The women 100 years ago and now Time flies so quickly that we humans didn’t notice the changes around us. It is said that change is the only permanent thing in this world. Everything and everyone has the capability of changing. Women today are a lot different centuries ago. Aspects such us liberation, career option and the like are the main points of contrast. In today’s world, women are far more liberated than they ever were 100 years ago. On the way they act, is far away to the concept of conservative women 100 years ago.
Women have now the freedom to stand on their own. They now have the right to follow their dreams, speak in meetings, hold careers and even have the choice of staying at home to raise a family or working outside the home for what they want. They now have the choice or option of living in their own way. Unlike a century ago, women don’t have much voice in the society. They remain silent and they just follow what is said. They cannot fight for their right because indeed, women were inferior that time. Men were given attention most of the time.
Women rather just stay on their homes, do the chores, take care of their children and wait for their husbands. They just depend on what‘s provided to them. Women,during their time doesn’t have the right to vote. Women nowadays have number of kids and run their lives on their own. They are independent beings who can choose to live a more traditional life as a wife and mother that can rely upon themselves to pay their bills, rent and make themselves happy. But beyond these differences, now and yesterday has similarities too.
Women in the past though they can’t express themselves fully because they were inferior have strong personalities like the women today. It is women’s nature to be strong. Compared with men, who are weak because of their ego. Comparing and contrasting women yesterday and today made me realize how time make people change. Like a snap of the finger can change your fate. Like how great the impact and influence of modern technology to people can change the lifestyle of it. Women will always be part of the history. Though now and before will never be the same, there is still part of it that will remain.
Apple Inc Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu
Apple software includes the Mac OS X operating system; the iTunes media browser; the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software; the iWork suite of productivity software; Aperture, a professional photography package; Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio and film-industry software products; Logic Studio, a suite of music production tools; the Safari web browser; and iOS, a mobile operating system. As of October 2010, the company operates 317 retail stores in ten countries, and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.
As of September 2011, Apple is the largest publicly traded company in the world by market capitalization and the largest technology company in the world by revenue and profit. Since 1976, when the first Apple I came to the market, Apple has been widely successful at building brand loyalty in Apple products. Apple’s products are meant to compliment each other, which encourages consumers to purchase another product in the brand. Apple has also been smart in selling their products through the educational network.
This helps not only to hook students on to Apple products early on, but also to build a “cool” and “hip” image. Apple is consistently coming out with new innovations to keep their products interesting, while also keeping up with the demands of modern technology. The bottom line: Apple delivers outstanding products consistently that receive high consumer ratings, causing consumers to keep coming back for more. Apple’s innovative products, incredible brand image and success story make it truly admirable.
To this diverse customer base, Apple provides a whole range of hi-tech personal devices, which are sold on the philosophy of “Buy Different, Think Different”. Thus as it permeates different cultures of the world, Apple as a brand has established a culture of its own. Some other important features, which shape Apple’s strategies, are: * Customers are empowered due to availability of low priced products giving similar features. * The Internet and new media avenues allowing easier information exchange have enhanced information availability.
Hence the companies need to be more careful regarding their value proposition * Rapid inter-temporal variation in consumer tastes has influenced companies to race to meet these demands. Also, companies like Apple with sheer innovation have influenced consumer tastes. Now they need to maintain their lead on the S-curve of consumer demand with constant innovation There is in fact noticed an unusually high amount of brand loyalty for Apple products which has resulted in an emotional bond between its customers and the brand. The reason more and more often cited for this is the company’s constant innovativeness.
Dynamism: Low; because of favorable brand image, high brand loyalty and repeat purchases across different customer classes Richness: Medium; increasing purchasing power and number of potential consumers in the young segment of population Complexity: High; consumer behavior contingent on psychological, socio-cultural and economic variables and hence Apple needs to constantly monitor these. Suppliers APPLE doesn’t make the any of its products itself. It neither manufactures the components nor assembles them into a finished product.
The components come from a variety of suppliers and the assembly is done by Foxconn, a Taiwanese firm, at its plant in Shenzhen, China. The “teardown” graphic below, based on data from iSuppli, a market-research firm, shows who makes what inside the iPhone, and how much the various bits cost. Samsung turns out to be a particularly important supplier. It provides some of the phone’s most important components: the flash memory that holds the phone’s apps, music and operating software; the working memory, or DRAM; and the applications processor that makes the whole thing work.
Together these account for 26% of the component cost of an iPhone. This puts Samsung in the somewhat unusual position of supplying a significant proportion of one of its main rival’s products, since Samsung also makes smartphones and tablet computers of its own. Apple is one of Samsung’s largest customers, and Samsung is one of Apple’s biggest suppliers. This is actually part of Samsung’s business model: acting as a supplier of components for others gives it the scale to produce its own products more cheaply.
For its part, Apple is happy to let other firms handle component production and assembly, because that leaves it free to concentrate on its strengths: designing elegant, easy-to-use combinations of hardware, software and services. Another aspect of Apple supplier strategy is its control over the worldwide market for key components has reduced Apple’s cost structure and has created significant barriers to entry for competitors. This yields significantly higher margins and market share for Apple, among other benefits. It turns out that Apple has secured about 60% of global touch panel capacity, with a focus on 10-inch displays.
Some have speculated that this has forced some competitors to initially focus on devices with 7-inch screens, such as Samsung with its Galaxy Tab. Because Apple is buying these components in such large quantities it can exercise significant leverage over suppliers. This leverage enables Apple to negotiate favorable terms and pricing. For instance, South Korean Fair Trade officials alleged that Apple struck a special deal with Samsung to obtain flash chips at below market rates. This favorable pricing means that Apple has a lower cost structure for its products relative to competing products.
Raksha Bandhan cheap mba definition essay help: cheap mba definition essay help
Raksha Bandhan, (the bond of protection) or Rakhi, is a festival primarily observed in India, which celebrates the relationship between brothers and sisters. It is also called Rakhi Purnima in most of India. It is also celeberated in some parts of Pakistan.  The festival is observed by Hindus, Sikhs and some muslims. The central ceremony involves the tying of a rakhi (sacred thread) by a sister on her brother’s wrist. This symbolizes the sister’s love and prayers for her brother’s well-being, and the brother’s lifelong vow to protect her.
The festival falls on the full moon day (Shravan Poornima) of the Shravan month of the Hindu lunisolar calendar. It grew in popularity after Rani Karnavati, the widowed queen of Chittor, sent a rakhi to the Mughal emperor Humayun when she required his help.  The festival is marked by the tying of a rakhi, or holy thread, which comes in many colors and designs, by the sister on the wrist of her brother. The brother in return offers a gift to his sister and vows to look after her as she presents sweets to him.
The brother usually presents his sister with an envelope filled with money however, other presents such as saris and clothing can be given. The brother and sister traditionally feed one another sweets. These sweets include anything from Jalebi, Kaju Katli, and Burfi. Since north Indian kinship practices give cousins a status similar to siblings, girls and women often tie the rakhi to their male cousins as well (referred to as “cousin-brothers” in regional parlance) in several communities.
Unrelated boys and men who are considered to be brothers (munh-bola bhai or adopted brothers) can be tied rakhis, provided they commit to a lifelong obligation to provide protection to the woman or girl.  The chaste bond of love between a brother and a sister is one of the deepest and noblest of human emotions. ‘Raksha Bandhan’ or ‘Rakhi’ is a special occasion to celebrate this emotional bonding by tying a holy thread around the wrist.
This thread, which pulsates with sisterly love and sublime sentiments, is rightly called the ‘Rakhi’. It means ‘a bond of protection’, and Raksha Bandhan signifies that the strong must protect the weak from all that’s evil. The ritual is observed on the full moon day of the Hindu month of Shravan, on which sisters tie the sacred Rakhi string on their brothers’ right wrists, and pray for their long life.
Rakhis are ideally made of silk with gold and silver threads, beautifully crafted embroidered sequins, and studded with emi precious stones. It won’t be wrong to say the fashionable friendship band in vogue today is an extension of the Rakhi custom. When a girl feels a friend of the opposite sex has developed a kind of love too strong for her to reciprocate, she sends the guy a Rakhi and turns the relationship into a sisterly one. This is one way of saying, “let’s just be friends”, without hurting the other person’s soft feelings for her.
Othello Plot Points college application essay help online: college application essay help online
Othello’s Ensign, hates him cause he’s black, wants Cassio’s job, believes he would be better Cassio- Innocent Party, gets a job as Othello’s Lieutenant, gets into a fight and his stripped of rank, but goes to Desdemonia to try and win back Othello’s favour Roderigo- Loves Desdemonia, is persuaded by Iago to attempt to kill Cassio, is murdered by Iago to remain silent (d) Emilia- Married to Iago, gives iago the handkerchief that convinces Othello that Desdemonia and Cassio had a relationship (d) Plot Othello marries Desdemonia in secret. However Roderigo goes to her father and blows their cover. Othello is forced to defend himself from accusations of witchcraft. News of a Turkish invasion of Cyprus reaches Venice, and Othello, with Cassio his new Lieutenant, and Iago, his ensign, are deployed to Cyprus to defend against the Turkish fleet. Desdemonia is allowed to accompany Othello, and Emilia, Iago’s wife, accompanies her as her attendant. The enemy fleet is destroyed by a storm.
Othello calls for a celebration, during which Iago gets Cassio drunk, who causes a fight. Othello strips him of his rank, and blames him for the disturbance caused by Iago. However, Iago tells Cassio to go to Desdemonia, and convince her to try to plead his case. Whilst Cassio does this, Iago goes to Othello and hints that Cassio and Desdemonia are having an affair. For the rest of the film, “Honest Iago” controls the actions of the characters, turning Othello against his wife and Roderigo against Cassio so that, at the end of the play, Roderigo attempts to murder Cassio, while Othello smothers his wife after accusing her of betraying him and having an affair with Cassio.
Roderigo fails, and after he is identified as Cassio’s attacker Iago murders him, claiming to have been overcome with rage, but really silencing to cover his involvement. Othello then murders his wife, however Emilia walks in calls for help. As the truth comes out, Othello realises his wife was innocent. Iago murders his wife after she reveals what he has done. He is then captured and brought before Othello, who stabs him but does not murder him, saying he would prefer Iago live in pain for the rest of his life than die. Othello then kills himself out of guilt at what he has done. Iago is hauled off to be tortured, and Cassio is made Governer of Cyrpus. The end.
What Is an Educated Filipino essay help writer: essay help writer
“Education isn’t how much you have committed to memory, or even how much you know. It’s being able to differentiate between what you know and what you don’t”. –Anatole France- Life itself offered an education as you know it, without the right needs, bow can you call it life when you do not enjoy it? This is one in my opinion I think that is more important than a informal education. Many times I’ve heard “it is not what you know, but who you know”. We Filipinos are given the right to be educated, but what are the attitudes that we must possess to be called an educated Filipino?
I think this is the time for us to have the ingredients of education. We must have the ability, the knowledge and the mindset that will help us nurture ourselves and others. Education makes a man who he is and what he does. It chooses his faith and when he is on the right path, he leaves him in his own, make his own decisions with his new life with education. It shows the surrounding people who you are, what you like and what you don’t. Education has to be used the right way to be drive out the most of life. Only education can help you in the future, so why abuse it, and take it if you can!
As I read the essay of Francisco Benitez entitled “what is an educated Filipino”, I end up realizing that it’s not only the knowledge being taught in school can let others to call us an educated one but it is also on how we deal to our fellowmen, to our country, and of course to our selves. Through trials and tribulations in life and we learn to be a more understanding person. Education and life are far from over, but that life and education is a journey. We cannot go through life and learn nothing for to even make it that we know nothing, we have also realized that there is so much else in life and that could be education.
Post Colonial Impact in Anita Desai’s in Custody descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help
The aim of the two characters is to save great Urdu language in the postcolonial era but both of them have experienced in a negative way. The novelist linked the middle class rural Hindi lecturer and the yesteryear famous poet Nur in connection with the love of Urdu language. Life of Deve and Urdu Langauge Deven Sharma is a Hindi lecturer in a college at Mirapore, a small town. He is the central character of the novel. He is from middle class family. His father was a school teacher and also lover of Urdu language. Due to the influence of his father, he learned Urdu language.
Deven married to Sarla who is simple and away from her husband’s literary taste and caliber. He is very much interested in reading Urdu poems written by the famous Urdu poet Nur’s and also fan of him. He considered Nur as a great hero and Sovereign of Urdu language. He was very much impressed by Nur’s verses. As a teacher, Deven is not a capable person in handling the classes. Anita Desai portrays “a boring teacher, who could not command attention, let alone the regard of his unruly class” (In Custody. , 13). Deven leads mediocre life. His marriage is matchless and as a husband, he does not fulfill the family desires.
He is very much interested in establishing the endangered language Urdu instead of living present life with his wife and son Manu. His behavior towards his wife makes thing unpleasant in all circumstances in his life. In the midst of his wife, he feels as if he is a stranger, an interloper. He suffers very much in fulfilling his duty of marriage as a shameful failure. He has a little son who is very often querulous with hunger and sleeps when Deven returns from work. Once, his wife pointed out his inability of buying anything for his son. When he asked “ Where is Manu? I don’t see him. Manu! his wife arrogantly replayed “He has gone to the neighbors to show them his new clothes…. My parents have given him… (194). The novel begins with an unexpected meeting between two childhood friends Deven and Murad. Both of them have contrasting personalities and different family backgrounds. Deven is requested by Murad to interview the famous Urdu poet Nur for a “special issue” of his journal Awaz . Murad flatters and insists Deven to revive the glorious past of Urdu language and limelight the poet whom Deven loves very much by conducting the personal interview. Murad says keep alive the glorious tradition of Urdu literature.
If we do not do it, at whatever cost, how will it survive in this era of—that vegetarian monster, Hindi? ” … “That language of peasants,” Murad sneered, picking his teeth with a matchstick. “The language that is raised on radishes and potatoes … it flourishes, while Urdu—language of the court in days of royalty —now languishes in the back lanes and gutters of the city. (15) However, Deven denies Murad’s request due to some practical reasons but Murad accuses him betraying his mother- tongue by selling out his professional caliber to a rival language Hindi.
Murad mocked Deven ‘Can you serve a language by taking it up “only as your hoppy? Doesn’t it deserve more? Doesn’t it deserve a lifetime’s dedication-like mine? (16). Finally, Deven accepts the assignment and says “of course I will, Murad. (18) Meeting with the great Urdu Poet Anita beautifully portrayed how he reached Delhi to meet the great Urdu poet. He has a great imagination about the poet’s life style and he expected good reception from him. But in contrary to his expectations he was unwelcomed by the poet. He shouted “who gave you permission to disturb me? ” (41).
Deven explained that his friend Murad asked him to interview the great poet for the special issue on Urdu poetry. He said “It is a great honour for me sir, a great privilege” (41). Nur gets angry and says: “Urdu poetry?… How can there be Urdu poetry when there is no Urdu language left? It is dead, finished” (42). Nur criticizes Deven’s job as a Hindi lecturer. He mocked that the Hindi is given more important than Urdu in the postcolonial era. He says “Those Congress- Wallahs have set up Hindi on top as our ruler” (42). Deven explained his love for Urdu language.
He says “I studied Urdu, sir, as a boy, in Lucknow. My father, he was a schoolteacher, a scholar, and a lover of Urdu poetry. He taught me the language. But he died …I was sent to the nearest school, a Hindi medium school, sir (43). Anita metaphorically, described how Urdu has been replaced after independence. The dead of Deven’s father is symbolically represents the decay of Urdu language. Further, Deven explains how he is trapped into his disinterest job as Hindi lecturer. He says “I took my degree in Hindi, sir and now I am temporary lecturer…it is my living sir. You see I am a married man, a family man.
But I still remember my lessons in Urdu… If it were not for the need to earn a living, I would- I would” (43). Desai revealed that the strong aspiration of Deven is to save endangering language in any form. The poet does his routine work with hearing Deven and shouting his assistant and nobody cares Deven, “he felt reluctant to leave without seeing Nur once again and making one more sincere and positive effort to arrange the interview” (50). Deven finds Nur’s merciless wives and their behavior towards the poet. Nur’s wife says to Deven “Aren’t you willing to do that for your-your hero?
History of Trade Unionism in India aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help
Since the conflict, or co-operation between workers and management is greatly influenced by the nature of the workers organisation and the processes that induce their structure, study of Trade Union becomes a critical topic in the industrial relations area. In this chapter an effort is made to study the origin of Trade Unions in lndia, the nature and pattern of unions, the relations within the unions, its consequences for the structure and behaviour of Trade Unions in the Industry and the implications they leave to be marked and provide in the years to come. . 2 Workers Organisation – A Necessity and its Realisations in lndia Trade Un~ons are the product of large scale industrialisation and concentration of industries. Before the advent of industrialisation there were personal contracts between the employers and the workers (as the industries were run In the homes and with the tools of the employer). So there was no need to have any machinery for determining their relationship.
But under the modem factory system this personal contact lost its weight due to setting up of large scale industrial units, with concentration in towns and with the heavy use of machinery. The lure of employers, to reduce the cost of production, in order to withstand in the competitive market and to maximise their profits enabled them to use more and more technologically advanced devices of production and sophisticated machines which, in turn, have contributed in further drying up the dampness of the personal relationship.
Simultaneously it had given rise to a new class of workers who were dependent on wages only for their livelihood and had come frnm different parts of the country, for seelung employment in these industries. 3. 3 History of the Indian Trade Unions As an organised movement, trade unions began to take shape in India in the years immediately following the end of the World War I. The rise of trade unions was a new development in the society. In its long history through the ayes there is no organisation which can be regarded as the prototype of a trade union. There are some similarities between a trade union and a caste, but there are rnore dissimilarities than similarities. A caste is many a time wedded to a profession or a craft. Originally the caste system may have developed, at least partially, as a result of different professions and practices followed by various sections of the society. But in course of time caste became entirely dependent on birth. One is born into a caste, he cannot join it.
The link between the caste and the profession or craft also broke down in later years. “z Trade unions are essentially the product of modem large scale industry. Indian trade unions did not grow out of any existing institutions in the society. They developed as a new institution. So far as the question of formation and development of Trade Unions in India is concerned, its necessity was realised from 1875 onwards by plulanthropists, social workers like Shri Soirabji Shapaji Bengalle and Shri N. M. Lokhandey.
As a result of their concrete efforts there was awakening among the workers and they had formed a few trade untons l ~ k e The Prlnters Un~on,Calcutta (1905) the Bombay Postal Unton (1907) etc Yet the necesstty of having workers organisatton on a large scale was reallsed only after the 1′ World War Therefore, labour leaders itke Mahatma Gandht had gtven due 1tnpetu5to the organtsatton of workers Gandhijt had realised the necessity of organising and combining the workers into tl-ade unions, as he had experienced from his close association with working class that the labour relations in India were not just and balancing.
On one side, the one party i. e. , capital (employers) were properly organised, entrenched and were having control over the market; whereas the other party i. e. , labour (employees) was so much disunited and disorganised that it was working under the grossest superstitions3. So much that it could not even imagine, what to say of thinking that its wages have to be dictated by capitalists instead of demanding on its own terms. 4 Moreover its intelligence was cramped by the mechanical occupation as it had little scope or chance to develop their mind. ‘ Due to this very reason it was prevented “from realising the power and full dignity of their atu us. “^ Keeping this attention on both these parties i. e. Capital and Labour (Employers and Employees. ) Gandhiji tried his best to regulate their relations on a Just basis. 7 Accordingly, he advised the working class, “to combine themselves in the form of unions but not for political motives but for bettering their social or economic positions. 9 So by combining into unions the labour would become intelligent enough firstly “to co-operate with itself’ ”and secondly ” then to offer co-operation with capital on terms of honourable equality”. ” For attaining the objective of elevating the labour to the status of
CO-partnersof capital, Gandhiji, felt that, there was no need to bring about transformation of the existing relationship as such capitals and labour were not to be considered “as inherently irreconcilable analgoni~ts”,’~ there was need to understand this rock bottom but truth “if capital was power, so was work1′ and the capital was as much neighbour of the labour as the latter was a neighbour of the former and one had to seek and win the co-operation of the other”. I4 With this understanding farnilistic relationship will be created in between these two potent forces of production i. e. apital and labour. Thus having combined labour “would not be tempted then by higher wages I5or helplessly allow itself to be attracted, for say, pittance. “”‘ But on the contrary its combination would act like a magnet attracting to it all the needed capital1’ and ultimately “will have ample food, good and sanitary dwellings, all necessary education for their children, ample leisure and self education and proper medical assistance”” and then the capitalist would ”exist as trustee for themn. ‘%erefore, Gandhiji had realised the necessity of combining the working class into Trade Unions.
Besides Gandhiji, the Whitly Commission on Labour in India (1929-31) had also pointed out that the “Modem industrialism is itself of western importation and the difficulties which it creates for labour in India are similar to the difficulties it has created elsewhere”. 20 In these conditions the Commission realised that “it is power to combine that labour has the only effective safeguard against exploitation and the only lasting security against inhuman conditionsn2′ Moreover the Commission did not fmd an evidence of any alternative remedy that is likely to prove effective. So it emphasised that the need of organisation among Indian workmen is great and it further recommended that “nothing but a strong Trade Union movement will give the Indian working class adequate The Commission went on recommending the necessity of Trade IJnlons so much that it said that “nor is labour the only p a q that will benefit from a sound development of the trade union movement. Employers and the public should welcome its growth? The Commission had also realised the necessity of Trade Union very much because it was confident that the Trade Union, if formed, ” is bound to evoke a response” and if that response does not take the form of organised trade union movement, it is feared that it may assume a more dangerous form. 2h Besides Gandhl and the Royal Commission on Labour (1929- 31) the necessity of forming Trade Unions has increasingly become more and more on ~ attainment of independence in India (i. e. 1 5 August, 1947). AAer being ndependent, India drafted her own constitution where in various freedoms viz. , freedom of speech, freedom of association, freedom of settlement and freedom of employment etc. have been guaranteed and goal of social justice has been set up for the welfare of all. Simultaneously for having planned economic development and bringing about social transformation in the country, the Planning Commission drafted its first five year plan, setting therein necessary targets of production – industrial as well as agricultural – to be achieved during the next five years.
For having industrial advancement industrial Policy Resolution in 1948, was also prepared. As the economic progress is bound up with the Industrial peace so for the successful ~mplementation the ~ l a n sparticularly in the economy organised for of , planned production and distribution and aiming at the realisation of social justice and the welfare of the masses, the co-operation from Trade Unions was considered absolutely essential at different stages of the execution of the plans.
Disadvantages of Using Cell Phone in School college essay help free: college essay help free
The initial intention (for giving the handphone) is to provide facilities for us to know where our kids are but we must think twice before doing so. I advice parents to know how to adopt the technology before giving a mobile phone to their child. For instance, you must know if the phone given to your child only has the basics or if it’s more than that. But I still oppose just giving a basic phone. For me, not giving a phone is the best solution. Having a phone opens up the opportunity for others to do bad things.
We want to minimise the risk factors. Problems in school with not doing the homework because of the handphone. I believed that using cell phones during class will cause distraction. It doesn’t matter to students that they are not allowed to use their cell phones while they are in class, they do it anyway. They often send text messages to each other and this can distract them from their education, as well as distract the person they are texting, which is likely to be another student. Many people call this the new way of passing notes.
Besides that, Another drawback of allowing cell phones is that they can be used to cheat during quizzes and exams. A student could receive silent text messages from a friend that has already taken a certain exam during a test. It is obviously that when students use their cell phones at school, it makes rumors spread faster. This is because, everyone has access to a cell phone and when somebody hears a rumor, they send a text message to their friend to tell them about it, and their friend sends a text message to another friend, and so on.
Some also think that the fast spreading of rumors makes it more likely that the rumors will worsen as it is being spread, and that the quicker it spreads, the worse it gets. In some reasons, I felt that cell phones do not improve school safety. For example when there is an emergency, cell phone signals become jammed if everyone attempts to contact people at once. This can make it difficult for teachers to contact the authorities. If students do successfully contact their parents, parents may all rush to the scene, which can conflict with evacuations or other responses.
If students contact their parents, parents will all rush to the scene, which brings conflict or other responses. We are more concerned about the bigger consequences of having a handphone like social problems such as bully and harrashment via mobile phones. Student tends to misused the mobile phone, by recording video of students bullying other students. If there are risks involved and you have calculated and you know that the risks won’t benefit you, why take the risk? Better not to have the risk at all by not giving them a handphone.
Case Method buy argumentative essay help: buy argumentative essay help
This introduction is intended to provide students with some basic information about the case method, and guidelines about what they must do to gain the maximum benefit from the method. We begin by taking a brief look at what case studies are, and how they are used in the classroom. Then we discuss what the student needs to do to prepare for a class, and what she can expect during the case discussion. We also explain how student performance is evaluated in a case study based course. Finally, we describe the benefits a student of management can expect to gain through the use of the case method.
There is no universally accepted definition for a case study, and the case method means different things to different people. Consequently, all case studies are not structured similarly, and variations abound in terms of style, structure and approach. Case material ranges from small caselets (a few paragraphs to one-two pages) to short cases (four to six pages) and from 10 to 18 page case studies to the longer versions (25 pages and above). A case is usually a “description of an actual situation, commonly involving a decision, a challenge, an opportunity, a problem or an issue faced by a person or persons in an organization. 1 In learning with case studies, the student must deal with the situation described in the case, in the role of the manager or decision maker facing the situation. An important point to be emphasized here is that a case is not a problem. A problem usually has a unique, correct solution. On the other hand, a decision-maker faced with the situation described in a case can choose between several alternative courses of action, and each of these alternatives may plausibly be supported by logical argument.
To put it simply, there is no unique, correct answer in the case study method. The case study method usually involves three stages: individual preparation, small group discussion, and large group or class discussion. While both the instructor and the student start with the same information, their roles are clearly different in each of these stages, as shown in Table 1. 1 Michiel R. Leeenders, Louise A. Mauffette-Launders and James Erskine, Writing Cases, (Ivey Publishing, 4th edition) 3. l Learning with Cases Table 1 Teacher and Student Roles in a Regular Case Class
When Before Class Teacher Assigns case and often readings Prepares for class May consult colleagues During Class After Class Deals with readings Leads case discussion Evaluates and records student participation Evaluates materials and updates teaching note Student or Participant Receives case and assignment Prepares individually Discusses case in small group Raises questions regarding readings Participates in discussion Compares personal analysis with colleagues’ analysis. Reviews class discussion for major concepts learned. Source: Michiel R.
If the stick had the picture of a motorbike, the consumer was entitled to the second prize, a TVS motorbike. If the print portrayed a camera, the customer was entitled to the third prize, a Canon camera. The picture of an ice candy stick won the consumer, the consolation prize of a Feast Jaljeera Blast (actual jaljeera drink, in the form of an ice candy). In 2002, HLL launched an innovative, aggressive and the first of its kind promotional campaign called ‘Ek Din Ka Raja’ (EDKR). Unlike the previous product specific campaigns, EDKR covered the entire range of ice creams. Running from March 2002 to May 2002, EDKR was the biggest ever promotional campaign for Kwality Wall’s.
The contest was awarded the ‘Best Promotion Campaign in India’ award at the Promotion Marketing Awards of Asia (PMAA) in Singapore. The promotion also won two more awards in Asia – a Silver for the ‘Best Idea or Concept’ and a Bronze for the ‘Best use of Direct Marketing’ out of 97 short listed entries from Singapore, India, 38 Unilever in India: Building the Ice Cream Business Philippines, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand and Korea. 16 The total number of redemptions was close to a million, with each consumer spending a minimum of Rs. 100 to Rs. 125 per redemption. The EDKR contest entitled up to 10 lucky consumers to spend Rs 10 lakhs in a day’s shopping with their family in Mumbai. They
Philippine Constitution essay help cheap: essay help cheap
The scope of the Philippine territory is found in Article I of the 1987 Philippine Constitution. It provides: “The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial, and aerial domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves, and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. For purposes of analysis, Philippine national territory includes the following: (a) the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands and waters embraced therein; (b) all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction consisting of territorial, fluvial and aerial domains; (c) the territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, and insular shelves and other submarine areas; and (d) the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions.
Territorial sea is that part of the sea extending 12 nautical miles (19 kms) from the low-water mark. It is also called the marginal sea, the marginal belt or the marine belt. Seabed is the land that holds the sea, lying beyond the seashore, including mineral and natural resources. It is at the top portion of the submarine area. The subsoil is everything beneath the surface soil and the seabed including mineral and natural resources.
Insural shelves are the submerged portions of a continent or offshore island, which slope gently seaward from the low waterline to a point where a substantial break in grade occurs, at which point the bottom slopes seaward at a considerable increase in slope until the great ocean depths are reached; and Other submarine areas refers to those which are under the territorial sea. They are ottherwise referred to as seamount, trough, trench, deep, bank, shoal, and reef.
Acca Question gp essay help: gp essay help
Theory Introduction, basic probability theory, definition, laws of probability, conditional probability, independent and dependent events, applications. Unit No. 2Random Variables Introduction, Random numbers and their generation, Application of random numbers, concepts of random variables and their construction, Discrete and continuous random variables. Unit No. 3Equations Solving fist degree equations, Quadratic equations, Solution of quadratic equations by different methods, inequalities, absolute value, Co-ordinate system
Unit No. 4Linear Equations Characteristic of linear equations, Slope- intercept form, determining the equations, Applications. Unit No. 5Matrices and Determinants Matrices, Different kinds of Matrices, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of matrices, Determinants, Application of matrices and determinants. Unit No. 6Inverse of Matrices Expansion of determinants, different Properties of determinants, Cofactors and minors of elements of a matrix, Cramer’s rule, Solution of system of linear equations by use of matrices. Unit No. Differentiation Derivatives, Differentiation of explicit and implicit functions, maxima and minima, Applications of derivatives. Unit No. 8Partial Derivatives Partial Derivatives, maxima and minima for functions of multi-variables Applications of partial derivatives. Unit No. 9Optimization First derivative test. 2nd Derivative test, Curve sketching, Revenue, Cost and profit applications in business. Recommended Book:- 1. Applied mathematics for Business, Economics and the Social Sciences. By Frank S. Budnick. Mcgraw-Hill
Capital Structure Theories essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax
In Financial Management book, you would read the topic theories of capital structure. Here, I have made these theories simplified. I hope, you can study these theories here and use these theories as reference. We all know that capital structure is combination of sources of funds in which we can include two main sources’ proportion. One is share capital and other is Debt. All four theories are just explaining the effect of changing the proportion of these sources on the overall cost of capital and total value of firm.
If I have to write theories of capital structure in very few lines, I will only say that it propounds or presents the effect on overall cost of capital and market or total value of firm, if I change my capital structure from 50: 50 to any other proportion. First 50 represent the share capital and second 50 represent the Debt. Now, I am ready to explain these four theories of capital structure in simple and clean words. 1st Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Income Theory of Capital Structure This theory gives the idea for increasing market value of firm and decreasing overall cost of capital.
A firm can choose a degree of capital structure in which debt is more than equity share capital. It will be helpful to increase the market value of firm and decrease the value of overall cost of capital. Debt is cheap source of finance because its interest is deductible from net profit before taxes. After deduction of interest company has to pay less tax and thus, it will decrease the weighted average cost of capital. For example if you have equity debt mix is 50:50 but if you increase it as 20: 80, it will increase the market value of firm and its positive effect on the value of per share.
High debt content mixture of equity debt mix ratio is also called financial leverage. Increasing of financial leverage will be helpful to for maximize the firm’s value. 2nd Theory of Capital Structure Name of Theory = Net Operating income Theory of Capital Structure Net operating income theory or approach does not accept the idea of increasing the financial leverage under NI approach. It means to change the capital structure does not affect overall cost of capital and market value of firm. At each and every level of capital structure, market value of firm will be same. 3rd Theory of Capital Structure
Name of Theory = Traditional Theory of Capital Structure This theory or approach of capital structure is mix of net income approach and net operating income approach of capital structure. It has three stages which you should understand: Ist Stage In the first stage which is also initial stage, company should increase debt contents in its equity debt mix for increasing the market value of firm. 2nd Stage In second stage, after increasing debt in equity debt mix, company gets the position of optimum capital structure, where weighted cost of capital is minimum and market value of firm is maximum.
So, no need to further increase in debt in capital structure. 3rd Stage Company can gets loss in its market value because increasing the amount of debt in capital structure after its optimum level will definitely increase the cost of debt and overall cost of capital. 4th Theory of Capital Structure Name of theory = Modigliani and Miller MM theory or approach is fully opposite of traditional approach. This approach says that there is not any relationship between capital structure and cost of capital. There will not effect of increasing debt on cost of capital.
Value of firm and cost of capital is fully affected from investor’s expectations. Investors’ expectations may be further affected by large numbers of other factors which have been ignored by traditional theorem of capital structure. Traditional Approach The Net Income theory and Net Operating Income theory stand in extreme forms. Traditional approach stands in the midway between these two theories. This Traditional theory was advocated by financial experts Ezta Solomon and Fred Weston. According to this theory a proper and right combination of debt and equity will always lead to market value enhancement of the firm.
This approach accepts that the equity shareholders perceive financial risk and expect premiums for the risks undertaken. This theory also states that after a level of debt in the capital structure, the cost of equity capital increases. Example: Let us consider an example where a company has 20% debt and 80% equity in its capital structure. The cost of debt for the company is 9% and the cost of equity is 14%. According to the traditional approach the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (Weight of debt x cost of debt) + (Weight of equity x cost of equity) ? (20% x 9%) + (80% x 14%) ? 1. 8 + 11. 2 ? 13%
If the company wants to raise the debt portion in the capital structure to be 50%, the cost of debt as well as equity would increase due to the increased risk of the company. Let us assume that the cost of debt rises to 10% and the cost of equity to 15%. After this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (50% x 10%) + (50% x 15%) ? 5 + 7. 5 ? 12. 5% In the above case, although the debt-equity ratio has increased, as well as their respective costs, the overall cost of capital has not increased, but has decreased. The reason is that debt involves lower cost and is a cheaper source of finance when compared to equity.
The increase in specific costs as well the debt-equity ratio has not offset the advantages involved in raising capital by a cheaper source, namely debt. Now, let us assume that the company raises its debt percentage to 70%, thereby pushing down the equity portion to 30%. Due to the increased and over debt content in the capital structure, the firm has acquired greater risk. Because of this fact, let us say that the cost of debt rises to 15% and the cost of equity to 20%. In this scenario, the overall cost of capital would be: WACC = (70% x 15%) + (30% x 20%) ? 10. 5 + 6 ? 6. 5% This decision has increased the company’s overall cost of capital to 16. 5%. The above example illustrates that using the cheaper source of funds, namely debt, does not always lower the overall cost of capital. It provides advantages to some extent and beyond that reasonable level, it increases the company’s risk as well the overall cost of capital. These factors must be considered by the company before raising finance via debt. _____________________________________________________________ Net Income (NI) Approach Net Income theory was introduced by David Durand.
According to this approach, the capital structure decision is relevant to the valuation of the firm. This means that a change in the financial leverage will automatically lead to a corresponding change in the overall cost of capital as well as the total value of the firm. According to NI approach, if the financial leverage increases, the weighted average cost of capital decreases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares increases. Similarly, if the financial leverage decreases, the weighted average cost of capital increases and the value of the firm and the market price of the equity shares decreases.
Assumptions of NI approach: * There are no taxes * The cost of debt is less than the cost of equity. * The use of debt does not change the risk perception of the investors ————————————————- Net Operating Income Approach Net Operating Income Approach was also suggested by Durand. This approach is of the opposite view of Net Income approach. This approach suggests that the capital structure decision of a firm is irrelevant and that any change in the leverage or debt will not result in a change in the total value of the firm as well as the market price of its shares.
This approach also says that the overall cost of capital is independent of the degree of leverage. Features of NOI approach: * At all degrees of leverage (debt), the overall capitalization rate would remain constant. For a given level of Earnings before Interest and Taxes (EBIT), the value of a firm would be equal to EBIT/overall capitalization rate. * The value of equity of a firm can be determined by subtracting the value of debt from the total value of the firm. This can be denoted as follows: Value of Equity = Total value of the firm – Value of debt Cost of equity increases with every increase in debt and the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) remains constant. When the debt content in the capital structure increases, it increases the risk of the firm as well as its shareholders. To compensate for the higher risk involved in investing in highly levered company, equity holders naturally expect higher returns which in turn increases the cost of equity capital. Example: Let us assume that a firm has an EBIT level of $50,000, cost of debt 10%, the total value of debt $200,000 and the WACC is 12. 5%.
Human Cloning – Term Paper admission college essay help: admission college essay help
Based from Human Genome Project Information (n. d. ), “Cloning is a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. ” It means creating a genetically identical copy of an organism. Scientists attempted to clone animals for many years. In fact, there are hundreds of cloned animals existing today. It started in 1952 when a tadpole was cloned. But worldwide attention and concerns only aroused in 1997 when Ian Wilmut and his colleagues at Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to clone a lamb, named Dolly (Bonsor and Conger, n. . ). People began to think for the possibility of using the same procedure to humans. No question human cloning ethics has become a great issue in the past few years. Many people seem to lack understanding of what cloning is. Most often people limit their knowledge of cloning only in its one type called reproductive cloning which intends to produce a fetus identical to its parent. Not knowing that there is another type of cloning called therapeutic cloning that can be used to generate only tissues and organs of humans for transplants.
Reproductive human cloning should be legal as it makes an infertile couple able to have an offspring with the genetic pattern of either the mother or father. It is the desire of most couples to have children and when it is impossible to bare children of your own, some are willing to do anything to have a child even in the most crucial way–cloning. The idea of cloning will allow them to have a child or many children that have the genetic pattern of one of the parents. They can have their own babies by putting cloned embryo into the mother. According to Bonsor and Conger (n. d. , It is made possible through a process called “somatic cell nuclear transfer” (SCNT), the cloning of embryo starts with taking out the egg from a female donor, the doctor will remove its nucleus to form enucleated egg. Then a cell with genetic material of the person to be cloned will be fused to enucleated egg using electric current. The cloned embryo is transferred to a surrogate mother once it reaches a suitable stage. The surrogate mother will give birth to the cloned baby at the end of the normal gestation period. Likewise, couples of gays and lesbians can have their own abies by human cloning (Weekes, 2009). For lesbian couples, one of them can provide an egg and the other doesn’t need to provide a sperm, they can just provide the genes. For gay couples, it is just the same way but will have to find a mother to put the activated embryo in them and born them (Yanmi, 2009). Besides this, human cloning provides a wide range of organs in need, where it could save a lot of lives. In case a person needs an organ such as a pair of lungs, he/she could be cloned. Then the pair of lungs of the identical clone can be taken away for transplant.
Also, according to Yanmi (2009), if a family member had died, it can be cloned. In this way, the pain of the family will be cured. With all the potential benefits of reproductive cloning for infertile couples, homosexual couples, and for treatment of diseases, it is beaten by the disadvantages listed by Pros to ban reproductive human cloning. Many bills in the United States are demanding for the prohibition of reproductive cloning since it has numerous medical and ethical disadvantages. The American Medical Association holds four points of reason why cloning should not take place.
They are: 1) there are unknown physical harms introduced by cloning, 2) unknown psychosocial harms introduced by cloning, including violations of autonomy and privacy, 3) impacts on familial and societal relations, and 4) potential effects on the human gene pool. Technology in the first place, as we presently know it, will not effectively support the cloning of humans. As mentioned before, the success rate was quite low. It is reported before that a Korean doctor tried cloning a human but also killed it. No definite reason was stated, but I assume he had created a monster-like being with such abnormalities.
From the conservative’s point of view, cloning is portraying the role of God. They argue that no one has the power to create humans except for God. It is not merely intervention in the body’s natural processes, but the creation of a new and wholly unnatural process of asexual reproduction. Reproductive cloning harms the integrity of the family as they say. Single people will be able to produce offspring without even the physical presence of a partner. From Hutch (2008), “Cloning will lead to eugenics, or the artificial manipulation and control of the characteristics of people. Pros to ban human cloning continues to defend their side as they point out that cloning will also lead to a diminished sense of identity and individuality for the resultant child. Instead of being considered as a unique individual, the child will be a copy of his parent, and be expected to share the same traits and interests, such that his life will no longer be his own. This becomes a violation of the liberty and autonomy that we grant to every human person. These are reasons why reproductive human cloning studies and attempts are banned in more than 50 countries (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ).
When there are numerous pros prohibiting studies and attempts about reproductive human cloning, therapeutic cloning gains more approval. It could be the new technology to save countless lives in the sense that it is a process of growing a stem cell. “These stem cells could become the basis for customized human repair kits,” (Smith, n. d. ) They can grow replacement organs, such as hearts, livers and skin. It is done in this way, DNA is extracted from a sick person. Then the DNA is then inserted into an enucleated donor egg. The egg then divides like a typical fertilized egg and forms an embryo.
Stem cells are removed from the embryo. Any kind of tissue or organ can be grown from these stem cells to treat various ailments and diseases (Bonsor & Conger, n. d. ). Many are suffering with cancer nowadays. Also with the help of therapeutic human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Heart disease is the number one killer in the United States and several other industrialized countries.
Through therapeutic cloning, cancer may be possible to cure (Smith, n. d. ). Scientists still do not know exactly how cells differentiate into specific kinds of tissue, nor do they understand why cancerous cells lose their differentiation. But, Cloning, at long last, may be the key to understanding differentiation and cancer. It has the potential to improve the lives of hundreds of millions but much work and researches are still needed to make it a realistic option for treating many diseases (Human Genome Project Information, n. . ). The idea of human cloning is very fascinating for only a few and frightening for many, I supposed. Reproductive cloning should not be accepted. According to Governor Engler of Michigan, “Human cloning is wrong; it will be five years from now; and wrong 100 years from now! ” I strongly believe that only God has the sole authority to create human beings. And any artificial or unnatural ways to bring life to this world is unethical. Reproductive cloning is a threat in the essence of our existence, our being, and our own nature.
But as I understand therapeutic cloning, it is a different thing. I am open to the possibility of cloning organs and tissues for curing many types of disease. There is a high demand for human organs worldwide. So, if we can create organs for transplant with the use of the sick person’s own DNA, why not? To avoid patients wishing for one person to die so he can receive an organ for transplant, we can clone organs. Therapeutic cloning is more helpful in the advancement of science and medicine than reproductive cloning.
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