travel incorrect. A genetically altered harvest or works carbon monoxide

uld go dominant and take over all of the its like species and go a job such as going major plagues. There have been many instances where non-indigenous workss introduced into a different environment served no usage and became major plague jobs. Besides, this scientific information could acquire into the custodies of the economically or politically powerful and used for sick intents. For illustration, with the usage of familial technology, persons could be created for the exclusive intent of contending war or for making a perfect society. Already, there is the possibility of making new animate beings to be used as medicine mills. If we pick and choose the features of our kids, we will go a society of made-to-order worlds who have lost everlastingly the great gift of familial diverseness. A society of eugenics would be created. Eugenicists believe the human race can be improved by intentionally encouraging people with? superior? traits to reproduce, while detering people with? inferior? traits from bearing kids. Another recent contention is cloning. With some Deoxyribonucleic acid of an being, scientists are able to do and demand transcript of that being. A sheep and a monkey have already been successfully cloned, and with the current engineering, worlds could besides be cloned. This raises the most ethical and moral issues because many inquiries would be raised about the ringer. What will be the intent of doing exact human transcripts? We might even acquire to a point where worlds are cloned for specific responsibilities or even cloned for organic structure parts needed by organ receivers. What rights would that ringer have?

Familial technology can help to the development of worlds by cleansing our organic structures of such ailment and in some instances lifelessly burdens. This isolation and removing of a coveted cistron is a procedure that would hold taken Mother Nature 1000000s of 4 old ages of natural choice to develop. I agree that God created the universe with a mathematical construction and He had created the human head with the capacity for hold oning that construction. I besides understand the position held by many that familial technology is unnatural and non ethically right, nevertheless, so would be taking medicine when sick. For those who disagree with familial technology, I am certainly if their kid could be saved from a familial disease, they would reconsider. Genetic technology is a powerful tool that will give unprecedented consequences, specifically in the field of medical specialty. It will usher in a universe where cistron defects, bacterial disease, and even aging are a thing of the yesteryear. However, I feel that cloning, every bit good as familial penchant in features is basically the neutering God? s sacred creative activity. I believe that society fails to understand to the full plenty, right plenty and makes errors. If the atomic bomb revealed original wickedness, the epoch of familial technology will uncover it much more. Familial technology is a tool that is excessively powerful for any adult male to manage. It is excessively unsafe and crosses many moral and ethical issues. I strongly believe that the 21st century society is non prepared or even willing at times to accept the moral and ethical contentions familial technology is making. We should allow nature take its class as it has been for over many successful coevalss.

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Heart Of DarknessSymboliszm Essay Research Paper Joseph buy essay help: buy essay help

Heart Of Darkness-Symboliszm Essay, Research Paper

Joseph Conrad s usage of visible radiation and darkness to stand for good and evil in the Heart

of Darkness helps in developing the subject and the secret plan of the novel. Conrad uses the

symbol of light and darkness repetitively throughout the novel in order to unwrap his

penetration to the reader ; Conrad uses visible radiation and darkness when mentioning to the Thames and

Congo river, the tegument colour and Black Marias of the Whites and inkinesss, and the black kept woman and

the Intended.

Conrad s usage of visible radiation and darkness is apparent from the gap of the novel. The

narrative opens on the tranquil Thames River aboard the cruising yawl called the Nellie. All is

composure on the H2O as the visible radiations of London scintillation around the boat. The Thames River,

which is seen as unagitated, civil and bright, is an obvious contrast to the Congo River that

Marlow navigates in Africa. The Congo is full of darkness and unruliness. Ironically,

the bright Thames is described likewise to the dark Congo. In the shutting lines of the

novel, the Thames seems to be fluxing & # 8220 ; into the bosom of an huge darkness ( ) . During

the oncoming of the novel, in which none of Marlow s narrative is disclosed, the storyteller is

ignorant to the horrors of European imperialism, and he later describes the

Thames as bright and lit. However, during the shutting of the novel, in which the startling

inhuman treatment of the Europeans is divulged, the storyteller describes the Thames as strikingly

different: vastly dark. Through the usage of elation and darkness Conrad inveighs

that regardless of where the white adult male exists, in civilised London or deepest Africa, he

seems to convey darkness: inhumaneness to his fellow adult male.

Conrad uses visible radiation and darkness in context of the colour of tegument of the Whites and

inkinesss, every bit good as the corresponding good and immoralities of their Black Marias. In contrast to the greed

and inhuman treatment of the white work forces in Africa, who voraciously and recklessly prehend tusk at any

cost to

human life, Conrad depicts the black indigens as holding more self-denial. The

Manager is hungering the man-eaters on board Marlow & # 8217 ; s steamer to decease, and although they

thirstily oculus the organic structure of the dead steersman and besides the build of the plump Russian,

they restrain their native impulses and do non assail the life or the dead. In a similar

mode, the barbarians along the Congo do non assail the soft-shell clam bearing the greedy

Europeans even though they know the purpose is to be evil and destructive. It is merely a white

adult male s bid, at the goad of Kurtz, that the indigens attack the soft-shell clam. It is

deliberately dry that the black adult male in the novel has a purer ( light ) bosom than the white

adult male, whose bosom is indurate, barbarous and baneful ( dark ) .

The two adult females in Kurtz & # 8217 ; s life are besides described with the usage of visible radiation and

darkness. Kurtz s black kept woman in Africa is really demonstrative, have oning bright vesture

and jewellery and moving in a loud, wild mode, clearly exposing strong emotions. In

contrast, Kurtz & # 8217 ; s Intended in Belgium is just, mild-tempered, and draped in black. The

brightness and passion of Kurtz s black kept woman are revealed from her bright garb while

the passivity of Kurtz s intended is apparent from her dark vesture. However, despite

their differences in visual aspect and disposition, the love they feel for Kurtz is really

similar. The white Intended s garb of black shows her bond with the black adult female, while

the black kept woman s bright vesture and jewellery show this common bond every bit good ; built-in

in both is a love for Kurtz.

The usage of the symbols of visible radiation and darkness aid in developing many major

subjects in the Heart of Darkness. Many of these subjects, if non grasped by the reader

through the usage of symbols and other literary devices, generate a misunderstanding of the

novel. Therefore, the allegations holding Conrad racialist are simply the consequence of ignorant

readers who do non grok the manner of composing which he employs.

Green Jobs in Asia – Potentials and Prospects for National Strategies Essay Sample buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help

Environmental engineerings. such as renewable energies. recycling engineerings. engineerings for sustainable conveyance. etc. are progressively seen as the drivers of future economic growing. while at the same clip continuing natural resources and extenuating emanations. This is captured in the OECD’s Green Growth Strategy. which states: “Green growing means fostering economic growing and development while guaranting that natural assets continue to supply the resources and environmental services on which our wellbeing relies” ( OECD 2011 ) . While earlier definitions referred to the growing of specific eco-industries ( Janicke 2011 ) . this new definition calls for a mainstreaming of green growing into “core economic strategies” in recognition of the hazards of continued environmental debasement for sustained economic growing.

Similar attacks are besides being developed by Asiatic policy shapers. In 2005. at the 5th Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific ( MECD 2005 ) . Asiatic states launched the alleged Seoul Initiative Network for Green Growth. officially endorsed by the 61st Session of UNESCAP. The recent UNESCAP ( 2010 ) study entitled “Green Growth. Resources and Resilience” acknowledges the bounds of current resource-intensive development theoretical accounts in advancing long-run socio economic advancement. particularly for the most vulnerable sectors of society. It calls for “policies and investings that promote green growing [ … ] to better the “eco-efficiency” of the economic system. which involves minimising resource usage and negative environmental impacts while maximising the benefits generated by the economic system. This action requires incorporate schemes that increase the productiveness with which energy and other resources are used. while guaranting that the growing rate and the types of economic activities are able to bring forth occupations rapidly plenty to cut down unemployment and maintain and heighten labour productivity” ( UNESCAP 2010 ) . The publicity of green occupations plays a cardinal function in bridging the spread between societal and environmental advancement in this context.

Despite some modest advancement over the past decennary. nevertheless. the resource-intensity of economic growing in Asia remains good above the planetary norm ( UNESCAP 2010 ) . In other words. although policy shapers are progressively cognizant of the looming environmental challenges. it has proven hard to equilibrate long term environmental sustainability with the short term societal force per unit areas ensuing from rapid population growing and the go oning challenge of poorness decrease.

The FES Regional Forum on Green Jobs will convey together participants from China. Germany. India. Indonesia. Japan. Poland. South Korea. Thailand and Vietnam. With a series of surveies in the mentioned states. FES has started to take at researching options for economic development schemes in Asia that depart from the way of high resource ingestion. while bring forthing sufficient employment chances to guarantee societal sustainability. With the consequences of the state surveies as an analytical background. the Regional Forum will concentrate on placing entry-points for green occupation creative activity. including the rejuvenation of bing occupations and the development of new occupation chances in emerging green industries. Thereby it seeks to do a part to attempts aimed at constructing a green economic system that is both environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive.

Strategically. the outputs shall be linked with the FES regional working line in support of the “Economy of Tomorrow” – a undertaking which has been set up in early 2011 in the context of the new FES scheme for Asia and the Pacific. Therefore. the forum shall besides be used for web edifice between the different participants. in order to discourse future schemes for common activities and battles.

Forum Aims
– To present the undertaking and ease the edifice up of a web of academic experts. policy shapers and trade brotherhoods from different Asiatic and European states who portion the same basic apprehensions and aims
– To show and discourse the findings of the national surveies on “Green Jobs – Potentials and Prospects” – To portion cognition and experiences refering the ecological transmutation of the economic systems and the development of green occupations – To develop thoughts for future schemes for common activities and battles sing the publicity and treatment of green occupations schemes

Participants
– FES offices and writers of the several state surveies ( 2 kiss of peace / state ) – FES spouses from academic establishments. trade brotherhoods or civil society organisations working in the field of green occupations – Experts from regional / international organisations working in the field of green occupations ( UNEP. UNESCAP. ILO. ADB. ASEAN ) – Partners and experts from FES Indonesia / working line on green occupations

Expected End products
– Forum study
– Communication / action program incorporating common basic apprehensions. aims and schemes

Herman Hesse Essay Research Paper Herman Hesse essay help free: essay help free

Herman Hesse Essay, Research Paper

Herman Hesse is one of the universe? s most necessary authors. Until winning the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946, nevertheless, he was virtually unknown outside of German talking states. Since so he has been an icon for the immature every where because of his ability to pass on the same struggles that many draw a bead oning pupils face. Many of his characters ( frequently sharing his initials, i.e. Harry Haller of Steppenwolf ) battle within a universe that seeks to snuff out single creativeness.

Born in 1877 to a Protestant household in southern Germany, Hesse from the beginning was a square nog seeking to suit into a unit of ammunition hole. Possibly it should be noted that his end was to be a all-around individual, happening it hard to suit into the square confines of his civilization. Harmonizing to lifes, Hesse admits that he was inexorable about going a poet from an early age- 12 to be exact. While at school, he discovered that course of studies at place and abroad are non designed to foster poets the same manner they are for more practical professions such as physicians and scientists. In fact, one of the earliest of his plants, Beneath the Wheel, depicts his ain rebellion against such a system, which he sees every bit deadly to the psyche that does non give.

At the age of 17, frustrated with life, he ran off and after brief brushs with local constabularies, landed a occupation as a bookkeeper? s learner. Hesse spent four old ages fighting to stay focussed, and finally began to be published. After brief success with short narratives and poesy, he married a adult female and fathered three kids, but became even more discontent with his topographic point in life. In 1911, this sparked his journey to a topographic point that ever held great enigma and machination to him- India. Forever a truster in the ancient wisdom of the East, Hesse sought replies to his ain life, which are frequently reflected in his plant. The Orient had ever represented an ideal in his head, and his clip spent at that place gave birth to one of his most notable accomplishments, the short novel, Sidhartha.

Among Herman Hesse? s other celebrated novels are Demian, Steppenwolf and Narcissus and Goldmund. Like the rubric character in Sidhartha, the characters of his plants center around people who do non readily suit into society and their battle to specify themselves and the universe around them.

As noted antecedently, Sidhartha is the consequence of an drawn-out visit to India where Hesse sought piece of head he believed could merely be found in Eastern traditions. Many of his characters besides seek religious declaration to the jobs that they face. These jobs normally are the consequence of being free minds or more significantly holding the ability to believe outside the confines that their society imposes particularly conformance. Conformity in acquisition was Hesse? s chief scruple, upset with the manner? larning? was really the memorisation of facts or deriving the ability to believe as the? instructor? idea.

While the traditional narrative of the Buddha is about the Lord, Sidhartha, who rejects stuff ownerships after being denied the experience of enduring from his household, Hesse? s take on the narrative has been noted as being a more western-accessible version. Hesse? s Sidhartha seeks the original Bodhisatva ( Buddha ) and other religious instructors of India. The original narrative discoveries Sidhartha really going the first to be enlightened and named Buddha. This is interesting because of the ability of Hinduism ( the birth topographic point of Buddhism ) to stay idle, and non focus on around any historical events ; leting the changing the format of it? s written instructions without losing the impact of their significance or deepness.

Besides the writer? s internal battles, another factor to see in the authorship of Sidhartha was convulsion in the remainder of the universe. Sidhartha was conceived in the helter-skelter old ages predating World War I, and this period of tenseness due to history devising determinations is exemplified by the narrative? s subject of taking the right moralss in which to populate by. Everlastingly opposed to war, Hesse reflects the proverbial searcher as one who is overwhelmed by the turbulency of the universe and turns inside for the solution.

As mentioned antecedently, the subjects from one of Hesse? s novels is certain to be found in another. Sidhartha is similar to Demian in this regard refering the development of spirit and chiefly the quest for truth. Both Sidhartha and Demain find their chief characters detecting that truth? can non be obtained from instructors, but merely personal experience. ( Anslem, p.358 ) ?

Sidhartha has a common yarn with Narcissus and Goldmund every bit good. In both narratives, the chief character has a life long comrade who portions involvement in the pursuit for absolute truth and apprehension. In both journeys, the two separate and reunite frequently, each taking a different attack to enlightenment. Here Hesse is able to show the spectra of picks to spiritual development at different times of the character? s experience while avoiding opinion or losing focal point of the ultimate end. The two go through aristocracy and poorness and back once more ( similar to Greek calamity ) without accomplishing an across-the-board truth.

Sidhartha, the good off boy of a Brahmin ( the highest category in Indian society ) , is non satisfied with his life at place. He lacks the religion in traditional rites and merely concentrates on the of all time widening spread between Dogma and world. He seeks to deny physical and material wealth and dedicates himself to the monistic life style of a Samana. This lone brings him? a flight from ego, a impermanent alleviant against the hurting and foolishness of life? ( Beerman, p.200 ) ? .

Hearing that there is one who

exists with cognition of everything, he seeks Guatama- the Buddha. He travels with the Buddha although he remains dubious he will happen it to be his concluding finish.

The Buddha does fulfill his logical demands, but leaves him hankering for metaphysical alleviation. He recognizes Buddha? s experience as more profound than any other, but does non accept it as his ain, and hunts for his ain personal waking up.

It is so he realizes that he has been seeking for a manner to alter his being alternatively of uniting it with his spirit, where upon he returns to his animal features. He spends a great trade of clip in his old universe of surplus and finally becomes disgusted with it once more and wanderlust sets in one time more. On the brink of self-destruction he remembers the Brahmin instructions of his young person. Reflecting on the indomitability of the life kernel and the deity all around him he begins to understand that love and devotedness is the lone thing that can salvage him from himself. His new belief is? to hold one? s bosom absorbed in love brings us to unity with all animals and unravels the enigma of the existence ( Beerman, p 200 ) ? .

While he has achieved this piece of head, he lacks flawlessness. At this clip he discovers he has a boy born from his old ages of animal copiousness. His imperfectness has a opportunity of wipe outing itself, but his nonreversible and focussed love drives his boy off, doing Sidhartha the highest agony. Through this loss he is able to happen absolute love and flawlessness and most significantly peace in the universe.

He no longer saw his friend Sidhartha. Alternatively he saw other faces, many faces, a long series, a uninterrupted watercourse of faces-hundreds, 1000s, which all came and disappeared and yet all seemed to be at that place at the same clip, which all continually changed and renewed themselves and which were yet all Sidhartha. He saw the face of a fish, of a carp, with enormous distressingly opened oral cavity, a deceasing fish with dimmed eyes. He saw the face a freshly born kid, ruddy and full of furrows and ready to shout. He saw the face of a liquidator, saw him immerse a knife into the organic structure of a adult male ; at the same minute he saw this condemnable kneeling down, edge, and his caput cut off by an executioner. He saw the bare organic structures of work forces and adult females in the positions and conveyances of passionate love. He saw cadavers stretched out, still, cold, empty. He saw the caputs of animals-boars, crocodiles, elephants, cattle, birds. He saw Krishna and Agni. He saw all these signifiers and faces in a 1000 relationships to each other, all assisting each other, loving, hating, and destructing each other and become freshly born. Each one was person, a passionate, painful illustration of all that is ephemeral. Yet none of them died, they merely changed, were ever reborn, continually had a new face?

This is an first-class transition to exemplify the ultimate apprehension that many of Hesse? s characters achieve. Sidhartha, himself, finds the universe and the spirit unending and forever in alteration, and with this cognition he is able to accept things the manner they merely are. The faces that Govinda sees before he passes off represent the different phases, whether symbolically or literally, that he has seen his friend undergo in his life. It is my belief that these faces represent the? Everyman? construct and that finally it shall be the manner that many of us view the universe after adequate experience with it.

It is widely accepted among critics of Hesse that his meaningfulness among immature people is mostly due to his ability to demo them the manner they view the universe and the manner they will shortly come to see the universe without being sponsoring about it. Hesse besides lacks the strength that many other authors tend to hold in respects to his message. Rudolf Koester writes, ? Hesse? s? single? has no desire to enforce his will on others. These persons do non lend to human improvement? by utilizing humanity as natural stuff for their independent volitions, but they contribute by their mere being?

( P. 205 ) . ?

Hesse advocates against the common ideals and criterions of accomplishment. Because each of our fates is alone, there can be no one manner of being gauged by another? s. He felt that one should be subjective when make up one’s minding the worth of an person and their possible.

In decision, I will cite Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. with his thoughts of why even today the young person of America have such an affinity for his work, ? Hesse is no black humourist. Black humorists? holy roamers find nil but debris and prevarications and idiocy wherever they travel? Not so with the roamers of Hesse ; they ever find something satisfying- sanctity, wisdom, hope ( P. 209 ) . ? It is a great achievement to capture the spirit of the immature searchers of truth and cognition in a disruptive universe, it is an even greater achievement to show with a just and optimistic decision.

Felix Anslem, ? Herman Hesse? in Poet Lore ( copyright 1947 by Poet Lore, Inc ) Vol. LIII, No. 4, Winter, 1947, pp. 353-60

Hans Beerman, ? Herman Hesse & A ; The? Bhagavad Gita? ? in Midwest Quarterly ( copyright 1959 by Midwest Quarterly, Pittsburgh State University ) Vol. I, No.1, October pp. 27-40

Herman Hesse, ? Sidhartha? , Copyright 1951 by New Directions Publishing Corporation, New York, New York.

Rudolf Koester, ? Self-fulfillment: Hesse? s Reflections on Youth? in Monashefte ( copyright 1965 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System ) . Vol. 57, No.4, April-May, 1965. Pp. 181-86

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. , ? Why They Read Hesse? Wampeters Foma & A ; Granfallons ( copyright 1974: reprinted with permission of Delecorte Press/Seymour Lawrence ) . Delacorte Press, 1974. Pp. 107-115

American Government from British Colonies to Revolution Essay Sample essay help us: essay help us

While the settlers were treated by Great Britain as minor kids or as topics to be governed. the really new sets of settlements were doing their ain constitutions in the kingdom of self-determination. Colonial self-government ranged on a expansive graduated table from things such as town meetings and councils. to public assemblies and tribunals. From these assemblies. great leaders and political heads hosted ideas and brought together a kind of ordinance for what early America was to look like in its hereafter. This procedure. of class. took clip and went through a great sum of alterations from the first colonists to the Revolutionary period.

New colonial authorities represented an extension of English authorities. Courts enforced the common jurisprudence of England. The General Assembly was elected by electors. and by 1750 most free work forces could vote. In New England. the towns had town meetings where all free work forces had a voice. Some diplomatic personal businesss were handled by London. as were some trading policies. The settlements handled their ain personal businesss with the Native Americans. but Britain ( seemingly ) handled foreign wars with France and Spain.

Councils as a whole would sit as the Supreme Court for the settlement. Like the British House of Lords. the council’s blessing was required for new Torahs. which normally originated in the Assembly. The council could be viewed as uninterrupted. unlike the Assembly. which would typically run into for a new session each twelvemonth to cover with revenue enhancements. budgets. and new demands. Like the Assembly. most Council places were unpaid. and members pursued a figure of professions. While attorneies were outstanding throughout the settlements. merchandisers were of import in the northern settlements. while plantation owners were more involved in the South. Each settlement had a charter. or written understanding between the settlement and the male monarch of England or Parliament.

Charters of royal settlements allowed direct regulation by the male monarch. A colonial legislative assembly was elected by belongings keeping males. But governors were appointed by the male monarch and had about complete authorization — in theory. The legislative assemblies controlled the wage of the governor and frequently used this influence to maintain the governors in line with colonial wants. The Pilgrims fateful ( or non ) set downing in Plymouth. and pulling up of the Mayflower Compact. was a big measure toward self-determination in Massachusetts and the remainder of the settlements. This being said. colonial towns and small towns were practically self-governed from the start. sing their female parent state was separate from them by a big ocean.

There were widespread belongings demands. Some settlements required a elector to have a certain sum of land or land of a specified value. Others required personal belongings of a certain value. or payment of a certain sum of revenue enhancements. America’s huge sum of land offered great inducement to go and settle at that place. Apprenticed retainers were besides a big portion of life and land in the early British settlements. Settlers could vote for legislators. but legislatures tended to go through few Torahs. Their greatest power was their power to revenue enhancement. Governors needed colonial politicians to supply financess for their enterprises. authorities disposal. and their wages. Get downing in the mid-1760s. settlers began demanding rights against revenue enhancement. ( “Taxation without representation” ) Although the revenue enhancements were no where nigh excessively expensive or boisterous to pay for. the people populating in America believed the rule of such a thing was incorrect. With more revenue enhancement Acts of the Apostless came more rebellion from American settlers. The Sons of Liberty was established and held boycotts against British goods. widespread protests and public violences lead to the Boston Massacre over the Townshed Act. the Boston Tea Party took topographic point. and eventually the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1774 after the Coercive Act went into affect.

The First Continental Congress brought together delegates from each settlement ( besides Georgia ) and discussed the following class of action. Settlers believed the King and Parliament had no right to pass any portion of the settlements. With the aid of John Adams. Congress passed a declaration of grudges and resolutenesss that wholly condemned Britain’s actions since 1763. The delegates besides came up humor a Continental Association to boycott all British goods and to halt all British exports.

The passionate words of Thomas Paine. Samuel Adams. Patrick Henry. and finally John Adams and Thomas Jefferson sparked rebellion and revolution in the Black Marias of settlers. These authors and work forces of stature convinced the future American people that they had every right to go and independent state free from all British regulation. In 1776 the meeting of the Second Continental Congress took topographic point. and delegates approved the Declaration of Independence. the event that marks the birth of the United States. Thomas Jefferson. a delegate from Virginia. drafted the papers chiefly as a list of grudges against the male monarch. His most of import words. every adult male has the rights to life. autonomy. and the chase of felicity. clearly shaped the philosophical footing of the new authorities.

Health 2 college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Health

Peoples presents are more health-conscious than they used to be. They understand that good wellness is above wealth.

To be healthy we should avoid different bad wonts that can impact our wellness. In my sentiment, smoke and imbibing excessively much intoxicant, are the worst 1s. It ‘s common cognition that smoke and imbibing can shorten our lives dramatically. Smoke, for illustration, causes a figure of bosom and lung diseases, such as pneumonia, emphysema and malignant neoplastic disease. Besides, it makes your dentitions xanthous and skin unhealthy. Fortunately, in recent old ages smoke has received a batch of bad promotion, and fewer people smoke presents. Some companies do n’t use people who are tobacco users. Smoke has been banned in most public topographic points because everyone agrees it does harm to our wellness. I do n’t smoke, because I do n’t desire to hold unhealthy tegument and dentitions and die immature.

Smoke and imbibing are joined by less unsafe wonts, such as jumping repasts, eating unhealthy nutrient, or even gorging. Of class, they are non rather every bit lifelessly as smoke or imbibing intoxicant, but they besides affect our wellness. If we eat excessively much, we ‘ll go corpulent, and fleshiness leads to serious wellness jobs. A batch of people like imbibing coca Cola and java, and bask pizzas and beefburgers. But what is tasty is non ever healthy. Fast nutrient makes you fat, that ‘s why Americans are the fattest people in the universe.

In recent old ages eating wonts have undergone a alteration. Peoples are encouraged to eat less fat and more fibers. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of fleshiness and bosom disease. High fiber and low fat nutrients can now be found in all stores and supermarkets. Salads, beans, and fruit have taken the topographic point of steak and ice pick. The manner for wellness nutrient is turning all the clip.

Many people feel they are excessively fat, even if their physicians disagree. And a batch of people try to better their fittingness. There are a batch of ways to lose weight and avoid deriving it. Possibly the most popular of them is following a diet. If you want to lose weight, you should cut out bites and sweets, and cut down on fat. Peoples have besides become more cognizant of Calories, the energy value of nutrient. Some people count the figure of Calories they eat every twenty-four hours ; so that they can seek to take in fewer Calories and lose weight. This is called a calorie-controlled diet. Manufacturers are progressively bring forthing particular nutrients with fewer Calories for slimmers.

But inordinate dieting may be unsafe, excessively. Some people refuse to eat meat as they consider it harmful. They say a vegetarian diet reduces the hazard of malignant neoplastic disease and vegetarians live longer than others. I ca n’t hold with them, because meat is an first-class beginning of good nutrition. In my sentiment, it ‘s incorrect to set down a nutrient merely because inordinate sums can do wellness jobs. Consumed in moderate sums, meat is absolutely good for our wellness.

To my head, the lone manner to remain healthy and to maintain tantrum is by traveling in for athleticss. Among the benefits of regular exercising are a healthier bosom, stronger castanetss, quicker reaction times and more opposition to assorted unwellnesss. Besides, you can eat and imbibe every bit much as you want because you are firing it all off.

To be healthy, it is besides really of import to pass a batch of clip in the unfastened air. It is utile to travel for a walk before traveling to bed, or to aerate the room.

I think it is really of import to be fit and healthy, and it is necessary to take attention of your wellness. Being fat, in fact, can do existent jobs. It is harder for fat people to acquire a good occupation, or even to do friends. If you want to make good, you must be thin. That ‘s why I go in for athleticss on a regular footing. I have been making aerobic exercises for three old ages and I feel great. I am non enthusiastic about rigorous dieting, but I try to eat merely low-fat nutrient, and fruit and veggies which are rich in vitamins.

Personally I believe that regularity in life promotes our wellness. Sleeping eight or nine hours, acquiring up early, regular repasts, a healthy diet and traveling in for athleticss is truly a good manner to populate

Vegetables and Fruits

The nutrient we like to eat that grows On vines and shrubs and trees Are veggies and fruits, my friend, Like cherries, grapes, and peas.

Apples and oranges and Prunus persicas are fruits, And so are tangerines. Lettuce and carrots are veggies, Like squash and lima beans.

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àññòàâàíèÿõ ñ áëèçêèìè è äîðîãèìè ëþäüìè ìû æåëàåì èì äîáðîãî è êðåïêîãî çäîðîâüÿ òàê êàê ýòî – îñíîâíîå óñëîâèå è çàëîã ïîëíîöåííîé è ñ÷àñòëèâîé æèçíè . Çäîðîâüå ïîìîãàåò íàì âûïîëíÿòü íàøè ïëàíû , óñïåøíî ðåøàòü îñíîâíûå æèçíåííûå çàäà÷è , ïðåîäîëåâàòü òðóäíîñòè , à åñëè ïðèäåòñÿ , òî è çíà÷èòåëüíûå ïåðåãðóçêè . Äîáðîå çäîðîâüå , ðàçóìíî ñîõðàíÿåìîå è óêðåïëÿåìîå ñàìèì ÷åëîâåêîì , îáåñïå÷èâàåò åìó äîëãóþ è àêòèâíóþ æèçíü . Ê ñîæàëåíèþ , ìíîãèå ëþäè íå ñîáëþäàþò ñàìûõ ïðîñòåéøèõ , îáîñíîâàííûõ íàóêîé íîðì çäîðîâîãî îáðàçà æèçíè . Îäíè ñòàíîâÿòñÿ æåðòâàìè ìàëîïîäâèæíîñòè ( ãèïîäèíàìèè ) , âûçûâàþùåé ïðåæäåâðåìåííîå ñòàðåíèå , äðóãèå èçëèøåñòâóþò â åäå ñ ïî÷òè íåèçáåæíûì â ýòèõ ñëó÷àÿõ ðàçâèòèåì îæèðåíèÿ , ñêëåðîçà ñîñóäîâ , à ó íåêîòîðûõ – ñàõàðíîãî äèàáåòà , òðåòüè íå óìåþò îòäûõàòü , îòâëåêàòüñÿ îò ïðîèçâîäñòâåííûõ è áûòîâûõ çàáîò , âå÷íî áåñïîêîéíû , íåðâíû , ñòðàäàþò áåññîííèöåé ÷òî â êîíå÷íîì èòîãå ïðèâîäèò ê ìíîãî÷èñëåííûì çàáîëåâàíèÿì âíóòðåííèõ îðãàíîâ . Íåêîòîðûå ëþäè , ïîääàâàÿñü ïàãóáíîé ïðèâû÷êå ê êóðåíèþ è àëêîãîëþ , àêòèâíî óêîðà÷èâàþò ñâîþ æèçíü .

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& # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; 50 % & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; 25 % & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; . & # 1042 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; , & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; , & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; , & # 1074 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; 12-13 & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; 7 % & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; 16- & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; 40 % & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; , & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1046 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; . & # 1054 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; – & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; .

& # 1046 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; .

& # 1053 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1050 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; ( & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; ) & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; . & # 1042 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1091 ; . & # 1050 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; . & # 1069 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1042 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1045 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1057 ; & # 1064 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; , & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; . & # 1052 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1041 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; . & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1101 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ;

& # 1059 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; , & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; . & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1099 ; : & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1076 ; , & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1101 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 171 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; & # 187 ; . & # 1058 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; . & # 1042 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; , & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1101 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 171 ; & # 1101 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 187 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; . & # 1057 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; 8-10- & # 1093 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1074 ; 78 % & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; .

& # 1050 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; ? & # 1057 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1085 ; & # 8212 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1072 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; , & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1047 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1085 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; . & # 1060 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1099 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; : & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 8211 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1076 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; , & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 8211 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; , & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; . & # 1044 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1060 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1052 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; , & # 1082 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; .

& # 1053 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1096 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1093 ; . & # 1052 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1102 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1084 ; , & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1101 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1077 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1100 ; .

Cellular Structures and Functions Essay Sample essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

It is the smallest unit of life that is classified as a living thing. and is frequently called the edifice block of life. The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all known life being. Some beings are unicellular ( made of merely one cell ) while others are multicellular ( made up of several cells ) . The word cell comes from the Latin cellula. significance. a little room. The term was coined by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the little suites monastics lived in. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CELL THEORY The cell was foremost discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. He examined really thin pieces of cork and saw a battalion of bantam pores that he remarked looked like the walled compartments of a honeycomb. Because of this. Hooke called them cells. the name they still bear. The first adult male to witness a unrecorded cell under a microscope was Antonie Phillips new wave Leeuwenhoek. who in 1674 described the algae Spirogyra and named the traveling organisms animalculums. intending “little animals” .

Leeuwenhoek likely besides saw bacteriums. In 1839. Theodor Schwann and Matthias Jakob Schleiden suggested that cells were the basic unit of life. In 1858. Rudolf Ludwig Virchow concluded that all cells come from preexistent cells. therefore finishing the classical cell theory. Classical Interpretation of the Cell Theory 1. All beings are made up of one or more cells. 2. Cells are the cardinal functional and structural unit of life. 3. The cell is the unit of construction. physiology. and organisation in life things. 4. The cell retains a double being as a distinguishable entity and a edifice block in the building of beings. 5. All cells come from preexistent cells. Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

The cell theory holds true for all living things. no affair how large or little. or how simple or complex. Since harmonizing to research. cells are common to all living things. they can supply information about all life. And because all cells come from other cells. scientists can analyze cells to larn about growing. reproduction. and all other maps that populating things perform. By larning about cells and how they function. you can larn about all types of life things. Over clip. and with the development of the negatron microscope. the theory has continued to germinate. As more and more living stuff has been observed at higher and higher magnifications. much more has been learned. taking to the modern cell theory.

The modern cell theory includes the basic constituents of the authoritative cell theory and so adds more… Modern Interpretation of the Cell Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. All known life things are made up of cells. The cell is structural & A ; functional unit of all living things. All cells come from preexistent cells by division. Cells contain familial information which is passed from cell to cell during cell division. 5. All cells are fundamentally the same in chemical composing. 6. All energy flow of life occurs within cells. MICROSOPE A microscope ( from the Grecian “mikros” significance “small” and “skopein” significance “to look” ) is an instrument to see objects excessively bantam for the bare oculus. Microscopes can be separated into optical theory microscopes. negatron microscopes. and scanning investigation microscopes. The most common type of microscope—and the first invented—is the optical microscope. This is an optical instrument incorporating one or more lenses bring forthing an hypertrophied image of an object placed in the focal plane of the lenses.

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Compound Light Microscope The compound microscope uses lenses and visible radiation to enlarge the image. It is besides called an optical or light microscope. The compound microscope has two systems of lenses for greater magnification: 1. the eyepiece. or eyepiece lens that one looks into. and 2. the nonsubjective lens. or the lens closest to the object.

Calculating for Magnification ? Low Power Objective ( 4x ) 10 Ocular lens ) x 4 ( LPO ) = 40x magnification At 40x magnification you will be able to see 5mm. Middle Power Objective ( 10x ) 10 Ocular lens ) x 10 ( MPO ) = 100x magnification At 100x magnification you will be able to see 2mm. High Power Objective ( 40x ) 10 Ocular lens ) x 40 ( HPO ) = 400x magnification At 400x magnification you will be able to see 0. 45mm.

Major PARTS OF A TYPICAL CELL 1. All cells. whether procaryotic or eucaryotic. hold a membrane that envelops the cell. separates its inside from its environment. regulates what moves in and out ( selectively permeable ) . and maintains the electric potency of the cell. 2. Inside the membrane. a salty cytol takes up most of the cell volume. 3. All cells possess DNA. the familial stuff of cistrons. and RNA. incorporating the information necessary to construct assorted proteins such as enzymes. the cell’s primary machinery. Cell Membrane Besides called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma. it is the biological membrane dividing the inside of a cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane surrounds all cells and it is semi-permeable. commanding the motion of substances in and out of cells.

Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

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Nucleus The karyon. besides sometimes referred to as the control centre is a membrane-enclosed cell organ found in eucaryotic cells. The map of the karyon is to keep the unity of these cistrons and to command the activities of the cell by modulating cistron look. The karyon is the largest cellular cell organ in animate beings. It appears as a dense. approximately spherical cell organ. 1 The atomic envelope is a dual membrane that encloses the full cell organ and separates its contents from the cellular cytol. The syrupy liquid within it is called karyoplasm. and is similar in composing to the cytosol found outside the karyon. The nucleole is a distinct dumbly stained construction found in the karyon.

Cytoplasm It is the portion of a cell that is enclosed within the cell membrane. The cytol is the site where most cellular activities occur. such as many metabolic tracts like glycolysis. and processes such as cell division. 1. The cytosol is the part of a cell that is non enclosed within membrane-bound cell organs. It is a semitransparent fluid in which the other cytoplasmatic elements are suspended. It makes up approximately 70 % of the cell volume and is composed of H2O. salts and organic molecules. 2. Organelles are membrane-bound compartments within the cell that have specific maps. Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function Page 3 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

ENTRY AND EXIT OF MATERIALS IN CELLS The ability of cells to be and to keep their vital activities is mostly dependent upon their ability to take in and acquire rid of certain substances. The failure to transport out the activities such as these will do the decease of the cell. Specifically. the cell would hold to: 1. Take in nutrient foods. and 2. Get rid of waste merchandises. The entryway and issue of stuffs in populating cells may happen through inactive or active conveyance. The transition of stuffs in the cell through inactive conveyance follows their concentration gradient. That is. the way of motion of stuffs is from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated. The cell does non pass energy for such natural flow of stuffs to happen. Passive conveyance of stuffs in a cell may be the procedure of diffusion or osmosis.

invariably clashing with one another. The net motion of the molecules is off from the part of high concentration to the part of low concentration. Diffusion is a random motion of molecules down the tract called the concentration gradient. Molecules are said to travel down the concentration gradient because they move from a part of higher concentration to a part of lower concentration. A bead of dye placed in a beaker of H2O illustrates diffusion as the dye molecules spread out and colourise the H2O.

Osmosis On the other manus. the transition of stuffs in the cell through active conveyance is against their concentration gradient. Thus. active conveyance involves bearer molecules and cellular energy of ATP for such procedure to happen. Procedures that involve active conveyance are exocytosis and endocytosis. PASSIVE TRANSPORT Passive conveyance means traveling biochemicals and other atomic or molecular substances across membranes. Unlike active conveyance. this procedure does non affect chemical energy. because. unlike in an active conveyance. the conveyance across membrane is ever coupled with the growing of information of the system. Diffusion One method of motion through the membrane is diffusion. Diffusion is the motion of molecules from a part of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. This motion occurs because the molecules are Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function Page 4 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

Another method of motion across the membrane is osmosis. Osmosis is the motion of H2O from a part of higher concentration to one of lower concentration. Osmosis frequently occurs across a membrane that is semipermeable. A semipermeable membrane lets merely certain molecules pass through while maintaining other molecules out. Osmosis is truly a type of diffusion affecting merely H2O molecules.

Facilitated diffusion A 3rd mechanism for motion across the plasma membrane is facilitated diffusion. Certain proteins in the membrane aid facilitated diffusion by allowing merely certain molecules to go through across the membrane. The proteins encourage motion in the way that diffusion would usually take topographic point. from a part with a higher concentration of molecules to a part of lower concentration.

When the cyst contains particulate affair. the procedure is called phagocytosis. When the cyst contains droplets of fluid. the procedure is called pinocytosis. Along with the other mechanisms for conveyance across the plasma membrane. endocytosis ensures that the internal cellular environment will be able to interchange stuffs with the external environment and that the cell will go on to boom and map.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT When active conveyance is taking topographic point. a protein moves a certain stuff across the membrane from a part of lower concentration to a part of higher concentration. Because this motion is go oning against the concentration gradient. the cell must use energy that is normally derived from a substance called adenosine triphosphate or ATP. Endocytosis The concluding mechanism for motion across the plasma membrane is endocytosis. a procedure in which a little spot of plasma membrane encloses atoms or bantam volumes of fluid that are at or near the cell surface. The membrane enclosure so sinks into the cytol and Leontocebus oedipuss off from the membrane. organizing a cyst that moves into the cytol. Receptor-mediated endocytosis which is besides called clathrin-dependent endocytosis. is a procedure by which cells internalize molecules ( endocytosis ) by the inward budding of plasma membrane cysts incorporating proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being internalized.

Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

Page 5 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

HOW DO CELLS REPRODUCE? Your organic structure consists of some hundred trillion cells. all derived from a individual cell at the start of your life as a fertilized cell. Many 1000000s of successful cell divisions occurred while your organic structure is making its present signifier. All populating beings grow and reproduce. All populating beings produce offspring like themselves and go through on to them the familial information that makes them as they are. In this chapter. we begin our consideration of heredity with the scrutiny of how cells reproduce themselves. The ways in which cell reproduction is achieved. and their biological effects. have changed significantly during the development of life on Earth. THE CELL CYCLE It is the series of events that takes topographic point in a cell taking to its division and duplicate. The cell rhythm is required for cell growing and cell division into two girl cells. In cells without a karyon ( procaryotes ) . the cell rhythm occurs via a procedure termed binary fission. In cells with a karyon ( eucaryotes ) . the cell rhythm can be divided in two brief periods: 1. Interphase during which the cell grows. roll uping foods needed for mitosis and doubling its Deoxyribonucleic acid 2. Cell Division during which the cell splits itself into two distinguishable cells. frequently called “daughter cells”

Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes: INTERPHASE

Cell Cycle in Prokaryotes Binary fission. or procaryotic fission. is the signifier of nonsexual reproduction and cell division used by all procaryotic and some eucaryotic beings.

Cell Cycle in Eukaryotes: CELL DIVISION For simple unicellular beings such as the ameba. one cell division is tantamount to reproduction – an full new being is created. On a larger graduated table. mitotic cell division can make offspring from multicellular beings. such as workss that grow from film editings. Page 6 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

Cell division is the procedure by which one parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. The corresponding kind of cell division in procaryotes is known as binary fission. This type of cell division in eucaryotes is known as mitosis. and leaves the girl cell capable of spliting once more. In another type of cell division nowadays merely in eucaryotes. called miosis. a cell is for good transformed into a gamete and can non split once more until fertilisation. Why do cells hold to split? 1. To mend raddled tissues 2. To turn ( multicellular ) 3. To reproduce ( unicellular ) 4. For familial stability CELL TERMINOLOGIES A chromosome is an organized construction of DNA and protein that is found in cells.

It is a individual piece of coiled DNA incorporating many cistrons. regulative elements and other nucleotide sequences. A kinetochore is a part of DNA typically found near the center of a chromosome where two indistinguishable sister chromatids come in contact. The spindle fibre is the construction that separates the chromosomes into the girl cells during cell division. It is portion of the cytoskeleton in eucaryotic cells. Centrioles are cylindrical constructions that are found in carnal cells and aid to form the assembly of microtubules during cell division. WHAT IS MITOSIS? The word mitosis came from the Grecian word mitos which means yarn. It is a procedure that takes topographic point in the karyon of a dividing cell. involves typically a series of stairss and consequences in the formation of two new karyons each holding the same figure of chromosomes as the parent karyon. Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

The primary consequence of mitosis is the division of the parent cell’s genome into two girl cells. The genome is composed of a figure of chromosomes or composites of tightly-coiled DNA that contain familial information vital for proper cell map. Because each attendant girl cell should be genetically indistinguishable to the parent cell. the parent cell must do a transcript of each chromosome before mitosis.

Phases of Mitosis I. Prophase: ? The two unit of ammunition objects above the karyon are the centrioles. ? The chromatin has condensed. ? The atomic membrane has degraded and microtubules have invaded the atomic infinite. ? Spindle fibres were formed. Page 7 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

II. Metaphase: ? The spindle fibres are of equal length on each side. ? The chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase home base. III. Anaphase ? The spindle fibres shortened on each side. transporting with them a transcript of the chromosome. ? Early anaphase is normally defined as the separation of the sister chromatids. while late anaphase is the elongation of the microtubules and the chromosomes being pulled further apart. IV. Telophase ? The decondensing chromosomes are surrounded by atomic membranes. ? Note that cytokinesis has already begun. the pinching is known as the cleavage furrow.

It is besides known as “reverse prophase” . V. Cytokinesis ? It is from the Grecian word cyto which means cell and kinesis which means gesture. ? It is the procedure in which the cytol of a individual eucaryotic cell is divided to organize two girl cells. Significance of Mitosis Mitosis is of import for the care of the chromosomal set. Each cell formed receives chromosomes that are likewise in composing and equal in figure to the chromosomes of the parent cell. WHAT IS MEIOSIS? The word miosis came from the Grecian word meioun which means to decrease. It is the cellular procedure that consequences in the figure of chromosomes in sex cells that involves a decrease division in which one of each brace of homologous chromosomes base on ballss to each girl cell and a mitotic division. Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

In animate beings. miosis ever consequences in the formation of gametes ( sex cells ) . while in other beings it can give rise to spores. Meiosis is indispensable for sexual reproduction and therefore occurs in all eucaryotes ( including unicellular beings ) that reproduce sexually. MEIOSIS IN GAMETOGENESIS Gametogenesis is a procedure by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and distinction to organize mature haploid gametes.

SPERMATOGENESIS Spermatogenesis is the procedure by which male spermatogonia develop into mature sperm cell. besides known as a sperm cell. Spermatozoa are the mature male gametes in many sexually reproducing beings. Therefore. spermatogenesis is the male version of gametogenesis. It starts at pubescence and normally continues uninterrupted until decease. although a little lessening can be discerned in the measure of produced sperm with addition in age. It is extremely dependent upon optimum conditions for the procedure to happen right. and is indispensable for sexual reproduction.

Page 8 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

Penile hard-on is a physiological phenomenon where the phallus becomes enlarged and house. Ejaculation is the ejecting of seeds ( normally transporting sperm ) from the male generative piece of land. and is normally accompanied by climax.

Spermatozoa are so released into the lms of the seminiferous tubule and transported to the epididymis where they are stored. During interjection the sperm are propelled through the vessel deferens and urethra and are assorted with secernments from the seminal cysts. prostate and bulbourethral secretory organs. Importance of Spermatogenesis This procedure produces mature male gametes. normally called sperm but specifically known as sperm cell. which are able to fertilise the opposite number female gamete. the oocyte. during construct to bring forth a one-celled single known as a fertilized ovum. This is the basis of sexual reproduction and involves the two gametes both lending half the normal set of chromosomes ( haploid ) to ensue in a chromosomally normal ( diploid ) fertilized ovum. OOGENESIS It begins shortly after fertilisation. as aboriginal source cells travel from the yolk pouch to the sex glands. where they begin to proliferate mitotically. The germ cells multiply from merely a few 1000 to about 7 million.

They become oocytes once they enter the phases of miosis several months after birth. Now called aboriginal follicles. they are made up of oogenic cells from the aboriginal source cells surrounded by follicle cells from the bodily line. The oocyte is so arrested in the first meiotic prophase until pubescence. In misss. between the ages of about 10 and14. the pituitary secretory organ produces Luteinizing Hormone ( LH ) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone ( FSH ) which together stimulate the production of the sex endocrines by the ovaries. The ovaries start to bring forth estrogen and Lipo-Lutin which begin the bodily changes that happen during pubescence. At pubescence. between 4 to 10 follicles begin to develop. although merely 1-2 are really released. Each oocyte finishes its first meiotic division. making a secondary oocyte and polar organic structure. which serves no farther map. Page 9 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

At the oncoming of pubescence the testicles secrete big sums of testosterone. Testosterone is a steroid endocrine which stimulates growing of the testicle and initiates ripening of the seminiferous tubules.

Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

It begins the following miosis rhythm and is arrested in its 2nd metaphase. at which point it is released from the ovary in ovulation. It will non complete the miosis rhythm until it encounters the stimulation of a sperm.

Importance of Oogenesis Whereas the gamete formed by spermatogenesis is basically a motile karyon. the gamete formed by oogenesis contains all the stuffs needed to originate and keep metamorphosis and development. Therefore. in add-on to organizing a monoploid karyon. oogenesis besides builds up a shop of cytoplasmatic enzymes. messenger RNA. cell organs. and metabolic substrates. While the sperm becomes differentiated for motility. the egg develops a unusually complex cytol. Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function Page 10 of 12 S. GATUS 2011

IMPORTANCE OF GAMETOGENESIS To continue the figure of chromosomes in the progeny – which differs between species – each gamete must hold half the usual figure of chromosomes present in other organic structure cells. Otherwise. the progeny will hold twice the normal figure of chromosomes. and serious abnormalcies may ensue. In worlds. chromosomal abnormalcies originating from wrong spermatogenesis can ensue in Down Syndrome. Klinefelter’s Syndrome. and self-generated abortion. Most chromosomally unnatural fertilized ovums will non last for long after construct. Phases of Meiosis I Meiosis I separates homologous chromosomes. bring forthing two monoploid cells ( 23 chromosomes. N in worlds ) . so miosis I is referred to as a decrease division. A regular diploid homo cell contains 46 chromosomes and is considered 2N because it contains 23 braces of homologous chromosomes.

Prophase I: ? The chromatin has condensed. Spindle fibres were formed. The atomic membrane has degraded. ? There is partner offing up of homologous chromosomes. ? DNA is exchanged between homologous chromosomes in a procedure called crossing over. Metaphase I: ? The spindle fibres are of equal length on each side. ? Homologous braces move together along the metaphase home base. Anaphase I: ? Spindle fibres shorten. break uping the recombination nodules and drawing homologous chromosomes apart. ? The cell elongates in readying for division down the centre. Telophase I: ? Each girl cell now has half the figure of chromosomes but each chromosome consists of a brace of chromatids. ? The spindle web disappears and a new atomic membrane environments each haploid set. ? The cell will now continue to cytokinesis. Phases of Meiosis II In Meiosis II. a cell division similar to mitosis will happen whereby the sister chromatids are eventually split. making a sum of 4 monoploid cells ( 23 chromosomes. N ) per girl cell from the first division. It is a normal mitotic division performed by two cells.

Hand-out 1 in General Biology Unit 2: Cellular Structures and Function

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Telophase II: ? Meiosis II ends with telophase II and is marked by uncoiling and prolongation of the chromosomes and the disappearing of the spindle. ? Nuclear envelopes reform and cleavage or cell wall formation finally produces a sum of four girl cells. each with a monoploid set of chromosomes. Significance of Meiosis ? Meiosis facilitates stable sexual reproduction. Without the halving of chromosome count. fertilisation would ensue in fertilized ovums that have twice the figure of chromosomes as the fertilized ovums from the old coevals. ? Most significantly. recombination and independent mixture of homologous chromosomes allow for a greater diverseness of genotypes in the population. This produces familial fluctuation in gametes that promote familial and phenotypic fluctuation in a population of offspring.

Prophase II: ? In this prophase we see the disappearing of the nucleole and the atomic envelope once more every bit good as the shortening and thickener of the chromatids. ? Centrioles move to the polar parts and arrange spindle fibres for the 2nd meiotic division. Metaphase II: ? The kinetochores contain two centromeres that attach to spindle fibres from the central bodies ( centrioles ) at each pole. ? The new equatorial metaphase home base is rotated by 90° when compared to meiosis I. perpendicular to the old home base. Anaphase II: ? The kinetochores are cleaved. leting microtubules attached to the centromeres to draw the sister chromatids apart. ? The sister chromatids by convention are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles.

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January 19, 1999

BY JUDITH HAVEMANN AND WALTER PINCUS WASHINGTON POST

WASHINGTON & # 8211 ; President Clinton will suggest in his State of the Union reference tonight a $ 1billion enlargement of the federal authorities & # 8217 ; s attempts to assist the state & # 8217 ; s most disadvantagedfamilies move from public assistance to work, White House functionaries said Monday.

The functionaries said the enterprise will assist about 200,000 public assistance households get occupations.

& # 8220 ; Despite the tremendous advancement we have made in the last few old ages in traveling people from welfareto work, we need to do an excess attempt for the people still on the axial rotations because they will be thehardest to put, & # 8221 ; said presidential advisor Bruce Reed.

The enterprise is aimed at increasing employment of low-income, absent male parents of kids onwelfare, so they can pay child support and acquire involved in their kids & # 8217 ; s lives. Many of thesefathers have prison records, and merely 30 per centum have held a occupation in the past twelvemonth, harmonizing to arecent survey. Merely about 10 per centum to 15 per centum of kids on public aid receive any formalchild support from their absent parent.

Clinton besides plans to suggest a revenue enhancement recognition of up to $ 500 per kid, age 1 or younger, to countervail costsfor parents who choose to remain place to care for their childs. The proposal is portion of a larger child carepackage that seeks $ 18 billion over five old ages to help working hapless and middle-class households.

The disposal besides will suggest $ 1 billion over five old ages to better wellness attention for many ofthe state & # 8217 ; s 32 million uni

nsured grownups. The money would be used to promote community clinicsand infirmaries to work together to maintain path of patients and do certain they get needed intervention.

Scheduled for bringing in the House chamber at 8 p.m. Chicago clip, shortly after his attorneies wrapup their first twenty-four hours of statements in the Senate impeachment test, Clinton & # 8217 ; s address will non include asingle reference of the word impeachment, Plutos said. The president insisted on traveling in front with hisspeech, despite its awkward timing, to show that he is carry oning concern as usual even asthe Senate considers whether to take him from office.

Among other domestic and foreign policy proposals previewed Monday by White House officialswere:

* An enterprise to convey greater answerability to province and local school systems. Clinton will offer afive-point program to keep schools accountable for the $ 20 billion in federal educational disbursement theyreceive.

The program would honor territories that make certain instructors are qualified in the topics they areassigned to learn, implement schoolroom subject, intervene to assist low-performing schools, endsocial publicity of pupils who have non mastered the stuff taught during the twelvemonth and issue & # 8220 ; study cards & # 8221 ; to parents on issues such as category size, teacher makings and pupil tonss.

* A close doubling & # 8211 ; to $ 4.2 billion & # 8211 ; over the following five old ages of the U.S. plan assisting todismantle Russia & # 8217 ; s aging atomic and biological arms, protect installations keeping atomic materialsand create unmilitary research undertakings for Moscow & # 8217 ; s former arms builders.

Marketing Cricket Communications Essay Sample essay help online free: essay help online free

“Unlimited talk. text. web and countrywide 3G informations. ” ( Cricket Wireless. 2012 ) . Verizon. Sprint. and AT & A ; T are all good known cell phone carries ; they all have been around for many old ages. Today. a new radio service has grown to the top of the charts. it is called Cricket Wireless. Even though they have merely been around 13 old ages. Cricket has expanded all over the United States. This little radio company that started with selling in two provinces has now expands in over 35 provinces ( LEAP. 2012 ) . Leap Wireless International. Inc. was the name given to what is now known as Cricket Wireless. With merely 30 employees at that clip. they had a vision to supply low-cost radio service to clients all over. Leap was an international market and even though they stayed focal point on their primer market there was a new squad working on spread outing their merchandise into the United States. In 1989. Leap Cricket Wireless was born.

Their first market was Chattanooga. Tennessee with an limitless service of talk for merely 30 dollars a month which was lunched March 17. 1999. In 2000. they expand into nine extra markets that conceit of Nashville. Knoxville. Memphis. Greensboro. Tulsa. Tucson. Charlotte. Small Rock and Salt Lake City. By 2002 they had thirty- four extra markets. Leap Cricket Wireless was good over one million clients. although. a twelvemonth subsequently they would register voluntary request for alleviation under chapter 11 besides known as “reorganization” bankruptcy. This merely helped their company to go what is now known as Cricket Wireless. The metempsychosis of Leap occurred in 2004 but now as Cricket Wireless. New and fresh thoughts would come to the tabular array. Their services that started with limitless talk were now spread outing to text messaging. image messaging. and long distance. By 2006. Cricket Wireless had two million clients.

With few old ages in the market they had reached a larger Numberss but they still lacked in some countries. Their rivals had a larger coverage country and services like nomadic web. Cricket made this possible in 2007 ; by conveying a 3g web to their clients. They besides added a new system for payments called bridge payment ; this would let their clients to put up an extension on their measure for a period of seven yearss. The span payment would be a payment of 17 dollars per line of service and after the seven twenty-four hours period their leftover balance would be due. Cricket now included a roaming program and a larger coverage country every bit good as their web expanded into other markets like: Oklahoma. Corpus Christi. Laredo. McAllen/Brownsville. Las Vegas. St. Luis. Savannah. and Milwaukee/Madison. Expanding to these new markets allowed cricket to make to over three million clients.

As engineering advanced Cricket couldn’t stay behind and in 2010. the launched their first android the Sanyo Zio by Kyocera. Cricket was offering non merely cell phone service for station paid and prepaid but they besides had internet service. There broadband was a hit with program every bit low as 35 dollar they had unlimited cyberspace for their desktop or laptop. Cricket’s new true programs that included non merely more services for less money but the 26 per centum of revenue enhancements were removed and clients now merely paid the province revenue enhancement. This increased gross revenues but the clients still demanded more. Muve Music was introduced with a program of 65 dollars a month a client non merely had over a 1000 application to take from but limitless downloads of music. This downloads were available to you in lupus erythematosuss so twenty seconds and a whole album in less than two proceedingss. Cricket celebrates the over five million clients they now provide service for.

The start of a new twelvemonth and as summer hits Cricket launches the most expected merchandise the iphone 4g and 4s. At a starting monetary value of $ 399 and $ 499 and a rate program like no other of lone 55 and with all its services unlimited. Cricket becomes the first prepaid service to offer the iphone. The Huawie Mercury as one of Crickets best phones on the market with an 8. 0 million. pel camera and a processor of 1. 4 GHz this android gets rated in American by the PC magazine as the best in the market. Cricket now service to over six million clients countrywide and with a small over a decennary functioning they have turning and raised to the top reasonably rapidly. This little company that started with international services is now one of Americans strongest rival when it comes to wireless services.

With low rate programs and low-cost devices Cricket has claimed to the top. I have worked for a cricket trade for over four old ages and when I foremost stated they had few markets and a little assortment of devices to offer. I look back and think of how much this company has grown and the sum of clients that have switched their service over to Cricket. Working with some of the Cricket reps. I have seen all the difficult work and dedication that they have put into this company as they try and delight the client. Strengths that I see in this company are like the low-cost monetary values. limitless services. and great merchandises. Failings would be the big market and the great competition against like Boost Mobile. Virgin Mobile. Sprint. Verizon. At & A ; t. and many more. Opportunities they have is to make out to those who are looking for a low low-cost service and menaces that doing it so low-cost lowers the sum of money that the company brings in really twelvemonth. Never the less. Crickets has shown that they have and can remain on top while offering the best monetary values.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www. leapwireless. com/who-we-are/wireless-industry

Realism and Liberalism Compare and Contrast Essay Sample melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Many theories demonstrate insight into the construct of war. international dealingss and domestic dealingss. Realism and liberalism provide images that relate and coexist. yet are opposite in theory. Realism is conservative and pessimistic. Realists plan for permanency of the current international province of personal businesss. Liberalism is progressive and optimistic. Liberals believe alteration is necessary and inevitable. Neither point of view gives us the right or incorrect side as both contain truths depending on fortunes. International political relations relies on all participants in order to be complete. No 1 theory or illustration can cover all state of affairss. Realist and liberalist theories provide contrasting positions on histrions. ends. and instruments of international personal businesss. ________Realism and liberalism define the histrions within international dealingss otherwise from each other. Realists tell us that merely powerful. larger provinces are true histrions in international political relations. Liberals believe that provinces are the cardinal participants but there are many other histrions to see.

The function of histrion from some liberalist positions includes persons and corporations traversing international boundary lines and adhering together as another entity. the planetary community. In add-on. modern-day times shows us that many powerful groups such as terrorist cells are existent participants in international personal businesss. Realism explains that power is held and maintained by the provinces. Even if this proves true. other entities control state of affairss that change how provinces interact. ________Realists and progressives both agree that the histrions of both theories desire power. However. each side views the method for obtaining and keeping power otherwise. The realist claims that power comes from military laterality by province over province. Therefore. war and the battle for power becomes the realist’s cardinal quandary. Liberals open up the construct of power to include trade. corporate understandings and single contracts. Many provinces obtain great power through trade and would non be able to win a military war.

Corporations maintain more control over international employment and production than many provinces. ________Instruments of international dealingss fluctuate with clip and the fortunes. Historically. force by military action followed by business provided the chief beginning of addition for an aggressive or threatened province. States battled one another by beef uping ground forcess and massing arms. Realists believe cold war tactics are the best alternate to retain power and security for the province. Liberals see these tactics as unrealistic. The cost of implementing strong armed forcess and engaging war outweighs the addition even before turn toing the cost of killing and fix. States increase power and control over trade by imposing duties and revenue enhancements. Even while provinces are engaging war against one another. trade continues among provinces inside and outside of the struggle. ________Is it ethical to give one life to salvage one hundred lives or even one 1000? The issues of morality and moralss impart a new angle towards international dealingss and the usage of force.

In war. many guiltless bystanders lose lives and belongings. Who decides which life or what belongings is expendable? Nye gives the illustration of taking one life to salvage two others. The quandary is that the guilty party is unknown. Any of the three persons could be guilty or all could be guiltless. This illustration demonstrates that sometimes it is necessary to perpetrate one immoral act to forestall a larger figure of the same. Where is the line between merely and unfair war? If one chooses to destruct one life based on the premiss that it will salvage a mass population. is it possible that the mass population may lose life anyhow? ________Differences in pragmatism and liberalism indicate that we can measure international dealingss in multiple ways. Conservative attacks succeeded historically ; nevertheless. due to rising prices and engineering. realist methods have become less desirable. Liberalism provides better options to make ends and considers a wider scope of histrions. The realist position of international dealingss carries a narrow minded and sturdy attack. Liberals change motivations and constructs as provinces and the planetary community transform. Realists change every bit good but deny the world of it. We must look at the full image of each international state of affairs before picking the best manner to manage it. Conservative attacks solve many jobs but options must be kept available.

Cuban Missle Crisis Essay Research Paper Cuban devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Cuban Missle Crisis Essay, Research Paper

Cuban Missile Crisis

When given the chance to compose a research paper on any struggle or conflict during recent American History, one has a figure of options: World War Two, the War in Vietnam, and the Korean struggle to call but a few. However, I have chosen a brief period of two hebdomads during which the really being of the United States was earnestly threatened.

To most of my coevals the Cuban missile crisis is nonexistent. No 1 tends to look at non-physical actions as 1s of any importance. However, if the successes and failures of past coevalss are non decently looked at we will be blind as to what should be done in the hereafter. The anxiousness and emotions felt by 200 million Americans as the U.S. was on the threshold of atomic war has since been forgotten.

The Cuban missile crisis is an of import aspect of American history for many grounds. When Eisenhower yielded the presidential term to Kennedy the gross output of all U.S. arms likely equaled about one million times that of the bomb that had obliterated Hiroshima. We must pay close attending to these figures because, in October 1962 the United States was on the threshold of a atomic war with the Soviet Union ; we must recognize merely how close we came to decease if it was non for the speedy actions of many brave work forces and adult females in charge of intelligence.

The blast of an atomic bomb is measured in 1000s of dozenss of TNT, in contrast the blast of a H bomb, which is measured in 1000000s of dozenss of TNT. The Hiroshima bomb was 10 pess long, weighed about 5 dozenss, and required a crew of experts yearss to lade. In contrast, by the clip of the missile crisis, bombs 20 times more powerful were three pess long and could be strapped to an ordinary bomber. The populace learned how toxic atomic arms were when Strontium-90 generated by trials in Nevada showed up in milk in New Jersey.

The Cuban missile crisis began on October 14, 1962 when CIA U2 undercover agent planes took aerial exposure of Cuba and revealed the worst frights of some members of Congress: that the Soviet Union had been carrying arms in Cuba. On October 16, it was revealed that non merely had the Soviets been carrying arms, but they were hive awaying 40 medium-range-ballistic-missiles ( MRBM ) in Cuba that, with the aid of decommissioned Soviet aircraft could be launched up to 1,100 stat mis and were hence within easy range of the United States.

The menace of a atomic war with the Soviet Union had placed fright in both Americans and Russians for both sides knew that neither could win a atomic war. Although the United States might militarily win such a war, losingss would be in the 10s of 1000000s and it is dubious that we could last the atomic winter that would follow.

Between October 16th and 22nd Kennedy spoke with his National Security Advisors so that he might come to the best determination as to what to make in such a atomic confrontation. One suggestion was that the U.S. should occupy Cuba but this was overturned due to the losingss and media frenzy that The Bay of Pigs invasion had caused. Another suggestion was that the U.S. should bomb the sites where it was determined that atomic payloads were located. This determination, excessively, was overturned as Kennedy felt that if the Soviets were willing to set payloads in Cuba they might revenge if the United States bombed these payloads and the 1000s of technicians in Cuba needed to guarantee their smooth operation.

In 1962 although both the Soviet Union and the U.S. had MRBM s neither had the capableness to stop the oppositions & # 8217 ; , go forthing it so that if the U.S.S.R launched a payload on the U.S. within

seconds the U.S. would establish one at the U.S.S.R and within proceedingss both of our states would be destroyed.

The Navy was ordered to quarantine ( a euphemism to avoid the diplomatic term encirclement ) Cuba, turning back all ships transporting violative arms at that place. The President made it clear that any atomic arm launched from Cuba would ensue in a full revenge by the United States on the Soviet Union.

One can theorize that the Soviet Union placed arms in Cuba non to assail the U.S. but to give the feeling that they could if they wanted to. In making this, the Soviet s purpose was most likely to transfuse fear into the American thickly settled and authorities. Expecting the U.S. to take the affair to the U.N. , the Kremlin may hold placed violative arms in Cuba entirely to be used as a bargaining bit within the U.N. so that the U.S. would hold to a Berlin and German colony on Soviet footings. The Kremlin has been historically bad at judging other states responses to its actions and did non recognize that the American authorities would non see this a mere menace, but a menace to the American manner of life. The Kremlin erroneously believed that the United States would digest its ain methods of foreign policy being used upon it.

President Kennedy took the menace imposed by the Kremlin as a echt menace mentioning that when Soviet purposes are non known it is better to take any menaces at face value. Taking the Soviet menace as echt, Kennedy himself threatened world-devastation by informing Premier Khrushchev that the United States had every purpose of making whatever is necessary to guarantee the American manner of life.

In one missive on October 28th, 1962 Khrushchev agreed to retreat the missiles if the United Sates pledged ne’er to occupy Cuba. The containment policy that the U.S. had implemented against the Soviet Union had worked once more. The bear was back in its den.

There are those who believe that the United States should hold bombed out the missile sites and the Castro authorities. The simpleness of such a class is attractive, but the consequences would hold been questionable. The missiles would hold been removed but 1000s of Soviet technicians might hold been killed. Because it sometimes reacts instinctively, the Kremlin might hold responded with a direct military counterblow.

Khrushchev failed in his mission to negociate a Russian colony of the Berlin and German state of affairss. His error was in non recognizing that the U.S. excessively could play tough and that Americans would non let their manner of life to be threatened under any fortunes.

On Monday, October 29, 1962 the Soviet missiles were being withdrawn and the Cuban crisis was over. President Kennedy had non flinched under the two greatest force per unit areas of a presidential term the menace to national security and the danger of a atomic war. His commixture of limited, but definite, military action-the quarantine-with the strongest possible diplomatic language-the menace to eliminate the Soviet Union was -masterful. President Kennedy non merely prevented a atomic war but besides resolved the state of affairs without a individual hurt or decease.

Bibliography

Bohlen, Charles E. , Witness to History, 1929-1969. New York: Norton, 1973.

Collier, Peter and Horowitz, David The Kennedys: An American Dream. New York: Acme Books ( Simon & A ; Schuster ) , 1984.

Detzer, David The Brink: Narrative of the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Crowell, 1979

LaFeber, Walter The American Century. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1988.

May, Ernest R. and Zelikow, Philip D. explosive detection systems. The Kennedy Tapes. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Contrast Between Socrates And The Sophists summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

& # 8217 ; Style Essay, Research Paper

In Gorgias by Plato, Socrates & # 8217 ; beloved trade of doctrine comes into struggle with the art of oratory, used by the Sophists Gorgias, Polus, and Callicles. In the resulting treatment, aimed at detecting the true nature and intent of oratory, a crisp contrast in the manner of address used by Socrates and that utilized by the speechmakers comes into position. The two sides employ really distinguishable methods of address, each method back uping the terminal of the talker & # 8217 ; s speech.Socrates & # 8217 ; method of address is a duologue. He engages in an even exchange between himself and the other participants. He allows for feedback and even defense of his points, every bit good as encourages others to show their ain points. Sophists, nevertheless, use the art of oratory. Oratory is a nonreversible address in which the talker tends to talk to his audience as opposed to talking with his audience. The audience of an speechmaker is simply a group of hearers for the talker to pass on his thoughts to, but when take parting in a treatment with Socrates & # 8217 ; one is expected to have and see the thoughts of the talker, every bit good as explicate his ain thoughts and lend feedback to the talker & # 8217 ; s thoughts.When Socrates & # 8217 ; speaks of a subject, he by and large has cognition of what he speaks. The facts he presents are known by him to be existent true facts. His ultimate intent is to get at the truth through a logical treatment of the known facts that he presents. Conversely, a Sophist need non needfully be informed about the topic he presents to his audience. A Sophist attentions non about the existent ownership of cognition, but alternatively the visual aspect of cognition, and therefore can non accurately talk the truth about the topics of their addresss. This is of small significance to a Sophist, nevertheless, for he has little regard for what is true and what is non. The full purpose of a Sophist & # 8217 ; s address is to carry the audience to explicate an sentiment in maintaining with the personal involvements of the talker himself. Whereas Socrates & # 8217 ; views the proliferation of inaccurate information as the greatest of all immoralities, a Sophist patterns it daily and seeks to stand out at the art of misrepresentation, in order to go better able to win people over with flattery and false facts.Socrates & # 8217 ; statements are based on deductive logical thinking. He arrives at valid decisions by first saying general, well-known facts, upon which he bases more comparative facts, and finally forces his opposition to either concede, based on facts he himself has agreed are true, or refute Socrates through the usage of logic and true facts. The tool used by the Sophists in their effort to formalize their statements is inductive concluding. They create wide generalisations based upon ascertained grounds and popular sentiment. This is slightly less concrete than Socrates & # 8217 ; method, for his statements lie on a foundation of incontestable facts, while the & # 8220 ; facts & # 8221 ; presented by the Sophists are true merely because they are normally accepted, though it is surely problematic whether or non they have any existent truth in them.Another point of contrast between Socrates & # 8217 ; and the Sophists is that Socrates bases his statements on a realist point of position. He believes that there exists a definite bad and good

, right and incorrect. The intent of many of his statements, in fact, are to set up precisely what is good or bad, or right or incorrect. Sophists, nevertheless, follow a more relativist doctrine. They seem to believe that such qualities as bad and good, or right and incorrect exist merely in man’s reading of such things and there is no existent definition of such footings.

Socrates & # 8217 ; manner of address is good to him in that it aids him in his pursuit to find the truth. His logical, factual foundation helps construct up to a logical, fact-based decision. Although he is non peculiarly crafty in the art of oratory, he has no desire to carry people to any sentiment other than that of the truth. Similarly, yet oppositely, the Sophists excel at the art of oratory, which is good to them in that it allows them to better carry people and therefore it makes them more capable in the art they pattern, though Socrates & # 8217 ; sentiment of how helpful this is to the Sophists is rather different. He believes that even if a Sophist is able to carry any individual he likes, his art is still non good to him. In fact, Socrates goes every bit far as to state that, merely like a autocrat, the speechmaker of a town has the least sum of power ( 466b ) . His footing for such a theory is that since both the speechmaker and the autocrat are uninformed on the subject about which they speak, they can non do informed determinations and hence, they do non what is needfully what is good for them and therefore what they want, but merely what they see fit at the clip. As Polus seemed to bespeak, the speechmaker & # 8217 ; s doctrine is one of pure hedonism. Instantaneous pleasance is the end of their every action.There are certain incompatibilities in both parties & # 8217 ; manner of address, nevertheless. In Socrates & # 8217 ; instance, for illustration, it was antecedently stated the Socrates & # 8217 ; utilised deductive logical thinking as opposed to inductive logical thinking, whose decisions were less house, yet Socrates & # 8217 ; at times makes usage of inductive logical thinking. In fact, the many of the most basic facts upon which he bases his statements are, of necessity, true merely because adult male has defined them as such, or because it is in maintaining with what is by and large believed by the bulk of people, but has ne’er been or can non be scientifically proved. For case, there is no scientific manner to turn out that something is the colour yellow, at some point it simply comes down to the fact that something is the colour yellow merely because that is what adult male has defined it as. Socrates & # 8217 ; definitions as things such felicity as good, while non needfully untrue, are impossible to turn out. Happiness is different things to different people and though Socrates & # 8217 ; opts to believe in a popular reading of the word, he has no factual footing for his claims.Obviously, there are many struggles in manner of address between Socrates and the Sophists, but despite these legion differences, each of their methods is good tailored to their intent and serves to back up and even magnify the points that the talker puts away. Each manner surely has its benefits every bit good as drawbacks, yet it is hard to judge which is more effectual, as each has its ain different end in head and each fulfills its terminal rather efficaciously when in the custodies of a gifted talker.

Cuban Missile Crisis Essay Research Paper In college essay help free: college essay help free

Cuban Missile Crisis Essay, Research Paper

In October 1962 USA discovered Soviet atomic bases on Cuba. This was merely 70 stat mis off from the US coastline. It was literally in America s back-yard. It came as a daze to the Americans because Cuba and the US had such close ties so late and this was traveling against such ties.

This beginning is from a historiographer named Stephen E. Ambrose. This means that it is a dependable beginning because history books have to travel through cheques from other historiographers. It tells of the Executive Committee that Kennedy appointed to rede him on the state of affairs. It is of import as it shows the importance of Kennedy s brother, Robert Bobby Kennedy. It was he that persuaded Kennedy to take the option of a encirclement of Cuba which stopped any military goods being transported to Cuba. This would non coerce an immediate response from Khruschev.

The Soviet missiles with their payloads could lay waste to huge countries of the American continent. The missiles could make every bit far as south California.

This map shows the work stoppage scope of the Cuban base. The full East Coast of America can be destroyed with such metropoliss as New York and Washington D.C. good within the country. If the missiles were to be launched so it would be a catastrophe. Kennedy was faced with the most unsafe crisis of the Cold War, and in the history of world. The universe looked on in fright of the jailbreak of World War III. If this were to go on so both sides would unleash their armory.

These beginnings show the technological panic that could be unleashed. Source A1 shows a image of the baleful mushroom cloud that a atomic detonation would bring forth. A immense looming mass of fume, dust and fire. Source A2 ( I ) and A2 ( two ) show information on the atomic pigboats and their Polaris missiles, which could be fired, from any ocean in the universe.

Kennedy s advisers told Kennedy that now was the clip to assail. Some, nevertheless, opposed to military action such as that. Kennedy decided to obstruct Cuba. This was a good determination. The encirclement began on Wednesday 24th October. The NAVY encirclement consisted of 100 war vessels environing Cuba. The US was cognizant of a fleet headed to Cuba, which was suspected to be keeping missiles. The fleet was escorted by one pigboat ; if they needed to the NAVY could hold easy defeated the fleet.

The encirclement did non acquire the missiles off the island ; it did nevertheless give Kennedy more clip. This besides switched the determination devising to USSR ; it was their move. The lone ships that were stopped by the encirclement were 1s transporting violative military equipment. The encirclement played on the strengths of the

US, as their NAVY was the strongest around the universe. But tensenesss were lifting.

This is a British sketch from the Daily Mail. It shows the crisis as an old fashioned, wild west confrontation. With Kennedy apparently being the Sheriff and Khruschev being the no good brigand. The missile crisis was a confrontation. The hope of the universe was that neither would name DRAW!

The Soviet fleet turned back and tensenesss loosened. The crisis was non over though. The missiles were still on Cuba. On Friday 26th October Kennedy received a missive from Khruschev. The missive promised that the missiles would be removed if the Americans complied with the followers:

1. The encirclement must stop.

2. The US must non occupy Cuba.

The Crisis was over. The Soviets said, in the missive, that they wanted to avoid war at all costs.

On Saturday 27th October another missive came. There was a different tone to this 1. It seemed more aggressive. The missive said that they Soviets would draw the missiles out of Cuba if the Americans pulled their missiles out of Turkey. USA was confused about the ground for this alteration. What ground would Khruschev hold to endanger the peace that had seemed so near merely a twenty-four hours before?

Some advisers were concerned that on Friday the generals had taken over from Khruschev. If true it would do it harder now to settle the difference and halt the crisis. There was no manner the US would draw out of Turkey. Kennedy did non cognize how to react. He was faced with another quandary. Kennedy could non endorse down.

Bobby Kennedy enters once more. He told Kennedy non to worry about the 2nd missive. He advised that Kennedy merely disregard it. Kennedy replied to the Soviets holding to the footings of the first missive. If there were no answer by Monday 29th October so USA would occupy Cuba. The Soviets replied on Sunday 28th October. It was accepted. The crisis was over.

It had seemed that Kennedy was the master and Khruschev, the looser. Khruschev saw himself as the victor. Kennedy got the missiles removed and Khruschev managed to salvage Cuba from invasion.

If Khruschev wanted war so there would hold been nil to halt it go oning. Khruschev deserves recognition for halting the crisis, as he didn t lead the state of affairs to war.

This is an American sketch demoing both Kennedy and Khruschev working together to forestall atomic war.

Kennedy succeeded acquiring the missiles off Cuba and avoided war. He was the Savior of the western universe. He steered the west through the most unsafe crisis Mankind had seen with a small aid from Khruschev and Bobby Kennedy.

The Chrysalids 2 Essay Research Paper Define my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

The Chrysalids 2 Essay, Research Paper

Specify the footings UTOPIA and DYSTOPIA, and discourse whether The Chrysalids can be considered a Utopian or a Dystopian novel.

One could depict the novel The Chrysalids as a dystopian novel as apposed to Utopian. The town in which David and the remainder of shape-thinkers live is deffinatly non a Utopia every bit good as the new land to which they move, Sealand.

The dictionary definition of Utopia is an fanciful island with perfect societal & amp ; political system, societal and political Eden. Waknuk is non an island, so it is deffinatly non a utopia, but Sealand has the features of a Utopia. It is an island, but it does non hold a perfect societal and political system.

Perfect societal system means equal rights and intervention for all. David, Rachel, Michael and Rosalind are non treated as peers by the Sealanders compared to the manner Petra is treated. The Sealand adult female came to their assistance non because she wanted to assist them, but because she was interested in seeing whom this small miss was that had such strong communicating accomplishments. She arrived and was really eager to set Petra in the infinite ship and take her place with her and she was obliged to take Michael, Rosalind and David. When Michael mentioned that his girlfri

terminal was stuck in Waknuk and that he would wish to travel and bring her she made no attempt. She merely said that there was non plenty fuel to bring her and that they could merely go forth her buttocks. When Michael told her about the job acquiring place she was disinterested. Michael was forced to remain behind so that he could travel to Waknuk and be with his girlfriend.

When David described the Sealand adult female he described her as the image of flawlessness. His description of her was so perfect that it described her defect. She was excessively perfect, as though unreal. She communicates on a higher degree as him so that he can t understand and does non worry about his problems.

Sealand may non be a utopia but it is deffinatly non a dystopia. The Chrysalids are free to utilize their gifts and experience more comfy utilizing them. They are non banished for being born different and the engineering is a Eden particularly when you have lived in Waknuk.

So I can reason that The Chrysalids is neither a Utopian nor dystopian novel, but instead an ideal state of affairs for David and his friends. They are free to populate their life the manner it should hold been lived and are non forced to conceal their gifts. The fact that the societal system is non wholly equal is unfortunate but we can t all live a dream.

Souvenirs: Porcelain and Italian Espresso Maker Essay Sample grad school essay help: grad school essay help

What are the things that you will decidedly make during a journey? Photographing. sing topographic points of involvements. holding a gustatory sensation of the local nutrient. and of class. purchasing keepsake. The touristry industry designates touristry keepsakes as commemorating ware associated with a location. frequently including geographic information and normally produced in a mode that promotes souvenir collection. Throughout the universe. souvenir trade is an of import portion of the touristry industry functioning a complex function. first to assist better the local economic system. and 2nd to let visitants to take with them a souvenir of their visit. finally to promote an chance for a return visit. or to advance the venue to other tourers as a signifier of viva-voce selling. 15 World Souvenirs

1. Bali Batiks
If you’re walking around the island of Bali. don’t be surprised if a adult female walks toward you with a heap of batik prints on her caput and tries to sell you one. If you walk into a street market. Sellerss will run their fingers along the brilliantly colored togss and name out to you. It’s difficult to get away Bali without some batiks in your baggage. but so. why would you desire to? Fabrics are dipped in liquid wax and so into colourful dyes. ensuing in unique and vivacious vesture. 2. Balinese Wood Dragon

Balinese civilization is immerged in artistic tradition. Most everyone on the island has an artistic accomplishment. whether it’s making batik. playing music. dancing. forging beautiful lacing shirts or woodcarving. The Museum Puri Lukisan in Ubud. Bali. shows some of Indonesia’s finest woodcarvings. every bit good as a all right aggregation of Balinese picture. A woodcarving of a firedrake takes on particular significance. as it is considered Godhead and benevolent in Indonesian civilization. 3. Murano Glass From Venice. Italy

What’s so particular about Murano glass? For starting motors. it has a rich history. All of the glassmakers were expelled from Venice in 1291 due to the hazard of fire to the city’s wooden edifices. They set up store in Murano. a set of islands north of Venice. and shortly were respected as the chief manufacturers of glass in Europe. Aventurine glass. made with bantam crystals of Cu. was invented on the island. 4. Iranian Rugs

Rugs from Iran are considered the finest in the universe. Impute it to their lineage. dating from ancient Persia. and the sum of attending poured into them. Weavers may pass anyplace from a few months to a few old ages making one of these cotton. silk or wool beauties. Weavers from other states are fond of copying their elaborate designs 5. Didgeridoo Instruments From Australia

The didgeridoo was developed by native autochthonal Aussies at least 1. 500 old ages ago. It is played with continuously vibrating lips and a particular external respiration technique called round external respiration. Aboriginal groups continue to utilize it as portion of their ceremonial assemblages. Traditional didgeridoos are made of Australian hardwoods such as eucalyptus. and the ideal tree has been hollowed out by white ants. Souvenir instruments may be constructed of PVC or other man-made unreal stuffs. 6. Irish Sweater

The Aran Islands off the west seashore of Ireland are the place of birth of the Aran jumper. The traditional 1 is big. has outstanding overseas telegram forms and is frequently a pick colour. Once knitted by manus. most of the Irish jumpers today are machine-knit or made on a manus loom. A jumper imported from Ireland will maintain you warm whether or non you’re fishing in the stormy Atlantic or have a pint of Guinness at the local saloon. 7. Spanish Olive Oil

Spain is one of the top exporters of olive oil. Olive oil. whether imported from Italy. Greece or Spain. is an of import constituent of the Mediterranean diet and a great manner to pull off your cholesterin. Unsaturated fats found in olive oil aid to increase your HDL ( good ) cholesterin while take downing your LDL ( bad ) cholesterin. 8. Mexican Pottery

The creative activity of earthenware in Mexico appeared before the reaching of Columbus in the Americas. Pottery devising is now the most adept trade in Mexico. Talavera clayware is one of the more colourful manners. Genuine Talavera clayware comes merely from the metropolis of Puebla and nearby communities of Atlixco. Cholula. and Tecali. These countries have the right natural clay and a tradition of production that dates to the sixteenth century. 9. Italian Espresso Maker

Coffee lovers can thank Italy for the popularity of espresso. Luigi Bezzera of Milan filed the first patent for an espresso machine in 1901. and the universe has been wired of all time since. Whether you fancy lattes. cappuccinos. macchiatos. mochas or americanos. an Italian espresso shaper can assist you acquire your day-to-day hole. 10. Day of the Dead Figurine

The Day of the Dead is a vacation typically celebrated in October or November in Latin America and by Latin Americans life in the U. S. and Canada. Family and friends gather and pray for household and friends who have died. Traditions include constructing private shrines. eating “pan de muerto. ” and sing Gravess with gifts and offerings of marigolds and tapers. Peoples besides celebrate with colourful Day of the Dead statuettes that make fantastic keepsakes. 11. Baltic Amber Necklace

Visitors to the Baltic part frequently come place with beautiful jewellery made from the area’s mineral sedimentations. The Baltic part is obscure term. but by and large refers to the states that have shorelines along the Baltic Sea. including Denmark. Estonia. Latvia. Finland. Germany. Lithuania. Poland. Russia and Sweden. This slackly defined country is home to the largest known sedimentation of gold. which dates from 35 million to 40 million old ages ago. You could beachcomb along the Baltic Sea and still happen specimens of this fossilised tree rosin. which have been known to incorporate bantam fragments of emmets. spiders and flies. 12. Scotch Whisky

A trip to northern Scotland will pay off with many chances to see whisky distilleries. By definition. Scotch whiskey must be evaporated at a Scots distillery from H2O and malted barley. must be evaporated to an alcoholic strength of less than 94. 8 per centum. and must be matured in Scotland in oak casks for no less than three old ages and a twenty-four hours. 13. Peruvian Gourds

The tradition of gourd art carving day of the months back 4. 000 old ages in Peru. After calabashs are harvested. the creative person removes the outer green tegument with a dull knife. exposing the lighter brown colour underneath. The calabashs are so dried in the hot Peruvian Sun. Next. the creative person uses a pencil to chalk out a design. a carving tool called a buril to take little pieces of the calabash. and eventually. creates contrasts in a measure called pyrography. Peruvian calabashs are as if by magic transformed into baskets. birdhouses and carnal statuettes. 14. Provence Soap

Provence in southeasterly France is renowned for many things. possibly most notably the glorious landscape immortalized by painters including Vincent new wave Gogh. Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet. Provence is besides known for Pastis. a traditional vino flavored with Pimpinella anisum. and Fieldss of aromatic lavender. That herb is frequently found in the celebrated Provence soap. but those bath bars besides come in other delightful spirits such as Punica granatum. green tea. patchouly. sandalwood and honey Prunus dulcis. 15. Royal Copenhagen Porcelain

If you’re dining in an out-of-door eating house in Copenhagen. your salad will probably get on a gorgeous home base of bone-white and cobalt blue that will hold you raise your repast into the air to acquire a better expression at the label. It’s likely Royal Copenhagen. This porcelain shaper was founded in 1775 and continues to make dinnerware. vases. statuettes and collectable home bases. The concluding merchandises are a labour of love that have passed through up to 30 braces of custodies that have taken the porcelain clay through casting. picture. fire. glazing and wadding.

Gatsby Analysis Essay Research Paper Wealth power common app essay help: common app essay help

Gatsby Analysis Essay, Research Paper

Wealth, power and celebrity can supply extravagancy such as trips to tropical islands lying under the Sun, enjoying in the shadiness. Work force wear navy blue pinstriped suits with Ag ties and comfy luxury autos to drive place after a long twenty-four hours at the office. Wealth can purchase countless stuff goods in life that a individual wants, but it doesn t purchase one of the most of import things in life, love- an untouchable that can non be bought, an untouchable that can merely be created through relationships and attention between households, friends and lovers.

Love is the 1 pure, unspotted component in life that can non be tarnished. In the places of those less fortunate, and in the cold, moist streets where people have no places, love can still be found deep in the warm Black Marias psyches of the people. Love is the forerunner of hope, the courier of togetherness and household. Love is something that can non be bought. It merely becomes abundant over a period of clip between two people. I believe a perfect quotation mark that defines the phrase Money can t purchase me love is found in the vocal by John Lennon and Paul McCartney Can t Buy my love ; I may non hold a batch to give, but what I got I ll give to you, because I don t care excessively much for money, because money can t purchase me love.

With fortune Jay Gatsby lures Daisy into his universe with his appeal, mysteriousness of his motivations and the bang of mixing with an ex-lover. Motivated by Daisy s stating, Rich girls don T marry hapless male childs, Gatsby uses several tactics to obtain a lasting topographic point in her bosom. His bosom is full of love for her and he believes that she is in love with him. Gatsby uses his resources of money and epicurean life style to stagger Daisy in like a fish, but he ne’er could acquire her full bosom. In a clip of corruptness, and in the rich suburbs of Manhattan, promiscuous life styles were plentiful. As Gatsby and his affluent comrades passed poorness on their manner to New York City, they lacked the one thing that the less fortunate had: pure love. Myrtle Wils

on lacked love with her hubby merely because she was caught in the thought of money and what the upper-class was making, instead than set uping her ain ethical motives. George was in love and one time he found his married woman lying exanimate and dead on the side of the route, he killed Gatsby for it. The rich were depicted as being superficial and non capable of holding a happy and satisfied life. Gatsby used his house filled with munificent gardens, soft, comfy furniture, new autos, pantrymans and retainers to seek to win over Daisy. Nick commented, Money protects careless people, mentioning to Tom and Daisy. This quotation mark may be true, but the thing that is true and is of all time present in this book is that money can t obtain everything in life.

The Roaring 20 s brought life styles of defiance, immorality, and more new money to the kin of the rich and celebrated. Gatsby s desires for Daisy fueled him to do every determination in his life harmonizing to what would profit himself and his place with Daisy. Gatsby believes her to be in love with him and that they will fly together and be wed together everlastingly. Daisy ne’er truly loved Gatsby, but the thought of populating the wild, exciting life of personal businesss and past cracks stimulated her. These quotation marks by Charles Baudelaire, Anita Brookner and Stendhal describe in short Gatsby s efforts and failures of utilizing money to purchase life, felicity and love.

It is unfortunately really true that, without leisure and money, love can be no more than an binge of the common adult male. . . . Alternatively of being a sudden impulse full of ardor and revery, it becomes a distastefully useful matter. -Charles Baudelaire ( 1821 67 ) French Poet

Real love is a pilgrim’s journey. It happens when there is no scheme, but it is really rare because most people are strategians. -Anita Brookner ( B. 1938 ) , British novelist,

True love makes the idea of decease frequent, easy, without panics ; it simply becomes the criterion of comparing, the monetary value one would pay for many things. -Stendhal ( 1783 1842 ) , Gallic writer.

Technology to Prevent School Shootings Essay Sample research essay help: research essay help

Overview: This paper talks about recent ruinous events and barbarous shot incidents that have taken topographic point in schools that are related to the safety of kids. module and other visitants. Further this paper discusses technological solution that could be applied to avoid such events and supply more safety to the people at school.

Introduction: School shots. particularly in United States of America. are being witnessed all over the universe. These shots are non merely recent incidents ; we can happen these throughout history. School pupils who are holding improper counsel are acquiring carried off and affecting in violent activities and harming fellow students/faulty and even killing them. Geting entree to arms like knifes. guns and ammo has become reasonably simple for these pupils because about every place in United Sates of America has a gun. Students populating in environments where improper counsel and moral instruction is missing are at state of affairss going hideous and taking their choler by killing or harming people. Historical Summary: Since 1980 there are about a 100 school hiting incidents that happened throughout the universe killing 294 people ( Agnich. 2013 ) . One of the most awful events happened really late on December 14. 2012 in a school in Connecticut called Sandy Hook when a child named Adam Lanza has rampaged killing 20 kids and 6 others including his female parent and subsequently killed himself. His female parent owns twosome of guns which gave him entree to them ( Caulfield. 2013 ) .

Another fearful incident happened in 1999 at a school called Columbine High School in Colorado where two childs named Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed a instructor. 12 pupils. wounding 21 people and subsequently killing themselves. They got entree to their guns and ammo from K-Mart. The bombardment incident that took topographic point in 1927 at bath Township. Michigan killed 45 people and injured 58 people ( NSSC1. n. d. ) . Few other fearful incidents that took topographic point at different parts of the universe are listed below ( Infoplease. 2012 ) : * March 13. 1996 ( Dunblane. Scotland ) – Sixteen childs and a defective member were killed ; 10 other injured at Dunblane High School by a child named Thomas Hamilton. * February 19. 1997 ( Alaska. USA ) – A pupil and schoolmaster were killed by a 16 twelvemonth old Evan Ramsey. * March 1997 ( Sanaa. Yemen ) – Eight people were killed by Mohammed Ahman Al-Naziri. * December 1. 1997 ( Kentucky. USA ) – Three Students were killed and 5 wounded by a 16 twelvemonth old Luke Woodham.

* March 24. 1998 ( Arkansas. USA ) – Four pupils and a module member were killed ; 10 others were wounded at Westside Middle Schoolby two childs Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden ages 13 and 11. * March 2001 ( Santee. California ) – Two people were killed and 13 wounded at Santana High School by Charles Andrew Williams. * April 26. 2002 ( Erfurt. Germany ) – Two Students. 13 module members and a police officer were killed by a 19 twelvemonth old Robert Steinhaeuser. * September 28. 2004 ( Argentina ) – Three pupils were killed and 6 wounded. * October 3. 2006 ( Pennsylvania ) – Ten school misss were shot by a 32 twelvemonth old Carl Charles Robert * November 7. 2007 ( Finland ) – Seven pupils and a module member were killed by a 18 twelvemonth old. Shootings like the 1s above have besides happened at other public topographic points like film theaters. shopping composites. temples. etc. Taws chose these public topographic points because they know that people have a really less opportunity of supporting themselves particularly at schools where there are kids.

Whatever may be the ground these unfastened fire at schools are go oning ; these incidents should be avoided given the cost of lives that were taken in these above incidents. Possible Technological Solutions: Technologies to some extent can make its portion in avoiding these utmost incidents. Following is the proposed solution to a school twosome of thoughts that can be implemented at topographic points like schools. temples. film theaters. etc. ‘Linear Revolving Doors’ : This is a new engineering construct that was introduced in 2012-2013 by Barbecan Security Systems. LLC. This revolving door is an amalgam of bing engineerings. This is an X-RAY machine. a metal sensor and a roadblock with slug cogent evidence. This piece of engineering can besides be thought as an armed security guard with all abilities. The chief aim of this piece of machine is to hold any interlopers who are armed and unsafe and chuck out them instantly out from the edifice so that non a individual individual is harmed ( Peterson. 2013 ) .

The basic operation of this revolving door is to follow the walkers as they move in and out of the edifice. and while following the detectors on the door takes necessary snapshots of the individual to look into if the individual is harmed. There are two doors that are equipped with unreal intelligence to keep the velocity as it follows the individual. As the individual attacks and walks through the first door. the detectors within the closed compartment showed in fig. 1 scan for any harmful devices ; if no devices are found. prosaic flow is non interrupted they will coerce to travel out of the edifice until farther action is taken from security functionaries ( Peterson. 2013 ) .

Fig. 1 Linear Revolving Door Concept ( Peterson. 2013 )
Taking this engineering to a measure farther. this go arounding door can be equipped with a camera and a computerized telephone with all the necessary section contacts like constabulary and fire section. which when identifies a arm could take the images instantly and direct them to nearest constabulary section so that aid can be reached earlier. If the constabulary place the individual as a known suspect from the sent images. they can do extra agreements or safeguards ( Peterson. 2013 ) . Second Solution: Another thought is to hold equipment that combines a picture camera. a metal sensor. a computerized bit. receiving system & A ; sender. a winging machine similar to a plaything helicopter/chopper. Each of these computerized bit holds the map of the country it is guarding. security Numberss of all doors in the country. and holds the contact information of security forces section.

The metal sensor is specifically used to observe guns and ammo. This equipment is airborne at a nice tallness in its designated country of map for any leery activity. The picture camera serves to take necessary exposures and besides remotely supervise the country by security forces. The most of import function of this equipment is to direct lock signals to all doors around the country make certain the country is tightly secured. Deploying few of this equipment around the whole country or school will hold really high opportunities of procuring the people. I think both these engineerings are really effectual and can salvage people lives and every individual life saved is a success to these engineerings. However another of import point to see is that these engineerings need to be tested intensively before they are deployed at public topographic points so that guiltless people are non harmed for intuition.

Mentions:

Agnich. L. ( February 2. 2013 ) . Shooting Incidents in Educational Settings. ACIA Archive. Retrieved January 30. 2013 from hypertext transfer protocol: //archive. aciajj. org/the-acia-archive/datasets-available-for-analysis/shooting-incidents-in-educational-settings/ Caulfield. P. ( January 7. 2013 ) . Sandy Hook Elementary School taw Adam Lanza wore earplugs. quickly changed cartridge holders. hit up autos in parking batch: study – NY Daily News. DailyNews. Retrieved January 31. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nydailynews. com/news/national/lanza-wore-earplugs-shot-cars-article-1. 1234747 Infoplease. ( 2012 ) . Time Line of Worldwide School and Mass Shootings. Infoplease. Retrieved January 30. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. infoplease. com/ipa/A0777958. hypertext markup language NSSC1. ( n. d. ) . Shooting Incidents at School. NSSC1. Retrieved January 30. 2013. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nssc1. org/shooting-incidents-at-school. hypertext markup language Peterson. H. ( January 8. 2013 ) . Could this be coming to a school near you? Company designs bullet-proof robotic door that stops gunslingers in their paths and forcibly ejects them from edifices. Mail Online. Retrieved January 31. 2013 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. dailymail. co. uk/news/article-2259146/Could-coming-school-near-Company-designs-bullet-proof-robotic-door-stops-gunmen-tracks-forcibly-EJECTS-buildings. html # ixzz2IouvjUop

Galileo Galilei Essay Research Paper Galileo GalileiThe argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help

Galileo Galilei Essay, Research Paper

Galileo GalileiThe paper which I will be composing will discourse the life, finds, and the modern impact of the scientific accomplishmentsof Galileo Galilei. Born in Pisa, Italy in 1564, Galileo entered Pisa University as a medical pupil in 1581 and became aprofessor of mathematics at Padua. An uranologist and mathematician, Galileo was, unluckily for himself, a adult male aheadof his clip. Galileo discovered the jurisprudence of uniformly accelerated gesture towards the Earth, the parabolic way of missiles, and the jurisprudence that all organic structures have weight. Among his other achievements was the betterment of the refracting telescopein 1610 and his protagonism of the Copernican theory which brought him into a struggle of thoughts and truths between himself andthe Inquisition. He was condemned by the church whose theories threatened everything that was taught by the priesthoodas the sanctum truth and he was finally broken by the Inquisition. Before being finally defeated by the church, nevertheless, Galileo made many parts to the universe of natural philosophies. His scientific finds and enterprises were merely a part of hiscontributions to the scientific community. Galileo & # 8217 ; s methods of proving and turn outing his theories were besides of major importancesince these painstaking and exact methodological analysiss would put the basis for future scientific finds. His brilliancebrought about a new epoch in scientific promotion and his licking at the custodies of the church put a halt to the scientificrevolution which he had started. In 1993 the Vatican officially recognized the cogency of Galileo Galilei & # 8217 ; s scientific work. Mentions Cited1. GALILEO: PIONEER SCIENTIST & # 8211 ; Stillman Drake 19902. GALILEO A LIFE & # 8211 ; James Reston, Jr. 19413. COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL & # 8211 ; May 1994, Volume 25 Issue 3, p 193 Galileo Galilei was a great scientist and innovator in the Fieldss of mechanics, uranology, thermometry, and magnetic attraction, althoughmechanics and uranology were his chief passions. He was arguably one of the brightest work forces who of all time lived. Galileodiscovered and enhanced many scientific finds of his clip period and was extremely regarded as a Mathematician andNatural Philosopher. Galileo was persecuted for his positions on Earth & # 8217 ; s relationship with the remainder of the celestial spheres since hebelieved that the Earth revolved around the Sun and that the celestial spheres were invariably altering and germinating. Since Galilei & # 8217 ; svision of a metamorphosing existence came in direct struggle with the positions of Aristotle, positions held by and supported by thechurch, Galileo was finally called before the Inquisition and forced to abjure his positions. However, Galileo Galilei madesignificant parts to the scientific community and he is remembered as a great scientist and pioneer. Galileo Galilei was born in 1564 in Pisa, Italy ( so a portion of the Duchy of Tuscany ) , to Vincenzo Galilei, a instrumentalist, andGiulia Ammannati. Galileo studied medical specialty at the university of Pisa from 1581 to 1585, but his existent involvements were inmathematics and natural doctrine and Galileo left the university in 1585 without a grade. It was during this clip framethat Galileo began to doubt conventional scientific discipline, since much of what he was being taught at that clip as scientific fact wasconflicting with the grounds which he saw in his hands-on medicalobservations ( Hitzeroth, Heerboth, The Importance ofGalileo, pp 14-15 ) . Following his period as a pupil, Galileo tried his manus at teaching.Galileo began in private learning in Florence and he returned to the university of Pisa to learn mathematics in 1589. Galileotaught at the university of Pisa until 1592 when he was appointed professor of mathematics at Padua ( the university of theRepublic of Venice. ) Galileo & # 8217 ; s responsibilities as a professor of mathematics at Padua were to learn Euclidian geometry and criterion ( geocentric ) uranology to medical pupils. The medical pupils at that clip were expected to cognize some astronomy inorder to do usage of star divination in their medical patterns. In Padua, he continued his natural philosophies research in the country of mechanicsand uranology. In the country of mechanics is where Galileo & # 8217 ; s most celebrated observations were exhibited. The traditional theory accepted bynearly everyone at that clip was Aristotle & # 8217 ; s theory that heavier objects, when dropped from the same tallness as lighter 1s, will fall at a faster rate. In resistance to this impression, Galileo stated that with the remotion of outside influences such as windresistance, both objects will fall at the same time at virtually the same velocity. Although a really popular narrative of Galileo statesthat he attempted to turn out this theory by dropping different weights from the belfry ( tilting tower ) of the Duomo in Pisa, this peculiar experiment was ne’er really proven to hold occurred. However, a similar experiment had already been madeby the Flemish applied scientist Simon Stevin in 1586. Galileo has said that his involvement in Aristotle & # 8217 ; s Theory about falling objectswas aroused when, during a hailstorm, he noticed that both big and little hailstones hit the land at the same clip. Thisobservation caused Galileo to earnestly doubt Aristotle & # 8217 ; s Theory since harmonizing to Aristotle, the larger-sized hailstones wouldhave had to hold fallen from a much greater tallness and at virtually the same clip as the igniter hailstones in order for themto reach the land at the same clip ( which Galileo found really unlikely. ) Galileo was besides really much interested in uranology. Tycho Brahe, a Danish uranologist, found a supernova in theconstellation Cassiopeia in 1572 which quickly disappeared two old ages subsequently. This find challenged Aristotle & # 8217 ; s theoryof the celestial spheres as perfect, unchanging, and changeless. This find, along with another nova visual aspect in 1604, alsopersuaded Galileo to give three public talks in Padua in his capacity as a professor of mathematics. Galileo used the novaas an alibi to dispute Aristotle & # 8217 ; s positions of celestial spheres which were unchanging. In 1609, Galileo learned of a field glass that a Dutchman had shown in Venice. Using his ain proficient accomplishments as amathematician and a workingman, along with studies of the building of the device, Galileo made a series of telescopes whoseoptical public presentation was much better than that of the Dutch instrument. The first telescope he constructed had a threefoldmagnification, which he rapidly improved to 32 times magnification. It was this instrument which Galileo used to develophis astronomical finds. The legion astronomical finds made by Galileo with the assistance of his telescopes were described in a short book calledMessage from the stars or Starry Messenger ( Sidereus Nuncius ) published in Venice in May 1610. In this book, Galileo

claimed to hold seen mountains on the Moon,

to have proved that the Milky Way was made up of a myriad of tiny stars, andto have seen four small bodies (moons) orbiting the planet Jupiter. Galileo named the moons of Jupiter the “Medicean stars”.It was after this discovery of the moons of Jupiter that Galileo became the official mathematician and natural philosopher tothe Grand Duke of Tuscany. It was also during this time frame that Galileo made many mathematical observations of physicalproperties. Among these observations was the discovery that projectiles follow parabolic paths. This discovery allowed arcs of physicalobjects to be calculated. Another achievement of Galileo in this time period was the naming of the cycloid curve in 1599.In 1639, Galileo wrote to Toricelli about the cycloid, saying that he had been studying it’s properties for forty years. Galileotried and failed to find the area of a cycloid by comparing it’s area to that of the generating circle. After his failure at tryingto find a mathematical method of finding the area of a cycloid, he tried weighing pieces of metal cut into the shape of thecycloid. He found that the ratio of the weights was approximately three to one but decided that it was not exactly three. It was in his employ with the Grand Duke of Tuscany in Florence that Galileo first became involved in disputes aboutCopernicanism. Copernicanism was a theory that was posed by Nicolaus Copernicus on the position of the earth in relationto the heavens. Copernicus had stated in the book On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres (De revolutionibus orbiumcoelestium, Nuremberg, 1543), that the Sun (not the Earth) is at rest in the center of the universe and that the earth revolvesaround the sun. This theory , also known as the heliocentric theory, was lent credence in Galileo’s eyes when, in 1613, hediscovered that, when seen through the telescope, the planet Venus showed phases resembling those of the Moon, andtherefore Venus must orbit the Sun and not the Earth(Drake, Galileo: Pioneer Scientist, pp. 136 – 137). Galileo went to greatlengths to support Copernicanism in the use of his discoveries and observations, he also used his great mathematical skills toaid in proving Copernican theories.Between 1619 and 1624 Galileo adapted a telescope for the viewing of extremely small objects. This microscope, which hecalled “occhialini” was composed of the tube of a telescope, of reduced size, furnished with two lenses. Galileo gave hismicroscopes to various people, including Federigo Cesi. It was the support of the Copernican theories which brought Galileo into direct conflict with the Inquisition and the RomanCatholic Church. Since Copernicanism was in contradiction with Scripture, Galileo was treading on thin ice with theInquisition. A young Dominican, Tommaso Caccini, denounced Galileo, his theories, and the Copernican theories officiallyfrom the pulpit during a sermon in the Santa Maria Novella in 1614 (de Santillana, The Crime of Galileo, p. 42). In 1616,Galileo was officially advised by Cardinal Bellarmino on the behalf of the Pope to proceed with caution and to speak onlyhypothetically about the Copernican theory and not as if the theory were reality. Following this confrontation with thechurch, Galileo returned to Florence and continued work on his book (Dialogue Concerning theTwo Chief World Systems),as the Pope wished, Galileo gave more emphasis to mathematical arguments rather than to experimental or physicalarguments. Although Galileo tried to obey the Pope’s wishes in his wording of the Dialogue, when the book finally appeared in 1632, itraised an immediate storm of protest leading immediately to the arrest of Galileo and a trial by the Inquisition. The inquisitionfound Galileo guilty of publishing a heretical book and insisted that he denounce his theories and confess his “crimes” beforethe church. Although he was lead to believe that this act would cause the Inquisition to be lenient (and would keep them fromtorturing him to death), Galileo was still sentenced to life imprisonment at his villa in Arcetri near Florence (Reston, GalileoA Life, pp. 253 – 254.)It was during this house arrest that Galileo produced perhaps his greatest work, his Discourses on the Two New Sciences ,which has been hailed as possibly the cornerstone of modern physics. This book was smuggled out of Italy to France and waspublished in Leyden in 1638. In this book, Galileo presented the true laws of accelerated motion and falling bodies, as wellas the fundamental theory of projectile motion and important applications of mathematics to a multitude of physical problems. Galileo died totally blind at 77 years old in 1642. Galileo believed that experimentations and observations of theseexperiments was crucial to the scientific process. (Shapere, Galileo A Philisophical Study, p. 126) Although Galileo was agreat scientist, Pope Urban VIII refused to permit Galileo’s burial with a monument, instead, Galileo was buriedunceremoniously in the Church of Santo Croce, in Florence. His remains have since been moved to their present locationin a magnificent tomb opposite that of Michelangelo near the entrance to the church. It was only as recently as 1993 that thechurch has admitted that they were wrong and that Galileo’s theories were correct. Galileo’s extraordinary accomplishments in the fields of mathematics and astronomy upheld and proved the theories ofCopernicus whose theories may have been scoffed at as fantasy. He began the scientific revolution of his time period andhis persecution by the church, unfortunately, put an end to the revolution. He was truly a pioneer. Were it not for Galileo’scourage of his convictions, many scientific discoveries, including those of other scientists of his era, may never have occurredor may have been delayed considerably. Without the theories, discoveries, and experiments of Galileo Galilei, we may neverhave made it to the moon, been able to examine viruses or germs under a microscope to be able to defeat them, or been ableto write a physical science term paper (on Galileo of course.) If for no other reason than his invention of the microscope,Galileo deserves to be known as one of the greatest scientists the world has ever known. References Cited1. Drake, Stillman – 1990, GALILEO: PIONEER SCIENTIST, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 2612. Reston, James Jr. – 1941, GALILEO A LIFE, Harper Collins Publishers, pp. 3193. De Santillana, Giorgio – 1955, THE CRIME OF GALILEO, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 3394. Hitzeroth, Deborah, Sharon Heerboth – 1961, THE IMPORTANCE OF GALILEO GALILEI, Lucent Books, pp. 955. Shapere, Dudley – 1974, GALILEO A PHILOSOPHICAL STUDY, The University of Chicago Press, pp. 1616 COLLEGE MATHEMATICS JOURNAL – May 1994, Volume 25 Issue 3, p 193

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