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Theocratic And Secular Totalitarianism College Essay Help Near Me

Theocratic and Secular Totalitarianism
Theocratic and Secular Totalitarianism
A political system comprises of the processes, structure, and activities by which a nation is governed. There are three main types of political systems, which are totalitarian system, oligarchic, and democratic System. In a totalitarian system, the state regulates and controls all phases of life that are deemed essential in maintaining and perpetuating its power and authority. In this form of governance, there is minimal public participation. Oligarchic systems are characterised by a few members of the society most often self-regulating elite exercising dominion and power over the majority. A democratic system, alternatively, is commonly referred as a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. This form of government allows for both public inclusion and participation. Focusing on the totalitarian system of governance, there are two distinctive types of governance referred to as theocratic and secular totalitarianism. These forms of governance bear varied similarities and contrasts with each other ranging from the source of power to source of law and codes of conduct.
As earlier on identified, a totalitarian form of governance is where power is centralized and the government, usually under the control of a single political individual, class, or faction, is essentially dictatorial in nature. It demands complete subservience to the state. In a totalitarian theocracy, the state is governed by religious individuals under identified religious principles. In such a state, the religious leaders are also the political leaders and govern the nation under stringent adherence to the religious tenets and laws. Modern examples of autocratic theocracies can be evidenced in Islamic States where nations are governed under stringent adherence to the Sharia law. Theocracies have only been sustainable where a greater percentage of the population share the same religion. In such states, the religious beliefs are intensively autonomous to the extent that there is minimal distinction between the political sphere and the religious sphere (Arendt, 2008). The religious leaders hold high political offices and the religious laws together with the codes also serve as the legal law of the nation.
Since the religious leaders are also political leaders, the society holds the belief or is made to believe that the political leaders are endorsed and selected by god. Consequently, conflicting with the leaders is also deemed as a rebellion against god. For instance, in Islamic states, religious leaders hold political officers and the source of law is the Koran commonly referred to as Sharia law. Although such law may contain perceived heretical contents, the society has little say in changing the law or how it is dispensed as it is deemed sacred and from god. Acts such as stoning and beheading are meted out as punishment for wrongdoers in strict observance of the law. Additionally, a theocratic totalitarian state will attempt to eliminate other religions and differing ideologies often involving the use of violence. This system of governance is frequently associated with fundamentalism (Wolin, 2010). Theocratic totalitarianism is an ideology that draws from conventional religious texts but radically re-interprets such texts to validate the vilification of other religions and conflicting ideologies.
On the other hand, Secular Totalitarianism bears similarity with theocratic totalitarianism in that power and authority is wielded by a single political individual, class, or faction, and is essentially dictatorial in nature. In contrast, the governing authority is not religious and is therefore based on worldly concepts. In such a system, the political leaders are guided by bureaucratic and military power. The military holds power and control over the government and people, and therefore, makes decisions it deems best for the country. North Korea stands as one of the notable examples of states exercising secular totalitarianism. In this country, power and control is held and exercised by a few individuals and centered on the president, who is also a military commander. The government brings together effectual propaganda together with constraints on its people, including their contact with the rest of the world as a means to maintain absolute control over the citizens. Moreover, the government attempts to create a cult of the personality around the president or leader turning the individual into a near deistic figure (Baehr, 2010). The presidency in North Korea has remained in a hereditary succession of a single family for three generations.
In conclusion, we find that there are a myriad of similarities and contrasts between theocratic and secular totalitarianism. The underpinning similarity is that power and authority is wielded by a single political individual, class, or faction, and is essentially dictatorial in nature. In theocratic totalitarianism, the religious leaders are the political leaders and the country is governed in accordance to religious law. For instance, in Islamic states, the Koran is a source for all laws, codes, and conduct. Moreover, the leaders use religious text to validate the vilification of other religions and conflicting ideologies. In secular totalitarianism, the political leaders are guided by bureaucratic and military power. The military holds power and control over the government together with the people, and therefore, makes decisions it deems best for the country. In most cases, the central leader is deified with any form of defiance being met with utmost severity.
Arendt, H. (2008). The origins of totalitarianism. Cleveland: World Pub. Co.
Baehr, P. (2010). Hannah Arendt, totalitarianism, and the social sciences. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
Wolin, S. S. (2010). Democracy incorporated: Managed democracy and the specter of inverted totalitarianism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Western Civilization argumentative essay helpName:
Western Civilization
Western civilization is one of the most unique and great civilizations ever in existence in human history. Western culture has always been linked to western civilization. However, the two are often used interchangeably. Civilization basically entails the process by which a place or society reaches an advanced stage of development and organization. The real essence of this civilization is a broad term used to refer to the social norms, traditional customs, political systems, traditional customs, and many technologies that are associated with Europe. The implication of any civilization order is derived from the way it organizes the outlook and life of an individual or society in relation to the general viewpoint of the universe; it relates to a person’s spiritual forces, material environment, and moral values or other people that make up the society.
Western civilization began majorly in the Middle East and spread westwards. Its roots are traced back to the time when man used to exist in hunter-gatherer societies but slowly settled into societies that were agricultural. Due to this shift, farming became famous spreading around Euphrates, Jordan, Tigris, and largely into and across Europe (Algaze 50). In this sense, gradual development of world’s first states, cities, and empires emerged. It is from the Mediterranean and European origin that led to the surfacing of dominant cultures of modern South America, North America, and Oceania, which has had enormous global authority in recent centuries.
In the past, man lived in civilization styles that were similar. The style that stood out among the many was the Egyptian. At this time, there was no distinction and contrast between people in society and the social order. Historic suddenness brought about the Jews Syrian civilization and Greek classical civilization. These two styles shaped the people differently but their understanding was similar (Fox 430). The main agenda was moral choice.
Initially, people lived without rules and regulations to govern them but moral dimensions of choice were introduced. This also created the aspect of individualism rather than group-thinking. The existing order was disoriented to fit in the new system. People were now socialized to think independently without fearing any judgment from people. This type of civilization grew to the extent of people being allowed to be liberal minded. People were open to think and discover things as opposed to earlier times when one would just blindly follow the social order. This paved way for the first industrial revolution that led to improvement of waterpower efficiency, development of machine equipments, and usage of steam power.
This marked a major turning point in almost all the aspects of human life in history. It resulted to an increase in income hence the general living standards of people was upgraded (Shapiro 560). Population began to increase and a second revolution emerged. This majorly led to the advancement in technology that has so far been on the increase in the recent centuries. Ever since its preamble, technology has never stagnated. New ideas are invented on a daily basis, enabling the gradual advancement in it. The emergence of technology made the life of man easier and enjoyable. Accessibility of services was easier and high performance of the machinery ensured sufficiency and efficiency.
Along the way, art, and music was introduced to make life more meaningful and enjoyable. Introduction of paintings and artwork was rampant. Literature became prominent as people shared their ideas through writing. Architectural designs began taking root as intelligent people drew house designs and build them. Media, both print and press emerged and allowed the people to be in a position to access news from different regions (Fox 435). Many of the developed countries have greatly developed this sector making the world a global village.
It is evident that western civilization resulted to a global influence, despite the fact that all these began in Europe. Human beings began as hunters and gatherers but eventually shifted to the agricultural sector, which paved way for a lot of innovations and technological advancements. The civilizations cemented the general outlook of men and positively affected how they conducted themselves on a day-to-day life’s activities.
Works Cited
Algaze, Guillermo. The Uruk world system: The dynamics of expansion of early Mesopotamian civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. Print.
Fox, Jonathan. “Paradigm lost: Huntington’s unfulfilled clash of civilizations prediction into the 21st century.” International Politics 42.4 (2005): 428-457. Print.
Shapiro, Barry. “Civilization and Its Discontents.” Psychoanalytic Inquiry 32.6 (2012): 559-569. Print.
Flight HCY522 Helious Airways August/2005 737 essay help online freeName:
Flight HCY522 Helious Airways August/2005 737
Helios Airways Flight 522 was a commercial airplane that normally flew British holidaymakers to and from Cyprus. On the 14th of August 2005, the plane crashed on a mountain at Grammatiko, north of the Greek capital while en-route from Larnaca, Cyprus to Athens, Greece. This led to the loss of all persons on board that comprised of 115 passengers and six crewmembers. This is considered one of the most tragic flights in that a safety measure put in place in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks had the cockpit locked and ended up causing the tragic crash.
The plane was operated by Helios Airways and had been purchased from DBA in the year 2004 with registration 5B-DBY. On the fateful day, the flight had been scheduled to departure from Larnaca, Cyprus and fly to Prague via Athens. The captain for the flight was Hans-Jürgen Merten, a German contract pilot. Before the flight, the crew for its previous flight had reported that one of the door seals for the service doors had frozen and was making noise; therefore, they requested check up and full service (Risdall and Gradwell 75). The service was immediately undertaken by one of the ground engineers.
The plane took off from Larnaca, Cyprus at 0907hrs local time en-route to Prague via Athens. However, the plane failed to reach its final destination safely since three hours upon departure, it crashed into a mountain in Greece. Approximately thirty and forty minutes after taking off, the Cyprus Air Traffic Control made attempts to contact the aircraft but were not successful. These led the Hellenic Air Force 111th Combat Wing to scramble two F-16 fighter aircraft at 11:24 who were able to establish visual contact with the crashed plane.
The first respondents to the scene reported that the first officer was flaccid and motionless at the plane’s controls and the captain was not in his seat. Additionally, the oxygen masks at the passenger cabin were dangling from the roof. Official reports indicated that the flight crew was incapacitated by the lack of oxygen, the plane continued flying without control, and when it finally ran out of fuel, it crashed on a mountain in Greece. Reports indicated that the plane remained airborne until all its engines failed due to lack of fuel.
Investigations provided chilling reports on the last hours of the passenger flight. After the pilots were incapacitated and locked in the cockpit, one of the junior stewards made attempts to break into the locked cockpit upon the realization that all was not well. The young steward, Andreas Prodromou, was eventually successful at gaining access to the cockpit where he found both pilots seated unconscious. He immediately clutched at an oxygen bottle and struggled with the plane’s controls, but these were efforts in futility as the plane soon ran out of fuel, leading to engine failure and the plane diving into a Greek mountainside.
The gradual failure of a pressurized cabin is gravely dangerous. However, there are sufficient measures aimed to warning the pilots comprising of an automatic alarm sound coupled by deployment of oxygen masks for the passengers (Risdall and Gradwell 77). At such an instance, time is of the essence, and the pilots may lose valuable time looking for the real cause of the alarm. During this time, the grave effects of hypoxia would creep in affecting their sight and brain. The eye’s retina is considered the most oxygen-demanding organ of the human body even though the brain demands up to 30 percent of the body’s oxygen supply (Newman 15). This therefore implies that the pilot’s vision would quickly degrade.
Within thirteen minutes of the flight’s departure, the air pressure gradually dropped as the plane ascended. The lack of proper ventilation resulted in decreasing oxygen concentration in the pilot’s cabin. This led the pilots to suffer from hypoxia, a condition resulting from oxygen starvation. The effects of hypoxia are grave as it impaired the pilots’ judgment without their realization. Their radio calls to the Tower crew revealed that they were unaware of the meaning of the alarm in the flight deck that signified ventilation issues pertaining to oxygen supply.
Although the gas masks for the passengers had already been deployed, the pilots could not be quickly notified since the cockpit door had been locked shut as per the safety regulations. The pilots, therefore, progressively and successively lapsed into incompetence while they upheld a euphoric belief that that they were in control. As the blood oxygen saturation decreased from the normal ninety seven percent to eighty five percent, their eyesight became blurry while judgment, thought, and memory were gradually impaired (Newman 34). Such impairment leaves one to have a false confidence in his or her competency. Progressive oxygen deprivation leads to intensified euphoria, disorientation, and irrationality, finally followed by falling into unconscious state and lethal outcome.
In conclusion, it becomes clear that a safety measure aimed at preventing terror attacks actually led to the plane’s crash and the death of all passengers and crew. It is, therefore, recommended that adequate investigations are measures are executed to avert another crash and that additional policies are effectively reviewed before being implemented.
Works Cited
Newman, David G. Flying Fast Jets: Human Factors and Performance Limitations. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2014. Print.
Risdall, Jones and Denis Gradwell. “Extremes of Barometric Pressure.” Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 16.2 (2015): 74-78. Print.
Electromagnetic weapons a level english language essay helpElectromagnetic Weapons
Electromagnetic Weapons
In the 20th century, bullets and bombs were familiar weapons of war however; advancement in technology brought about electromagnetic weapons that are ranked among the latest weapons in the market. These are weapons that rely heavily on magnetic field projectiles and electricity as opposed to many that use chemical propellants. It can instigate projectiles to distances about 100 miles nautical at a speed that is six times faster than that of sound. These are weapons that are widely used in many of the developed countries.
Electromagnetic force is a type of physical relationship between charged electric particles. This interaction results to the formation of electromagnetic fields such as magnetic fields, light and electric fields. The electromagnetic force is among the four essential interactions in nature [1]. The others include; weak interaction, strong interaction and gravitation force. The science behind electromagnetism is electromagnetic force which is sometimes referred to as Lorentz force having a combination of both magnetism and electricity.
The electromagnetic force is a crucial determining factor in the internal properties of objects that people encounter on a daily basis. Electrons bound together form atoms that are elements which form molecules. The interactions between electrons and the electromagnetic force bring forth the electromagnetic field. Numerous descriptions of electromagnetic fields have been established; in electrodynamics, electric potential refers to electric fields while in Ohms law, it is referred to as electric current [2]. Magnetism and electromagnetic induction are responsible for magnetic fields.
Initially, magnetism and electricity were considered to be two different forces. This view later changed after the publication of “Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism” [1]. This publication showed that the negative and positive charges were synchronized by one force. There are effects that are related to these interactions that were experimentally demonstrated. The following was noted; electric charges can either attract or repel with an inversely proportional force. Like poles repel while unlike poles attract. It was also noted that a current can be induced in a loop in cases where it is moved way or towards a magnetic field [2]. A circular magnetic field is created around the wire by an electric current that is flowing in the given wire. Finally, magnetic poles act similar to the electric charges that attract and repel each other depending on the whether they are alike or different. In an electric circuit, a compass needle always deflected to the north of the magnetic field. This demonstrated that, magnetic fields are able to be radiated in all sides of a wire that is carrying electric current [3].This was a confirmation that there was a connection between magnetism and electricity. The SI units of electromagnetism include; Ampere for electric current, Farad for capacitance, Coulomb for electric charge, Henry for inductance, Ohm for resistance, Weber for magnetic flux, Volt for electric potential, Watt for power and Tesla for density of magnetic flux. In electromagnetism, electric current is deemed as a fundamental quantity that is defined using Amperes law which takes a dimensionless quantity of permeability.
Below is a list of electromagnetism units.
SI electromagnetism units
Name of Quantity Derived Units Unit Base Units
I electric current
ampere (SI base unit)
A A (= W/V = C/s)
Q electric charge
C A⋅s
U, ΔV, Δφ; E potential difference; electromotive force
V kg⋅m2⋅s−3⋅A−1 (= J/C)
R; Z; X electric resistance; impedance; reactance
Ω kg⋅m2⋅s−3⋅A−2 (= V/A)
Ρ resistivity
ohm meter
Ω⋅m kg⋅m3⋅s−3⋅A−2
P electric power
W kg⋅m2⋅s−3 (= V⋅A)
C capacitance
F kg−1⋅m−2⋅s4⋅A2 (= C/V)
E electric field strength
volt per meter
V/m kg⋅m⋅s−3⋅A−1 (= N/C)
D electric displacement field
coulomb per square meter C/m2 A⋅s⋅m−2
Ε permittivity
farad per meter
F/m kg−1⋅m−3⋅s4⋅A2
χe electric susceptibility
(dimensionless) – –
G; Y; B conductance; admittance; susceptance
S kg−1⋅m−2⋅s3⋅A2 (= Ω−1)
κ, γ, σ conductivity
Siemens per meter
S/m kg−1⋅m−3⋅s3⋅A2
B magnetic flux density, magnetic induction
T kg⋅s−2⋅A−1 (= Wb/m2 = N⋅A−1⋅m−1)
magnetic flux
Wb kg⋅m2⋅s−2⋅A−1 (= V⋅s)
H magnetic field strength
ampere per meter
A/m A⋅m−1
L, M inductance
H kg⋅m2⋅s−2⋅A−2 (= Wb/A = V⋅s/A)
Μ permeability
Henry per meter
H/m kg⋅m⋅s−2⋅A−2
Χ magnetic susceptibility
(dimensionless) – –
The formulas that pertain to physical laws in electromagnetism for instance, Maxwell Equations, need adjustments depending on the system of units that one chooses to adopt. The adjustments are due to the fact that there is no direct correspondence between units in SI and those of CGS (Gaussian Units) for cases of mechanical units [5]There are several models of electromagnetic units but the most commonly used is the Gaussian model.
The knowledge behind electromagnetism is what led to the manufacture of electromagnetic weapons that are widely used today. These weapons are occasionally referred to as weapons of mass destruction. This is majorly because when used, their impact is enormous. The electromagnetic pulse which is abbreviated as EMP is generally damaging and disruptive to electronic equipments if interfered with. Its high energy level can destroy physical objects such as aircraft structures and buildings [6]. Due to this reason, managing its effects is necessary hence the branch, electromagnetic compatibility engineering. The damaging effects due to the high energy levels have been utilized to create the electromagnetic weapons. The general characteristics of an electromagnetic energy are; its type of energy is magnetic, radiated, electric or conducted. There is a range of frequencies present and the waveform of the pulse include, shape, amplitude and duration.
An example of an electromagnetic weapon is a rail gun. These weapons have radiation that is invisible and has the capability to pass through majority of the solid matters. They also travel faster than light hence the evasion of a planned target is impossible. These weapons have the ability to travel long distances without generating light or sound that human senses can detect. This feature is necessary so that the weapon would not be in a position to betray the position of the user when it is fired [7]. Given sufficient power, these weapons have less ammunition limit. The electromagnetic weapons are favorable in the modern times because they have the operating advantage that entails high energy and its ability to travel silently.
These weapons are sufficient and efficient in their functioning, however, there are some problems associated with them. Methods of storage, conduction, transformation and directing the energy have proven to be inadequate to produce the suitable hand-held weapon. These weapons waste a lot of energy that is inform of heat, therefore requiring bulky coolant equipments so as to avoid the overheating damage. Research has shown that, air cooling can cause undesirable delays between shots. These problems can however be curbed by using cheap but superconductors of high temperature so as to make the weapon work more efficiently. The use of high volume convenient electricity generation can help in the cooling of the device as part its energy can be diverted for such purposes [6]. Since these weapons entirely depend on electricity for them to function, a standby plan should be available in case electricity shortages are experienced. The best solution however is, situating the electromagnetic weapons near a power plant so that the availability of electricity is guaranteed. The cooling problem can be addressed by providing plenty of water especially a river source, or a large mass of water, so that the cooling process is continuous making the weapons work more efficiently.
The future of the electromagnetic weapons is not certain because, there is a debate on whether or not to allow the existence of these weapons bearing in mind that they have lethal effects. A technology symposium that was held in 1997 concluded that non-lethal weapons should be allowed in market as opposed to lethal ones [4]. It is unfortunate that, these non-lethal electromagnetic weapons have health effects to human beings, for instance, difficulty in breathing, nausea, disorientation, fatigue and general pain.
Electromagnetic weapons have taken root majorly in the 21st century due to advancements in technology. These weapons rely heavily on magnetism and electricity. They are known to use high levels of energy that propel them to serve the purpose they were intended for. Many of these weapons are used in already developed countries. Its future however is not certain because many analysts argue that, these weapons are highly destructive hence their use should be minimized. Evidently, it cannot be ruled out that its use be abolished but its utilization should be controlled.
[1] Aubuchon, Matthew S., Thomas R. Lockner, and Bobby N. Turman. “Results from sandia national laboratories/lockheed martin electromagnetic missile launcher (EMML).” Pulsed Power Conference, 2005 IEEE. IEEE, 2005.
[2] Worthington, Amy. “Chemtrails: Aerosol and Electromagnetic Weapons in the Age of Nuclear War.” GlobalResearch. ca, June 1 (2004).
[3] Giri, D. V. High-power electromagnetic radiators: nonlethal weapons and other applications. Harvard University Press, 2004.
[4] Gurevich, Vladimir. Electronic Devices on Discrete Components for Industrial and Power Engineering. CRC Press, 2008.
[5] Fair, Harry D. “Electromagnetic launch science and technology in the United States enters a new era.” Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on 41.1 (2005): 158-164.
[6] McMillan, R. W. Atmospheric Scintillation Effects on Electromagnetic Weapons. ARMY SPACE AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND REDSTONE ARSENAL AL, 2008.
[7] Morris, Chris, Janet Morris, and Thomas Baines. “Weapons of mass protection.” Airpower Journal 9.1 (1995): 25-29
Transgender essay helpName:
Transgender is a broad term that refers to individuals who do not conform to the conventional male and female gender roles and do not associate with their biologically “assigned” sex. It is estimated that 1 in 30,000 people is transgender in the United States. Transgender people are divided into Male to Female (MtF – people who were born male but identify as female) and Female to Male (FtM – individuals who were born female but identify as Male). There are other terms connected with transgender; for instance, Gender Dysphoria, which is an intense unhappiness in regard to gender. It is manifested as dissatisfaction and discomfort with the biological sex of an individual where the person bears internal conflict between the gender identity they experience and the gender associated with their body. However, although transgenderism is caused by biological factors, this does not prevent transgender individuals from experiencing discrimination and high rates of suicide.
Transgender is sometimes confused with being gay which is not the same thing. Transgender is about gender identity while gay or lesbian are comfortable with their gender but are attracted to members of their sex. It is about sexual orientation. Gender Identity Disorder is the clinical diagnosis used in psychology and medicine for individuals who suffer from gender dysphoria. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) first defined transgender in 1980, but the definition has changed with each successive edition with the current completely replacing the term transsexualism with “Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents and Adults” (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 17). On the other hand, GID is now its own category of sexual disorders divided into three subcategories: Gender Identity Disorder in Children, Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents, and Adults and Gender Identity Disorder not otherwise specified.
There are four major components that must be fulfilled for an individual to be diagnosed with GID which are a strong and relentless cross gender identification, an individual’s feeling of an unrelenting discomfort with his or her sex, a discomfort that is not because they are hermaphroditic or inter sex, and a discomfort that causes considerable distress or injury in their lives. However, there have been various schools of thought on what caused transgenderism. Some scientists have suggested have that it is a product of nature and that transgender individuals are biologically inclined to this condition (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 56). However, others argue that it’s a case of nurture and that nature has got nothing to do with it.
Biological Causes of Transgender
Biologically, all males start of as female embryos. However, the embryo changes to male if the chromosomes are ‘XY’ between the 8th to the 24th weeks. These chromosomes induce testosterone production and are released by the body of the fetus. The fetal brain is made male when the testosterone is converted to a kind of estrogen. However, this conversion must be accurately timed for in order for the process to be successful. Alternatively, all female fetus start off as female embryos and the ‘XX’ chromosomes do not order any hormone conversion, thus the fetus remains female both in body and brain (Corsello et al. 330).
With the MtF transsexual, fetal development follows a regular path of a normal male embryo. It starts of normally as female; then, between the 8th to 24th weeks the ‘XY’ chromosomes in the fetal body initiate testosterone hormonal conversion. However, if the conversion is faulty or the hormone was produced at the wrong time or it was produced in quantities that are inadequate, fetus develops a male body, but some of the female brain default activities remain intact. Consequently, the gender identity of the brain remains intact and feminine. This means that the default female brain of transgender males whose masculinization was incomplete still functions. However, the amount of development that gets arrested varies, and the original brain wiring that did not complete in the masculinization process enable s the female influence to continue. This would explain why many transgender biological males know from a young age that they are not males (Swabb 307).
With the FtM transgender, the fetus begins normally as female. Subsequently, a problem occurs between the 8th and the 24th week. Although the ‘XX’ chromosomes have ordered no hormonal conversion, the fetus body still introduces testosterone. However, if the conversion is strong enough, the fetus brain is re-engineered to think like a male while the body remains feminine (Corsello 332).
The ‘XX’ and ‘XY’ chromosomes have a duty to introduce testosterone in the womb. Nonetheless, their functioning is determined by the many variables at play during the process fetal development. Consequently, individual humans have a distinctive combination of female and male qualities. It is these mixes in different doses that make some of these individuals dissimilar from society’s point of view (Swabb 306).
Additionally, scientists studying the ‘Central Subdivision of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis’ in a number of transsexual brains, homosexual heterosexual men and women have found that this part of the normal brain is 50% larger than the normal female brain. Furthermore, it is 60% larger than the MtF transgender brain. In other words, the male to female transgender brain was very similar to the brain of a normal female but very different from the brain of a normal male. This has been suggested as the course for many MtF transgender individuals to claim that they are confined in male bodies (Garcia-Falgueras and Swabb 3138). Furthermore, Starcevic, Zigic, and Filipovic assert that “the human brain differentiates early in development both structurally and functionally in a sexually dimorphic way which leads to the fact that transgender is a sexual differentiation disorder of the sex dimorphic brain” (264).
Transgender Discrimination
Trying to fit in society’s set of rules on gender when internally there is a conflict on which gender one belongs to is a cause for psychological trauma to transgender individuals. This trauma is also accompanied by discrimination and sometimes physical violence due to this non conformity (Commonwealth Fusion Center). In addition, public schools have been a place of discrimination and bullying of transgender students.
After race and ethnicity, sexual orientation is probably one of the most common motivations for hate crimes. Such events often produce an environment of stress and intimidation even for those not directly impacted. Additionally, intimate partner violence likely affects transgender individuals more commonly than those who are heterosexual, gay, lesbian, or bisexual (Commonwealth Fusion Center). Health wise, a risk of physical harm due to discrimination and anti transgender bias in the society makes it difficult for transgender individuals to feel safe in certain environments (Erickson-Schroth 35). According to the National Council for Transgender Equality, some form of discrimination, harassment, or substandard care was reported by 70 percent of transgender individuals of when attempting to access quality health care services. However, many members of the transgender community have very little faith in law enforcement and the criminal justice system due to years of discriminations. As a consequence, the majority of physical violence against transgender individuals is never reported to the police services (Erickson-Schroth 34).
Transgender individuals in America evidently face considerable obstacles in obtaining equitable access to housing. Grant et al. found that transgender people of color experienced even higher rates of bigotry (77). In advertently, this type of prejudice results in heightened rates of homelessness for transgender people as well as a host of other negative social outcomes associated with homelessness. According to the Task Force and NCTE’s report, those who experience homelessness are far more likely to be imprisoned, practice commercial sex for a livelihood, be HIV positive, and attempt suicide. Additionally, they found that a higher percentage of transgender people were more likely to abuse drugs and cigarettes than the average general populations. For instance, among the black transgender community, smoking was 150% higher than the general population average (Grant et al. 36). This skewed statistics were associated with psychological trauma caused by discrimination by the society.
Gender non-conforming and trans¬gender individuals face multiple barriers in the search for health care including its denial to them. According to the Grant et al., “Subjects in their study seeking health care were denied equal treatment in doctor’s offices and hospitals (24%), emergency rooms (13%), mental health clinics (11%), by EMTs (5%), and in drug treatment programs (3%). 3 Female-to-male respondents reported higher rates of unequal treatment than male-to-female respondents. Latino respondents reported the highest rate of unequal treatment of any racial category (32% by a doctor or hospital and 19% in both emer¬gency rooms and mental health clinics)” (Grant et al. 90). In addition, nineteen percent (19%) reported that they had been refused treatment by a doctor or other provider because of their transgender or gender non-conforming status. Additionally, transgender individuals have reported hostile reception when they have gone to seek medical assistance from practitioners (Elze 52). This hostility has driven others into despair and refusal to seek any medical assistance when in need.
Transgender individuals suffer from socioeconomic inequalities largely due to persistent discrimination in the workplace. Greater unemployment levels and higher poverty rates for transgender people are directly caused by discrimination, which in turn causes job instability and high employee turnover (Grant et al. 92). Additionally, transgender individuals are twice as likely to be unemployed and are four times as likely to live in poverty.
Whereas partial information is available on suicidal behavior among transgender youth, it is reasonable to hypothesize that transgender youth, in common with LGB youth, have higher risk and lower protective factors and elevated rates of suicidal behavior (Suicide Prevention Resource Center 89). A recent study that focused on transgender youth aged 15 to 21years found that 45 percent had thought seriously of killing themselves, and half of these said their thoughts were due to their transgender status (Grossman and D’Augelli 532). However, when comparing transgender youth who reported having attempted suicide with those who had not, researchers established that the youth who had attempted suicide had experienced more corporal and verbal abuse from their parents.
In addition, another study that was not restricted to young people found that 83 percent of transgender people had thought about suicide and 54 percent had attempted it (Dean et al. 128). Furthermore, in another study that surveyed transgender people of all ages, approximately one third (30.1 percent) of respondents reported at least one suicide attempt (Kenagy 23). A study of transgender people over the age of 18 discovered that 32 percent had attempted suicide. This study found that the risk factors associated with attempted suicide among transgender people were younger age (mostly under 25 years) depression or a history of substance abuse, forced sex, and gender-based persecution and prejudice (Clements-Nolle, Marx, & Katz 60). Although these studies were not restricted to youth, all of them found high suicide attempt rates for transgender people. Some of the transgender youth frequently display gender nonconformity and are assumed by others to be LGB even if they do not categorize themselves as such (Grossman, D’Augelli, Howell, & Hubbard 531). Transgender youth also experience high rates of denunciation and bodily and verbal abuse at the hands of their parents.
It has been proved that transgenderism is not a choice but rather a biological occurrence that is beyond the control of the individual. Transgender individuals endue both emotional and psychological challenges in trying to find their place in a rigid society that defines gender through a narrow prism of either being male or female based on genitalia. Apart from personal turmoil, transgender individuals also experience various forms of discriminations due to their lack of gender conformity. Additionally, the stress caused by their status pushes many of them to become suicidal. Physical violence that most of the time goes unreported is directed towards this group of people by their own families and the general public.
A lot of people in the society refuse to accept the fact that being transgender is not a choice that someone makes but a product of biological flaw. They end up discriminating against transgender individuals causing most of them to become suicidal. Hormonal wash at the correct or incorrect time has been blamed for the condition of transgenderism affecting different people based on the lack/or addition of the hormone when it was not needed. However, this phenomenon continues to elicit arguments about its causes. Economic disenfranchisement due to pervasive discrimination has driven transgender individuals into poverty and homelessness. Probably, the economic implications have the most wide ranging repercussion on the lives of transgender individuals due to the position of economic well being in mitigating most of the social drawbacks. Consequently, loss of the economic well being has driven many transgender individuals into occupations that endanger their lives. Furthermore, suicide rates are high for transgender individuals compared to the general public due social stressors and a lack of psychological and emotional support system.
Physical and verbal violence from family and other members of society has only made the situation worse for transgender individuals considering that most of them do not have confidence in the law enforcement or judicial system due to perceptions that these institutions are also discriminatory. Discrimination by health care workers has increased the vulnerability of transgender individuals to diseases like HIV Aids and other sexually transmitted diseases because of a lack of counseling and health support systems for victims of sexual violence among this group.
Works Cited
Clements-Nolle, Kristen., Rani Marx, & Mitchell Katz. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization. Journal of Homosexuality, 51. 3 (2006): 53-69. Print.
Commonwealth Fusion Center. Massachusetts Hate Crimes. 2009. Web. 2 May 2015
Corsello, Salvatore, Di Donna V. Maria, P. Senes, Viccenzo Luotto, Maria.P Ricciato, Rosa, Maria Paragliola, and Alfredo, Pontecorvi. “Biological Aspects of Gender Disorders.” Minerva Endocri-nologica 36 (2011): 325-39. Print.
Dean, Laura., Meyer, I. H, Robinson, Kevin., Sell, Randal. L., Sember, Robert, Silenzio, V. M. B., et al. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health: Findings and concerns. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 4.3 (2000): 102-151. Print
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Dsm-iv-tr. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
Elze, Diana. (2006). Oppression, prejudice, and discrimination. In D. F. Morrow & L. Messinger (Eds.), Sexual orientation and gender expression in social work practice: Working with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender people (pp. 43-80). New York: Columbia University Press. Print.
Erickson-Schroth, Laura. Trans Bodies, Trans Selves: A Resource for the Transgender Community. , 2014. Print.
Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia, and DF Swaab. “A Sex Difference in the Hypothalamic Uncinate Nucleus: Relationship to Gender Identity.” Brain: a Journal of Neurology. 131 (2008): 3132-46. Print.
Grant, Jaime M, Lisa Mottet, Justin E. Tanis, Jody Herman, Jack Harrison, and Mara Keisling. National Transgender Discrimination Survey Report on Health and Health Care: Findings of a Study by the National Center for Transgender Equality and the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality, 2010. Web. 2 May 2015.
Grossman, Anold H. & D’Augelli, Anthony R. “Transgender youth and life-threatening behaviors.” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 37.5 (2007): 527-537. Print.
Kenagy, G. P. Transgender health: Findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health & Social Work. 30. 1 (2005): 19-26. Print.
Starcevic, Ana, Dusica Markovic Zigic, and Branislav Filipovic. “Polymicrogyria of the Unilateral Temporal Lobe in a Transsexual Patient—Case Report.” Neuroscience & Medicine 4 (2013): 263-66. Print.
Suicide Prevention Resource Center. (2008). Suicide risk and prevention for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. Newton, MA: Education Development Center, Inc. Print.
Swaab, DF. “Sexual Differentiation of the Human Brain: Relevance for Gender Identity, Transsexualism and Sexual Orientation.” Gynecological Endocrinology. 19.6 (2004): 301-312. Print.
Valentine, David. Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007. Print.
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Q2: what is the empirical method for understanding how the material world operates?
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