How did the colonists justify their protests and ultimate rebellion? What sources did they call upon? What philosophies were influential? How was the language of freedom and liberty used? The King of England was using the colonies as an economic tool. He taxed them heavily and made sure they had limited trade partners so they could make a huge profit. In 1761, Otis led Bostons fight against the “writs of assistance. ” These writs were search warrants empowering agents to search homes for any evidence of smuggling. In Virginia, Patrick Henry was one of the first colonists to call for the establishment of an army to fight the British.
He was not a very well read and deep thinker, but he was one of the colonists most effective trial lawyers and was elected to the House of Burgesses. In the spring of 1773, Parliament enacted a law that angered the colonists into organizing a group to protest the wrong doings. Samuel Adams of Massachusetts was the most substantial revolutionary. Adams was at the center of every major protest in Boston; the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Duties, and the primary figure in the unsuccessful attempt to exploit the Boston Massacre.
The colonists justified their protests and ultimate rebellion because of the taught that there actions were fair and just. England was treating the colonists as if they weren’t British citizens. They continuously added extra taxes and acts to continue reaping profits from the colonists. The colonists believed that any extra tax or act imposed upon them that was not imposed amongst British colonists was unjust. Since the British did not make things fair they rebelled. Violence did occur until the British Massacre, were British soldiers fired and killed five Bostonians.
On June 7, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced the resolution that “these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states. ” New England and the southern colonies were solidly for independence. The middle colonies were divided. The philosophy that all men were created equal became the thought process of all Americans. The colonists created a flag and even started to separate themselves from “Mother” England. Benjamin Franklin, was able immediately to demonstrate that his talents as a propagandist were greater than any native colonials.
Semiotic Analysis of “The Real Thing” by Tom Stoppard global history essay help: global history essay help
The bringing out of themes concerning love, adultery, and the harshness of reality, is supported by the usage of realistic, detailed set design and props in an attempt to recreate human life realistically. These include objects which serve actantial roles, like the typewriter, glasses of wine and cricket bat, being represented authentically or by visual replicas, thus being used as iconic signs of themselves.
The set design of Henry’s living room over different periods also serves as an iconic representation of the time the play was set in, when considering specific props used, like the vinyl record player, typewriter, and the rotary dial telephone, which indicates a time set around the 1980’s, thus establishing a consistent time period for the play. This aspect of realistic stage design reduces the challenges of restructuring the stage, while shortening the psychical distance between the audience and the play, creating a natural stage environment the audience is familiar with.
This allows the issues of concern to be portrayed in a setting of familiarity, creating the sense that these issues can be inherent anywhere in our world, building the audience’s sense of immediacy with the themes, thus improving the effectiveness of the messages conveyed. Lighting takes on various functions in the play, accentuating moods, and expressing emotions of the scenes more effectively, to underscore themes1. Lighting serves an atmospheric function in the scene where Max was distraught after Charlotte leaves, in their play within a play.
Amidst a darkening of the set, a disco ball sends patterns of light in swirls all about the stage, creating a melancholic atmosphere which complements the mood of the scene. Also, this same usage of lighting was repeated when Henry was upset, in a later scene. This usage of lighting serves an effective iconographic function, by drawing attention to the theme of the relation between fiction and reality as expressed in the play, by being deictic to the implicit connection between the two scenes, one of a fictional reality created by Henry, and the other which is reality experienced by Henry himself.
While the mise-en-scene successfully aids in bringing out the themes of the play, there are aspects which challenge audience competence, limiting comprehension of certain parts of the play. One aspect would be a blurred distinction between scenes which are “plays within a play”, acted out by the characters as actors, and the representation of reality in the play. The first scene, which was a “play within a play”, would be difficult to distinguish from reality, until the second scene, when the answer was revealed explicitly in the dialogue.
Also, the scene when Max confronts Annie in reality, for cheating on him, has a set designed in the same layout as the first, “play within a play” scene, thus creating a sense of confusion in distinguishing when the characters are acting, from when the dialogue was taking place in “reality”. There is a function of mise-en-scene that aids the ability of the audience to differentiate between them. These scenes that tend to be confused, have their sets very sparsely designed as compared to Henry’s well lit and richly furnished living room.
With lighting focused on the characters and dim backgrounds, akin to stereotypical notions of certain plays where only minimal props are required to build an environment, and the focus is on the characters only, these scenes differentiate themselves from the reality of the play, as the nature of their set design is deictic to the idea that they are “plays within plays”, when contrasted with Henry’s living room, which is used to portray reality in “The Real Thing”.
Approaches in Lifelong Learning online essay help: online essay help
The need of the learners was identified as having to have investigators who could adopt a methodical approach, which is essential whilst carrying out equipment failure investigations.
This was used as my session aim: ‘This learning session will teach you a methodical approach of investigating equipment failure’. When identifying the need for training I first assessed what the learners would have to have learnt by the end of the learning session. This was identified as the need to know what equipment would be used and how to carryout an investigation in easily managed phases. I then used this as my objective: By the end of this lesson you will have been introduced to the contents of the investigator pack and be able to identify the 3 phases of an equipment failure investigation’. (1. 2) The learners were identified as personnel with some previous learning within the subject matter. The instructional, rather than practical approach to delivering the session was selected as the subject matter was mainly theoretical (the session would later be followed by a practical session). The primary method of delivery would be verbal, given by the teacher.
Web Validity Assignment university essay help: university essay help
Message competency is the ability to interpret nonverbal behaviours and language to reach the nurse’s goals of the communication (p. 171). Im et al (2009) found that most of the white participants viewed cancer pain as chronic and could control their bodies and disease process by managing their pain. The ethnic minority participants tend to minimize their pain because of the stigma within their culture (p. 9). Note that stigma does vary from culture to culture and the focus is again individualized.
It is important to use non-verbal communication as a key to determine the client’s perception of pain as, “[t]he function of nonverbal communication is to give us cues about what is being communicated” (Arnold & Boggs, 2011, p. 166). The Practical Nurse needs to consider beliefs, values, preferences, and barriers to communication that will define the nurse-client relationship and affect the care being provided to the client. It is also important for the Practical Nurse to recall that each client is individual even when the client’s culture may be similar. Conclusion
The purpose for nurses to take part in reading and evaluating research studies, is to take the opportunity to challenge and possibly find support for their personal practice, to further expand their understanding, knowledge, and skills. Throughout this particular study, Im et al (2009), have established the differences in cultural views among the four major ethnic groups in the United States. The author’s pay courtesy to the cultural values, beliefs and misconceptions that a Practical Nurse needs to be able to identify, when caring for a client who is experiencing cancer pain.
The results of the study provide the Practical Nurse with valuable evidence that can assist the nurse to adjust his/her approach for pain assessment. “Unrelieved pain remains one of the most common and most poorly treated complaints of patients in our society today” (Canadian Pain Society, 2005. P. 4). For this reason, it is essential for the Practical Nurse to be capable of recognizing that beliefs, values, and perceptions are individual to each client and will ultimately affect the pain management process.
Almost Human essay help tips: essay help tips
TA: Colin Hoag The study of the origin of humans and the journey of our evolution is a diverse and dynamic field that can be approached in many ways. Shirley Strum chose to examine primate behavior with the hope that it would illuminate the challenges early humans may have encountered and the possible solutions and adaptations they experienced in order to survive. In this essay I will outline the central findings as expressed in Strum’s book, Almost Human: A Journey into the World of Baboons, and connect her conclusions to information gathered throughout this course.
Strum’s ground-breaking evidence of socially intelligent, minimally aggressive, female-centered baboon societies not only gives a glimpse into the lives of primates and the possible landscape for the evolution of man, but the controversy surrounding primate behavior studies illuminates characteristics of our society today and the world of academia. Shirley Strum began her journey into the world of baboons in September of 1972 in the Great Rift Valley of Kenya. Kekopey was a 45,000 acre cattle ranch and home to the Pumphouse Gang, the troop of baboons she would observe and learn from for the next decade.
Strum believed that in order for us to realize our human potential today we must first understand our evolutionary heritage (Strum 1987 p6). While the fossil record can tell us much about the morphological adaptations that led to the human radiation, answers as to why early hominids adopted a bipedal locomotion and how they survived the environmental changes lie in their behavior (Strum 1987 p6). Since the Australopithecines are long extinct, the study of modern day primates who, like early hominids, have adapted to life in the African savannah, allow anthropologists and
Assignment popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
Drawing the Ethical Line between Right and Wrong Business decision making is derived from our ethical duties. Ethics is referred to as a set of rules and principles that determine our behavior of right from wrong. Morality the subset of ethics is a set of standards that define our character. It is a personal belief that people abide by and practice accordingly. Each is used as a foundation when deciding which philosophical perspective to follow.
As a new assistance to the VP in the marketing department I must decide whether or not to dump the shipment of contaminated gourmet candies to a chain of convenience stores. The philosophical perspective that I will stand by is utilitarianism and universalism approach. These theories will explain my reasoning not to ship the tainted goods. By proceeding to ship these goods, this will negatively affect stakeholders and the company may suffer financially in the long run. Utilitarianism is the notion of producing the greatest good for the maximum amount of people.
When benefits outweigh harm, the outcome is justified — even if individual rights are violated in the process. As it is stated in John R. Deckop’s article, “Theoretical Bases for Analyzing the Ethics of a Decision”, “potential outcomes of a decision should be analyzed to see who benefits and who is harmed. The decision that results in the most total benefit compared to harm is the best decision” (Deckop). From a utilitarian perspective, we must protect key stakeholders. This includes customers, shareholders, employees, community and the environment.
Stakeholders are our greatest assets of the organization. By refusing to dump the goods, we are creating the greatest amount of good for stakeholders. However, the company will suffer financial loss if the goods are not shipped. The loss is minimal. If I adhere to my bosses request by shipping the goods everyone will face crippling ripple effects. The vice president concluded that “measures were taken to cure the infestation, and that the chance of at least a few people becoming ill is certain. ” The key word is “chance”; it is certain that people will get sick as a result of this shipment.
If the chain of convenience stores all decides to utilize the tainted goods a majority of people as a whole will get sick. In other words, small cases of people getting sick combined will be significant as a whole. The businesses in the local community may lose business because their credibility is tarnished for supplying customers with contaminated goods. Consequently, this may lead to financially ruin everyone in the process. Customers may file lawsuits and the FDA may issue fines. This will directly led to the company that sold the tainted goods to the local convenience stores.
For that reason, leading the company and everyone involved in financial ruin. Therefore, the benefits of not to ship outweighs the decision to ship the goods. I, the decision-maker “believe in weighing the consequences of a decision against all affected stakeholders to the decision. It is acceptable if decisions cause harm to some, as long as the benefit that others receive outweighs the harm” (Deckop). Universalism — everyone has the “fundamental right not to be violated under any circumstance” (Deckop). This concept targets the owners of the chain of convenience stores and customers buying the product.
This company is exploiting the opportunity to sell gourmet candies to stores in low-income areas. Store owners are misinformed into believing they are receiving a deal in price in exchange for an expensive product. Customers are also directly affected in the process. They become victims and mislead into buying tainted products without their knowledge and risk getting sick. The vice president believes that it is right decision to ship. For the company’s benefit they will be able to recover the loss of the goods even if it causes minimal damages.
However, the VP does not realize the amount of damage that this shipment can cause. Everyone involved, especially the company will be indirectly affected. According to Deckop, “no amount of good could make up for the harm that you’re causing the individual” (Deckop). This action made by the vice president will not justify or remedy the situation even if a profit is being made. As a human being it is my moral obligation not to continue with the shipment. I may face the consequences of getting fired from my job or even demoted.
However, the loss that I will face is minimal in comparison to the amount stakeholders who will suffer from my actions. My decision reflects who I am as a person. I should not compromise my values in order to please my boss or to make a quick profit. The golden rule applies, “do unto others as you would have them do unto you” (Deckop). So therefore, in this particular situation, my ethical values as a person should not conflict with the decisions that I make. It’s unjustifiable for all parties involved. I must find an equal balance that will satisfy everyone.
My boss may be upset with my decision not to ship the goods, but hopefully he will have a better understanding of why I chose not to. My decisions are reasoned because of my commitment to my ethical values. The purpose of using these two approaches in this situation is to find a balance When applying specific theories to a given situation a line must be drawn and having pre-knowledge chain of stores is located in low-income areas. Pre-knowledge, many store in low-income areas would not be able to afford to buy a shipment of gourmet candies Knowing that most chains in low-income areas
By refusing to ship the goods, this will ultimately benefit everyone as a whole. From a utilitarian perspective, continuing to follow orders and ship the goods will only cause a ripple effect. Society as a whole will be affected, especially key stakeholders. The two approaches that I will follow in this scenario is utilitarianism and universalism When faced with a decision, the two approaches that I will take Business decision making is derived from our ethical duties. Morality Each used as a base when determining the philosophical approach on ethics. Our philosophical perspectives are based on
Each coincides with our philosophical perspectives. Each coincides with the other. Our philosophical perspectives are based on Morals and ethics When faced with a decision For that reason, when faced with a decision the two philosophical ethical approaches that I will follow is utilitarianism and universalism. When dealing with an business dilemma Each are interchangeable. Ethics and morality–each coinciding with the other. Ethics Ethical decision making stems from a moral foundation. Morals are derived from our cultural values and surroundings. Morals is the fundamental bases of right and wrong.
Artemis Temple essay help service: essay help service
She presided over the transition of a woman from virgin (parthenos) to married woman (gyne) and protected the virginity of those who were unmarried or wished to remain virgins (2). Artemis also oversaw marriage, childbirth and assisted with child-rearing (3). Virginity was especially emphasized in the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus: only virgins and men were allowed access and married or sexually active women were excluded under penalty of death. Artemis is commonly regarded as a fertility goddess, mostly because of the multitude of ‘breasts’ that cover her cult image (4).
This essay will discuss three aspects of the Ancient Temple of Artemis, the style, the restoration of its architecture and its importance. The temple of Artemis was built around 550 BC and was the first temple to be entirely of marble and the largest temple ever built. The temple was financed by the wealthy king of Lydia and was designed by the Greek architect Chersiphron. Marshy ground was selected for the building site as a precaution against future earthquakes.
The foundation was laid on a bed of packed charcoal and sheepskins, the column drums and architraves moved from the quarry, relates Vitruvius, by fitting them with large wheels and then, like rolling axles, having them pulled by oxen (5). It resembles the classical Greek temple: a stoic rectangular structure with mighty columns (6). The temple measured 350 by 180 feet and from the outside, its most striking feature was its more than 100 marble columns. Since it was built in the Ionic architectural style, the columns were decorated with sculptural reliefs at their bases and rosettes in their capitals (7).
There were two rows of columns stretched across the front of the temple, standing about 21 feet apart and extending from the front to the back of the temple at 17 feet apart. The door in the pediment — along with two windows — was intended for Artemis’ own use (8). Inside the temple was the statue of Artemis herself, which was built from gold, silver, ebony and other stones. The temple brought in merchants, kings, and sightseers, many of donated jewellery and other treasures to Artemis and her temple. Its splendor also attracted many worshipers and pilgrims, strengthening the cult of Artemis (9).
Since she was an influential figure, her fame went higher as soon as her temple was built. The Temple of Artemis was a very famous and attracted visitor from far and near. Its purpose was both a religious institution and market place. The market place itself had small models of the temple and its goddess Artemis for the fellow tourists as souvenirs to take with them. The columns at the front were decorated with intricate sculptures. It was built to honor Artemis as inside the temple was an inner room called the sanctuary that housed a magnificent statue of the goddess.
The temple was destroyed and rebuilt several times, each time it was built more impressively than the time before it. The first time it was destroyed was on the night of July 21, 356 BC, a man named Herostratus set fire to the temple in an attempt to immortalize his name (10). It caused the roof to cave in, the columns collapsed, and the statue of the goddess crashed to the ground. After the town created a law stating whoever mentioned his name would be put to death immediately. In the following two decades the temple was restored with the help of Alexander the Great.
But then again in 262 AD, the temple was destroyed by the Goths and later swamped by floods, but still the residents of Ephesus vowed to rebuild it (11). However this time it was not rebuilt due to the high construction costs. A little later the temple began to lose its importance and many people were switching to Christianity and the town was completely isolated. There were attempts made to reconstruct the temple, but so far only a couple columns have been erected upon the remaining foundation.
Research Methedology college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx
Briefly define and discuss the six steps of the research process. Step 1: Problem Definition In defining the problem, the researcher should take into account the purpose of the study, the relevant background information, the information needed, and how it will be used in decision making. Problem definition involves discussion with the decision makers, interviews with industry experts, analysis of secondary data, and, perhaps, some qualitative research, such as focus groups.
Step 2: Development of an Approach to the Problem Development of an approach to the problem includes formulating an objective or theoretical framework, analytical models, research questions, and hypotheses and identifying the information needed. This process is guided by discussions with management and industry experts, analysis of secondary data, qualitative research, and pragmatic considerations. Step 3: Research Design Formulation A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the research project.
It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision making. Conducting exploratory research, precisely defining the variables, and designing appropriate scales to measure them are also a part of the research design. The issue of how the data should be obtained from the respondents (for example, by conducting a survey or an experiment) must be addressed.
It is also necessary to design a questionnaire and a sampling plan to select respondents for the study. Step 4: Field Work or Data Collection Data collection involves a field force or staff that operates either in the field, as in the case of personal interviewing (in-home, mall intercept, or computer-assisted personal interviewing), from an office by telephone (telephone or computer-assisted telephone interviewing), through mail (traditional mail and mail panel surveys with prerecruited households), or electronically (e-mail or Internet).
The Ford Motor Company Supply Chain Management university essay help: university essay help
Background of Ford As European and Asian car manufacturers continue to make advancements on the American markets, Ford’s market share will decrease even further. One of the processes that Ford must improve is its supply chain management.
By being able to speed up and better interact with suppliers and consumers, Ford will regain lost market share by communicating customer needs between themselves and their suppliers and acting upon these requests quicker and more efficiently. The Ford Motor Company has been the focus of supply chain operations analysts lately as they have begun to revamp their supply chains and how they interact with suppliers and customers. Ford has been a leading automaker and pioneer for the automotive industry for the better part of a century.
Established in 1903, the company’s single greatest contribution to automotive manufacturing was the moving assembly line… which was first implemented in 1913. This innovation in the car making industry was one that would send the Ford Motor Company into a global market with mass production of its vehicles. Nineteen years after Ford started producing automobiles, fifteen-million Model T Ford’s had been produced and the Ford Motor Company The Ford Motor Company’s Supply Chain Management 3 was an industrial giant that spanned the globe (6).
Ford was well on its way to becoming a major contributor of vehicles to countries all over the world and on February 24, 1956 the company went public; establishing and consolidating United States, Canadian and Mexican operations. Strategy for Success With this new expansion of its company, the Ford Motor Company needed a strategy for success and connecting these new manufacturing plants with suppliers and customers. Ford’s strategy for increasing and maintaining their share of the automotive market is to establish strong interaction between them and consumers by addressing wants and needs at every stage of the purchasing process.
This can be done through new products and services that Ford is able to offer. (6) In order to achieve this level of success the Ford auto maker must have a solid foundation of supply chain management to deliver these goals to the company and its anxious consumers. Topics Covered This paper will focus on what Ford has done in the past, what it is doing presently and what can be done in the future to insure that one of the worlds leading automakers continues to hold that position and ultimately take over the number one spot.
Possibly the most important part of any corporation is the management of their supplies and how they interact with their suppliers. For a company such as Ford, a corporation that has thousands of suppliers for various models of automobiles, the coordination and interaction among Ford and its suppliers is essential to the businesses success. Along with examining the strategies Ford is utilizing, the paper will dissect the risks and pitfalls associated with supply chain management and what can be done to avoid and eliminate these costly downfalls that could affect a company well past the date of occurrence.
Krispy Kreme Analysis cheap essay help: cheap essay help
We begin our report by touching on the history of Krispy Kreme. Vernon Rudolph started Krispy Kreme in 1933 when he bought a doughnut shop from Joe LeBeau. He later established the first Krispy Kreme in Salem, North Carolina. After Scott Livengood became CEO, the company repositioned itself and focused on being a specialty retailer, rather than a wholesale bakery. They soon began expanding rapidly throughout the United States. This particular case took place in 2004 Krispy Kreme was beginning to run into some serious problems. Next we discuss the situation analysis beginning with the market summary.
Here we explain the demographics, psychographics, and behavioral attributes along with the market needs, trends, and growth. Second, we conducted an SWOT analysis finding the company’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. After analyzing the SWOT, we configured some important critical issues. The last part of the situation analysis discusses the industry of Krispy Kreme, including the competition and macro environment. We then discuss Krispy Kreme’s marketing strategy, starting with their mission to become part of the American culture.
We also touch on their marketing objectives, financial objectives, target market, as well as their current position in the market. Ending the marketing strategy, we identify Krispy Kreme’s marketing mix, including their product, which is their one-of-a-kind doughnut, price, promotion, and place, as well as come current and potential marketing research. Fourth, we have developed a brief overview of Krispy Kreme’s financials, which explain the decline in Krispy Kreme revenues in 2004 related to the previous growth they experienced.
Film Review “Good Will Hunting” college essay help near me: college essay help near me
To study mathematics under his supervision To be seen by a therapist He agrees, but treats his first few therapists with contempt and they refuse to work with him. At last Sean Maguire (Robin Williams) overcomes his defence mechanism and after a few sessions Will begins to open up. In the same time Will and Skylar continue their relationship until the end of Skylar’s university when she wants to move to California and asks Will to go with her but he cannot bear to leave the world, he know and the friends, he trusts. So he panics and pushes her away.
On the other hand Will is offered a job arranged by Professor Lambeau and is going to accept it, but his therapist is concerned that Lambeau is pushing the boy too hard. At another therapy session, Sean helps Will to realize that the abuse he suffered in his childhood was not his fault and helps him to overcome his problems. The story ends by Will’s travel towards California to reunite with Skylar. What I really enjoyed about Good Will Hunting was the psychological aspect- very believable. The music was fitting as well.
The scenes were very intense especially when Dr Sean Maguire and Will meet for the first time or when Dr Maguire is telling will his life-story. However this scene was lengthy, but you never see the film lose your attention. Also the emotions that each character displayed were perfect; especially Matt Damon and Ben Affleck and Robin Williams were bright points. Their performance was great. This movie is very well written and directed. It has humour, love and friendship all combined into one. I have seen this movie several times and I would recommend it to anyone.
Transmission Effects of Exchange Rate on Foreign my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help
Dollar, Euro, Pound and Yen and net FII flows in India using daily data of exchange rates and net FII flows. The direction of relationship is also computed by using Granger Causality Test and the dynamic interaction is quantified by VAR results and Impulse Response Function at six lags. Results show that dollar exhibit bi-directional relationship whereas pound and yen have one sided influence on net foreign institutional investments. Further it is also evident from Impulse Response Function that exchange rate shocks die out in two days whereas net FII flows contain it for five to six days.
On the other hand regression results validate that the net FII flows are positively correlated to rupee appreciation in dollar and yen and negatively correlated to rupee appreciation in pound and euro, but euro have insignificant influence in Indian economy. Key Words: Impulse Response Function
An Analysis and Comparison of Modern Tragedy in Drama english essay help online: english essay help online
Aristotle thoroughly describes his understanding of the tragedy in the Poetics and bases this conception on certain requirements. According to Aristotle the three most important variables that define a tragedy are plot, characters, and theme. Using Oedipus Rex as a sort of ideal, this philosopher demonstrates how a tragedy functions in order to evoke catharsis while exploring themes and human flaws, or mistakes. In Oedipus Rex, the main figure, Oedipus the King is a subject of fate, unable to escape himself and his desire to uncover the truth.
In essence, this drama demonstrates the fall of a prominent figure brought down by his inescapable fortune and self-destruction. I definitely believe it is difficult to find a modern day tragedy that functions on the same level as Oedipus Rex while fulfilling the stipulations laid out by Aristotle. However, to me, the movie Shutter Island sets itself apart from other contemporary works as it mirrors many of the structural and thematic characteristics of Sophocles’ play. In this film, directed by Martin Scorsese, we are introduced to Edward “Teddy” Daniels, a U. S.
Martial who experiences the same sort of trauma and downfall as Oedipus the King. Though these characters share many similarities and differences, I think it is most important that we begin by analyzing the plots of these two works in order to divulge their tragic components. As Aristotle states, the argument, or plot, of a tragedy must contain three vital elements: the incentive moment, the climax, and the resolution or denouement1. The incentive moment represents the initial stage of the drama where the cause and effect chain of events begins its inevitable course.
Here, the audience observes the main character as a figure of great importance in his society and setting, though, as the play progresses, this stature will diminish into nothingness. The onset of Shutter Island mirrors that of Oedipus Rex in various manners. 1 Barbara F. McManus, Outline of Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy in the Poetics, http://www2. cnr. edu/home/bmcmanus/poetics. html , 1999. In the movie, the investigation that Teddy Daniels plans to undertake is presented almost immediately. He wishes to solve the disappearance case of Rachel Solando, a patient of Ashecliffe Hospital for the criminally insane.
Soon after, the plot begins to unravel as Teddy finds himself searching for answers and leads throughout the movie. Over time he conducts interviews and we also discover his true desire to take down the Ashecliffe Hospital for testing drugs on patients. Likewise, the story of Oedipus begins with the introduction of a problem: a plague ravages the city of Thebes and will only end when the murderer of the former King Laius is discovered. Oedipus, the king in place of Laius, wishes to save his city and people and consequentially, he begins an investigation of the death of Laius claiming, “As from now.
We will seek/ To bring everything to light that has been too long/ hidden. 2” The moment Oedipus decides to embark upon his investigation, “To bring everything to light,” he unknowingly destroys himself. Thus begins the chain of events that will forever dictate the course of these two figures, Oedipus and Teddy Daniels. After their incentive moments the characters have essentially opened Pandora’s Box to a tragedy that will break them down completely. The climax of Shutter Island also bears a sharp resemblance to Oedipus Rex in the sense that the true nature of the world breaks down the character.
Teddy Daniels pursues his quest to unlock the secret behind the disappearance of Rachel Solando, and inner workings of the hospital. These actions eventually lead to his meeting with the head of the facility at the top of a lighthouse where Teddy discovers that he truly was searching for himself the whole time. The director, Dr. John Cawley, explains that in reality, Teddy’s investigation was merely a form of therapy that the doctors had constructed so he could come to terms with reality. The truth in this 2 Sophocles, Oedipus the King, trans.
Anthony Burgess (Kingsport, Tennessee: Kingsport Press, 1972), 19. case rests in the fact that Teddy murdered his wife, who suffered from mania, after she drowned his two children. Once Teddy becomes aware of these truths his character, his status as a U. S. Martial, evaporates as he contemplates his history and loss. Likewise, Oedipus’ search for the true murder of Laius eventually reveals that he in fact murdered the former King. Once Oedipus becomes aware of this fact his whole persona and world unravel as further truths become inherently evident.
He must face the reality that destiny drove the outcome of his life; and his inability to heed the advice of Jocasta, his wife and mother, who pleads “In God’s name I beg you—no. 3” results in his fall from greatness and virtue. These two stories therefore illustrate the climax in manners described by Aristotle who argues, “The middle, or climax, must be caused by earlier incidents and itself cause the incidents that follow. 4” Granted, this element seems characteristic of drama in general, the onset of conflict eventually elicits the apex of action.
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