The third druk gyalpo was born on may 2,1928 at thruepang palace near the trongsa dzong. in his early education included study of hindi,English languages and the Buddhist literature. he started the training at his father’s royal court early learning through the instruction from his father and court officials, the tradition and driglam namzha. In 1943,at the age of 14, he was awarded the post trongsa droenyer the red scarf. the prince went to kalimpong and then to great britian for further studies. his father his majesty jigme wangchuck deeply thought of giving the future king a broader education.
After arriving back to bumthang ,jigme dorji wangchuck was appointed paro poenlop at the age of 17. in 1952 ,he married azhi kezang chedon and princess choeying wangmo dorji Gongzim sonam tobgye dorji Gongzim ugyen dorji Sherpa penchung pala Azhi kezang choedon,gongzim palden dorji Ugyen dorji who served as he gyadrung to trongs poenlop was later promoted to gongzim when ugyen wangchuck assumed the throne. sonam tobgye dorji took the post of gongzim in the rein of 2nd king Jigme wangchuck. sonam tobgye dorji’s son palden dorji took the post after the death of his father.
In 1952 the 2nd king passed away leaving the throne to jigme dorji wangchuck. Jigme dori wangchuck was by then well trained and educated by his father and was ready to take the throne. his majesty had a aim of making a organized government and to preserve Bhutan’s rich culture and tradition. His majesty assumed the position of head o state and government (the commander in chief and the ultimate court of appeal). The king after receiving the scarves of kingship from the sacred shrine of zhabdrung participated in three day ceremony in paro.
Massive crowd gathered including the British official and choegyal of Sikkim. the capital was moved to thimphu and had become the permanent national capital and built his palace at kazhinag,dechencholing. Social Reforms removal of slavery and serfdom he had put in lots of effort to abolish the practice of seftdom and slavery which had been in country since he 17th century.
Product Demand Tesla academic essay help: academic essay help
Willingness to pay and demand for the car are created through the advantages the car brings and the ethic the car promotes, value is also greatly added through the aesthetic, features and overall driving experience. The Tesla Roadster is an extremely environmentally friendly car, creating zero emissions with the ability to drive 245 miles per charge; it boasts lower costs in the long run with no road tax or parking costs.
The Roadster offers a supercar performance without the emissions, to reinforce its supercar performance claims, the Roadster has up to 295 lbs per ft of torque and 288 horsepower and can accelerate from 0-60mph in an impressive 3. 9 seconds. It can be fully charged in 3. 5 hours using the Tesla High Power Wall Connector, but can be charged from nearly all outlets around the world. Demand is encouraged for the Roadster through its differentiated features, its hand-built carbon fibre body sets a precedent, which redefines the quality expected from electric cars.
The flush leather interior, installation of electric powertrain, which gives superior responsiveness and option of custom-tuned suspension all push for a differentiation from other products on the market. It pushes to be the most luxurious and elite of all electric cars. Other features that aid the Roadster in standing out from competition are the quietness of the ride from use of sound reduction materials and wheel arch liners to reduce pavement noise. Its updated power control hardware allows it to handle and reach high speeds in all climates, a very appealing feature.
The Tesla Roadster is cleverly marketed so that it appeals to more than one type of user. The client will be in a position where they will have a fair amount of disposable income, as the price of the Roadster demands a client with a high income. It is designed so that it appeals to those who are ostentatious, it appeals to this clientele without boasting its environmental appeal through its aesthetic and high spec features. Its main clientele however would be those who are environmentally conscious and have disposable income – for this niche market it would most likely be at the forefront of the competition.
The Roadster handles exceptionally in all conditions and so does not restrict the user to a certain environment, however the Roadster would most likely bring in consumers who would be mainly city drivers because of the need for a consumer with a high income. The Tesla Roadster follows inelastic demand; a large price drop would mean a sacrificing a lot in the way of design and the spec of the product, which is what gives the Roadster its value.
Therefore to increase demand it would need to be done through marketing the product effectively, aspects of this would include meeting changing tastes, creating brand loyalty and possibly a very small drop in price to create more interest. Other factors which should be considered are further improving features, quality, ensuring the advertisements and outlets are intelligently placed and the availability of options for terms of payment. To stimulate product demand * after sales service * develop tech sophistication * ensure quality * improve design aesthetic and features Identify and meet changing tastes and exploit niches.
Economic Geography Increasingly common app essay help: common app essay help
Economic Geography increasingly rests upon the social, the environmental as well as the economic dimensions of contemporary life. Discuss (1500-2000 words) Economic geography is a broad term which can define many aspects of everyday life, in reference to everyday people, from all types of backgrounds. Economic Geography has to do with things, and services. It concerns not only the people and places that provide them, but the people and places that consume them as well. Economic Geography discusses things as commodities, created for exchange, and the exploitation of the labour invested.
It concerns the mediation of exchange & pathways which move from production to consumption (from the birth to the death of a product) (Mackinnon and Cumbers, 2007, p. 173-213). In this essay I will talk about many ways in which the above statement can be proved, by using well-known examples to demonstrate my case. With regards to the social dimensions of contemporary life, they make up a big part of Economic Geography. There are many social aspects of economic geography to do with all stages of production of a product, from start to finish.
These aspects have to do mainly with (1) workers, and (2) consumers and buyers. Socialisation occurs between workers as they become acquainted with each other, mainly through the communication of business deals. These business deals are vital to ensure that everything runs smoothly. They occur when the journey of a product is being planned and supervised from beginning to end. Take for example the rice crop. It would need a plan of where and how the plant would be grown, how it would be cultivated, prepared for consumption and packaged, as well as transportation to the marketplace.
This would all involve work by many people by communicating with one another and making a set plan, so that the product would be able to be sold on the marketplace for the cheapest price with a marginal profit, so as to provide for all the workers along the way. Exploitation can often happen as part of the manufacturing process of a product, whereby a person of authority would exploit a worker to make a better profit for themselves, without thinking of the working/payment conditions that the worker needs.
Workers are often forced to work in poor conditions like a complete disregard for health and safety measures, such as little ventilation, cramped working spaces, and working with dangerous equipment without the proper safety precautions being taken. They are often made work long hours while being paid below the minimum wage, which isn’t sufficient for the workers financial needs. Conflict can arise between the employees and employers when the employees stand up for themselves and fight for their rights. The main concern of a business is to make a profit.
As a result many workers are inevitably mistreated in the workplace. This conflict between employers and employees leads to many trade unions fighting for the rights of these employees. Fair Trade is an option whereby consumers can pay a slightly higher than average price for a select amount of goods, while the farmers, workers, and manufacturers are paid a fair price for partaking in the production process.
There is a set clear minimum and progressive criteria to ensure that the conditions for the production and trade of a product are socially and economically fair and environmentally responsible (http://fairtrade. e). They are given good working conditions, and they are not mistreated by their employers, unlike what happens in some countries. Take for example the banana tree crop. If one buys fair trade bananas, they are contributing to the wellbeing of the farmers who grow and produce the crop, as well as the people who work in the manufacturing process to maintain a superior quality of the product. There are many environmental issues which can be discussed when talking about Economic Geography.
An example I will talk about is the story of Love Canal in Niagara, in America. This is a strong example of how one does not need a lot of money to make a huge environmental impact. What happened in Love Canal over the last decade was clearly extremely damaging to the land used and also to the lives of what would be the future inhabitants of the area. Love Canal was a 1 mile long trench that was built in the town of Niagara in the 1890’s. Due to unforeseen economic circumstances the project was cancelled and what was left was a long vacant trench .
This was to have a huge impact on the environment around this area, and as a result this influenced many families in the vicinity. In 1920 the city of Niagara used the canal as a landfill and then in 1942, Hooker chemicals used the site for burial of ‘nearly 20,000 tonnes of toxic waste’. ‘The waste was sealed in metal drums in a manner that has since been declared illegal. The canal was then filled in and the land was given to the expanding city of Niagara Falls by the chemical company. ’(http://education. yahoo. com) Niagara then built residential units and a school on the site.
As a result, there was ill-health in the community in the years that followed, with ‘unusually high rates of birth defects, miscarriages, cancer, illness, and chromosome damage’ (http://education. yahoo. com). The Love Canal Homeowners association were opposed by Hooker Chemicals and the government because they had ‘no proof’. In 1978, the President of the USA at the time, Jimmy Carter, announced a federal emergency at Love Canal and he relocated 800 families .
A superfund law was passed, and in 1995, Hooker Chemicals (now Occidental) were sued and agreed to pay the federal government $129,000,000. http://education. yahoo. com) This story shows how Hooker Chemicals mistreated the land that they bought, and how this brought about grave consequences for the residents in the area. Hooker chemicals believed that they could escape any penalties for what they did, by selling the land back to the government for $1. Consequently they had to pay for the many lives that they devastated due to their carelessness. This demonstrates how economic geography rests upon environmental dimensions of contemporary life.
Another way in which environmental dimensions can be thought about when in relation to economic geography is by thinking about the significance of natural resources as part of economic development, and to highlight their continuing importance in the world, national and regional economies. One way in which we can think about natural resources and economic development is the topic of sustainable development. The main way in which we can put rates of resource use into line with the process of sustainable development is through using renewable resources as energy.
Most of these esources are natural, and they can all be relatively cheap, as well as being environmentally friendly. There are many types of renewable resources that can be used as energy, such as solar power, wind power, hydroelectric power, biomass, and geothermal energy. Not all of these can be applied to every area of the world, as weather conditions can restrict the use of some of these, for example, wind power would not be very effective if it was to be put in force in an area which has little wind, i. e. Spain. Ireland itself is very suitable for wind farm’s as there is a vast amount of hilly terrain with high speeds of wind in plentiful supply.
As for economic dimensions of contemporary life themselves, they have probably had the biggest influence on economic geography. Wall Street, in particular is the single most influential entity to affect the world’s economy. Wall Street, in New York City, is the most powerful stock market in the world. Depending on whether shares in stock’s rise or fall, these can make or break a person’s financial state. For example, this recent recession that we are still trying to overcome is due to the fall in many stock shares in a short space of time.
Anybody who had a large amount of shares at that time would have lost a substantial amount of money. Many businesses and firms went bankrupt and a countless amount of jobs were lost. Due to this economic recession, our economic climate, in particular Ireland has been left in complete chaos. Many people have been put under extra financial stress to try and cope with the increase in prices. Also, for many businesses to stay up and running, it has been necessary to cut the pay of many workers, putting additional financial stress on the employees.
Many people have been forced to cut down everyday living essentials just to keep going. Also, as a result of the amount of jobs that have been lost, many people have resorted to living from the jobseeker’s allowance (the dole), as there are very few jobs available for people who may be unskilled. The problem with the jobseeker’s allowance is that it is often easier to live off of it rather than to get a small job, which may be all that is available. Unfortunately, in a lot of cases, the salary they receive may be less than what they would get if they were living from the jobseeker’s allowance.
As a result, many unemployed people in Ireland at the moment have a disincentive to go back to work. This is having a worse impact on our economy as fewer people are out there working to build Ireland’s economy back up to what it used to be. Thus, at this current time, Ireland is still finding it difficult to overcome this major economic depression that we are still presently in. To conclude the thesis that economic geography not only rests on the economic dimensions of contemporary life, but also the environmental and social dimensions of contemporary life, I will summarise my main points to follow through this argument.
To prove that economic geography rests on the social dimensions of contemporary life, I will state that business would not be possible without manual labour, and business deals made by humans. The ways in which our economies work in today’s world would completely fall apart if we left it all to the work of computers alone. In order to demonstrate how the environmental dimensions of contemporary life are constantly rested upon by economic geography, I shall express how important they are, as a part of economic geography.
I have previously talked about the story of Love Canal, and renewable resources as sources of energy. These two cases show how one does not need to use a lot of finance to destroy an environment, or in order to preserve an environment. With regards to the economic dimensions of economic geography, one could not be without the other. The economic state of the world was tipped upside down by the change in stock shares in a matter of days. This one thing, even as small as it seems, had a major impact on the economies of the world, and we are all still trying to recover from the recession that shortly followed.
These verify that the statement that ‘economic geography increasingly rests upon the social, the environmental as well as the economic dimensions of contemporary life’ is indeed true and that there are many ways in which this can be interpreted, as well as the many ideas that I have discussed above.
The 2008 Olympics’ Impact on China college essay help: college essay help
Just as the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1988 Seoul Olympics propelled Japan and South Korea onto the global stage, the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games will be China’s “coming out” party—an event that showcases China’s maturation into a great economic and, to a lesser extent, political power. As PRC Premier Wen Jiabao noted on April 24 this year, the Beijing Olympics present an opportunity for China to show the world how “democratic, open, civilized, friendly, and harmonious” it is.
Quick Glance •After winning its 2001 bid to host the Olympic Games, China launched a massive seven-year effort to prepare for the event. •The huge inflows of investment to support the Olympics and recreate Beijing have had an important ripple effect on economic growth. •Though China has experienced some significant hardships this spring, the games will probably be even more important to the country than initially expected.
The 2008 Olympics will be among the most expansive ever held, with 16 days of competition from August 8 to 24 in 28 sports inside 37 arenas for 302 gold medals. In addition to Beijing, six other cities will host Olympic events—Hong Kong; Qingdao, Shandong; Qinhuangdao, Hebei; Shanghai; Shenyang, Liaoning; and Tianjin—making the Olympics a national event. China has embraced the basic ideals of the Olympics with its own slogan, “One World, One Dream,” and has widely promoted a green and high-tech Olympics.
To prepare for the games, China invested nearly $40 billion in infrastructure alone from 2002 to 2006, transformed the cityscape of Beijing, made national stars out of PRC Olympic champions—such as high hurdler Liu Xiang and platform diver Guo Jingjing—and created a great sense of excitement and anticipation among the public. Furthermore, the Olympics have had a significant influence on Beijing’s economic development, environment, and the growth of the country’s advertising, television, Internet, mobile phone, clean energy, and sports sectors. Building on 30 years of economic reform nd opening and on the substantial economic impact of China’s 2001 World Trade Organization (WTO) entry, the excitement surrounding the games is pulling many of these sectors onto the international cutting edge.
Building a new Beijing After winning the bid to host the 2008 Olympics, China began a massive seven-year effort to meet IOC’s demanding conditions for the games. Having researched earlier Olympic games, in particular the Sydney and Atlanta games, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (BOCOG) began the enormous task of creating an infrastructure that could support such a massive sporting event.
To integrate the activities of key central government ministries, the Beijing Municipal Government, and BOCOG, the PRC government created a high-level working group directed by then-Executive Vice Premier Li Lanqing and, since March 2008, by Xi Jinping, PRC vice president and number six in the Politburo Standing Committee. As Michael Payne, who served as IOC’s top marketer for more than 20 years, wrote in Olympic Turnaround, China recognized that a critical factor in creating a successful Olympics would be careful coordination among IOC, BOCOG, and the host city.
China studied the example of the Atlanta games, where coordination between the operating committee and the city government was poor, according to Payne. To ensure better coordination, BOCOG was staffed primarily with Beijing Municipal Government officials and General Administration of Sports experts, and was led by Beijing Party Secretary Liu Qi and then-Mayor (now Vice Premier) Wang Qishan. The Beijing Olympics Action Plan, announced by BOCOG President Liu Qi in March 2002, mandated not only sweeping plans to build stadiums and facilities for the Olympics, but a makeover of Beijing itself.
In implementing the plan, Beijing made every effort to abide by international tendering standards and to avoid favoritism. It also imposed the template of IOC’s global Olympic programs onto the Beijing Olympic program. Some of the projects in which China has invested to prepare for the games include the following: Sports facilities China planned (in some cases, with foreign architects) and built the Olympic Park and the 37 stadiums and venues that will host Olympic events.
These include 32 buildings in Beijing—19 new and 13 refurbished—and venues in five other Chinese cities—a sailing center in Qingdao and soccer stadiums in Tianjin, Qinhuangdao, Shenyang, and Shanghai. China also constructed 59 training centers and infrastructure projects for the Paralympic Games, to be held in Beijing in September 2008 following the Olympics. Beijing’s stadiums, in particular the National Stadium (or “Bird’s Nest”), are state of the art and well designed, and they will be available for use long after the games are over.
Transportation and infrastructure According to Liu Zhi, deputy director of the Beijing Municipal Development and Reform Commission, from 2002 through the beginning of the games, Beijing will spend $1. 1 billion on transportation improvements, such as building and extending Beijing’s subway system, completing the city’s light rail system, and constructing and refurbishing more than 318 km of city streets—including 23 roads in and around the Olympics sites, two new ring roads around the city, and high-tech traffic control systems.
The city has also built an enormous new airport terminal at the Beijing Capital International Airport and extended the toll road to the airport. Urban renewal According to Beijing’s 11th Five-Year Plan (2006-10), Beijing will spend more than $200 million to demolish dilapidated housing and urban buildings; refurbish 25 historic areas, including many of the city’s landmarks, old streets, and beautiful, four-corner residences that date from the imperial period; and restore Beijing’s many historic places, including the Forbidden City. High technology
China’s capital has budgeted $3. 6 billion to transform Beijing into a “digital” city by 2008, with widespread use of digital and broadband telecommunications, wireless transmission and networking technologies, and “intelligent technologies,” including smart cards. An Olympic lift Beijing’s hosting of the Olympic games has already had a knock-on effect, spurring faster growth or change in several areas. Tourism The number of tourists in Beijing has risen rapidly, a result of the increased visibility that the Olympics bring to the host country. Though stimates of the number of people who will visit China during the Olympics—or even the number of people who will visit China this year—vary significantly, it is clear that the games are a magnet for tourists.
Chen Jian, president of the Beijing Olympic Economic Research Association, estimated in the spring that Beijing will receive roughly 600,000 foreign visitors and 2. 5 million domestic Chinese tourists during the Olympic games and that the number of foreign tourists in Beijing will grow 8 to 9 percent annually in the decade following the games because of the games themselves. According to the China National Tourism Administration, Beijing had 3. 8 million foreign visitor arrivals in 2007, up 11. 8 percent over 2006, and China had 42. 4 million foreign visitor arrivals last year, up 20. 8 percent over 2006. ) The number of hotels in Beijing has also jumped in recent years.
Since China entered the WTO and won its Olympic bid, the country has reduced hotel ownership restrictions. Starting in 2002, foreign investors could own a majority stake in hotels, and in 2006, wholly foreign-owned hotels were permitted. These moves cleared the way for an extensive expansion of foreign-owned hotels and other tourism facilities.
Environmental improvements Every Beijing resident is keenly aware of the city’s environmental challenges. Air quality, particularly in the summer, can be less than optimal, with particulate matter at alarmingly high levels. Though Beijing has taken steps to improve air quality, such as ordering coal-burning power plants to reduce emissions, construction projects to halt during the period around the Olympic games, and 200 heavily polluting factories to move out of the city, air quality will remain a worry for the athletes who participate in the games.
Under the Beijing Sustainable Development Plan, China launched 20 projects to improve the quality of Beijing’s environment, with an overall investment of $12. 2 billion. The city has established new wastewater treatment plants, solid-waste processing facilities, and green belts and built a fleet of clean buses for the games. Beijing has phased out ozone-depleting substances ahead of schedule, made use of water- or air-source heat pump systems to save energy in Olympic stadiums, replaced 47,000 old taxis and 7,000 diesel buses, and began requiring vehicles to meet EU emissions standards.
Niche Tourism Case Study popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help
Given the diverse nature of niche tourism, different approaches may be employed such as: a product related approach that emphasizes the presence of activities, attractions, settlements, food and other amenities. The key parts of the niche tourism is that it is shaped in accordance with specific tourists needs and wants, attention is placed on the relations between demand and supply, as it looks at what specialty activities the tourists are seeking in order to have a satisfactory holiday experience.
Niche tourism will benefit the industry in the following three ways: Firstly, there will be more arrivals; since the industry has accessed specific target markets, it will be possible to bring tourists at critical times of the year when the special interest is peaking, such as during an iron man competition. Secondly, the industry will be able to create and activate niche sectors in order to bring along more visitors during low season periods, which would affect the prosperity, employment and stability in the industry and the social environment of the destination.
Finally, niche tourism allows a destination to change the way they have been perceived by visitors. Niche tourism allows the industry to change old or incorrect perceptions about national identity, quality and capability. (Mendiratta, A. 2011) This new segmentation of the market brought with it a new kind of tourist that is more participative, not only a spectator. The New Tourist is usually informed, educated, and knows clearly what he or she wants from their travels.
For them the optimization of time and money is important and they prepare for their trip by researching their destination through the internet and the experiences of friends and others travelers. In Tourism, Poon (1993) has written about the changes in consumer’s behavior and identifies which are the critical driving forces for the new tourism. The new tourist is experienced, more flexible, independent, quality conscious and harder to please. The new Tourism is emerging, sustainable, environmentally and socially responsible, and characterized by flexibility and choice.
Jafar Jafari created a model platform to identify the status of tourism from the 1980’s. The Adaptancy platform promoted less mass tourism and more alternative tourism which includes stays at home, villages, culture and volunteer tourism and during the 90’s promoted based knowledge – based platform, that is planning for specific destinations and tourist activities which attempt to determine scientifically the impact and capacities for tourism destinations (Jafari, J. 1999), to which the Polynesian Spa in Rotorua fully complies.
POLYNESIAN SPA Polynesian Spa operated by the Lobb family since 1972, has been described as a major international resort in New Zealand with a unique thermal spa experience and an exceptional view of Lake Rotorua. The features that have become famous in the tourism market for both domestic and international tourists, will be divided in three aspects that have been developed mainly through the Polynesian Spa at age 40 with their new owners. These are: 1. – Recreational Market:
The Polynesian Spa has developed a recreation area where the family can participate in their facilities, creating an atmosphere of fun and relaxation. There are 3 swimming pools close to each other: a large freshwater chlorinated pool (33 degrees Celsius) for the smallest children and 2 alkaline pools (37 and 40 degrees Celsius) (De Jong,2011) This area is constantly monitored by a lifeguard, and while parents enjoy a moment of relaxation in the thermal water, they can still supervise their children that enjoy the freshwater pool that includes a slide.
There are storage tubs available or paid-lockers for safe keeping of possessions whilst bathing. The Hot Springs Cafe offers healthy light cuisine, free Wi-Fi, great coffee and has a delightful outdoor courtyard for the whole family to enjoy. Children enjoy ice cream, soft drinks and muffins mostly, and there even are baby meals available. (Polynesian Spa, 2012). Polynesian Spa is involved with the community. Rotorua residents, New Zealanders residents and travelers from around the world visit the hot pools.
Locals get special prices once a week and there are special rates for them all year round. The vast majority of international visitors from Asia, especially China, comes for therapy spa bath, relaxing massages and seeking recreation. The Adults pools and Priest Spa area offer seven hot mineral spring pools with views of Lake Rotorua. Spacious changing rooms are provided for the visitors (S. De Jong, personal communication, March 8, 2012). Nowadays the Asians and domestic tourists seek luxury and privacy products. Polynesian Spa has responded to that demand by opening in 2007 private pools.
There are 13 hot mineral pools rock, four deluxe private pools offering panoramic views and nine private pools that provide quiet isolation. The Spa Essentials store provides Spa accessories such as swimwear, baby clothing and goggles for children, there are also many souvenirs that tourists want to take as remembrance of their experience at the spa.
Its effects are generally enhanced by the value of landscape and climate Social Mkt (2009, Oct 29). 3. – Eco- Tourism Ecotourism involves visiting natural areas with the objectives of learning, studying or participating in activities that do not bring negative effects to the environment; whilst protecting and empowering the local community socially and economically (Ecotourism Resource Centre, 2007) A key element of the Polynesian Spa brand is to always look at ways to do things more sustainably and recently the business has found a more environmentally sustainable method called Eco- Friendly Filtration.
They filter its fresh water pool (Family Spa) using a new natural system called Perlite, that replaced a product called Diatomaceous Earth (DE). Managing Director Martin Loob said “the introduction of Perlite to replace DE has been a successful step for Polynesian Spa’s sustainability journey” (Rotorua sustainable, 2012, Mar 2). The geothermal steams are captured and reused in the buildings and under floor heating; hot water from the pools is reused in the laundry and showers.
These efforts have been recognized as high standards in environmental practices and Polynesian Spa has gained a Qualmark Enviro Gold Award. Polynesian Spa has retained the original features inherited from 1930, and in addition they have demonstrated professionalism in using energy efficiency, waste management and water conservation. Their community activities and conservation initiatives have gained this site the Qualmark’s environmental criteria.
Compare and Contrast of 2 Art Pieces nursing essay help: nursing essay help
Jean Fouquet and James Tissot depict Joshua’s conquest of Jericho in very different ways owing to the facts that they lived in different times, and therefore led very different lives. I intend to highlight the ways in which their different experiences influenced their artwork. Using a variety of sources, I intend to embark on a comparison contrast of two pieces of artwork: The Taking of Jericho, by James Tissot (c. 1896-1902) and Prise de Jericho by Jean Fouquet (c. 1470-75). I will give further details about the two artists to explain why they depicted the conquest of Jericho in their respective styles.
The first noticeable difference between the two artworks is that Jean Fouquet draws the Israelites as a mob of people as opposed to an organized, trained army. This is made most clear by the fact that Fouquet does not distinguish the majority of the Israelites from each other. Jean Fouquet clearly draws Joshua, as well as the Ark of the Covenant and most of the entourage that accompanies it (the guards and the priests). However, Fouquet illustrates the majority of the Israelites with very little detail, depicting them as a sea of faces and weapons.
One explanation for this lack of differentiation could be that Fouquet saw the Israelites as the extension of God’s power; not necessarily unique on their own, but empowered and granted victory by the Lord. James Tissot, on the other hand, does the opposite, making it very clear in his painting that the Israelites are an army. Unlike Jean Fouquet, James Tissot depicts the Israelites in a very detailed fashion. Tissot draws the soldiers in individual bands and makes sure all the soldiers are distinguishable from one another.
For example, even when looking at the Israelites that are supposed to be far off in the distance it is still possible to distinguish one soldier from another, or one soldier’s helmet from his uniform. In other words, everything is clear and organized, as an army should be. James Tissot’s detailed depiction of the Israelites in the foreground also communicates an organized battle. For example, the soldiers are all in their own small groups, most of these groups are facing the same direction, and if you look closely at some of the soldiers’ feet you will see the distance between them is fairly wide, all of which implies marching.
Marching is obviously characteristic of an army and is a common association with the military. This difference between the two works of art is most likely due to the fact that James Tissot had military experience, having participated in the Siege of Paris, siding with the Prussians (citation). There is no record of Jean Fouquet having served with any military. In both pieces of art, Joshua is relatively easy to locate, but for different reasons. In Jean Fouquet’s miniature, it is clearly Joshua who is holding the baton and pointing into the city of Jericho.
This is interpreted as Joshua commanding the siege to begin. Furthermore, the way in which Joshua is pointing into the city is congruent with the idea that the Israelites are a mob instead of an army. The multitude of weapons that are highly raised by the undifferentiated Israelites which comprise the mob, and the inclusion of the Covenant of the Ark, in addition to Joshua’s posture as he points into the city of Jericho imply to the viewer that this is a situation of very high energy and that Joshua is simply directing that energy in a particular direction, in pursuit of a particular goal (I. . the taking of Jericho).
The Israelites appear to be in frenzy, heavily anticipating their new conquest. I liken this to the way bees defend their hive from a perceived threat; they swarm. Jean Fouquet has effectively romanticized the taking of Jericho by introducing this element of angry, manic excitement. However in James Tissot’s painting, Joshua is standing off to the side, more or less on his own, watching the siege that has already begun. Joshua is also facing in a different direction than most of the other Israelites in the foreground.
This is characteristic of James Tissot, who often imbues his art work with a feeling of isolation and alienation. Everyone aside from Joshua is part of a line of soldiers or is moving into the city of Jericho with other soldiers. Indeed, this sense of isolation is further embedded in Tissot’s depiction by the fact that the soldiers appear to be individually entering the city of Jericho, disappearing into the ‘unknown’ in single file. This is clearest in the foreground.
It seems odd that James Tissot would depict a single file insurgence by the Israelites into Jericho, since this would make it easier for the inhabitants of Jericho to defend themselves. As a man who had served in battle, he would have known this; however, this simply suggests his motivation to instil a sense if solitude into his painting was stronger than his motivation to be realistic. In fact, this theme of seclusion even permeated James Tissot’s life, resulting in his living as a recluse while he worked on his Old Testament paintings.
Furthermore, Joshua’s posture implies that he is calm and confident; his back is straight, with one hand on his hip, and the other on his spear. Joshua’s spear is extended away from his body, and the tip is pointing upward, which implies Joshua is feeling very secure at that moment. This, in addition to the fact that the soldiers are grouped into small bands, and appear to be marching in a common direction all implies that this battle is executed in a very calculated and efficient manner.
I believe this is due to James Tissot’s military experience. It is easier for someone without combat experience to romanticize certain aspects of it, whereas those who have experience understand that combat is about stopping your enemy as efficiently as possible when there is no other recourse (citation – personal experience). Additionally, the two artists either interpreted the Hebrew bible story differently or decided to choose specific aspects to include in their artwork, while omitting others.
However, Jean Fouquet follows the details of the Hebrew bible more literally than James Tissot does. Fouquet includes the Ark of the Covenant being carried by four men as well as the rear guard that is walking behind the Ark. All of these details are included in the Hebrew bible. There is also one spear that is more prominently drawn, and appears to be directly in front of those carrying the ark. This may be meant to represent the vanguard mentioned in the Hebrew bible, but that is open to interpretation.
The one detail that Fouquet purposely changes to be more in tune with his near-royal, French identity is that he replaces the seven rams horns that seven priests were supposed to have been blowing as they circled the walls of Jericho with seven trumpets (citation). This modification by Fouquet is very appropriate since the trumpet was originally a military instrument until it was improved in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and became just as common in royal court as a symbol of “princely might” (Downey, 26).
As I just illustrated, the trumpet was doubly fitting for this Fouquet miniature since it originated as a military tool and the Prise de Jericho depicts the moments directly before war. Moreover, Fouquet would have been accustomed to the use of trumpets since they were used in the court as well, a place where someone with a status as high as Fouquet’s was sure to have been present on at least one occasion. In fact, Jean Fouquet was such a popular artist that in 1475 he was given the title “peintre du roy” (painter of the king) under King Charles VII.
Tissot, on the other hand, does not include the Ark of the Covenant, the guards, or the priests at all. Perhaps he felt they should not be the focal point of the depiction. It is possible, since he participated in the ‘Siege of Paris’ that his focus was simply on the conquering, and invading force; the act of war. Another explanation may simply be that he did not want to include too many different aspects of the story in his painting so as to avoid visual clutter.
Such clutter can impede one’s ability to locate visual stimuli in regards to response time (how long it takes to locate specific aspects of a scene or painting), and rate of error (how many significant aspects of a scene or painting are missed by the viewer) (Henderson et al. 2/3). Moreover, Fouquet and Tissot take very different approaches in the way they depict the clothing of the Israelites. Fouquet draws them with an exotic style, as stated by *insert author’s name* in *insert title of book* “their faces are Eastern and their costumes also definitely Oriental. Fouquet might have portrayed the Israelites as exotically oriental in order to emphasize the difference between their culture and French culture.
Another explanation for Fouquet’s choice of orientalism is that Rene, Duke of Anjou and Lorraine, was an important patron of the arts in fifteenth century France. Rene was a man of cosmopolitan tastes; he enjoyed having artworks representing many different countries and cultures in his personal collection. Fouquet might have been trying to appeal to these “cosmopolitan tastes. Tissot, on the other hand, invested much more time and energy, going to Palestine for the first time in 1885 to gather information about historical locations and details of the period. He based the costumes and clothing in his biblical paintings on what the Jews and Arabs in Palestine were wearing in 1885, thinking their choice of clothing hadn’t changed since the time of Christ. Additionally, although it is difficult to see exactly what kind of footwear the Israelites are wearing in James Tissot’s picture, in Fouquet’s miniature they are clearly wearing close toed shoes.
This contradicts the Hebrew bible which usually refers to footwear as sandals (citation from exodus). It seems likely that Jean Fouquet simply drew the footwear he was familiar with in his day. As previously stated, in Jean Fouquet’s picture, the Israelites are all wearing different coloured robes. This leads the viewer to see them as a mob of individuals. In contrast, James Tissot depicts all the Israelites as wearing similar coloured clothing, with identical shields and spears. Upon first glancing at James Tissot’s painting it is clear you are looking at an army. This uniformity is, no doubt, a result of Tissot’s military experience.
Tissot had experienced battle, so a logical assumption can be made that he understood if you cannot easily distinguish your ally from your enemy you will not be as effective in battle. Further differences can be seen in the way the two artists choose to depict the settings of their pieces. Jean Fouquet draws from the landscape of his area of birth. He depicts the city of Jericho as a small French town in the Loire Valley.
This is clearly demonstrated by the types of trees and shrubs in the background, as well as the general greenness of the land, as you can see in this aerial picture of a section of the Loire Valley landscape. See bibliography for exact GPS coordinates) A quick comparison between the green, rolling hills, the plant-life and the water (the Loire River bank) in this satellite photo of the Loire Valley and the depiction of such features in Jean Fouquet’s miniature will make this very clear (see Appendix A for the photo Prise de Jericho) Tissot, on the other hand, went to Palestine, and painted the background based on his research of the landscape.
This is evident by of the presence of a desert as well as the many hills, as you can see in this next Google Earth picture: This is a satellite photo of the current city of Jericho. I chose to show a very broad picture of the entire region so as to display the makeup of the landscape. Notice the colour of the land and the many hills when you compare this photo the James Tissot’s The Taking of Jericho (See Appendix A for The Taking of Jericho) Furthermore the two artists used very different strategies when deciding how to depict the buildings of Jericho.
The homes that are supposed to have been housed within the walls of Jericho are clearly not Middle Eastern in Jean Fouquet’s miniature. They appear to be very European, as you can see by comparing the architecture in the following Google Earth satellite photograph of a street in the Loire Valley to Jean Fouquet’s miniature (See Appendix A). The similarities can be seen immediately. James Tissot, once again, drew upon the research he gathered from his three trips to Palestine to draw the uildings that were behind the walls of Jericho.
The buildings he depicts are very light in colour, as is typical in the middle east since “in many desert regions, adobe bricks can be produced on-site from local soil and dried in the sun” (citation). These bricks can then obviously be used to construct buildings. Unfortunately, I was not able to obtain a street level satellite photo of Jericho from Google Earth in order to emphasize how realistic Tissot’s depiction of the Middle-Eastern structures is.
However if you refer back to the photo encompassing Jericho and the surrounding area you will see that it is in a desert region, thus adobe bricks are likely used to construct buildings. In terms of accuracy, both Fouquet and Tissot strayed from the Hebrew bible, however to varying degrees. I personally found it interesting that both Fouquet and Tissot left small fractions of the wall still standing in their depictions.
This may have been based on some knowledge of architecture, but it seems to slightly contradict the Hebrew bible which states that “The people rushed into the city, every man straight in front of him… (citation) If there were fragments of wall still left standing then everyone would not have been able to run straight ahead of them and into the city. The wording in the Hebrew bible implies the wall fell completely, with no segment of it left standing. So in this aspect it seems they both veered from their source. In regards to James Tissot, this a further deviation from the Hebrew bible story, since he had decided to omit the Ark of the Covenant, the priests, the vanguard, and the rearguard.
After reviewing the similarities and differences between the two artists depictions of the conquest of Jericho, it seems the differentiating factor between the their depictions is that James Tissot actually went to Palestine to conduct research and gather information, whereas Jean Fouquet chose to draw from his own native surroundings. The two pieces of artwork: The Taking of Jericho, and Prise de Jericho are results of their time and the individual decisions of their respective artists. If these artists were not born into their specific circumstances the pieces of artwork would likely be very different, if they even existed at all. the
Welcome to the Experience Economy college essay help online free: college essay help online free
According to the journal, an experience occurs when a company intentionally uses service as the stage, and goods as props, to engage individual customers in a way that creates a memorable event. I agree with the author when he mentioned that no two people can have the same experience, because it depends on the individual’s state of mind and how he personally perceives the experience.
Two ways of thinking about experiences is customer participation and connection or environmental relationship. Customer participation include active participation in which customers play key roles in creating the event that yields the experience and passive participation in which customers don’t affect the event that yields the experience. Connection and environmental relationship on the other hand unites customers with the event or performance, this include absorption and Immersion. The first principle of designing a memorable experience is to “theme the experience”.
An effective theme must drive all design elements and staged events of the experience that captivates the customer. The second principle is to “harmonize impressions with positive cues”. In creating the desired impression, companies must provide cues that affirm the nature of the experience. A third principle is to “eliminate negative cues” that contradicts the theme. The fourth design is “mix in memorabilia” which implies that the service or goods should be designed in a way that convey memories of the experience.
The last in designing memorable experiences is to “engage all five senses” because the more senses an experience engages the more effective and memorable it can be. As we are now moving into the service experience economy Era, I believe service firms must take note of how they can make use of the above mentioned principles. The experiences they deliver have to meet a customer need and be deliverable. It has come to a point where consumers not only look for quality of products but also the bundle of benefit attached to buying a particular product/service.
Chinas Managed Float writing an essay help: writing an essay help
Why do you think the Chinese government originally pegged the value of the Yuan against the U. S. dollar? What were the benefits of doing this for China? What were the costs? I believe that the Chinese government originally pegged the value of the Yuan against the US dollar as an attempt to compete with the U. S. and the rest of the world. The US dollar was the strongest in the global market. The benefits for China were that their yuan would stay weak, and their exports would remain cheap while their economy thrived on production for the U. S. economy.
The costs for China were that they had to exchange for U. S. dollars every month and that their exchange was the U. S. deficit. The U. S dollars movement will effect the China’s economy either way. 2. Over the last decade, many foreign firms have invested in China and used their Chinese factories to produce goods for export. If the yuan is allowed to float freely against the U. S. dollar on the foreign exchange markets and appreciates in value, how might this affect the fortunes of those enterprises? If the yuan is allowed to float freely against the U. S. ollar on the foreign exchange markets and appreciates the value, foreign enterprises would not benefit when trying to export out of China. Most foreign enterprises move their materials into China to use Chinese labor. If they continue, their production costs will rise. These enterprises may find selling into China more attractive because the Chinese buying power will increase. 3. How might a decision to let the yuan float freely affect future foreign direct investment flows into China? Letting the yuan float freely could increase direct investment flows into China.
A free flowing yuan makes China richer. This will boost the Chinese economy and make the Chinese people’s buying power higher. Because of this higher buying power, foreign investors will look to take advantage of the growing Chinese economy. Therefore, foreign direct investments will increase. 4. Under what circumstances might a decision to let the yuan float freely destabilize the Chinese economy? What might he global implications of this be? The decision to let the yuan float freely could destabilize the Chinese economy because of inflation.
With the increased value of the yuan, the Chinese economy may slow because there will be less cheap materials imported into Chinese manufacturers. This would make Chinese goods more expensive. Globally, however, this could be an opportunity for foreign producers to sell in China. 5. Do you think the U. S. government should push the Chinese to let the yuan float freely? Why? No, the U. S. government would only be harming their economy. It would create more jobs for Americans, but, the cost of labor would be higher and that would translate over to the final product’s retail prices being higher. . What do you think the Chinese government should do? Let the yuan float, maintain the peg, or change the peg in some way? I think it would be a good idea for the Chinese government to maintain the peg. The yuan would still maintain a pretty low value, keeping their economy thriving. Maintaining the peg would also allow for the other world currencies to compete with the yuan. The Chinese government should look out for what is best for its own economy and keep the yuan pegged and cheap.
Make Believe Play compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help
Pretend or make believe play has been associated with child development and mental cognition. Piaget and Vygotsky in particular contended that children learn constructively through their interaction with their physical, social and cultural environments and that make believe play enhances their development. Enculturation, language development, the zone of proximal development and scaffolding are aspects of developmental significance considered.
Make believe play has been used successfully in educational settings; however, there are gaps between theory and application, in particular, with regard to culture. Make-believe play: theoretical origins, developmental significance and application in educational settings. Introduction Thinking of ‘play’ is often in the context of children and this brings to mind visions of children at school, kindergarten or at home engaged in self-directed, fun, unstructured and spontaneous activities such as playing dress ups or playing grownups with dolls at an imaginative tea party.
While such activities may be looked upon with amusement and perhaps indulgence by parents or major caregivers, the concept of play has been the subject of theoretical discussion, some of which has recognized the significance of make believe play to overall child development and mental cognition (Berk, 1994). This essay discusses the origins of play and considers some aspects of developmental significance of imaginative play in early childhood through the major theories of Vygotsky and Piaget, specifically linked to enhanced learning in the educational setting.
Theories of play Berk (1994) points out there is a plethora of literature exploring theoretical contributions to the understanding of children’s play, most of which views the concept from different vantage points. Stagnitti (2004) highlights the early influences of Spencer (1878), Lazarus (1883) and Groos (1985) who contended that play occurs because children have a surplus of energy to burn and play is an innate process linked to evolution and survival.
Through his psychodynamic theory, Sigmund Freud (1961) took another approach and emphasized the role that play has in influencing emotional constraints in development due to problems hidden in the unconscious mind and that play provides an avenue for children to express these problems and control desired outcomes (Stagnitti). The above early accounts of play were precursors to the well known theories of Piaget and Vygotsky who made major contributions to cognitive development and learning (Matusov & Hayes, 2000).
Vygotsky and Piaget held similar views on learning and development, both contending that children learn and develop through internalising experiences presented in the environment and interacting with that environment (Berk, 1994; Gray, 2002). They both supported the notion that children start with a knowledge of ‘self’ and then through the integration of new ideas and knowledge gained through their physical, social and cultural environments, they become aware of others (De Vries, 2000).
Even though they held some similar beliefs, the views of Vygotsky and Piaget originated from two different perspectives – Vygotsky approached his theory from a combination of socio-cultural perspectives while Piaget focussed on a constructivist/cognitive view (De Vries). Piaget’s constructivist view contended that children are little scientists spontaneously reacting to and experimenting with stimulus (symbols or objects) presented in their physical environment (Rogoff, 1990 in Gray, 2002).
For example, Piaget (De Vries, 2000) argued that a stimulus is not a stimulus until the child had acted upon it. In this case, children internalise their reactions and explorations of the object/stimulus and mentally categorise the functional and physical properties. These reactions are stored as internal representations or schemes, and the child is able to recall and apply the same actions to future objects/stimulus or restructure existing schemes to accommodate new information presented.
Children progress through different stages of schemes to improve their ability to mentally ymbolize objects and this progression eventually equips them with the ability to proficiently symbolise objects which are not present: that is, engage in relational and representational thought (Gray, 2002). Piaget held that the representational thought process contributes to the emergence of spontaneous make-believe (Berk, 1994). Where Piaget regarded the child as a little scientist, Vygotsky saw the child as an apprentice who is part of a greater society and actively engages with others to learn from them (Rogoff, 1990 in Gray 2002).
Vygotsky attributed significance to experience in the socio-cultural environment and also held that make believe play does not develop spontaneously but it is nurtured through the social interactions of other people (Berk, 1994). Children do not exist in a social vacuum: they are born into a pre-existing culture and their society is made up of family, peers and others, all of whom have an influence on how the child interacts with the environment (Gray, 2002).
He contended that the socio-cultural environment provided the impetus for the child to realise the existence of other people and understand through cooperative interaction, the affects of his/her own actions on others. Through the child’s social interactions, exposure to language results and becomes the major communication tool used in that environment. Vygotsky linked language with symbolism and acknowledged the child’s ability to internalise the symbols into verbal thought (Gray).
Vygotsky’s social and cultural environments promoted communication, social rules, self-control of actions and significance of culture (Gray, 2002; Berk, 1994) and he considered that together, all these aspects develop from make believe play (Vygotsky, 1933, as cited in Berk, 1994). Make believe play – its significance to development Through the examination of the theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, it is possible to draw some conclusions as to why make believe play is significant.
For example, they both agreed that make believe play occurs as a result of the interaction of the child with its environment and vice-versa. While Berk (1994) contends that evidence from the socio-cultural viewpoint mostly justifies the importance of make believe play in cognitive development, both point to the significance of make believe play. Children learn the social norms and rules of society through the mechanism of make believe play, although Vygotsky and Piaget view the basis for this differently.
Vygotsky contended society and culture dictate that implicit and explicit rules, morals and social norms exist to ensure acceptable behaviors. During infancy, the child’s main caregivers expose them to these rules and together with peers, help shape the child’s behaviors and competencies for acceptance and meeting social expectations (usually facilitated through verbal guidance and pretend play) (Gray, 2002).
In contrast, Piaget argued that it is through their own intelligence that children know how to act and behave and as they are ‘solo thinkers’, the emphasis of social guidance (through mechanisms like pretend play) affects their thinking and not their actions (Matusov & Hayes, 2000). Through their short-term longitudinal study comparing nonsocial peer play behavior with emotionality, regulation and social functioning, Spinrad et al. (2004) cautions against nonsocial behavior. They found that solitary play (nonsocial play) appeared to be linked with peer exclusion and rejection, thus resulting in anxiety problems.
These studies therefore support the importance of the social contact given in pretend play to enhance growth of self-esteem and social acceptance. Research supports the notion that make believe play enhances language development and communication processes in young children (Berk, 1994). While Piaget believed that language is a side effect of the development of thought, and not essential to it (Gray, 2002), Vygotsky believed language to be major foundation for the development of thought and the main basis for social interaction.
Lewis (2003), in a study considering the relationship between language and play, concluded that there is a connection, although this can be mediated by how parents and their children interact while they are playing. An area of importance to pretend play pertains to Vygotsky’s ‘zone of proximal development’ (ZPD): he believed that children increase developmental potential under the specific guidance of an adult/teacher or better skilled peer (Gray, 2002).
Through interaction, the child learns from heir peers and advances their level of knowledge (Berk, 1994). Vygotsky’s view on educational practices connected with the ZPD saw the teacher as modeling the program, guiding the child through demonstrations and asking leading questions (De Vries, 2000). In contrast, Piaget felt that the concept of a ‘skilled peer’ or the teacher as the superior created the possibility of an abuse of power (Matusov and Hayes, 2000). He also considered the Vygotskian view of the teacher’s role a little directorial and not child-centered.
His own model proposed ‘cooperation’ of equal partners instead (i. e. child and teacher on equal footing) in which the teacher asks guiding questions and offers hints, and essentially interferes as little as possible (DeVries, 2000). The various research on ZPD fluctuates between support and disagreement on what constitutes the level of competence needed to influence a child’s ZPD. For example, Vygotsky’s view was that the teacher/skilled peer is more competent than the child and this is supported through research conducted by Gray and Feldman (2004).
They studied the interactions between adolescents and young children in terms of pretend play and other associations at the Sudbury Valley School in Massachusetts, USA, and found that after adolescent intervention, the children acted in advanced ways more so than they normally would have if they had been interacting with same-age peers. The implication is the child’s ability to act in their own ZPD is enhanced by the pretend play facilitated by the older peers.
The concept of a ZPD is closely related to ‘scaffolding’, the process by which the more competent peer/ teacher assists or controls the less competent child to successfully complete an activity or problem that they would not have been able to do on their own (Matusov & Hayes, 2000). Scaffolding contributes to successful social collaboration between the child and peer/teacher and therefore to make believe play (Berk, 1994). As the child becomes more competent at an activity, the peer withdraws their assistance bit by bit, until the child is competent in their own right (Gray & Feldman, 2004).
Piaget and Vygotsky supported the idea of scaffolding in different ways; however, the common theme was that the teacher’s role is to be encouraging and non-interfering. Make believe play in educational settings Scaffolding is an excellent enhancement in the educational setting, especially in a special learning environment. An example of this is in autistic education: due to congenital abnormalities, autistic children’s modes of social reasoning, emotions and understanding of others is not developed (Gray, 2002).
Their language is usually compromised and they do not exhibit mutual social interaction skills. As a result, this fundamentally affects their ability to process or display imaginative or make believe play (Salazar Smith, 2004). Given that make believe play plays a significant role in a child’s social and cognitive development, a child with autism would find it difficult to function in the social world. Yang, Wolfberg, Wu and Hwu (2003) conducted research into the use of IPG (integrated play groups) models to promote play in autistic children.
They emphasized a child-centered approach, which entailed evaluation of the child’s abilities and limitations, continual encouragement and systematically scaffolding to higher levels of unstructured social interaction and play. As a result of the study, the autistic children developed the ability to partake in social play and, notably, there was an increase in pretend play (Yang et al. , 2003). The importance of enhancing make-believe in the educational setting can be further supported by a longitudinal study conducted in Ypsilanti, Michigan (High/Scope, 2002, in Almon, 2002).
Three groups of randomly selected young students were assigned to two curriculum approaches: child-initiated activities (play orientated) and direct instruction activities. All three groups did well with increases in their IQ, however, the study found that the groups who were assigned to the child-initiated activities excelled in social developmental aspects of personal and social responsibility (High/Scope, in Almon, 2002). While applications in educational settings can enhance and address shortfalls in social and cognitive development, sometimes there is a gap between theory and reality.
Research by Cheng (2001), for example, shows that in attempting to apply the application of pretend play in Hong Kong, difficulties were encountered for both the teachers and the learners, the children of two kindergartens. These difficulties related both to the teachers’ understanding of pretend play theory as well as how ‘pretend play’ could work in a tradition that does not normally involve play in learning. One key issue identified by the researchers related to culture. In this case, there were clashes between the ideological underpinnings of the theory and the culture into which the theory was to be applied.
For example, given a tradition of formal, didactic teaching, an apparent non-directive encouragement of ‘play’ instead of a focus on academic results was difficult to incorporate into the teaching curriculum and almost alien. Conclusion In summary, make believe play is important to cognitive development and functioning in children. Early theories established a survival-oriented approach to explaining the significance of make believe play, however, Vygotsky and Piaget established a developmental framework that emphasised the role make believe play has in enhancing social and cognitive development.
While this essay has not explored every aspect, its role in developing social norms and rules, the connection with language, the implications for the zone of proximal development, and scaffolding are considered. While the significance of make believe play has been established in a western educational context, it may not be so easily transferable, in practise, to other cultures and this would seem to be an interesting avenue of investigation.
Barn Burning Theme instant essay help: instant essay help
Although, all of these connotations and many more exist, yet, the main context in which fire is used in “Barn Burning” is as a way to represent Abner’s lack of power through self-expression. The first time that we are introduced to fire in this story is when Abner is on trial for burning down Mr. Harris’ barn. Harris states that he continuously tried to help Abner make a fence for his pig, even by providing the materials. After these repeated attempts, however, Abner still burned the man’s barn down.
Although the author doesn’t clearly state this in this section of the story, as the judge dismissed the case for lack of witness, we can infer that Abner did in-fact burn the barn down from his later actions. The reader can begin to see the connotation of self-expression here by seeing that it was Abner’s reluctancy to take a simple order which caused him to burn the barn. Abner’s son Sarty nearly has a panic attack at the thought of having to lie to save his father as he approaches the stand. The men can clearly see Sarty’s un-comfort and let him go without testifying.
Even after seeing his son sweat bullets, Abner is still raging at the fact that his son couldn’t lie to protect him. In this instance we can see how Sarty disobeying Abner sends him in a rage as a result of feeling a loss of power. Later, we see the fire Abner has built to keep his family warm through Sarty’s eyes as he stares into it blindly as they rest at camp. The boy had so many questions to ask yet knew to keep them to himself; he “wondered why not a big [fire]” (394). The fire that Sarty had been accustomed to seeing his father make for the family was always that of a small, shrewd fire.
He tried to imagine what compelled his father, the man who burns down barns at the slightest sign of disrespect, to build such small fires. I feel like this is where we learn the most about Abner and his infatuation with this wild flame because the author boldly and outright tells us. “The element of fire spoke to some deep mainspring of his father’s being” Sarty exclaimed; “the weapon for the preservation of integrity” (394). We, the reader, can clearly see where Abner’s connection between fire and expression stems from in these two excerpts.
Fire is the one thing that this man can control in his life. Abner acknowledges his control over fire by building a “shrewd” one this night. As I read this portion of the story I couldn’t help but thinking that Abner is not only making a “shrewd” fire so that it will keep them warm longer, but how he is also teaching his boys, so that they will learn to think the way he does. Yet, we also see the obvious connotation that society has given fire; destruction. His family and others that come into contact with him become aware quickly of his uncontrollability and unstableness, just like fire.
Abner has used fire as a way to strike back against these men that are trying to own him and strip him of his ability to freely express it. Abner sees this as a huge sign of disrespect and burns down the most important thing to a farmer, the thing that supports his livelihood, his barn. The following morning we meet up with the family at their new home, a small slave-like house on the De Spain plantation, where Abner will be working. After the family settles in Abner drags Sarty along up the road to go meet with “the man that aims to being tomorrow owning [Abner] body and soul for the next eight months” (395).
In the following portion of the story Abner and his son ride up to this huge white house and barge in only to find that De Spain isn’t home. Abner saw this house as his biggest challenge yet; a very clear, bold expression of the classes system. In my opinion, Abner sees this house as a sign from the owner that he is better than everyone else and that they should recognize that. Whilst in the house, even though he is warned not to track mud, Abner purposefully smears his muddy boot on a clean white rug that lay in his path.
Such a man to have a clean, pure white rug as his welcome mat to a mansion such as this one was a slap in the face to Abner. The rug symbolizes the white collar worker and his control over men like Abner. Throughout the entire story we can see clear points in which Abner expresses his disrespect towards authority figures. As we do in the following scene when Abner will not speak to the judge or answer his questions while on trial for ruining the rug. The final scene is where we see how the connotation that Abner has developed with fire finally arise in Sarty, but not exactly the way in which Abner had hoped.
Sarty learns the act of self-expression from the fire by allowing himself to betray his family in order to finally release himself from the restraints his wicked father kept on him. Sarty is finally free to make his own decisions and no longer has to lie or hurt people with his family to get by in the world. Sarty uses the fire to relinquish himself to the point where he can now follow the law and live in peace with the rest of the world like he has always wanted to. The larger theme that comes to mind after reading this story, for me, is that the Faulkner felt trapped during the time when he was writing this.
That Faulkner felt as if he wasn’t being able to express himself like he wanted to and was trying to portray that through Abner. Faulkner, like the rest of the us, sometimes wished that he could act out and do something to project this to the public. The difference between characters like Abner and real life people, like Faulkner and the rest of us, is that Abner can be written to commit any act of revenge and it’s okay because it’s only a story. Faulkner, as a writer, has the ability to express himself through his characters and it is clearly evident that he utilizes that ability in this short-story. Nathan Huebner Note I really liked this writing this paper. Even when I was first reading the story I knew that this was the topic I was going to write about. It seemed so clear that fire was an important part of this story to me and I’d like to think that I explained that clearly to the reader in this analysis. I feel as if I used enough information from the story to get my point across and that I did a pretty good job of making those quotes flow in my analysis. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Shrewd: Meaning that it will burn as long as possible on as little wood as possible.
The Birthmark nursing essay help: nursing essay help
A birthmark is a blemish or new growth on the skin formed before birth and is usually brown or dark red in color. There is no need to say that it is not a normal part of one’s body, a birthmark is just a part of being a human.
In Nathaniel Hawthorne’s famously known short story, “‘The Birthmark’, tells of a scientist’s passion to overcome what he deems to be the imperfection of nature” (Cassill) and uses the birthmark its self, Aylmer’s dream, the laboratory and boudoir as symbols of the different ideas of how one gets their selves away from humanity and into a different, more perfect life. Aylmer’s wife is a beautiful woman with pale white skin. Georgiana’s nearly perfect beauty is flawed with the hand on her cheek.
It is a birthmark deeply interwoven within her face. It is in the shape of a tiny hand, such as one of a fairy. The mark on her face was of the color crimson red. Her birthmark also demonstrates the power of nature because it captivates and intoxicates almost everyone who sees it. The birthmark had not previously bothered her or her prior lovers but to “Aylmer, however, it is a symbol of imperfection” (May). Hawthorne even tells the reader, that her birthmark was a symbol in the story.
In paragraph 8, he [Hawthorne] stated: “The crimson hand expressed the ineludible gripe in which mortality clutches the highest and purest of earthly mould, degrading them into kindred with the lowest, and even with the very brutes, like whom their visible frames return to dust. In this manner, selecting it as the symbol of his wife’s liability to sin, sorrow, decay, and death. ” In the paragraph above, Hawthorne is telling the reader right away that the birthmark represents Georgiana’s humanity. Hawthorne also indicates that it is equivalent to representing her flaws.
It is man’s nature to be mortal and imperfect, which is just what it means to be a human. Aylmer “simply fails to see the object of his affection as an ordinary human being” (Bloom). Aylmer’s desire to make his wife perfect is doomed to failure because perfection is the exclusive province of heaven and can not be found on earth. In fact, the very success of Aylmer’s perfection-inducing potion may doom Georgiana to death. Because she becomes an ideal being, completely perfect and unflawed, she is no longer able to exist in this world.
Barbara Eckstein states that “it is clear that Aylmer’s obsession with his science makes him unfit for human companionship, but what so motivates him to ‘correct… Nature’? ” The desire for perfection not only kills Georgiana, it also ruins her husband because his desire to create the ideal woman becomes a fixation that prevents him from seeing the good in his wife. Secondly, Aylmer’s dream was a classic case of literary foreshadowing. In his dream, Aylmer tries to cut away his wife’s birthmark but the deeper he cut, the deeper the crimson had went into Georgiana, until he reached the end and saw that it had a grip of her heart.
The only solution he had was to cut her heart out along with the birthmark, ending her life. Lewis Horne suggests that: the distance Aylmer’s obsession will drive him is indicated earlier in reflection after his dream: “Until now he had not been aware of the tyrannizing influences acquired by one idea over his mind, and of the lengths which he might find his heart to go for the sake of giving himself peace” (paragraph 16 ). “A man obsessed, he has united his love of science with his love of woman and done it unevenly. ” Once Aylmer told his wife about his dream she feels so unwanted by her husband she can feel his repulsion towards her.
Georgiana begins to wish for Aylmer to get rid of her birthmark al not just to make her husband happy but herself as well. She would then know her husband was a happy to be with her as she was with him. Furthermore, the laboratory and boudoir were places for Aylmer and Georgiana to escape to. The two rooms were very different in looks and smells. The laboratory is more for Aylmer. Science is the first affection of his life, it is “the passion that virtually fills his heart” (Horne). As Georgiana walks into her husband’s lab, the first thing she sees is a furnace.
Around the room there were tubes, cylinders, crucibles, and other machinery of chemical research. An electrical machine stood ready for immediate use. The atmosphere felt oppressively close and was tainted with gaseous odors, which had been tormented forth by the processes of science. The lab is also described to the reader as a cold, dark, and creepy place. This is emphasizing to the reader the symbolism of the power he feels science gives to him. Ironically, Aylmer has experienced little success in his laboratory. This is the reason why Hawthorne portrays the lab as being ark because it represents the failures he has experienced in his scientific career.
Aylmer himself was not necessarily a failure because of a scientific competence, but rather he has never reached the high marks he sets for himself as expressed with the passage, “Much as he had accomplished, she could not but observe…the inestimable gems which lay hidden beyond his reach” (paragraph 52). In the other hand, the boudoir was for Georgiana. In the text, she found herself breathing an atmosphere of penetrating fragrance; the scene around her looked like enchantment. It was a clean and beautiful place for Georgiana to rest and clear her mind.
It is like the spiritual realm, freed from the earth and from all humanly imperfections. This room was full of Aylmer’s spiritual aspirations, full of what he wanted to accomplish as a scientist. It is significant that Aylmer puts his wife in the boudoir and does not want her to leave, imagining that he can “draw a magic circle round her which no evil might intrude” (paragraph 29). This attempt to shelter Georgiana is impossible, just as his attempt to remove her birthmark is really an attempt to remove her humanity. So, Aylmer’s desire to shelter her from evil is a desire to shelter her from being any more human than she already is.
All he wants is to get rid of her one flaw and she will be the woman and wife he has always wanted her to be. Nathaniel Hawthorne brilliantly brings the elements of fiction to life in the story “The Birthmark. ” He successfully brings the symbolism of humanity and the life lesson that we all have our flaws, in the images of the birthmark its self, Aylmer’s dream, the laboratory and boudoir. He also has challenged the reader to question the reasons and distance a person is willingly to go to in the quest for obtaining perfection. In the end, science cannot compete with nature.
Cafe Latte common app essay help: common app essay help
The business was formed as a limited partnership between three siblings and a friend, Cynthia, Stuart, and Rob Chan, along with Jeff Burns, respectively. The Chans are somewhat knowledgeable about running a business since their parents have operated a restaurant for years, and Stuart Chan continues to manage the restaurant. The three siblings are the principals in the business, while Jeff Burns is primarily a partner for financial purposes only. Cynthia, having the most free time, has spent the most time working on the business opening.
Stuart has procured the equipment for the bar, with Rob’s help. Stuart has become angry at Cynthia for not spending enough time in preparations, and feels that she and Rob are not doing their fair share of work. Stuart wants to buy out Cynthia’s share, but later just apologizes for his outburst. In order to avoid further conflicts, a work schedule was devised that permits Cynthia and Stuart to work schedules that do not overlap, and Rob will manage the operation. Introduction This case study is following the decision case model.
Case studies are and important part of the study of organizational behavior. We can dissect the various components of attitudes, behaviors, consequences, etc. , using a fictional setting and cast of characters. We can subsequently collaborate to develop objective assessments of the situation presented, and model possible decisions that we might make as managers. In the case of the Cafe Latte case study, we are provided with one decision possibility but we are also free to propose alternative decisions, along with the rationale.
Stuart has some qualities of a team leader (commitment, hardworking etc), but lacks some important ones. He failed to appreciate others contributions and failed to do psychological empowerment. Also as a leader he was not distributing the roles and responsibilities evenly. Unfortunately, he was getting more work from two jobs he was handling. Instead of motivating others he was making negative remarks frequently. There could be some ego problems and sibling rivalry too. Cynthia was unhappy at the end, but she was not ready or courageous to talk to Stuart about the problems.
Instead she wrote a list and handed-over that to Stuart. Stuart was intelligent enough to understand the situation and the consequences. But he has some false pride and he was not even ready give a direct apology to Cynthia. It took him two days to write an apology. Also he has to leave the apology in Cynthia’s car, which made its less personal and sincere. The problems are listed in detail below: 1. There is an overall lack of communication in this business and family. 2. Lack of transparency within the organization and lack of goals for metrics when the business opens. 3.
No delineation of responsibilities between the siblings. 4. Basic problem is the inter-personal relationships, lack of proper communication, and improper distribution of work. We see that Stuart and Cynthia are making assumptions about others’ actions and contribution. They are not analyzing or evaluating the situation properly. There was no proper channel for unbiased flow of information. With each partner holding an equal share in the business, no one has emerged as a manager to lead the others. 5. We see that Stuart is over-worked with two jobs and he is not getting any appreciation for his hard work.
At the same time, Stuart thinks that Cynthia and Rob are not working hard. This makes Stuart unhappy. 6. Stuart has some qualities of a team leader, but lacks some important qualities as well. He fails to appreciate others contributions and fails to do psychological empowerment. Also as a leader he is not distributing the roles and responsibilities evenly. Unfortunately, he is getting more work. Instead of motivating others or suggesting solutions to problems, he instead chose to make frequent negative remarks that served only to inflame the other partners. 7. Stuart does not incur any consequences for his immature behavior. . Stuart’s ego may be getting in the way of an amicable resolution. 9. Sibling rivalry between the Chans. Decision –Additional Options The conflict in the workplace is quite normal with different kind of personalities, cultures and life experiences. However, conflict is not necessarily a bad thing. It will become a major problem if the conflicts are not resolved effectively. According to OB, conflicts can be resolved by increased understanding, group cohesion and improved self-knowledge. Open discussion is needed to resolve conflict and increase the awareness of the situation.
This will bring some insight into how they can achieve the common goals. Team members will have strong mutual respect and faith in their ability to work together once the conflict is resolved amicably. One important thing to resolve the conflicts is to do self evaluation. Everyone should examine their goals, strength and weakness, tasks, actions in close and enhance the positive aspects or behavior. • Someone should initiate a mediation talk to resolve the conflicts between Cynthia and Stuart. Since Cynthia and Stuart are upset and emotionally distressed, a third party should initiate the talk.
The best people in the picture to initiate this are Rob and Jeff. Rob and Jeff should initiate a serious of talks to understand the problems of Stuart and Cynthia and look for an amicable solution. While Jeff is a financial partner only, the trouble brewing among the Chan siblings could place his financial stake in the company at risk. • But when Cynthia received the apology, she should have contacted Stuart directly and initiated the conflict resolution and mediation process. Behavior Assessment In both cases, they should list out the problems and possible solutions to achieve their common goal.
A good understanding and working relationship among the team members should be the most important goal for the success of their new venture. John Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations provides a model that attempts to match job requirements with personality. In his hexagon diagram, the theory is that the closer two personality types are to each other, the more compatible they are. In addition, the model categorizes personality types into six categories, lists the personality characteristics, and then suggests the most congruent occupations for the various personality types.
Holland classifies enterprising personality types as having self-confidence and ambition, and suggests congruency with small business manager occupations. Cynthia demonstrated her high energy and entrepreneurial tendencies when she devoted all of her free time to the tasks leading up to the opening of Cafe Latte. According to Holland, she then might be the right personality type to manage the business. Stuart Chan, however, already manages the family restaurant, but if we assess his personality using Holland’s model, he perhaps would be a conventional personality type, which prefers rules, and orderly, unambiguous activities.
Bible and Greek Religion essay help free: essay help free
He stated they were made up stories, because gods look too much like us. Xenophanes believed that if there was a God, he should be worthy to worship. He believed that we should never worship a being who is like us, or the person telling you about the being. With that being said He believed that all gods and goddesses misbehaved. “God did not create us in God’s image we created god in our image. ” Xenophanes felt that god was unlike human in either body or mind. No physical body in order to be perfect you cannot have a physical body. They have imitations. He felt Zeus was not human.
But also not perfect either . The problem was that Zeus was support, super human, good looking, physical body and people made him wise and perfect. Like Socrates said once, “find whose wise and pretends to be wise but isn’t. ” Xenophanes critique apply to the following passages of scriptures from the bible because he stated that if someone ever read a religious text and get to the part where the gods behaves in a way you wouldn’t, you close the book and move on. I agree how I would follow a god that commands to kill thousands of men, women, children, and animals.
When god should be love, forgiveness and understanding this is so called god should be way better than perfect. He should be worthy to worship knowing this god does not misbehave. The god should be a protector. Not someone that hurts or that has negative emotions. The god that everyone believes in should agree with a god that does not do bad things. Like cheat, lie, kill, and commit adultery. We should be able to learn forgiveness and love. In this scripture of the bible god does not do that. He spared the life of a woman but not the city. I belief god would forgive everyone, ecause that’s why he died in the cross for us. He cleaned our sins and made us pure. This god in this scripture did the opposite. Instead he made everyone feel hatred and get revenge. I believe if I would have been in the era when Xenophanes was alive I would have agreed with him with this so called Gods that mankind create. It seems that back then people would choose their Gods to feel protected. I agree and I must say Xenophanes was a smart logic man. If he could see the bible now and read what the 10 commandments say he would state he was right.
There are many commandments and some state no adultery, no killing, no stealing but yet this Greek gods and the God in this scripture have done and used and abused this commandments. So how would I trust a god like that in this scripture? Why should I worship a god that I do not agree with? Xenophanes had his critiques about the Greek religion, the believes on the people who created them and how they act. He explained his motives on why he believed that polytheism was the Greek religion. He also stated how he believed a god should be worthy to worship.
They should have limitations, no physical body, attentive and provide love. In this paper I have given Xenophanes critique of the Greek religion. His thoughts and believes in all the gods and goddesses’ also explained his believe in the god being worthy to worship and my reactions and agreement to the bible passages. Xenophanes had an unreserved critique of Greek religion because he felt that Greek religion was close to being polytheism. In other words many gods, when it should only be monotheists one God. His intensions were to take down the polytheistic religious view. Hopefully I have done that .