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To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 1906-14? college application essay help online

To what extent did Russia undergo economic and political reform in the years 1906-14? After the 1905 revolution Russia was in need of reforms both economically and politically, to allow it maintain its role of a great power and to prevent another revolution occurring the answer to this was the October Manifesto. However, due to the stubbornness of the Tsar who was determined not to relinquish his autocratic powers, what may have appeared as reforms were largely superficial making little change in particular to the Russian political system.

In early 1906 the October Manifesto was published as a result of the 1905 revolution and as a way to appease the peasants and appear as a revolutionary change, when truly very little was changed by this. Political activity was now legal so political parties now no longer needed to remain secrets; freedom of speech was also introduced along with the introduction of a state elected Duma.

Most of these changes were made as a bid to make the peasants content and prevent the chances of another revolution; however this also banned trade unions and newspapers. The introduction of the first Duma was short lived due to to the disapproval of the Tsar, who dissolved it under the Fundamental Law, after only 73 days. This was due to the number of members that were revolutionaries, who wanted to push through more moral ideas and reforms than the Tsar was willing to do, only 2 out of 391 made it into the law.

This then led to the Vyborg manifesto, which was a group of frustrated Duma members teaming up to go against the Tsar’s action of raising taxes – unfortunately this backfired, leading to all 200 members being banned from standing in the next Duma. The next Duma followed a similar suit, just with the gaining of the Social Revolutionaries and the Social Democrats gaining seats, it was the third and fourth Dumas that raised the most change within Russian society, but this may have been due to the Electoral Reform.

In order to make sure that the government gained the best support, voting was restrained to the wealthy, meaning that only 30% of Russia could vote. This meant that the majority of the revolutionaries supporters could not vote, leading to to mostly pro-government parties winning the vote. The Duma was never seen as political institution and was never meant to be, it was supposed to be a simple forum to please the masses and make them believe that the autocracy was listening. The Third & Fourth Dumas managed to make some successful

reforms as the government were more inclined to listen to them, they managed to replace the biased Land Captains, introduced universal primary education, create health and accident insurance programmes and made improvements to the army and navy. Despite the fact that the Duma were never supposed to be parliamentary, they still successfully managed to have the Duma debates reported in the press, meaning that the reformers and radicals participating managed to influence public opinion legitimately – something that had been denied to them previously.

This reform had helped helped create political reform, as it had created a space where a forum for political debate could be taken note of, and could be published without being censored. It meant that political parties had been established legally, and despite the fact that the Third and Fourth Dumas thwarted many reforms, they helped too, as not all of the seats in this institution had been pro-government. Another factor affecting the amount of political change over the years is the use of Peter Stolypin, the Russian Prime Minister from 1906 – 1911.

It is hard not to see Stolypin as a reformer, as he evidently saw what policies and laws needed to be changed or created in order to vanquish any repeat of the revolution, as he brought great changed to the Russian countryside, giving peasants the freedom to leave their communes, offering them cheap land in Siberia, or helping them to own their pieces of land through the redistribution of peasant wealth through the Land Bank.

This had a big impact, as it lead to 50% of peasants having ownership of land, and agricultural production had risen from 45. 9 million tonnes to 61. 7 million tonnes in 1913. It is said by historians that had war not broken out, Russia could have developed a more stable, loyal and prosperous peasantry, as Stolypin envisaged. On the other hand, despite the rise on crop yields and production, not much was done about the living and working conditions of Russia’s industrial workers.

This was definitely shown after his assassination, where a plague of Russian unrest came around again, only leading to the Lena Goldfield massacre of 1912 in Siberia, which led to strikers being killed by the police. This was then a tipping point for more strikes and demonstrations, reminiscent of the 1905 revolution, to take place, showing that despite the fact Stolypin had helped reform a little economically, it was immediately undone by the wrath of popular unrest amongst the lower classes once more.

From these two arguments it is very easy to see points helping question the extent of the Russian economic and political changes over the years, but I believe that the true tipping point comes to the Fundamental Law. This Fundamental Law, created in 1906, created the constitution of the Russian Empire, creating a national parliament with the lower house (the Duma), being elected. This all sounds very good, and sounds like political reforms were in their heights in 1906 – but this was completely changed in Article 87.

This gave the right for the Tsar to govern by decree, thereby ignoring his ‘faithfully created’ parliament. This basically meant that the creation of the Duma was practically pointless, as the Tsar could still change his mind as to what laws he wanted created, and which laws he would go against, putting incredible restrictions on how much could be done within the Russian Empire. Therefore, I find that the extent to which the Russian Empire underwent economic and political changes were the smallest possible, as Nicholas was not willing to create any reforms.

Without Love Life is Meaningless computer science essay help: computer science essay help

What is Love? Love is a feeling of strong or constant affection for a person, attraction that includes sexual desire, it is the strong affection felt by people who have a romantic relationship. Love is also an object of attachment, devotion or admiration of something. Poets and authors have tried to define love for centuries, now even scientists want to discover the human mechanics of what makes us love. Many of us know intuitively that love is a major purpose for living; that connection is inherent in all that we do, and without love, we cannot survive as a species.

We all have our own opinions, thoughts, and perspective of what love actually is. Love is defined in many ways. We have all experienced love at least once to have a concept of what love means. Besides the fact if we have been heartbroken. Some might say love is when you’re in a relationship with a significant other by committing to monogamy, sex, attraction, trust, and respect and caring for your loved one. Others know of the unconditional love for one’s child, the love for sports is rooting for your favorite team and player, the love of art; there are many aspects of love.

In the novel “The History of Love” by Nicole Krauss, Leo suffers misfortune and betrayal, but the novel he writes in order to survive is written not out of despair but out of love. And it is the love expressed within his novel that leads to a sequence of actions of love that brings Leo a connection to his lost son and also a relationship with another young woman named Alma at the end of his life. Overcoming many obstacles, Leo and the young Alma, each driven by love, don’t give up in their individual quests for the original Alma, the one who inspired the fictional “History of Love”. Leo and Alma both receive a letter from one another.

Leo believes it is from his old love Alma, her spirit, has sent the letter. While Alma wonders who has actually sent the anonymous letter. Leo is a sad, undignified, hopeless person but Alma is happy and devoted to finding love for her mother, determined to put the pieces to the puzzle that is Alma Mereminski. Their actions create a new world, one that leads them to seem like angels to each other. Although Leo and Alma claim they know what love is, they’re hopeless for love, love reveals the truth behind secrets and their behavior proves obsession can consume you to see in your mind’s eye.

Leo is elderly person who has endured and overcome difficult obstacles throughout his life. The love he has for Alma Mereminski makes him survive the Holocaust. After three and a half years later he went in searched for Alma Mereminski he took a train, a boat traveled to New York Harbor and finally a subway train to Brooklyn. To only find out she was married to another man who she has two small boys with. Leo had promised to never fall in love with another girl other than her and kept his promise. During the course of his life he never married or fell in love again. He was hopelessly devoted to Alma Mereminski all through his life.

He was unconditionally devoted to something to the point where it’s not healthy or celebrated. Leo implies he is stuck in a relationship because of a sense of love, duty and loyalty to what might even be seen as him harming himself. Revelations are also being revealed by Alma Singer as she discovers who the true writer of “The History of Love” is which she has been named after the main character Alma M. Her mother Charlotte has received a letter by Jacob Marcus to translate the Spanish novel for him. Charlotte agrees and translates the novel with a short detailed letter not knowing Alma S.

has wrote to him instead destroying the letter her mother wrote. Alma continues to write to him in hopes her mother will get to know Jacob Marcus more than a novel translator. One day she receives a letter from Jacob Marcus and realizes that Jacob Marcus is not whom he says he is. Jacob Marcus is Isaac Mortiz the writer of “The Remedy” and Jacob was one of the main characters in his book. She is determined getting to the bottom of the truth behind “The History of Love”. Alma S. starts her journey with a list of clues to find out who the real Alma is.

Speech Analysis computer science essay help: computer science essay help

In David McCullough’s June 2012 Commencement Speech You Are Not Special, he argues that no one is really special. In this speech he is saying that everyone is alike somewhere and somehow. Even though he is seems to be bashing the graduating class, he still adds encouraging words. Throughout the whole speech he continuously states that you are not special, but then ending the speech with saying, “You are not special because everyone is. ” I argue that both McCullough and Sierra use the strategies of adding comparison, list, and emotion to make their speech and article convincing.

An article in response to McCullough’s speech, Open Letter from a millennial: Quit Telling Us We Are Not Special written by a woman named Sierra on June 25, 1012. Her response argues that this speech is not appropriate for the graduating class who are ready to take on the world. McCullough’s speech should be aimed towards the parent’s generation. Sierra states that the parents are responsible for the problems their children face. In the real world the high school diploma is worthless.

Comparisons are used in both McCullough’s and Sierras work. Sierra uses the comparisons to compare what we know now to our childhood memories, such as the tooth fairy. “We stopped believing in our own specialness around the same time we stopped believing in the tooth fairy. ” She is saying that at a young age, we realized that we are not as special as everyone said we were. McCullough uses comparisons as well. In the beginning of his speech he compares the high school diploma to marriage.

Unlike marriages, we cannot separate, divorce, from our diplomas, like we could our spouses. Both McCullough and Sierra use lists to persuade their audience. In Sierras article she uses list to show how as children and teenagers we depend on our parents. Stating that they do work for you, and then call you lazy or telling and teacher that an “A” is not good enough and the list continues. She uses list to get her point across. Rather than just stating one fact, she gives them all. In McCullough’s speech, he uses lists as well.

He states that children have been pampered, fed, catered to, and so on. He uses this to get across that we have been babied our entire lives, so will we be prepared for the real world? He also uses list with statistics stating that somewhere someone is just like you. McCullough uses “There are 3. 2 million seniors from 37,000 high schools. ” He continues on with the numbers of class presidents, swagger jackers, and pairs of Uggs. This is to get across that no one is different and there is always another person with the exact same thing as you.

McCullough uses more humor. This makes the speech less offensive to the audience. While reading this speech you don’t notice the humor much, but when actually viewing the speech it is more humorous to the crowd. What some might think is humorous others might not. In conclusion, even though both use similar strategies in their work McCullough’s article is more persuasive. He makes you actually think that you are not special by adding comparisons, lists and emotions.

Alfred Lubrano How College Corrupts persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

College is the next stepping stone to better or advance ones social standing in life, whether it is moving from a blue collar lifestyle to white collar, or to continue to further their career path. However, it comes with an “unavoidable result. ” Alfred Lubrano discusses this “unavoidable result” in his text “The Shock of Education: How College Corrupts. ” Lubrano discusses the topic of how furthering ones education opens more possibilities but at the same time distances those held most dearly.

He explains that the more knowledge gained, the bigger the gap caused between friends and family due to differences in levels of knowledge. That distance is greatly increase if one comes from a poorer region where blue collar workers are the social norm. For instance, conversations within lower class households come off more militaristic due to the fact that all opinions are “dictated by group consensus,” where what the class says is so. Juxtaposed to the middle class household where they are talked to as adults..

Lubrano does not try to dissuade one from attending college, he simply shines a light onto a hidden matter that is not discussed when continuing ones education. Lubrano hits the nail on the head about the distance gained when continuing ones education with friends and family, but does not consider the fact about that distance being magnified as a first generation American. One of Alfred Lubrano’s main points was how college distanced childhood friends as well as loved ones.

He describes how he learned to “self-censor” himself and only discussed “general stuff,” because it was undiscerning to his father, a blue collar working man. Not to mention that listening to a freshman discuss the topics of race, equality, or politics, was as unsettling as “riding in a car with a new driver. ” In fact, Lubrano’s professor himself told his class not to discuss what they have learned in class, Marxist theory, because it would “mess up the holiday. ” Under those circumstances, one can only imagine the distance lost trying to elaborate the topics discussed.

Lubrano does an excellent job of demonstrating the distance gained from the sheer fact of furthering ones education but does not consider the aloofness of first generation students trying to advance their educational life. I am a first generation college student and my parents were nothing but proud of me when I talked to them about continuing my education, as a matter of fact, they even bragged about it to other family members as well as bought me new items for school, clothes, shoes, and a laptop.

But, neither they nor I was prepared for the detachment that was brought upon by trying to further ones education. During my first year of college I was exposed to the lifestyle of being completely “free. ” I had attended Penn State University, which is about four and a half hours away from Philadelphia, and during that time I had become wild and rambunctious. This was mainly due to the fact that within Asian households, the children are raised and taught in a completely different manner than an American household even though I was born and raised in Philadelphia.

However, I was raised both by Vietnamese standards of discipline and respect without questioning authority, whilst also being raised on American standards of critical thinking and questioning everything. As you can tell those two standards of living are not exactly compatible. So, when college presented itself with the opportunity of finding oneself, I indulged. As a consequence of furthering my education, I had lost some of my Asian roots and as you can tell; when I returned home I was not the same person. I was a smarmy freshman with a year of college under my belt with the mindset of being a completely independent adult.

Causing complications within my family and distancing ourselves from one another. It was even more difficult because I could not discuss exactly what was affecting my relationship with my parents due to a language barrier. Granted, I did know how to speak to them in Vietnamese, but not without struggle. This due to the fact that as a child, I was more interested in watching Saturday morning cartoons than talking to my family. Alfred Lubrano does a good job of describing exactly how furthering ones education causes a divide between friends and family.

For example, he had to “self-censor” his thoughts and separates which topics he talked about in order to not upset his family. However, he does not discuss the topic of how being a first generation college student can cause an even bigger divide between family due to different cultural beliefs and the language barrier. Again, Alfred Lubrano does not try to dissuade one from continuing ones education whatsoever, in fact he encourages it. Lubrano just tries to expose a hidden agenda that most people do not discuss about, and that is how college causes a divide between family and friends.

Surviving on a desert island get essay help: get essay help

Being stranded on a deserted tropical island is not ideal for most people, especially if you are alone. Although many people who end up in these situations get rescued, it is still important to know five essential tips to survive. Giving purpose to items often ignored and utilizing all available resources is vital. Water is an extremely important essential to surviving, water makes up more than two-thirds of our body weight and works in many different ways to maintain our body’s health, stabilize our metabolism, and keeping digestion in order.

A reason why the island you are stranded on is deserted might be because of the lack of fresh water. If you cannot find a stream nearby then look for coconuts, the milk inside is high in potassium and a variety of minerals. Although you cannot survive off of coconut milk, it will last you until the next rainfall. Collect as much rainwater as you can, because you never know when the next one will occur. Assuming you cannot contact anyone from your cellphone because there is not a signal on the island, getting noticed is also extremely important.

Building a fire that creates lots of smoke is recommended. Using dead and dry palm leaves creates a thicker more noticeable smoke. Collecting dry tinder from trees is helpful, especially hibiscus tree’s, which are common on most Pacific islands. A fire is also important for cooking food, staying warm and keeping the insects away. As for food, fishing is an obvious go to. But remain cautious of the types of fish you eat. Stay away from fish with spikes or abnormal structures.

Fish are a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, they reduce blood pressure; they are rich in protein, vitamin D, calcium and many minerals. If you have hunting skills you could also go hunting, there is likely to be boars on the island and a variety of other meaty animals. Building a shelter is vital; it needs to be done before dark. That way you do not have to go snooping through a forest in the middle of the night in which you have no idea what lies ahead. Find a spot that provides protection from the wind, sunlight, and animals.

Use “Y” shaped sticks for the frame and dead palm tree leaves for the roof. Search for a vine to tie together everything so it stays put. Put leaves in the inside of your hut to create a floor to rest on. Waiting patiently is very important. Keep yourself busy so you do not feel like you are going crazy. Go for a swim, work on building a safer shelter and explore the forest. You have plenty of time on your hands, so do as much as you can to make the time pass until you are rescued.

Julius Caesar summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

The following questions will help you to prepare for your eventual test over “Julius Caesar”. While I will not be collecting this, it is on you to make sure that you are answering the questions as we go. Your test will be taken directly from this study guide. Act I 1) Judging from the events in Act I, the political mood and behavior of the Romans are best described how? 2) When we first see Brutus, he appears to be ________________________. 3) Which line from Act I foreshadows what will happen to Caesar? 4) “Truly, sir… I am but, as you would say, a cobbler” is an example of what literary device?

5) Cassius states, “Men at some time are masters of their fates: / The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, / But in ourselves, that we are underlings. ” Based on this, what can you infer about Cassius? 6) The crowd shouts three times for what? 7) Who are the most loyal supporters of Caesar in Act I? 8) At the end of Scene 2, what does Cassius plan? 9) In Scene 3, Shakespeare uses a violent storm and other unusual natural events to suggest something. What is he suggesting? 10) In Scene 3, Cicero says to Casca, “this disturbed sky / Is not to walk in.

” Other than the weather, Cicero is referring to the fact that he __________________ 11) What is included in the exposition of Act I? 12) Who is the protagonist? 13) How would one best describe Cassius’ character? 14) What is the central conflict introduced in Act I? 15) Possible essay question from Act I: Dialogue not only reveals the play’s action and the characters’ motives but often shows various arguments or positions or an opinion or an event. In scene 3, lines 34-35, Cicero says of the storm, “But men may construe things after their fashion, / Clean from the purpose of the things themselves.

” How does this idea vary from Cassius’s attitude toward the storm? How else could the storm be interpreted? Be prepared to write your answer on a separate sheet of paper with at least two examples from the play to support your ideas. Act II 16) In his soliloquy, Brutus reveals his true feelings about whom? 17) As Act II progresses, Portia becomes more ___________________ 18) Cassius, as a foil, influences Brutus in what ways? 19) Caesar’s initial decision to stay at home rather than to go to the Senate is a response to what? 20) How is Caesar’s conflict regarding whether or not to go to the Senate resolved?

21) As Caesar decides whether or not to go to the Senate, he says, “Mark Antony shall say I am not well, / And for thy humor, I will stay at home. ” What does Caesar mean when he refers to humor? 22) Why does Caesar disregard the omens? 23) What is the point of Brutus’ comparison of Caesar to a newly hatched sparrow? 24) How would one characterize Decius when he arrives to take Caesar to the Senate? 25) An attempt to warn Caesar of the conspiracy occurs in the form of what? 26) Act II includes the rising action of the play, which is what? 27) Shakespeare builds suspense by having Calpurnia do what?

28) Possible essay question from Act II: In scene 1, lines 63-69, Brutus says, “Between the acting of a dreadful thing / And the first motion, all the interim is / Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream. / The genius and the mortal instruments / Are then in council, and the state of a man, / Like to a little kingdom, suffers then / The nature of an insurrection. ” How do these lines reflect both Brutus’ inner conflict and the overall conflict that builds in Act II? Be prepared to write your answer on a separate sheet of paper, using at least two examples from the play to support your ideas.

Act III 29) Who is the conspirator who first prevents Artemidorus from warning Caesar? 30) What are Caesar’s dying words and what do they express? 31) Immediately after Caesar’s death, Antony sends a servant to Brutus. Why? 32) Why does Brutus allow Antony to speak at Caesar’s funeral? 33) Among the conspirators, which one warns Brutus that Antony will scheme against them? 34) In Act III, what are the feelings that Antony speaks of? 35) How would one best describe the reaction of plebeians to the speeches by Brutus and Antony? 36) What is the difference between the two funeral orations?

37) Antony says to the assembled mob, “Good friends, sweet friends, let me not stir you up / To such a sudden flood of mutiny. ” What is Antony trying to do by saying this? 38) When does the turning point of the play occur? 39) After the conspirators kill Caesar, they bathe their hands and swords in his blood. How does this foreshadow the end of the play? What do you think will happen? 40) When Cassius speaks in an aside to Brutus about whether or not Antony should speak at Caesar’s funeral, who can hear him? Who else is on stage with him? 41) Why is Antony’s speech not considered a soliloquy?

42) Possible Essay question from Act III: In Scene 2, Antony turns a shocked and confused crowd of mourners into an angry mob of rioters. On a separate sheet of paper, be prepared to write a paragraph that describes how this transformation occurs. Cite at least three ways by which Antony achieves this effect. Act IV 43) Who is involved in the planned military conflict of Act IV? 44) In his attitude toward Lepidus, how is Antony characterized? 45) What is Brutus’ main motivation? 46) What issue stands between Brutus and Cassius? 47) In his treatment of Cassius, how is Brutus characterized?

48) Who is the poet who appears in Brutus’ tent in Scene 3? 49) Cassius and Brutus argue over where they should do battle with the triumvirate’s troops. How is this conflict resolved? 50) “To get a better view of Caesar’s chariot as it travels down the road, Cassius first tries a mirror and then a telescope. ” What is the anachronism in the preceding sentence? 51) “Brutus was the last to raise his dagger and plunge it into Caesar’s cloak, narrowly missing the watch in his pocket. ” What is the anachronism in the preceding sentence? 52) What happens to Portia? 53) In the falling action of Act IV, what happens to the main characters?

54) Before the battle of Philippi, Brutus tells Cassius, “There is a tide in the affairs of men/ Which, taken at the flood leads on to fortune; / Omitted, all the voyage of their life/ Is bound in shallows and in miseries. ” What does Brutus mean? 55) The appearance of Caesar’s ghost in Act IV is an example of what literary device? 56) What does Caesar’s ghost do? 57) Possible Essay question from Act IV: What function do you think the ghost of Julius Caesar serves at the end of Act IV? On a separate sheet of paper, be prepared to write a paragraph describing your interpretation of the ghost scene.

Use at least two examples from the play to support your ideas. Act V 58) How long does all of the action in Act V actually take? 59) Why does Shakespeare use minor characters to report on the battle’s progress? 60) In Scene 1, lines 46-47, Cassius says to Octavius, “This tongue had not offended so today, / If Cassius might have ruled. ” Cassius means that they would not be having their present conversation if only what had happened? 61) What incorrect conclusion does Pindarus come to about what is happening on the battlefield? 62) What is the consequence of Pindarus’ misreading of the battlefield?

63) What really happens on the battlefield? 64) What is ironic, or surprising, about Brutus’ suicide? 65) What do the arguments, battles, and deaths in the final act serve to accomplish for the story? 66) Which character most closely fits Aristotle’s definition of a tragic hero? 67) When is the climax of this play? 68) What happens in the resolution of the play? 69) Possible Essay question from Act V: In Act I, Brutus tells Cassius that though he would hot have Caesar for a king, he still loves him. Throughout the play, characters express what seem to be contradictory feelings or act in apparent contradiction to their professed beliefs.

On a separate piece of paper, be prepared to write a paragraph in which you explore at least two examples of contradictory feelings or actions in Act V. Writing Application for the Unit The following is a rough draft of an essay comparing a scene in a film version of Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing to the same scene in Shakespeare’s original play of the same name. The essay contains errors in development and organization. Some of the questions refer to underlined phrases or numbered sentences within the text. Read the essay and answer the following questions.

Much Ado About – What? (1) In his film adaptation of Much Ado About Nothing, director Kenneth Branagh is very faithful to the script of the original play. (2) However, his narrative and film techniques, particularly in the crucial scene in which Benedick overhears other characters discussing Beatrice’s feelings for him (act 2, scene 3), alter the emphasis of the play. (3) To emphasize the comic and romantic elements of the play, Branagh cuts act 2, scene 2, a dark scene in which two characters conspire to spoil the marriage plans of Claudio and Hero.

(4) As a result, the scene in which Don Pedro and other characters stage a conversation about Beatrice’s love so that Benedick will hear it follows the scene in which Don Pedro develops his plan to match Benedick and Beatrice romantically. (5) This director’s decision emphasizes the relationship between Benedick and Beatrice, whose verbal fencing has already revealed their equality in intelligence and wit and their emotional connection. (6) Significantly, lines referring to the engagement and impending marriage of Claudio and Hero are deleted, further narrowing the focus to Benedick and Beatrice.

(7) Stage directions for the play do not tell where this scene is located, but Benedick says that he is in an orchard (2. 3. 4). (8) In the film, the scene is changed to a formal garden that includes a fountain and gravel walks lined by trees. (9) When the scene opens, Benedick is sitting in a folding canvas chair next to the fountain. (10) While delivering a soliloquy on the reasons he does not wish to marry, he sees Don Pedro and other characters approaching, takes his chair, and hides.

(11) Benedick is meant to overhear the conversation, and as he eavesdrops, his gestures and stage business with the chair reveal his changing thoughts about Beatrice and also emphasize comic elements in the scene. (12) Without such a prop, the filmmaker would need to switch the camera back and forth between Benedick in his hiding place and the actors at the fountain; he would also need to zoom in on the faces to reveal reactions. (13) When Don Pedro first mentions Beatrice’s love for Benedick, Benedick falls out of the chair. (14) For this bit of stage business, the camera need not zoom in on Benedick’s face to show his astonishment.

(15) To encourage Benedick’s growing attachment to Beatrice, Don Pedro sends Beatrice to fetch Benedick to dinner. (16) The stage direction simply says “Enter Beatrice. ” (17) In the film, Beatrice enters in an angry manner with a fierce look on her face. (18) The camera zooms in on her as she approaches and then gives viewers a close-up shot of her face. (19) It is clear to the viewer that this errand is distasteful to her; however, since Benedick now believes that she loves him, he says to himself, “I do spy some marks of love in her” (2.

3. 242-243), a line that always draws a laugh from viewers. (20) Branagh employs narrative and film techniques to emphasize some elements of the play, at the expense of other elements. (21) In particular, the elements of farce he adds to this scene place it – and the play – specifically in the genre of comedy. (22) Branagh’s embellishments are most clearly represented by the chair, which allows him as the actor to demonstrate Benedick’s changing feelings for Beatrice. 70) Which sentence would BEST provide an interesting opener for the essay?

a) Kenneth Branagh has made a few changes to Much Ado About Nothing. b) Sometimes filmmakers change plays so that the original play is barely recognizable. c) Who would think that a chair could do so much for a film? d) How often do you watch films based on stage plays? 71) What information should be added to sentence 1? 72) How could alter the emphasis of the play BEST be written to provide a clear thesis statement? 73) What supporting evidence would MOST appropriately follow sentence 5? 74) What is the BEST way to elaborate on sentence 6?

75) What should BEST be added to the end of sentence 10 to make the setting clear? 76) Which of the following sentences should be added after sentence 12? a) On a stage, all actors would be visible to the audience during the entire scene. b) The audience might be annoyed or confused by too many changes in camera angle and focus. c) The fountain serves another important purpose when the love-stricken Benedick dances through it. d) Use of the chair as a prop avoids the possibly confusing changes in camera direction. 77) How could you alter enters in an angry manner to add sensory details?

78) How could you write to emphasize some elements of the play, at the expense of other elements in order to restate the thesis? 79) Which of the following sentences provides the BEST closing thought for the essay? a) If you want to know what a play is really about, you should read the script. b) Plays must often be cut because the script is too long to keep an audience’s attention. c) Branagh is also well known for his performances as Shakespearean characters. d) Even a relatively small addition to a performance can significantly alter the tone of a play.

Modern tendencies of international labour migration custom essay help: custom essay help


At the present time, the globalization of economic life has led to the creation of an international labor market in the context of growing internationalization of production and integration. Potential prospects that are embedded in labor migration are huge and include acceleration in economic growth, reduce unemployment, improve the quality of life, income growth, etc. The theme of this term paper “Modern tendencies of international labor migration.

” The purpose of writing – an analysis of currently existing international migration issues, to identify the main streams of migration and an analysis of state regulation of international labor migration. The above defines a set of goal the following objectives: to consider the theoretical aspects of labor migration (its nature and value) to determine the impact of international migration on countries importing and exporting labor to explore contemporary migration flows and to consider a system of state regulation of external labor migration.

The object of study in this course work is international labor migration in the context of globalization and market economy. The subject of the study is theoretical and methodological elements of state control of foreign labor migration, contemporary migration flows and theoretical concepts. In writing this paper I have used a lot of literature. Here is the most basic analysis. The theoretical basis of this study is based on the work of authors such as Ivahnyuk IV, Iontsev VA Molodikova IN, Mukomel VI, Sukhov A. , Horev, BS etc.

In the study of the impact of international migration on the global economy in the context of globalization have helped me work of Glushchenko GI Ivahnyuka I. , Denissenko M. B. Information on the state regulation of external labor migration has been taken from works Vorobyova O. D . , Glushchenko GI and Ponomarev, VA, VI Mukomel. Also I used newspaper articles and magazines economic substance of Russian and foreign publications. 1. International labour migration as an integral part of society 1. 1. Essense and typesof the international labour migration

In terms of globalization the crucial factor of developing of many countries becomes international labour migration, which favours the establishing of flexible labour market, application of outstanding achievements made by scientific and technical progress, closer cooperation between nations. Movement of factors of production is the foundation of international labour migration. This process occurs in highly developed countries. According to principles of market economy, factors of production are searching for profitable application as much as possible, which in perspective will bring the highest efficiency.

Though labour market functions according to the laws of demand and supply, it differs a lot from other markets. The basis forms not only economis factors but also social and psychological, which are not always connected with the price of the labour (salary). There is no any single generally accepted definition of international labour migration, But the most accurate I find the one given by Ioncev V. A. He said that international labour migration are the territorial people movements across national borders, connected with changing of permanent place of living and citizenship, due to a variety of reasons (family, national, political,

ethical and etc. ), or with staying in receiving country for long-term purposes. Exist many types of international labour migration and the most common division consists of 3 broad groups: immigration (act of foreigners coming into a country for the purpose of permanent residence), emigration (leaving one’s country to settle in another for long terms), return migration (return of migrants to their place of origin). Also it is possible to mark out other ways of distinguishing labour migration into types. For example, motives can be different: voluntary and forced.

In case of voluntary migration citizen decides by himself to leave the country. But in the event of forced migration his intention to relocate is caused by threat for life (natural cataclysms, wars, riots and others). Migration might differ in duration: long-term, short-term, permanent, seasonal (in different seasons with the purpose of job placement) and commutation (constant dislocation between population aggregates for work or study). One more important distinction lays in legal foundation: migration can be legal and illegal (unregistered and one that violates the regime of entry).

International migration flows form in accordance with many factors, most of important of which are socio-economic (migration caused by search of a new work place, education, marriage). Also exist demographic, political, religious, ethnical reasons that make someone to leave his native country. Most common reasons nowadays are low level of wage, high level of unemployment and insufficient education. 1. 2. Impact of the labour migration International migration has a strong influence on both the importing country and exporting country.

Recently, the migration processes are perceived as a resource, on which strongly depends the level of economic development. Considering the impact of international labor migration on the development of the exporting country, it is possible to identify some benefits. First of all, declining unemployment rate, weakens the intensity on the domestic labor market, the country’s citizens who work abroad, transfer part of their income to home, thereby reducing the balance of payments deficit. Moreover, the labor force acquires new skills and by returning home, improves human resource skills in their country.

There are negative aspects for exporting countries. On the reproduction of labor power has been put national resources, but when it goes abroad, creates a gross domestic product in another country, and do not compensate costs spent on it. Secondly, usually mainly highly-qualified workers leave their native countries. Regarding the impact of international labor migration on the importing countries, evaluations are also ambiguous. Labour migration can reduce labor costs and general costs in the host country.

However, before migration was seen as a solution to labor shortages in the domestic market, but over time gained a tendency of settling in receiving countries and immigration is viewed now as a threat to the national economy. Moreover, it leads to transformation of these countries into multinational, what sometimes promotes inter-ethnic conflicts. Thus, international migration affects both the importing countries of labor force and exporting, and has become a global phenomenon, which has its influence on all aspects of life. 2.

Pecularities of the regulation of the international labour migration 2. 1. Basic principles and features The migration process is complex and, taking into account all possible consequences, government can not ignore this area of ?? international relations, thus it started lately to tight control measures. The purpose of the state settlement of labor migration is to achieve in importing country the required volume of immigration, including selection of needed workers from all who wishes to immigrate. To avoid negative effects there is an extensive system of national and international regulation.

It consists of agreements between the countries themselves, the laws on the status of migrants and other regulatory documents. There is also a system of ongoing monitoring after the migration (SOPEMI), which was founded by OECD. A distinctive feature of regulation of foreign migration is that the advantage is always given to domestic states. At the same time, developing control measures, they must follow established legal order and standards that are contained in documents drawn up by international economic organizations.

Many importing countries adhere to a selective method of regulation which consists in encouraging entry into its territory of certain categories of workers who seems to be the most preferable for it, but prevents the immigration of others. These categories may include workers who agree to work for a lower price than local, qualified ones or from fields industries that the country plans to develop. It is possible to restrict the entry by presenting certain requirements for qualification of personnel, their state of health, age and education.

Many states have a policy of quantitative quotas, which means establishment of a ceiling that is the maximum number of immigrants. There is also economic regulation, which involves the imposition of financial restrictions or temporal regulation. The governments by their own choose type of regulation, and what restrictions to apply, basing primarily on the interests of employees of the national labor market, however, they must not forget to respect international law. 2. 2. Designing of the migratory policy In order to stabilize and take under control the processes of migration, there should be an effective migration policy.

Migration policy of the country consists of theoretical assumptions, goals, means and methods of regulation of national and international processes of migration movements. It can be carried out at both levels: national and international Any immigration policy is based on two components: theoretical basis and practical side. Migration policy is an integral component of domestic and foreign policy. Its direction determines by the socio-economic policy of the country, including aspects of its foreign policy.

Migration policy of each state is a set of special measures, legislation and bilateral and multilateral agreements on the basis of which regulation is managed. At each historical period migration policy had either emigration or immigration character, but currently second one dominates. Almost all developed countries prefer to implement immigration policy and to impose tougher measures of controlling undocumented migration. Such measures are expressed by the desire to stimulate economic growth, ensure national security, to protect national markets.

Priority in shaping migration policy is given to the use of tools that could provide an effective immigration control, increase screening of potential migrants but at the same time saving national security. 3. Development prospects of the international labour migration 3. 1. Modern tendencies Observed in recent decades, the intensification of migration is expressed in both quantitative and qualitative indicators: change in shape and direction of movement of labor flows. The unprecedented scale of global labor migration is a crucial feature of modernity. If the 50-70s.

migration was mainly from developing countries to industrialized, from the 80s. a counter migration process takes place: the movement of foreign workers from more developed to less developed countries. The dominant motive of migration is still the economic one. Modern production technologies, based on the principles of the international division of labor, promote migration. This is primarily due to the activities of transnational corporations that organize production in the world economy. At the present stage of development has increased significantly the illegal labor migration, which has become a global problem.

The international migration of qualitative changes results from the scientific and technological revolution, which essentially consists in a significant increase in the proportion of migrating skilled workers. If to the countries of traditional migration (U. S. , Canada, Australia, South Africa) in the XIX century and the first half of XX century relocated only the Europeans, while in the 80-90s. they represent a small part of migrants. In the immigration flows to these countries dominate immigrants from Asia, Latin America, Africa and the Caribbean.

One of the characteristics of the present stage of international labor migration has become more and more active government intervention in that process. It regulates transactions and deals on the global labor market, gives permission to enter and exit, and monitors the period of staying. It is engaged in recruiting and creating favorable conditions for hiring foreign workers. At the same time modern trends in labor migration are understudied and need more detailed analysis, because new countries enter the global labor market, which entails many problems, decide which should skilled specialists of that field and governments.

3. 2. Basic improvement trends of the international labour migration Analyzing current governance of migration flows, we can conclude that there is no effective mechanism of regulation. Direction of migration policy should become attraction of people from developed countries and creation of necessary conditions for that; repatriation of formerly departed citizens, while offering them new opportunities and challenges that were not available in the country they immigrated.

Favorable situation for the return of compatriots from the CIS countries has developed due to the fact that in recent year in these countries is viewed an oppression of Russian-speaking population. This is a chance for Russia which it should take, while simplifying the procedure for obtaining Russian citizenship back. It is necessary to create adequate conditions for the migrants themselves, provide them with social services, benefits, opportunities for career growth. Not only cheap low-skilled workers should be attracted, but also high class workers.

So far, modern migration policy is not working at solution of all problems. Indeed, there are many missions that needed to be not just seen but quickly and efficiently addressed. Conclusion. International labour migration is an important element of the socio-economic development of almost all countries of the world. Due to the migration forms flexible labor market, developing countries get access to the use of scientific and technological progress and labor is beginning to be used rationally and effectively.

At this stage migration processes undergo many changes in which migration policy is seen as a guarantee of future wellbeing. Analyzing the possible social, demographic, political and economic consequences of international labour migration, I have concluded that labor migration is a controversial and ambiguous process, which requires strict regulation, which must take into account interests of the international community, certain countries and contemporary conditions of development.

Moreover, there is a factor of illegal migration, which glows even more social environment and promotes appearance of negative consequences. International labour migration should be regulated and the volume of migration should not exceed the demand for it. Because the migration of labour is a complex process in which participation takes a lot of parties, it is necessary to create more sophisticated methods of information gathering and dissemination.

The help desk essay help online: essay help online

Rob calls the help desk to report that he cannot access any websites on the Internet. While he is still on the phone, you have him try to access a file on his departmental server. In both cases, his attempts fail. Troubleshoot Rob’s computer and determine why he is unable to access the network. The troubleshooting process will be completed when you are able to access the network using Rob’s computer.Completion time20 minutes

Exercise 18.2Troubleshooting Disk AccessOverview

Alice sends an email to the help desk stating that when she tried to copy some files to her X: drive, which is a volume on her local hard disk, she was unable to do so. Because Alice has already left for her vacation, she cannot provide any more details about the problem, but she writes that she would appreciate the problem being fixed by the time she returns. The troubleshooting process will be completed when Alice can write files to her X: drive.Completion time20 minutes

Exercise 18.3Troubleshooting Shared FoldersOverview

Gail is the head bookkeeper for your company, and she stores the firm’s financial spreadsheet files on her Windows 7 computer. The other bookkeepers in the department, who all have user accounts that are members of the local Users group, work with the spreadsheets on Gail’s computer by accessing two shared folders called Payable and Receivable. Gail has just called the help desk and reported that since having a new network adapter installed, the other bookkeepers have been unable to access the shares. However, Gail is able to access web sites on the Internet. The troubleshooting process will be completed when other computers on the network are able to read files from and write them to the Payable and Receivable shares on Gail’s computer using the local Student user account an the password Pa$$w0rd.Completion time20 minutes

Exercise 18.4Troubleshooting Logon ProblemsOverview

Sarah calls the help desk because she has an intermittent problem logging on to her computer using the local Student user account and the password Pa$$w0rd. Some mornings, she logs on without a problem. On other days, she cannot log on at first, but after waiting a few minutes, her logon is successful. This morning, it took three attempts over the course of 30 minutes before she was able to log on, and she is becoming extremely frustrated. The troubleshooting process will be completed when Sarah is able to log on to her computer consistently with no delays.Completion time20 minutes

Informative Essay on Obesity essay help: essay help

“When confronting obesity, it is important to consider different causes such as, genetics and ethnicity. Obesity is affected greatly by poor diet, lack of exercise, and it can be changed by engaging in a healthier diet, more exercise, and sometimes surgery. Obesity is caused by range of different factors. A lack of energy balance, emotional overeating, inactive lifestyle, environment, health conditions, and genetics can all be held responsible for obesity. Energy balance means the calories one takes IN equals the energy they put OUT.

Energy IN is the amount of calories consumed through food and drinks and energy OUT is the amount of calories the body uses to breathe, digest, and being physically active. When the energy IN equals more than the energy OUT, the body will eventually gain weight. Another cause is emotional overeating. It is caused when someone is stressed out, depressed or angry. They resort to eating and believe it will make them feel better, when most of the time, the only thing it is doing making the individual gain weight. Inactive lifestyle is another very common cause especially for Americans today.

Hours in front of the TV, computer, and playing video games have in fact, been directly linked to obesity. Environment is another reason for obesity, if there is a fast food restaurant on nearly every corner, what’s going to stop most people from going to them more often than not? If someone is put into an environment with lots of food and easy transportation is is inevitable that they will put on more weight. Aside from all the previous factors, obesity may just be in in the genes of some individuals and cannot easily be altered.

There are many effects of being obese, physical health issues, as well as mental and psychological problems. Physically, being obese puts the individual’s health at a high risks compared to that of an average weight person. The two main concerns are diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Diabetes occurs when the insulin levels become unstable and blood sugar cannot be controlled properly. Having diabetes affects everything in general, including emotions. The worst that could happen is when the body goes into diabetic shock and basically shuts down.

There are an array of cardiovascular issues including arteriosclerosis, and heart attack. Arteriosclerosis occurs when there is too much fat building up in the blood vessels and it pretty much clogs the vessel and doesn’t allow adequate blood flow. The main thing that happens with a heart attack is that the heart cannot pump blood, or the rhythm is not stable. If someone is obese, their heart may have to work twice as hard to pump blood and if their arteries are also narrower, it will double their risks. Another effect is on the entire society.

Health Care costs will rise and sick days and knee injuries are more common in overweight people. Being obese can also affect someone’s self esteem and confidence. The person may not feel socially accepted, or be subject to bullying and discrimination. Everyone wants to fit in and be a part of society and obesity may make some people feel limited or that they are not accepted by others and are not capable of doing the same everyday regimes. For many teenagers, especially girls, obesity can lead to extreme eating habits, disorders and self harm.

Some may think that not eating at all will solve everything. This will only cause rebounds and uncontrollable cravings and eventually it will become a vicious spiral of constant negativity. There are a range of different solutions to obesity, and some are more effective than others. To start out, it is a good idea to switch to a healthy diet with lots of water, supplemented by regular exercise. The most effective change in a diet would be to cut simple sugars, carbs, and fats. Sugar can be obtained from fruits while carbs can come from more complex sources such as whole wheat and grains.

When changing a diet, cutting the fat source completely will not help. Fat can come from some vegetables, nuts, and non animal oils. Frequent exercise is not very common for many people today. It is best to start out slowly and eventually build endurance. If it is too challenging from the get go, then the motivation will not last long either. In extreme cases, there are surgical options as well, such as gastric bypass surgery, which removes a part of the stomach to make it smaller in size.

Other operations may simply cut the fat off or suck it out with liposuction. Liposuction is a technique for cosmetic surgery that removes fat from under the skin by sucking it out with a vacuum like tool. Obesity is a rising epidemic in developed countries today. It was not an issue only 100 years ago. This is because oily, fatty foods are cheaper than they ever have been before and healthier choices are more expensive. If we continue living at this rate, we will use up all of the resources and eventually hurt the planet.

Islam dbq popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

Islam is a monotheistic religion that spread very quickly throughout south, South-Eastern Asia, and Africa through exposure to the religion. The Islamic faith spread so quickly because of the positive aspects of the religion, trade, and also military campaigns. One of the reasons for the Islamic faith spreading so quickly is that there was a lot of trade happening where Islam first emerged. There were many trade routes throughout Mecca, and it was a very prosperous and important city (Doc A).

In the excerpt from the Great Ages of Man: Early Islam, Desmond Stewart and editors used an informative tone to show how they believed that Mecca was a very important place for trade. Since Mecca was where Islam first emerged and so much trade occurred, it caused Islam to spread quickly. The merchants coming in and out of Mecca for trade exposed the Islamic faith to them and they would’ve adopted the faith and shared it with their people.

To better show spread of Islam through trade, a journal entry from an Islamic merchant would be helpful, because it would’ve been a great primary source to show exactly what occurred along the trade route and prove that trade help spread Islam. Another reason for the quick spreading of Islam is through the military campaigns that occurred around the time that the faith emerged. The military campaigns are shown by the arrows (doc C), which would’ve also exposed the Islamic faith throughout these campaigns and spread it even more.

Whenever the Muslim army went against the “unbelievers” and conquered them, the ones that chose to stay “unbelievers” were forced to pay a land tax (doc F). Some people wanted to convert so that they wouldn’t have to pay the land tax and thought it would be a better path to take so it spread the faith quickly that way, this was all because of the military campaigns that occurred.

In the excerpt from The Origins of the Islamic State, Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri, used a serious tone to show how he believes that Allah helped the Muslims beat the Byzantine army since they were believers, but this source is untrustworthy because it is bias since the author is Muslim and believed that Allah caused the Muslim army to win. To better show spread through military campaigns, a journal entry from a non-Muslim soldier would be helpful because it would show how the Muslim soldiers affected the non-Muslims in conquered areas into causing them to convert.

The final reason for the quick spreading of Islam is the positive aspects of the faith and the appeal of them to the non-Muslims. Islam offers people forgiveness and equality (doc B); this was an appealing aspect to many of the non-Muslims and would’ve made people want to convert. There were a “series of ghazu raids against the non-Muslim communities in the neighboring countries” that would preserve the unity for the ummah (doc D). The places where the raids occurred, the people chose to convert rather than be attacked because of the appeal of converting.

In the excerpt from A Short Story, Random House, Karen Armstrong uses a serious tone to show how she believes that there were many raids against the non-Muslim communities so that they could preserve the ummah, and claims these are not religious campaigns. The Muslims were guaranteed protection. The government was requested to always stand up for the Muslim people and protect them from danger (doc E). This appealed to many non-Muslims for the reason, they would be safe and out of danger, this would’ve caused the spread to happen a lot quicker due to all of the positive aspects of the faith.

To better show spread through positive aspects of the faith, a journal entry from a non-believer would be helpful because it would show how they thought Islam was appealing from its positive aspects and cause them to want to convert. All in all, the Islamic faith was spread so quickly due to three reasons. The first being through trade and the exposing of the faith, the second being through military campaigns and how they influenced non-Muslims to convert, and finally the last being that there were many positive aspects of the faith which non-Muslims found appealing.

Silencing the Past: Summary essay help 123: essay help 123

The book Silencing The Past is about how people “silence” the past through selective memories to benefit us in the present. We pick out certain events and either dramatize them or play them down to the point of no importance. This paper is about both our played up dramas and our forgotten realities.

In the first chapter of the book the author Michel-Roth Trouillot he brings up the story of the Alamo. He shows the reader how the same story can be viewed in completely different ways. He starts by telling the story in very matter of fact fashion from the Mexican point of view. He talks about how Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna took over a Franciscan Mission with a total number of 189 defenders. (Little did he know that mythic heros Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were inside) The siege went on for twelve days before the Mexicans finally charged the fort and killed everyone inside. A few weeks later at the battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna was defeated by the Secessionist leader Sam Houston. The Texans went on to secede and Santa Anna went on to be the leader of a much smaller Mexico.

During the battle of San Jacinto the Texans shouted the phrase “Remember the Alamo!” Santa Anna saw the battle at the Alamo as a sound victory over some rebellious individuals. The Texans that came after the Alamo saw the Battle as turning point in their lives as subjects to rule. The Texans under Houston took that defeat and saw it as an opportunity to rise up against their oppressor.

This story shows how there are at least two sides to every side of any historical event. There is the first side which is the very factual way at looking at history; Names, places, and dates etc. Then there is the side from the winners perspective. Santa Anna factually won the battle of the Alamo but in the socio-historical context he lost the battle to the Texans. During the battle of San Jacinto the Texans shouted the phrase “Remember the Alamo!” Santa Anna saw the battle at the Alamo as a sound victory over some rebellious individuals. The Texans that came after the Alamo saw the Battle as turning point in their lives as subjects to rule. The Texans under Houston took the defeat at the Alamo defeat and saw it as an opportunity to rise up against their oppressor.

The next part of the book is talking about the Haitian rebellion. The Haitian rebellion can be looked at in many ways. The Haitian people look at the Haitian rebellion as the most successful slave revolt in all of history. It was a flipping of society similar to the French revolution, and marks the seconds oldest democracy in the western hemisphere of the world.

If the story of the Haitian revolution is told in a completely factual way, the story would be about how the Slaves revolted and started a nation on their own. To the neighboring Americans this was not a good thing. At the time in America there was a large population of slaves, in fact the American agricultural industry relied totally on slave labor. So the Haitian rebellion was talked down so to not give the slaves in America any ideas.

The Haitians even silenced part of their own rebellion after their rebellion in silencing Sans Soucis. Sans Soucis was an African born man who fought in the Haitian revolution. He rose to the rank of Colonel for his expertise in guerrilla tactics. He fought alongside Henry Christophe and Toussaint Louverture. Sans and Henry did not get along so Henry had him executed. To erase Sans Soucis King Henry named his palace at Milot Sans Soucis so that everyone would remember the name Sans Soucis because of the palace not the person.

All stories are examples of how people have retrospectively changed events to aid them in the present and future. The winners have written history in their favor, leaving the loser to be silenced in history.

Depression and its causes medical school essay help: medical school essay help

The area of mental health is a very unique field. It is so unique because it leaves room for questioning at every turn, for example when a diagnosis is made who is to say that the one deciding the illness is correct on deeming another’s state of mind. What that basically means is a whole medical field is based on someone’s dictation of the meanings of sane and insane and a healthy mind to an unhealthy one. Now that is not said to discredit the relevance of mental hospitals and doctors specializing in it, they are necessary and crucial to have. The consistency of mental health was the aspect being questioned.

The mental illness of depression however is one of the generally less disputed against diagnoses’. There are clear causes and even clearer symptoms shown by someone who is considered to be depressed. Depression affects people mentally and physically and the main thing expressed by somebody with clinical depression is lack of interest in anything they might have usually liked to do and radical changes in behavior along with irregular sleeping patterns (Nordqvist, 2-3). All these visual things are what make depression much easier to diagnose than most other mental illnesses.

Depression, no matter what specific type, is a very curable mental illness that is also a relatively common illness in comparison to most others. Symptoms of depression do differ between types, and amongst the six types that exist they all share the main symptoms of fatigue, lack of interest, thrown off appetite, and messed up sleeping patterns as the four most common (“Depression”, 2-3). Depression in all forms is linked to other mental illnesses like Bipolar disorder, Schizophrenia, and Autism due to similarities in each illness’s genetic make-ups (Nordqvist, 1).

Based upon this the symptoms of having depression may not even be limited to the ones listed for actual depression, it could go far enough as whatever symptoms are for any of those other three illness’s as well. Now in relation to treatment for Depression the conversation is very open because it is one of the more treatable disorders. The sooner someone starts their depression treatment the faster they can recover, the depression can still be fully treated if it is not helped right away, but it will take longer. The main

two treatments for depression are through drugs and psychotherapy. The drugs are anti depressants and psychotherapy is a method of psychological therapy where doctors use a psychological approach on the patients rather than physical means (Nordqvist, 5-6). It helps keep the patients calm and less stressed when the fear or intimidation of physical psychiatric machines and treatments are removed from their thoughts of treatment. The causes of depression are mostly seen not just mentally on patients but also physically.

Studies show that people with depression have high risks of developing obesity, or on the opposite side, uncommon loss weight loss proving the pertinence of physical effects that depression can cause. It also increases risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in people. However the causes differ from the effects (obviously) because these health issues develop as result of depression but there are connections of the effects to the causes (Nordqvist, 5). Being adept to the effects can jump-start other causes for people.

Depression causes, as previously stated, fatigue, loss in interest, changed appetite and abnormal sleep, but also has had cases where loss of sexual desire, lack of attention, constant feelings of anxiety, pessimism, hopelessness, and restlessness with irritability occur (“Depression”, 2-3). All of these are key signs to tell if a person has depression, if one or two of these issues are present there is no need for alarm, especially if they only last for a few hours infrequently. However if around 4-7 of these symptoms are shown and they are reoccurring or even all the time then there is a large chance that the person is depressed.

Depression really affects people who have it physical and emotionally and it has just as much of an effect on their loved ones too. It slows down everyone’s life around them and denial or negligence toward what is really occurring is very common when a family member or someone you generally see every day starts to suffer from depression (“Depression”, 9). The good side is how curable and how continually researched the field of depression treatment and understanding it is and how much progression has already came and how much is sure to come in the future.

An illness with the severity, along with the commonness of depression is rare to come across. In the US 6. 7% of adults are diagnosed with depression annually and that’s not including all the cases where people assume nothing is wrong and don’t go to see a doctor, which happens with a lot of people (“Depression”, 3). If you come across someone you feel could be depressed it is your duty to try and motivate that person to go to the doctors and to make sure they attempt to get better because sometimes it is the people that the victims are living with that are holding them back from seeing doctors.

Just as bad as the people diagnosed with depression don’t want to face the facts sometimes, neither do the people closest to them. Depression can lead to death in some cases where its victims get thoughts of suicide and even get the means to act on them. Depending on how sever ones case is can effect if they get these thoughts or not but regardless it could happen to any depression victim so symptoms must be caught in time to stop the thoughts from advancing into action.

The causes of depression rely on environment, genetic makeup, and ones ability to relate to people or lack of ability to. And the symptoms of depression, as explained before, are lack of interest, fatigue, as well as appetite and sleep changes so the causes as well as symptoms have impactful physical changes on people and obviously mental ones as well (“Depression”, 2). There is always hope to be cured once diagnosed with depression but there has to be effort from the victim and the ones close, it is really hard to live with somebody who is depressed, and all people can do it give support.

Prohibition DBQ college essay help service: college essay help service

The prohibition movement occurred during the era of progressive reform. The Eighteenth Amendment and its accompanying act, the Volstead Act, brought about the ideas of the prohibitionists. Though there were some negatives setbacks to the prohibition movement, the movement was ultimately a success because of the widening support for the Anti-Saloon League. The prohibition movement received much support from the Anti-Saloon League. Alcohol and saloons were very closely related. The Anti-Saloon League developed a strong distaste to saloons in the United States, causing them to back prohibition.

Some believed that the saloon lobby was always found in alliance with every other corrupt and evil influence (Document G). This showed the corrupt correlation between alcohol and legislature. Many believed that saloons should be kept away from industries with hazardous characters and with men who work at night time, and kept away from places where girls or adult women may pass (Document D). Saloons degraded women by having pictures of life-sized naked women in the saloon (Document A). This mentality continued to be shown away from saloons when men would believe that a woman’s only place is the home (Document P).

This showed the negative impacts saloons could have on the rest of society. A majority began to agree with the Anti-Saloon League. The Anti-Saloon League tried to appeal to members of church, as these people were higher supports of the prohibition movement. Every step the country was taking was regarded as an act of Divine intervention (Document L). It was shown that clergymen supported prohibition more than members of any other profession (Document J). These men believed that deliverance would come, but it would come from the sober (Document I).

Many people also believed that regardless of their view on prohibition, they should pay tribute to the “efficiency and courage” of the churches in this fight (Document Q). This just shows the effect and support churches had on the prohibition movement. Thus, it only makes sense that the Anti-Saloon League would appeal to members of church. The Anti-Saloon League also spread facts to add more members. They showed how children with more alcoholic parents had a higher chance of having brain defects (Document B).

The Anti-Saloon League helped spread the notion that alcohol was bad for the country in every way (Document S). This helped many people to start to see the problems caused by alcohol. People started to see that alcohol should not be used as a tonic or source of medicine (Document C). People also started to see the negative economic ramifications caused by alcohol. The league also used “practical politics” to gain information about their voters (Document O). The Anti-Saloon League’s advertising worked. In 1910 37.

8% of prohibitionist leaders resided in places with 100,000 or more occupants (Document K) and in 1917 very few states were still considered “wet” (Document M). The Anti-Saloon League was successful in spreading its facts to the rest of the country and gaining higher support for the prohibition cause. The prohibition movement did receive minor setbacks; however, the movement was ultimately a success. This was most definitely because of the zeal and determination of the Anti-Saloon League. In the end, the Anti-Saloon League and its followers gave the prohibition movement the push it needed to pass the 18th Amendment.

Capstone essay help websites: essay help websites

While there are numerous staffing decisions that involve investigating the outcomes for large groups of employees, the many of the most important decisions involve only one position and a small number of applicants. The current case examines just such a case for a particularly important location for Tanglewood.

You will read through a series of resumes, look over reports made during interviews, and investigate the results of several standardized measures of employee suitability. This case thus integrates information from several earlier cases that have involved making an appropriate choice of measures, but now applying it with a specific group of individuals. From these multiple pieces of data, you will develop a recommendation for hiring. You also will develop guidelines for how similar selection decisions could be made for the entire organization.

The situation of interest

You have been asked by Tanglewood to assist them with an important hiring decision. The company needs a new manager for their flagship store in Spokane. This position is important for a number of reasons. First, this is the single largest store in the chain, with approximately double the floor space of other locations. The Spokane store has shown very strong revenues for years.

This store also has important symbolic value. This store is only a few blocks from the first Tanglewood store. Recent remodeling efforts have also made this one of the most elaborate stores in terms of appearance, with features like an open kitchen restaurant where all the food is prepared and served using Burford Kitchen maters, an outdoor adventure area with a rock wall and a live kayak simulator, and quarterly demonstrations of the latest clothing options that will be presented in other stores. Nearly all managers will spend at least sometime working in the Spokane store as part of their initial training.

Finally, the store is commonly used as a first testing ground for new products. It is an ideal location for this option, because it is one of the most representative locations. Because it is on the outer edge of Spokane, many customers are from suburban areas, but because of its size and unique features, urban and rural customers who make the trip to the store as well. This means that this store is closely aligned with the corporate marketing function, and good managers must understand how to do marketing and promotions from the bottom up.

The applicants

Because this is such an important position, Marilyn Gonzalez arranged to have all candidates complete the full battery of proposed selection tools. The importance of this position also has lead the stores to conduct a closed recruiting operation. Only twenty individuals were contacted as potential sources. The internal candidates were contacted through referrals made by regional managers, whereas the external candidates were based on nominations from individuals in the corporate offices.

You have received résumés, retail knowledge tests, standardized test scores from the Marshfield Applicant Exam, biographical data, and scores on several personality dimensions for the 10 individuals from the initial applicant pool who expressed a strong interest in the position. This information is all available in the attached Tables in the Appendix.

Future practice

There are several questions the company has about its future hiring practices for store managers as well. It is clear that there will be a substantial revision to the collection of information from applicants based on your recommendations from Case 3. This does not completely resolve the problem of how a final selection decision will be made.

The current method for selection in managerial positions involves a two stage process that bears some resemblance to the process for hiring store associates, but at a higher level. There will of course be interviews in the process, but the organization needs more information about how to assess individuals before they go on to the final interview process, because managerial interviews are very expensive in terms of staff time.

Specific Assignment Details

It will be incumbent on you to present several options regarding how this hiring decision should proceed. This is a very important decision, so Tanglewood would like you to provide several different possible selection schemes.

1. Develop a detailed selection plan for this position. Determine what you want to measure by analyzing KSAOs from the job description and the information on organizational culture in the case, and fitting the selection measures into the plan format as shown in Exhibit 8.2 in the book. The assessment methods you should consider in the selection plan are biodata, the Marshfield Applicant Examination, Retail Knowledge, conscientiousness, and extraversion.

2. Develop assessment scores based on several multiple predictor methods described in your book. This entails developing distinct scores for each applicant based on clinical prediction, unit weighting, and rational weighting schemes. For each method, develop a list of your top three finalists to provide to the regional manager. Compare these to a multiple hurdle selection procedure that uses test scores as a first stage to find the five strongest candidates, and then uses interviews and résumés to select the top three finalists. Which of the methods do you believe works best? Why?

3. You are making a recommendation for who should be considered a candidate for hiring based on your read of the data. Using your recommendations, Tanglewood will develop a panel of individuals who will be involved in the final selection decision with interviews. Who do you think should be involved in this process from Tanglewood based on the discussion of decision makers in the textbook? What does each decision maker add to the process? You should consult the organizational structure information in the introduction

4. Based on the three previous portions of the assignment, develop an official guide to selection that can be supplied to all the stores. This official guide should provide the information from the selection plan, suggestions for how to combine predictors, and guidelines for managers on who should be involved in the final decision. The decision makers do not necessarily need to be the same ones participating in the selection decision for the Spokane flagship store.

Your actual write-up should be only 2 pages. (single space) But you must include supporting material in the form of charts/tables/appendices/exhibits – use whatever makes sense for what you are proposing. YOUR

Mother tongue writing an essay help: writing an essay help

ABSTRACT The study aims to know how the different elementary schools in La Trinidad on the implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education Program and if the students perform higher on the assessment after the implementation of Mother Tongue Based-Multi Lingual Education (MTBMLE), compared to the Old Curriculum. The MTBMLE is now on its two years of its implementation. As conceptualized by the Department of Education, the MLE does not mean simply adding a third language to the existing bilingual policy nor will it be confined to mere code switching and translation.

Rather, curriculum content as well as organizational structures are to be redesigned (Cardenas). Localization is the best word to define the DepEd MTBMLE Program, by bringing the learners mother tongue as a medium of instruction and as subject in the curriculum, or it localized the language of learning. This movement of localization constitutes a sharp departure in the public school system’s language in education policy that for too long privileged only the colonial language and the national languages as language of learning.

“The localized curriculum content of the learner’s language and culture is considered as an important resource for their development and effective learning. This is not only aim for mother tongue mastery in writing original materials and translating borrowed ones, but also cultural relevance so that the local writings, they produce reflect local people, events and realities, and are appropriate to the culture of the learner”(Cardenas). It is being supported by Walter & Dekker, 2011.

In their study at Lubuagan: “In this Lubuagan experience could provide instructive lesson, where teachers were bridged from reading and writing language to their own language”. The adaptation of foreign works such as books and literature in the Philippines is largely influence by our colonial mentality, that foreign works are better than ours. And the schools in the country have no local materials. This disheartening reality is observed and proved by Dekker, 2012: “Adoption of existing literature, more than adaptation or original authorship, seems to be the norm in instructional materials production at this point.

Perhaps, this might be partially explained by the fact that the teachers have never written in their home language so strong creative writing skills in any language have not develop our own language. Background of the Study Many Filipino learners face barriers in education. One of these barriers is that our learners often begin their education in a language they do not understand. Because they do not understand the language of education, many learners become discouraged and tend to drop-out from school. Content of material is often culturally distant or unfamiliar to the learners.

The limited education that learners receive does not prepare them for lifelong learning. This is the reason why the government implements the Mother Tongue. But What is Mother Tongue? Mother Tongue, according to Oxford Dictionary: “is the language that a person has grown up speaking from early childhood”. And according to Tulasiewicz,W. et. al (2005): “It is the language community of the mother tongue, the language spoken in a region, which enables the process of enculturation, the growing of an individual into a particular system of linguistic perception of the world and participation in the centuries old history of linguistic production.

” But the usage of the term may be very according to the purpose as supported by Pokorn (2005), “The general usage of the term ‘mother tongue’ . . . denotes not only the language one learns from one’s mother, but also the speaker’s dominant and home language, i. e. not only the first language according to the time of acquisition, but the first with regard to its importance and the speaker’s ability to master its linguistic and communicative aspects. ”. Mother tongue-based multilingual education (MLE) is a formal or nonformal education, in which the children’s mother tongue is used in the classroom as a bridge in learning Filipino and English.

Children begin their education in a language they understand, their mother tongue, and develop a strong foundation in their mother language. What is the effect of mother tongue to performance of the students? Local and internationals studies have shown that using the mother tongue inside the classroom during the learners’ early years of schooling produce better and faster learners who can easily adapt to learn a second (Filipino) and third language (English).

The purpose of a multilingual education program is to develop appropriate cognitive and reasoning skills enabling children to operate equally in different languages – starting in the mother tongue with transition to Filipino and then English. It is the structured program of language learning and cognitive development which provides learners with a strong educational foundation in the first language. If the mother tongue is not used, we create people who are illiterate in two languages.

Children do not become sufficiently fluent in their mother tongue (L1) in both oracy and literacy if their vocabulary in L1 is limited, thus restricting their ability to learn a second language (L2). A strong foundation in L1 is required for learning L2. Children’s understanding of concepts is limited or confused if leaning is only L2. The benefits of MLE include following: ? Reduced drop-out ? Reduced repetition ? Children are attending school. ? Children are learning. ? Parents and community are involved. ? It is more cost – effective to implement mother tongue programs.

In the Philippine setting the Mother Tongue is being implemented by the Department of Education in the School Year: 2012-2013 through the R. A. 105333. The Republic Act No. 10533 signed by President Aquino last May 15, 2013, states that: “the basic education shall be conducted in the learner’s native languages throughout kindergarten and the elementary grades. English and Filipino shall be gradually introduced beginning Grade 4 until such time that these can become the primary languages of instruction at the secondary level.

The country’s native languages, including Filipino sign language of our Deaf population, have been given official status through the institutionalization of mother tongue-based multilingual instruction in our education system”. This policy is under the Mother Tongue based-Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) is being implemented under the K to 12 Basic Education Program According to Education Secretary Armin Luistro, in addition to the languages of instruction mentioned in DepEd Order No. 16 series of 2012, “Guidelines on the implementation of the Mother Tongue Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) under the K to 12 Basic Education Program .

The use of the same language spoken at home, in the early grades, helps improve the pupils’ language and cognitive development in addition to strengthening their socio-cultural awareness. And it was supported by Secretary of the Department Of Education-Bro. Armin Luistro, FSC: “Mas madaling matutunan ‘yong konsepto ‘pag ang ginagamit ay ‘yong kanilang nakagisnang wika… Kahit ano ‘yung kanilang karunungan sa bahay, ito po ‘yung ating tinatanggap, na ito po ‘yung kanilang initial na kaalaman at walang mali doon. ” (It is easy to learn those concepts if we use the language that they had grown up.

Even though they have different knowledge in their home, these are what we are accepting, these are their initial knowledge and there is nothing wrong with it. ) During a language conference, Secretary of Education Armin Luistro talked about Mother Tongue-Based Multi-lingual Education (MTBMLE)—a feature of the Enhanced Basic Education Program which mandates the use of the language that pupils are familiar with (their first language) as medium of instruction to make it easier for young students to grasp basic concepts.

The mother tongue as a subject focuses on the development of reading and speaking from Grades 1 to 3. As a medium of instruction the mother tongue is used in all learning areas from Kinder to Grade 3 except in the teaching of Filipino and English subjects. Filipino is introduced in the first semester of Grade 1 for oral fluency (speaking). For reading and writing purposes, it will be taught beginning in the second semester of Grade 1. The four other macro skills which are listening, speaking, reading and writing in Filipino will continuously be developed from Grades 2 to 6.

According to the Department of Education, the local languages used in MTB-MLE are Tagalog; Kapampangan; Pangasinense; Ilocano; Bikol; Cebuano; Hiligaynon; Waray; Tausug; Maguindanaoan; Maranao; Chabacano; Ybanag for pupils in Tuguegarao City, Cagayan, and Isabela; Ivatan for the Batanes Group; Sambal in Zambales; Aklanon in Aklan, Capiz; Kinaray-a in Capiz, Aklan; Yakan in Autonomous Region Muslim Mindanao and Surigaonon covering Surigao City and provinces. The MTB-MLE is implemented in two modules: 1) as a learning/subject area and 2) as medium of instruction.

At present the DepEd has teaching materials in Bahasa-Sug, Bicolano, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray-waray and is developing materials in Ybanag, Ivatan, Sambal, Aklanon, Kinaray-a, Yakan, and Surigaonon. Statement of the Problem The purpose of the study is to know the result of implementation of the Mother Tongue in different schools at La Trinidad, if the school complies to the DepEd with the implementation of MTB-MLE Policy. Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1.

What Mother Tongue Language the school and the Teacher used in the Implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education program? 2. How is MTB-MLE implemented in the level of: a) a medium of instruction? b). as a subject? 3. How is the improvement of student’s performance in school? 4. How reliable the MTB-MLE curriculum compared to the old curriculum? 5. How useful or beneficial the MTB-MLE Program on the part of the student and the teacher? Objectives of the Study Specifically the objectives of the study were as follows: 1. To determine the Mother Tongue used by the Teacher and the School during Implementation of MTBMLE; 2.

To determine if the MTBMLE is implemented as medium of instruction; 3. To determine the improvement of students performance in school; 4. To determine the reliability of the MTBMLE curriculum compared to the old curriculum; and 5. To find out how useful or beneficial the MTBMLE Program on the part of the student and the teacher. Significance of the Study Among those who will benefit from this study are the teachers of grades one to three, school administrators, and implementer’s of the MTBMLE. The Teachers of grade one to three will be the main benefactor of this study.

The results of the study School administrators will also benefit from this study because they could adjust the curriculum to give emphasis on what is really needed in the implementation of the MTBMLE. It will also serve as an eye opener to the administrators and planners of the MTBMLE on how they would adjust to the problem encountered during the implementation. Scope and Delimitations of the Study The focus of this study will be the Implementation of MTBMLE at the Public and Private Elementary Schools in La Trinidad on its second year of Implementation.

The names of the schools are: Central Balili Elementary School; BSU Elementary Laboratory School; Buyagan Elementary School; Central Balili Wesleyan Academy; Nazarene Learner’s Center This Study will only include the teacher of Grade one to Two, and principals who are teaching in public schools and private schools in the selected School in La Trinidad area and for classroom discussion only. The numbers of the respondents are only 7, who represent their respective school. Meanwhile this study will not include the other Elementary Schools in La Trinidad besides the Schools mention above. The study also excludes the teacher of grade three.

The data will be gathered by formal interview and interview schedule and after the researcher interview the respondents. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE What is language? According to the Webster Dictionary, language is the body of words and expressions used and understood by a large group of people; a form and manner of expression in words. To Paras, language is a tool in achieving a better society, but in a circumstance where two different “better society” are envisioned for a single nation. What is Mother Tongue? Mother Tongue is the first language spoken by people or so called the first language.

To develop the first language of a student, the Department of Education (DepEd) implements a policy, the Mother-Tongue Based Multilingual Education Program (MTBMLE). According to this policy, DepEd Order No. 74 aims to empower each of the more than 170 languages of the Philippines towards an easy mastery of the official languages which will ultimately produce globally competent Filipinos who can speak the “global Language” and will therefore, be a huge aid in the economic progress of the country. How important is language? Language can be a powerful tool to create peace and war, organize people and build a country and to show nationalism.

However language can also create regionalism, conflict, and especially it is s tool of conquering a country. In the time of the Americans, they used English language to miseducate the Filipinos; this statement is supported by Paras. According to her, “when the Americans first came to conquer the Philippines, they penetrate the country through the establishment of the education system was easy because there was nothing solid”. In the first place was to make penetration hard. Aside from the fact that the country is multilingual and multicultural; did not have a national language or whole concept of nationalism.

It was divided in the first place, making it easy to conquer. According to Fe Enriques and Murcelino, 1984 as cited by Paras, It’s through education that the US was able to shape the mind of the Filipino people. With American textbooks, Filipinos started learning not only a new language but also a new life. It has been proven effective that the Filipinos use English as the best language. Most of the educated Filipinos use English language in formal transactions, in offices, in the Senate discussion, or anywhere. They felt that in speaking English, they are smarter than other.

Other Filipino professionals keep on using English language even though his/her companion answer them in their native language. There is also the “English Speaking Policy” in schools or in offices. In schools which implement the policy, ones a student is caught speaking in his/her native language, he will be summon in the principal’s office for penalties but the worst is they could be expelled from the school. One incident, in connection in the policy is in a private school in Laoag, Ilocos Norte where a student caught speaking in his native language in the school zone and he was expelled from the school.

Proven by the statement of Phillipson (1992), to the ordinary people, it may seem harmless that English language was imposed to be the medium of instruction. It may even seem grand. It promises goods and services to those who accept it- science and technology, modernity, efficiency, rationality, progress, a great civilization. It is approved by Constantino (1966), “If people use a language that is foreign to them, they will become distant socially and culturally from their motherland and this will therefore be a perfect venue for the colonizers to penetrate the country.

So great has our disorientation caused by our colonial education that the use of our own language is a controversial issue with more Filipinos against the use of our own language in educational setting than in favor. According to Isabel Perflunco Martin in her research, English and Englishes Approach to MTBMLE, she discussed the myths about English language in the Philippines. One myth she discussed was English cures all economic ailments. This myth is true to some Filipino because they believe that if a person knows how to speak English he is regarded as a rich and on the higher level of living.

The DepEd want to wipe out this belief so they implement the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education program. They implement the MTBMLE starting on the school year 2012-2013 as part of the Medium Term Development Goal of EPA 2015. Operational Definition of Terms The following terms are defined as used in the study. Activities It is the specific tasks or assignment to be performed by the pupils. Basic Education Curriculum This is a form of tool which will stand as one point of learning areas as adequate for the development of competencies starting from basic education up to the second level of which renounced as high school.

This focus more on developing knowledge, skills, habits and attitudes through the guidance of educationalist assigned. Bilingual Having or expressed in two languages. Comprehension It is the ability of understanding what one reads. Curriculum It the sum of all learning content, experiences and resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development. It referred to as a body of subjects offered to finish a course of study. First Language It is the language that a person has grown up speaking from early childhood.

This refers to the language first acquired by the learner, sometimes referred to as the mother tongue. Instructional materials This refers to the whole package prepared by the teacher/ researcher which includes visual aids, activities, strategies and instructional guide. Instructional modules This includes the activities and corresponding strategies. Institutionalization It is the act or process of establishing something as a custom or common practice. Language Is the body of words and expressions used and understood by a large group of people; a form and manner of expression in words.

It is a tool in achieving a better society, but in a circumstance where two different “better society” are envisioned for a single nation. Localization The principle that specific functions have relatively circumscribed locations. Medium of Instruction It is the language used in teaching. Mother Tongue It is the language community of the mother tongue, the language spoken in a region, which enables the process of enculturation, the growing of an individual into a particular system of linguistic perception of the world and participation in the centuries old history of linguistic production.

Mother tongue-based multilingual education (MLE) It is a formal or non-formal education, in which the children’s mother tongue is used in the classroom as a bridge in learning Filipino and English. Multilingual Using or expressed in several. Reading readiness This is a level where the learner is ready to read with comprehension of what s/he is reading. Second language Any language, especially a hybrid language, used as a trade or communication medium by people speaking different language. Sociocultural Relating to, or involving a combination of social and cultural factors.

Subject It is the particularly to a limited and definitely stated subject often having or some part of it. METHODOLOGY This chapter discusses the research design, the locale of the study, the respondents’ profile, the instrumentation procedures, data collection and data analysis procedures. Research Design In this research, the researcher will use the descriptive qualitative research method, as directed toward ascertain condition that prevail a case in the study. The descriptive method of research was employed in the study through the use of a structured questionnaire.

According to Campbell (1963), descriptive method of research describes and interprets what is concerned with conditions of relationships that exist, practices that prevail, beliefs, processes that are going on, and effects that are being felt or trends that are developing. It involves the elements of interpretation of meaning or significance of what is described. The descriptive research method is meant to illustrate a point through the use of a structured questionnaire, in depth interview and content analysis about the implementation of the MTBMLE in La Trinidad.

Location of the Study The study was conducted in the Public and Private Schools of La Trinidad, Benguet such as Benguet State University- Elementary Laboratory School located at BSU Compound, Km. 5, Pico; Buyagan Elementary School in ; Central Balili Elementary School and Central Balili Wesleyan Academy in Central Balili, Balili; and Nazarene Learners’ Center in Teachers, Students, and Parents use Ilocano as their lingua franca in elementary schools located in La Trinidad, Benguet. Respondents of the Study

The study focused on the 5 teachers of Grade 1&2 and two principals of public and private elementary schools. These persons will be the respondents and they will give the necessary information that the researcher would want to gather. Table 1: Demographic Profile of the Respondents NAME OF RESPONDENT SCHOOL Teachers POSITION PUBLIC PRIVATE R1. Antonio G. Cadag Central Balili Elementary School —————————- Principal R2. Rose Divindo BSU Elementary Laboratory School —————————- 1 R3. Ninia Milo Buyagan Elementary School

—————————- 2 R4. Isabel Dagasen ————————- Central Balili Wesleyan Academy Principal R5. Harriet Pacsay ————————- Central Balili Wesleyan Academy 1 R6. Juanita Nieves ————————- Central Balili Wesleyan Academy 2 R7. Vanessa Abellera ————————- Nazarene Learner’s Center 1 Table 1 shows the demographic profile of the respondents. Based on the data, there are 7 respondents, three (3) of them are from public schools and four (4) are from private schools.

There are two (2) principals, three (3) Grade 1 teachers and four (4) Grade 2 teachers. Instrumentation An interview schedule was used in this study. Through following the interview questionnaire guide, data and pertinent information were gathered on the respondent’s profile, jobs that they have undergone before teaching, their employment status as of today, the subjects that they have taught, the difficulties they encountered in teaching, and the strategies they have used to solve their problems in teaching. Data Gathering Procedure

Data and significant information were collected by interviewing the respondents. The interview schedule and observation technique were the tools used in data gathering data. Before the interview, the interviewer explained to the respondent the objective of the study and any information obtained from the respondent will be treated with utmost confidentiality. The interviewer also got permission from the principal of the school and the teacher if they are willing and cooperative to be a respondent in this particular study.

The researcher personally conducted the interview at the respondents’ preferred time and location. Data Analysis The researchers used qualitative interpretation of the collected data. In analyzing the data, the Social Anthropology Approach (Mile and Huberman, 1994) was used. This approach is used to provide a specific and descriptions across varied sources and it also seeks to develop or test existing theories. In this study, the situation or context of the Second Year implementation of Mother Tongue was described in relation to the concepts discussed in the Conceptual Framework.

The Social Anthropology Approach has three steps in arriving at a truly qualitatively analyzed data and these are: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing for verification. In data reduction, the researcher needs to look for themes of the respondents responses. In the data display, the data on the personal profile was summarized on a table form. The other data was presented on a table and was discussed after each table. The last step is the drawing of conclusions in which the relationships or links based on the data became the foundation in arriving at conclusions basing to the concepts that brought about this study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATION This part of the study presents the data in accordance with the specific problems or objectives of the study. First, the mother tongue used by the teacher at the classroom discussion. Second, the strategies used by the teacher. Third, the instructional materials used by the teacher. Fourth, the teacher most preferred curriculum. Fifth, the improvement on the students’ performance. Sixth, the language used by the teacher in giving an assessment.

Seventh, the problem that the teachers encounter during the implementation of the Mother Tongue. Lastly, if the program is beneficial to the teacher or not. The data gathered are then discussed, analyzed, and interpreted textually. Table 2: Mother Tongue Language Used MOTHER TONGUE FREQUENCY % RESPONDENTS Cordillera Ilocano 6 85. 70 R1,R2,R3,R4,R5, R6 Filipino 1 14. 30 R7 Results and Discussion Table 2 shows the mother tongue use in the implementation of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) program.

According to the collected data there are two (2) mother tongue languages specified as Cordillera Ilocano and Filipino, six (6) respondents answered that they use the Cordillera Ilocano which is 85. 70% and one (1) respondent answered Filipino which is 14. 30%. Cordillera Ilocano is widely used at the region as the lingua franca or the regional language. According to Divindo (2013), she used the Cordillera Ilocano in teaching the students during the classroom discussion because our School- BSU ELS, is composed of a diverged students, “Cordillera Ilocano is widely used here at La Trinidad not the Ilocano of the Ilocos Region”.

It is being supported by the DepEd: “feature of the Enhanced Basic Education Program which mandates the use of the language that pupils are familiar with (their first language) as medium of instruction to make it easier for young students to grasp basic concepts”. Tagalog is used by some of the private school because of their curriculum, but the principal and the administrators of the schools are the one who will determine, if they implement the Ilocano as a Mother Tongue and it is also the initiative of the teacher if they use the MTB at the classroom discussion.

According to Abellera (2013),the School did not implement the MTB Policy due to the reason that the school had its own curriculum, the Administrators of the school are the one who determine if we implement the MTB Policy here at Nazarene, but I used it (MTB) in explaining to the students the words or sentence in Ilocano if the student did not understand it in English/Filipino or in the translation of words. Cordillera Ilocano is the first language used, based on the analysis with a percentage of 85.

70% ranked as first most used mother tongue language in the implementation of MTBMLE program in public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad, followed by Filipino with a percentage of 14. 30% ranked as second most used mother tongue language. The difference in the average on the usage of mother tongue language in public and private elementary school in La Trinidad can be attributed to the most used language in the municipality of La Trinidad. The more varied mother tongue language used in implementing MTBMLE in public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad.

This results corroborates to the statement of Cardenas (2012), as conceptualized, the MLE does not mean simply adding a third language to the existing bilingual policy nor will it be confined to mere code switching and translation. Rather, curriculum content is to be localized, with the learner’s language and culture considered as resources for their sociocultural development and effective learning. Findings Cordillera Ilocano is the dominant language used by the teacher in La Trinidad as a medium of instruction in the classroom discussion from Grade one (1) & two (2).

Not all private school implement the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) program as a whole, they used it in translation and explaining the word that the student do not understand. Cordillera Ilocano should use as a Mother Tongue Instruction at the school where the students are diverse not the Ilocano of Ilocos Region due to the reason that the construction and pronunciation of the two Ilocano dialects is not the same. The Mother tongue that is being dominant at certain place must be use at the classroom instruction, like the: Kankanaey and other major languages.

It does not only focus in the 19 languages that are being implemented by the DepEd to be used as a classroom instruction. Conclusion Ilocano is the dominant mother tongue language used in Public and Private Elementary Schools in La Trinidad. Recommendation Public schools may use the most dominant mother tongue language in a classroom with a diverse student. Table 3: Implementation of Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education program as a subject and as a medium of instruction FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONDENTS

Both as a medium of instruction and as a subject 7 100 “Us-usaren me nu ag-ited kami ti instruction ken direction, itranslate mi ngay nu haan da maawatan. ” (We use it when we give instructions and directions, we translate it when they don’t understand it. ” (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7) “ Adda ti subject mi ngem 15 minutes lang” (we have a subject but its only 15 minutes) “Wen, us-usaren mi nga instruction santo adda ti subject mi. ” (Yes, we use it us a medium of instruction and we have a subject. ) (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7)

Results and Discussion Table 3 shows the implementation of MTBMLE program among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad as a medium of instruction and as a subject. Based on the collected data, the school implemented the Mother Tongue both as a subject and as medium of instruction is widely used by the teacher in teaching to the student. According to Cadag (2013), they teach Cordillera Ilocano as a subject and as a medium of instruction in the entire subject except English and Filipino.

Mother tongue language, such as Cordillera Ilocano, is fully used as a medium of instruction most especially when translating and giving instructions or directions. As Pacsay (2013), said that “For example when we are giving activities, we usually use Ilocano in giving a directions. ” This results corroborates the statement of Benson (2009), “children who have the opportunity to learn through their mother tongue language have the best chance of understanding what is taught, making connection between the spoken and the written word and participating in their own learning.

” Findings Cordillera Ilocano used both as a subject and as a medium of instruction at the Classroom discussion except in Filipino and English Subject, but some of the teachers use it in translation of Filipino and English Words. Conclusion The dominant Mother Tongue language used by the teachers as a Medium of Instruction and as subject in public elementary schools in La Trinidad is Cordillera Ilocano Recommendation Mother Tongue is used not only for the translation of words in English subject as pure translation it defeated the purpose or the objectives of chapter lesson.

The private elementary schools might want to use the mother tongue as a medium of instruction and as a subject on their curriculum. Table 4: Instructional Materials used in Implementation of MTBMLE program (Teacher-provided; DepEd-provided; both) INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FREQUENCY % RANK SAMPLE RESPONSE Both (Teacher and DepEd provided) 6 85. 71 1 “We make and provide instructional materials like flashcards of alphabets with translations, activity sheets and big books using the Ilocano language. ” (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6) DepEd- provided 1 14. 29 2 “They only provided the Curriculum guides, hand-outs and manual.

” (R7) Results and Discussion Table 4 shows the instructional materials used in implementation of MTBMLE program among public and private elementary schools respondents in La Trinidad. According on the data, Both the DepEd and teacher provided the most used instructional with a percentage of 85. 71%, followed by DepEd-provided instructional materials with a percentage of 14. 29%. The data shows that both the DepEd and teacher provided instructional materials are widely used by the teacher in public and private school in La Trinidad during the implementation of MTBMLE. According to Cadag (2013), she

said that “the textbook that provided by the DepEd are in Ilocano and Ibaloi. The modules are also provided that was delivered last week”. This result can be attributed to the resourcefulness of the teacher in making the Instructional Materials. The module that provided by the DepED as instructional materials are downloadable module and the lifespan of the module is good for only the first two quarter. This statement is being supported by the respondents, they said that “The module that is being provided by the DepED lasts for the first two grading’s only and that module is downloadable from the internet, and it’s only for the grade one.

Lastly the module is in Tagalog, so we had to translate it in Ilocano because the Instructional material comes from the Central office of DepEd”. This result corroborates the statement of Lopez, “It can be concluded that the mother tongue-based early literacy assessment tools which include assessments on both reading and writing such as letter identification, word reading, understanding about continuous text or story writing could determine the early literacy achievement of Ilocano children” Findings

The instructional materials used by the teacher are provided by the DepEd and teacher made for the Private School and the same with the Public School. Some of the schools especially in public received a textbook about the Mother Tongue from the DepEd but it was provided by the DepEd after a year during the implementation of MTBMLE. Conclusion Teachers from the public and private elementary schools make and provide their own instructional materials and also use the instructional materials provided by the DepEd. Recommendation

The DepEd provide the Instructional Materials (MTB-MLE) complete in all the first three level of Elementary before the start of the school year so that the teacher and the students used it during the full span of the School Year. Table 5: Most Liked Curriculum CURRICULUM FREQUENCY % RANK SAMPLE RESPONSE Basic Education Curriculum (K to 10 BEC) 5 71. 43 1 “ Old Curriculum because we cannot still see the result of the new curriculum” (R3, R4, R5, R6) “Old, because how can you teach your lesson if you don’t know how to speak Ilocano and the students can’t understand it. (R7) MTB-MLE (K-12) 2 28. 57 2

“New, because you can express your idea in your own language. ” (R1,R2) Results and Discussion Table 5 shows the most liked curriculum respondents from public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. The percentage ranges from 28. 57% to 71. 43%. The old curriculum or the basic education curriculum is ranked as the 1 with 71. 43% described as the most liked curriculum out ranking the new curriculum the K-12 curriculum (MTBMLE) with a percentage of 28. 57%. Similarly, the data shows variation on the perceptions of public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad on different curriculums.

This variation can be attributed to the reasons that the Public and Private school had a different curriculum; the teachers preferred the Old Curriculum because they master the skills on how to teach it in English and Filipino or the bilingual policy; the curriculum are new to them; and they did not see the actual result of the new curriculum; and lastly most of the teachers who preferred the Old Curriculum came from the Private Schools. One of the respondents states that “the BEC is better compared to the new curriculum. The problem is the MTB curriculum is experimental”, She said this to critique the new Curriculum.

Doplon states that “A critique of the policy is that mother tongue is only means to an end and not seen as end in itself. It is a scaffold but not the primary language of learning. This first language is just a first language that will be blanketed by a second and a third language. The Mother Tongue seen as a scaffold- at the service of the English language”. This result corroborates to the findings of Doplon, he said that “The model of excellence Program of the Department Education (2004), teachers are required to speak in English all the time and forbidden to code switch.

This is also seen in project TURN (DepEd,2008) as evidence by the efforts to improve the English Proficiency of teachers who teach subjects whose medium of instruction is English”. When we compared them to the teachers, who preferred the new curriculum they came from Public Schools, and the Public School allowed the used of Multi Lingual Instruction at the classroom setting from the start before the implementation of the MTB-MLE. Findings

Most of the Respondents prefer the Basic Education Curriculum-Bilingual Education Policy of the DepEd, than the K-12 MTB-MLE-Multi Lingual Policy because most of them are Teachers from the Private Schools, where they are required by the Administrators of the school to use the English and Filipino as a medium of Instruction. The teachers who preferred the MTBMLE curriculum came from the Public Schools. Conclusion Private elementary schools prefer the Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) while the public elementary schools prefer the K-12 Curriculum (MTBMLE). Recommendation

The Curriculum Mother tongue Base Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) stakeholders may supervise and monitor every public and private elementary schools within La Trinidad,Benguet on the implementation the MTBMLE program. Table 6: Improvement on performance of students among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad IMPROVEMENT FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONSE Slight 6 85. 71 “Slightly, specifically in using Ilocano to understand English words. ” (R1, R2, R3) “Improved in their oral reading from Ilocano to English”. (R4,R5) “Slightly improved in reading Filipino and English”.

(R7) None 1 14. 29 “Awan, parehas met metlang” (None, it’s almost the same)(R6) Results and Discussion Table 6 shows the level of improvement on performance of the students among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. Slight improvement has a percentage of 57. 17% and followed by no improvement with 85. 71%. Slight improvement outranked the no improvement with 14. 29%. Similarly, five (6) public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad observed slight improvement in the performance of students and one (1) private elementary school observed no improvement at all.

The data shows variation on the improvement on the performance of students. This result can be attributed to the reason that the use of Mother Tongue helps the student to understand the lesson compared when the medium of instruction used is English or Filipino. According to Cadag (2013, he stated that “using the lingua franca of the students helps them to understand and know the meaning of the English word such as the translation of English vocabulary words into Cordillera Ilocano.

Furthermore, using the Mother Tongue as an instruction improves the students to analyze and easily understand the instructions being given by the teachers in administering a quiz, exam, and activities. ” Abellera,(2013) a grade one teacher stated that “I used English as the medium of instruction in classroom discussion, if some of the students did not understand the topic , so I needed to translate it to Filipino. Sometimes, I used Ilocano if I that not all of my students did not understand the lesson.

” This result corroborates the statement of Dumatong and Dekker (2003) on their study at Lubuagan found out that “by using the students’ mother tongue in the classroom to teach literacy, skills and as well as subject content, the cognitive skills would be developed and by teaching concepts in mother tongue, the students would exposed to comprehensible input and enabled to develop concepts further. ” Findings The respondents observed a slight improvement at the students’ performance by using the Mother Tongue through the transition, reading and understanding the words from Ilocano to English.

Conclusion There is a slight improvement in the performance of the student through reading and understanding the words from Ilocano to English during the second year implementation of the MTBMLE program. Recommendation Apart from the respondent’s recommendations; in order to improve the students, and teachers academic performances, more books are needed particularly in Cordilleran Ilocano text books, modules, activity sheets, instructional materials, and lesson plans. Table 7: Languages used in Assessment LANGUAGES USED IN ASSESSMENT FREQUENCY

% SAMPLE RESPONSE Ilocano 6 85. 71 “In giving instructions, quizzes, test and on formative and summative, we used cordilleran Ilocano as our medium of instruction”. (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6) Filipino and English 1 14. 29 “We used both English and Filipino in giving instruction on oral or written. ” ( R7) Results and Discussion Table 7 shows the languages used in assessment among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. Among the languages used in assessment are Ilocano, Filipino and English. The percentage ranges from 85. 71% to 14.

21%. Ilocano is the most used language with 85. 71% outranking Filipino and English with 14. 21%. The data shows variation on languages use in assessment. Similarly, mother tongues, such as Ilocano, are mostly used in translating and giving instruction assessment methods. These results can be attributed to the modes of giving instruction in administering assessments. The Curriculum in MTBMLE program implements that every public and private elementary schools uses Cordilleran Ilocano as their Mother Tongue Language as their medium of instruction.

As cited Nina (2013), a grade 2 teacher state’s that “In giving instructions, quizzes, test in formative and summative, I used cordilleran Ilocano as their medium of instruction since 98 % of the students of Buyagan Elementary School speaks Cordilleran Ilocano. Apart from this, as cited by Abellera (2013), a private elementary teacher at Nazarene learning center stated that “I used both the English and Filipino in giving instruction in oral or written since the students here are diverge, some are Korean, American, and Filipino’s who have a different Mother Tongue language.

This result corroborates the findings Lopez in his research: Development of Mother Tongue-based Early Literacy Assessment Tools for Ilocano Children, “the teachers found the Ilocano assessment tools to be very useful in identifying what children are capable of doing. Information gathered through the reading assessment tools guide teachers in teaching children how to read and write. ” Findings Respondents use the mother tongue language in giving instruction during the assessment of learning of the students. Conclusion

Languages used by the teacher in assessing the students’ performance are the mother tongue language they use such as Ilocano, English and Filipino. Recommendation Trainings and workshops are needed to utilize for all the teachers who teaches Mother Tongue languages that is very significant to nurture and improve the teachers fluency of the Mother Tongue language “Cordilleran Ilocano”. Instructional materials are needed in administering assessment such as; work sheets and activity sheets that were translated into Cordilleran Ilocano language.

Table 8: Problems encountered on implementation of MTBMLE among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad PROBLEMS FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONSE Having English speaking students, translation of vocabulary words, Lack of trainings and seminars 7 100 “Even though we use the mother tongue in teaching, we also have those students who are English speaking who can’t understand the mother tongue so we need to translate it again in English, and lack of seminars. ” (R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7

Results and Discussion Table 8 shows the problems encountered on the implementation of MTBMLE among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. Among the problems encountered arranged from the most encountered to least encountered problems which includes having English speaking students; translation of vocabulary; and lack of training and seminars. The data shows that the Private and Private School had the same problems encountered according to different elementary schools in La Trinidad.

Similarly, the data shows that all elementary schools in La Trinidad encountered have the same problem in the implementation of the MTBMLE program like the problems in Lacking of Instructional Materials is one of the problems of every public teacher’s within la Trinidad, among the Instructional materials that are not found at the schools are: the learning materials, activity books, lesson plans, modules, and manual.

In the Translation of the vocabulary words that has different meanings where it is difficult to translate from English to Ilocano and to Ilocano to English such as “sitaw” is also mentioned by the respondents. The Lack of trainings and seminars about the Mother Tongue affect the teacher’s initiative or performance on how they teach the Mother Tongue. According to the respondents: “Because of the lack of trainings and seminars that being is integrated by the DepEd, the teachers are not knowledgeable on what are the process and things to be done inside the classroom and how to implement the Mother Tongue.

’’ Having English speaking students is also mentioned by the respondents, they said that even though we used the mother tongue in teaching, we also have those students who are English speaking who can’t understand the mother tongue, so we need to translate it again in English. These results corroborates to the statement of the Department of Education (2009), the mother tongue multilingual education emphasizes the role of the mother tongue in the acquisition of other languages.

The presence of this policy provides for a more linguistically diverse period of early schooling. The policy relies on the mother tongue as a scaffold for learning; therefore the approach to language learning is clearly additive. It challenges the persistent beliefs that if other languages are used then English will drop; if exposure to English should be taught exclusively in English. Findings Problems mostly encountered by the respondents are having English speaking students and lack of instructional materials.

Conclusion The problems encountered by the teacher during the implementation of MTBMLE among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad are having an English speaking students; lack of Instructional materials; translation of vocabulary words. Recommendation Department of Education may provide more Instructional Materials; Cordilleran Ilocano dictionary, text books, etc. More trainings and seminars may be to train the teachers on how to facilitate the MTBMLE to their learners.

The DepEd might want to provide a linguist, that create an Instructional Materials to be used in teaching mother- tongue language. Table 9: Benefits of the Implementation of MTBMLE program BENEFITS FREQUENCY % SAMPLE RESPONSE High 5 71. 43 “Yes, it’s beneficial kasi ang maganda doon they know other language. ” ( Yes , it’s beneficial because what is good on it is that they know othe language) (R3, R4) “Yes, natututo ang mga bata na pag-aralan ang Ilocano. ” ( Yes, the pupils learn to learn Ilocano) (R1, R2) “Yes, according to the study.

” (R5) Slight 2 28. 57 “Medjo, no makitak to ti resulta na after six years. ” ( Slight whenever I will see the result after six years)(R6) “Not so much here in La Trinidad because the children here have different languages”. (R7) Results and Discussion Table 9 shows the level of benefit of the MTBMLE on teachers and students among public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad. The level of benefit ranges from high to slight. Highly beneficial has a percentage of 71.

43% while on the other hand, slightly beneficial has a percentage of 28. 57%. Among the reasons given by the respondents from public and private Elementary Schools in La Trinidad in the level of benefit they gain from the MTBMLE program is highly beneficial, “students know the language” and “students learn Ilocano language. ” On the other hands among the reasons in slightly beneficial includes, “beneficial but there is difficulty in multilingual class” and beneficial if as long as I know the result.

” In behalf of teacher’s perception, the new curriculum MTBMLE program is very beneficial. Where, this will be the ground for the teachers and students to improve and develop student’s critical thinking, knowledge and for a better quality of education. The data shows the variations on the level of beneficial of MTBMLE program. These findings can be attributed to the perspective of the public and private elementary schools in La Trinidad on the MTBMLE program. Findings

Harappa – Indus Valley Civilization essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

From roughly 2300 BC until 1500 BC the Indus Valley civilizations thrived in what is now modern-day Pakistan. The first excavations of the Indus Valley, began by archaeologist Mortimer Wheeler, began in 1921-1922 and uncovered important information of the highly complex civilization. One of the main cities was called Harappa.

Harappa, like Mohenjo-Daro, grew along the Indus River. It came into existence earlier than and lasted longer than the southern city of Mohenjo-Daro. It was well known for its surprisingly advanced town planning. Each town and city was structured like a grid with wide streets which ran perpendicular to one another. Between the large streets were smaller connecting lanes, which were lined with houses. The streets were anywhere from 13 to 30 feet wide and the lanes were between 3.5 to 7 feet wide. The city of Harappa was oriented toward true north, with its main streets running from north to west and the connecting streets running east to west. This city plan demonstrates the civilization’s early knowledge of astronomy. Harappa was divided into two sections- upper town and lower town. Upper town consisted of a well-fortified citadel which sat on a 40-foot-high mound with a 45-foot-thick brick embankment. The citadel served as a community center in times of peace and a fortress in times of trouble. The existence of the citadel (along with the well planned city) suggested a structured government.

Near the citadel was the Great Bath, excavated by Sir John Marshall that was constructed in a series of five different layers that made the bath so water-tight that even to this day it holds water. The bath, a key feature of Harappa, was used in festivals and religious ceremonies. On the sides were dressing rooms.

There were other public structures in the city. One such public structure was the town hall in the citadel. Like modern day town halls, it was a meeting place for citizens and the city government officials of the city of Harappa. Another example of these structures is the granaries- large buildings used to store surplus grain. For every crop a farmer cultivated, a large portion of it was required to go straight to the granaries. There were two rows of granaries and each row was divided into six individual granaries. These granaries were built close to the river’s edge for easy transportation of grain.

Harappa’s lower town was mostly made up of houses, each made of oven-dried bricks of uniform size. The average-sized house was two floors high, with a staircase leading down to the streets. Each house had a courtyard in the center and a bathroom area in the downstairs portion of the house. The house doors generally opened into the smaller lanes rather than into the busier main streets. The houses of Harappa had a very modern plumbing system with sinks and drains that led into a sewer system in the streets. These plumbing systems were so advanced that even upper rooms were furnished with baths which were drained into the street sewers by clay pipes attached to the house walls.

The city was supported by its extensive agricultural production of wheat, rice, fruits, and vegetables. Commerce with Sumer and other surrounding civilizations also helped Harappa become as well established as it was. Among the commonly traded items were tools crafted from copper and bronze and cloth woven from cotton, another major advancement of the Indus Valley civilization.

The men and women of Harappa wore clothes woven from wool and cotton, rather than from sheepskin clothing, like the clothes Sumerians wore. The women seemed to have worn knee length skirts while men wore clothes resembling modern-day dhotis (traditional Indian clothing) that often passed between the legs and tucked up behind. Men and women both wore different styles of jewelry including hair fillets, bead necklaces, and bangles.

Some of the most common and significant Harappan artifacts include seals, inscribed in the Harappan language. The Harappan language has not yet been deciphered so much of what is inscribed on those seals remains a mystery. Alongside the mystery markings are pictures of sacred animals or godheads or god figures. These seals suggest the polytheistic beliefs of the Indus Valley. Stone structures carved from limestone or alabaster seem to represent a male who may have been a god. The pieces of pottery recovered from Harappa were pieces of artwork formed into figures of humans and animals. Other than these few objects, not many other artifacts have been uncovered.

The reason for the city’s downfall around 1500 BC is unknown. Scholars believe that when the Aryans came into the area, they dominated the city and the Indus Valley area. Another theory is that floods came and wiped out the cities. Other theories and explanations exist, but nothing is definite. The people of the Indus Valley civilization and the city of Harappa were a strong, innovative, and well organized people who were well advanced for their time. However, much about these people remains a mystery- one that will continue to be investigated for years.

Psych theories argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

Erikson believed that changes in a human personality occur throughout an entire lifespan. The first of his 8 stages is between the years 0-2, or infancy. This stage is Trust vs. Mistrust, which focuses on developing trust in the people and things we are familiar with at this age. This decides whether or not we grow up fearful of the world or trustful of the world. The second stage is Autonomy vs. Doubt, from ages 2-3, or early childhood. This stage focuses on developing a sense of independence and pride in being successful.

Ideally there would be a full sense of autonomy, but one can also doubt his or her abilities if the parents don’t allow them to do things on their own. Stage 3 from 4-5 years old is the Initiative vs. Guilt, in which children begin to ask questions and think more freely. This can be a success if parents help with these efforts and encourage them to ask questions and learn, but it can also be a failure if the parents don’t pay attention to the efforts the child is putting forth, which would cause a sense of guilt about initiated activities in the child. Stage 4 from 6-11 years of age is Industry vs.

Inferiority, which focuses on building new things and having creative ideas. This can be taken down easily though if the parents don’t allow their child to create new things and have fun with new ideas they may have, instilling a sense of inferiority in the child. The fifth stage is during adolescence, about 12-20, and is called Identity vs. Role Confusion. In this stage, teens try and find a sense of who they are. Based on how the previous stages played out, young adults can find it difficult to figure out who they really are or what their life will be like in the future.

Stage 6 is from about 20-35 years of age, and is Intimacy vs. Isolation. In this stage a person figures out whether or not they want an intimate relationship and a marriage, or if they will live a life of isolation without any intimate relationships. Stage 7 deals with the middle ages of life and is Generativity vs. Self-Absorption. In this stage a person focuses on either helping younger generations and making things better, or being absorbed in your own life, which would lead to no sense of fulfillment in life. Finally, stage 8 is from about 65 to death.

In Integrity vs. Despair, one looks back on life and decides whether their life was lived to the fullest and successful, or if it was a waste and full of opportunities that one missed. Together these 8 stages describe the different aspects of a human’s personality through Erikson’s eyes. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Piaget studied different stages of mental development in children to find out why and how they different from adults mentally. In Piaget’s first stage, from 0-2, he said children are in the sensorimotor stage.

In this stage everything a child knows is based on how their senses perceive it. This means they only know things based on their 5 senses. The next stage is the preoperational from about 2-6 years of age. In this stage children know language and can use words and images to describe things, yet they still lack any logical reasoning behind things. The third stage is concrete operational which lasts from about 7-11 years of age. In this stage children can logically think about events that are actually happening and that they have seen or heard about.

They can also perform more complex arithmetic. Finally, the last stage is from 12 to adulthood, and is called formal operational. In this stage they develop moral reasoning and also abstract thinking, meaning they can think about things that haven’t actually happened. Piaget believed that this is the endpoint of cognitive development, and that no other stage is possible. Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Vygotsky believed that cognitive development is affected by the culture a child lives and grew up in.

Vygotsky brought up a new idea known as the zone of proximal development. This zone is the amount that children are able to learn with the help of somebody more knowledgeable. This zone changes when the child learns more and more until eventually it caps out when there is nobody else that can teach them more. Language also plays a significant role in the development of a child. The language used by different cultures can tell children different ideas of what is accepted and how things are done.

When a mother tells a child “no” if he or she asks for some candy, later on that child could remember that it is not accept and say no to his or herself. Furthermore, the idea of scaffolding was introduced by Vygotsky as well. This idea says that a child should have adjusted help based on the level of help they need, until they need no help at all. Vygotsky says that culture affects the ways that one can develop cognitively. Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Kohlberg studied reasoning as to why and how a person develops different moral standards.

Kohlberg was able to split this up into 3 different stages. The first stage is preconventional morality, which is where actions are considered by the consequences that the actions will have on the person doing the action, which is very much self-centered. The second stage is conventional morality, which is based on expectations that one is trying to live up to as well as how someone’s actions will affect their conscience. Finally, postconventional morality has to do with the idea of individual rights and then later on the idea of upholding universal principles and laws that have been set by society.

Postconventional morality is the highest level of morality attainable. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud uses 5 stages to describe the personality development of a child. The first stage is the Oral Stage, which occurs from about birth to 1 year of age. This stage’s primary interaction is through the mouth, most importantly used for feeding. This is where Freud came up with the rooting reflex, which is a reflex for an infant to search for a nipple when touched on the cheek. The second stage is the Anal Stage, which occurs from about 1-3 years of age.

During this stage, the child focuses on mastering the control of bowel and bladder movements. This stage can be very successful if the parent is praising and patient with the child, but it can drastically fail if the parent is harsh or ridiculing of the child. The third stage is the Phallic Stage, which is between the ages 3 and 6. During this stage children begin to figure out the difference between a boy and a girl, and they tend to be more attracted to the same-sex parent because they can relate to them more genital wise.

The fourth stage is the Latent Period, which occurs between 7 and 11 years of age. During this period the child is more focused on things such as school and friends and less concerned with the sexual aspects of life. This is the period where children gain large amounts of self-confidence. The final stage is the Genital Stage, which lasts from adolescence through adulthood. During this period a strong interest in the opposite gender occurs, especially during the puberty stage. This last all the way up until the end of life.

Freud also believed that the ending goal was to find a balance in all aspects of one’s life. Diana Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Baumrind looked into how parents affected the development of a child. Baumrind came up with 3 styles of parenting. The most effective style is the authoritative style. In this style, the parent sets down rules and guidelines that are to be followed, but they also listen to their children and accept input. This style is very democratic and tends to lead to the best raised children later in life. Another style is the authoritarian style.

This style is very much like a dictatorship, where the parent has all of the say and the children either obey them or get punished. Parents also usually respond to why they do this with no reasoning whatsoever. Finally, the last style is the permissive style. In this style parents have very few demands or expectations of their child. They rarely punish them and usually allow the child to do as he or she pleases. The problem with this style is that the child tends to feel like they are not loved or even acknowledged, which leads to psychological problems later in life.

Mary Ainsworth’s Attachment Theory Ainsworth tested how a child’s attachment level affects its actions. Ainsworth found two different types of attachment after doing an experiment she calls the Strange Situation. In this experiment she took an infant and observed its behavior while the parent and a stranger enter and leave the room at different moments. Ainsworth found that secure attachment is when a child is happy and free when the parent is in the room and will engage strangers only when the parent is present. When the parent is gone the child is visibly sad and will not engage strangers.

The other type of attachment Ainsworth found was insecure attachment, which is usually split up into anxious-resistant and anxious-avoidant. In anxious-resistant the child will be anxious around both the parent and the stranger, showing that is doesn’t really trust either of them. In anxious-avoidant, the child treats the parent and the stranger the same way and seems to have no attachment to either of them. Ainsworth/Baumrind Comparison Ainsworth and Baumrind both used the idea of parenting to come up with their theories.

Ainsworth said that secure attachment is when a child is very comfortable with their parent and trusts them when they bring strangers around. This idea is very much like Baumrind’s authoritative parenting style. The child is secure with the parent and feels like they are in good hands and the authoritative parenting style allows children to have a say in what they do, but also have expectations for them which results in the most happy child that feels loved and cared for. Ainsworth said that one type of insecure attachment is resistant, which goes well with Baumrind’s authoritarian style.

The authoritarian style results in the child not getting any say in the relationship and are overly strict. This results in a lack of trust from the child and a feeling of distance between the child and the parent, just as the resistant attachment says. Finally, Ainsworth’s last attachment was avoidant, where the child seems to have no connection to the parent. This is very similar to the permissive style of parenting where the parent lets the child do whatever they want to. This results in the child feeling unloved and detached from the family.

Vygotsky/Piaget Comparison Vygotsky and Piaget both commented on cognitive development of a child, but they did so in very different ways. Vygotsky bases his developmental ideas off of mostly the culture the child grows up in. He believes that language and education are very important in the shaping of one’s cognitive abilities, whereas Piaget believes more in the idea that maturing minds gradually go through different stages of thinking. Piaget uses different stages, beginning with sensorimotor and finally hitting the formal operational stage around the age of 12.

Vygotsky believes that there is a limit of cognitive development, but it differs depending on the culture and how the child is raised. The main point of Vygotsky is the idea of the Zone of Proximal Development, which is how people are taught based on the knowledge of others along with the knowledge the child possesses. This is very different from Piaget, who believes that the child learns most of everything on their own and develops different types of thinking and schemas based on what they encounter and how much they learn.

Although they are both cognitive development theories, the details of the theories are very different. Kohlberg/Piaget Comparison Kohlberg believed that there were 3 different stages of morality in one’s life. Along with that, Piaget also used stages for his theory on cognitive development. Kohlberg and Piaget relate not only because they both incorporate different stages into their theories, but they also have many similar ideas even though they relate to different things. Kohlberg and Piaget both use the idea of self-centered.

The preconventional stage is a very self-centered stage that only has to do with yourself. The early stages of Piaget’s theory also is like that in the sense that the child cannot comprehend the ideas of others or any abstract ideas. Furthermore, in both of the theories one moves up to the next stage by having a maturing mind. In Kohlberg’s theory, the more mature you become the more you understand about the outside world and the larger picture of the universe, just like in Piaget’s where the older you become the more advanced your thinking can become, until you can think abstractly.

Although they are similar in many ways, Kohlberg and Piaget’s theories do have some differences. Piaget believes that the stages begin at birth and go on throughout life, while Kohlberg said that morality doesn’t start until around the age of 7. Kohlberg and Piaget incorporated many of the same theories and ideas into their overall theories on morality and cognitive development, yet there were also some distinct differences. Erikson/Freud Comparison Erikson and Freud shared many similarities in their theories.

First, they both incorporate multiple different stages that are similar in age groupings. Erikson uses 8 different stages while Freud uses 5. This shows that they both believed that personality develops in predetermined stages. They also share the idea that in the early years children learn a sense of self-sufficiency and pride in the things they are able to do, which allows them to have a sense of accomplishment. Both theorist believed a big part of this stage was the idea of being toilet trained and able to go to the bathroom on their own.

Furthermore, the two theories both have the idea of relationships and intimacy. In Freud’s, this idea is known as the genital stage and it occurs during puberty and goes on as the last stage in life until you die. In Erikson’s theory, this occurs as young adults and only lasts about 15 years until the next stage in life occurs. Although Erikson and Freud have very similar theories, they also have a couple of glaring differences. First, Erikson goes into many more stages after the intimacy stage, whereas Freud believes that is the end of personality development.

Erikson goes on to talk about contributions to society and finally the idea of reflecting on life and wondering if it was a fulfilled like or a wasted one. Also, Freud focuses on the sexual aspect of personality development much more than Erikson. Freud mentions the Phallic Stage as well, which talks about the idea of children being closer to their same sex parent at this age because they can relate with them better at that young age. Freud and Erikson’s theories have both many similarities and differences and are very well respected.

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Introduction I have always been the “caretaker” in my family. If someone were hurting, he or she came to me and told me his or her symptoms, and I did my research and told them what I thought about it. Before that, when I was about three years old, I took care of my newborn baby sister. My mama was sick, and my step dad was at work, so I took care of my sister. People ask kids what they want to be when they grow up, and they always get some crazy answer like a movie star. When my mama asked me, I said a doctor. I have since learned that doctors do make a lot of money, but they spend most of it on insurance.

My career goal has changed; now I want to be a nurse of some kind, but it is still in the medical field. My grandma said that I like school so much that I will not stop going until I become a doctor. She was right about many things, but I am not so sure about that one. A Registered Nurse (RN) is a good career with a wonderful history, and a nice salary, but you need specific qualities to be an RN. History Nursing, like everything else, has a history that has evolved over time. Learning the history of nursing is important because it will help you to learn what kind of traits you need to become a nurse.

In 400 B. C. , there were mother-nurses who worked with priests in primitive societies (Delaune 6-8). Caregivers didn’t have any training and the only hospitals were really religious institutions. These hospitals were in monasteries and convents . The dominant caregivers were primarily men. St. Jerome and Fabiola were responsible for the first hospital in the West (Delaune 6-8). Things pretty much stayed this way with health care until 1903 when North Carolina passed the first state nursing registration law (Delaune 6-8). In 1923, Yale University School of Nursing was founded (Delaune 6-8).

In the 1960’s Medicaid and Medicare was created (Delaune 6-8). Some interesting people who influenced nursing are Lillian Wald, Isabel Hampton Robb, Florence Nightingale, Annie Goodrich, and Martha Franklin. Martha Franklin was an advocate for racial equality in nursing (Delaune 13). She organized the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (NACGN); in 1908, the NAGCN and the American Nurses Association merged (Delaune 13). Lillian Wald founded the Children’s Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor, and she improved conditions in tenement housing conditions (Delaune 11).

Florence Nightingale’s family was wealthy so she had a good education. Her family did not want her to become a nurse, but she did anyway. She wrote several books on nursing, and she established the first school of nurses that was not religion based. The school was called Nightingale Training School for Nurses located in London (Delaune 9-10). The concepts of maintaining confidentiality, providing individualized care, and devising a systematic method for assessing clients were brought about by Nightingale and are still in use today (Delaune 9-10). Clara Barton organized the American Red Cross in 1881 (Delaune 10).

Although many of these people in the early days did not receive special training it is important (Delaune 6-8, 9-10). Training and Education Education programs were invented to make sure nursing was practiced safely and correctly. To become a RN, you must first go to college. When choosing a college to attend, you need to make sure the school and the nursing program are accredited. You can go to a community college and get your RN, or you can go to a university and get your RN (BSN). The biggest difference is the time and the pay because the more training you have, the more pay you will receive.

Most universities do have a program to help people go from RN to a BSN in a shorter period of time than if you had tried to pursue your BSN first. Enrollment in entry-level programs was in decline for five consecutive years (Delaune 40-41). Exams and Tests When you finish school, you have to take a test called a NCLEX-RN before you can be licensed. Before you can enter nursing school in college, you must take the Test of Essential Academic Skills (TEAS). The test measures reading, math, science, English, and language usage. You receive a score for each test subject and then sixteen sub-scores.

There is no set passing score; each school makes up its own criteria for what’s passing. Some tips for a good test score are stay calm, take extra time to check your work, think about each answer before you mark an answer for the question, and take advantage of the multiple-choice format (Evangelist). Traits and Skills To become an RN, you must be strong in all academic areas especially math and science. An RN must be able to stay calm because the patient is worried, and if they are injured, they are not calm. A nurse who is not calm will cause more anxiety for the patient.

They must be able to leave work business at work and home business at home. Leaving work business and emotions at work will allow you to continue working and have a personal life; leaving personal business at home allows you to have a clear mind so you are less likely to make a mistake. A mistake made by a RN could be deadly; for instance, if the doctor says give point five milliliters of a medication, and you get mixed up and give 5 milliliters, that could be an overdose. Good communication skills are important because when you talk or write, people need to understand you.

Also, you do not want to be saying one thing while your actions are saying another because that can cause a patient to worry or be confused. Being in good physical shape and optimal health is very important because nursing can be long and hard; it is also very physical. Nurses need to be good listeners so when you report what the patient said, you do not report the wrong thing. Nurses need to be respectful of a patient’s beliefs and customs. It is important for an RN to know what is ethical and act in such a way for legal reasons. As you can see, being an RN is not easy (Institute for Career Research 19).

Working Conditions RN’s do different things in their job depending on their job title; therefore, I will give the most general job description possible. An RN will give bedside care, administer medications, teach patients and their families how to be healthier and take care of themselves. They may offer counseling or work with certain types of victims. They may instruct other nurses practicing under them and give intravenous therapy to the patient. They may also prepare nurses for the doctor to give the examination (Institute for Career Research 10-12). Why it’s a good career choice

Besides the fact that you feel good because you have helped someone else feel better, there is a great benefits package, favorable salary, respect from other people, and the possibility for lots of opportunities. There are lots of places that need nurses, and if you prefer to work with a certain type of people, you can find a place to accommodate that. For people that have families and want to be home during the day, you can work nights. If you teach nursing at school, then you will get home when the kids do, and you get weekends, holidays, and summers off work.

Opportunities for continuing education and career advancement are out there for those people who get tired of doing one thing all the time. Although nursing school is not easy to get into, there are many positive aspects of the career (Institute for Career Research 20). Problems Being an RN can take a toll on someone emotionally, and for this reason, job burnout is very common; this burnout can increase the amount of stress exerted on an RN because of possible overtime and a greater workload. There is also a lot of paperwork which frustrates some people because it takes time away from patient interaction.

However, the paperwork is necessary, and it is for both the nurse and the patient. In some situations, nurses can be exposed to potentially dangerous things such as compressed gases, radiation, AIDs and other diseases. If you follow protocol, which is taught on the job and at school, it is not likely that you will face harm. The job can be physically demanding and may cause back injury. Malpractice insurance may be offered and is recommended because of the rise in number of lawsuits. There are a lot of positives and negatives of the career, but you must decide if the good outweighs the bad in your mind (Institute for Career Research 20).

Salary/ Outlook Nurses are paid well; the median pay in 2010 was $64,690 per year, which is thirty-one dollars and ten cents an hour (Occupational Outlook Handbook). The job is expected to grow twenty-six percent, from 2010-2020 which is faster than average(“Occupational Outlook Handbook”). The expected growth is because of technological advancement and the need for more healthcare services as the baby boom generation gets older. The number of jobs held by RNs in 2010 was 2,737,400 and is expected to increase so it would be a good career to get into (Occupational Outlook Hanbook). Conclusion

In conclusion, being a bad nurse is worse than working at McDonalds because that is what you want to do. Nursing has an interesting history, good pay and benefits package, and does not take all that long to get licensed, but it takes a special type person to be a good nurse; the decision to be a nurse should not be based on the salary because you need to have the traits that it takes to be a good nurse. Being a bad nurse will churn out bad results and you will not enjoy your job as a part of life. Therefore, the best advice I can give is make sure you want the reward of feeling good because you done good before pursuing a nursing degree.

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How does culture affect the process of attribution in communication? Can you relate this to some experiences you have had with your classmates? When the message reaches the receiver, it undergoes a transformation which is influenced by the receiver’s culture. What is stereotyping? Give some examples. How might people stereotype you? Stereotyping happen when a person assumes that every member of a society or subculture has the common characteristics. Take UK is an example.

Vietnamese often do nails Chinese often open restaurant Indian often are doctor Asian often know martial art

What is the relationship between language and culture? How is it that people from different countries who speak the same language may still miscommunicate? Language conveys culture, technologies and priorities. Language is inseparable from culture; language cannot be interpreted without an understanding of culture. Within a given language group are many sub-cultures that have their own interpretations of certain words or phrases, or who may have their own idioms or regional expressions Give some examples of cultural differences in the interpretation of body language. What is the role of such nonverbal communication in business relationships? Americans look straight at you when communicating, whereas the British keep your attention by looking away. Arabs prefer to touch and stand very close when communicating.

Koreans speak more loudly to emphasize a point; Americans speak loudly when they are angry. Improper non-verbal communication can add a significant level of noise to the communication process. The listener may attribute meaning to the noise that might damage the business relationship. Explain the difference between monochronic and polychromic time systems. Use some examples to illustrate the differences and the role of time in intercultural communication. Monochronic time systems have a linear system of time with a past, present and future. People in monochronic systems generally concentrate on one thing at a time. Polychronic time systems are a non-linear system of time where people tolerate the simultaneous occurrence of many events.

Explain the differences between high- and low-context cultures, giving some examples. What are the differential effects on the communication process? In high-context cultures, the context in which the communication takes place is vital to the communication of the message—the message is implicit. In low-context cultures, the context in which the communication takes place is secondary to the communication—the message is explicit. Discuss the role of information systems in a company, how and why they vary from country to country, and the effects of these variations. Communication in organizations varies according to where and how information originates and the channels and speed at which information flows internally and externally. One example of how cultures vary is on the importance of the source of information. Some cultures prefer important information to originate only from the top of the hierarchy.

My little bit of country homework essay help: homework essay help

What would the ideal lifestyle contain? Would it be a busy life, surrounded by tall buildings and lots of people or would it be on the country, enveloped in the uncontrolled nature and with a small society? Some would argue for the city-life, while others would argue for the country-life. It might be impossible to conclude which lifestyle is really the best, but there is definitely both cons and pros to each of the two lifestyles. In an article called My Little Bit of Country, posted in Central Park by Susan Cheever, Susan Cheever argues her view of living respectively in the city and on the country.

Susan Cheever’s preferred place to live is the city. When she was a baby and as a very young child, she lived in New York. Later, she moved to the suburbs with her family and she didn’t like it at all. When she grew up and got children, she raised them in the city, because she felt better in the city. Cheever describes the life in the city and on the country as to completely opposite things, treating them as definite contrasts. The city-life is controlled, safe and clean – whereas the country-life is wild, dangerous and muddy.

She uses a lot of examples, like ice-skating and swimming. In the city, you have safe ice-skating rinks, where there is no chance of going through the ice and there is pools that is almost completely clean and disinfected every day. On the country, you ice-skate on lakes and ponds in the winter, that might or might not be able to bear your weight, and in the summer, you bathe in the same lakes and ponds that might or might not contain poisonous algae and other plants or dangerous animals.

Cheever also argues that pieces of nature exist in the city, but that pieces of city doesn’t exist in the country. According to her, Central Park is an example of nature right in the middle of a big city. While it is correct that Central Park is indeed plants and a few animals, some would say that it isn’t exactly the same as the uncontrolled nature you would find in a place that didn’t get daily visits from gartners or where there wasn’t any supervision and control with each species of animals living there.

Cheever also points to the privileges following a life in the city. The possibilities, as she describes them, are much more numerous than on the country. While the city still offers playgrounds, parks and pools, it also provides cafés, lively people and flashing lights everywhere. The clean environment simply attracts her more than the dirty country.

For children, Cheever thinks that the ideal place to live is also the city. She thinks it’s safer for children to grow up in the city and that it’s easier for the children to live in the city. She uses an example to support this. She compares the ‘living country pony’ and the ‘carousel city pony’ to each other and concludes that the carousel pony is better than the living pony, because it’s clean and easy to handle. However, this example might not be very strong, as many people would point out that the carousel pony lacks just exactly the work and experience that the living pony can bring to the children. Also, the bond that the child would create between the pony and itself isn’t present with the carousel pony.

Later in her text, we learn that Cheever has an apparent fear of living in the country. She explains that one of the most important things for her is to be surrounded by civilization at almost all times. She feels safer when she can hear the buzzing of the traffic outside her apartment and see the flashing lights on the wall in her room when she’s going to sleep, knowing that there’s people around her. When she’s on the country, she can’t hear nor see any of this and she feels insecure and alone. This might be the case for a couple of people, but it is definitely not an average feeling among humanity.

Cheever fails to mention the often-mentioned downsides to the life in the city. A lot of the people living on the country often reason, that they live on the country, simply because the constant buzz of the big cities would stress them. They prefer the tranquility they choose to see in nature instead of the loneliness that Cheever herself feels. Some parent and children would also argue that getting dirty and playing around in forests, swimming in lakes and ice-skating in the hands of nature is better than the completely controlled environment of the city and that it brings valuable experience to be in the nature and learn by it’s rules.

Lifestyles is a question we often ask ourselves and “city” or “country” is one of the big pointers as to what kind of life you’re striving to have. Where the city has many different cultures, people and jobs, the country offers gardens, quiet and big families with pets. No lifestyle would be perfect for everyone – there’s simply too many varying and colliding tastes and priorities for one lifestyle to fit every single individuals wants. In the end, it probably comes down to personal preferences what is really the best way of life for each individual. And that’s probably how it should be.

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In addition to my work experience, I have strong communication, customer service, office, and administrative skills and understand with the education theory from some of my modules I completed and have so much passion for the hospitality/tourism field. I am more than happy to learn new skills as this will help me gain experience for my future career and would be thrilled to work for a successful firm like Holiday Inn. Furthermore I can assure you my service will be of benefit ,I certainly look forward to hearing back from you soon.

1. Kathy lacked sufficient emotional intelligence to be effective in her new project manager assignment by Self awareness: Kathy had a deep understanding of her strength not her weakness to have time to talk to her staff. There was also lack of empathy as she failed to have the “ability to recognise the feelings and expectations of others and take them into consideration” as they were also local residents. Poor relationship with the staff resulted to “a campaign of passive resistance to her leadership”. 2.

The element she exhibit successfully were: •Motivation: although the project became quickly bogged due to poor performance she still managed to motivate herself and “pushed her team hard”. Also by settling goals for staff and senior members of the project to “work long hours” to accomplish important milestones in order to complete the assignment. B. Main methods of communication include: Verbal communication either through sound, work or speaking to other members of the project or recorded clips of the senior members.

Also Written communication either emailing or letters with the use of computers and internet for emails. In addition visual communication through graphs from excel or video clips on YouTube or television therefore contributing to the IT and applications. C. 5 Traits of emotional intelligence me: Self awareness: In high school was given a presentation on Kidneys, a sensitive topic managed to trust my intuition& took control of my emotions as that was my weakness.

Self regulation: one of my cousins used my bag without asking, i had to think of how I was going to talk to them instead of fighting. Motivation: When given 2 or more assignments during college treated myself if i finished a day before the deadline& the days increased as the year progressed. Empathy: when my friend lost her job& i had just got a job I helped her with some of her bills as I had been in a similar situation before. Social skills: I managed to build a good relationship with my new workmates as well as maintaining one with my friends and family.

Philosophy 101 Study Guide college admission essay help houston tx: college admission essay help houston tx

When: Thursday, the 26th Day of September, 2013, 3:00pm – 4:15pm Where: The same location our class normally meets What to bring: Your ASU Student ID, for when you hand in your exam & An Exam book (blue book or green book) available at the bookstore & A Scan-tron form (bubble-in forms) available at the bookstore & TWO number 2 pencils for filling in the scantron form & A blue or black ink pen (optional – pencil ok), for your exam book. I will not have extras available. If you forget yours, you’ll have to rely on the kindness of your peers or else run to the bookstore to buy some, losing you valuable time. If you bring extras for your peers, they will be supremely grateful. Structure of the Exam

The exam will consist of: •60 multiple choice questions (for Scantron form) •Worth 4 points each •240 points total •questions limited to topics covered on this study guide •1 essay question (for exam book) •worth 60 points total •questions will be broad and comprehensive for Unit 1. •Answer should be 4-5 paragraphs Study Guide Warranty IF: you fill out this study guide completely based on your notes, the readings, and the lectures, making a recognizably serious attempt to put in relevant and correct information, and you turn in the completed study guide prior to the exam, either

•as a MS Word attachment sent by e-mail to [email protected], with the subject line “PHI 101 STUDY GUIDE WARRANTY”, or •as a paper copy turned in to the SHPRS office on the 4th floor of Coor hall, time-stamped and clearly marked on the top page “Jeff Watson, Phi 101”, or •as a paper copy turned in on the day of the exam prior to picking up your exam. and you take the quiz and answer all 60 of the multiple-choice true/false questions. THEN: On the multiple-choice section of the exam, you will receive at least 173 out of 240 points (72%, equivalent to a B-/C+). •If you receive fewer than 173 points on the multiple-choice section, and you turned in the completed study guide, then contact me after the exam, and I will automatically raise your grade on the multiple-choice section to 173 points.

•No warranties are here given for the essay portion of the exam. •If you don’t take advantage of this warranty, and you get less than 173 points, no excuses or complaints. STUDY GUIDE FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

From Solomon’s Little Philosophy Book:

Chapter 1

What did the followers of Confucius teach? How did Confucius’s virtues differ from Socrates?

Socrates emphasized the importance of the individual soul, however; Confucius insisted that what was most important in life were one’s relationships with other people. Confucius wanted to live life the right way by being honorable and faithful while Socrates believed living life the right way had to do with looking after the good of one’s own soul. Confucius teaches that one follows the dao by being respectful of the customs of one’s society, by being deferential to one’s parents, and by being a good citizen.

What did the Daoists teach? How did they differ from the Confucians? Daoists act “more towards nature” rather than relating with social proprieties. They liked living naturally and a simple and respectful life. Daoist teachings aren’t teachers but rather paths that guide people to finding their true natural selves.

What did Buddhism teach about the self? The Buddha taught that not only individuality but the universe as a whole was something of an illusion. Focuses less on individual self and more on living in harmony with the larger spiritual world, like Daoism.

Who were Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle? How did they know each other? They were all early philosophers, Socrates wrote nothing down; Plato his prized student wrote down everything and that’s how we know about it/him and Aristotle was Plato’s student.

Chapter 4

What’s the difference between local skepticism and global skepticism? Local skepticism is the view that one can not possess knowledge in some particular domain. Global skepticism is the view that one can not know anything at all.

Why did Descartes insist that we begin by doubting everything we thought we knew? His aim was to use this method of doubting everything you know to discover what we actually do know for certain. So we can prove them.

What did Hume argue we cannot prove about our experiences and the real world? Hume argues that we cannot prove that there is a real world outside our experience, much less that our experience is an accurate representation of that world. He says we need to get outside our experience to see whether it does fairly represent the world, however, its near impossible to do that.

What did Hume believe about the laws of nature? Hume states that hoe do we know that the laws of nature tomorrow will be the same as the ones today, we only have the past to rely on which doesn’t say much about the future. We cannot prove the laws of nature and their existence.

What does Solomon think is the “healthy” kind of skepticism? It means not simply taking at face value what other people tell you or simply accepting “common sense” without thinking about it on your own. You are able to think it out for yourself and figure out where your beliefs come from and how you would back them up.

Plato’s Apology (‘the Trial of Socrates’)

What happened in the Apology? Socrates is charged for not regarding the gods correctly, creating new deities and corrupting the youth of Athens, so he makes this speech the ‘Apology’ to defend himself.

How did Socrates defend himself against Meletus? He makes Meletus feel like a fool and makes him question everything he says.

How did he interpret the words of the Oracle at Delphi? He used the notion that the oracle told him that no one was smarter than him to go an interrogate everyone, and be a nuisance to the people. He took it as a riddle, he knew he had no wisdom and gods didn’t lie.

What punishment did he offer to accept? He is sentenced to death. Locke’s Essay ‘On Enthusiasm’ What is “enthusiasm”? Enthusiasm is a vain and unfounded confidence in divine favor or communication, Locke strongly rejects it. What’s the unerring mark of the lover of truth for truth’s sake? One unerring mark of the love of truth is not entertaining any proposition with greater assurance than the proofs it is built upon will warrant. Not entertaining any proposition with greater assurance than the proofs it is built upon will warrant.

Assuming an authority to dictate the opinions of others is a sign of what? The assuming an authority of dictating to others, and a forwardness to prescribe to their opinions, is a constant concomitant of this bias and corruption of our own judgements.

How does evidence for something’s rectitude (or truth) relate to the strength of our persuasions about it? The strength of our persuasions is no evidence at all of their own rectitude: crooked things may be as stiff and inflexible as straight: and men may be as positive and peremptory in error as in truth. Only have strength in your own persuasion.

How should our degree of belief relate to the evidence? Our degree of belief guides us to all answers, it’s our greatest form of persuasion and our biggest evidence.

Why does Locke think his opponents’ arguments are circular? It is a revelation because they firmly believe it, and they believe it because it is a revelation. Based on Locke’s view, what’s the best way to develop a character that allows others the freedom to hold their own opinions?

Guide to Philosophical Argument (the Standard View…):

What is and isn’t a representation? A picture of you may be a representation of you, but it’s not you. It’s how someone or yourself can view you. But you can always misinterpret a representation

What’s a proposition? Propositions are representations of the world which are in some sense language-independent. What makes a proposition true or false is whether the proposition corresponds to a fact. If it corresponds it’s true, if not, no.

What is a fact? What is an opinion? Facts are things which we know for certain (however there can be facts about things people don’t even know) and opinions are things which we don’t really know, and we have a thought or suggestion about it.

What’s the difference between being vague, ambiguous, and relative? Something can be vague but not ambiguous, or vice versa. Bat is ambiguous but not vague. And relativism: A theory, especially in ethics or aesthetics, that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them.

What sorts of things might make a relative truth true? There is no truth, everything is a matter of opinion. However, if all the facts are true then it might be true.

What’s the difference between sense and reference? The sense of the word is the concept the word expresses and the what the word refers to is the object, entity or property in the world that it stands for. Mammal- sense of the word animals with mammary glands and whatnot, reference whales, lions and tigers for example.

How could a word have no referent? Like the word unicorn, there’s a sense of it; a horse with a horn on it’s head. But its mythical and doesn’t exist so there are no unicorns which leave it with no reference. How could a word have no sense?

Then there’s a word like love, everyone has a different sense of love so there’s no one universal sense to it.

How would two words have different senses but the same referent? President of America, refers to Barack Obama but could refer to someone else in 4 years.

Why are all opinions either true or false? Opinions are beliefs about what facts are, so one person’s beliefs may end up to be true and one’s may not.

If I have so much evidence that I must believe something, why could it still be false? I can think I can fly by just flapping my arms, but there are rules of gravity that allow me not to fly, so it’s difficult to believe it’s true.

How would you recognize an inductive argument? Inductive arguments start with a series of particular truths about individual instances, and draw a general conclusion about a large group of instances.

How would you recognize a deductive argument? Deductive arguments can start with “If…then…” statements, or “either….or…” statements, and lastly Reductio arguments which involve believing something, then finding a contradiction in the belief and then proving it false.

How would you recognize an abductive argument? Abductive arguments are weak, all they prove is that there is a plausible working hypothesis, not that it’s true or false. What’s the difference between logical necessity/possibility, epistemic necessity/possibility, and natural (or ‘nomic’) necessity/possibility.

Logical possibility is the broadest sense of ‘possible’, its a scenario which contains no contradictions. Logical necessity means that every possible way the world could be is one in which the proposition is true (all cats are cats).

Epistemic possibility, given the evidence I have, something is probably highly unlikely to be true (pigs can fly). Natural possibility, something might be logically possible but contradict with one of the laws of nature. (flyings example but violates law of gravity). What’s it mean for an argument to be valid?

An argument is valid when, and only when, there is no logical possibility of the premises being true and the conclusion being false.

How would you recognize a valid argument? A valid argument says the it must be logically impossible for the conclusion to be false if the premises are true. (All dogs are mammals, Old Yeller is a dog, Old Yeller is a mammal.)

What’s it mean for an argument to be sound? All the premises are true, and the argument is valid.

What is the doctrine of recollection? It’s the idea that we are born possessing all knowledge and our realization of that knowledge is contingent on our discovery of it. Our soul once knew everything and forgot it, so we are recollecting all the knowledge.

What’s Socrates’s argument for the doctrine of recollection? Socrates’s conclusion: the soul is immortal, because the truth of all things has always existed in the soul.

What does Socrates think the boy’s knowledge of geometry shows? That he had the previous knowledge already, a priori knowledge.

Why does Socrates argue that Meno’s boy slave has a priori knowledge? Because when he tested him on geometry, the slave was able to get the correct answer because he already had the knowledge in him, he just had to recollect it.

Socrates holds that a priori knowledge comes from where?

Plato is a(n): empiricistrationalist idealist?

From Descartes’s Meditations

1st meditation: Meditator looks back on all the falsehoods and realizes he could have doubted everything, he starts to doubt all the foundations and big things. Ends up realizing even simple things can be doubted.

Why did Descartes begin his process of doubting the existence of the external world? However, his purpose wasn’t to achieve tranquility, but to reveal the foundations of knowledge.It was not because he really didn’t believe we could know anything. It was because he wanted to know what ultimately, at the bottom level, justified all of our other beliefs.

Which 3 arguments does Descartes offer to get himself to doubt? 1. My senses have deceived me. (mirages, etc.) 2. I could be dreaming this all up (very complicated dream). 3. God or an evil demon are making us doubt everything and not fully believe it.

Why doesn’t the deceitfulness of his senses give Descartes reason to doubt everything? Only made him a local skeptic, not a global skeptic, dealt with small matters.

What never changes in Descartes’s dreams? Arithmetic and geometry never change.

2nd meditation: The meditator doubts ‘I’ and if he even exists. Uses the wax experiment, knows the wax exists and studies its being. He uses it as a comparison to himself and realizes happily that he does indeed exist and that his mind is better known than his body, and that all clear and distinct perceptions come by means of the intellect alone, and not the senses or the imagination.

What is the one thing that Descartes can’t doubt? Can he doubt his existence.

How does Descartes know that he exists? He knows he’s having thoughts, and he’s capable of thinking, and something is doing the thinking. (wax experiment).

According to Descartes, what is he? A thinking thing (immaterial soul).

3rd meditation: Proof of god being a perfect being.

Why does Descartes think that an infinitely perfect God must exist? Because the universe couldn’t have come from nothing, something had to create it and he’s obviously not powerful enough to.

4th meditation: Descartes is now certain of god’s existence and questions his motives. God must be responsible for his judgement, but the Mediator doesn’t think himself as a supreme being like God. If god is a perfect being, he should be able to create perfect beings. But he now looks at God as a whole to see his perfection.

How does Descartes use God’s existence as a foundation for all other knowledge? He uses it to see if God created everything perfectly and if God is the one who controls everything. And God created the perfect universe.

What is foundationalism? Why does Descartes hold to it? In philosophy, foundationalism is an epistemological theory which holds that basic beliefs exist and are the foundation for all other justified beliefs. The theory rests on the assumption that beliefs must be justified by other beliefs. Even if his beliefs about the external world were false, his beliefs about what he was experiencing were still indubitably true, even if those perceptions do not relate to anything in the world

5th meditation: “The essence of material things, and considering the existence of God for a second time”. Clear and distinct perceptions are always convincing, according to the Meditator. He sets out to create an analogy between triangles and pythagorean theorem and God, saying he can prove its existence.

Why does Descartes think that the most perfect being conceivable can’t fail to exist? The most perfect being has to exist because something had to have created the perfect universe. Has to prove that his sense are real and the external world exists.

Descartes is a(n): empiricistrationalist idealist?

Lecture on Epistemology:

If you know that p, then what follows? Then p must be true; you must believe p; you must be justified in believing p; your justification must have some sort of explanation (can’t just be luck).

What does “justification” mean, and what is its relationship to knowledge? A justified belief is one you rationally ought to hold, given the evidence that you have. You can’t claim to know that you are going to get a job if you don’t have the evidence for it that warrants you in believing it.

What are the three types of experiences which can justify beliefs about the external world? Three types of empirical justifications: perception, memory and testimony.

What is a priori justification? Its a rational justification which means “rational intuition” or “pure reason”.

What’s a rationalist believe about knowledge? Who were the rationalists? Essentially, rationalists believe that (some) knowledge can be acquired through reason alone or, to put it another way, you can come to know about the world by thinking about it. Thinking about the world logically allows you to construct a complete system or entire set of rules that explain everything. Rationalists tended to believe that knowledge is a bit like maths and that, by thinking clearly enough about things, you can come to know everything without ever having to actually look at the world. As a result rationalists believed in a priori knowledge, knowledge that comes before experience. Descartes was a rationalist.

What’s an empiricist believe about knowledge? Who are the empiricists? Both groups believe in the importance of reason and both groups contain scientists but empiricists believe that reason alone is not enough and that you need to provide your reason with material to work on … which you can only acquire through your senses. As such, for the empiricists, perception is the source of all knowledge and reason just works on the evidence or perception that perception provides., empiricists to believe that all knowledge was more like science and that things could only be known a posteriori, i.e. after or through experience. As such, in order to find out about the world you have to conduct a series of experiments on it and then use reason to work out what those results mean. John Locke was an empiricist.

From Locke’s ‘Knowledge through Experience’

Where does Locke believe that all of the materials of reason, and all knowledge, come from? For Locke, all knowledge comes exclusively through experience. He argues that at birth the mind is a tabula rasa, or blank slate, that humans fill with ideas as they experience the world through the five senses. Locke defines knowledge as the connection and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy, of the ideas humans form.

Does Locke believe in innate ideas? Why or why not? Locke argued that the mind is in fact devoid of all knowledge or ideas at birth; it is a blank sheet or tabula rasa. He argued that all our ideas are constructed in the mind via a process of constant composition and decomposition of the input that we receive through our senses.

Locke is a(n): empiricistrationalist idealist?

Hume’s ‘Experience and the Limits of Human Reason’

Can we trust that the future will resemble the past? Why or why not? We cannot justify our assumptions about the future based on past experience unless there is a law that the future will always resemble the past. No such law exists. We can deny the relationship without contradiction and we cannot justify it with experience. Therefore, we have no rational support for believing in causation.

What is the origin of our ideas? We construct ideas from simple impressions in three ways: resemblance, contiguity, and cause and effect.

How are ideas distinct from impressions? Hume begins by noting that the perceptions of memory, imagination, etc., are never as forceful or vivacious as our first-hand perceptions of the real world. Impressions: These are the lively, first-hand perceptions, either of something external (e.g., sensation) or internal (e.g., emotion, desiring, willing). Ideas: These are the less forceful, less lively perceptions, which occur when we reflect on previous impressions (e.g., via the memory, imagination, etc.).

• Where do we get the idea of causation, according to Hume? Hume claims that causation is a habit of association, a belief that is unfounded and meaningless. He notes that when we repeatedly observe one event following another, our assumption that we are witnessing cause and effect seems logical to us.

What does “C causes E” mean, on Hume’s account? Cause and Effect. Fire causes heat. etc.

Hume is is a(n): empiricistrationalist idealist?


What did Berkeley believe about the real world and the world of experiences? They hold instead the mechanistic world view, which denies that the world is as we perceive it, and insists that the physical world is composed of entities possessing only the primary properties of extension. All of the “secondary” properties we perceive physical objects as having, in reality exist only in our perceptions, not in the objects themselves.

Berkeley is a(n): empiricistrationalist idealist?


According to Kant, what ‘world’ can we know, and what world can’t we know? We can be said to know things about the world, then, not because we somehow step outside of our minds to compare what we experience with some reality outside of it, but rather because the world we know is always already organized according to a certain fixed (innate) pattern that is the mind, the rationalists are right in saying that we can know about things in the world with certainty; and the empiricists are right in saying that such knowledge cannot be limited merely to truths by definition nor can it be provided by experience. What does Kant mean by “phenomena?”

Kant theorizes that the human mind is restricted to the logical world and thus can only interpret and understand occurrences according to their physical appearances. He wrote that humans could infer only as much as their senses allowed, but not experience the actual object itself.

According to Kant, how do we have knowledge of a priori truths? According to Kant, a priori knowledge is based on the form of all possible experience. Kant thinks that a priori knowledge, in its pure form, that is without the admixture of any empirical content, is knowledge limited to the deduction of the conditions of possible experience.

The Great Society need essay help: need essay help

What is the Great Society? Lyndon Johnson came up with the Great Society of the 1960s. It helps with education and people in poverty. Medicaid and Medicare are also two big parts of the Great Society during the 1960s. Lyndon Baines Johnson was born on August 27, 1908. Johnson graduated from high school, at the age of 15, as a valedictorian, in 1924. When Johnson finally went to college, his tuition was only forty-five dollars per year. He went to South West Texas State Teachers College.

He graduated at age 21, on August 17, 1930 (Morgan Reynolds Inc. ). Once Johnson graduated, he taught at the school. He was the principal and coach of the Debate Team. Johnson was offered a job as a US Representative and he accepted. Sadly, December 7, 1931, Johnson walked out of Union State in Washington D. C. He married Lady Bird three years later on November 24, 1934 (Morgan Reynolds Inc. ). What started Johnson to help society is when he saw his seventh and eighth graders digging in the trash, looking for something to eat.

He decided to start a school’s lunch program after seeing that. He also came up with the idea of building “Roadside Parks” (Morgan Reynolds Inc. ). Johnson combined Civil Rights Act of 1964 and federal programs into a vision and that is how “The Great Society” all started. Johnson asked students to fight for four battles: Civil Rights, against poverty, and finally for the Great Society, which seeks a “richer life of mind and spirit” (LBJ Launches 1). July 30, 1965, one of the 90 laws for his Great Society, that was passed was Medicare (Devaney 100).

Medicare became as much a part of America as Social Security (Devaney 116). President Truman said, “I’ve wanted the Medicare Act you’ll sign today for a long time. ” when Johnson passed the law. Medicare Act will help pay medical bills for Americans of the age 65 or older (Wilmore 15). The Medicare program was a first step toward creating the system of national insurance. It provided federal funding for many of the medical cost of older Americans. It also overcame the bitter resistance to the idea of socialized medicine (Brinkley 471).

Medicare did not carry the stigma that was attached to Medicaid, to some people (Naples). In 1963, most elderly Americans had no health insurance. Since 1965, 79 million Americans have signed up for Medicare. Democrats tried to preserve and expand Great Society programs such as Medicare. Medicare has had a defining impact on American families (Califano, Jr. ). Since 1966, Medicaid has served more than 200 million needy Americans (Califano, Jr. ). Medicaid is one of the largest Great Society programs (Brinkley 472). This healthcare system was said to be in crisis.

This led people to fear that poverty might ne one severe illness or accident away (Sherrow 10). Health care payments come from public providers such as Medicaid (Sherrow 18). Congress approved the Medicaid program in 1967, to finance health care for the poor (Sherrow 39). People who qualified for Medicaid could choose among private services as well as public clinics and university outpatient departments. Medicaid gave millions of people more access to care although many physicians and providers chose not to accept Medicaid patients.

Some administered their own Medicaid programs (Sherrow 39). By the 1970s, both Medicare and Medicaid provided coverage for all ages, poor, disabled, unemployed, blind, those who were unable to work, and dependent children with one parent (Sherrow 44). The Great Society is the latest stage in the evolution of Woodrow Wilson’s progressivism and Franklin Roosevelt’s Second Bill of Rights liberalism (LBJ Launches 1). The Great Society rests on abundance and liberty for all. It demands to end poverty and racial in justice.

The Great Society is a place where every child can find knowledge to enrich his/her mind and to enlarge his/her talents (Johnson 3). It is a challenge constantly renewed beckoning us toward a destiny where the meaning of our lives matches the marvelous products of our labor. The Great Society was built to prove that our material progress is only the foundation (Lyndon 4). The Great Society was so we can build a richer life of mind and spirit. Woodrow Wilson once wrote: “Every man sent out from his university should be a man of his nation as well as a man of his time” (Lyndon 4).

The Great Society is a term used to describe antipoverty legislation. The Great Society legislation targeted poor communities and individuals living in poverty as well as educational and employment practices (Naples). Education was another one of the Great Society’s main programs (LBJ Launches 1). Johnson’s Great Society articulates the vision of the students for a democratic society (LBJ Launches 2). The Great Society’s higher education legislation with scholarships, and etc. , is opened to any American with the necessary brains and ambition.

The Great Society had a bilingual education designed to teach Hispanics subjects like math and history. These special educational programs have helped millions of children with learning disabilities (Califano, Jr. ). Expanding educational opportunities was one of the goals for the Great Society. 1965 Health Professions Educational Assistance Act provided resources to double the number of doctors graduating from medical schools. Educational programs such as Sesame Street, has also given the nation countless bows of fine arts (Califano, Jr. ).

Parents send their children to college often with assistance with the Great Society higher programs like the Educational Act. It was announced at Ohio University that new majors spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation were launched during this period of the Great Society. Education was central to opening up the promise of American life to all. With the 1965 Secondary Education Act, the Great Society, for the first time, committed the federal government to helping local school districts (Califano, Jr.

). The goal of the Democratic Party under the leadership of President Johnson, is chiefly to enact domestic programs to improve education, provide medical care for the aged and to eliminate poverty. Johnson had so many goals for the society, in which many people took heed to. People may not know, but the Great Society is actually still going on today. Medicaid and Medicare, Educational Programs such as Job Corp, and many other programs of Johnson, has helped people lives until this day.

The Effects on North Korea my essay help uk: my essay help uk

“North Korea is one of the most secretive countries on earth. It’s regarded as an intelligence black hole” (“Inside North Korea”). North Korea, a communist dictatorship, is known to be very secretive, but also is one of the cruelest countries on earth to its people. “Communism is a political, social, and economic system in which the government is based on a collective society with land, property, and economic activities controlled by the state” (Lansford 9). The North Korean government does not like to show the world what really happens inside their country. “A U.

S. -based rights group has estimated that there are up to 200,000 political prisoners in North Korea” (“North Korea Profile”). Many of the people living in the camps are just the family members of the prisoners. Citizens can be sent to these work camps if they talked badly against the government or other minor crimes. The communist government of North Korea causes civilians to live in extreme conditions and suffer the wrath of their leaders and soldiers. The lives of the innocent could benefit if a new form of government takes place to stop the pain and suffering.

Korea did not experience communism until 1948 when the north side and the south side broke up into two different countries: North and South Korea. During WWII, the Allied Forces coerced the Japanese Imperial Forces out of Korea. Communist Russia occupied the north side while the democratic U. S. backed the south. Once tension started building up between Russia and the U. S. , it was impossible to bring the two sides back together as one country. The north took in communism and the south adopted democracy (Shah). When North Korea embraced communism, a young man named Kim Il Sung began to lead the new country.

He was respected by many in North Korea and even adored by some. “In 1950, Kim Il Sung invaded the south to unify the country” (“Inside North Korea”). This led to the Korean War and the south side along with the help of America fought to stop communism from entering the southern border. The south never was reunited with the north and the communist ways continue to stay with North Korea only. Currently, a 148 mile long border divides the north and south from each other. The long border is called “the 38th Parallel.

” This is the most heavily guarded border in the world (“Inside North Korea”). South Korea strictly guards this border because they do not want North Korean spies or any military personnel to enter into their country and gain any information to the north that could affect them. Also, the south wants to defend their borders so much to protect them from communism spreading into their country. Because of the terrible conditions North Korean citizens live through every day, South Korea wants to stop all threats of bringing communism into their country and ruining their own way of life.

Since North Korea became a country, they have had three leaders that have controlled the country under the reigns of communism. North Korea’s first communist leader was Kim Il Sung. He, along with the Russian government, founded the country and put communism in place as the North Korean form of government. Kim Il Sung set “Juche” as North Korea’s economic system (“Communism: North Korea”). “Juche” is a form of self-reliance. It is a mixture of xenophobic nationalism (unreasonably fearful of or hating anyone or anything foreign or strange), central planning and economic independence.

Using this self-reliant economy, Kim Il Sung ruled until he died in 1994. After his death, his son, Kim Jong Il, ruled with identical tactics as his father. Even though North Korea tried to produce all their needs domestically, Kim Jong Il loved importing meals, goods, and clothes from other countries around the world (“Communism: North Korea”). Kim Jong Il was an absolute dictator who was worshipped in a personality cult that was more extreme than any other in any country (“Inside North Korea). A historian on North Korea, Michael Breen, says, “Kim Jong Il was the son of god in North Korea.

He was the state. The notion of questioning his ability to rule never entered into things” (“Inside North Korea”). In 2011, Kim Jong Il died and all the power was given to his youngest son Kim Jong Un. After he died, Kim Jong Il was given the title “eternal general secretary” of the party and “eternal chairman” of the National Defense Commission. Kim Jong Il’s father, Kim Il Sung, had received the title “eternal president” when he passed away as well (“North Korea”). Kim Jong Un is currently the supreme leader of North Korea. He rules with an iron fist just like his father and grandfather.

Because the country is based around “Juche”, it is hard to produce all the necessities people need such as food. Since the mid-1990s, aid agencies around the world have estimated around two million people have died from starvation caused by food shortages that were due to natural disasters and economic mismanagement (“North Korea Profile”). The effects on North Korean citizens are very severe because of the country’s leader’s philosophy of self-reliance, and thousands of people will continue to suffer from the lack of food and other necessary items.

Communism affects citizens all over the country. Thousands of people suffer from the consequences that the government has left in North Korea. There is a major gap between North Korea’s medical care and other countries medical care. German physician and human rights activist Norbert Vollertsen said: “Of course, the North Korean government will tell you everything is free in North Korea. It’s not true because it’s not available. There is no medicine. There is no running water. There is even no soap in the hospitals (“Inside North Korea”).

Since there are barely any decent medical facilities, thousands of people overcome with sickness and die a lot younger than in developed countries. Also, many thousands of people become blind because the lack of proper hospitals and the poor living conditions there. In 2006, Doctor Sanduk Ruit went into North Korea to perform one thousand surgeries on the blind. Once the surgeries were completed, the doctor and his staff began to take off the blindfolds on those who were treated. Each time a person could see, they did not thank the doctor but they walked up to a picture of Kim Il Sung and thanked him (“Inside North Korea”).

The effects on the children in North Korea are devastating. Lisa Ling, a T. V. correspondent for National Geographic, explains: “The average seven year old boy is eight inches shorter and twenty-two pounds lighter than his brother in South Korea” (“Inside North Korea”). The effects of communism are oppressive, but they do not affect all citizens. A little over three million people live in North Korea’s capital city Pyongyang. Pyongyang holds most of the privileged citizens of the county. Big supporters of the government are allowed to live there (“Inside North Korea”).

The capital city has countless amounts of posters of the three leaders: Kim Il Sung, Kim Jong Il, and Kim Jong Un. North Korea’s communist government takes a huge toll on its people, but they do not complain to anyone about it or else they have risk of going to internment camps or death. The people of North Korea worship but also fear their leaders. They rarely oppose them or else they could live in a prison camp for the rest of their lives or be killed. North Korea’s citizens depend on their communist government to provide them with food and protection.

The citizens have lived with oppression for decades, but many of the people do not want to change their government because they have dealt with it for so long and they are used to it. A solution that can stop communism’s reign in North Korea is to wait out the rule. After North Korea loses it communist rule, countries around the world can work together to put in a new form of government. As soon as the communist control in the country starts to dissolve, the citizens of North Korea could start fighting the government alongside of many different world countries that want to end communism in all countries.

World powers desire to end North Korea’s communism because they have recently obtained nuclear weapons that they could threaten many countries with or sell them to terrorist organizations (“Inside North Korea”). World powers do not want to have to go to war with North Korea because of the loss of lives, the cost, the damage it causes, and many other reasons; this is why waiting out the communist reign in North Korea is the best option.

This idea worked with Syria and Libya because once the countries’ governments started to collapse, rebels along with other countries fought to out a new government in place. If the North Korean citizens can outlast communism’s control until the country’s government starts to diffuse, then the people of North Korea can fight the government with the help of a variety of countries. Communism has turned North Korea into one of the world’s most feared and hated countries. Their government’s ways of ruling with a communist leash has led to extreme conditions affecting the citizens there.

If anyone is reported of talking or even thinking against the regime, they will most likely die or end up living the rest of their life in prison (“Inside North Korea”). Because the North Korean government has taken a huge toll on its citizens, many countries around the world wish to change their form of government. If these countries along with the citizens of North Korea wait until communism’s leash begins to die out, then they can help each other to finish off the devastating consequences the communist government of North Korea has had for decades.

Mary Seacole free college essay help: free college essay help

Mary Seacole is praised in both sources 1 and 2, but in source 3 it seems that Nightingale disagrees in terms of her method of helping the men, although ‘she did some good. ’ Source 1 and 2 both agree that ‘she was a great help’ but for different reasons.

Source 1 is agreeing to this mainly because of the fact that it is written by Sir John Hall who I Head of the Army Medical Services and we know that Seacole was rejected by all hospitals, and he would not want to write about declining one of the most loved and charitable woman in Britain at the time, especially throughout the army, ‘the assistance she gave them, made her beloved by the rank and file of the whole army’. Also, as he is Head of the Army Medical Services it’s obvious that he would not want to write negative comments on his own services.

I believe the motivation of the source is to shift away the negativity of not employing her. I think source 1 can be seen as mainly reliable because he is Head of the Army Medical Services so he will be well informed but on the other hand he will not want to blame his own services for not employing her and will shift away the negativity from himself and his services, so from that point of view the source will also contain some element of bias.

Much like source 1, source 2 will also be well informed because they are unpublished memoires, which also means that this source won’t be bias, but it will be limited by the fact that it’s only one man’s point of view. It is suggested by source 1 and 2 that men preferred to go Seacole rather than ‘reporting themselves to their own doctors’ which shows that she was not only a help, but more of a help to the men than other hospitals or services.

Source 2 is from memoires of an officer, therefore he is likely to have felt her influence and impact upon the Crimean war; also he may have experienced he herbal remedies. This is also another reason to why men would go to her rather than normal Medical Services because they had no such treatment to which there was a chance of being healed or cured which is suggested in source 2 ‘That she did cure some patients is beyond doubt’.

Similarly source 3 also mentions ‘no doubt she did some good’ but in this case it is begrudging praise from Nightingale, and we know she’s being honest because it is a letter that she instructed her brother-in-law to burn after being read, so we get an accurate view of Nightingale’s opinion. This source is linked to the other 2 sources because it is at the time which Seacole was getting a ‘rapturous reception’ and in the other sources Seacole is getting praise but also all three sources state somewhere in their content that she did help the men in the Crimea.

Source 3 has both fragments of agreement and disagreement and it differs from the other sources because it doesn’t completely agree with the other 2 sources and it can be seen as an emotionally charged letter, as Seacole is getting so much praise in England, so it could suggest she’s jealous of the reception she’s receiving back in England. As well as this it seems that she is the odd one out, because everyone else has a huge love for Seacole apart from her.

Nightingale also adds criticisms to her methods of helping the men as she calls Seacole’s hotel a ‘bad house’ and she says that she introduced ‘much drunkenness and improper conduct’ which could be showing her jealousy as she dismisses the fact that she helps the men, but she is ery picky on her methods. In source 3, Nightingale also comments ‘believe that respectable officers were entirely ignorant’ which is not true because source 2 is by an Officer from the war of the West Suffolk Regiment and he would want to get drunk because of all the horrors and the stress of the war.

I think that all sources support the fact that Mary Seacole ‘was a great help to the men in the Crimea’ because at some point in all the sources, they al mention that Seacole was ‘a wonderful woman’ or they gie her some sort of praise. However in source 3, there is criticism of her methods but yet, Nightingale is honest because the letter was instructed to be burnt and she begrudgingly praises Seacole . overall I think that these sources do direct praise to Seacole and her services in the Crimea, even if it is begrudging praise.

Dodge vs Chevy need essay help: need essay help

You’re going to the dealership to buy a new diesel truck but you don’t know what brand to get. You’ve been thinking about it, doing a little research and you’ve come to a “brick wall”. You can’t decide whether to get the Dodge 2500 Cummins or the Chevrolet 2500 Duramax. Well my advice would be to get them both, because they are both GREAT trucks. Each of them is going to last you a long time and give you close to no problems. But……. Since you may not be able to afford both or have any use for both vehicles, you need to pick one. This paper will hopefully help make up your mind.

The Dodge 2500 diesel is the fastest selling truck on the market, mainly because of its Cummins B-series engine. The Cummins B-series engine was introduced to Dodge in 1989. It marked the first time a genuine medium-duty diesel engine had been used in a light-duty truck as the 2500 Ram. Sure, other pickups had diesels, but none of them had an engine with a gross

vehicle weight rating anywhere near the Cummins B-series 66,000 pound limit. Although it has a great engine, the body is known to be made cheaper than Ford or Chevy. A lot of people have problems with the dash cracking down the middle, paint fading and chipping easier, and when getting in wrecks, the frame breaking when it should have more of a springy characteristic. Also Dodge uses cheap axils, which are the heavy iron bars going from the frame to the wheels. Because Dodge uses cheap axils, the front-wheel alignment gets unaligned easier and can cause, what some people call “the Death Wobble”. The Death wobble is when you are driving at speeds above 60 miles an hour and all of a sudden the alignment goes out of line and both front wheels start shaking back and forth sometimes causing you to lose control of the vehicle. Although its flaws may sound bad, the Cummins engine over weighs the cons by a long shot. It has more towing power, horse power, its built tougher, and is known to outlast the vehicle itself. 200,000 miles on a vehicle may sound like a lot but it’s nothing when it comes to a Cummins if used properly.

The Chevrolet 2500 diesel also has a good engine but a lot of people don’t like them due to the fact that they are made by Isuzu in Japan so getting parts for them is a bit expensive, also there are not a whole lot of people/mechanics that know how to work on the Duramx engine so finding someone who can work on it is a little bit difficult. Another con about the Duramax engine is that, at around 200,000 miles, they are known to start having problems like injector failure, mass air flow sensors going out, etc, unlike the Cummins engine that can go over 300,000 miles without having any problems. Although the Chevrolet may not have the best

Engine, many people would say that is has the BEST transmission. In case you don’t know what the job of the transmission is, they are a cone-shaped part about the size of three tires placed side by side that are connected from the engine to the drive shaft. The engine spins the drive shaft while the transmission switches gears when to engines gets revved up to keep the engine from overheating. Transmissions are not something you would want to be going bad very often. It is very expensive when it comes to getting them replaced. Transmissions are not easily fixed. When something goes wrong, Most of the time the only option is to get a brand new one. Transmissions, for a diesel truck, can cost you anywhere between 2,000 dollars to 8,000 dollars. Chevrolet uses the Allison-Chalmers transmission. Every part inside of this transmission is made to top quality.

Many trucks need a new transmission after about 200,000 miles but tests have shown that the Allison-Chalmers transmission can go 300,000 miles, even when hauling heavy loads on a normal basis. Another pro for the Chevrolet is the interior and paint. Chevrolet puts a little more money into the materials used to build their unlike Dodge, for the most part at least. They use better paint that doesn’t fade or chip as easily as dodge and they use thicker and heavier iron for their axils to avoid the constant need for re-alignment. But, like Dodge, the interior is not always considered “the best”. They have had problems with paint peeling off dashes and door panels and some people say that the material used on the seats are un-modern.

Underage drinking instant essay help: instant essay help

This is your Speech working outline template to be used as a guide for your persuasive speech. You will need to completely fill in every BOLD DESCRIPTION with clear sentences to be turn in as your working outline assignment. You may review the public speaking template posted under your informative speech if you need further explanation for each item. Name: Meghan Hurt Course: Speech 1311 Class Time: 6:30 – 9:30 Method of Organization Used: Chapter 12 Title: Young and Arrogant Speech to Convince? Actuate? Inspire?

To Persuade. Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience that communication between parents and teens can reduce the incidence of adolescent alcohol abuse and drunk driving related deaths. Thesis Statement: To persuade my audience that communication between parents and teens can reduce the incidence of adolescent alcohol abuse and drunk driving related deaths. Parental awareness and involvement is essential to keeping teens safe. Parents need to teach their children how to keep safe in situations involving alcohol.

Share with them the risks and give them some facts that inform them to take responsible actions instead of actions that could harm themselves or other people. Persuasive Speaking Strategy: Ethos Introduction: Attention Material: Each year, approximately 5,000 young people under the age of 21 die as a result of underage drinking; this includes about 1,900 deaths from motor vehicle crashes, 1,600 as a result of homicides, 300 from suicide, as well as hundreds from other injuries such as falls, burns, and drownings. Credibility Statement: Underage drinking can not only bring harm to you but also to your family.

Audience Involvement: Have you ever been involved in a teenage drinking incident? Yes, ofcourse we all have because we’ve all been teenagers but have we all handled it in the right way is the key question? Preview of Ideas: Today I will explain to you the different techniques and ways to keep your child from not being an addition to the skyrocketing percentage rate we have on teenage drinking in America. Transition into Body: First we will start off with my main point that underage drinking can have major consequences.

Body I. First Main Point: Underage drinking can have serious consequences. A. Subpoint: You can protect your children from the risks associated with drinking by maintaining open communication and expressing a clear, consistent message about alcohol. 1. Sub-subpoint: Building a close relationship with your kids will make it easier for them to come to you for help in making decisions that impact their health and well-being. 2. Sub-subpoint: Parents need to be there for their teens, especially if you see that they need help

B. Subpoint: Parents need to keep tabs on where their child goes and offer them their assistance such as driving them home from a party if they drank too much to drive themselves home. 1. Sub-subpoint: Studies show adolescents whose parents closely monitor their activities are less likely to use alcohol or to be in risky situations involving alcohol. 2. Sub-subpoint: _ If they were scared of the situation like people getting so drunk that they are being wild and dangerous to the people around them at a party.

Transition: Now that I have shown you some of the ways connecting with your children can help reduce teenage drinking, I will now demonstrate how parents setting a good example for their children helps teenage drinking. This can also reduce teenage drinking by seeing adults being mature with alcohol these days. Visual Aids: Now, I’m going to show you a powerpoint of some graphs that have actually decreased the teenage drinking problem because of communicating effectively with their parents or even just adults in general. II.

Second Main Point: Parents or adults being able to set good examples for their children would reduce teenage drinking. A. Subpoint: parents should set good examples for their kids so they learn what to do in that situation and they need help 1. Sub-subpoint: If one parent is a heavy drinker, the child’s chances of becoming a heavy drinker increase by two or three times more than if the parents are not heavy drinker. 2. Sub-subpoint: Teens need to take responsibility for their own actions. Teens need to have communication with their family and friends.

B. Subpoint: Teens need to watch out for their friends if they have had too much to drink so you can take the responsibility to be the designated driver. 1. Sub-subpoint: Teens need to know when to stop so they don’t binge drink on alcohol and harm their body. 2. Sub-subpoint: Know what you are doing to you body and the effects. Like having liver problems when you are older. And Heart and central nervous system damage. You get bad hangovers and impaired judgment, which can lead to accidents during drunk driving.

(Transition: Now that I have demonstrated both the good examples, and behavior with friends I will now summarize to you what it is about. Conclusion Summary Statement: To summarize, teen alcohol abuse can be prevented by good communication between parents and teens, between teens and their peers, and by awareness of the effects that alcohol can have. Thesis and Main Points Reviewed: To persuade my audience that communication between parents and teens can reduce the incidence of adolescent alcohol abuse and drunk driving related deaths. Parental awareness and involvement is essential to keeping teens safe.

Parents need to teach their children how to keep safe in situations involving alcohol. Share with them the risks and give them some facts that inform them to take responsible actions instead of actions that could harm themselves or other people. Keeping our teens safe, and communicating with adults helps our teenage drinking levels to top skyrocketing with good communication. Appeal to Audience: I hope that this speech gave you all a little insight on how to help the situation with underage drinking. Concluding Remarks: Now, hopefully you can spread some of these facts and reduce underage drinking.

Rebuilding the Government: United States History college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president, was one of the most decorated commander-in-chiefs in American History, due to his never-ending push to mend our broken nation and move to the beginning. Nevertheless, many African Americans were forced to come to America to be sold into slavery in 1619. While the treatment of slaves was very unfair and, in many cases, inhumane, and was plagued with a lifetime of hard work and humiliation, after a little more than a hundred years President Lincoln took steps to not only voice his discomfort with slavery, but to do something about it.

It is because of this discomfort that Abraham Lincoln notably became known as political figure that to end slavery. Four months after the bloody Battle of Gettysburg, Abraham Lincoln gave a speech that would go down in history as one of the most influential speeches in American History1. The famous speech given by President Lincoln, the “Gettysburg Address,” had a specific purpose. It also allowed Lincoln to have a profound effect on the American people as a whole, as well as urge each American to look at themselves critically and promote change.

Because of this accomplishment, and many more, Abraham Lincoln is regarded as one of America’s best presidents2. An Analysis “Gettysburg Address” President Abraham Lincoln gave the speech, “the Gettysburg Address”, on November 19, 1863 at the Soldiers National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania3. There were two main purposes for him writing this speech: to consecrate the cemetery at Gettysburg and start to rebuild a torn country4.

Although President Lincoln’s speech was very short, sweet, and straight to the point, it was full of vital information that would begin to reshape the American society. Lincoln starts his speech in a very unique by using the term “Four score and seven years ago, our founding fathers brought forth this continent…” 5. Lincoln acknowledges the founding fathers that had discovered America eighty-seven years prior to the day he gave the speech. Due to Lincoln’s wording, this phrase became one of the most well-known and celebrated parts of “the Gettysburg Address” Although Lincoln does not

make a direct statement encouraging his audience to believe that he was talking about slavery, through the use of context clues, one can derive that this topic was definitely heavy on his heart while making his speech. Furthermore, one could argue that since slaves were not treated equally, Lincoln used the statement of supposed American equality to remind Americans of the true foundations that America was built upon. As Lincoln continues with his speech, he began to move on to the second reason for the speech: consecrating the cemetery at Gettysburg.

He accomplished this by talking about how the battlegrounds at Gettysburg should be in honor of the thousands that had lost their lives for the citizens of America. Dedicating the battlegrounds to those that lose their lives was the start of how America would honor troops the fallen and the soldiers left behind. This was a sign of respect and appreciation for all of the troops that fought during this battle. One last profound statement that Lincoln mentions in his speech is that “the government of the people, by the people and for the people….

Many presidents after Lincoln have quoted this part of “the Gettysburg Address,” but have fallen short, in some instances, of taking the statement as a blueprint for their presidency and using it to help them facilitate a more well-rounded country in which the government and the people of the country are on one accord. However, the statement was supposed to suggest that the government is a group of individuals that will stand by the American people and work for them for the better good of the country.

While the speech had many technical terms and references to the government and political leaders of the country, Lincoln was actually trying to reach a very diverse audience that spanned from governmental figures, to surviving soldiers, to the general American public. Abraham Lincoln will forever be embedded in history for delivering a presidency filled with work that was geared towards the best interest of the American people. Lincoln took the seat at a very difficult time in America’s early history, which was the Civil War. Lincoln made sure that after the war, that America rebuilds itself.

One thing from Lincoln’s iconic speech that is not forgotten is “all men are created equal”. In today’s society, all people are granted the same freedoms and equalities. It could be said that Lincolns speech though was given in 1863 was the start of the Civil Rights movement in a sense. Even though it was only around 270 words, The Gettysburg Address was a speech with many messages8. These powerful words, spoken by an influential president, was sure to promote change and equality throughout America eventually. Critical Essay 2 “I Have a Dream Speech” by Martin Luther King

There has been many influential figures in American History that have provided the American people with promising messages of hope and equality for all people. One of the most influential figures of the twenty century was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. This time period was marked by the Civil Rights Movement, which was a movement that prompted a group of individuals to fight for the equality of African Americans. This is because “African Americans were granted better economic status after World War II but were still a disadvantaged group”. 9 Dr.

King started his non-violence approach to civil rights by first leading the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The purpose of the boycotts was to allow seating to be based on a “first come, first serve basis,” as advocated by Dr. King. Fueled by the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Park’s refusal to give up her seat to a Caucasian passenger resulted in her arrest. After her arrest, the court ruled out the fact that segregated seating was not lawful according to the constitution. The next step that King took was founding the Southern Christian Leadership, which worked to stop segregation.

One of Dr. King’s “ultimate goals were to unite the broken communities through bonds of Christian love. ” In 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. graced America with a speech that expressed a profound optimism of equality for all individuals in America and his own dreams and hopes for better days. The speech was entitled “I Have a Dream”. His speech changed the face of America forever, even though equality for African Americans did not occur over night. It is important to consider the message with respect to the time period in which the speech is given. Dr.

King hoped for a better society as a whole; His speech was not solely in regards to the equality for African Americans, he wanted equality for all Americans in general. Analysis: “I have A Dream Speech” by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. ’s speech entitled “I have a Dream” was given in Washington DC at the Lincoln Memorial. King starts his introduction by referring back to Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg’s Address “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow as we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.

” 10 King refers to Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation because it helped free slaves. However, he called out the fallacies in Lincoln’s speech by making note of the fact that Negroes still were not free, one hundred years after slavery had officially ended. 11 During this time period, African Americans’ oppression came in the form of segregation and discrimination. Before delving into the heart of his speech, King mentions how the government had failed the African American population by pacifying them false promises and policies after the abolishment of slavery.

King states, “America has given the Negro people a bad check; a check which has come back marked “insufficient funds. ”12 This means, America did not grant Negros with the same equality and opportunities as Caucasians, or any other race during this time. Although the government policies banned slavery and poor treatment of African Americans, these policies had also failed the African American population by not making sure that the policies were strictly enforced. In his speech, King answers the critics when they asked, “When will you be satisfied? ”13 King gives a comprehensive list of things that would satisfy African Americans, as a whole.

He mentions police brutalities and the unfair economic statutes of African Americans. King wanted to instill into the minds of the African American people that they should not be satisfied with these injustices, but fight against them in a non-violent way. Before King began to conduct the “I have a Dream” portion of his speech he ensured the African American people that their efforts had not taken place in vain and that they should not give up hope for better days! Dr. King began his speech by telling his audience that his dream is deeply rooted in the sought-after American Dream14.

King mentions this because he wants America’s people to believe the vales, morals, and core roots on which America was established. It was important to him to continuously advocate his never-ending hope that African Americans would obtain the American Dream, just as other American citizens of other races had done. In his speech, Dr. King mentions how all men are created equal and how the color of one’s skin should not factor into one’s ability to obtain equality. Martin Luther King Jr. emphasizes that “one day little black and white children will join hands and be as brothers and sisters15.

” Although he refers to only two primary races, his words can be applied to children of all races. He references children because they are the future and ultimately look to them to become the generation of change. King recites the lyrics to “My country Tis of Thee” because he wanted to clearly deliver the message that America is supposed to be a land of freedom and opportunities for all. By using one of America’s most prominent, national songs, King showcased that he had not lost faith in America as a whole. He believed in America, although our country had been neglecting African Americans for many years.

The most powerful part of King’s speech was when he repeated “let freedom ring. ” He believed one day that freedom would ring all over the United States for all people. This is because King wanted to live in a world where all cultures and religions could join together as one and thought that this was important to make come to pass. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. ’s dream has come true in today’s society. People of all races live together as one. There are still some racial issues in the world, but it is not the noticeable issue that it once was. Children of all races go to school and join hands with each other daily.

Africans Americans are now afforded the same opportunities as white Americans in education as well as economically. The election of President Obama is another continuation of Dr. King’s dream. Furthermore, Dr. King’s hard work paid off because race is not even a huge deal in today’s society. The speech is taught in many classrooms and it is recited at many Black History programs yearly. Therefore, Martin Luther King Jr. should not only be remembered for this “I Have a Dream” speech, but as a man with a plan to make his dream come true, especially since it would become so influential as years passed!

Is Chivalry Dead cheap essay help: cheap essay help

Chivalry is not dead, but perhaps slowly dying off; it has simply evolved and is evolving continuously as time and people do. In Medieval Period, chivalry was a system of ethical ideals lived by daily. The chief chivalric virtues were piety, honor, nobility, valor, courtesy, chastity, and loyalty, and protecting the weak (women). It is apparent in today’s society that the definition and application of chivalry has changed through history. During the middle Ages, chivalry was a code of brave and courteous conduct for knights.

According to this system of morals and manners, a knight was to remain faithful to God, loyal to his king, true to his lady-love, and helpful to their less fortunate kinsmen. Chivalry is still alive today but to a lesser extent than in the Middle Ages as shown in the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and Morte d’Arthur. Some aspects of chivalry from Arthurian legend still exist today. In the story of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Sir Gawain was the epitome of chivalry.

He always followed the code of chivalry until he reneged on the agreement he had with the lord. When the Green Knight came and proposed the game to all the knights, King Arthur was the first to accept. Sir Gawain exhibits chivalry at first in the story when he implores to play the game proposed by the green knight so that King Arthur would not have to partake in it; this exemplifies: honor, loyalty, and valor. He said “I beseech, before all here, that this melee may be mine”, meaning he asked to risk his life so King Arthur wouldn’t have to.

Later in the story he committed his only wrong act by not living up to the code of chivalry when he kept the girdle that he had received from the lady, which he was obligated to return to the lord by the rules of their game. He was so concerned with his own life that he kept the gift regardless of his duty thereby violating the chivalric ode of honor. Gawain has adhered to the code of chivalry since his birth and throughout this story.

Sir Gawain adhered to the rules of the game with the lord for the majority of it; every gift he was given by the lady he gave to the lord aside from the one green girdle. In Morte d’Arthur, Sir Lucan was gravely injured and in need of assistance after the battle, but he was still making every last attempt to help out King Arthur. “Sir Lucan fell in a swoon that part of his guts fell out of his body, and therewith the noble knight’s heart burst”, Sir Lucan was there with King Arthur until his death held him back from further aiding his king.

While the chivalry of the Middle Ages is thought by most to have been reserved for loyalty this was not the case. Commoners also exhibited chivalrous conduct, though in less glamorous ways, nonetheless, it was chivalry. People are willing to risk their lives every day for others just like in medieval period, proving chivalry is not completely dead. Chivalry has greatly diminished since the Middle Ages. Respect, courtesy, and honesty have little meaning to today’s youth. Society has become more self-absorbed and self-centered, more or less with an itinerant person.

Not all people are arrogant; there are still those who insist on putting others first, such as the immense number of people in the military fighting for their people. Chivalry doesn’t need to be displayed on such a grand scale, helping the elderly, less fortunate and feeble are just a few things people can do to amp chivalry; It is very improbable that people will be as chivalrous as the knights of the middle ages were, but it is essential that people turn to a better direction. Chivalry has evolved to meaning something different than it did before in the medieval period.

Many values remain the same as you can see with organizations and associations such as the salvation army and charity events; people still see it important to help the weak and unfortunate certain aspects have been added and removed or faded such as piety, and nobility. Chivalry is indeed still alive, but it is dying as generations are losing morals and values and being more unappreciative of chivalric acts. Most people need recognition for even the smallest of good deeds. Our lifestyles have changed so drastically, and values have changed very much as well. As of now, the future of chivalry looks bleak.

If society doesn’t change its ways soon, the quality of life and chivalrous behavior will diminish even more than it already has and eventually cease to exist. The phrase, do to others as you would have them do to you, has been taught throughout the lives of most people and it simply states that even if there is no recognition and an act is left unappreciated, one should always remain chivalrous. Chivalry has always been an important aspect of life and has been instilled into the minds of people. Perhaps chivalry will live better in the future, but only time will tell.

Chicken Run Camera Angles ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

Chicken Run has many uses of camera angles. Camera angles can be used in many different ways, (low, high or mid angles), especially in Chicken Run. In Chicken Run camera angles are used to give the viewer a sense of what is going on and influence the viewer on how a character is regarded e. g. if the camera angle is gazing directly upwards towards a character this would usually indicate that the character in question has a lot of power or they are in charge. Camera angles can be used to show effects such as panic and calm on characters depending on what is taking place around them.

A great example of this effect takes place as Ginger and the other chickens are being chased through the chicken yard by guard dogs. The camera angle in this scene flickers backwards and forwards constantly, keeping in tempo with what is taking place at present throughout the chase. As the chase comes to a climax Mrs Tweedy appears in front of Ginger and the camera angle changes to a low angled shot and stays fixed, this proves that all is calm again and The very first shot is of the moon.

This instantly implies the genre and sets the tone of the film: the shot is very typical of the horror movie genre of films from the 20th century (which is also when the film is set). 3. The first shot pans down across to where Mr Tweedy and his two dogs are walking. The view of the fence surrounding the farm closely resembles the prisoner-of-war films which inspired the film itself. There is almost no sound and the music is quiet and mysterious to effect. He has dogs with him, most likely for protection, with fierce expressions, showing the mood of the scene.

4. Match-on-action shot of Mr Tweedy’s hand checking the lock on the gate. This suggests that he does not want anything or anyone getting in or out, and that he may be hiding something. Cut to an extreme low-angle close-up of his feet walking away. We never see his face in the first part of this sequence. This creates a sense of mystery as to who he is. It could mean that he is the main antagonist of the film because of this. 5. A figure emerges and tries not to be noticed.

This further suggests the first character we see (Mr Tweedy) is the antagonist since a character wants to hide from him, but we still don’t fully understand why the figure is hiding from him. There is mystery surrounding the figure as well as we cannot see (yet) who it is. Foot emerges before the rest of the body, suggests the figure is nervous of showing him/herself. 6. The water tower in the background connotes a guard tower in a typical prisoner-of-war film, so again there is reference to films such as ‘The Great Escape’ which the film closely parodies, and also that there is a greater force on Mr Tweedy’s side.

The shadow (Ginger) makes a run for it, again trying not to be caught. The way the dog hears Ginger first suggests the danger is nearer; she is about to be caught. 8. Ginger is nearly caught; an example of a ‘false alarm’ where we believe the character has been caught but hasn’t. 9. Match-on-action shot shows her frustration as she digs. Shot of the spoon being thrown back onto the floor; she is forced to leave everything but herself behind. 10. We are misled to believe she is safely across and all the danger is over, but in the next shot more chickens arrive.

These two shots echo the previous shots of Ginger running across, so the risk of danger is repeated. 12. Cutting between the two actions of the chickens trying to escape and the dogs running towards them; again this shows frustrationand pressure for the chickens and a sense of danger. The sound and music both add to this effect by suddenly increasing dramatically, rising as the dogs near. 13. The sound and music have now increased to their full volume as Ginger turns to run.

We finally see the face of the character we saw at the beginning, albeit for two brief seconds. The camera zooms in sharply on his triumphant expression. 14. Short, sharp cuts between shots, as well as the camera following the dogs, creates a feel of speed and shows the impact of the chase. Ginger stops and turns back in this shot; she has nowhere to turn. 15. Shot-reverse-shot between Ginger and the dogs is used to show she is trapped. The camera also backs away with Ginger; there is a slow zoom out on this shot of the dogs closing in. 16.

The dog eating the gnome head (that Ginger tries to force them away with) shows her helplessness and what is destined for her. We don’t see the impact of the head being eaten, implying violence. 17. Close-up shot of her head, slowly panning in. The attention is on her terrified expression, as the camera zooming in slowly shows how her ‘doom’ is coming nearer and nearer. 18. Both Ginger and the dogs turn at the light from behind her. The lighting has changed and is like a light ‘from heaven’ as if Ginger is being called or summoned, as if everything has already happened.

The music has also stopped suddenly. 19. Cutting back to the curious faces of the chickens. There is no music and very quiet sound; everyone has stopped to look, creating suspense of what they are looking at. 20. The camera pans up revealing the true main antagonist, with a short piece of dramatic music for this shot. Her height suggests she is dominative over all the other characters, since tall characters stereotypically prevail. 21. She even dominates over Mr Tweedy, who no longer has the same power or authority we believed he had before.

The dogs also show terrified looks. Mrs Tweedy’s anger is expressed by her fierce eyes and her arms on her hips. 22. Ginger is thrown into a coal bunker as punishment, a spoof on the bunker where prisoners spend the night in prisoner-of-war films. She also plays the same activities to pass the time later in the film. The music adds to the reference, echoing drums in a military march. 23. Mr Tweedy’s P. O. V. ; showing that because he is taller he dominates over the prisoners (the chickens).

Shot-reverse-shot is used so that we can see the expressions from both Mr Tweedy and the chickens, and the way they contrast (they are terrified (of him), he is furious (at them)). 24. The camera pulls out and reveals the location where almost all of the film (except for the last scene) is set. Both this and the final piece of dialogue now reveal properly that the film is set on a farm. The title is shown. The font (albeit in italics) is similar to the title on the poster for ‘The Great Escape’.

Neighbours computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Everyone has neighbours, that much is obvious. Whether they live down the street or if they live within throwing distance. Every person, every family, and every neighbourhood is different. Some neighbours can be very inconsiderate, and then there are some who are very considerate towards helping and respecting others. The inconsiderate neighbour is the one constantly playing loud music, and when someone complains they do not change their ways at all. The considerate neighbour may be the one who is always lending a helping hand; even before you ask for help.

Then there is the silent neighbour, who may fall into either category, being considerate or inconsiderate depending how you want your neighbours to be. Whether your neighbours are the inconsiderate loud type or the considerate, over friendly and helpful type it is all about personal preference and how you want your neighbours to be and act towards you. All types of neighbours are an important part to each community, they can help us to learn to communicate and relate to all different types of people. Whether they are noisy and inconsiderate, silent and keep to themselves, or if they are helpful and considerate, they are all our neighbours.

An inconsiderate neighbour may be the worst type of neighbour to have. They can be anything from loud to just plain out rude. An inconsiderate neighbour is usually the one who stays up late and comes home late, driving fast, squealing their tires around corners, and slamming the car doors. They play loud music with no cares as to who is sleeping. The worst part is the typical inconsiderate person has bad taste in music, so when they get home late playing loud music it is usually bad music; which makes it even worse.

Playing loud music and coming home late is not the only thing that makes someone inconsiderate. And inconsiderate neighbour does not care for anyone or respect anyone, this neighbour will not change their ways due to complaints from others. Every street has its fair share of inconsiderate neighbours; even at my cottage we have inconsiderate neighbours. At my cottage a lot of my neighbours and I all share the same feeling towards one family. They always tend to ask favours and never do anything in return. They have come to my cottage many times asking to use the phone, computer, or some type of tool.

But if anyone in my family or I was to ask a favour we would get shooed away, and feel as if we are intruding or being a pain by asking a small favour. These same neighbours have used my family dock many times and have broken parts off it at least two times. They never offer to offer to fix it or even apologize. The one time was when these specific neighbours had their boat tied to the dock and we needed to tie our boat there, but of course their boat was taking up all the room, and left us in an awkward position where we could not even park at our own dock.

Of course the typical inconsiderate neighbour is stereotyped in playing loud music and most of the time it is bad music. And of course these neighbours at my cottage play their fair share of bad music; at least I think it is bad music. Many people may feel that an inconsiderate neighbour is the one who is rude, disrespectful, plays bad music loudly, and who has no care for the opinion of others. Some people may even believe that the silent neighbour who keeps to themselves is being inconsiderate. A silent neighbour may be an inconsiderate or considerate neighbour.

It all depends on personal preference, about how you want your neighbours to act towards you. If you prefer to have neighbours who keep to themselves and stay silent, then these types of people you may say are very considerate neighbours. Although others may say someone who keeps to themselves, who does not attend neighbourhood activities or who does not lend a helping hand when needed, are very inconsiderate. Although everyone has their own idea of a perfect neighbour we usually are not lucky enough to live beside the perfect neighbour.

A silent neighbour I think is a good neighbour; they keep to themselves and mind their own business. I have a few neighbours at my cottage who I would consider “silent” neighbours. There is many times where they just mind their own business and do not attend neighbourly gatherings for no apparent reason. These neighbours specifically do not even allow their children to play with other young children in the area. A few years ago I was put in a situation where I had to ask one of my silent neighbours who was an ex- nurse for a favour.

I had cut my finger badly while baking and needed to go to the hospital to get stiches, neither my brother nor I, who were the only ones home at the time, were able to drive. We went across the street and asked one of our neighbours who we barely talk to if she could look at my finger and drive me to the hospital if needed. Of course she was able to tell me I needed stitches and drive me to the hospital. Sometimes these neighbours come off as inconsiderate, but I believe they just prefer to keep to themselves and not be bothered.

Of course in case of an emergency these neighbours are always there to help if asked, or if something needed to be borrowed. I believe silent neighbours are good neighbours, because most of the time they are considerate towards your being, considerate towards loud music, and will be there for a favour if you ever needed and asked. There are many neighbours who just prefer to keep to themselves, and then there are neighbours who are always out and about or always there to help before you even ask.

There are all types of considerate and inconsiderate neighbours, someone who is loud or stays out late, I would consider them inconsiderate. There are also many types of considerate neighbours, those who just keep to themselves, then those who are extremely helpful and friendly. I believe having considerate and helpful neighbours is always a good thing. They are there to help before being asked, and they always have the tools you need to borrow. The typical helpful neighbour is always very friendly and outgoing, they are always outside or around on the street, talking to or helping other neighbours.

The helpful neighbour always has the proper tools or items you would need for whatever it is you are doing. At my cottage there are many neighbours who will come and help with a project if you ask for help. But when I think of one specific neighbour who is extremely helpful and very friendly, there is one person who sticks out in my mind. We all know someone, or have someone on our street or at our cottages that is like this. My experience with this helpful neighbour is whenever we have to take the docks out it in the fall or put the docks back in, in the spring.

There has been a few times my family has been taking docks out, or putting them in cold 15 degrees Celsius water and this specific neighbour came down to my cottage and just jumped into the water to help, even without asking if we needed help or if we even wanted help. This small gesture done by this neighbour always sticks out in my mind because he came and helped without is asking for help. My dad is the type of person who I would consider a helpful neighbour, he will always offer help to someone but will not ask for help when he needs help.

The other day he was helping out a neighbour who is adding an extension on to his house. One of the roof beams had fallen and landed on my dad’s forehead. He had to go to the hospital and get 24 stitches and a scan for a concussion. When he was out of the hospital I asked him if he would go back and finish helping the neighbour, and he said of course he would. My dad is the type of person I would enjoy having as my neighbour, he is always there to lend a helping hand no matter what has occurred. Typically a helpful neighbour is very friendly and outgoing.

My neighbour at the cottage and my dad are both very friendly and outgoing, at times it becomes a little bit excessive but we all enjoy having extra help, especially with jobs we do not want to do. There are many types of neighbours, noisy and loud, silent and private, or friendly, outgoing and helpful. Everyone has the perfect neighbour they wish they could have, but most of the time we get stuck with a few inconsiderate and a few considerate neighbours. But all these types of neighbours are what makes our communities exciting and fun.

Everyone has neighbours and everyone has the perfect idea of how they want their neighbours to be and act. My perfect neighbour would be ones who have fun, and enjoy themselves but who are respective to those around them, when they come home late, by not slamming doors or squealing tires in the middle of the night. My perfect neighbour would be friendly, helpful, and outgoing to an extent. They would know how to mind their own business and not intrude, but when invited out or to a neighbourhood gathering they will attend.

Writing this has me thinking about what type of neighbour I am. I believe everyone has their moments of being a perfect neighbour, or being a hated inconsiderate neighbour. Thinking how much worse a neighbour could be makes me thankful to the neighbours who I have at my house and my cottage. All neighbours share their own part in our community, they help us to learn to communicate, and relate to inconsiderate and considerate people. Makes you wonder, what type of neighbour are you?

ACC 290 Financial Statements admission college essay help: admission college essay help

Financial statements are a means of communicating numbers within a business. Without proper numbers your business could be a success or a big failure. “You will rely on them to make decisions, and managers will use them to evaluate your performance. That is true whether your job involves marketing, production, management, or information systems” (Kimmel, 2009). The financial statements shows the business financial standpoint at a given time period, and it also helps the business to understand what they need to do to improve.

A company’s livelihood depends greatly on their financial statement because it determines if the business is successful, can it hire new employees, or can it receive any more additional loans. A financial standpoint of the company is monitored by its financial statements. The four basic financial statements are retained earnings statement, balance sheet, income statement, and statement of cash flow. During a certain time period presenting a snapshot of what your business owns (its assets) and what it owes (its liabilities), you prepare a balance sheet.

“To show how successfully your business performed during a period of time, you report its revenues and expenses in an income statement” (Kimmel, 2009). Specifying how much of prior income was dispersed to you and the other owners of your business in the form of dividends and how much was reserved in the business to allow for future growth a retained earnings statement is presented. Showing where your business obtained cash during period of time you would prompt a statement of cash flow.

The purpose of balance sheet it to show the amount of assets a company has obtained by evaluating the claims of creditors and the claims of owners. This type of relationship can be shown in an equation assets equal liabilities plus stockholders equity. A company success or failure is monitored by its income statement because it shows a company’s revenue monitored by its expenses. The net income is obtained through the income statement by deducting its expenses from its revenues. The retained earnings statements are different because retained earnings are the net income retained in the corporation.

Dividend payment practices are assessed because the amount of the retained earnings statements is deducted or added by the company’s dividends. The statement of cash flow shows the company operating, investing, and financing doings. It shows the company cash position and what is happening to its most important source. Managers use financial statements for several purposes. If a company needs to meet labor demands and need to hire new employees the financial statements helps in knowing how many employees they can afford to hire.

On the income statement, management compares sales and expenses of a period of time with recent events to notice if there is a big change. They can identify likely problems and investigate the cause; however, they can regulate if they can afford new equipment, merchandise, and other operating expenses. Using the balance sheet managers can determine if a change applied helped the company or delayed it. Employees look at financial statements to know if the company is managing their money well and can meet payroll obligations.

Employees also can gain knowledge of potential bonuses or layoffs based of the net income that is reported on the income statement. Financial statements are useful to investors and creditors because it shows the company’s financial position and allows them to make better decisions concerning the company. For the investors and creditors financial statements helps to evaluate the risks related to the possible investment or loans issued as well as estimate returns from the money invested.

Investors and creditors analyzes company’s financial position, operational results, cash generated by different activities before making investment decisions. If the company owes more than it owns than creditors may not allow that company to receive additional loans. To investors it shows if the company is operating profitably. Financial statements are vital to the success of a business. They can be used as a roadmap to direct you in the correct direction and help you avoid costly failures.

Maintaining financial statements for a company can only help a company. Improper financial statements put a company in jeopardy. The different statements show if a company can afford to hire new employees or if they need to do some lay-offs. To determine if a company can be approved for additional loans or if it is expected to fail you must rely on the financial statements. In general financial shows the financial standpoint of a company and decisions a company has to make cannot be made if there are no financial statements.

Little Buddha essay help us: essay help us

Little Buddha was a movie staring Keanu Reeves about a boy named Jesse who was thought to be the reincarnation of a Tibetan teacher named Lama Dorje. In the movie, Jesse is given a book by Lama Norbu that explains how Buddhism originated. Followers believe that it was started by Prince Siddhartha, who was played in the movie by Keanu Reeves. According to the book, there were many signs from the beginning that indicate Siddhartha was a special being.

Siddhartha was born in the forrest and his mother had him painlessly while standing up. When he was born, he was fully conscious. He could also fully stand and talk, where as regular babies can’t do either. Whenever he would walk, lotus flower pedals would sprout up from below his footsteps. He also spoke of Nirvana before Nirvana was a thing.

Siddhartha was born of royalty and he was protected from the world outside his palace. He got everything he wanted but one day he heard a song that was about everything he didn’t know about the outside world. So one day he decided to leave the palace and finds out about all of the pain, suffering, and death there is taking place in the world and he discovers compassion. Siddhartha then moves out of the palace to try and find out more about the “Outside World.”

After days of being away from home, he finds a tribe called the Ascetic Tribe. The Ascetic Tribe were people who had reached Enlightenment but they were not Buddha. The Ascetic Tribe had very gruesome rituals they practiced. They would only eat dirt, bugs, leaves, and fruits and vegetables they could find. Siddhartha soon became an Ascetic and was one for 10 years until he heard a passing musician tell his pupil, “If you pull the string too tight, it breaks, but if it’s too loose, it won’t play.” this led Siddhartha to believe the Ascetic life was too extreme, and he decided to go to the river to bathe. While he was bathing, a beautiful woman came up and offered him rice, and he took and ate the rice with the other Ascetics watching him. He was then banished from the Ascetic Tribe because he was disloyal to the religion. Siddhartha was now trying to find Enlightenment a different way.

As Siddhartha was trying to find Enlightenment he meditated under a tree. The demon Mara didn’t want him to progress and so he tried to distract Siddhartha by making him want his Five Daughters. The Five Daughters Of Mara are Pride, Fear, Desire, Ignorance and Greed. Siddhartha could not want any of these because if he did he would have to start the whole process of Enlightenment all over again.

Mara tried to distract him with many images of discomforting things. For example, he had an army of soldiers light up flaming arrows and show them at him, but all that happened was that the arrows turned into flower pedals and landed all around him. Another example of Mara’s distractions was a mirror image of himself talking about things he would want to desire but Siddhartha didn’t listen and then Mara was overcome. Siddhartha then reached Enlightenment.

At the end of the movie, it turns out that Jesse and two other kids were all the reincarnation of Lama Dorje. Lama Norbu said that it was extremely rare that a reincarnation can turn into three people, but he said it can happen, and in this case, it did happen. Lama Norbu said that when three people are a reincarnation, one person is “Mind,” another is “Body,” and the last is “Spirit.” Part 2: Colors

In the first paragraph of this essay, I explained that the movie Little Buddha is about.a boy named Jesse who was thought to be the reincarnation of a Tibetan teacher named Lama Dorje. Jesse lives in Seattle and we meet him when the Tibetan monks go to his house.

Jesse’s family life is going downhill because his Dad has basically just lost his job, his Dad’s friend just died, and they are about to lose their house. This is maybe why it is always portrayed as being gray and gloomy outside all the time, because they were trying to express his family’s feelings. Also, everybody was always dressed in dark and grim colors such as black, dark blue, etc.

In contrast, whenever you saw Siddhartha, he always had a sunny, golden, and bright setting around him. For example, when you first see him, when he is being born, that is when the setting was the brightest. Also, almost everybody was dressed in bright colors such as red, gold, and silver. This shows that Siddhartha is the person who is going to be the person who is going to become the Buddha or the “Enlightened One” Or maybe since he was the “Enlightened One,” they try to deliberately put more light on Siddhartha always when we see him.

However, during the period of time when Siddhartha is looking for Enlightenment, the light is a little bit darker than when he finds Enlightenment. But during the time he was trying to find Enlightenment with the Ascetics the colors were brown and gray, so in a way, that showed us that was not the right path to take. Then when he is tempted by Mara, the colors change to dark blue, gray, and black so we know that Mara is a bad omen. But then once Siddhartha conquers Mara, he reaches Enlightenment, and the colors are golden again.

One of the ways we know going to Bhutan is a positive note for Jesse is that all the way up until when Jesse is flying to Bhutan and looks out of his window, it becomes very sunny and golden, even more golden than when they showed Siddhartha being born. Then when he was said to be the reincarnation of Lama Dorje, the colors were bright and golden as well. He is also in orangy-red robes so that is another use of the bright golden colors to suggest positivity and Enlightenment.

Texting vs. Calling get essay help: get essay help

Call me, definitely? Would have been the name of my hit pop song if I were Carly Rae Jepsen. Everyone with a cell phone has the option to either text or call someone, in order to contact that person. Some people like to text and others would rather call. However, there are several similarities and differences between the two ways of communicating. As a person you choose whether to text or call that is the way you recognize as the best way of communicating, the best way of communicating is by calling someone. Calling definitely has more advantages than texting and this is why calling is the better form of communication.

One of the differences between texting and calling is that by calling someone they can understand the tone of your voice and you won’t be misunderstood. When texting someone the receiver can’t tell if you are being sarcastic or understand the mood you are in. However, when you call someone they are listening to your voice so they can understand if you are being sarcastic or whether you are happy or sad. If you are in a bad mood, your voice is more monotone and down, if you are in a happy mood its more upbeat. So by calling, people won’t misinterpret your mood or the way you mean things.

For example, most people will read, “You’re so cool”, in a sarcastic way, but over the phone the person can tell whether or not you are being sarcastic because that sentence can be read in a non-sarcastic way. Calling someone can eliminate the element of being misunderstood, due to the fact that, you hear the tone of someone’s voice. Texting can be better to express your feelings through the use of “faces”. When you call someone you can’t see the other person’s face. But, when you text you can incorporate faces such as “:)”, and “:(“ to express whether you feel sad or happy about things.

Over a phone call you can smile but, the other person won’t see that and they won’t know how you felt about what that person just said. Just by putting a certain face, people can interpret your mood without second guessing themselves. If you want to express your feelings in a way that’s not confusing then texting is the way to go because you can use different faces to symbolize the way you feel about a certain thing/topic. However the best way to interpret someone’s emotions is through their tone of their voice, which is only available through calling.

Over text, it is easy to lie and someone can put a face just because they feel like it and its not necessarily the way they feel. Over a phone call there is no hiding you tone of voice or reaction and you can hear that person’s true emotion. Calling doesn’t give you that opportunity to express the way you feel through your facial expression, texting does. As for the phone call, its main advantage is that when someone calls you, you know that it is important. A phone call has a very high importance level and is a sign that person wants to talk to you.

Its urgency. Through direct communication, people canould rapidly react and response to all their communications. Furthermore its fast communication leads there is lower chance of misunderstanding for the reason that person could ask immediately the other person when he have trouble understanding the information. It reduces time just by calling than spending hours typing text messages. Phone calls could allow people to feel the person whom they are calling closer since they could hear their voices and share emotions.

There is always that possibility of that person not picking up the phone, but when that person does, you can get an immediate response and won’t have to wait for a text message, which could take any amount of time. Texting has one major disadvantage and that is that it allows people to read the message and respond on their own time, which could be any time. Through a phone call that person can’t respond on their own time, you can get an answer as soon as they pick up their phone. Calling is easy, fast and allows you to get a response right away, without waiting around for that person to answer your text.

To start with, texting messages on the mobile phone is less costly than calling. More specifically, a simple message would cost about $0. 05 whereas a minute of talking would probably cost about $1. This is why texting is more preferable mostly to the younger such as teenagers and students who usually do not work and so cannot pay high cellphone bills. Moreover, sending text messages is convenient because if the cell phone is deactivated, the message is delivered once the cell phone is activated by its owner. A reply might not be required by the sender of the message.

For instance, most of the messages say “ok”, “I love you”, or “Have a nice day”. Another example that makes obvious the convenience of text messaging is when one has to inform someone about a mail address or a telephone number. It is difficult to explain this information in a call session because the other person might not have a piece of paper and a pen at the moment or make spelling mistakes. This means that a saved message in the cell phone is a certain way to retrieve this kind of information. A phone call can bring two people closer, so if you are going to talk to someone you like a phone call is the way to go.

Calling someone and just talking through the phone allows you to hear their voice and share emotions. This permits these two people to grow closer and connect with their feelings on an easier level. You can’t connect with someone’s emotion through text because you can’t hear their voice and how they are saying what they are saying. A phone call allows these people to connect and if you like someone a phone call can go a long way. It allows a deeper connection and you get to find out more of that person’s personality this way.

Calling is an easier way to grow a closer relationship with someone, so if you want to get to know someone better calling them is the way to go. A phone conversation takes place on a more personable level. Talking on the phone lets you have a longer conversation in shorter amount of time it takes less time to tell a story than to text a story. You do not always have to have a cell phone plan you can have a landline and still be able to talk cheaper than a cell phone plan. It is a safer way to communicate while in the car.

Even though using a cell phone is “frowned” upon while you are in a car, calling is much easier and safer. You can have a headset or some cars have cell phone sync and you can talk hands free. You shouldn’t be doing this but;, if you do text and drive you have to have the phone in one hand and also have to be looking down at the phone to see what you are saying. This just leaves you in a very vulnerable position in a car and it is very dangerous. However, if you are calling, all you have to do is put it on speaker and place on the passenger seat and just talk. Texting doesn’t have

This option of communicating through a speaker or headset. Even though not all of your attention is on the road, it still allows you to keep both hands on the wheel and both eyes on the road. Therefore, calling is much safer to do while in a car, which is a huge advantage. Texting is when a person types a short message on a cell phone and sends it to another person with a cell phone. Texting allows more convenience because it is a faster way to get in touch with someone. There are a lot of people who will not even call on their phones, but will respond to a text immediately. Texting is more private.

When a person is in a public place, he or she will not disturb others and no one would know what his or her conversation is about. An individual can also send a picture through a text. For example, instead of describing an item over the phone, a person can send a picture. We can see many useful things that texting bring to us. While texting, we can think clearly before we intend to say something. Once a person says something while on the phone, it is out in the open and he or she cannot take it back. While texting give us some time to consider carefully before saying what we think. This can cause less drama and fights.

It is also more difficult to start a conversation by calling every time. Sometimes, texting will be good for explaining or saying sorry. Not everyone has unlimited texting on their cellular device, so texting is not a regular occasion for them. Unlike people who do have unlimited texting they will most likely communicate by sending text messages back and forth. This gives an advantage to calling someone because you don’t have use cell phone data, you can use a landline to call someone. Texting has that restriction where if you have limited texting you have be aware of how much you are texting.

Unlike calling, texting can’t be done by using a landline telephone. If you don’t have a cell phone you can’t text however, if you have a landline, you can call whenever someone whenever you want. Calling has a greater convenience level than texting because it can be done without a cell phone. In addition, throughout cities there are pay phones and not stations to text someone, so calling is more convenient and is the way to go. Also, this helps with emergencies, if you don’t have a cell phone on you, you can use a pay phone. This proves even more that calling is far

Greater than texting. So in my opinion, communication through calling is better than text message. It may be costly but Iit’s more efficient in rapid communication. However, it all comes down to which people really need and comfortable with. In any case, mobile communications probably has made our lives more fast-paced since communication is speedily taking many parts of human life. In conclusion, calling someone has more advantages than texting, this is why everyone should choose calling as their way of communication. text messaging and calling have both advantages and disadvantages.

Childhood Obesity college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Obesity is the accumulation and storage of excessive fat in the body. According to Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Obesity is any weight that is bigger than what is typically considered healthy for a given height. (CDC, 2009). The imbalance between caloric consumption and expenditure is what causes obesity in children and adults. There are factors that affect obesity. Such factors are biological, behavioral, and environmental in nature. When more calories than the body is required is taken, the body stores the excess calorie in form of fat resulting in obesity.

There are daily media reporting on obesity in Los Angeles county and nationwide. Health experts utilize mass media to provide information, training and encouragement to the need to live healthy lifestyle in other to eradicate obesity. Undoubtedly, the greater concern is on the vulnerable school age children. In one annual report from by Los Angeles County (LAC) Department of Public Health (2007), the researchers found that childhood obesity is both a national and local crises.

According to the report, “Nationally, obesity rates among children have tripled since the late 1970’s, and in Los Angeles County, more than 1 in 5 students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grades are now obese, and this continuing epidemic of childhood obesity is jeopardizing the future health and well being of our children. ” Obesity poses serious health concern for the children. The physiological and mental impact on children is enormous.

For example, children are among the most vulnerable population to suffer the effect of obesity such as low self-esteem, depression, to develop diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other chronic conditions such as asthma, orthopedic problems, liver problems, and breathing problems during sleep due obesity. (LAC Department of Public Health, 2007). In addition, another source also remarked that childhood obesity is for the most part troubling because the extra calories often expose the children to health problems that were once confined to adults (Mayoclinic. com, 2010). This paper will not only define and describe epidemiology, but will also discuss the following; steps and methods of epidemiology, epidemiological triangle, type of epidemiology used, as well as description of the relationship of the disease to various levels of prevention, as related to childhood obesity. In the past, the term epidemiology is used to refer to the spread of diseases that were primarily infectious in origin, but now its definition and scope have

Broadened and now include, chronic diseases, mental, occupational, environmental, and other health-related events (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiology can therefore be defined as study of patterns of disease and illness in human populations and application use of this study to control health problems (Association of Schools of Public Health [ASPH], 2007). It is also known as the science of public health because it studies the distribution of health related s states and illnesses and associated factors at the population level.

The study can be effectively used to control and manage diseases that affect the overall population. A variety of methods can be used to carry out epidemiological investigations: Such methods as surveillance and descriptive studies can be used to study distribution. While analytical studies are used to analyze determinants. The two main methods that can be used to carry out epidemiological research are descriptive studies and analytical studies.

A descriptive study describes characteristics of group of people who suffer or does not suffer certain illnesses, and also revealing those who are at risk of developing the illness. Conversely, analytical epidemiology focuses on the determinant of health problems, and tends to establish why and how the conditions occur. However, to differentiate between the two will be difficult because analytic studies rely on descriptive comparisons, and descriptive comparisons shed light on determinants (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008).

The initial step in the epidemiologic process is to answer the “what” question by defining a health outcome, before the application of its method to determine who has the disease, and factors that influence the pattern or risk of occurrence (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Epidemiological studies can be used in various ways such as conducting studies of health related behaviors; investigation of relationships between social conditions and vulnerability with chronic conditions, infections, and violence; and of course, examination and researching of health services.

For example, the evaluation of progress towards meeting Healthy People 2010 goals and objectives depends on the use of epidemiologic methods (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008, p. 244). In line with the group’s topic (school age obesity in Los Angeles County), the epidemiologic method used for this study was geared towards quantifying the prevalence, and characterizing both the case group and the population from which they come.

In one of the studies, the incidence of childhood was determined by means of body mass index (BMI) measures of fifth, seventh, and ninth grader public school children (LAC Department of Public Health, 2007). Based on the Center for Disease and Prevention (CDC) growth chart, children were considered obese if their BMI exceed the 95th percentile of their age and gender group’s BMI (CDC, 2009). The study also considered definition of cities and communities within Los Angeles County.

As such, cities and communities that have fewer than fifty students with BMI data from California Physical Fitness Testing Program were not included. In order to track down childhood obesity in the county, LAC Department of Public Health utilized data accessed from California Department of Education’s Physical Fitness Testing Program. The researchers found that the rate of obesity in school age children have continued to rise steadily. According to the report, Los Angeles County has seen an alarming steady increase in the percentage of the children in the fifth, seventh, and ninth graders who are obese-from 18.

Percent in 1999 to 23. 3 percent in 2005 (LAC Department of Public Health, 2008, p. 1). The prevalence of school obesity in the county is noted as follows: higher among boys than the girls with 1 in 4 boys versus 1 in 5 girls; higher at lower grade levels with 26. 4 percent of children in fifth grade compared with 19. 2 percent of children in ninth grade; and, varied markedly in by racial/ethnic groups and geographical location – highest among Pacific Islanders’ 34 percent and Hispanic’s 24.

Percent, as well as highest in the South Service Area and lowest in the West Service Area, respectively. Although there is evidence that the figures have stabilized in the past two years, the percentage of children who are obese is still unacceptably high at 22. 9 percent. Another study also revealed that the prevalence of obesity in children varied significantly among cities and communities – from a low 4 percent in Manhattan Beach to a high 37 percent in Maywood, which was attributed to economic hardship (LAC Department of Public Health, 2007).

Information on birth, death, medical and health records are not available The epidemiological triangle is a model used by scientist to develop studies about health problems, the triangle allows for investigation and understanding of diseases and how they are spread. The general belief that health status is multi factorial gives us the chance to apply scientific methods in a variety of circumstances. There are three corners in the triangle and they are comprises of the host, the agent and the environment.

The carrier or human body that harbors the diseases is known as the host. The host can be influenced by many factors like age, gender, race and behavior. Any factor whether physical, chemical, or biological in nature, whose presence or relative absence is necessary in the occurrence of a disease process is the agent. The aggregate of all external conditions and influences affecting life and development in this case is known as the environment. This includes physical, biological, and socio-cultural factors that causes or partake in disease transmission.

Relative to childhood obesity, children between the age of six and fifteen years of age represents the host while the excessive calories intake from foods and beverages represents the agent. The environment may include genetic make-up, cultures, health belief, poor economic condition, lack of access to parks and green spaces, unsafe neighborhood and routes to school, and lack of availability of healthy food – just to mention these few. This study used both descriptive and analytical types of epidemiology.

The descriptive aspect of the study investigates the pattern and health events of the population, while the analytical aspect seeks to understand the determinants or influencing factors of the health event (Stanhope & Lancaster, 2008). Relative to the group’s topic, the what, who, where, when, why, and outcome were represent by obesity, children, Los Angeles County, from 1999 to 2005, excessive caloric intake, and epidemic respectively. They are all components of descriptive epidemiology.

Similarly, the gender, race, age, economic status, health belief, poor nutrition, and other determinants or influencing factors to obesity, fall under the analytical aspect of the study. From the study, we know that obesity in school age school age children has reached epidemic level in Los Angeles County; that the prevalence is higher among boys than girls; that it is higher at lower grade levels compared with children in higher grade levels; that it varied markedly by racial/ethnic groups; that it is highest among Pacific Islanders and Hispanics; and, that there is significant difference between

Geographical areas – are all components of descriptive epidemiology. On the other hand, the analytical epidemiology was represented by: study of genetics as it relates to obesity; the investigation of physical inactivity, poor nutrition, lack of access to parks and green spaces, and unsafe neighborhood; and the examination of association between socio-economic status, cultural practices, health belief system, and other health related behaviors relative to vulnerability to obesity.

In other to find ways to effectively prevent obesity in children, it is important to consider what is going on at each level of child development and growth. First and foremost, the primary prevention should aim at education and health promotion. This will involve teaching healthy eating at home and school, and increased physical activity instead of video games and TV watching with strong emphasis on maintaining behavior throughout lifetime. According to U. S.

Department of Health and Human Services [USDHHS] (2010), “because appropriate physical activity levels and healthy eating behaviors should be instilled in childhood and maintained throughout life, prevention efforts that target older children and schools are equally important”. On the other hand, attempts should be made to help those children who have been affected. Introduction of lifestly modification will go a long way into helping the affected children recover from obesity. Both parents and school administrators have greater responsibilities in helping to eradicate the ugly effects of obesity in children.

Appropriate intervention that is targeted towards the affected children to have behavior or live style modification is necessary at this time. This intervention will not only focus on the individual children but also their physical environment. In this situation, their physical environment is essentially the homes and schools. Lastly, the tertiary prevention deals with rehabilitation of these children who are already affected. To bring them to recovery, and restore them to highest function through adaptation of a new lifestyle and supportive environment.

Research has shown that behavior change is more likely to endure when a person’s environment is simultaneously changed in a manner that supports the behavior change (USDHHS, 2010). In conclusion, Obesity occurs when an individual consumes more calories than the body burns. This translates to the practice of eating too much and exercising very little. Apart from food and beverage consumption, factor such as: age, genetics, environment, physical activities, illness, psychological factors and medication plays significant role in obesity.

It poses a serious health concern for the children not only in Los Angeles but around the world. Obese children are more likely to suffer from emotional, psychiatric, physiological, and psychological problems. Epidemiology is the study of patterns of health problems in human population, and its application to control the health problem. Descriptive epidemiology describes the characteristics of group of people who have and who have no health problems, and analytic epidemiology focuses on determinants of health problems.

Epidemiology triad includes the agent, host, and the agent. It is a model for epidemiology based on the belief that health status is multi factorial. Epidemiological methods are used in many areas including: conducting studies of health related behaviors; and, investigation of relationships between social conditions and vulnerability with health conditions. To track down the prevalence of childhood obesity in Los Angeles County, epidemiology methods were used for the study.

Vietnam: Justified or Not? need essay help: need essay help

Vietnam, although not technically considered a war was an extended conflict that still had to be justified to an American people. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution was the identification of this extended conflict and was declared by Congress in 1964 making this conflict official. This resolution was justified because it was declared by a competent authority and was seen as being the best thing for the American people at the time, even though today it receives a lot of pessimism from those same Americans.

Many would say that we should not have been in Vietnam in the first place and that we were yet again pretending to play the role of global peacekeeper, others would say that we were just promoting our own interests. The U. S role in Vietnam first started in the late 50’s as a mission to help the French with their territory in Indochina. As U. S allies, the U. S was obligated to help France in its territory and try to end any aggression towards them and if helping an ally, conflict is justified.

The true extent of the United States involvement did not really start until the communist division of North Vietnam and South Vietnam after France lost control over its original territory. When asking whether the beginning of a conflict, if not war, is justified the party that is taking the action chiefly has to question whether the human rights of the citizens are put in question or not.

As with any Capitalist nation, it is a goal to fight communism when possible on a global scale because it threatens the people of that country as a whole. This threat comes not only from the likelihood of the country to oppress its populace, but also because by fundamental nature, communistic countries do not trade with Capitalist ones. This conflict was also justified when examining Just War Theory because a country is allowed to protect itself from possible future aggression. One of the chief concerns held by the U.

S was that China, another communist nation, would influence the continuity of communism in Vietnam and that Vietnam would be the next “domino” to strengthen communism as a whole. Another thing that should be examined closely is the overall point of the war in Vietnam, was it to introduce peace and stability to the region, or to win the war against communism. The young President John F. Kennedy, who was continuing the Vietnam War after taking office from Dwight Eisenhower, did not want to seem weak to other countries.

Giving up against a communist power would make the U. S seem weak and give rise to a new rebellion against this western superpower. This “never back down” notion held onto a strong government sentiment to stay in Vietnam and helped to continue this aggression towards North Vietnam; whether it was justified or not. When analyzing Vietnam Just War Tradition must also be taken into account, this tends to set the stage for the proper conduct of war. When the U.

S considered the possibility of maintaining a standing in Vietnam, it most certainly took into account the gravity of threat that the communist North Vietnam posed. As being seen as the next piece on the communist playing field the U. S felt that this “war” with Vietnam was a last resort to stopping global tyranny. Also, in the case of Vietnam there was a distinction that had to be made between combatants and non-combatants; in this case it was the difference between communist North Vietnam and French territorial South Vietnam.

As a part of fighting North Vietnam, Americans were stationed in Southern Vietnam, one of the biggest things that America had to avoid was hurting non-combatants as to maintain friendly relationships and this could be extremely hard because of the use of extremely powerful weapons that some would consider heinous. Close to 200,000 North Vietnamese civilians were killed during the course of our stay making it hard to justify just such a military action. The use of incendiary weapons was very prominent in the heavily forested areas of Vietnam because of the thousands and thousands of miles of underground tunnels.

The in-humanitarian use of heinous incendiary weapons was not outlawed until 1980 in a protocol in the Geneva Convention. The use of these incendiary weapons would be classified today as making the Vietnam War unjust because of the unnecessary suffering that the recipients of napalm and other flammable white phosphorus munitions received. But, did the ends, being the result, justify the means that were used during the war? Many would say that the answer to that question is no simply

because of the senseless nature of the war itself. Yes, preventing a large spread of communism should be the goal of a Democratic nation, but is it worth the sacrifice of almost 60,000 American lives and countless other Vietnamese when almost 80% of the Vietnamese people supported this new regime and the leadership of Ho Chi Minh? These are all good questions to analyze retrospectively 50 years later, but what is important is whether the war was justified or not and whether more good was done than harm.

Separation of power in Malaysia writing essay help: writing essay help

That “cases before the courts were not intervened by any quarters” and that “there were cases where the judgments were not in favour of the executive” do not equate to the doctrine in practice. (Phrases within quotation marks taken from a Bernama news report attributed to Nazri who was speaking during the question-and-answer session in the Dewan Rakyat recently. ) Separation of Power has been dead for TWO decade Furthermore, the doctrine is a means and the end is the protection of the rakyat secured through the upholding of the sanctity and independence of the judiciary.

Either way, as things stand, the credibility of the Barisan Nasional (BN) government and the judiciary has hung in the balance over the past two decades. The doctrine, which calls for checks and balances between the three estates of government, has been dead in the country’s system of political governance since 1998. Two-thirds majority is NOT good for any country That was when former prime minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad, backed by a solid two-thirds majority in parliament, made the judiciary a subordinate estate.

It stemmed from one of the most crucial amendments of the Federal Constitution that has caused much angst and deliberations among jurists. Many saw the amendment as having taken away the judiciary’s inherent common law jurisdiction and the check against abuse of executive power, be it arising from administrative measures or via substantive laws. Judicial power of the federation was taken away In essence, the amended provision – Article 121 (1) – took away “judicial power of the federation” from the judiciary, which shall only “have such jurisdiction and powers as may be conferred by or under federal law”.

In practice, judges have more often than not become subservient to parliament, which is under the control of the executive, and their ability to deliver justice according to common law and even basic principles of rule of law is shackled. Judges still could not deliver justice in ISA detention For instance, there have been many cases whereby judges had been unable to deliver justice in ISA detention cases but for procedural irregularities. The interpretation and context of national security is solely the domain and judgment of the minister.

That is what the doctrine of separation of powers promises to curb – the concentration, arbitrary use and abuse of executive power. At least two chief justices during their respective tenure have alluded to the fact that the doctrine is amiss in the country. Amendment made in anger – to injustice lasting a generation Under former prime minister Tun Abdullah Ahmad Badawi’s administration, the then chief justice, Tun Abdul Hamid Mohamad, said in June last year that the move by the government to amend Article 121(1) “shows that an amendment made in anger as a reaction to a decision of the court could last for one generation”.

That was when Datuk Zaid Ibrahim was the de facto law minister, who claimed that his efforts to initiate legal reforms largely failed due to strong resistance from within Umno. Referring to the government’s purported intention to revert to the original provision, Abdul Hamid had said: “Water finds its own level. We believe in separation of powers. “The principle must apply equally to the three branches – the executive, the legislature and the judiciary – of the government. ” He was also reported as saying that there should not be any double standards in favour of either of the three branches at any one’s convenience.

Another former chief justice, Tun Ahmad Fairuz Sheikh Abdul Halim, in a public speech in Singapore three years ago, laid out the conflicting thoughts and struggle of jurists with Article 121(1) but did not provide any definitive answers. Malaysian judiciary is subservient to the wishes of the legislature However, he did acknowledge that pursuant to a literal interpretation of the provision, “the judiciary is subservient to the wishes of the legislature in which the executive under the system of responsible government has to a large extent control of what legislation to enact”.

International Bar Council Effort He even cited the concerns expressed by the International Bar Association on the effect of the amendment. The association had at that time said: “It seems to us that this amendment has had the effect of eliminating the inherent powers and jurisdiction of the courts. It therefore fundamentally disturbs the concept of the separation of powers and affects the ability of the judiciary to enforce fundamental rights. It tends to make the judiciary an arm of the legislature, an instrument of the executive.

” Citation from International Commission of Jurists The International Commission of Jurists was also cited: ‘‘The formulation of 121 of the Constitution makes the High Courts’ jurisdiction and powers dependent upon federal law, ie the court has no constitutionally entrenched original jurisdiction. “This undermines the separation of powers and presents a subtle form of influence over the exercise of judicial power. This makes the operation of the High Court dependent upon the legislature and is a threat to the structural independence of the judiciary.

” We cannot leave the rule of law to chance As argued in this column previously, the country cannot afford to leave the rule of law and democracy to chance. The Malaysian executive branch and the judiciary would never garner credibility and earn trust from the people until and unless transformation is made. Make no mistake, the powers bestowed on the state under the Sedition Act and Internal Security Act as well as other draconian legislation are wide ranging and are susceptible to arbitrary use. Right the wrong now please

The Home Ministry, which is in the midst of reviewing a few such legislation, must take the opportunity to do the right things towards unshackling the judiciary from the executive’s grip. Only then can his colleague and fellow minister, Nazri, declare with a certain pride that a democratic country like Malaysia upholds a doctrine as sacrosanct as the separation of powers. 2) Understanding the separation of power HE Bar Council’s Constitutional Law Committee (ConstiLC) is back with the second phase of its public education campaign MyConstitution or PerlembagaanKu.

It will be launched tomorrow, 15 Jan 2010, and will discuss the separation of powers. Part one of the campaign was on knowing the Federal Constitution. ConstiLC deputy co-chair Mahaletchumi Balakrishnan and committee member Daniel Albert, who drafted the second Rakyat Guides booklet explaining the separation of powers, tell The Nut Graph why it is such an important concept. They also discuss where it has failed in Malaysia and the consequences, in an 8 Jan 2010 interview in Kuala Lumpur. TNG: How does the campaign break down the concept of separation of powers for people?

Daniel Albert: The Rakyat Guide booklet is titled Constitutional Institutions and the Separation of Power. It will discuss the three institutions which govern a country — the legislative, the executive, and the judiciary. Separation of powers is needed so that no one institution becomes too powerful. And each institution is able to function as a check or watchdog on other institutions. How is this concept supposed to work? If Parliament were to enact a law that was not in line with the constitution, the courts would have the power to declare the law ineffective.

Or if the government had a policy that breached fundamental liberties, the court could declare the policy ineffective and remedy the situation. As for Parliament, it is supposed to ensure that the government functions in accordance with the constitution through debates, where cabinet ministers are answerable to Parliament. If Parliament is not happy, there is the option of a vote of no-confidence. So the separation of powers provides for this system of checks and balances to ensure there is accountability and transparency in the way the country is governed.

AlbertThere are also other constitutional institutions such as the Attorney-General’s Chambers, the Elections Commission, the Auditor-General, the Pardons Board, and the Land Tribunal. The booklet briefly describes all these. What about the judiciary’s role in this check-and-balance system? Albert: It’s significant because there is rarely a meaningful system of check and balance between Parliament and government. The prime minister is the leader of the majority in Parliament. He [or she] can control Parliament to some extent through the party whip.

The prime minister chooses the cabinet, and in the Malaysian context all cabinet members must also be members of Parliament. But the judiciary is seen as more independent in terms of appointment. The question is whether the judiciary is playing a meaningful role in the system right now. Where do you think public understanding of the separation of powers is at? Mahaletchumi: Our gauge has been public commentary in the media, media articles, and current issues which give us a general feel of public awareness. When we engaged university students in our campaign’s first phase, they were excited.

Many students are aware of current issues, but because they’ve never been taught about the constitution, they can’t connect the dots. I think the lack of public debate when Article 121(1) of the Federal Constitution was amended in 1988 indicates the level of awareness about the separation of powers. Prior to the amendment, courts had the power to adjudicate on any matter that arose. But the amendment gave the courts confined powers as provided to them by federal law. This has a huge impact on the separation of powers. But the amendment was passed regardless, and with very little public debate.

It is the same with more recent bills like the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission Act and the Judicial Appointments Commission Act, or amendments [to existing legislation]. There was little public debate from a constitutional point of view. Separation of powers is not mentioned or defined in the Federal Constitution. Rather, it is something one understands from the way power and functions are divided between the legislative, executive and judiciary. The separation of powers is an age-old concept that precedes the constitution, and is present in any system of government where power is divided between different institutions.

Instead of being defined in the constitution, it is incorporated through various provisions. So you cannot say that separation of powers doesn’t exist just because it is not mentioned in the constitution. Albert: The Federal Court did try to suggest that in 2007. Justice [Tun] Abdul Hamid Mohamad [a former chief justice], delivering the majority ruling, stated that there is no provision for separation of powers in the Malaysian constitution. He held that the framers were influenced by the idea of the concept, but it only applied in so far as it was consistent with the constitution and its amendments.

But on the same bench, another judge, Justice Tan Sri Richard Malanjum [currently Chief Judge of the High Court of Sabah and Sarawak] said the exact opposite. Malanjum’s view was that Parliament could not limit the court’s judicial powers as it would be contrary to our democratic system. He further stated that the separation of powers is a basic feature of our Federal Constitution. So there are two views. One is that the amendment is ineffective because the separation of powers is so fundamental, so basic to the constitution’s structure, that not even Parliament can amend it.

The other view which supports the amendment is that if Parliament were to enact a law that says “the court cannot review this law”, then that would be the stand. The court only has as much power as federal law gives it. Some examples are the home minister‘s power to ban books, or to issue detention orders under the Internal Security Act. Because there are two views, it remains to be seen how the courts will interpret their own power. What are some examples how separation of powers has failed here? Albert: One is the 1988 judicial amendment.

It was perceived to take away the court’s inherent jurisdiction and entrenched right to examine all laws, and to review any act, or exercise of power by Parliament and the executive. If the judiciary is unable to play this role, who else can? Another example is the Perak speaker’s declaration of seat vacancies in the state legislative assembly. The Federal Court decided that it was unlawful of him to do so, and gave that right to the Election Commission. The Federal Court also ruled that the Perak speaker could not suspend the menteri besar from attending the state assembly.

This is clearly contrary to the Federal Constitution, where Article 72 prohibits the validity of proceedings in the assembly being questioned by the courts. 3) Definition of Separation of power The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle,[1] is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state). The model was first developed in Ancient Greece and Rome. Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no branch has more power than the other branches.

The normal division of branches is into a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary. Malaysia is a country which practices a parliamentary democracy system which is based on British Westminster system. The concept of “people rule’ applies whereby the leaders are chosen by people through election process who then form the government. Since independence, the governing and administration of our country has been strengthened further by means of separation of power based on our constitution. To discuss further whether the separation of power is applicable in Malaysian context, it’s wise to

understand first, the meaning of separation of power itself. The three main powers or bodies which forms our constitution are knows as The Executive, The Legislative and the Judiciary. Separation of power basically means there’s no overlapping or conflict of interest in carrying out their duties to run the government, among these bodies. The specific duties of each body should be looked upon to: The Executive – Is a body which has the power to govern the country either in the federal or state level.

This is a unique collaboration between the federal and state level to run the country efficiently. At the federal level they are known as the cabinet and headed by the Prime Minister and in the state level they are known as state executive council (Exco) which is headed by Chief Minister or Menteri Besar. Their primary function is to govern, administrate and to implement laws that are passed by the legislative body at their respective levels (federal or state). They can’t interfere in matters related to legislative or the Judiciary.

The Legislative body – As similar to the Executive, the legislative body exists both at federal and state level. At the federal level, they are known as Member of Parliament (MP) and headed by The Yang Di Pertuan Agung and State legislative Assemblymen (ADUN) headed by Yang Di Pertua or Sultan at the state level. Their main function is to draw up, amend and pass laws. 4) Separation of Power, Malaysian Context The doctrine of separation of powers is a political doctrine under which the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government are kept distinct, to prevent abuse of power.

However, Malaysia has its own model. Whilst our Constitution does have the features of the separation of powers, it also contains features which do not strictly comply with the doctrine. To what extent the doctrine applies, therefore, depends on the provisions of the Constitution. ” 5. In determining the constitutionality or otherwise of a statute under our Constitution, it is the provision of the Constitution that matters, not a political theory expounded by some thinkers.

The doctrine of separation of powers is not a provision of the Malaysian Constitution. Thus, a provision of the Constitution cannot be struck out on the ground that it contravenes the doctrine. Similarly, no provision of the law may be struck out as unconstitutional if it is not inconsistent with the Constitution, even though it may be inconsistent with the doctrine. ” In case readers of this article are not immediately familiar, the case of PP v KOK WAH KUAN [2007] 6 CLJ 341 dealt with a child who was convicted of killing his tuition teacher’s daughter.

He was ordered to be detained at the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong pursuant to section 97(2) of the Child Act 2001. The question that arose was whether his sentence was unconstitutional, because it gave to the executive branch of government the function of the judicial branch of government, namely the determining of the sentence. Hence the issue of the existence and applicability of the doctrine of separation of powers within the Malaysian Federal Constitution.

The particular quotation referred to in the Malaysian Government’s document was actually culled from various paragraphs of the judgment of Abdul Hamid Mohamad PCA, writing for the majority decision in PP v KOK WAH KUAN on the issue of separation of powers. Now earlier in the same ‘Statement by Malaysia – Annexe’, the Government was at pains to explain that the amendment to Article 121(1) of the Malaysian Federal Constitution which replaced the words “judicial power of the Federation” with the words “shall have such jurisdiction and powers as may be conferred by or under federal law” did not alter the meaning and intent of Article 121(1).

The Government had this to say: “Malaysia wishes to inform that according to the legislative history of Clause (1) of Article 121 of the Federal Constitution, regardless of the terminology used to refer the jurisdiction and powers of the courts, the position and effect of Clause (1) of Article 121 of the Federal Constitution prior and after the amendment to Article 121(1) via Act A704, remains the same as both subject the judicial power of the courts to Federal law. In fact, the post amendment position states the law in clearer terms. ” The above is the official position of the Malaysian Government, announced to the whole world.

But see here below a different view: “Prior to the amendment to Article 121(1) of the Federal Constitution, there existed a definitive declaration that the judicial power of the Federation shall be vested in the two High Courts. The provision also then provided for the two High Courts to have jurisdiction and powers conferred by or under federal law. After the amendment (vide Act A704), there no longer exists a declaration that the ‘judicial power of the Federation’ – as the term was understood prior to the amendment – vests in the two High Courts. The jurisdiction and powers of the two High Courts are

now prescribed by federal law and not dependent on the interpretation of the term ‘judicial power’ as prior the amendment. To say that the amendment had no effect did not make sense. ” Where, readers may ask, was this second view taken from? Well, none other than from the judgment of Abdul Hamid Mohamad PCA in the very same case of PP v. KOK WAH KUAN. Law not a buffet spread The Malaysian government ought not to think of the law as a buffet spread in a hotel restaurant, where we can pick and choose which parts of a judgment of a case that we like and will follow, and which we will not.

After having relied so heavily upon the judgment of Abdul Hamid Mohamad PCA to support its position that there is no such thing as the doctrine of separation of powers in the Malaysian Federal Constitution, it is sheer folly to then go on to say, implicitly, that the same Abdul Hamid Mohamad PCA got it wrong when he concluded that, “To say that the amendment [to Article 121(1) of the Malaysian Federal Constitution] had no effect did not make sense. ” It is submitted that it is the Malaysian Government’s position that does not make sense.

This is an error that even a first year law student would have been able to spot and avoid. It is interesting to note that in the case of of PP v. KOK WAH KUAN, four out of the five judges who heard the case agreed that the doctrine of separation of powers did not apply to the Malaysian Federal Constitution. There was Abdul Hamid Mohamad PCA, who wrote the judgment, and Ahmad Fairuz CJ, Alauddin CJ (Malaya) and Zaki Azmi FCJ, all of whom concurred.

In respect of the doctrine of separation of powers, Richard Malanjum CJ (Sabah and Sarawak) dissented. Perhaps the learned current Chief Justice should focus more on correcting this decision and restoring separation of powers as a constitutional doctrine rather than rushing justice through our courts. The former is of far more critical importance for the long-term development of a truly independent judiciary.

Indeed, the words of Richard Malanjum CJ (Sabah and Sarawak) are instructive: “The courts, especially the superior courts, are a separate and independent pillar of the Federal Constitution and not mere agents of the Federal Legislature. In the performance of their function they perform a myriad of roles and interpret and enforce a myriad of laws. Article 121(1) is not, and cannot be, the whole and sole repository of the judicial role in this country for the following reasons: (i) the amendment to Article 121(1) seeks

to limit the jurisdiction and powers of the High Courts and inferior courts to whatever ‘may be conferred by or under federal law’; (ii) the courts cannot be confined to ‘federal law’ as their role is to be servants of the law as a whole; (iii) it is not legally possible in a country with a supreme Constitution and with provision for judicial review to prevent the courts from examining constitutional questions; (iv) despite the amendment (to Article 121(1)), the common law powers of the courts are intact (see Ngan Tuck Seng v Ngan Yin Hoi [1995] 5 MLJ 509 referred).

Further, the inherent powers of the courts are a separate and distinct source of jurisdiction; (v) the courts cannot be prevented from interpreting the law creatively; (vi) past or earlier statutes have to be applied to modern or current circumstances; (vii) in interpreting constitutional provisions, a judge cannot afford to be too literal.

He is to be creative and not passive to enable the constitutional provisions to be the guardian of people’s rights and the source of their freedom; (viii) the role of a judge is not just to deliver what is already there but it is also constitutive and creative and goes far beyond a mechanical interpretation of pre-existing law, extending to direct or indirect law-making in the several ways mentioned in the judgment. ” Inadequate understanding The response of the Malaysian Government to the report of the WGAD has exposed our Government’s inadequate understanding of and appreciation for the rule of law.

It comes as no surprise therefore to read that the Government has stoutly maintained that preventive detention legislation should continue to exist in Malaysia. It has attempted to suggest to the international community that our preventive detention legislation has adequate safeguards by way of habeas corpus applications, knowing full well that legislation has restricted the scope of such applications only to errors of procedure and not to issues of substance. Judges cannot delve into the actual reasons for detention, but only point out where the Government has failed to dot its “i’s and cross its t’s”.

Such a limited and superficial jurisdiction is symptomatic of the respect shown to our courts in matters of justice. But again, is such a position surprising from a government that does not acknowledge that courts act as a check and balance on the executive and the legislature. I can but urge the Malaysian Government to stop defending the indefensible. A glance of Separation of Power in Malaysia The Doctrine of separation of power and the principle of check and balance and its application in Malaysia. Titek Sobah bt Suyub

Law Department, UiTM Perak Introduction 1) This doctrine is a mechanism to prevent the abuse of powers by the governing bodies while exercising or performing their function. Since these bodies is the caretaker of the people therefore they are to ensure that the nation is being manage according to law so that the well being of the people will not be put aside. 2) Because of this, no governing body can be given more than one power because these may resulted in an unlimited of power making it impossible to be question and check upon by others.

3) To enable supervision and checking be done upon this power, it need to be separated according to its function and each government organ which have been allocated with certain function cannot later on encroach into the administration and function of other organ. Each organ is being confined to its function alone. Procedure /Method 1) This doctrine works by balancing the powers distributed amongst organs of government and giving each organ the ability to check the power exercise by other organ.

2) It is a kind of measured to remove the amount of power hold by one organ only whereby these power will be divided into different organ with different function making it difficult to abuse the power held by these organ since it will always be scrutinized by other organ. 3) Under this doctrine, the government is divided into three organ or branches which are assigns with different political and legal powers and they are to act independently of each other. a) The Executive – This will be the government organ that will be responsible in administering the nation and ensuring that government policy will be carried out according to the law.

– The government departments which assist in administering the nation are part of the executive. – In performing their duties, it must be done according to the power granted by the law so that it will not be void and be held ultra vires and of no effect. b) The Legislative – This organ will be given the responsibility to enact law so that administration could run smoothly. However this organ cannot interfere as to the administration carried out by the executive. – Law will be enacted in accordance with the interest of the people generally and not the interest of the government organ.

– Parliament will be the place where law will be enacted and the voice of the people was heard through their representative. c) Judiciary – The law which was enacted by the legislative will not only govern the people but also the nation including the three government organ. All action done by all parties must be according to the law. – If dispute arise as to whether certain action contradict the law, then it might be challenge in court. Therefore the judiciary whereby the system of court is under this organ plays an important role in determining as to whether action done is legal or illegal.

– The judiciary will interpret the law enacted by the legislative and at the same time applies the said law in arriving at their decision. All parties will be treated equally and the judiciary is free to make judgments without coercion, fear or favor. Check and Balance 1) With separate power and authority granted to different organ, it will actually limit the power possess by each organ and the prohibition to encroach the power exercise by the other organ not only act as a prohibition to the abuse of power however each organ have to be fully aware that their action will be scrutinize by other organ.

2) The executive itself cannot claim that they are more superior than the other organ since their action can still be challenge by the judiciary if it is not according to law. 3) In fact the legislator though given power to enact law, however if law is not enacted carefully it is still of no use and will be quash by the judiciary and will defeat its purpose. 4) The judiciary itself in exercising its function has to be in accordance with law and cannot use their discretion without limitation. 5) Therefore whatever is being done by any of this organ, it have to be in line with each other or else it will not be valid.

These government organ not only will be checking upon the exercising of power of each other since it will be challenge if not done accordance to law however the government organ itself have to check as to whether they are acting according to the law or not to avoid being challenge later on. 6) This situation will ensure that the power possess by each organ will not be exercise arbitrarily and it will be balance by the said process of ability to check upon one another and the people is given the rights to criticize government action and remove officials from office.

7) The person who composes these three government organ must be kept separate and distinct, and no individual being allowed to be at the same time a member of more than one organ. In this way each of the organ/branches will be a check to the others and no single group of people will be able to control any of these organs in performing their function. Effect/Conclusion 1) Under this doctrine, the ability to question and challenge each other upon action which are not done according to law will only allowed the government to use force upon combination use of power possess by the three organs.

Once there is no agreement upon the exercising of power by the three organs than the action by the government will not be valid. 2) The executive may exercise its power in administering the nation however if the exercising of power is not accordance to the law enacted by the legislator than the judiciary may held that what is being done by the executive is ultra vires and therefore not valid.

As an example the Road Transport Department (JPJ) may prohibits traffic offender from renewing their license, however do the department posses the power to do this under the law? If there is no such power granted by any law enacted by the legislator then the judiciary may review this action once challenge in court. 3) In Malaysia, Separation of Power is not being practice strictly. This can be seen from the overlapping power of the executive and the legislative.

Both of these government organs in Malaysia were represented by the same person. The cabinet of Malaysia (executive) is also the members of Parliament (legislative). Therefore the tendency of ratifying an ultra vires action done by the executive may exist. 4) Meanwhile the Judges were appointed by the Yang Dipertuan Agong who is acting upon the advice of the executive. Independency of each organ in Malaysia can still be question since the doctrine of separation of power is not being adhered to strictly.

Experiment 5 ionic reactions computer science essay help: computer science essay help

1 Cotton Swabs, 1 Sheet each of white and black paper, 1 Distilled water, Goggles-Safety, 1 Well-Plate-24,1 Well-Plate-96, Bag-CK1 1 Pipet, Empty Short Stem, Experiment Bag Ionic Reactions 1 Barium Nitrate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in Pipet, 1 Cobalt (II) Nitrate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in Pipet1 Copper (II) Nitrate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in Pipet, 1 Iron (III) Nitrate, 0. 1 M – 2. 5 mL in Pipet, 1 Nickel (II) Nitrate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in Pipet, 1 Sodium Bicarbonate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in, Pipet, 1 Sodium Carbonate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in Pipet, 1 Sodium Chloride, 0. 1 M – 2. 5 mL in Pipet, 1 Sodium Hydroxide, 0.

1 M – 2 mL in Pipet, 1 Sodium Iodide, 0. 1 M – 2. 5 mL in Pipet, 1 Sodium Phosphate, 0. 1 M – 2 mL in Pipet,1 Sodium Sulfate, 0. 1 M – 2. 5 mL in Pipet CAUTION! Sodium hydroxide is caustic and can burn skin and clothes if it touches them. Rinse any spills well with copious amounts of water. Also, most of these chemicals are toxic by ingestion. So remember, no food or drinks in the lab! 1. All reactions will be performed in the 96-well plate. a. Place 2 drops of cobalt (II) nitrate solution into seven of the A row wells. b. Place 2 drops of copper (II) nitrate into seven of the B wells.

c. Place 2 drops of iron (III) nitrate into seven of the C wells. d. Place 2 drops of barium nitrate into seven of the D wells. e. Place 2 drops of nickel (II) nitrate into seven of the E wells. 2. When performing the following, NEVER TOUCH THE TIP OF THE PIPET TO THE SOLUTION ALREADY IN THE WELL! a. Place 2 drops of sodium phosphate solution into five vertical wells under column number 1. b. Place 2 drops of sodium iodide solution into five vertical wells under 2. c. Place 2 drops of sodium sulfate solution into five vertical wells under 3. d.

Place 2 drops of sodium chloride solution into five vertical wells under 4. e. Place 2 drops of sodium bicarbonate solution into five vertical wells under 5. f. Place 2 drops of sodium carbonate solution into five vertical wells under 6. g. Place 2 drops of sodium hydroxide solution into five vertical wells under 7. Cleanup: When all observations have been recorded rinse the 24-well plate and the 96-well plate under tap water until all remnants of chemicals have disappeared. Use a Q-tip® to remove stubborn precipitates. If the precipitates are allowed to dry they are much harder to remove.

Dispose of any unused solutions by flushing them down the drain with lots of water and throw the empty pipets in the trash DATA, OBSERVATIONS, CALCULATIONS: Questions: Data Table: Solubility of compounds used | | Co(NO3)2 | Cu(NO3)2 | Fe(NO3)3 | Ba(NO3)2 | Ni(NO3)2 | Na3PO4 | Purple precipitate | Blue precipitate | Yellow precipitate | White precipitate | Greenish white precipitate | NaI | NR | Orange precipitate | Dark orange precipitate | NR | NR | Na2SO4 | NR | NR | NR | White precipitate | NR | NaCl | NR | NR | NR | NR | NR |

NaHCO3 | NR | Blue precipitate | Light orange precipitate | White precipitate | Light blue precipitate | Na2CO3 | Pink precipitate | Blue precipitate | Orange precipitate | White precipitate | Bluish white precipitate | NaOH | Blue precipitate | Greenish blue precipitate | Orange precipitate | White precipitate | Bluish white precipitate | List of anions used: Phosphate, Iodide, Sulfate, Chloride, Bicarbonate, Carbonate, Hydroxide List of cations used: Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Barium, Nickel A. Do your results agree with your expectations from the solubility rules/table? Yes, the results agree with expectations from the solubility rules

B. Which anions generally form precipitates? What are exceptions? Most salts of carbonate, CO32- Phosphate, PO43- Oxalate, C2O42- Chromate, CrO42- Most metal sulfides, S2- Most metal hydroxides and oxides Exception: salts of NH+ and the alkali metal cation C. Which anions generally do not form precipitates? What are the exceptions? Salts of nitrate, NO3 – Chlorate, ClO3 – Perchlorate, ClO4 – Acetate, CH3CO2 – Almost all salts of Cl -, Br -, I – Exceptions: Halides of Ag+, Hg22+, Pb2+ Compounds containing F- Exceptions: Fluorides of Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+ Salts of sulfate, SO42-

Exceptions: Sulfates of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Pb2+ D. Which cations generally do not form precipitates? Cations of alkali metals group1 and most of group 2 ad very few insoluble salts. They do not form precipitates. F. Select 5 reactions that produce a precipitate, color change, or gas and write balanced chemical equation below. Remember, a reaction may be indicated by the formation of a precipitate, color change, or the formation of gas. Record the well numbers of the precipitates you chose for your equations. 1A Co(NO3)2*6H2O when mixed with Na3PO4*12H2O the chemical combination turned Purple.

1B Cu (NO3)2 *3H2O when mixed with Na3PO4*12H2O the chemical combination turned light blue 1C Fe (NO3)3 * 9H2O when mixed with Na3PO4*12H2O the chemical combination turned a light yellow 1D Ba (NO3)2 when mixed with Na3PO4*12H2O the chemical combination turned white and the mixture sizzled when mixed. 1E Ni (NO3)2 * 6H2O when mixed with Na3PO4*12H2O the chemical combination turned a light foam green. CONCLUSION: The purpose of this experiment is to work with solutions of ionic substances. When ionic substances are dissolved in water, the ions separate and become surrounded by water molecules.

The focus of this experiment is on precipitates. The goal of this experiment is to study the nature of ionic reactions, write balanced equations, and to write net ionic equations for precipitation reactions. Based on the solubility rules my results proved accurate. Just by looking at the solubility rules, my results were what I expected them to be. I found that sodium chloride did not react with any of the five substances and that the sodium sulfate only reacted with the barium nitrate. Although I feel this experiment was interesting, I believe directions could have been more clear and detailed for better results.

Atonement – Vase Symbolism english essay help: english essay help

In Atonement, instead of the family’s stability being viewed as a rock like the ideal family, the vase in Atonement maintains peace but creates nothing but chaos and downfall when it is destroyed. When the vase, the family’s heirloom, begins to fall apart, so does the family, until the pieces are so tiny that repair becomes clearly impossible. Throughout Ian McEwan’s Atonement, the vase symbolizes the destruction relationships and family bonds. The vase plays an important role in the Tallis’ family heritage. Mr. Tallis, in fact has a deep emotional connection to it.

The Tallis vase was given to Uncle Clem (Jack Tallis’ brother) while “he was on liaison duties in the French sector and initiated a last-minute evacuation of a small town west of Verdun before it was shelled” (McEwan 21). Uncle Clem was a war hero for risking his life for others, and received this vase as a sign a gratitude. This is why Jack Tallis “wanted the vase in use, in honor of his brother’s memory” (McEwan 23). In Jack’s eyes having wild flowers alive in the vase meant that there is still life associated with his deceased brother, which thoroughly kept him alive in his eyes.

Emily, Jack’s wife however, does not particularly like the vase throughout the novel because it has Chinese figures on it and “seemed fussy and oppressive” (McEwan 23), later tolerating it because she understands how important its meaning is honoring Clem’s legacy. In the beginning of the novel, the vase is in perfect condition and is beautiful as can be. It even had wild flowers on it. Many may believe these foreshadowed the chaos throughout the novel. The appearance of the vase is very royal looking and prestige and put together, similar to the Tallis family.

Just like the vase, on the outside, the Tallis’ seem collected and stable, but in reality they clearly have issues, symbolized by the wildflowers. The family’s problems unfortunately go unrecognized until the chaos the night of the dinner. Ironically it is pointed out that Jack Tallis, the father, is not home very often depicting the family clearly is not as close as they want people to believe. However, as Cecilia is arranging the flowers around in the vase; “she spent some minutes making adjustments in order to achieve a natural chaotic look” (McEwan 22).

Just like the vase, the family appears to be stable, but the wildflowers show that they really are not put together; they are attempting to hide their true nature. Cecilia is fixated on trying to make the wildflowers look perfect and symmetric, but they naturally grow in all different directions which is very symbolic in this case. Growing up in a garden atmosphere myself, one thing that my mother always told me was that sometimes wildflowers are actually a burden in gardens because “they grow everywhere and cause overcrowding. ” I felt this had quite a similarity to the Tallis family.

Now that the wildflowers are in the house, this was start of all of the craziness that occurs. However, the events that follow the scene at the fountain alter the atmosphere in the house and the relationships of Tallis family inside. The tension created between Cecilia and Robbie at the fountain leads to new understandings of what their relationship really is. Robbie has always been close to the family, but “he was putting distance between himself and the family” (McEwan 27), which is quite evident even before the fountain incident.

However, what was not clear before comes to a realization when they partake in a slight argument over how to put water into the vase. It created tension between the two characters, causing the vase the shatter in two. To many, this may depict the beginning to an end for Robbie and Cecelia, “a section of the lip of the vase came away in his hand, and split into two triangular pieces which dropped in the water… ” (McEwan 28). The two pieces that break off can possibly symbolize Cecilia and Robbie. It can represent the two in fact, breaking away from the family which happens as a result of Briony’s false accusations.

The family symbolizes the entire vase, and the two pieces depict Cecilia and Robbie astray from their relationships with the Tallis household. Thinking a little more in depth about the incident, the fact that the pieces are triangular, could also depict the three main people involved: Robbie, Cecelia and Briony. The breaking of the vase is what starts up their minds and makes them come to understand that it is not just awkward tension between them, but a sexual tension that they have not thought about until that event.

Cecilia was actually surprised and “put the fragments in the pocket of her skirt and took up the vase. Her movements were savage, and she would not meet his eye” (McEwan 29). She began contemplating her decisions, ‘“I’ve been seeing strangely, as if for the first time”’ (McEwan 125). This can represent her unconscious feelings towards her lover Robbie. Robbie’s provocative letter to Cecilia on the other hand, opens her eyes and makes her realize the truth, being that she in fact has feelings for him. She later attaches the pieces that broke off of the vase and “judged the vase

repaired” (McEwan 40), but the vase obviously still has cracks and is very fragile. When Briony witnessed the intimacy between Cecilia and Robbie in the library, she envisioned Robbie as a monster, clearly unsure of the situation. Also, Briony’s claim of seeing Robbie raping Lola is another piece of the vase that will be forever shattered. Robbie and Cecelia both know he was falsely accused, which causes Cecilia to risk her relationship with Briony and her parents, standing up for the truth, and love in which she believes.

Briony feels guilty for the rest of her life and is determined to fix the past and make up for her mistake in her atonement. Many may believe that she is only a child when she witnesses the fountain scene, and Lola unfortunately being raped. In fact, the location of Lola’s rape is ironically in a garden surrounding the temple by the lake. Ironically the vase has “figures gathered formally in a garden… with ornate plants and implausible birds” (McEwan 23). The picture on the vase goes hand in hand with the night of the rape. Everyone is dressed formally for dinner and Lola is raped in a garden.

Briony also hears a bird sound, which is made by Lola, which in this case symbolizes the birds on the vase. Clearly, the vase foreshadows the night of the rape which signifies its fragility and further destruction of the Tallis family. Briony is evidently a very imaginative and attention seeking girl, often exaggerating circumstances to make them more exciting and appealing not only to herself, but also others. The play she wrote clearly has to have all the attention on her, which also might be the reason probably the reason she reveals Robbie’s love letter to the police.

Instead of all the attention being on her it is on Lola and she wants it back, which I found quite amusing nonetheless. We later learn that Briony has a crush, or rather puppy love for this matter for Robbie, and was jealous that he loves Cecilia instead of her eleven old self causing her to be angry and spiteful in this case. As a child Briony was also very naive which is also a part of her mistake, because she did not fully understand the situation. Five years later after Robbie’s imprisonment, Briony desperately wants her guilt to go away and seeks atonement.

Studying nursing, it could also be that Briony thinks pursuing the same career as Cecilia, could bring them close again, unfortunately a hope that would never be fulfilled. Even though Cecilia and Robbie die before being with each other again, Briony feels that the only way to make everything right is to use her writing talents to write a novel telling the truth about that fateful night them the ending they deserve. A decision influenced by naivety, imagination, and jealousy by a young girl, changes a couple’s lives forever.

The vase starts out at as being whole and complete, reflecting the family’s relationship but a moment of chaos, damages the vase to no return, creating high tensions in the household. The false accusations of Robbie are unfortunately the turning point to the relationships of everyone. Cecilia and Robbie never see the rest of the Tallis family again and Briony strays from her family in order to seek atonement. The vase is shattered and so are everyone’s relationships. In the beginning everything is fine but through a series of unfortunate events, just like the vase, relationships are shattered forever never able to be repaired.

Gender Inequality in the Workplace: Seen Through A Sociological Lens of Conflict Theory cbest essay help: cbest essay help

In August 2013, Mayor Bob Filner of San Diego resigned after being accused by 18 women of sexual harassment. The women accused him of groping and unwillingly kissing them. Mayor Filner denied all accusations of sexual harassment, but apologized to all of the women he “offended. ” This case is a primary example of gender inequality in the workplace. According to the conflict theorists, hegemonic masculinity and patriarchal power cause sexual harassment, and are the primary reasons why gender inequality exists within the workplace. Gender inequality in the workplace is a social issue, because it harms the values and goals of women in society.

Women in the workplace are subjected to things such as separate criteria than men for promotions, unequal pay, and discrimination due to biological conditions such as pregnancy, Quid pro quo, and sexual harassment. These situations threaten the stability of the workplace as an institution. External conflict arose in the 1960’s with the feminist movement. The movement began due to growing awareness of gender inequality, and according to Coser, enhanced social solidarity within the group. The push for change is still seen throughout society today.

Gender inequality “has continued in one form or another despite profound structural changes such as industrialization and the movement of production out of the household, women’s accelerated movement into the labor force after WWII and most recently women’s entry into male-dominated occupations. What accounts for the chameleon-like ability of gender hierarchy to reassert itself in new forms when its old structural forms erode? ” (McLaughlin, Uggen, and Blackstone 2008). According to Collins, conflict is over a moral rightness, and that is what this push towards equality is all about.

As we analyze causality within this social issue, we discover that many theorists connect workplace gender inequality with hegemonic masculinity and patriarchal power. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 protects women from sex discrimination, including sexual harassment, which is the intimidation, bullying, or coercion of sexual nature. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) also protects women from sexual harassment within the workplace, and acknowledges the presence of harassment like Quid pro quo, which is Latin for “something for something.

” Quid pro quo is the promise of promotion or benefits in exchange for sexual favors. It can also include threats of losing one’s job if they deny the request. As seen in the notes, Dahrendorf sees this as an aspect of power. Dahrendorf’s theory poses “the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability rests,” meaning that if the male boss or person of higher authority wants something, they can get it done despite resistance due to their power.

Although Title VII and the EEOC can protect women from some situations, inequality and sexual harassment is still prevalent within the workplace. As Coser emphasizes in understanding conflict theory, it is important to define the other when analyzing a social issue. The “other” within workplace gender inequality is the male. Women are the minority in situations such as the workplace, due to men practicing hegemonic masculinity. Like Weber, Coser says that conflict arises from the struggle for power. In this social issue, the struggle is for equal power- by controlling hegemonic masculinity, we can find equality.

The gender pay gap is an important issue within workplace gender inequality. “Women earned about 77 cents for every dollar that men earned last year, according to the Census Bureau” (Berman). This pay gap is what Coser would define as an unequal distribution of scare resources based on gender. According to Coser’s theory, this sort of inequality causes relative deprivation. Women are underprivileged compared to men within economics. Previous deprivations, such as before women had rights and before women began to transition into male-dominated occupations, would be labeled by Coser as absolute deprivation.

Like Coser’s theory suggests, although resources changed mentality did not. Society still struggles with the patriarchal paradigm that women are inferior to men. If Coser’s theory is accurate now, what makes us believe it will not be accurate later and that society won’t maintain this patriarchal paradigm? Dahrendorf, another conflict theorist, defines authority versus power- power is individual, while authority is social. Gender inequality exists within the workplace, because men being the gender majority, hold power over women.

The fact that men are more likely to hold higher positions than women, gives men authoritative power, too. Like Coser said, this power inequality is the cause of conflict. The San Diego Mayor, Bob Filner, is a good example of someone with power who exercised sexual harassment. As a man, Mayor Filner individually held power over the women he harassed due to the sole fact that he was a male, and maybe even more because he was a white male. Mayor Filner held authoritative power over the women he harassed because he was the mayor of San Diego, California.

His political career and his gender gave him power, letting him sexually harass many women and get away with it for a long period of time. Although the law, such as Title VII and the EEOC, consequently punished Mayor Filner for his actions, the fact remains that Mayor Filner caused conflict. It can be seen how hegemonic masculinity correlates with Filner’s actions, and how patriarchal power participates in causing and allowing sexual harassment. Gender inequality in the workplace is a social issue, because it harms the values and goals of women in society.

According to the conflict theorists, hegemonic masculinity and patriarchal power cause sexual harassment, and are the primary reasons why gender inequality exist within the workplace. Since the 1960’s when external conflict emerged and social solidarity formed for the fight against gender inequality, society has made a lot of changes within legislation and for social acceptance of women as being equal. Similar to how conflict emerges when norms are violated, equality will emerge when societal norms are redefined.

Causes of stress and its solution medical school essay help: medical school essay help

The circumstances that cause stress are called stressors. Stressors vary in severity and duration .For example the responsibility of caring for a sick parent may be an ongoing source of major stress , whereas getting stuck in a traffic jam mat cause mild short term stress .Some events such as death of a loved one are stressful for everyone .But in other situations ,individuals may respond differently to the same event. Stressors can be classified into 3 general categories:

1)catastrophic stress 2)Major life changes 3)Daily hassles In addition simply thinking about unpleasant past events or anticipating unpleasant future events can cause stress for many people.

1)Catastrophe: Is a sudden , often, life threatening calamity or disaster that pushes people to do outer limits of their coping capability example earthquakes ,tornadoes ,fires ,floods and hurricanes as well as wars ,torture ,automobile accidents , violent physical attacks and sexual assaults . They often continue to affect the individuals mental health long after the event has taken place. 2)Major life changes:

The most stressful events for adults involve major life changes such as death of a spouse ,family member ,divorce , imprisonment ,loosing ones job and major personal disability or illness . The most stressful events for adolescents are death ,imprisonment or divorce of parents ,personal disability or illness .Getting married is a positive experience but planning the wedding ,deciding whom to invite ,and dealing with family members may be stressful for the couples.

3)Daily hassles: Much of the stress in our lives results from having to deal with daily hassles pertaining to our jobs ,personal relationships and everyday living circumstance .Many people experience the same hassles everyday example living in a noisy neighbourhood ,commuting with heavy traffic ,disliking ones fellow workers ,worrying about money , waiting in a long line and misplacing or losing things .When taken individually , this hassles may feel like minor irritants , but cumulatively , they can cause significant stress . Studies have found that one’s exposure to daily hassles is actually more predictive of illness than is exposure to major life events .


1)coping with stress:

Coping with stress means using thoughts and actions to deal with stressful situations and lower our stress levels. People who cope well with stress tend to believe that the can personally influence what happens to them .The usually make more positive statements about themselves ,resist frustration ,remain optimistic and persevere even under extremely adverse circumstances. People who cope poorly with stress tend to have somewhat opposite personality characteristic such as low self esteem and a pessimistic outlook on life. Coping strategies:

Psychologists distinguish 2 broad types of coping strategies: a)Problem focused coping b)Emotional focused coping

The goal of both strategies is to control ones stress level. In problem focused coping people try to short circuit negative emotions by taking some actions to modify ,minimize or avoid the threatening situation . In emotional focused coping people try to directly moderate or eliminate unpleasant situations. Problem focused coping is the most effective coping strategy.

2)Social support: Social support from friends ,family members and others who care for us goes a long way in helping us to get by in times of trouble. Social support system provides us with emotional sustenance ,tangible resource ,aid and information when we are in need .People with social support feel cared about and valued by others and feel a sense of belonging to a larger social network.

3)Bio feedback:

Bio feedback is a technique by which people learn voluntary control of stress related physiological response such as skin temperature ,muscle tension ,blood pressure and heart rate .Normally people cannot control these responses voluntarily .Individuals learn to be sensitive to subtle changes inside their body that affect the response system being measured.

4)Relaxation: There are 2 types of relaxation A)Progressive muscular relaxation B)Relaxation

We should learn to relax our body.

5)Aerobic exercise:

Aerobic exercise such as running , walking ,biking and skiing can help keep stress level down because the increase the endurance of the heart and lungs ,an aerobically fit individual will have a lower heart rate at rest and lower blood pressure ,less reactivity to stressors and quicker recovery from stressors.

Would you expect a stronger anti-union response from an employer in a manufacturing environment or a service environment? Why? online essay help: online essay help

I would expect a heavier anti-union response from the manufacturing industry for a wide variety of reasons. Firstly, because due to the fact there is more market power in manufacturing giving unions more leverage to exact demands from employers. Secondly, jobs in service industries are generally of a shorter duration, so workers leave their jobs frequently so unionization is not a high priority. The cost of labor is also higher in service jobs, so unions have less power. So simply put, there will be a much more anti-union response in the manufacturing industry simply because manufacturing unions have much more power and leverage compared to workers in service industries.

Select an organization with which you are familiar, and discuss the possible bargaining units that would be appropriate for collective bargaining in its structure.

Just because it just literally happened, I chose MLB (Major League Baseball). Baseball players and owners signed an agreement for a new labor contract Tuesday, a deal that makes baseball the first North American professional major league to start blood testing on human growth hormone and expands the playoffs to 10 teams. The five-year deal collective bargaining agreement makes changes owners hope will increase competitive balance by pressuring large-market teams to rein in spending on amateur draft picks and international signings.

Other highlights include: Players will be required to play in the All-Star Game unless injured or excused, Instant replay will be expanded to include decisions on foul lines and traps, subject to an agreement with umpires, Players, managers and coaches may not use smokeless tobacco products during televised interviews and may not carry them in their uniforms, Players arrested for DWI will be required to undergo mandatory evaluation, and Players will start wearing improved batting helmets manufactured by Rawlings by 2013.

Review the arguments for and against the Employee Free Choice Act and the Mandatory Secret Ballot Protection Act. How would you vote? Give your reasons.

The Employee Free Choice Act is a piece of legislation that would change federal law in order to, according to the bill’s authors; strengthen the rights of workers to unionize. It attempts to do so by changing the procedure by which workers unionize. Currently, union campaigns must secure support from 30% of workers in a company through card-ballots, which subsequently sends the campaign into a secret ballot election. If a majority of workers then vote by secret ballot to unionize, a union may be certified by the National Labor Relations Board and established

. The Employee Free Choice Act intends to change the law so that a union can be created by a majority vote from the card-ballot process alone, avoiding the second process of a secret ballot election. It also establishes stronger penalties for violation of employee rights when workers seek to form a union and during first-contract negotiations and provides for mediation and arbitration for first-contract disputes.

Duopoly Coles vs Woolworths essay help online free: essay help online free

For most of us its just part of everyday life decisions. Where to shop for the week, Coles or Woolworths? Should I drink Pepsi or Coke today? Do I go to MYER or David Jones to buy new make up from? We take in consideration a few prices, how convenient it will be to get there, what would we rather do, and that’s it. But there’s something bigger behind this. What is the impact on such big rivals, for us and the economy? It’s not just about personal choices. Living and studying in Australia for the past 11 months, going to do my grocery shopping at Coles or at Woolworths has become part of my routine. And because it is such an ordinary thing to do, we tend to forget that we make part of a much bigger picture, and are contributing to several factors regarding the Australian economy. However, this race for the best has its advantages and disadvantages, and of course, this is affecting us as well. The Price War

One of the advantages of this never ending battle for us customers, are the low prices. Because there is such a big competition for prices, each of the supermarket brands will try to make it as affordable as possible to the consumer, as a reaction to get competitive advantage. One big example of this war is the milk price. Both supermarkets can sell milk for $1. It is very difficult to make any profit if you’re selling products at such a low price, as Rob Murray, the chief executive for the food and beverage group Lion stated. However this issue does not affect us consumers on a day-to-day basis, and the low prices keep us happy and of course, keep us shopping at these big supermarkets. Everyone wins with the Rewards Programs

Another good thing for the shoppers at these two big chains is the rewards systems they have. And we win again. Despite the cheaper price war having been leaded by Coles the majority of times, Woolworths seems to have another way of fighting. Their CEO Grant O’Brien came out with a new strategy: the Everyday Rewards. The more the customer shops, the more discount they get. Users of the cards get exclusive offers, discount on fuel and can even earn Qantas flyer points. And not only in Woolworths, they have retail partners like Big W, Dick Smith and Cellarmasters that will also benefit the customer. Coles also has their rewards system, the Flybuys. With this card, apart from the exclusive offers on Coles and affiliated firms products, the customer collects points at every purchase, which can later be changed by different prizes. But this is not only good for the consumers. Its basically the company saying that they will give us prizes, in exchange for our information. A Rewards system allows the firm to collect data about their customers, which they can use in their favour, to create loyalty and promote trust. With the Everyday Rewards, Woolworths has been able to collect a good amount of information, while Flybuys is still in the process of build its strength. Easy and Simple

Another very good thing for the customer about these two big brands is the convenience. Everywhere we go, every big shopping center and busy area in a suburb will have at least one of the two, if not both. Coles and Woolworths have very strong analysts that will know where to place their shops, and if there is an area lacking one, it’s probably not because they are still to build one, but because that are would not be so profitable yet. So for us, wherever we want to shop, we can always find one of these, and do not have to travel any long distance to get to one of these stores, as they are located almost everywhere too. Even for the most loyal customer from the small shops, sometimes it’s a lot more convenient to visit one of the big supermarkets, and they will end up buying something from there. Someone might be losing

Unfortunately it’s not all flowers. For us to be paying such low prices, someone is losing money somewhere, and it’s not the big supermarkets. Because they are such big brands, suppliers need to have their products in their shelf. Coles and Woolworths claim they have built very strong relationships with their suppliers, and it might be true, but a lot of the smaller suppliers are getting ripped off. They “bully” the suppliers to sell their products at really low prices, and they know they have this power, otherwise they won’t sell enough. They will also charge more to have the products placed in good positions on their shelves. A lot of the times the prices suppliers are charging are so small, that they are struggling to survive with these sales, and it generates another whole big problem. Creating Enemies

The ones losing with the big duopoly from Coles and Woolworths are the smaller suppliers, and the smaller shops too. But not every customer is just happy in paying small prices, they want to make sure everyone involved is protected. For this reason, there is a big pressure on ACCC from suppliers and the smaller businesses which don’t have a chance to compete. There is a party called Australian Green, and they fight strong against the practices these two supermarkets have againg farmers and small suppliers. Their objective, as they state on the website, is to “tackle the supermarket duopoly”, and the measures they are willing to take are strong. For example, put a temporary ban on expansion from Coles and Woolworths, or stopping this duopoly to purchase agricultural land, so they can’t control the whole supply chain. The ACCC is also holding an investigation about the bullying of suppliers. While most of us will not care that much about the situation these suppliers are in, or will not have option to shop somewhere else, there is a big group who does care. These are customers who are willing to pay more, but do their groceries in a small shop so they can help that business, and also do not buy the products from exploited suppliers. No more competition

Unfortunately, the group of very unhappy customers mentioned before is not large enough to make sure the small businesses will survive. With such low prices and big chains, the two major supermarkets will not give a chance for a smaller business to survive in the middle of this war. It is just impossible to compete with the two major supermarkets prices and their powerful middlemen, and the small shops start disappearing. Without competition, a lot of the products that do not have space on Coles or Woolworths shelves may also disappear, and this will also have a big impact on the economy as there is unemployment rising. This process will damage Australia food’s industry, and with the lack of new firms it might mean a lack of new products, and the whole market can go stale. Tricking the customers

To have products at such low prices, as it was mentioned before, the suppliers will end up losing. But the customers might also lose sometimes. For example, the free range eggs case. Both Coles and Woolworths claim that they want to help customers switch from industrialised to free range eggs, by cutting the prices on the second one. However, the suppliers pay for the price that we are not, as it is impossible to have a free range egg production at such low prices. The customer will end up buying free range eggs thinking they are contributing to improve the animal welfare standards from the supermarkets, however, they do not know that they are still purchasing the “industrialised” free range eggs, the free range version of these two big supermarkets.

Even though it seems there are more disadvantages to small businesses and suppliers than there are advantages for us customers, it is not the number, but the quality of these advantages that count. This battle is far from the end, because it is not likely that the masses will stop shopping at Coles or Woolworths anytime soon. However, the ones that are more conscious about it can only expect that it will make a difference in the future, when the ACCC take strong measures or the political inaction ends, and someone who genuinely cares and is strong enough to change this is put in charge. In the meanwhile, we will keep enjoying the convenience to just walk for 10 minutes and find a shop, or receive rewards and discount on products and even fuel, and keep ignoring all the ones losing from this. In the end, it is a battle and someone will lose. If not the big duopolistic market, a part of the population will pay.

Management and Better Outsourcing Strategy narrative essay help: narrative essay help

•What are you (in the role of Kathy Dalton) going to present at the outsourcing strategy meeting in two weeks and why? Persuading company’s board of directors to keep outsourcing strategy in eBay, and explain how make better outsourcing strategy.

•When companies like Dell are reducing outsourcing in some areas, should eBay be considering expanding outsourcing?

According to this case study, eBay should expand outsourcing in several ways by proper strategy like BOT.

•What are the limits to outsourcing Trust and Safety?

This work has to be handled very carefully because it is very sensitive in terms of customers’ personal information or that necessitated detailed investigative work. For that reason, workers who work in Trust & Safety department have to have very good English language skill and knowledge.

•What are the advantages/disadvantages of the BOT strategy and how does it stack up against the other two options Dalton outlines in her Excel spreadsheet? What are opportunism, capability, and flexibility implications of the strategy?

advantage : Don’t have to bear initial risk for the start up disadvantage : have to wait for two or three years getting full ownerships can cover up Trust & Safety and reduce e-mail cost. opportunism : reducing e – mail cost, managing third vendor capability : continuing worker’s train flexibility : reduce initial risk for start up

•What will eBay’s senior management do with Kathy Dalton’s new three-tiered outsourcing strategy?

They will consider her options for choosing main outsourcing strategy. I think they probably expand outsource in Trust & Safety part.

Universal Healthcare: The Pros and Cons essay help 123: essay help 123

On March 23, 2010 the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was signed by President Obama, raising the question for many of whether this new law was going to be more helpful or hurtful. With universal healthcare, healthcare coverage would be increased tremendously, costs would be reduced, jobs would be created, and consumers would be protected. Conversely, it will also raise taxes and wait times, lead to a smaller number of doctors, and infringe on some employers’ 1st amendment rights. Presenting both arguments for and against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act allows one to draw a conclusion on whether the new program will benefit or hinder the citizens of the United States.

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA, will extend coverage to virtually every US citizen. It is estimated that approximately 45 million Americans are uninsured, and 45,000 of those citizens are dying each year simply because they do not have health care (Ireland). Once this new act takes effect, 32 of those 45 million citizens will receive coverage. Citizens whose ages range from 19 to 25 will be able to stay on their parent’s insurance plans when normally they would have been forced off the plan. Young adults who are not on their parent’s insurance plans and who normally wouldn’t be able to afford coverage will now be able to pay for their own health insurance. Currently, patients with pre-existing conditions can be denied coverage. However, with the PPACA, insurance companies will no longer be able to deny coverage or stop coverage when a member becomes ill. Women will also be granted additional coverage, such as receive access to women’s health services, and these new benefits are also required to have no out of pocket fees. Also, the availability of contraception, such as abortion, will be expanded (“The Patient Protection”).

The cost of health care will be greatly reduced by the PPACA, and this will have a chain reaction on big businesses and employees. With almost 95 percent of citizens paying for health insurance, costs for health care will decrease (Poe). Once the cost for health care declines, it will cost less for big businesses to hire employees. It is estimated that 4 million jobs will be created over the next 10 years. The PPACA also affects the economy in another way; it will reduce the national deficit. Contrary to popular belief, the passing of this law will reduce the national debt by 210 billion dollars within the next decade. If it were repealed, the national debt would be raised by $230 billion (Poe).

The PPACA also offers various other benefits to citizens. Catherine Poe states that once the law is passed, there will be “ no more Freddie the Freeloaders allowed”; if a citizen can afford health insurance and does not purchase it, he or she will pay a fee of one percent of his or her household income. This fee will increase to 2.5 percent by 2017. This will prevent citizens from not paying for health insurance and just continuing to live off of the tax dollars of other citizens who do pay for their health insurance. Also, the PPACA will protect consumers from the overcharging by health insurance providers. It will force the providers to spend 80 percent of their income on rebates or expenses, such as health and marketing expenses (“ObamaCare”).

While the PPACA will benefit citizens greatly, it also has its negative side effects. As previously discussed, the PPACA will lower healthcare costs and the national debt, but it will also hurt the economy as well. The cost of drugs is expected to rise due to pharmaceutical companies paying an additional 84.8 billion dollars over the next decade (“The Patient Protection”). Taxes will also be raised in order to cover the additional costs brought on by the new program. The additional taxes will be charged to individuals making over $200,000 and couples making over $250,000. Additionally, families will only be able to deduct medical costs that surpass 10 percent of their annual income, compared to the 7.5 percent that is currently allowed. It was stated earlier in this paper that big businesses would benefit from this law; however, the exact opposite is true for small businesses. Businesses will be forced to provide healthcare for their employees or pay a fine, something they may not be able to afford. This may result in employees’ hours being cut or even the termination of the employee (“ObamaCare”).

The PPACA will also have a direct negative impact on the medical field as a whole. By 2025 there is expected to be a shortage of nearly 52,000 physicians. This, coupled with the number of office visits increasing over 100 million times, will put incredible strain on the healthcare system (“The Patient Protection”). This will cause wait times for medical treatment to be greatly increased. Patients will be more likely to go to the emergency room for minor treatments, such as coughs due to colds, thus causing patients with real emergencies to wait even longer. Also, there will be no competition for patients. This competition is what encourages health care workers to excel in their specialties and to become better. This may even cause fewer people to choose to pursue a career in the medical profession (Ireland).

One of the more controversial arguments against universal healthcare is the effect it will have on known religious-based businesses. As stated earlier, with the PPACA businesses will be required to provide health insurance for their employees that would include contraceptive services for women.

The result is that religious based businesses, such as Hobby Lobby, which is owned by evangelical Christians, will be forced to essentially pay for their employees to receive contraceptives, something that goes against their religion. If a business decides to follow its religious beliefs and not provide the health insurance it will be issued a fine, thus hurting the business for practicing their religion. This has led the government to define what religion is and what qualifies a business as a religious employer. This aspect of the PPACA goes against the 1st amendment protection of the freedom of religion, therefore making it unconstitutional (“A Case”).

Weighing both sides of the universal healthcare argument, it can be concluded that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is truly more hurtful than it is helpful. It will cost citizens greatly, through increased tax dollars and being forced to pay for their healthcare. Small businesses contribute immensely to the country’s economy, and they will be hurt significantly by this program. Also, the effects it will have on the healthcare system are immeasurable.

There is already a considerable shortage of doctors, and this will only increase remarkably once the PPACA takes effect. Lack of competition within the medical profession is something that cannot be overlooked either. This could potentially lead to less skilled doctors and even prevent major breakthroughs in medicine if doctors are not trying to be the best. The infringement on 1st amendment rights in regards to religious-based businesses is a major flaw within this new law. Forcing companies to provide a service that goes against their religious beliefs is argument enough as to why the PPACA is a harmful program for the United States.

The Transition Student To Graduate Nurse popular mba argumentative essay help: popular mba argumentative essay help

The new graduate nurses (NGN) are faced with various issues and challenges especially in their first year of nursing practice. The period of transition from a student to a graduate nurse is a demanding period that is filled with new experiences and there are several concerns and factors that can affect the transition process. The research into the issues has recommended some strategies that can be utilised to ease the transition process from being a student to a professional practicing nurse.

Exhaustion, reality shock and time management are some of the factors and issues that the new graduate might encounter during their first year in their career. There are several recommended programs, which have been developed to address the issues that influence the transition period such as mentoring, support networks and time management planners. This essay will discuss in detail the range of issues, as well as the strategies and resources to facilitate the adjustment to the new role of a new registered nurse. Romyn et al.

(2009) states some factors that influence the transition period from a student to a graduate nurse and how quickly newly graduate nurses are able to demonstrate mastery of their new role including personal qualities of the individual registered nurse such as age, previous work experience, maturity and aspirations. It was found that students who have worked as nursing assistants seemed to do better in their role as they had early hands-on experience. Other factors include the quality of educational preparation received during their pre-registration nursing program and the period of clinical experiences.

Also, the duration and quality of transition programs for new graduates which is provided by institutions of employment, the attitudes and behavior of the more experienced nurses in employing institutions as well as the demands been placed on the registered nurse in clinical situations (Chang & Daly, 2012). Fink, Krugman, Casey and Goode (2008) found that the transition of graduate nurses from a student into a professional practice setting is a concern, which is long-standing and widely recognised as a period of stress, reality shock and role adjustment.

This is often due to the fact the students are been observed by a nurse when performing clinical tasks. Once the student graduates, they experience reality shock, when they try to adjust to their new role. Reality shock is a term used to describe a gap between what the students are taught to expect, and what is actually experienced during their early stages of work and often the shock occurs when the new graduate nurses discover it difficult to integrate the knowledge obtained in the university into their daily professional practice.

Moreover they discover there is a theory- practice gap as the theory they have been taught in lectures differs to the theory required in a clinical setting (Vieira da Silva et al. , 2010). Duchscher (2008) states that the discrepancies between what graduates understand as nursing from the real world of delivery of health care service compared to their education leaves the new nursing graduates with a sense of groundlessness.

The nursing environment moves the new graduates away from the nursing practice adopted in their educational process towards a more productive, efficient and achievement-oriented context that places importance on institutionally imposed social goals which leads to role ambiguity and internal conflict. Duclos-Miller (2011) identified that role stress, role overload and role ambiguity all contribute to transition issues. Role stress is the incongruence between perceived expectations, role and achievements, which occurs due to the status change from a student to graduate nurse.

Furthermore, difficulty experienced from the challenges of the new role, such as lack of consistent and clear information about the behavior expected from them, lack of clearly specified responsibilities, lack of confidence, as well as coping with the beginning level of competence as a registered nurse (Duclos-Miller, 2011). Role ambiguity is the lack of information needed for role definition and behavior that is expected in their new role, which includes the psychological, social aspects of role performance.

Whereas, role overload includes learning of new roles, difficulty with time management and prioritising task. Also other stressors include the feeling of not being competent, encountering new procedures and situations, fear of making mistakes due to increased workload and working with experienced staff nurses that are unwilling to assist (Duclos-Miller, 2011). West, Ahern, Byrnes and Kwanten (2007) indicate that the new graduate nurses may have not worked full-time in the past; given that graduate nurses begin their career with a full-time job can lead to exhaustion.

It was discovered that shift work leads to desynchronisation of physiologically determined circadian rhythms which has a major psychobiology effect and it is commonly perceived the effects of shift work contribute to graduate nurses attrition rate. The NGNs often have a high level of stress due to disturbed sleeping patterns, as they find to adaption to shift work or rotating work hours difficult. Eventually, it leads to feelings of lack of job satisfaction, exhaustion and spending of less time with their friends and family, which can eventually could lead to burnout (West et al.

, 2007). Dyess and Sherman (2009) found that new graduate nurses expressed concerns about their ability to delegate and supervise other nurses or unlicensed assistive personnel as they felt unprepared to deal with any type of conflict, they tend to avoid any type of situation rather than confront the situation, as they felt unequipped to explore to conflict professionally. Another issue encountered by the NGN is the ability to communicate with physicians and other members of the multidisciplinary team of which interactions with physicians were a source of anxiety and stress.

Moreover, the lack of professional confidence that new graduate may feel can be heightened, when another professional expresses disgust or uses a gruff tone. This is a safety issue because a sense of insecurity can contribute to the NGN avoiding contact with the physician, unless a patient experiences an extreme physiological decline (Dyess & Sherman, 2009). Morrow (2009) states that most graduate nurses experience horizontal violence in their first year of practice, they felt undervalued and neglected by other nurses and experienced rude and humiliating verbal statements and unjust criticism.

The most common form of horizontal violence was in form of psychological harassment, which includes intimidation, exclusion, and innuendos. The cumulative impact may lead to absenteeism and frustration that may lead to the consideration of leaving the nursing profession (Morrow, 2009). In order for the factors and issues that surround the transition from a student to a graduate nurse to be addressed, certain strategies needs to be implemented that can ease the transition period.

An Important strategy that can be implemented to assist the graduate nurses to assimilate into a professional working environment is a graduate program. It will aid to build the confidence of the new graduate nurse through the provision of support and mentorship during their period of adjustment, and assist the new nurse to assimilate into the hospital environment, think critically and problem solve which will allow the graduates to deal with obstacles encountered in patient care and prepare them for a lifelong learning and also help them in the integration of theory to practice (Davey & Vittrup, 2009).

The creation of formal preceptor and mentorship is an effective strategy to facilitate a successful transition. A preceptor is an assigned role in which a capable employee assists with the development and orientation of the new graduate; they are usually responsible for evaluation and supervising the work of the preceptee. However, a mentor actively supports the graduate nurse with personal and career development, personal support, counseling and acceptance. Also, they help the novice nurse to raise their confidence and recognise their limitations.

In addition, mentors help novice nurses in setting realistic goals by recommending appropriate courses of action (Ellis & Hartley, 2012). NGN require resources and information that are designed to facilitate their adjustment in a clinical area, which will enable them to gain skills and knowledge to perform satisfactorily in their job. Resources such as an orientation program involves the induction of a NGN to the organisational mission and vision statement, as well as an introduction to the procedures and policies related to nursing activities such as medication administration.

An appropriate orientation and induction program will ensure that a NGN can safely plan and conduct patient care. In addition, with an appropriate orientation program the NGN is aware of the overall culture of the hospital, which can make the NGN to feel accepted and part of a team in a clinical environment, which can promote overall positive outcomes with workplace satisfaction of the NGN (Burgess & D’ Hondt, 2007).

Effective strategies that enhance the time management skills which is one of the above mentioned issue for new graduates are to arrive to work much earlier, avoiding distractors such as focusing on issues of co-workers, assess patients to note if any extra supplies will be needed to carry out clinical procedures, keeping shift record on track and to chart during the shift and not at the end of the shift and prioritise task to be performed (Booth, 2011).

However, to prioritise task the novice nurse needs to learn how to delegate. First, to enhance the skill the nurse should consider how others have delegated to them, consider their body language when delegating by maintaining eye contact, being pleasant and leave any room for suggestions, but ensure they are not intimidated by writing a list of task and posting it at the nurses station, it leaves little room for a misunderstanding (Cherry & Jacob, 2008).

Debrief is a form of retrospective analysis of critical incidents that are encountered in nursing, it is a critical incident-reduction technique that incorporates, structured phases of group discussion. It enables the NGN to learn from their mistakes. Debriefing sessions provides NGN with access to peer support and allows the individual to reevaluate a situation in a different perspective, which can enhance a new graduates learning opportunity and is also an effective way to reduce stress and anxiety in a NGN (Cant & Cooper, 2011).

According to West et al. (2007) exhaustion as the result of shift work is common amongst new graduate nurses, strategies that can be utilised to lessen the effects of stress encountered as a result of a new graduate trying to adapt to shift work is to incorporate shift work into the clinical placements of an undergraduate nursing degree to enable new graduate nurses to be prepared for the effects of shift work in order for an effective work

and sleep schedule to be determined and also a negotiation with their intended workplace to achieve the best possible outcomes for the both parties (West et al. , 2007). The strategies for responding to horizontal violence should be part of a new graduate orientation program as NGN are unlikely to be prepared to react appropriately to acts of horizontal violence. Specific information such as scripted responses for the NGN to use when a scenario is encountered and an opportunity should be provided for role-play and practice (Dyess & Sherman, 2009).

Parker, Gilles, Lantry and McMillian (2012) states that new graduates are less likely to be bullied or experience horizontal violence, when they have access to a workplace with empowering structures such as access to resources, information, support, strong work alliances, job discretion and the opportunities to learn and grow. The transition from a student to a graduate nurse can be a stressful and difficult time in the career of a graduate nurse. However, several factors have been mentioned that can impact on how the NGN can cope during the period of transition.

The implementation of research strategies that has proven to be effective in easing the transition of a student to a graduate nurse can be utilised to counteract the factors and issues that are encountered during the transition period. The provision of adequate support and incorporation of effective strategies in organisations, the problems and issues of the NGN can be resolved and all NGN will experience a positive transition process which can facilitate a positive adjustment to their employment as a registered nurse.

Amerindian Legacies in the Caribbean college essay help online free: college essay help online free

The Amerindians have left a legacy that forms part of the Caribbean Civilization. The Amerindians were two groups of people having completely different personalities. One group was the Arawaks or Taino which occupied the Greater Antilles and the other was the Caribs or Kalinago which occupied the Lesser Antilles. The Arawaks were a very peaceful group of people; slim and short, but firmly built. The Caribs on the other hand were very aggressive people and were taller and had a bigger built than the Arawaks.

The Caribs were also cannibals and some people assume that is why they were bigger than the Arawaks. Despite their differences in personalities, they had a similar way of living. They were both excellent fishermen, craftsmen, farmers, handymen and doctors. Since they were naturalists and believed in the environment, they made use of the natural resources they had in order to survive. After the Europeans settled on Amerindian territories, they raped their females, killed and overworked their men and ate their produce.

Disease and famine resulted in a rapid decrease in the Amerindian population. Hundreds of years after, Caribbean people still benefit and utilize the legacy of the Amerindians such as place names/words, food/cuisine, architecture and handmade materials. Long before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean Sea, the Caribbean was still relatively “new”. This allowed the early settlers; the Amerindians, to give names to countries, places inside those countries, animals, food and other objects for the first time. Some of these names are still utilized.

The Amerindians called Barbados “Ichirouganaim”, St. Vincent “Hairoun”, Dominica “Waitukubuli”, Jamaica “Xaymaca” and named a lot of other Caribbean territories. They gave names to places in Venezuela, such as Tacarigua, and in Trinidad such as Piarco and Tunapuna. They still have their names. The names of some of our fruits, vegetables and other words were derived from the Amerindian words. Some of these words were maize, from “mahis”, barbeque, from “barbakoa”, guava from “guayaba” and hammock from “hamaca”. In some countries like Dominica and St.

Vincent, animals named by the Amerindians still survive. The agouti (rat), manacou(opossum), touloulou(crab) and iguana are some of the animals that still have their Amerindian names. There are plenty more words that we use derived from the Amerindian languages. This contributed to us not being limited to the more “formal” languages of empire (Spanish, Dutch, English and French) and having our own varieties of Creole between Caribbean countries. The Amerindians were excellent farmers and cooks. They left us a lot of crops and some of their cooking techniques.

Both Arawaks and Caribs had diets of meat and vegetables, but the Arawaks had a more vegetable based diet and cultivated a lot more than the Caribs. They cultivated cassava (yuca), sweet potatoes (batata), corn (maize), squash, peanuts, pineapples, beans and peppers. Most of these are indigenous to the Americas but continued to grow thousands of years after in the Caribbean. The Amerindians ground the roots of the Cassava (yucca) into a powder in which they baked cassava bread. The Amerindians showed us how to cook; bake, boil, stew and barbeque (cook slowly over open fire).

They also taught us how to remove the poison from the cassava roots so it can be made edible. Another thing they did was cook or roast the corn and eat it from the cob. They also grew tobacco and cotton in which they wove hammocks and made clothes and cigarettes. The Amerindians were their own doctors as they used the leaves, roots and barks of certain herbs to heal certain illnesses and diseases. Sage, sweet grass, bitter root and others were used to help the unhealthy regain their energy and wellbeing.

Information of these herbs has been passed down to us, and that is why our grandparents believe we should drink these teas to remain healthy and clean. The Amerindians used to build a lot of things from stone, bone, shell and wood; metal was not familiar to them. They carved the wood from tree trunks to make canoes for fishing, used clay to make pottery, straw to make baskets and calabashes from the opo squash tree. They also left petroglyphs that when read, showed us certain practices that we continue to use today.

The canoes are used mainly in the Caribbean countries with rivers to fish, the clay make plates and flat trays for baking, while the calabashes stored food, molasses and drinking water. The Amerindians made jewelry by hammering gold nuggets into artistic pieces and connecting bones andor shells of small animals and wearing them on various parts of the body. They made their own houses from wood and/or straw with their original gable designs. Even after thousands of years, the people of the Caribbean make use of the legacies passed down to us from the indigenous people; Taino and Kalinago.

Jeanne Lewis at Steples, INC essay help services: essay help services

Six months from now, on February 1, 1998, Jeanne Lewis (HBS ’92) would become the senior vice president of marketing at Staples, Inc. (Staples), a nationwide office supplies superstore. After 10 months working side by side with Todd Krasnow, the current executive vice president of marketing, Lewis was becoming familiar with the department. Her initial assessment led her to wonder if the department’s operating style was suited to evolving competitive realities. As Krasnow’s heir apparent, Lewis wanted to be involved in shaping the department’s priorities for the upcoming year.

The strategic planning process traditionally began around this time in August, and Lewis wondered if the time to start taking action had arrived. Thus far, 1997 had been a trying year for the company: the Federal Trade Commission had challenged Staples’ proposed merger with Office Depot, and the two companies had recently abandoned 10 months of merger efforts. At that time, Chairman and CEO Tom Stemberg reaffirmed his commitment that Staples would grow from a $5 billion company to a $10 billion company by the turn of the century.

Staples not only had to grow bigger, it also had to grow better, as analysts had become accustomed to the company’s 14 consecutive quarters of earnings-per-share growth in excess of 30%. The theme of the upcoming year was twofold: strong growth and more effective execution. tC Lewis believed that Stemberg’s pronouncement to look for the “silver lining” in the failed merger and to take to heart the lessons of the merger could serve as a call to action for the marketing department. Marketing, which served as both an architect and driver of the brand, would play a critical role in Staples’ continued success.

Lewis knew that Staples could survive only if it was prepared to get rid of outmoded ideas and replace them with new ones—a philosophy shared by Krasnow. But Lewis also knew that it could be frightening to give up the ideas that had made the company successful. Furthermore, the marketing staff was understandably apprehensive about Krasnow’s planned departure, and many were already mourning his loss. Lewis explained: No While the merger distractions were going on, things that maybe should have been dealt with, weren’t.

Now, I wanted to make it clear that a new person was coming on board in this area, and figure out how we could get back to business. We needed to refocus on building our business, because it was as competitive as ever, and we had lost a couple of beats in a few marketing areas while busy with the merger. We were at a turning point in the marketing department, as opposed to being long past it. Because of the confluence of external events as well as our own internal complexity, if we didn’t change, then I was concerned it would start to show eventually in sales.

Do Research Associate Jennifer M. Suesse prepared this case under the supervision of Professor Linda A. Hill as the basis for class discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation. It is an abridged version of an earlier case, “Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A),” HBS No. 499-041, prepared by Research Associate Kristin C. Doughty under the supervision of Professor Linda A. Hill. Some names have been disguised. Copyright © 2000 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College.

To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, call 1-800-545-7685, write Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA 02163, or go to http://www. hbsp. harvard. edu. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, used in a spreadsheet, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Harvard Business School. 1 This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright.

[email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 400-065 Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) rP os t Lewis knew the marketing department’s role in ensuring success was twofold: maintaining the delicate balance between meeting short-term financial objectives with appropriate promotional tactics and building customer loyalty and retention with an effective marketing strategy; and investigating ways to leverage Staples’ brand and broaden its franchise. She also had specific questions about some of the department’s structures, systems, and staffing.

She was eager to get started, but recognized the risks of doing too much, too fast: op yo My style is that I want things to happen quickly. When I see things—either a new problem someone has never had to figure out before, or where they’ve just had a different sense of timing—I jump in and say, “here’s the way to do it,” and that makes change happen quickly. But that could limit my ability to work across and with the organization. I could end up spending too much time managing down and not enough time making broader, more expansive impact by managing across the organization as well.

Staples’ Background (1985-1991)1 tC In 1985, Tom Stemberg (HBS ’73), known for his marketing savvy and innovations in the staid supermarket industry (as vice president of sales at Star Market, and president of First National Supermarket), pioneered the concept of the office supplies superstore. A “Toys ‘R’ Us” of office supplies, “Staples, the Office Superstore” would “provide completeness, convenience, informed assistance as well as attractive prices… covering everything from coffee to computer software” for the small-business customer.

2 Initial customer research indicated that most small businesses did not track their total expenditures for office products closely, nor were they aware that they were paying on average 40% more for them than large corporations. To communicate the savings and increased convenience of its new way of procuring office supplies, Staples’ management was prepared to invest heavily in marketing. Staples’ message would emphasize discounts and convenience, leaving customers “free from the hassles” of dealing with long lines, order forms, and multiple suppliers. No

For the pivotal role of director of marketing, Stemberg hired Todd Krasnow, a 28-year-old HBS graduate who had worked in marketing at Star Market with Stemberg’s new VP of operations. In the early days, Stemberg’s team of five (himself, Krasnow, CFO, VP of operations, VP of merchandising) each had their own primary spheres of responsibility, but they all worked very closely together, doing whatever it took to get the job done. They began the mornings with a 7:00 o’clock meeting, reconvened for a working lunch, and generally worked through the evening until 10:00 o’clock.

They hashed out virtually every decision together, early on developing the discipline to back up their “intuitions” with hard data. Krasnow’s optimism, exceptional dedication, and “big picture” perspective often helped keep even the most heated debates substantive, rather than personal. Do The business plan committed the Staples team to opening 26 stores in five years. The first new store opened on May 1, 1986, in Brighton, Massachusetts, and was followed by a second in nearby Woburn in November. The office superstore concept quickly caught on with both customers and other entrepreneurs.

The Staples team focused their efforts on building a Northeast franchise to discourage competitors and make it cost-effective to advertise in that very high-cost region; 1 Staples background was compiled from these sources: “Staples in 1995,” HBS No. 795-158; “Staples, Inc. ,” HBS No. 593-034; “Staples (A), (B), and (C),” HBS Nos. 898-157, 898-158, 898-159; Thomas G. Stemberg, Staples for Success: From Business Plan to Billion-Dollar Business in Just a Decade (Santa Monica, CA: Knowledge Exchange, 1996). 2 The “Staples: the Office Superstore” business plan was published in part as “Staples (B),” HBS No.

898-158. 2 This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) 400-065 rP os t copycatting was common practice in retailing, and second movers often received better terms from investors and suppliers than leaders. Office Depot opened its first store in Florida in October, and within 18 months, 19 other competitors had emerged.

For the next several years, Staples and its two main rivals, Office Depot and Office Max, concentrated their efforts in geographically distinct territories. But soon Staples had to contend with a much wider competitive set, including savvy retailers who were not traditional office suppliers, such as Wal-Mart, Best Buy, and CVS. These competitors often had significantly more capital to invest and some offered lower prices than Staples. op yo Krasnow’s contribution to Staples’ marketing success was universally acknowledged. One executive described it thus: “With his vast experience, Todd ran the marketing department out of his head and his gut.

” On more than one occasion, Krasnow and his team had been able to “save the company. ” For example, when only 20 customers came in to Staples on their first day of business, Krasnow came up with the idea of paying 25 small-business managers $20 to shop in the store and tell him what they thought. A week later, though all had taken the money, none of them had come to the store—undeterred, Krasnow, persisted in contacting them, and those that eventually came in were very impressed with what they saw. This was the beginning of Staples’ inventive marketing style and frequent reliance on direct market outreach.

The team later instituted a free Staples membership program that allowed them to measure if they were getting a good return on their promotional efforts. At the time, such database marketing was almost unheard of in retailing. tC Stemberg pushed his team hard, reminding them that they were waging a battle for market dominance. Employees were encouraged to continually reexamine their strategy, to scrutinize other retailers’ activities and “borrow” their best ideas, and to capitalize on all available opportunities. The corporate and field team from these early years recalled that there was a great deal of “fire-fighting” and “band-aiding.

” In April 1989, Staples received a much-needed infusion of capital with its initial public offering in which over two million shares sold at an opening price of $19 per share. In coming years, the company further complemented organic growth with a series of acquisitions and joint ventures that allowed it to gain market share, expand into new markets (including the West Coast, Canada, and Europe), and learn from others’ successes. No By the end of 1991, Staples had 123 stores. As Staples grew, the senior management team continued to devote time and attention to recruiting and developing talent.

They sought out people with a “can-do” attitude, competitive drive, and an eagerness to learn and stretch themselves. Staples’ employees had to be flexible and willing to move laterally through the company, as Stemberg contended that these periodic rotations helped the company avoid complacency and maintain its entrepreneurial spirit. They also had to be comfortable taking risks on behalf of the company and being held accountable for them. It was not easy to find people who could thrive in this fast-paced, often stressful environment. As one manager observed, “Within weeks you could tell if a new hire could withstand the pace and pressure.

” Jeanne Lewis (1991-1995) Do Marketing and operations Lewis first came to Staples in 1991 as an MBA summer intern in the marketing department (see Exhibit 1 for a timeline of key events). At the time, Staples was small enough that, as she reflected, “you could literally fit the entire management team in one room. ” As an intern, Lewis evaluated marketing plan effectiveness for the company’s 105 stores in 12 states. She passed Stemberg’s office each day and had the opportunity to sit in on meetings occasionally with the CEO and president.

In 1993, one year after her HBS graduation, she returned as a marketing manager responsible for sales forecasting and field marketing. In 1994, she became director of operations for New England with $250 million profit and loss (P&L) responsibility for 50 stores. Lewis had 7 direct reports and over 1,000 indirect reports. The stores were underperforming, which she concluded was because of a lack of strong leadership throughout the area: 3 This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright.

[email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 400-065 Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) rP os t Going into operations was a real change. I was put in charge of managing people who had all “been there, done that” for years. They’d started out as merchandise managers making $18,000 and moved up the silo. And then I came in: I’d never run a store, never rung a register, never done any of the things that they valued expertise in. And yet we had a situation where the stores weren’t performing that well, and I had to tell them to make money and grow sales.

Lewis went straight to work, made tough choices, and replaced 25 store associates in a 12month period. Her new team set aggressive store standards, launched training programs, and rejuvenated performance. A year later, Lewis became the director of sales for 150 stores on the East Coast. One of her direct reports described his time working with Lewis as a time of professional growth: “Jeanne’s charm could be disarming. She worked really hard, and her personality motivated you. She tended to manage tightly at first, then loosened the reins. She challenged us a lot, and invited us to challenge each other. ” op

yo Merchandising Within a year, Lewis was asked to move again, this time into merchandising as vice president and divisional merchandising manager for furniture and decorative supplies, a potentially profitable category. Merchandising was the department responsible for deciding what product to buy, how much to buy, what price to charge, and how to display it in stores and catalog. She now had product-level P&L responsibility for $350 million and both direct (three) and indirect (nine) reports. Again, she was an outsider entering a department of people who had a deep experience base and shared background.

As one merchant explained, “We are a different breed, with our own style of rough and tumble. Because we spend so much time negotiating, we are always a bit distrustful, and wary of being cheated. ” Lewis explained: No tC The same thing occurred in merchandising as operations. I came into the department that is the heartbeat of a retailer having never bought product, but suddenly I had to manage a group of buyers, somehow create a merchandising strategy, and make this sick category a winner [the division’s sales had been flat in a company where double-digit growth was both common and expected].

And again, there was a vendor community looking at me saying, “What do you know about buying and negotiating? ” And I had a group of buyers who typically had been led by people who had come up through the ranks, while I had none of the technical expertise they placed a premium on. Often when you move to a new functional area, the onus is on the group you’ve just inherited to teach the new manager the ropes. For me, though, it was “you’ve got to fix it, and fix it fast. ” There was no time for the people who reported to me to teach me. Do In short order, Lewis and her team developed a strategy for turning around the department.

They replaced over 75% of the product assortment and tripled direct product profitability (DPP). 3 Lewis soon won the respect of her colleagues thanks to her strategic talents and penetrating mind. Her direct reports and peers learned that to influence her, they had to be prepared to get to the heart of a matter and support their position with relevant analyses. One reported that at first impression, he worried that Lewis might be a micro-manager, but he soon realized that she liked to inspire dialogue and debate to ensure that they dug deeply in their decision making.

Many found these exchanges intense and more productive in one-on-one interactions, as opposed to group settings. According to her boss, Richard Gentry, executive vice president of merchandising: 3 Although it was common in food retailing, Staples had only recently adopted DPP. With DPP, Staples used computer modeling to calculate the costs and revenues in the distribution system directly attributable to a given product and could thereby measure each stock-keeping unit’s (SKU) contribution to profit.

This information could then be used for new product selection, shelf space allocation, and pricing decisions. 4 This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) 400-065 rP os t Jeanne demonstrated that you can be a good merchant but you could also be strategic and think outside of the four walls. She showed us how to maximize DPP instead of just “here’s what I sell it at, here’s what I buy it for.

” She was the first merchant to look at financials beyond gross margin, to look at what it actually cost to handle a product in the distribution centers, what it cost in terms of the space in the store. I think she was able to influence people and get respect because she had great insight, and she combined it with a great natural personality. Opportunity Knocks (1996) op yo By 1996, Staples was a $3 billion business with over 500 stores (see Exhibit 2 for a partial organizational chart). Although small business remained the core customer, the company had expanded its offerings to meet the needs of mid-sized and large businesses.

It was organized into three strategic business units (SBUs): Retail, Contract and Commercial, and International. The Retail Unit consisted of all U. S. stores. The Contract and Commercial Unit consisted of three divisions: Staples Business Advantage, which handled regional mid-sized to large companies; Staples National Advantage, which provided complete, customized solutions for national, multi-location companies; and Staples Direct, a catalog division. The International Division managed all functional areas for all stores in Europe. This structure was designed to encourage ownership and accountability, and each

SBU had its own strategic priorities and aggressive quarterly financial objectives. Although each unit relied to greater or lesser extents on the corporate marketing and merchandising departments, they also had their own dedicated marketing and merchandising areas. Newcomers to Staples often found the organizational structure cumbersome and difficult to cope with. As one manager recalled, “I soon discovered that the many (explicit and implicit) dotted-line reporting relationships were often more important than the solid-line reporting relationships.

Thankfully, we are all stockholders, so at the end of the day we are all focused on the same goal. ” No tC But it was not easy to maintain the focus across the now over 1,500 corporate and 12,000 store employees. After Staples’ tenth year, Stemberg raised the stakes. If the company was to reach its $10 billion objective by the year 2000, it had to adapt its strategy and culture to transform from being what some executives had called a “pure operating company”4 to one that was more customer service-oriented with the infrastructure necessary to deliver the scope and scale of services required.

A task force was charged to draft a new mission statement to catalyze this transformation, which outlined four areas of continued focus: customers, employees, communication, and execution. In addition, the task force created a Point Team of key managers. Since the top team felt they could no longer rely on proximity to keep up with developments in the company, this Point Team was charged with ensuring the sharing of goals, key information, and alignment on policy issues and decisions. Do Potential merger Then, during the summer of 1996, Staples’ most formidable competitor, Office Depot, stumbled.

Office Depot, which had taken under five years to reach $1 billion in sales, was currently out-grossing Staples’ stores by $2. 5 million per store. Until then, Office Depot had been the darling of Wall Street, routinely turning in 30%-40% gains; after a string of a few lesser—but far from bad—quarters, however, analysts began to refer to it as an “aging growth company. ”5 Stemberg seized the opportunity to provide customers with additional savings through economies of scale, and in September 1996, the two companies announced that they would merge.

“Staples, the Office Depot” would be the clear industry leader with $10 billion in annual revenues, 1,100 office supplies superstores, and combined mail-order and contract-stationer divisions. 4 Stemberg, Staples for Success, p. 143. 5 David Altaner, “Turning the Page on Office Depot; Investors Penciled in Bigger Future for Smaller Staples,” Sun Sentinel, 8 September 1996, p. 1G. 5 This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright.

[email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 400-065 Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) rP os t Krasnow, now the only remaining member of the Staples’ founding team, agreed to lead the marketing effort and to play a pivotal role in working through the complicated companywide implementation that lay ahead. Throughout his tenure, Krasnow had taken many temporary assignments outside marketing. He had led new market entries and troubleshot in high stakes situations.

He had always returned to marketing, but this time he announced that he would leave Staples in January 1998 to pursue his dream of creating his own entrepreneurial venture. People wondered aloud, “Who could fill Krasnow’s big shoes? ” The company prided itself on promoting from within, and many speculated that Krasnow’s successor would come from within the marketing department; for instance, someone like Bridget Coles, the current vice president of advertising— another HBS graduate who had been with Staples for over seven years. op yo

Promotion After careful deliberations, the Point Team concluded that Jeanne Lewis should be offered the position. Although she had spent only limited time in marketing, they were impressed with her track record in taking charge and mastering varied job assignments. She had demonstrated considerable leadership talents, business acumen, and drive. Lewis weighed the pros and cons of this new opportunity. The move to marketing would represent a very different type of challenge, and she would now be responsible for a budget of several hundred million dollars and a staff of 100 people.

Despite its strategic significance to the company, she would now occupy a staff position: In my other positions, I got a report card every day that would say I had screwed up and needed to fix it or, hey, we made a good decision and we executed it well. In this job, the report card would be very different. I wouldn’t have a P&L, and while I would feel responsible for sales and creative output, it would be much more subjective, and the sales and performance more diffused. No tC I’m not a good example of how to manage your career—I’ve just been willing to raise my hand several times for new opportunities.

I’ve taken a lot of what others would perceive to be career risks, which fortunately have worked out. I think Todd’s feeling was that I had proven myself in several different kinds of functional areas and I brought breadth, if not depth, of experience, coupled with the knowledge that I enjoyed operating in a high stress environment. From my perspective, this was the biggest job I’d had. It would require me to learn to deal with the top levels of the organization and across a broader span. Unlike my other jobs, here I think the challenge was replacing the guy who was here before the first store opened, and who had become a bit of a legend.

And, in addition, walking into something that wasn’t totally screwed up, but which had lots of opportunity to be made just a little bit better. I would say my operations and merchandising jobs were bridging “performance” gaps, while this was going to entail bridging an “opportunity” gap. I was looking to take it to the next level, although what that exactly meant was not entirely clear at the time. Do In October 1996, Stemberg announced that Lewis would join the marketing department as senior vice president of retail marketing and small business.

Stemberg and Krasnow explained to Lewis that she would assist Krasnow in the merger initiative and have a year to “learn the ropes and prepare to take over the marketing responsibility. ” While taking her new responsibilities, she would simultaneously remain in her current position in merchandising until her replacement came from Office Depot. Stemberg also announced Coles’s promotion to senior vice president of advertising. Joining the marketing department Lewis began working with the marketing department in her new capacity immediately.

Marketing served as both an architect and driver of Staples’ brand, which meant balancing between short- and long-term objectives. On the one hand, marketing “existed to optimize the agenda” of the three SBUs, which generally tended toward meeting short-term financial goals using promotional tactics. On the other hand, marketing played a pivotal leadership role as the integrator responsible for establishing a strong brand across Staples’ multiple markets and channels, and for building long-term customer loyalty and retention with effective marketing strategy. The 6

This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) 400-065 rP os t department consisted of two areas: a marketing organization and an in-house advertising agency. The marketing organization developed the marketing strategy to differentiate and build the brand and made the tactical decisions regarding the overall marketing mix (e. g. , television, radio, print, direct mail).

The advertising agency was responsible for both the creative and production sides for all of the company’s advertising. The agency also produced the Staples catalog, including creative design. Krasnow, who had brought together a branding review committee to create a brand around the integrated company, asked Lewis to lead the marketing and advertising merger team. Lewis found the work stimulating, but realized she had a steep learning curve to climb, both vis-a-vis her new department and Office Depot, who had what was often described as a “shoot-‘em-up-cowboy” culture.

Lewis decided to take her time to thoroughly assess what she was inheriting: op yo Whenever I go into a leadership role, I want to figure out what is underneath the water I’m swimming in. So I dive down into the details in order to figure out what I’m really dealing with below the surface. I always think of it as kind of a long, slow dive into the detail: control freak, driving everyone crazy, learning about their business, understanding their business, understanding them, and hopefully articulating along the way that I don’t mean to be in the way. And then I come back to the surface which is really where I’m most comfortable.

But I only do that when I felt like I know what I’ve got in the way of challenges and opportunities and how strong the team really is. She warned her new staff she would want to “ride shotgun” with them and ask a lot of questions in order to learn as much as she could from their expertise. She scheduled multiple meetings with each of her direct reports to make sure she understood their particular function and fit within the rest of the department. The director of marketing administration, who had been at Staples since its pre-IPO days, arranged to have her team meet with Lewis on a one-on-one basis as well.

No tC As Lewis tried to continually “take the pulse of the floor,” she began to get some signals that she would need to adapt her style, which had been honed in the more “rough and tumble,” confrontational worlds of operations and merchandising. She explained, “The first time I decided to challenge a marketing program, I thought we were going to have some good honest dialogue around it. But the person was just devastated. It was a real eye-opener for me. I realized I needed to shift my style or would have people leaving my office in tears and end up accomplishing nothing.

” Wearing two hats and running between the fourth floor (where her office in merchandising was located) and the third floor (where marketing was located) kept life interesting, and Lewis knew her staffs on both floors were finding her less accessible than they would have liked. She did her best to counter this. As one of her direct reports acknowledged, Lewis had “an open door policy and made an effort to be approachable. Her days were full, but you could pop into her office for anything, even to tell a joke, as long as it was the right time.

” One of her new direct reports remarked, “I saw Jeanne look tired, but I wasn’t surprised, considering the jobs she had to deal with. She always had a smile on her face, and was really positive, even on a bad day. I could go the extra mile for someone like that. ” Do By the late spring, it was still unclear when the merger would go through. Krasnow and other executives continued to be embroiled in legal negotiations, which took a toll on the entire organization. As a member of the merger transition team explained: “An organization of this size— with over 30,000 employees—which is moving this fast, needs clear direction.

When you’re driving that race car, you need to know where you’re going, you can’t just be making turns! ” Lewis concluded she should no longer juggle two full-time jobs, especially since Krasnow was preoccupied with the merger. In addition, Coles announced that she would be leaving Staples in July for personal reasons. This development further unsettled the department. As one member described, “Everyone felt a lot of loyalty to the ‘old regime. ’ There was a lot of fear and trepidation around Bridget and Todd both leaving within six months of each other, the fear and insecurity that comes with change.

” 7 This document is authorized for use only by Harutyun Gevorgyan at HE OTHER until November 2014. Copying or posting is an infringement of copyright. [email protected]. harvard. edu or 617. 783. 7860. 400-065 Jeanne Lewis at Staples, Inc. (A) (Abridged) rP os t So, Lewis insisted that her replacement in merchandising be appointed, and in May she moved downstairs into a new office in marketing. Beginning to Move op yo Then, in July 1997, a federal judge ruled in favor of the antitrust challenge.

Stemberg announced that Staples was abandoning the merger, but he charged his employees, in true Staples’ fashion, to “see the positive in the sea of bad news”: to learn the lessons and move forward on them. The Point Team had learned that to maintain a competitive edge, Staples had to intensify its efforts to focus on profitability and to build the business. This meant providing more corporate leadership to assist all departments in getting tighter control over their costs, especially salary and administrative costs (S&A), and figuring out how to maximize the use of resources across SBUs.

Marketing would continue to differentiate and build the brand. Everything the company did should be consistent with the newly articulated brand statement of “slashing the cost and hassle of running your office. ”6 Lewis wondered if her time to seize the moment had arrived. After 10 months assessing the department, she had a clear understanding of marketing as the brand champion and the key support for other departments. She elaborated: It was our job to think strategically—to keep the other departments honest when it came to long-term growth.

We had to find the right balance between hitting the numbers in any given quarter and really growing the customer franchise for the long haul. All the brand-level marketing was really making sure that we were creating a personality and a promise that would drive the right customers into the store by talking about who we were and what we offered, and providing whatever incentives necessary to make sure that the product would sell, and that the customer would come back and buy more. tC Yet, Lewis was convinced that there was a “firewall” between the two marketing areas.

Marketing’s strategy was being developed by the marketing side and handed over to advertising to execute, so neither party was benefiting from the extensive experience and expertise of the other. How could they produce an integrated message unless they did their work more collaboratively? Lewis felt that she could not begin to improve the integration of marketing across merchandising, operations, and the SBUs until her own house was integrated. She remarked: Do No I was amazed that while we had this huge marketing budget that everyone shared, no one knew what the other people were doing.

You couldn’t even have that conversation. I remember the first staff meeting that I had them all together, there was lots of feedback I was getting on “Well, I don’t really know what Marci does, or how Lisa looks at this. ” No one really knew the marketing mix, how much we spend on each piece, in relation to the other pieces, either in terms of dollars or objectives. I think you need a group that understands the overall strategic objectives and what we do as a department to support these objectives, even if it’s not within their particular area.

I also found them terribly disconnected from the strategic objectives of the other areas—merchandising and operations. The thought I would go home with at night was, if they knew more, then they would do a better job. It sounds so simple. “Knew more” means if they knew more about each other and the marketing results, and if they knew more about our overall objectives. And then, as you expand that circle of knowledge out to include merchants, operators, Contract and Commercial, and other SBUs, then by the time

Class Rigidity and Social Mobility compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

In late eighteenth and early nineteenth century England there was a sort of moral ‘code’ of behavior and standards that are to be maintained by the middle and upper classes of society. Austen realistically mirrors this ‘code’ through the characters and plots of her novels while showing that social flexibility was narrow and class boundaries were strict. The topics of class stringency and social mobility are important areas in Jane Austen’s literature. We begin to see that Austen is not a revolutionary as she supports and preserves the morals and customs of societies hierarchy.

However she often encourages and backs the emergence of new wealth permitting greater social mobility. In Austen’s world the naval and ‘tradesmen’ professions are means by which it is acceptable for peoples to advance their social situations. In Persuasion and Emma, we witness class rigidity as well as class mobility. Characters in the Navy and those who are newly risen from or ‘in trade’ have obtained fortune enough to become accepted into society’s upper classes, which suggests that Austen allows some flexibility in her hierarchy.

But, in Austen’s world there are ‘rules’ and limitations to social acceptance and Sir Walter Elliot and Mrs. Clay, and Mr. Elton are reprimanded for overstepping their ‘bounds’. Wealth is then the most principal determining factor of social standings and ‘suitable’ matches. With wealth in mind Austen is traditional in her respect for class stability, but she recognizes the benefits of larger social flexibility with new wealth. Austen uses irony and success of the navy and ‘tradesmen’ to show the advantages that new wealth has on social mobility.

Sir Walter takes great offense to the naval profession and speaks, I have [… ] strong grounds of objection to it. First, as being the means of bringing persons of obscure birth into undue distinction, and raising men to honours which their fathers and grandfathers never dreamt of [… ]. A man is in greater danger in the navy of being insulted by the rise of one whose father, his father might have disdained to speak to, [… ] than in any other line. (Austen, Persuasion, 20) Sir Walter is representative of the upper class of the past.

He holds tight to his morals and values the traditions of his ancestry. It is evident here that he has great difficulty in separating someone from his or her family and cannot fathom how one would not follow in his fathers footsteps. This quotation also presents that Sir Walter Elliot personally feels insulted when someone of a random family who started off below him can end up above him. He feels that he should be superior to most Navy men because the Elliots have been at the top end of the hierarchy for so long.

When sir Walter says “undue distinction” it is ironic because he implies that his distinction was well earned and the distinction and honors of a naval officer is not. He absurdly believes he should be superior because he didn’t have to do any work to achieve his title. At Persuasion’s end, Captain Wentworth and Anne Elliot were to be married. Austen described Wentworth, with five-and-twenty thousand pounds, and as high in his profession as merit and activity could place him, [he] was no longer nobody.

He was now esteemed quite worthy to address the daughter of a foolish, spendthrift baronet, who had not had principle or sense enough to maintain himself in the situation in which Providence had placed him, and who could give his daughter at present but a small part of the share of ten thousand pounds which must be hers hereafter. (Persuasion, 232) This passage shows that new wealth attained by people of low birth can have a great deal of social power just as ancient families have social influence.

It says that Wentworth was no longer a ‘nobody’, so he was now worthy of Anne’s hand, daughter of a baronet, as his earnings put him on an upper class scale. By using a passive voice here it implies that society would agree that it does not matter that his wealth came from a profession, wealth is wealth, and he will be held in high regard for his earnings. The narrative also pokes fun at Anne’s father, Sir Walter Elliot for being imprudent with his money. This suggests that Wentworth is more favorable to support Anne than Sir Walter, even though he thinks himself highly superior to Wentworth.

After Frank Churchill arrives in town Emma takes him to shop at Ford’s and says “You will be adored in Highbury. You were very popular before you came, because you were Mr. Weston’s son—“ (Austen, Emma, 155). Mr. Weston was a former army captain and earned enough money to buy his own land putting him in a higher social situation. This quotation shows that not only is Mr. Weston associated with Highbury, he is held in high regard there. Frank Churchill is also a very wealthy man of the trade and because of his known wealth he is the talk of Highbury society.

Through satire of the high-class society (Sir Walter), and through approval and regard for navy and ‘trade’ professions as a means of social mobility, Austen shows that the current social structure is moderately changing for the better. Although there are benefits of social mobility from new wealth peoples and patrons, tradition in maintaining class structure is imperative and belonging to a class should be accompanied with finances. After Mr. Elton proposes to Emma, the narrator attempts to understand Mr. Elton’s motives.

Perhaps it was not fair to expect him to feel how very much he was her inferior in talent, and all the elegancies of mind. The very want of such equality might prevent his perception of it; but he must know that in fortune and consequence she was greatly his superior. He must know that the Woodhouses had been settled for several generations at Hartfield, the younger branch of a very ancient family—and that the Eltons were nobody. (Emma, 105) The narrator suggests that Elton cannot comprehend how he is not fitting of Emma because he himself is unfit.

The snobbish tone in this passage attempting to commiserate with Elton is indicative of Austen’s disapproval of such a notion. The narrator is trying to fathom why Elton thinks he is of high enough rank to even ask Emma something of the sort. It says ‘he must know’ suggesting that he should know that he was in the wrong. The narrator calls the Eltons nobodies; this serves as a reminder of their economic situation and place in the social hierarchy. Anne sees a possible threat in the way Mrs. Clay a polite widow recommends herself to her father Sir Walter Elliot.

Anne thinks she is widely overstepping her boundaries in regard to rank. Anne, “felt the imprudence of the arrangement […] an acute mind and assiduous pleasing manners, infinitely more dangerous attractions than any merely personal might have been. Anne was so impressed by the degree of danger, that she could not excuse herself from trying to make it perceptible to her sister“ (Persuasion, 33). Anne believes it is her obligation as a member of the upper class to protect her family’s name. She calls the match a danger and inappropriate because she knows the meaning of a ‘suitable’ match, matching in class and rank.

She is mindful of her social structure and how it functions and is greatly offended by even the possibility of low rank coming into her family by marriage. Because Anne is the heroine in Persuasion and we as readers associate with her ideals, it becomes clear that Austen wants us to know that marrying into a family with wealth without having wealth oneself is unacceptable. It is evident that Austen is conventional in her respect for societal traditions as none of the marriages in Austen’s fiction of which she approved was economically unwise.

In close, Austen sticks to tradition but is lenient in accepting new wealth into her social structure. Austen reveals class mobility when she eventually allows Anne to marry Wentworth even though they are of different heritage. The match is acceptable, as he has through the Navy accumulated fortune and good merit enough to secure Anne’s status. She also uses the ridiculousness of Sir Walter to convey that to be of the upper class it does require hard work and management, as he is thoughtless with his money causing him to fall in rank.

Mr. Weston and Frank Churchill are also successful examples of how one can raise their social situation with the ‘trades’ and become socially accepted as superiors. Class strictness is obvious in Mr. Elton’s proposal to a superior and when Anne warns her sister of the dangers of Mrs. Clay and Sir Elliot becoming wed. Austen welcomes new wealth into the social hierarchy but does not reject the social structure and foundation on which class and rank was built.

Operational Plan get essay help: get essay help

Offices Assistant Operational Plan Goal Increase the sales in each store by 10% by June 2013 Objectives: a) include graphic design services b) Acquisition of additional printer, photocopier and delivery van. c) Reorganize of fixtures and fitting within the store to make space for the equipment d) Multi-skill current retail product staff to include service knowledge. e) Increase in human resource requirements.

Strategy In order to increase the sales, the company will need to employee 10 more people with costumer service background, and provide the correct training of the products and services. Consultation Stakeholder Role in the Problem Consultation Method Senior Management Team Decision Maker feedback session email communications newsletters Store Manager Develop an operational plan Meetings group meetings interviews Employees Implementers of the plan Focus groups Brainstorming sessions Feedback sessions. Suppliers Supply equipment Email communication Newsletters Customers

Email communication Newsletters Media Involved in the advertisement ex Email communication Newsletters

Actions: In order to complete the organization goal and objectives the following are the action that should be taken: a) Include a graphic designer The Marketing department need to advertise the position of graphic designer. Responsible: Manager of the area Timeframe: 18 Oct 2013 to 18 of November 2013 Budget: 500 b) Acquisition of additional printer, photocopier and delivery van To increase the sales, The Company will need to provide additional equipment. Responsible: Store Manager Time frame: 20 Oct 2013 to 18 of November 2013 Budget: 2500 c) Make space for the new equipment Reorganize of fixtures and fitting within the store to make space for the equipment. Responsible: Store Manager Time frame: 15 Oct 2013 to 20 November 2013 Budget: 1000 d) Training Multi-skill current retail product staff to include service knowledge. Responsible: Store Manager and team members Time frame: 18November to 30 November 2013 Budget: 2000 e) Recruitment 10 more people have to be hired. Responsible: Store managers and Manager of specific Areas. Time frame: 20 Oct to 18 November 2013 Contingence plan If the strategy of increasing the sales 10% by next year doesn’t work after the high season(November to January). We will need to focus more in how to advertise more the products and services provided. Because we already have the trained people to continue to project. The Marketing department need to focus in a strategy to get more costumers to increase the sales. Outcome:

To increase the sales by 10% by next year. The company need to invest in the project $6000. That include a graphic design services, acquisition and organization of new equipment. Recruitment and training. Approval

Name Position Date Sing Carolina Prieto Senior Management

Carolina Prieto David Garcia Store Manger

David Garcia

Examine how globalisation has resulted in winners and losers aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Globalisation over the past hundred years has undoubtedly made the world more interconnected including closer societies, politics, economies, cultures and the environment. Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. There are those who argue that globalisation creates “winners” and “losers,” as some countries prosper, mainly European countries and America, whilst other countries fail to do well.

For example, USA and Europe fund their own agricultural industries heavily so less economically developed countries get ‘priced out’ of certain markets, even though they should theoretically have an economic advantage, as their wages are lower. The globalisation of economies has resulted in many winners from the developed nations while also improving improved the standard of living in many developing nations. As well as this numerous winners include most western nations, some third world labourers and international institutions.

The globalisation of nation’s economies has definitely improved the lives of millions across the planet, in both developed and developing countries. By far the major winner from this process has been the citizens and corporations of developed countries. This is due to many factors that have come to fruition in the later half of the twentieth century. Specifically, the roles of TNC’s, global financial institutions and consumerism all have ties to economic globalisation.

Despite the criticisms that surround transnational corporations, they have been directly investing in developing countries and with their expansion into these markets, have actually raised the standard of living in many third world countries. An example of a transnational corporation creating winners with the globalisation process is McDonalds. This is a major example of globalization in both the economic and cultural sense, with nearly 50 million people around the world being served daily.

The primary economic winner in recent times from McDonald’s globalisation process has been East Asia, as in 1975 when McDonald’s opened it first restaurant in Hong Kong, it brought with it a high standard of professional service and the first restaurant to continually offer a clean eating environment, which customers came to demand from all restaurants later. Another winner of the globalisation process, are the third world workers employed by transnational corporations.

Although the western world sees sweatshops as immoral and unethical, the labourers who work in these places are often being paid a higher wage than most of their fellow citizens. This means through the economic globalisation process and cross border corporations, workers in developing countries have the opportunities to survive and beat the poverty cycle. While there have been many winners from economic globalisation, there have also been and will continue to be many losers.

There have been many losers including most third world countries, the environment and ironically even most western countries. The primary loser from globalisation has been the developing countries, who have supplied the labour and raw material necessary to fuel globalisation. In many third world countries, globalisation has had the negative effect of creating sweatshops, where workers are paid low wages to do hard manual labour in often poor conditions.

These sweatshops are run by transnational corporations, that have the aim of minimising costs by taking advantage of the relaxed labour laws often in developing countries. An example of a transnational corporation that uses sweatshops is Nike, as its shoes are made in many Asian countries at a low cost and then sold in western countries for a profit. After the goods are sold and the wages paid, the transnational corporations take any profit made back to their headquarters or home country.

This leaves the developing countries in poverty as the workers are being exploited for a minimal wage while the country sees very little of the profits. However, not only are the developing countries affected by economic globalisation, the developed countries that are often at the center of globalisation also experience problems. A major loser that has resulted from the integration of economies specifically in times of economic downturn has been all economies, including both developing and developed.

It can be seen that the primary losers from economic development are developing countries; however, developed countries can also be losers. Another significant loser from economic globalisation is the environment; this problem affects all countries on the planet and has been getting worse over time. The environment has been abused and neglected since the beginning of the industrial revolution and today is currently at a precipice. Developed countries are the worst offender when it comes to the abuse of the environment.

There are positive aspects of globalisation as seen in developed countries, also now many developing countries are to some degree enjoying the benefits. However, transnational corporations and the developed world are still generally exploiting developing countries. Likewise, the planet’s environment is still being expended at a faster rate than it is being replenished or replaced and will surely cause problems for future generations. Therefore, it can be said that the globalisation process of integrating nation’s economies has had both positive and negative effects on the world.

Middle and Southern Colonies college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc

The Middle and Northern colonies differed considerably in their geographical aspects, leading to dissimilar social and political features. The Middle colonies, including New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware all shared the benefit of flat land and rich soil, while the New England Colonies were left with a rocky landscape that made farming difficult.

Thus, the New England colonies, including Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New Hampshire thrived on lumber and fish, rather than crops. They developed a large shipbuilding industry, and due to the abundance of fish such as cod, their fishing industry grew as well. However, in comparison to the Middle Colonies, the New England colonies’ government revolved around religion. The Puritan religion was a major influence in the way of life and it affected the way they governed. The difference in the geography affects the way the Middle and Northern Colonies were able to thrive economically and socially, and the way they governed their people.

The Middle Colonies’ social aspects revolved around vast farmlands, ideal for farming. The soil was rich and fertile, better than the New England Colonies, and the area had a mild climate with warm summers and cold winters. Education was less popular in importance, as most parents believed children should learn to run the family farm rather than focus of their studies.

Because of the benefit of the soil and the excellent growing season, they socially focused on growing crops and farmed, but they had an important shipbuilding center as well. Additionally, New York and Philadelphia were two great areas that served the purpose of trading via all the harbors to import and export goods, including crops like wheat and grains. Unlike the New England Colonies, the Middle Colonies had a lot of diversity. This is due to the fact that the Middle Colonies attracted various groups of people because they had a greater religious tolerance than the New England Colonies did, and the fact that they were affected differently, socially, due to the fertile land.

The New England Colonies’ social aspects were different, because of the lack of fertile soil. The climate was colder than the other two colonial regions because of its location being so far up north, killing several people. The land was scattered with hills and showered with rocks, making it hard to farm. In addition, they had a shorter growing season, so growing crops was a struggle all around. Social castes were not present at the time, as most colonists started out poor. Fortunately, they had a large quantity of natural resources, being almost completely depended on by the colonists. Instead of farming, the colonists took advantage of the rivers and forests that surrounded them. They developed a strong shipbuilding business, using the lumber from the forests to construct the ships. Boston was one of the more significant cities for shipbuilding. They also found great value in furs. Because of the plentiful supply of natural resources, the colonists were able to trade to other countries, receiving slaves in return. Although farming was prominent, the primary focus was working with the natural resources that were provided to them.

The New England Colonies’ based their government strictly around religion. Puritans had self-government, meaning they enforced laws and rules for themselves. Religious tolerance was unheard of in the Northern Colonies, and their laws were extremely harsh. Some people disliked the way of ruling and the Puritan leaders’ beliefs, and escaped or were banished. A good example of this was a man named Roger Williams who wanted more religious freedom in the New England colonists than was offered. He later founded Rhode Island, where they were extremely tolerant of the religion and people could worship how they liked.

Political aspects in the Middle colonies were similar in a sense of similar set-up, but the fact that the New England Colonies were so dramatically intolerant makes the difference more significant. It was different, because the Middle colonies were tolerant of religion unlike the Northern Colonies. Similarly, the government was established with a royal governor after British rule was established. Governors helped rule, and they chose a council to assist with important decision making. Pennsylvania was especially tolerant, and even let citizens vote for representatives. Quakers resided here as well, including William Penn, demonstrating the religious tolerance they had.

In conclusion, the geographical differences affected the way the Middle and New England Colonies’ thrived and existed. Though similar and dissimilar, they both had similar goals to achieve success. The Northern colonies thrived through lumber and fishing, and the Middle colonies thrived harvesting their crops. Although the New England Colonies were extremely intolerant of religions, they governed fairly similarly. Taking these things into hand, the Middle and New England Colonies struggled to success.

Sensation & Perception FRQ college essay help service: college essay help service

Signal Detection Theory- Predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background “noise” and that detection depends on a person’s experiences, expectations, motivations, and fatigue level. A more experienced soldier understands the situation better and knows better what to watch and listen for than a less-experienced soldier. Soldiers in battle may detect a faint stimulus more accurately than a civilian because they have more motivation to hear an enemy if it means saving their own life or the life of their fellow soldiers. Expecting trouble may increase the soldier’s chances of falsely detecting a threat. The fatigue level of the soldier may limit his ability to detect a possible threat

Occipital Lobe- The occipital lobes are the portions of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head which interpret visual information. The occipital lobe will process/interpret/perceive the sense information from the soldier’s eyes to recognize possible threats.

Basilar Membrane- The basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear is a stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea. As a base for the sensory cells of hearing, the basilar membrane allows the soldier to hear gunshots or other potential threats to his camp.

Olfaction- Olfaction is the sense of smell. When molecules of chemicals are inhaled through the nose, they dissolve in the mucus, and olfactory receptors send information to the olfactory bulb in the brain. Because the olfactory bulb is part of the limbic system, which controls emotions, smell is strongly linked to emotions. The soldier may smell gasoline, and then immediately warn his camp to evacuate because of a memory of a gas leak scent followed by an explosion.

Absolute Threshold- Absolute threshold is the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus fifty percent of the time. If the stimuli

Causes of Prejudice persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Prejudice is an opinion that is not based on actual evidence or experience. In “Causes of Prejudice,” Vincent Parillo describes the psychological and sociological reasons of prejudice. Among these causes, frustration is defined to produce a prejudicial attitude towards others. Parillo explains in his work that throughout history, minority groups have been used as scapegoats to take the blame for certain events. He clarifies that scapegoating is the act of blaming others for an incident that is not their fault. This idea is also visible in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, in the part where a lawyer named Atticus tries to prove an African American innocent who has been falsely charged with raping a white woman. Therefore, both Parillo’s “Causes of Prejudice” and Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird support that frustration is a cause of prejudice because of an increase in aggression towards a scapegoat.

To begin with, frustration is caused by relative deprivation, which is the lack of resources in an individual’s environment when compared to others. This results in aggression towards a scapegoat in order to relieve this tension. “Frustrated people may easily strike out against the perceived cause of their frustration. However, this reaction may not be possible because the true source of the frustration is often too nebulous to be identified or too powerful to act against” (Parillo 583).

His view is also seen in To Kill a Mockingbird, when Mayella Ewell claims Tom Robinson has raped her. Atticus tries to prove to the jury that Tom Robinson in fact did not rape Mayella and that she, a white woman, kissed Tom, a black man. Mayella is an Ewell; a very poor family in the town of Maycomb and therefore she has to live through tough conditions which include living behind the garbage dump, barely having any money to support her dad and seven siblings, as well as being beaten by her own father. Most importantly, she is frustrated that she always feels dissatisfied with her life since she was never able to experience any happiness by being isolated from the rest of the world. Therefore, she tries to at least kiss a black man to feel some sense of happiness. When she realizes it is condemned by society, her frustration increases partly because society is not allowing her to have a small amount of happiness, and so she shows her aggression by blaming Tom Robinson for raping her.

In addition, aggression resulted from frustration is pinpointed towards scapegoats because they share similar characteristics of being vulnerable to blame. “The group must be (1) highly visible in physical appearance or observable customs and ac¬tions; (2) not strong enough to strike back; (3) situated within easy access of the dominant group . . .” (Parillo 584). To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in southern Alabama in the 1930’s. This was the time period where prejudice against African Americans was present. Segregation was present because having white skin was seen to be better than having black skin.

This simple difference in skin color resulted in an unfair treatment of African Americans. Separate bathrooms, drinking fountains, churches, and schools resulted for African Americans and whites. Also, since whites felt that the blacks were inferior to them, they tended to assume all blacks were unintelligent. When Mayella copes with her frustration of being isolated from the rest of the world by blaming Tom Robinson, the court looks at his skin color instead of the evidence given for this case. Even though Atticus provides plenty of evidence that proves that it was impossible for Tom to commit the rape of Mayella, Tom is still found guilty because even if Mayella is part of the lower class of Maycomb, she is still a white woman, making her superior to Tom Robinson.

It is evident that frustration plays an important role in determining prejudicial attitudes. Both the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee and “Causes of Prejudice” by Vincent Parillo, agree that frustration is caused by relative deprivation and when aggression forms, the blame is placed on scapegoats. These scapegoats share similar characteristics which allow them to be vulnerable to the blame that falls upon them.

CDA Assignments homework essay help: homework essay help

To establish and maintain a safe, healthy learning environment

1. Provide a summary of the legal requirements in your state regarding child abuse and neglect (including contact information for the appropriate agency) and also your program’s policy regarding your responsibility to report child abuse and neglect.

2. Include the current certificate of completion of a certified pediatric first-aid training course (that includes treatment for blocked airway and for providing rescue breathing for infants and young children). Certification must have been within the past 3 years.

3. Use the Internet, the public library, or your program’s professional library to obtain the name and contact information for an agency that supplies information on nutrition for children and/or nutrition education for families.

4. Provide a sample of your weekly plan that includes goals for children’s learning and development, brief descriptions of planned learning experiences, and also accommodations for children with special needs (whether for children you currently serve or may serve in the future).

COMPETENCY GOAL II To advance physical and intellectual competence

5. Select 4 songs, fingerplays, word games, or poems that you can use to promote phonological awareness. Describe strategies to promote phonological awareness among children whose home language is other than English.

6. Describe 9 learning experiences for 3-, 4-, and 5-year old children (3 for 3-year olds, 3 for 4-year olds, 3 for 5-year olds). Each learning experience should promote physical, cognitive, and creative development. Describe the goals, materials, and teaching strategies used. COMPETENCY GOAL III

To support social and emotional development and to provide positive guidance

7. Provide the titles, authors, publishers, copyright dates, and short summaries of 10 age-appropriate children’s books that you use to support development of children’s self-concept and self-esteem and to help children deal with life challenges.

8. Use the Internet, the public library, or your program’s professional library to obtain at least 2 resources designed to assist teachers in constructively dealing with children with challenging behaviors (such as aggressive behavior like hitting or biting, or shyness).

9. Provide the name and telephone number of an agency in the community where you work for making referrals to family counseling. COMPETENCY GOAL IV To establish positive and productive relationships with families

10. Find out where to obtain resources, materials, and translation services for families whose home language is other than English. Provide the agency name and contact information.

11. Document your program’s policies that specify parents’ responsibilities and what the program does for parents.

COMPETENCY GOAL V To ensure a well-run, purposeful program responsive to participant needs

12. Provide 3 samples of record-keeping forms used in early childhood programs. Include an accident report, emergency form, and a 3rd form of your choice.

COMPETENCY GOAL VI To maintain a commitment to professionalism

13. Use the Internet, the public library, or your program’s professional library to obtain the name, address, and phone number of your state’s agency that regulates child care centers and homes. Describe 2 important requirements related to your job responsibilities.

14. Review the websites of 2 or 3 national early childhood associations (1 with a local affiliate) to obtain information about membership, their resources, and how to order. Download at least 2 resources from the Internet that will enhance your work.

15. Obtain 4 pamphlets or articles designed to help parents understand how young children develop and learn. Articles must help parents understand development and learning of 3- to 5-year olds. At least 1 article must relate to guidance.

16. Locate an observation tool to use in recording information about children’s behavior. One copy should be blank; the other one should be filled out as a sample of your observation of an individual child.

17. Obtain contact information for at least 2 agencies in the community that provide resources and services for children with disabilities.

The intergenerational differences of the japanese canadian issei, nisei, and sansei essay help services: essay help services

In the wake of World War II, The Japanese Issei and Nisei both experienced extreme racial prejudices brought about by pre-existing anti-Asian racism and fear driven panic from the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and as a result became enemy aliens. However, pre-war intergenerational differences between the Japanese Canadian Issei and Nisei such as; traditional values, education, language, and age directly influenced the differences of the reactions that the Issei and Nisei had during the uprooting and internment of Japanese Canadians during World War II.

The racism and prejudices against the Japanese Canadians can be traced back to when Japanese Immigrants first began to settle in Canada. This hatred was mainly triggered by the Canadians envy of the Japanese Canadians hard work, discipline, and contempt with the low pay and living standards that were pushed upon them.1 Many of the Japanese Canadian Issei spent an average of 30 years working as fisherman, small business owners, and farmers, and due to the looming racism were declared to be unable to assimilate into Canadian Society.

2 As a result Japanese Canadians Formed small communities in which they lived. Ken Adachi best summarizes the effects of this pre-war racism of the Japanese Canadians in this passage from his book The Enemy That Never Was: Canadian society all at once totally rejected the Japanese, confronted them with negative sanctions, and apparently doomed them and their Canadian born children to remain, in essence, a permantley alien, non-voting population. But at the same time, few immigrant Japanese wanted any part in the larger society.3 This passage helps explain why the Canadian-born Nisei children experienced the same prejudices as their Japanese-born parents despite the fact that they were Canadian-educated and had little if any to the Japanese way of life.4

It is important to note the generation differences that existed among the Canadian Japanese Issei and Nisei prior to World War II. The Japanese Canadian Issei continued to practice traditional Japanese values, ideals and authoritarian parenting style in their adopted homeland. The Issei tried to pass these ideals down to their children, however the children’s involvement in the Canadian school district had a greater influence on the Nisei children and pushed them away from the Japanese ideals of their parents, and towards that of the Western Cultures.5 In fact, the majority of Japanese Canadian Nisei and Sansei disliked the forced Japanese teachings so much that Muriel Kitagawa explained that when the three Japanese newspapers and Japanese schools shut down following the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the Nisei and Sansei were overjoyed because they had more time to play6

Immediately following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7 1942, the Canadian Government began the persecution and suspicion of all Japanese Canadians. On December 8 1942 the Royal Canadian Navy impounded 1,200 vessels owned by Japanese Nationals.7 The Issei willingly obliged to the confiscation despite the fact that their income relied on the vessels8. It is important to note that when the decision to evacuate all males of Japanese descent between the ages of 18 and 45 from the West Coast into the interior, there were only 5,000 of the 13,600 Nisei who were over twenty years of age.9 The effects of the evacuation, tore the Japanese community apart. As a result of the uprooting and incarcerations, Japanese schools and newspapers were shut down, which had a huge effect on the Japanese Canadian Issei because many had a very small knowledge of the English language so they relied on the Japanese newspapers for information on the war.

After the shutdown of Japanese newspapers and the confiscation of radios and other communication devices, the Imprisoned Issei had little means of knowing what was going on, and mainly relied on circulating rumors. The effect of the uprooting and evacuation caused the Japanese Canadian Issei to be torn between their mother country Japan and their adopted country Canada. During this time many Issei chose to turn toward Japan for comfort and reacted to the expulsion by following their Japanese principles of cooperating with the Canadian Government, and accepted their punishment and had faith in Japans victory.10 This excerpt from the diary of Koichiro Miyazaki explains his feelings during expulsion, “We Japanese who are overseas, have been isolated in enemy countries and our families are scattered. But despite our hardships we believe that everything is for our native country’s future. This faith keeps me going. I believe that I am not the only one filled with confidence.” 11

The Nisei generation had little to no traditional ties to their parents mother land Japan, and thought themselves to be completely Canadian. Many Nisei such as Muriel Kitagawa tried to maintain a positive outlook when the expulsion of Japanese Canadians first went into effect and tried to rationalize the Canadian Governments actions and had faith that they would protect the loyal Japanese Canadian Nisei.12 Like the Issei many Nisei encouraged Japanese Canadians to cooperate with the government, and have faith in the RCMP. However political and age differences within the Nisei society, caused some Nisei to react differently to the expulsion. Many younger Nisei tried to fight against the Canadian Government and refuse to obey. These Nisei experienced severe backlash from the Government and were immediately imprisoned or beaten.13

As the war continued the expulsion of the Japanese Canadians from the West Coast was no longer just for the men but now for people of all people of Japanese origin, including women and children. At this point the Canadian Government has full control over Japanese Canadians property and can sell it without the owner’s consent, and many Japanese Canadian families have been separated from the uprooting. On August 4 1944 Prime Minister King states that it is desirable that Japanese Canadians are dispersed across Canada. Applications for “voluntary reparation” to Japan are sought by the Canadian Government.

Those who do not apply must move east of the Rockies to prove their loyalty to Canada. The Issei faced the difficult decision to apply for reparation and be back in their familiar homeland where some still had family, however the Issei who had been separated from their family during the expulsion faced the fear of their family being left behind to suffer in camps. Some Issei who chose to apply got their application denied and were forced to move across the Rockies, this caused many Issei to lose all hope of ever returning to Japan.14 The Nisei, even those who initially trusted the Canadian Government to take care of the loyal and innocent citizens, felt that they had been absolutely betrayed by the country that they loved.

They were being forced to give up everything that they own and had worked so hard for just to prove their loyalty to Canada. Some younger Nisei reacted to the move with an adventurous spirit, however many Nisei that had families of their own were faced with a very difficult decision with very uncertain outcomes.15 Muriel Kitagawa voices her concerns in a letter to her brother: And the Nisei, repudiated by the only land they know, no redress anywhere. Sure we can move somewhere on our own, but a job? Who will feed the family? Will they hire a Jap? Where can we go that will allow us to come? The only place to go is the Camp the Government will provide when it gets around to it. Ah, but we are bewildered and bitter and uncertain.16

The expulsion of the Japanese Canadians from the West Coast during World War II Shattered the strong communities that existed among both the Japanese Canadian Issei and Nisei. Hard-working people were fired from their jobs by employers that they had worked many loyal years for solely because of their race. The property that they worked for and and rightfully owned, could be taken away from them with as little as 24-hour notice, and sold by the Canadian Government without the need of consent from the owner. Families were torn apart and sent to camps where they were forced to work and live in harsh and extreme conditions. Despite the fact that both Japanese Canadian Issei and Nisei experienced these hardships as a result of the uprooting and expulsion during World War II, intergenerational differences such as traditional values, education, language and age, directly influenced the different and changing reactions that the Issei and Nisei had throughout their experience of expulsion from Canada’s west coast during World War II.

Police culture free essay help: free essay help

(Definition)The knowledge, attitudes, expectations, behaviours and rituals that exist amongst police, or which more broadly, characterize a police force. Police Culture affects: how police see themselves and their role as police • how they see the world around them, how they police (how policing is performed). Differences exist within and between police cultures. Police officers, as individuals, will not all equally adopt or adhere to the dominant police culture. Police culture cannot be divorced from the social, political, economic, legal and organizational context of policing.

Police cultures can change. Police Culture: Characteristics Sense of Mission: ‘the thin blue line’ A crucial, dangerous but thankless job ,Not just a job, but a way of life? • Policing thought of as protecting the weak from the strong (not at all political, relating to power within society).? • ‘Us versus them’ mentality evident Law enforcers and law abiders versus law breakers Action Orientated: ‘Real Policing’ Emphasis on ‘real policing’ as that which occurs in the public sphere and which involves dangerous or potentially dangerous situations and confrontations.?

(ie. responding to reports of crime, raids, shoot outs, car pursuits and so on). Greatest status attached to Homicide Squads and Tactical Response Units. Cynicism and Pragmatism Required to obey law, yet see law as limiting and naive Must go beyond the law, to do their job and get results. Favour expedience over due process These characteristics of police culture have been related to various negative behaviours: Unlawful detention? – The improper use of force? – Breaches of proper interview processes – Corruption?

– Dismissal of some crimes/victims? – Commission of some offences Isolation and Solidarity Feel different from other people based on work and work-related experiences. Sense of isolation intensified by problems socializing with non-police due to others reactions, difficulties turning off, shift work. Closest bonds forged with other police Very loyal to, and protective of, other officers MasculinistDominance of masculinist perspectives and practices. Reiner has described police culture as an ‘old – ? fashioned world of machismo’.

‘Real policing’ associated with confrontation, physical strength, danger Male-dominated composition of police forces has contributed to this. Racism Widely documented evidence of suspicion, hostility and prejudice in police dealings with racial and ethnic minorities. Evidenced in well-known instances (ie. Rodney King) through to everyday policing practices. Once again partly attributable to historical composition of police forces. Also relates to their role acting on behalf of states to administer racially- ? based laws and policies (segregation, removal of indigenous children). 7. Conservatism?

• Social and politically conservative. Emphasis upon maintaining the status quo. Once again, partly a consequence of historical composition and role of police Approaches to policing and the community Number 9 Traditional Policing- (as developed with rise of modern police forces). Community Policing (developed over past 30, largely in response to concerns raised over the methods and outcomes of traditional policing. ) Traditional Policing: Police seen as separate from the community ,Role of the police is to respond to crime. ,Police effectiveness is measured by changes in crime rates and arrest rates.

Concerned primarily with the policing of public sphere, rather than private sphere. Use of force is viewed as legitimate and necessary to ? preservation of order – militarization of police over past 40 y ears with rise of law and order. Community Policing The development of community policing was based upon recognition that a lack of familiarity and respect between police and specific communities sometimes resulted in negative and repressive policing practices being used, and the fostering of mutual suspicion and antagonism between police and communities.

Young people,, gays and lesbians, indigenous people, ethnic and racial minorities recognized as particularly affected. What is Community Policing? No universally accepted definition of community policing. As an approach to policing, it can best be described as consisting of a broad range of strategies designed to improve policing by connecting police more closely to local communities and supporting relationships. Includes programs such as: ?

Neighbourhood Watch ? Crime Stoppers?? Blue-light Discos School Education Programs Development of specific community policing units The appointment of Liaison Officers (such as: YLOs /? MLOs ) and committees involving police and community members . Formalised relationships with other community agencies? (for example, sexual assault and domestic violence services, ambulance services, welfare service). Reform of procedures for dealing with

Some types of offences – SOCIT (Secual Offences and Child Abuse Investigation Teams Increased police presence, visibility and availability (for example, police on bicycles, shop fronts) Use of media to involve public in policing and crime prevention Police organising and hosting activities and programs – particularly for young people (such as the Ropes Program) Police learning and demonstrating the ‘art of negotiation’ with difficult groups Police taking a more gentle/balanced approach to policing Community Policing Compared to the traditional approach to policing, community policing Aims to be more pro-active and pre-emptive.

More concerned with peacekeeping and conflict resolution than crime fighting? • Based on complexities of local context and on building relationships Envisages police as part of the community and as needing to be responsive and answerable to it.

Community Policing: Benefits to Police – Greater efficiency / more effective knowledge, gathering Less stressful / more predictable Increased community legitimacy / support Increased community willingness to provide info Increased responsibility placed on community role in crime fighting Improved image of police Community Policing Ideal Benefits Two way exchange of cultural understanding Better responses to crime and treatment of victims Less resistance to police / greater trust of police Less suspicion / Greater awareness of the cultural differences that may lead ?

To misunderstandings ? Problems Increased police presence & surveillance (even during activities) Power imbalance still intact (and not addressed) therefore how much of a ? genuine two-way exchange is possible Police tend to place greater expectation of change on the community than ? on themselves – still see the community as the problem and seem to have ? difficulty reflecting on their own role Improves police image more than substance Localised impacts – overall police approach & culture still intact Perhaps ‘in effect different tactics to exercise police authority to the same ends’?

(Smith & Reside 2009: 2) in Victoria as elsewhere, we see aspects of both approaches to policing being used. Community Policing: Critical Issues Police Culture ,The persistence of conservative e police cultures still threatens to undermine the importance and effectiveness of community policing strategies. Still a danger that they are not seen as ‘real policing’ and that those who undertake community policing f unction’s are marginalized within police forces. Police Discretion:?

This refers to the power police officers exercise in the performance of their duty. Police continually exercise discretion every time they decide what they will do in the course of their duties. Often there is considerable scope available to them to make choices. Discretion may be exercised so that practices fall within the law, but it can also be exercised with more negative results. For example, it can contribute to over-policing and under policing. Police culture is one of many factors that can affect how police exercise their discretion.

Community Policing: Critical Issues The Composition of Police Forces, The need to increase diversity in police forces (in terms of gender, ethnic background and so on) via the adoption of inclusive recruitment strategies continues to be exist if police forces are to be reflective of the communities they police. A lack of diversity threatens to undermine community-policing strategies. The pace and degree of diversification varies between police forces, but is considered important as a means of counteracting the negative aspects of police culture and enhancing community-police relations.

Community Policing: Critical Issues Resource Issues Lack of adequate ongoing funding – often programs are expensive, rely on short term grants Difficulties in attracting sufficient recruits? • Lack of adequate training for recruit and police generally. Jude’s and judging (sentencing) Number 10 PowerPoint What is Sentencing? Sentencing refers a specific stage in the criminal justice process. It is when a penalty is determined and handed down to an individual who has either plead guilty or been found guilty of an offence by a court.

In considering sentencing, it is important to note that it is part of a much broader process and that it is affected by what precedes it, as well as what is anticipated as following on from it. Sentencing stands between prosecution and the administration of punishment . Why Sentencing Matters There are two crucial reasons: In sentencing individuals, courts are exercising the power of the state. They can deny a person their liberty, and in some places, can deprive a person of his or her life.

Sentencing is crucial to the law’s appearance and to its acceptance. Factors that contribute to making sentencing a contentious and controversial issue The adversarial system As the quotes evidence, sentencing is the end point in a process that involves a range of players, often with different emotions and standpoints. These tend to be intensified by the pitting of one side against the other. Criminal Cases = the State vs the Accused (Defendant)Claims are made that the law can produce outcomes that are both correct and just.

But what justice is remains subject to different views. 2. Perceptions of the Judiciary Judges who are responsible for sentencing are often viewed as aloof, elite, and as out of touch with the community. Controversial comments by members of the judiciary in some cases, and also instances of sentencing that appear less harsh than they might be, have tended to exacerbate that view. Important to note that in Australia, judges cannot in the public domain individually explain themselves or their decisions.

They are not allowed to speak to the media about cases – the effect of that is to again reinforce a view that they are distant from the rest of the community and uncaring. 3. Changing and not-so-transparent processes Development of technocratic justice Practices intended to promote the efficiency of court systems but which may result in justice not so readily being ‘seen to be done’. For example, diverting cases through specific channels so that they do not come to court (PERIN Court) ? Great use of plea bargaining – process that occurs outside the formal courtroom and reduces the need for long and expensive trials.

The judiciary and the courts have constantly been depicted as lenient; A harsher approach to sentencing has been advocated as an essential response to dealing with crime; As a consequence, penalties have been increased and judicial iscretion decreased . Examples: Rise of mandatory sentencing laws since early 1990’s; Gradual removal of suspended sentences from the Victorian sentencing regime The adoption of ‘Law and order’ strategies has also placed unprecedented demands on the system, increasing the numbers of people going through the system, creating backlogs, and fuelling questions about the efficiency of the system.

5. The Victim Rights Movement This development partly reflects the lack of input that victim’s previously had in relation to criminal justice matters, and their perceptions or experiences of injustice. The Victims Rights Movement has contributed to the introduction of various reforms in courts Victim Impact Statements??? Changes to rules of evidence and procedure Have also pushed for harsher sentencing, in some instances in the wake of high profile cases.? The emergence of Victimology as a discrete area within Criminology is further evidence of the greater focus on victims and victimization. 6.

The Rise of Mass Media. Over 200 years, punishment was gradually removed form the public to the private sphere. One consequence of this is that now it is at the sentencing stage that justice is most obviously seen to be doneornot one. Today, rather than witnessing the dispensing of justice first-hand, werely on the media. Differing Views within the Community Sentencing is intended to reflect community standards, however ,what counts as an appropriate punishment – like what counts as justice generally – is not commonly agreed upon. Nor is there agreement over what the primary purpose of sentencing should be.

Sentencing can therefore never accurately or entirely reflect every individuals view. 2. Prosecution Processes There are variations in prosecution and sentencing processes across jurisdictions, according to the constitution of different criminal justice systems and the way crimes are categorized. Distinctions are generally drawn between crimes in terms of their nature and seriousness These factors generally determine the court a case will be heard in and the possible sanctions that may be handed out if the defendant person pleads or is found to be guilty. 3. Types of offences: Victoria Summary Offences:?

Heard before a single Magistrate, no jury? Traffic offences, public disturbances, theft, some kinds of assault Tried by a police prosecutor representing the State Indictable Offences:? Tried before a Judge (County Court) or Justice (Supreme Court), with or without jury? Most serious criminal offences – murder, manslaughter, sexual offences, arson, culpable driving, commercial crime and fraud? Tried by a Crown prosecutor or solicitor from the Office of Public? Prosecutions Indictable Offences tried Summarily (hybrid):? Less serious indict table offences? Maximum $100,000 or 5 years imprisonment?

Obtaining property by deception, handling stolen goods, selling drugs, obtaining unregistered firearm Tried by a police prosecutor representing the State 4. Fairness and Trials The Fairness principle was enunciated in the Dietrich case in 1992 when Mason CJ and McHugh J held that “the right of an accused to receive a fair trial according to law is a fundamental element of our criminal justice s ys tem” Rules regarding a fair trial include a presumption of innocence, issues as to the standard and burden of proof, right to remain silence and provisions on the exclusion or inclusion of certain evidence.

5. Aggravating and Mitigating factors Aggravating factors (these increase culpability) and may include offence being committed as part of a a group, the vulnerability of victim, premeditation, breach of trust). Mitigating factors (reduce culpability) and may include remorse, offender’s youth, absence of prior convictions, testifying against co-accused. 6. Sentencing principles Over a period of time the appellate courts have developed precedents to guide sentencing discretion.

These include: The parsimony principle – ensures that the sentence be the least severe required to meeting the purposes of sentencing The disparity principle – requires that the sentencing of a co-defendant needs to be considered Proportionality principle – requires proportional relationship between the seriousness of the crime and the punishment 7. Factors influencing Sentencing ?The penalty allowable under law for that offence ?? The court in which the case is heard??? Whether the accused pleads guilty or not guilty. Judicial consideration of?? aggravating and mitigating factors, ? sentencing aims and principles,??

sentencing tariffs (patterns)?? guideline judgments 8. Sentencing Principles – Victoria 1. Just Punishment? 2. Deterrence (General and Specific) 3. Rehabilitation? 4. Denunciation? 5. Community Protection (1) Just Punishment:? Punishing the offender to an extent and in a manner which is just in all of the circumstances Exam p l e:? • George Williams (2007)? • One count trafficking commercial quantity of methamphetamines • Sentence: 41? 2 years, minimum 20 months imprisonment ‘The sentence imposed must be moderated due to your ill health, and the hardship that may occasion to you in the prison?

system, but it does not in any way eliminate the need for appropriate punishment… I intend to impose a sentence of imprisonment to be served immediately. To impose a wholly suspended sentence, I would have to be of the view that a sentence of three years is sufficient punishment for the offence that you have committed, and I do not believe that to be correct’ (2) Deterrence:? Deterring the offender (specific deterrence) and deterring other persons (general deterrence) from committing offences of the same or as similar character Exam p l e:? • Robert Farquhar son (2007)? • Three counts of murder?

• Sentence: Life with no parole (later over-turned) ‘The protection of the law arrives too late for these three children. However, punishment of the offender is justified and hopefully deterrence of others will flow from that punishment. That is the operational premise upon which the principle of general deterrence is founded’ (3) Denunciation: To denounce the type of conduct engaged in by the offender Example:? • Bao Huynh (2010)? • Intentionally causing serious injury – stabbed wife 6 times • Sentenced: 7 years, 5 years minimum imprisonment ‘I take into account the need to pass a sentence which will act in denunciation of your conduct…

The sentence imposed must signal to the community that acts of violence, including domestic violence, are not tolerated and warrant punishment’ 4. Rehabilitation: the sentence must allow for conditions where by rehabilitation may be facilitated Example:? • Cameron Dawson (20), Nathan Stevens (21) (2010)? • Assault causing serious injury? • Sentences: 12 month CBO, 80 hours unpaid community service, alcohol treatment,$700fine Great emphasis can be placed on rehabilitation. In this case, both young offenders have good prospects of growing into well qualified, law-abiding, contributing members of society.

It is far better for those prospects to be encouraged ,rather than have them detained in custody with the possibility of their chance of rehabilitation being reduced’ 5) Protection: To protect the community from the offender Example:? • Leigh Robinson (2010)? • Murder of his girlfriend? • Sentence: Life without parole ‘In determining the length of your sentence I must regard protection of the community from you as the principal purpose for which the sentence is imposed… There is a pressing need to permanently protect the community from you’ Sentencing Options Custodial orders – Imprisonment Periodic Detention

Home detention Suspended sentences Supervised release – probation? – community based order supervised bonds Monetary penalties – fine? – compensation or restitution Unsupervised release –? – recognizance or good behavior bond admonition and discharge? – dismissal without conviction Prison and punishment Number 11 PowerPoint Factors taken into account at sentencing Factors relating to criminal justice system the nature of the offenc e and the law’ s relating to it, the power of the partic ular c ourt that has heard the c ase, relevant sentencing patterns and guideline judgements.? • General sentencing principles ie.

proportionality, parsimony ? b) Other factors that relate to the offender? ie Offender’s culpability, guilty plea, remorse, history of offending ? Aggravating factors: increase culpability (level of premeditation, group attack, vulnerability of victim) ? Mitigating factors: reduce culpability (remorse, age, prior abuse) Factors taken into account at sentencing Victorian Sentencing Principles Deterrence – general and specific Rehabilitation – of primary importance when sentencing youth Community Safety -Underpinned by notions of risk/ dangerousness Denunciation –Expression of community’s disapproval of the crime.

Just Punishment– Punishment to be ‘just’ having taken all of the factors into account. Expression of state’s right to inflict reciprocal punishment on an offender. Different Types of Punishments Punishments vary across jurisdictions and can be categorized in different ways. The most common forms of punishment are: a) Monetary orders (fines) b) Non-Custodial Orders Various types of community-based orders (may include: curfews and restrictions on movement and behaviour; requirements relating to reporting; drug testing; treatment/counselling; doing community work c) Custodial Sentences?

• Imprisonment (Full time or periodic), Home Detention, The Aims of Punishment Generally, punishments are justified by their aims – what they are intended to achieve. Consequentialis t Aims (focus on practical ends): • Deterrence? • Rehabilitation? • Incapacitation Expressive Aims (largely symbolic in nature) • Denunciation? • Retribution/ Just Deserts The rise of‘ Risk’: DiscourseandPractice The concept of risk come to dominate discourses around crime and punishment over the past 20 years. It has come to shape priorities and practices in a host of areas that focus on people and social ‘problems’: Social Work Physical health Mental health

Drug and alcohol Crime Prevention Corrections Defining ‘Risk’ Oxford English Dictionary defines risk as:? ‘(Exposure to) the possibility of loss, injury, or other adverse or unwelcome circumstance; a chance or situationinvolving such apossibility. ’ Mathematically: RISK = (probability of a harmful event occurring) X? (estimate of the harm that will be caused by it) The Concept of Risk In the late C20th, we see a shift in emphasis in the way that ‘risk’ is regarded and utilized. The emphasis now extends beyond reducing the harm caused by a negative event, to reducing or eliminating the likelihood of that event occurring in the first place.

A “Preventative logic’ now dominates much thinking in relation to crime and punishment. It has contributed to harsher penalties being imposed, increased surveillance and at time the preventative detention of individuals. (Consider legislation concerning sex offenders) Deploying Risk There are various ways in which ‘risk’ and the methods to reduce or eliminate it come into play in dealing with crime. Identification and intervention at various levels Risk assessments Programs in prisons Electronic Monitoring Restrictions on community orders Data collection and registration

Dissemination of information to public via media ? and WEB ‘Social policing and punishment’ – vigilantism. Limiting of Parole and suspended sentences Critical Concerns – Risk 1. RISK a) The demand that society can be protected from harm, is at the end of the day, impossible.? Life is risky.? To what lengths are we willing to go to contain risk? b) Particular concern have been raised in relation to trying to predict ‘risk’ or the ‘dangerousness’ of an offender. Measuring this is notoriously unreliable, with success prediction ranging from about 30% to 50%. Critical Concerns – Risk

c) Undermining of Law The difficulties associated with prediction are even more serious when the measures that can be used to reduce risk are considered . Some basics of legal principles and punishment that have stood since the enlightenment period, are at risk of being undermined: • the principle that no-one should be imprisoned without having committed an offence• the notion of proportionality the balance of power between the state and the individual citizen, enshrined through due process and protection of civil rights. Engaging critically with crime and criminology PowerPoint 13

Our aim in CCR has been to introduce you to criminology as: – a discipline that is concerned with crime, criminality, criminalization and the criminal justice system – a discipline that deals with some of the most difficult and emotive issues in contemporary society ‘Are we experiencing a crisis of law and order, or a crisis of perspective? ’ (Hogg and Brown, 1998) – Is there a real crisis of ‘law and order’ or are we experiencing a crisis in the way we think about and respond to crime? – Are ‘law and order’ policies addressing the ‘crime problem’ or making it worse?

How canweaccount for criminology’s failureto ‘solve’ the ‘problem’ of crime? Is this a sign of:? – criminology’s limitations? – crime’s complexity?? – the futility of this goal? Such questions point to the importance of engaging critically with crime and criminology 1. To engage with criminology in any meaningful way it is necessary to look beyond the assumptions and stereotypes that so often dominate popular thinking 2. Necessary to recognise that criminology is not a static or unified discipline – it consists of a range of different and competing perspectives.

What crime is and how it is to be explained and responded to is a subject of furious debate within criminology 3. Necessary to recognise that criminology, as a discipline and a practice, is socially? constr ucted – it is a product of its social, economic, political and historical context – it is a product of human endeavour 4. Need to keep in mind that criminological perspectives have consequences for criminal justice and social policy Criminological theories are important because they guide criminal justice practice 5.

Criminological perspectives need to be open to being critically evaluated. The interrogationof criminological knowledge, its assumptions, practices and effects is a necessary and ongoing process 6. Reflexivity, the process of interrogating one’s own position and practice is crucial at an individual level. Criminologists must be alert to the implications of their positions and actions. 7. Criminologists need to be awareof the power that they hold as ‘experts’ and the potential that carries for use and abuse.

Nestle Marketing my essay help uk: my essay help uk

Demographic External factor More the education more will be the awareness about brand and quality food. If the income level of people is high then purchasing power will be high so they willpurchase more. Nestle products are made for people belonging from all age groups. Both male/female are included equally in its target market.

Economic environment If the inflation rate is high then there will be decrease in purchasing power. so inflation indirectly affects the company‘s sale. Nation varies greatly in its level and distribution of income. Changes in major economic variables such as income, cost of living, interest rate andsavings have a large impact on the market place.

Political environment Government regulations to protect interest of society and from unfair business practices. Unstable political conditions. Law order situation getting worse. Legal environment Registered in the stock exchanges of Pakistan.

Social/cultural environment Consumption behavior of Pakistani people is high so they consume more goods. As Pakistan is Muslim country so we cannot add any ingredient which is prohibited in Islam or which is not ―Halal‖. As nestle water is the branded item so the people who are brand conscious will prefer touse nestle water .so nestle is focusing more on the posh areas.

Technological environment Technological environment is changing rapidly. Most dramatic force shaping company‘s offerings and the way product is marketed . Company‘s must keep up with technological changes to match up with its environment.

Internal Environment In Nestle Internal environment ensures. Employees are on side with the goals of an organization. They have direct impact on product quality,dependability and overall productivity. They are internal market, which impact everydepartment within an organization; asatisfied internalmarket will be better able to satisfy external market. Nestle under the supervision of top management runs thedepartments of finance,operations, accounting, sales andmarketing, research and development to achieve thegoalsof organization.

Micro Environment In Nestle microenvironment includes: a)S u p p l i e r s : Suppliers provide the resources like labor and material resources to produce goods and services.They add to customer overall value delivery system. Labor supplies include handling of Quantity of labor

Quality of labor Labor strikes Labor relations Material supplies deals with the: Quality of material Price of material Stability of material inputs Delivery delays Nestle efficiently handles the quality, quantity, price and stability of both material and laborsupplies. Management maps out the strategies for labor strikes, supply short age sand delays toavoid increasing the cost of production, which can badly affect sales in short run and customersatisfaction in long run.

b)Marketing Intermediaries: It includes the firms that help the company to promote, sell and distribute its goods tofinal buyers.

The physical distribution firms determine the ways to store and ship goods to reach theirdestination. Marketing service agencies including marketing research firms, advertising agencies andmedia firmsare also hired to target and promote product to right market. Financial intermediaries like banks, insurance companies helps to finance transactionsand insureagainst risks associated with buying and selling of goods. Nestle works in coordination with marketing intermediaries to make its product Pure LifeWater available and visible to its valuable customers.

c)C u s t o m e r s : Nestle deals with the reseller customers who buy the product Pure Life to resell at a reasonableprofit.

Macro Environment Macro environment include political, cultural, economical factors but as for as Nestle Pure LifeWater is concern none of above factors affect on it. Because it is not at luxury item they areselling necessities of life which can never be affected.

American Dream – Of Mice and Men a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

The book Of Mice and Men follows George and Lennie on their journey to reach the American Dream. Although the American Dream can vary from person to person, the main goal of the dream is to gain something they desire. George and Lennie’s goal is to have their own land and make their own decisions. “Someday-we’re gonna get the jack together and we gonna have a little house and a couple of acres” (Steinbeck 14). To reach their dream, George lies for Lennie because of his mental disabilities. Even though George is lying, it doesn’t compromise his moral character because he is doing this to protect Lennie. Later on in the book, Lennie accidentally murders Curley’s wife to prevent himself from getting in trouble.

Some may argue it compromises his moral character, but due to his mental disabilities he wasn’t able to know his actions were wrong. George and Lennie were not able to achieve the American Dream, but they did try to accomplish it without compromising their moral character.

Curley’s wife also had an American Dream. Her dream is to go to Hollywood and be in movies, but she wasn’t able to do this because of her mother. “I wasn’t gonna stay no place where I couldn’t… make something of myself… So I married Curley” (Steinbeck 88). On her way to reach her dream, she wasn’t always honest. She didn’t stay true to her moral character by settling to marry Curley. If she would have stayed true to her morals, she might have had a better chance at reaching her dream.

“A guy needs somebody-to be near him. A guy goes nuts if he ain’t got nobody” (Steinbeck 72). The stable buck, Crooks, believes the American Dream is to have a best friend. This might seem to be a simple dream, but due to the time period, it was actually rather complicated. Crooks is African American and therefore looked down upon by the other workers. No one wants to be friends with a guy like Crooks. Crooks accepted his fate of never being able to accomplish his dream, but stayed true to his moral character by not going out of his way to make the guys like him.

Columbia Company scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Columbia Company, which manufactures machine tools, had the following transactions related to plant assets in 2014. Asset A: On June 2, 2014, Columbia purchased a stamping machine at a retail price of $12,000. Columbia paid 6% sales tax on this purchase. Columbia paid a contractor $2,800 for a specially wired platform for the machine, to ensure noninterrupted power to the machine. Columbia estimates the machine will have a 4-year useful life, with a salvage value of $2,000 at the end of 4 years. The machine was put into use on July 1, 2014.

Asset B: On January 1, 2014, Columbia, Inc. signed a fixed-price contract for construction of a warehouse facility at a cost of $1,000,000. It was estimated that the project will be completed by December 31, 2014. On March 1, 2014, to finance the construction cost, Columbia borrowed $1,000,000 payable April 1, 2015, plus interest at the rate of 10%. During 2014, Columbia made deposit and progress payments totaling $750,000 under the contract; the weighted-average amount of accumulated expenditures was $400,000 for the year.

The excess-borrowed funds were invested in short-term securities, from which Columbia realized investment revenue of $13,000. The warehouse was completed on December 1, 2014, at which time Columbia made the final payment to the contractor. Columbia estimates the warehouse will have a 25-year useful life, with a salvage value of $20,000. Columbia uses straight-line depreciation and employs the “half-year” convention in accounting for partial-year depreciation. Columbia’s fiscal year ends on December 31. Instructions (a) At what amount should Columbia record the acquisition cost of the machine?

(b) What amount of capitalized interest should Columbia include in the cost of the warehouse? (c) On July 1, 2016, Columbia decides to outsource its stamping operation to Medek, Inc. As part of this plan, Columbia sells the machine (and the platform) to Medek, Inc. for $7,000. What is the impact of this disposal on Columbia’s 2016 income before taxes? Solution (a) Historical cost is measured by the cash or cash equivalent price of obtaining the asset and bringing it to the location and condition for its intended use. For Columbia, this is: Price$12,000 Tax 720 Platform2,800 Total$15,520 (b)

Since Columbia has outstanding debt incurred specifically for the construction project, in an amount greater than the weighted-average accumulated expenditures of $400,000, the interest rate of 10% is used for capitalization purposes. Capitalization stops upon completion of the project at December 31, 2014. Therefore, the avoidable interest is $40,000, which is less than the actual interest. The investment revenue of $13,000 is irrelevant to the question addressed in this problem because such interest earned on the unexpended portion of the loan is not to be offset against the amount eligible for capitalization.

The income effect is a gain or loss, determined by comparing the book value of the asset to the disposal value: Cost$15,520? Less: Accumulated depreciation 6,760* Book value of machine and platform8,760? Less: Cash received for machine and platform7,000? Loss before income taxes$? 1,760? 2014: ? year $1,690 2015: full year3,380 2016: ? year1,690 Total$6,760 Exercise 10-5 Ben Sisko Supply Company, a newly formed corporation, incurred the following expenditures related to Land, to Buildings, and to Machinery and Equipment. Abstract company’s fee for title search$728 Architect’s fees4,438

Cash paid for land and dilapidated building thereon121,800 Removal of old building$28,000 Less: Salvage7,70020,300 Interest on short-term loans during construction10,360 Excavation before construction for basement26,600 Machinery purchased (subject to 2% cash discount, which was not taken). Company uses net method to record discount. 77,000 Freight on machinery purchased1,876 Storage charges on machinery, necessitated by noncompletion of building when machinery was delivered3,052 New building constructed (building construction took 6 months from date of purchase of land and old building)679,000

Assessment by city for drainage project2,240 Hauling charges for delivery of machinery from storage to new building868 Installation of machinery2,800 Trees, shrubs, and other landscaping after completion of building (permanent in nature)7,560 Determine the amounts that should be debited to Land, to Buildings, and to Machinery and Equipment. Assume the benefits of capitalizing interest during construction exceed the cost of implementation. LandBuildingsMachinery and EquipmentOther Abstract company’s fee for title search$ $ $ $ Architect’s fees Cash paid for land and old building

Removal of old building Interest on short-term loans during construction Excavation before construction for basement Machinery purchased (subject to 2% cash discount, which was not taken). Company uses net method to record discount. Freight on machinery purchased Storage charges on machinery, necessitated by noncompletion of building when machinery was delivered New building constructed (building construction took 6 months from date of purchase of land and old building) Assessment by city for drainage project Hauling charges for delivery of machinery from storage to new building

Installation of machinery Trees, shrubs, and other landscaping after completion of building (permanent in nature) $ $ $ $ ________________________________________ Copyright © 2000-2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. or related companies. All rights reserved. Plant acquisitions for selected companies are as follows. 1. Belanna Industries Inc. acquired land, buildings, and equipment from a bankrupt company, Torres Co. , for a lump-sum price of $1,000,300. At the time of purchase, Torres’s assets had the following book and appraisal values. Book ValuesAppraisal Values

Land$285,800$214,350 Buildings357,250500,150 Equipment428,700428,700 To be conservative, the company decided to take the lower of the two values for each asset acquired. The following entry was made. Land214,350 Buildings357,250 Equipment428,700 Cash1,000,300 2. Harry Enterprises purchased store equipment by making a $2,858 cash down payment and signing a 1-year, $32,867, 10% note payable. The purchase was recorded as follows. Equipment39,012 Cash2,858 Notes Payable32,867 Interest Payable3,287 3. Kim Company purchased office equipment for $21,700, terms 2/10, n/30.

Because the company intended to take the discount, it made no entry until it paid for the acquisition. The entry was: Equipment21,700 Cash21,266 Purchase Discounts434 4. Kaisson Inc. recently received at zero cost land from the Village of Cardassia as an inducement to locate its business in the Village. The appraised value of the land is $38,583. The company made no entry to record the land because it had no cost basis. 5. Zimmerman Company built a warehouse for $857,400. It could have purchased the building for $1,057,460. The controller made the following entry.

Buildings1,057,460 Cash857,400 Profit on Construction200,060 Prepare the entry that should have been made at the date of each acquisition. (Credit account titles are automatically indented when amount is entered. Do not indent manually. If no entry is required, select “No Entry” for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. ) No. Account Titles and ExplanationDebitCredit 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Exercise 10-6 Plant acquisitions for selected companies are as follows. 1. Belanna Industries Inc. acquired land, buildings, and equipment from a bankrupt company, Torres Co.

, for a lump-sum price of $1,000,300. At the time of purchase, Torres’s assets had the following book and appraisal values. Book ValuesAppraisal Values Land$285,800$214,350 Buildings357,250500,150 Equipment428,700428,700 To be conservative, the company decided to take the lower of the two values for each asset acquired. The following entry was made. Land214,350 Buildings357,250 Equipment428,700 Cash1,000,300 2. Harry Enterprises purchased store equipment by making a $2,858 cash down payment and signing a 1-year, $32,867, 10% note payable. The purchase was recorded as follows.

Equipment39,012 Cash2,858 Notes Payable32,867 Interest Payable3,287 3. Kim Company purchased office equipment for $21,700, terms 2/10, n/30. Because the company intended to take the discount, it made no entry until it paid for the acquisition. The entry was: Equipment21,700 Cash21,266 Purchase Discounts434 4. Kaisson Inc. recently received at zero cost land from the Village of Cardassia as an inducement to locate its business in the Village. The appraised value of the land is $38,583. The company made no entry to record the land because it had no cost basis.

5. Zimmerman Company built a warehouse for $857,400. It could have purchased the building for $1,057,460. The controller made the following entry. Buildings1,057,460 Cash857,400 Profit on Construction200,060 Prepare the entry that should have been made at the date of each acquisition. (Credit account titles are automatically indented when amount is entered. Do not indent manually. If no entry is required, select “No Entry” for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. ) No. Account Titles and ExplanationDebitCredit

Learning Styles Essay college essay help online free: college essay help online free

The process of educating one’s self can be a difficult process. That is if you don’t understand your habits and the way you learn and absorb information. Luckily in these times educators are becoming more understanding to their students learning habits and are able to adapt to a students learning styles to better educate them. Some may not know in what category of learning style that they are, there are online surveys one can take to find out there learning style strengths. I myself have just taken a survey and my results are as follows; Visual: 7 Aural: 9 Read/Write: 4 Kinesthetic: 9. Pretty much what this means is that I am good at listening and hands on learner.

The survey also provided learning strategies to better help me. I scored strong on the Aural side (Auditory) strategies that were recommended are, Step 1: INTAKE: attend class discussions and tutorials, discuss topics with others and your teachers, explain new ideas to other people, use a tape recorder, pretty much any method that is easier for you to “intake” the information. Step 2: “SWOT” which means study without tears, convert your notes into a smaller package, as an Aural learner it would be key study with another aural learner like yourself, also have your partner listen to your understanding of the material discussed, and reading your summarized notes aloud to yourself is also key. Step 3: Output, which is how you will use this information on your tests, assignments and examinations. Imagine talking with the examiner or speaking the answers aloud and writing them down, listen to your voice and write it down, spending your time in a quiet place is also helpful in recalling the information.

I also scored strong on the kinesthetic part of the survey, which is someone who needs to experience something to learn from it, or you need to be able to relate to it, something real, or an easy way to remember it is a hands on person. Studying for every learning style uses the same three step process I discussed in paragraph 2 “INTAKE, SWOT, OUTPUT”. The only thing that is different is the way you approach the steps for your particular learning styles.

Another thing I would like to point out is that just because you score weak on 1 or 2 learning styles it doesn’t mean that there is something wrong with you, it just means that you INTAKE and OUTPUT information differently than others do. Although there are some people who score equally on multiple styles, they are called Multimodal. It’s very common to score on more than one, take me for example I scored a 9 on both Aural and kinesthetic therefor I would be referred to as an Aural/kinesthetic (AK) or an (VAK) visual aural kinesthetic learner.

Throughout high school I was not very good at read and writing at all, it was my weakness. As a matter of fact I had severe speech impairment from kindergarten all the way through 9th grade and had to be put in speech class as result. In speech class I learned different techniques to intake information and not to let my problem get me down, and in using the same learning styles I eventually overcame my speech problem. Till this day I am still a visual/kinesthetic person and I will continue to use the same techniques to get me though my obstacles.

The Reign of Terror: Was it Justified my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

In 1792, French adversaries were pushing in on all borders and spies were rampant on the streets. To defend from internal enemies, prominent French leader Robespierre enacted the Reign of Terror. Anyone suspected of aiding the enemy was swiftly put on trial and executed. (doc. G) The Reign of Terror was not justified because the threats to France externally and internally did not warrant the methods used.

Those suspected of being spies or opposers of war during the French revolution were quickly tried and unjustly executed. Steven Otfinoski remarks in Triumph and Terror: The French Revolution “A careless word of criticism spoken against the government could put one in prison or worse.”(Doc E). Such executions were both morally unjust and a waste of human manpower during a time of war. Instead of causing people to follow the law, the reign of terror instigated several rebellions in France. (doc A). A letter from the National Convention in France remarks “We had reason to hope that these gatherings would cease as soon as the public troops arrived. Our hopes were misguided and this causes us the greatest of worries.” (doc. D). Had authorities established a sense of nationalist pride in French citizens, war would have been fought vigorously, there would be fewer rebellions, and thus, less loss of human life.

In order to defeat two military powers on the front, France enacted a draft and started two wars which fueled more rebellion as people felt they were fighting for a country they didn’t love. Document A details revolutions occurred after mandatory military drafts were instated. The French people had overthrown their king and gone to war for freedom, not to be ruled by a monarchy once more. Document B, a map of the war during 1972 shows France lost several decisive victories and lost cities and lives. The two wars coupled with the military draft caused citizens and soldiers alike to dislike the new republic as their comrades died to the guns and guillotines around them.

The sharp blade of the guillotine was applied liberally to the necks of anyone suspected of working against France’s interest. Document F shows the decapitation of Louis the XVI after extremely inconclusive evidence and faux claims painted him as an enemy spy and counter-revolutionary. Unfortunately, with the invention of the guillotine, Louis was just one of tens of thousands killed in such a manner. Many such public execution were merely to invoke fear in the people’s hearts. (doc D). Steven Otfinoski wrote in Triumph and Terror “The revolutionary Tribunal was established to try all crimes against the state. Tribunal members would not be elected by the people but rather by the national convention.” (Doc E). Not only trials brief and often merely formality, the small group of government leaders could convict anyone opposing them. Killing for power and fear didn’t place pride in the oppressed French peoples’ hearts, it only placed panic and despair, two detrimental qualities of a country on its knees.

Although the reign of terror achieved the ends desired, it was not morally justified due to the great losses of human life, the oppression of the French people, and the pointless violence that blossomed across europe as a result. It took three failed republics before France finally achieved a sustainable and loved government. In this case, Machiavelli would the ends justify the means in the most inefficient manner.

Psychology Testing Movement: The Contributions of Women get essay help: get essay help

In investigating the origins of the Psychological testing movement what I found most fascinating is the originality, strength, brilliance, and sheer talent of the women whom contributed to this era. It was interesting to find out the key roles different women played in the shaping of testing, development and applied methods in psychological test.

A prime example of the various contributions women made to the testing movement is the Draw-A-Man Test also referred to as the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (Schultz, 2012 p.172) which was developed by Florence Goodenough who received her doctorate from Stanford University in the early twentieth century. The test design was essential in assessing the intelligence quotients for children. What made this IQ examination unique is that it presented a non-verbal format in which children could identify and respond to even with their limited language ability. Goodenough’s reputation certainly surpassed her name in that she perform exceptional work at the Institute of Child Development at the University of Minnesota for over twenty years and during this time she published a detailed review of the psychological testing movement and several books on child psychology.

Another unique women of this period was Thelma Gwinn Thurstone who because of the discrimination of the era was forced to work on her husbands L.L. Thurstone’s projects because any published work by her would be dismissed by the zeitgeist of the day. What I found amazing was that she actually helped develop the Primary Mental Abilities test battery, which was a group of intelligence test and she went on to become a professor of education at the University of North Carolina and director of the Psychometric laboratory their. In fact, when her husband commented on her abilities he was sure to call her a “genius in test construction” (Schultz, 2012 p. 172).

I was especially proud to read of the successes and contributions of Psyche Cattell the daughter of James Cattell who would not invest in her college education because “he thought that she was not smart enough” (Schultz, 2012, p.172). Psyche Cattell’s name was far from her uniquest quality for she went on to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University and from there worked to extend the age range of the Stanford-Binet test downward with the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale. This test was utilized to test the intelligence of infants as early as three months. The courage of Anne Anastasi was quite inspirational who based the principle of her success on the fact that “cervical cancer” which hit her at twenty five a year into her marriage left her sterile and childish. Because she escaped the primary role of motherhood almost commanded upon by most married women of her generation she was able to focus on developing herself as a psychologist. Anastasia established herself in the field with a long career out of Fordham University and established herself as a primary authority on psychological testing.

She started college at the innocent age of fifteen and earned her doctorate by twenty one. One of her foremost mentors was Harry Hollingsworth who inspired her to write over one hundred and fifty articles and books, including an extremely popular university textbook on psychological testing. The epitome of her career was her time served as APA president in which she received many esteemed honors. Her largest achievement was the National Medal of Science. In fact one survey named her as “the most prominent female psychologist in the English-speaking world” (Schultz, 2012, 173). These efforts are so encouraging to woman now working towards a Ph.D. in psychology. I am humbled and grateful that these dedicated, unencumbered, and magnificent women trailed the way to open the door to this opportunity I hold so passionately. I am honored and excited to fledge in their footsteps and I hope to achieve some modest endeavors in research which may perhaps influence the direction of current psychological issues now that the zeitgeist is evolving. Bibliography

Summer assignment “essay help” site:edu: “essay help” site:edu

Economics is a way of looking at the world and making rational decisions based on costs and benefits. Wondering how?? Over the summer, please read the book, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, by Charles Wheelan. As you read the book, take notes that will help you answer some important questions and understand economic concepts. Your task is described below.

Choose any five concepts discussed and analyzed by Wheelan. (The concepts should be from different chapters in the book.) Understanding the examples used in the book, try to relate these concepts to other situations that you might have experienced, or read about in the business/economic news. Create a poster, collage or a scrapbook related to your 5 economic events. Be ready to discuss your work in class.

As you read the book, make a list of all the Nobel Prize winners mentioned. Be creative and have fun with the assignment. This assignment is due the first day of class. Enjoy your summer!

AP Microeconomics Summer Assignment Economics is a way of looking at the world and making rational decisions based on costs and benefits. Wondering how?? Over the summer, please read the book, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, by Charles Wheelan. As you read the book, take notes that will help you answer some important questions and understand economic concepts. Your task is described below.

Choose any five concepts discussed and analyzed by Wheelan. (The concepts should be from different chapters in the book.) Understanding the examples used in the book, try to relate these concepts to other situations that you might have experienced, or read about in the business/economic news. Create a poster, collage or a scrapbook related to your 5 economic events. Be ready to discuss your work in class.

As you read the book, make a list of all the Nobel Prize winners mentioned. Be creative and have fun with the assignment. This assignment is due the first day of class. Enjoy your summer! AP Microeconomics Summer Assignment

Economics is a way of looking at the world and making rational decisions based on costs and benefits. Wondering how?? Over the summer, please read the book, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, by Charles Wheelan. As you read the book, take notes that will help you answer some important questions and understand economic concepts. Your task is described below.

Choose any five concepts discussed and analyzed by Wheelan. (The concepts should be from different chapters in the book.) Understanding the examples used in the book, try to relate these concepts to other situations that you might have experienced, or read about in the business/economic news. Create a poster, collage or a scrapbook related to your 5 economic events. Be ready to discuss your work in class.

As you read the book, make a list of all the Nobel Prize winners mentioned. Be creative and have fun with the assignment. This assignment is due the first day of class. Enjoy your summer!

AP Microeconomics Summer Assignment Economics is a way of looking at the world and making rational decisions based on costs and benefits. Wondering how?? Over the summer, please read the book, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, by Charles Wheelan. As you read the book, take notes that will help you answer some important questions and understand economic concepts. Your task is described below.

Choose any five concepts discussed and analyzed by Wheelan. (The concepts should be from different chapters in the book.) Understanding the examples used in the book, try to relate these concepts to other situations that you might have experienced, or read about in the business/economic news. Create a poster, collage or a scrapbook related to your 5 economic events. Be ready to discuss your work in class.

As you read the book, make a list of all the Nobel Prize winners mentioned. Be creative and have fun with the assignment. This assignment is due the first day of class. Enjoy your summer!

AP Microeconomics Summer Assignment Economics is a way of looking at the world and making rational decisions based on costs and benefits. Wondering how?? Over the summer, please read the book, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, by Charles Wheelan. As you read the book, take notes that will help you answer some important questions and understand economic concepts. Your task is described below.

Choose any five concepts discussed and analyzed by Wheelan. (The concepts should be from different chapters in the book.) Understanding the examples used in the book, try to relate these concepts to other situations that you might have experienced, or read about in the business/economic news. Create a poster, collage or a scrapbook related to your 5 economic events. Be ready to discuss your work in class.

As you read the book, make a list of all the Nobel Prize winners mentioned. Be creative and have fun with the assignment. This assignment is due the first day of class. Enjoy your summer!

AP Microeconomics Summer Assignment

Economics is a way of looking at the world and making rational decisions based on costs and benefits. Wondering how?? Over the summer, please read the book, Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, by Charles Wheelan. As you read the book, take notes that will help you answer some important questions and understand economic concepts. Your task is described below.

Choose any five concepts discussed and analyzed by Wheelan. (The concepts should be from different chapters in the book.) Understanding the examples used in the book, try to relate these concepts to other situations that you might have experienced, or read about in the business/economic news. Create a poster, collage or a scrapbook related to your 5 economic events. Be ready to discuss your work in class.

As you read the book, make a list of all the Nobel Prize winners mentioned. Be creative and have fun with the assignment. This assignment is due the first day of class. Enjoy your summer!

Streetcar named desire: reality scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

“Human kind cannot bear much reality” (Eliot 14). Tennessee Williams’ “A Streetcar Named Desire” is an artistic demonstration of T. S. Eliot’s observation. In Streetcar, Blanche, a woman in crisis, visits her sister Stella and brother-in-law Stanley in New Orleans. Blanche is from an upper-class background but has fallen on hard times, both economically and emotionally. Stanley is from a lower-class background with a cruel streak a mile wide. What ensues is a conflict of epic proportions between Stanley and Blanche, with Stella torn between the two. Each character operates within his or her own alternate reality.

Through Stella, Stanley and Blanche’s self-deception within this conflict, Williams demonstrates how and to what extent individuals create their own realities in order to maintain the facade of an existence they deem acceptable. Blanche, more so that any of character demonstrates an individual’s ability to live in an alternate reality. Blanche creates an illusion that helps her cope with the type of person she has become because of tragedy she experiences. Blanche’s husband commits suicide after she makes a cruel statement to him when she discovers his affair with a man.

Blanche deals with her guilt and loneliness with destructive behavior: she drinks excessively and engages in sexually promiscuous behavior. Ultimately, Blanche is run out of town and comes to live with Stella with nowhere else to go. The facts behind Blanche’s story are sordid. But she does not acknowledge them or even live in a reality where they exist. “After all, a woman’s charm is fifty percent illusion” (2. 129). Blanche creates an illusion where she remains a proper Southern lady who is wanted by rich gentlemen.

She arrives at Stella’s house wearing pearls, white gloves and a hat, “looking as if she were arriving at a summer tea or cocktail party in the garden district” (1. 14). She clings to her Southern aristocratic roots and labels Stanley a “brute” because of his social status (4. 2). She will not acknowledge that she has fallen on hard times, but instead adopts a reality as it “ought to be” (9. 43). She strives to convince others to adopt her reality to reinforce her fantasy world (“I misrepresent things to them. I don’t tell the truth, I tell what ought to be truth”) (9. 43).

For Blanche, an alternate reality is not just desirable or more acceptable, it is necessary. Blanche needs the illusion because she cannot exist without it. She cannot see herself as she truly is and go on. When Stanley shatters the illusion, Blanche is destroyed along with it. Like Blanche, Stella also creates a false reality to make her existence acceptable. Stella’s alternate reality does not permeate her life like Blanche’s. But, it is equally destructive. Stella creates an illusion of Stanley as a loving husband to maintain her illusion that everything is fine in her marriage.

Stella’s illusion of Stanley is evident on two occasions—when she returns to Stanley after he beats her and when she refuses to believe that Stanley has raped Blanche. When Stanley beats Stella, Stella’s self-deception becomes evident. It is clear at that point that Stanley’s cruelty extends to Stella in their marriage. Blanche tries to convince Stella to leave Stanley. Ironically, Blanche, who clings to illusion herself, tells Stella that she must, “Pull (her)self together and face the facts” (4. 48). Stella, however, opts for her illusion. She returns to Stanley and maintains the illusion of her happy marriage.

Stella again opts for her alternate reality when she refuses to believe that Stanley raped Blanche. Stella recognizes that she cannot maintain the illusion of what her marriage is if she believes Blanche. So, she makes a conscious decision to reject Blanche’s story and maintain her illusion. At the end of the play, Stella explains her decision to her friend Eunice: “I couldn’t believe her story and go on living with Stanley” (11. 40). In reply, Eunice states, “Don’t ever believe it. Life has got to go on. No matter what happens, you’ve got to keep going. ” (11. 41).

Eunice’s reply suggests that she recognizes that Stella is deceiving herself about Stanley in order to maintain the illusion of her marriage. Stella’s statement also suggests a degree of awareness that the illusion of her marriage would be destroyed if she accepted Blanche’s story. Stella is only able to maintain her false reality by rejecting the truth about a brutal rape against her sister. Through Stella actions, Williams demonstrates the extent that an individual will go to in order to maintain an illusion. Both Stella and Blanche’s lives are mired in illusion. Williams suggests that perhaps Stanley’s is as well to a lesser degree.

Williams betrays Stanley as a forthright man who speaks truthfully and plainly. From the time he meets Blanche, Stanley is obsessed with revealing Blanche’s lies and deceptions. But, ironically, even Stanley creates an alternate reality that he is better able to accept. After he has driven Blanche insane by his brutal rape, Stanley goes to his family and presents the image of a loving husband and father as Blanche is taken away. Stanley’s alternate reality mirrors the one that Stella has created. In his illusion he is a loving father and husband rather than a cruel bully.

So, through Stanley, Williams demonstrates that even those who are firmly seated in reality engage in self-deception to maintain an acceptable facade. Williams’ message in Streetcar seems to be that humans tend to make their own reality when the real one is not to their liking. Blanche, Stella and even Stanley to a lesser degree create false realities. Their illusions cloak actual realities which they are unable or unwilling to bear. The illusions they create allow them to adopt an existence that is acceptable to them—one that is in no way similar to the truth of their lives. Works Cited

Euthanasia and Early 20th Century college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Life is precious and shouldn’t be taken for granted. A high percentage of people living in America believe that the taking of someone’s life is rather normal in certain ways. Euthanasia is illegal in most of the world, however is permissible in the Netherlands and also in Colombia. In the United States of America, euthanasia is legal only in the state of Oregon. Rendering to a May 2004 Gallup Poll, 53% of all Americans think that euthanasia is ethically acceptable, while 41 % believe it is wrong. During the time of the early 20th century, groups formed supporting euthanasia, and mainly were located in England and America.

Throughout World War II, the Nazis in Germany had their own program assisting euthanasia. They assisted people with euthanasia who weren’t worthy and who were not in good physical shape enough to live on. They were comprised of primarily children and older people. Euthanasia has its pros and cons, and obviously has its reasons. You’re probably wondering, what is euthanasia? Euthanasia comes from the Greek language and means “good death”, and is basically a thought of “mercy killing”. Euthanasia can be divided in to two categories.

Two Main Types of Euthanasia There are two types of Euthanasia, active and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia is an ending of one’s life, mainly done by a physician, usually by lethal drug injections. On the other hand, passive euthanasia is when someone stops a patient from receiving his/her medical treatments which eventually causes that person to die. As we can see, euthanasia is related to death in either case. Euthanasia is mainly used at hospitals, where people are in very bad condition, especially individuals who are in comas.

There are even times when Euthanasia is practiced by turning off the life support machines, or not providing enough food and/or water to the patient. In addition, there are cases where prescribed medications like antibiotic, morphine, etc. , are given to patients which can lead to a patient’s death. Performing the action of euthanasia, passive or active, is a big problem that needs to be addressed by the government. The main problem lies with the decision maker in determining the sick patient’s future.

If the decision maker thinks that the patient is suffering exceedingly, he/she will perform the act of euthanasia. However, if the patient is not suffering, the performer will not proceed to his/her prescribed actions. It’s important to note that today, machines, medicines and other technology have saved millions of lives, therefore, making euthanasia a more and widely discussed and controversial matter throughout the world. Sometimes euthanasia can be beneficial when a person is in critical condition and is too sick to benefit from life.

It could also be a way to dismiss extreme pain. However, Euthanasia can have a negative aspect. Euthanasia can debase human life or a monetary reason to save loads of money rather than spending it on life support machines. In conclusion these are the basic pros and cons of euthanasia. The pros and cons of the supporting evidence will be discussed in detail below to be understood in its supposed manner. Pros and Reasons Supporting Euthanasia There are many pros for supporting Euthanasia. One would be to help remove extreme suffering from a terminally sick person.

Secondly, it another way for ending tremendously high medical bills, knowing that a patient is not going to be cured or knowing that a patient will not live due to the suffering that’s being experienced. Lastly, euthanasia can be beneficial when used on a person who has been in a coma for a while to help family members or close friends overcome any thoughts or feelings that they might have towards the person in the coma. Cons and Reasons Opposing Euthanasia There are also negative aspects for supporting Euthanasia.

A person shouldn’t be killed with the use of euthanasia because it is compared to “murder”. Secondly, Euthanasia is another way to stop the high costs of medical bills. This type of thinking is immoral. Lastly, Euthanasia can be influenced by the sick patient’s wealth and his/her personal belongings, i. e. , acquiring wealth, property, inheritance, etc. As we can see from the above pros and cons mentioned above, the action of Euthanasia is rather opinionated. Some people side with euthanasia while others criticize and oppose it.

There seems to be no really right or wrong side, but more of a sense of morals involved. Euthanasia is a large topic and can interfere in many people’s lives, and can even interfere in one’s religion, which is a whole separate topic. The following will show the thoughts about Euthanasia in both Christianity and Islam. The Christian religion has several beliefs on Euthanasia. One aspect deals with life which concerns the giving and life and the taking away of life is created by God and God only, and therefore people’s lives should not be determined by human choice.

They also believe that no human being should have the right to take the life from another for any reason possible. The Islamic religion is quite similar to the Christian religion on this topic. In the Islamic religion, Allah SWT once said in the Quran, “Do not take the life, which Allah made sacred, other than in the course of justice. ” The Prophet, PBUH, said: “Amongst the nations before you there was a man who got a wound, and growing impatient (due to the pain), he took a knife and cut his hand with it and the blood did not stop till he died.

Allah said, ‘My slave hurried to bring death upon himself so I have forbidden him (to enter) Paradise. ” Sahih Bukhari. Therefore, a person who takes one’s own life away will not enter Paradise. It’s not up to individuals to make the determination on when life should end; it only belongs to God. Carmelite Spirituality and the Practice of Mental Prayer. Web. 30 May 2011. . As we can see in the figure above, a very ill patient, Faye, lying down in bed, with an illness which caused her to be both paralyzed and speechless.

Faye cannot move any part of her body and cannot communicate with anyone, as well. Faye and her family collaborated together and have decided to use active euthanasia, by the means of using lethal drug injections. In this situation, Faye has agreed to the injections because she feels that she will not gain anything from life due to her terminal conditions. Euthanasia for Faye was an upright choice because it provided an easy death for her and avoided a lot of pain and suffering that she was experiencing.

As for Faye’s family, it saved them a large debt that included life support, which would have kept her alive throughout her miserable future. In conclusion, euthanasia is a debatable subject matter and deals mostly with morals and one’s beliefs about the topic. It has both positive and negative aspects to it, but in regards to both sides, it’s a very controversial topic. My belief is to allow one’s life to be in the hands of our Creator, the only one who instills life in us and the only one who can take life away.

Animal testing essay college essay help service: college essay help service

Animal testing can be defined as the process of using animals in experiments. Normally the research such as biomedical researches, drug tests and toxicology tests are conducted in universities, medical schools, and pharmaceutical companies. Scientists use many types of animals in their experiments such as guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils, monkeys, chimpanzees, rats, mice, dogs and cats. Around 50-100 millions vertebrates are used in experiments annually and in United States, the number of rats and mice used are 20 million annually.

The articles that are going to be discussed in this piece of writing are, “Animal Testing A Necessary Research Tool, for Now” written by Dr. George Poste and “Of Mice Or Men, The Problems With Animal Testing” written by Arthur Allen. The author of the article “Animal Testing; A Necessary Research Tool, for Now” agrees with animal testing since it saves lives and undoubtedly brings benefit to human health and animal health. Even though animal experimentation sounds wicked, it could not be denied that it plays important role in medical advance.

For instances, researchers have successfully discovered new drugs, vaccines and surgical implants that are first tested on animal. Nowadays, scientists are able to find many vaccines through experiments that are done on animals. Vaccine which is defined by Oxford Dictionary as a substance that is put into the blood and that protects the body from a disease is found after scientists test the animals by injecting them with drugs, chemical solutions or medicines.

According to the author, the vaccines can be used on humans if the animals give a good response towards the tests because the animals have similar inner organs like in humans thus giving similar reactions like humans in the experiments done. The vaccines which are known after animal experimentation are vaccines for smallpox, measles, chickenpox, rubella, polio, rabies, mumps, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis. Besides, the writer argues in this article that animal testing should be replaced with other ways because it requires a huge amount of money.

The author of the second article, “Of Mice Or Men, The Problems with Animal Testing” believes that there is no problem with animal testing, but the only problem is the result which is not applicable to humans. He gives an example from an experiment done on some men. In the experiment, they are injected with tiny doses of TGN1412; the same doses given to some animals. Those animals do not have any ill effects but for the men, they writhe on the floor after a couple of minutes being injected.

Some of them suffered permanent organ damage, and one man’s head swelled up so horribly that British tabloids refer to the case as the “elephant man trial. ” This shows that animal testing does not necessarily bring benefit to humans. Moreover, the writer also suggests that new design in animal testing is needed such as the scientists can use transgenic mice with genes knocked out, inserted, or imported from the human genome. Instead of making more animal to suffer because of the unknown result or effect, this way can helps to give a better result since human genome is used.

In addition, the writers also include many examples and data to support his argument in this article. He brings them from the Health and Environmental Science Institute, Frederick Banting and Charles Best’s diabetic dogs, and Bureau of Mines’ George A. Burrell. Those data and examples are able to support and explain more upon the issues presented. Obviously, both articles are similar in discussing the same issue which is animal testing. The writers have convinced their readers throughout the articles by explaining the issue appropriately and by showing the examples and data to support their points.

Similarly the writers of the both articles agree that new ways should be found to replace animal testing. The writer of the first article, Poste says that the ideas of replacing animal testing with another ways are compelling since it could save hundreds of millions of dollars in facilities and personnel costs. Similar to Poste’s point, the writer of the second article, Allen also agrees with the idea of finding new ways to replace animal testing. He suggests the scientists to use transgenic mice with genes knocked out, inserted, or imported from the human genome.

It can give better result since the present of human genome in the animal. On the contrary, both articles have their own differences. In the article “Animal Testing A Necessary Research Tool, for Now”, the writer strongly believes that animal testing saves lives; however the writer in the second article says that the result got from the testing is not applicable to humans. Poste writes that animal testing is needed and important for human and animal health. He adds that it also plays important role in medical advance.

Many things have been discovered which give benefit to human such as the production of lifesaving drugs, vaccines, surgical procedures and improved diagnosis of disease. In contrast, Allen gives an example to show that the testing is not applicable to human. In an experiment, some men are injected with tiny doses of TGN1412; the same doses given to some animals. Those animals do not have any ill effects but for the men, they writhe on the floor after a couple of minutes being injected.

Lastly, the difference between these two articles is the first article has brought small amount of data and examples compared to the second article. Poste only includes several examples from some sources such as from The Arizona Republic and Animal Liberation Front whereas Allen includes many examples from many sources such as from The Health and Environmental Science Institute, University of Massachusetts, Frederick Banting and Charles Best’s Diabetic Dog.

In conclusion, the two articles have two similarities and two differences. The similarities are both of the authors discuss the same issue and both of them agree to the idea of finding new ways to replace animal testing. The difference is Poste believes that animal testing saves lives whereas Allen says that the result got from the testing is not applicable to human. On the other hand, the first article has brought small amount of data and examples compared to the second article.

Without any doubts, animal testing does has its own advantages and disadvantages. It depends on us whether to agree or disagree with it. Some people might say that while humans are cured, animals are slaughtered. They acknowledge that animals also have feeling, consciousness and rights. The other people might say that we can get lots of benefits if animal texting is continuously done.

Petroleum and Shell college essay help free: college essay help free

Abstract Shell Oil is a global company in the oil industry. This long established company has withstood the test of time in this competitive market. Management practices have established the resources necessary to overcome the obstacles of a global company. This detailed analysis of Shell Oil focuses on management in order to provide an understanding of how the company is able to succeed. The organizational analysis provides insight into Shell’s goals, culture, and resources. An example of a specific problem that Shell faced, oil spills in Nigeria, continues off of the company analysis.

Nigeria is a major extraction location for shell, but sabotage and oil leaks grew to be a major concern. Shell faced court cases in search of relief in Nigeria, but the majority of the oil leaks were a result of sabotage; therefore, shell was not responsible. However, people believed that it was shell’s responsibility to safeguard the oil lines and prevent sabotage in the first place. Shell funded the cleanup of previous oil spill sites along with a major advertising campaign to avoid a negative impact on its business.

Some people still believe that Shell should be taking more responsibility for the oil spill crisis in Nigeria. Shell Company Analysis Oil is a resource that has been in great demand since the production of combustion engines, as well as other industrial machines. Royal Dutch Shell, commonly referred to as Shell, has been a dominant force in the oil industry for over 100 years. Shell management has enabled success and allowed the company to overcome any obstacles. An in-depth analysis of Royal Dutch Shell’s management techniques provides information on how it can conquer the challenges of change.

A recent challenge that Shell faced in Nigeria indicates that Shell has the necessary resources to prevail. Shell continues to be a driving force in the oil industry from the business aspect, but just how prosperous is this global company. A man named Marcus Samuel founded an antique business in London. Seashells were among the products that he sold, which is how Shell acquired its name. Marcus grew fond of the oil exportation business during a trip to Japan. Before the invention of the combustion engine, oil was merely used for lighting and lubricating small components.

Marcus and his brother Sam transformed the oil transportation industry with their company, Shell Transport. Expanding the business lead to a merger with Royal Dutch Petroleum in 1907. Royal Dutch Shell rapidly expanded production throughout the world, included places like Russia, Romania, Venezuela, Mexico and the United States. Today, Royal Dutch Shell operates in more than 70 countries. Shell is able to produce 3. 3 million barrels of oil in a single day generating $467. 2 billion dollars revenue annually. Organizational Overview:

Shell Corporation has a website that addresses all the publicly known information about the organizational operations in the United States and throughout the global economy. The Shell website does not specify a specific mission statement. According to Mission Statement (2013), “The mission statement should be a clear and succinct representation of the enterprise’s purpose for existence. ” While Shell. com does not specifically list anything labeled as a mission statement, it does identify a purpose to the organization.

The corporate website under Our Purpose (n. d. ) states: The objectives of the Shell group are to engage efficiently, responsibly and profitably in oil, oil products, gas, chemicals and other selected businesses and to participate in the search for and development of other sources of energy to meet evolving customer needs and the world’s growing demand for energy. The planning methodologies utilized by Royal Dutch Shell include: a vision, the mission, the strategy, the goals/tactics, and metrics (“Strategic Planning,” 2009). The vision leads to the mission.

The mission in turn enables the creation of the strategy. Strategy gives a guideline for the goals/tactics and metrics. The vision is to provide for the future energy needs of the people while preserving the environmental health of the planet (Shell. com). The mission, or purpose, is identified and explained in the above paragraph. Shell states that their strategy is innovative and competitive. As recently as 13 January 2013, Shell released its strategy as innovative and competitive to the news and media. Shell CEO directly states, “Shell is competitive and innovative.

We are delivering a strategy that others can’t easily repeat, with unique skills in technology and integration and a worldwide set of opportunities for new investment” (“Shell Delivering,” 2013). Robbins and Couter (2012) define competitive strategy as, “an organizational strategy for how an organization will compete in its business (es)” (p. 231) and innovative strategy, “aren’t necessarily focused on just radical, breakthrough products. They can include applying existing technology to new uses” (p. 238). Shell is not new to using both these strategies to survive the challenges with the very competitive oil market.

Arie de Geus (1988) was head of planning for the Royal Dutch/Shell Group companies and employed with corporation for 30 plus years; identifies that out of survival for the Shell Transport and Trading Company in 1907 to compete with the Rockefeller’s Standard Oil it had to join with Royal Dutch Petroleum. This innovative idea of joining the two companies allowed the company the ability to continue to compete competitively and still going strong more than 100 years later. The customers of Shell are those people that purchase or use the products produced or shop the store locations around the world.

Shareholders are those that have investments or hold shares in the corporation and either profit or lose from the businesses operations. The competitors to Shell are other major oil companies; this includes companies such as BP, ExxonMobil, Chevron, and many more throughout the globe competing for the oil market. Stakeholders are a much broader range of people or groups. All activities of the corporation that influence or affect those in or around it can be considered a stakeholder. The employees, shareholders, and competitors are all affected by the happenings and success of the company.

The people and communities that surround where Shell is drilling for oil are also stakeholders due to the effects of the drilling and possible oil spills. Also any company that supplies or deals with is a stakeholder according to their interactions and future depend on the businesses activities. Shell’s website, under the frequently asked questions tab, states, “Our stakeholders include local and national environmental groups; Fisherman’s Associations; key government agencies; National and Local Government; Unions; Industry Bodies and Academics. We have a large database of over 100 stakeholders who are included in our engagement.

” Organization: A formal structure as organized by a chart on cogmap. com (2012) shows that the Royal Dutch Shell Corporation is organized in functional departments as well as geographical departments. The geographical design is necessary because Shell has operational locations throughout the world. McDermott (2001) suggest that when groups have common interests, insight, experiences, and tools tend to form an informal structure out of common interest. McDermott (2001) states: Shell Oil Co. ’s New Orleans operation, which is organized into cross-functional teams, formed them around key disciplines and topics that cross individual teams.

Communities of practice have always been part of the informal structure of organizations. They form spontaneously as people seek help, try to solve problems, develop new ideas and approaches. Specific information regarding the decision-making process of the Shell Corporation was not able to be found through their web page, searches in scholarly articles, or be means of searching the Internet. Organization manages change: Considering the Shell business has been around for more than hundred years, it does not seem that they have too much of a problem with making changes to adjust to the needs of the people and the flows of the economy.

The main way that the organization has been dealing with change or expecting change is through the use of scenarios. A statement made on Shell. com addresses that: Scenarios consider a range of plausible futures and how these could emerge from the realities of today…Our scenarios team considers changes such as in the global economic environment, geopolitics, resource stresses such as water, greenhouse gases, and energy supply and demand to help business leaders make better decisions. ” De Geus (1998) backs this statement up with his over 30 years of personal work experience with the company.

The initial use of scenarios helped identify that the company was no longer optimizing or highly integrated and new management methods were necessary for the survival of the corporation. Leadership, Motivational Environment, and Communications: No specific leadership style was identified or found on the Shell’s website but an interview with the CEO does describe how he views leaders. Peter Gumbel (2009) writes that Voser states, “Leaders should have vision and conviction. Leaders should set targets. Leaders should develop people.

Leaders should be willing to take risks and be themselves. In a job like mine you must have all these qualities. ” He also encourages getting the best out of every team member, foster accountability, and “empower people and foster localized entrepreneurialism” (Gumbel, 2009). According to Robbins and Couter (2012), “strong cultures- Organizational cultures in which the key values are intensely held and widely shared” (p. 53). The Shell website defiantly gives off a strong sense of organizational culture.

It contains information pertaining to the history of the company, up and coming projects, the company’s stated values and code of conduct, a call help line just for employees and stakeholder to inquire about concerns and possible wrong doings. Gumbel(2012) wrote in his article that when Voser took over as CEO he sent out a, “memo announcing some important organizational changes and the need for “a strong performance culture” at Shell. ” An article called Balancing stakeholders needs: A Shell case study (n. d.

) addresses the motivational outcome of Shell’s employees: As stakeholders, employees are influenced by Shell but also affect how Shell operates. The employees’ standard of work and commitment to health and safety and excellence is vital in order to keep Shell as a leader in the energy field. Mistakes can be costly in terms of reputation and the livelihood of other employees. A priority at Shell is to respect people. It seeks to provide its staff with good and safe working conditions and competitive terms of employment.

This has a positive influence on employees as it keeps them safe and motivated. Shell utilizes all aspects of communication with its organization. Formal communication is used in regular business actions such as meetings. Their use of informal communication through their web site gives more opportunity for people to assess the company. The website is user friendly for employees, shareholders, stakeholders, and anyone with Internet access. There are numbers for help lines specifically for employees with questions, comments, or concerns; as well as for customers that may need help.

“Ongoing communication and dialogue with all of these groups is essential. In this way it is possible to take account of everyone’s needs and expectations in making decisions for today and the future,” (Balancing Stakeholders Needs, n. d. ). Processes for Control: Shell has control methods established for determining if company goals are being met or not, whether the goals are financial or operational. Shell’s website labels its financial control as Shell Financial: At Shell Finance, we provide a range of professional services, advice and products to Shell companies globally.

Our support covers everything from Management and Financial Accounting, Consultancy and Business Controls to Mergers & Acquisitions, Insurance and Treasury options (Royal Dutch Shell, 2013). Shell. com also identifies its operational control as the Health, Safety, Security, the Environment (HSSE) & Social Performance (SP). These controls outline the best possible methods during all the operational processes including health, personal safety, process safety, social performance, transport, etc. Innovative Managerial Practices: Shell corporation is subdivided into three categories: Upstream, Downstream, and Projects and Technologies.

While Upstream consists of extracting oil around the globe and Downstream consists of creating finished products, Products and Technologies is able to drive innovation in both Upstream and Downstream operations: Our Projects and Technology organization provides technical services and technology capability in upstream and downstream activities. It manages the delivery of major projects and helps to improve performance across the company. We deliver differentiated technical information technology for Shell and drive research and innovation to create tomorrow’s technology solutions.

Projects and Technology also houses Safety & Environment and Contracting & Procurement, as these are integral to all our activities (Royal Dutch Shell, 2013). A Problem: In Nigeria, oil is readily available and Shell takes advantage of this source of income. According to Jolly and Reed (2013), Nigeria accounts for twelve percent of Shell’s source of oil and fuel, Shell’s largest source. However, oil spills have been a reoccurring problem throughout the Niger Delta. According to Sergi (2012), “Oil pollution has transformed the Niger Delta into one of the dirtiest places on earth,” which is no understatement.

Duffield (2010) states that there were more than 7,000 spills between 1970 and 2000. Environmentalists believe spills – large and small – happen at a rate of 300 every year. ” Local activists started to pressure Shell towards reducing oil spills while mediating previous spills following a major leak in 2009. Sergi (2012) declares that Shell claimed that 70% of oil spills were a result of sabotage. Under these circumstances, Shell is not responsible for cleanup. However, Shell managers should be taking the necessary measures to prevent sabotage.

Whether the oil leaks are a result of pipes breaking or thieves who open lines and steal oil, Shell has to be held partly responsible. Shell’s Solution: Shells solution consists of two components to oil leaks in Nigeria: remediation, and advertisement. It is important to understand that these solutions did not fix the actual problem of oil leaked throughout the Niger Delta. Shells model of the solution seems to be much different than the activists’ model, which is that very little was fixed. Oil spills still continue and people remain uncompensated for the negligence of Shell’s operations.

Following the major oil spills in 2008 and 2009, Shell was forced to initiate cleanup. This is the remediation component of Shell’s solution. Shell’s Upstream branch focuses on the operations of extracting oil, and everything else that pertains. Cleanup of previous sites also falls under this category. Shell. com declares, “The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited is committed to minimizing oil spills to the environment and to cleaning up all spills in the Niger Delta when they occur, as fast as possible, no matter what their cause (Royal Dutch Shell, 2013).

” However, Vidal (2012) reports that very little cleanup has been done despite four years that Shell has been responsible: Shell said it had started pilot cleanup schemes in five affected areas, but claimed it had been refused access to several other polluted sites. It said “good progress” had been made; adding that the vast majority of oil spilt in the Bodo area was the result of criminal activity including theft, sabotage and illegal oil refining by villagers. The impoverished Ogoni fishing and farming communities say they still cannot return to work and have received no compensation.

They have accused Shell of applying different standards to clean-ups in Nigeria compared with the rest of the world. Unfortunately, claiming responsibility and taking little remediation action does not help publicity for Shell. Yes, cleanup is costly and avoiding this financial burden is why Shell remains a financial leader in the oil industry. In May 2010, Shell introduced an international advertising campaign. According to Bush (2010): The effort touts the dawn of a future that will be powered by new and multiple energy sources and cleaner fossil fuels that Shell is “unlocking.

” It also expresses the notion the world will soon be on the road to sustainable mobility and that Shell is “ready to help tackle the challenges of the new energy future. Ms. Singer would not disclose the cost of the campaign but said it would keep the company’s ad spending in line with 2009. It is important to understand the stakes in the global oil industry during this time. British Petroleum (BP) just received negative public feedback for the significant oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Perhaps Shell wanted to promote the intentions of an environmentally friendly company while BP was under criticism.

People around the world would be able to see Shell as the good “green” company. Attention of consumers would be swayed from the spills in Nigeria while BP was caught by the world for its major oil spill. With reference to the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) (n. d. ), the price of stocks for Shell can be used as evidence for how successful Shell has been throughout the process. In 2009, stock prices were at a low of $46. 82 per share, the time that Shell admitted responsibility for the two oil spills in Nigeria.

Just before the advertisement campaign, stocks showed a slight rise from 2009, at $50. 01 in early 2010. The proof that the advertisement campaign worked is evident immediately after, when stocks rose to $74. 13. Interestingly enough, Shell invested very little into the cleanup of the oil spills in Nigeria, but still managed to promote enough business to grow. Although the current stock price remains approximately $15 less than before the oil spills, Shell has bounced back from the plummet. Shell has been a global dominance in the oil industry since its early form in 1907.

Marcus Samuel established Shell Transportation, and with the help of Royal Dutch Petroleum, Royal Dutch Shell became a leader in oil production. Strong organizational culture and innovative management help drive the company forward, even through conflicts. Nigeria posed a threat to Shell as it faced an oil spill crisis. Shell asserts that they are not at fault for the majority of oil spills, as thieves sabotage their lines. Nigeria is home to Shell’s biggest extraction of oil, yet Nigeria’s environment suffers drastically.

Activists who fought Shell over the devastation won a case in 2009, which dropped stock prices down almost 50%. Shell agreed to claim responsibility and initiate remediation on spill sites, but efforts were limited. During the British Petroleum oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, Shell launched a global advertising campaign that promoted sustainability. Despite the lack of cleanup in Nigeria, the world bought into Shell’s green campaign and business rose immediately. Shell may not be the most environmentally responsible company, but business is good.

Pro-Slavery Argument by Southerners gp essay help: gp essay help

The main issue in America politics during the years of the late 1840’s to the late 1870’s was slavery. Southerners wanted to keep the tradition of slave labor alive, and were justifying slavery in any way possible; issue of slavery was a continuing debate in the 1800’s. James Henry Hammond, John C. Calhoun, and William Joseph Harper were some of the men most famous for propagating the pro-slavery argument. Slavery was the economic foundation in the southern states during the 1800’s.

The defenders of slavery in the south had several arguments that they used to rationalize slavery. One argument was that ending slavery would destroy the economy in the south. Another pro-slavery argument was that slavery was a natural state of mankind since it has existed throughout history. The southern states to this day are the agricultural surplus for all of the United States crop production. For centuries, slaves were the most efficient and cheapest way to produce and harvest crops.

The economic and political advantages of slaves are what ultimately allowed southern citizens to survive. During the late 1830s through early 1860s, the pro-slavery argument was at its strongest (“The Proslavery Argument”). After the Civil War, freed slaves often returned back to plantations in search of money, because they did not have the resources to continue. If slavery was not abolished they would remain as property of the owner and would not have starved or been forced to work in low paying jobs.

Even though they did not have the best living and working conditions, they at least were given enough to survive. While I agree slavery is an ill moral, the concept of slavery is an economic plus. Furthermore in 1837, John C. Calhoun gave a speech promoting the “positive good” outcomes of slavery while also declaring slavery was “instead of an evil, a good – a positive good” (“The Pro-slavery Argument”). Today, top nations exploit third world countries resources and economic stability due to the fact they are unable function without exporting.

Countries such as China, Taiwan, Thailand, and most countries in Africa, exploit children and women to produce factory goods for little or no money. With that process occurring, China is expanding and will possibly become one of the next top super nations. Chinas explorations of its citizens allowed the countries expansions, which will ultimately develop the country just like the United States. While Africa’s resources, such as precious metals, are being metaphorically robbed by other nations.

Countries will buy their resources for almost nothing, while they are being produced by low paying workers. Although the top nations have abolished slavery, they still manipulate the countries that use slavery. This process allows countries to outsource their money in return of large profits. “Southern pro-slavery theorists asserted that slavery eliminated this problem by elevating all free people to the status of “citizen”, and removing the landless poor (the “mudsill”) from the political process entirely by means of enslavement” (“The Pro-slavery Argument”).

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QUESTION 1: Identify factors in the Microenvironment (PESTEL) which are relevant to SABMILLER.

ANSWER: SABMiller’s activities are heavily influenced by the political, social and legislative environmental factors within which it operates; meaning this has made the company proactive when dealing with macro factors. SABMILLER operates in developing as well as matured markets. These markets include very challenging aspects which in the past has limited the threat of new entrants. These markets includes very tough competition; as rivalry in the Brewing industry is increasingly high.

SABMILLER tend to own multiple brands with different market positions. In this market, it is much easier for competitors to launch rival products that compete directly on price and thus eroding market share. After analyzing the company’s competition, SABMiller has and still is experiencing this problem; for example in North America; especially recently where InBev has bought Anhevser-Busch; this has helped the dominant Brewer to enlarge a further space between themselves and SABMiller; which has affected the company’s market share future plans deeply, SABMiller now has to come up with new innovative ideas to try and close the gap between them and A-B InBev.

The American Industry is the largest brewing market by value as rivalry is now more intense than ever, meaning more competitors, are entering into a price war with SABMiller. This has become a huge threat for SABMiller, but it does also hold opportunities to weaken this threat down. For example the company has the opportunity to acquire more stakes in the Brazilian market, or become the owner of China resources which is the largest brewer in China.

SAB’s acquisition of Miller was largely due to the pressure from the London Stock Exchange. It is felt that SAB was at risk due to its over reliance of soft currencies in certain market. Even though their core competences were elsewhere, SAB went on with the takeover to please the stakeholders.

SABMiller’s South African Culture has shaped the strategic development of the company. It is this culture, which makes their distinct capability of entering emerging markets less imitable. As highlighted in the case study, SABMiller strategy represents a synthesis of learning based on the historical developments of the company.

In conclusion, in order to identify the company’s position. It is important to carry out its business external analysis. If is also essential to identify its core competences and capabilities as well as stakeholder expectations in order to successfully identify the company’s strategic position.

QUESTION 2: Which force in the external environment is exerting grater pressure? How should the organization react?

ANSWER: The forces in the external environment is exerting greater pressure is the emergence of competitors in its prime markets.

In future, SABMiller will have to face tough competition from its rival.

How should the organization react? a) SABMiller has to come up with new innovative ideas to try and close the gap between them and the competitors. b) SABMiller had to make some strategic choices to please its key players. c) SABMiller to acquired local brewing business to enable them to grow and overcome certain business restriction through acquisition. d) By adding quality and consistency to the beer.

e) By bringing its own operating practices and management skills. f) By introducing brand management and its brand portfolio.

A peaceful woman explains why she carries a gun essay help: essay help

Now days world is not safe. According to the CDC, “non-contact unwanted sexual experiences” are the most prevalent form of sexual violence in the Unites States. Every 2 minutes, someone in the U. S. is sexually assaulted. According to the online studies by Stop Street Harassment, 99% of respondents said that they had been harassed at least a few times. “A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries a Gun” by Linda Hasselstrom exemplifies a use of having a gun for protection as a last resort.

Hasselstrom was justified for her need to own a gun as she wanted to be protected, safe and have a peace of mind. Desire to be protected justified Hasselstrom to get a gun; however, she considered other means of protection first. To begin with, Hasselstrom used improvised means for protection. For example, she had her own “gun” (spray cans of deodorant) which did not have to be registered. However, one night while camping, the author and her friend, harassed by two young men, decided not to tempt fate and use their “improvised mace”, but simply leave the camping area.

When improvised means of protection did not work, Hasselstrom considered another option- a citizens band radio, a system of short-distance radio communications between individuals which does not require a license. However, she rejected this method of protection providing an example of a woman who got beaten and raped using a CB radio to get help with a flat tire. The last method Hasselstrom considered as a mean of protection was self-defense. For her, kung fu class was a smart decision because on the top of her self-preservation, her height and weight did not give her any benefit.

Therefore, looking for protection, Hasselstrom provided the readers with justified steps she took prior to the extreme measure of protection- a gun. Also, the author was well-grounded for her need of a gun because she wanted safety. Firstly, she did not feel safe on her land. While Hasselstrom lived on a ranch in secluded area 25 miles from the nearest town, she, somehow, managed to have uninvited guests on her property. For example, one day she noticed an armed man on her land who wanted to shoot ducks.

As a result, she could not feel safe even on her territory. Secondly, as the author was vulnerable even while driving her car, her possession of a gun was reasonable. Hasselstrom provides the readers with examples to prove her right. In one of the examples, an unknown car was following her on her way home, and made her stop by flashing a blinding spotlight in her face. Another example depicts a man who was playing cat-and-mouse with Hasselstrom within 30 miles when she was driving in a desolate part of Wyoming.

Thirdly, the fact that Hasselstrom did not feel safe even in public places justified her to own a gun. She provided an example of her and her friend being harassed and scared by men while camping in the West. Moreover, looking for some help from the local rangers, she had to face with their carelessness and unwillingness to protect and help. In addition to Hasselstrom’s desire of protection and safety, there is a desire of peace she was looking for which justified her to possess a weapon.

First of all, she could not get a peace of mind being harassed on a daily basis. Whether she was among people or on her property, she faced acts of harassment or danger which took her further away from a peace she was searching for. Then, she could not find a peace of mind if she was constantly stressed out, suspicious and scared about everything. One day the author found deep tire ruts in her yard and garbage in her driveway. More likely, that fact would lead a person like her to suspect that someone unfriendly had an intention to hurt or do her harm.

Third of all, Hasselstrom lived in the environment where women did not stand much for a chance of not being harassed. Men in her area worried her, and their harassment would not stop until stronger measures were taken. However, Hasselstrom did not want to be either daily harassed, be another victim of rape or permanently stressed out and scared. Threfore, she believed that having a gun handy would lead her to a peace of mind she was looking for.

In conclusion, relying on Hasselstrom’s examples provided in the article, she was justified for her need to own a gun. She had no choice but to use it in dangerous situations to protect herself. When used responsibly, women in the same situation as the author would live protected, safe and with peace of mind they desire. What Hasselstrom’s message was in this article is that no one, man or woman, should live in fear. And in her situation, owning a gun gave her that security.

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Intro: Today I’d like you to open your mind to the idea of buying organic food, by giving you information on what “organic” really means, how organic food is more nutritious for you and why it is a safer option, opposed to eating food that is contaminated with harsh chemical and pesticides .

Main point 1: What does “Organic” mean? Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological harmony By Definition of “USDA National Organic Standards Board (NOSB)”

What is the difference? Why pay more? Organic Farmers Apply natural fertilizers like manure and compost to feed soil and plants. Use beneficial insects and birds, and traps to reduce pest and disease. Rotate crops, till, hand weed or mulch to manage weeds

Give animals % organic feed, allow them to roam outdoors Take preventive measure, like rational grazing, balanced diet and clean housing for the animals – to help minimize disease. Because farmers take these steps to ensure quality food, it increases the price. Conventional farmers Apply chemical fertilizers to promote plant growth Spray pesticides to reduces pests and disease Use chemical herbicides to manage weeds Give animals antibiotics, growth hormones and medications to prevent disease and spur growth. When driving down the road, which picture would you rather see next to your window?

In summary organic produce and other foods are grown without the use of pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, sewage sludge, genetically modified organisms, or ionizing radiation. Animals that produce meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products do not take antibiotics or growth hormones. Main point 2: Nutrients in organic food

A two-year study led by John Reganold of Washington State University that provided side-by-side comparisons of organic and conventional strawberry farms has shown organic farms produced more flavorful and nutritious berries while promoting healthier and more genetically diverse soils. Published Sept. 1, 2010

Findings in the paper showed organic strawberries had significantly higher antioxidant activity and concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds, longer shelf life In addition, the organic soils excelled in the areas of carbon sequestration, nitrogen, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, and micronutrients.

The “Natural” hoax

Natural Vs. Organic

Organic foods are ALWAYS third-party certified to comply with strict, far-ranging USDA organic regulations. “Natural” foods are NOT.

Don’t be fooled by the “natural” label. If your personal health, the environment, and a more sustainable future for everyone are important to you, look for the organic seal.

Main point 3 A safer option for YOU

Organic food also doesn’t contain any artificial sweeteners, contaminates or preservatives that cause health problems. Organic food has been grown in harmony with nature

SAY NO TO GMO! GMO- genetically modified organisms are prohibited in organic food. Genetically engineered crops are a relatively recent technology with potentially devastating impacts on ecosystems and human and animal health. Organic regulations forbid the use of genetically engineered seeds or animals (including clones).

( Not only are conventional farmers using harsh pesticides and hormones to enhance attributes such as size, color and resistance to bugs/ insects, but they are changing the genes! If famers wear protective suits just to grow our food, should we take those same precautions when handling or eating our food?

Summary Today I have lightly touched on what organic food is, how it is more nutritious and why it is a safer option.. In summary I hope that this information urges you to buy organic food and spend the extra pennies on your self, and your well being. Call to action : What to do from here Be aware of what you are putting into your body, your food may not be what you believe it to be.

Visit “” The Dirty Dozen •celery •peaches •strawberries •apples •domestic blueberries •nectarines •sweet bell peppers

•spinach, kale and collard greens •cherries •potatoes •imported grapes •lettuce The Clean 15 •onions •avocados •sweet corn •pineapples •mango •sweet peas •asparagus •kiwi fruit •cabbage •eggplant •cantaloupe •watermelon •grapefruit •sweet potatoes •sweet onions

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First of all, I would said Alhamdullilah all the thanks to Allah S. W. T, which is from His willingness that give me the strength and health to do my Individual assignment: Next I would like to express my thankful feeling to our lecture for the course , which helps in giving valuable and reliable advice and play roles as communication and information consultant about this assignment as much as she could until we understand about the assignment which is the main reason where this assignment can be more informative and more structural.

All the basic to deepest knowledge of the existence of Effective Speaking that been teach by her, make life more easier to me and my friend. Then I would like to thanks to my beloved parents which provide all the physical things that may lead to a difficulties and barriers for me if is it not been provided such as money to buy anything that are related to this assignment work and their lovely and motivation advise, which lead for me to have the best spirit and ways to complete this assignment.

Last but not least, my friends who help me a lot giving their honourable opinion which helps me to identify my mistake that lead me to construct it more better in many ways. They had been a good help that makes my work become easier. Thanks a lot, it is so meaningful. TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENT Page 2 INTRODUCTION Page 3 MY VIEW AND SUMMARY – Persuasion (Based on book “Speaking With A Purpose” By Arthur Koch) *Book/ Article 1 – The Speech to Persuade (Based on the book “Basic Public Speaking” By Patricia Bradley Andrews) *Book/ Article 2

– Persuasive Purposes (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Principle into Practice” by James R. Andrews) * Book/ Article 3 -Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking” by George Rodman * Book/ Article 4 – Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe) * Book/ Article 5 – Persuasive Speaking: Types and Design (Based on the book “Confident Public Speaking” By Deanna D. Sellnow) * Book/ Article 6 – Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: The Evolving Art” By Stephanie J Coopman) * Book/ Article 7

– Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Concept And Skills For A Diverse Society” By Clella Jaffe)’ * Book/ Article 8 – Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centred Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe) *Book/ Article 9 -Article: I speak because There’s a need by Frances James (On the book “The Challenge of Effective Speaking”) * Book/ Article 10 Page 4-5 Page 6-7 Page 8-9 Page 10-11 Page 12-14 Page 15-17 Page 18-19 Page 20-22 Page 23-24 Page 25-26 CONCLUSION Page 27 REFERENCES Page 28 INTRODUCTION

In this modernity era, communication involvement has been one of the important part of human life’s today, it is been the device for us as a human to interact between one another from all type of community starting from family, friends and etc which lead us to understand each other more better. According to John Dolman (1992) stated that communication can be defined as “means the act of sharing something with others” which come from the Latin word “con” (with) and “munus” (a business), through “communis” (common) and “communico” (to confer or consult with one another).

This explains that communication in our life is the main ingredient to send important message which benefits both sender and receiver example like sharing the news of the world with your friends about the current issues that is happening is a definite of communication conversation. In order a person to communicate well with others human being, ones need to have all kind of communication skills and ways to deliver it in order to ensure the receiver understand, connected and educated about the information that been send to them.

The process of communication will run smoothly with the sender of the information which is the speaker know how to apply effective speaking in their communication. Effective speaking consists of informative speech which is a speech that been delivered to educate and inform the audience about their topic whereas persuasive speech is a speech deliver by the speaker to the audience to attract, persuade, convince them with certain topics and issues that can be serious or marketable things.

So what is Persuasive Speaking? In this portfolio assignment, 10 book that have related chapter will be explain and summarize to suitable conclusion. MY VIEW AND SUMMARY My view: Persuasion (Based on book “Speaking With A Purpose” By Arthur Koch) Persuasion is one of the way of life which play the main roles in life of both speaker and audience example importance of politician persuasion towards the audience for their both beneficial.

Persuasion have been defined as attempt to influence by always be conscious with ensuring the speaker knows what he or she trying to persuade in order to unsure the attempt is worth it by manage to attract the audience attention in all way. One of the way persuader uses to persuade effectively is by a speaker itself have the competence to win to audience heart with great and good will attitude which is the personal proof.

Secondly, Psychological proof that appeals according to attitudes from our experience such as the experience ones gained from religious practice has been use to explained it in a speech and appeals according to motives that encourage a person to stimulates behaviour such as being positive, motivated which lead to ones developing their creativity which leads to a good persuasive speech success. Lastly the appeal of logical proof where the speaker need to have an evidence in order to convince the audience with proper and reliable reasoning such as statistics, laws, rules and regulation and etc.

In persuasive speaking there are three type of speech which is speech to convince is a speech to attract the audience to accept and agree with the speaker statement, in other hand is the speeches to reinforce is to remind the audience about important things example by giving a speech about history of a country during their independence day and speeches to actuate usually use by professional speaker that use persuasion for business purpose to fulfil their individual purposes such as salesman persuade their customer to buy their product to ensure that he or she reach the target sale that they want. Summary

Persuasion speech is a way to influence with effective technique of personal proof, psychological proof and logical proof using three type of speech which is speech to convince, speech to attract and speeches to reinforce that will organize the persuasive speaking speech to have “Speaking with a purpose” excellent values. My View: The Speech to Persuade (Based on the book “Basic Public Speaking” By Patricia Bradley Andrews) All speeches have its persuasive element in their speeches, example you might give speech in giving tips on how to study smart but it also shows the action from the speaker to encourage the students to study.

Speaker need to know how to make the audience to accept and agree with his or her point view by knowing what is the speech intended for such as speech to stimulate individual listener such as persuading the listener by informing the importance of doing charity even the speech has been presented in front of group but the information send directly to each individual who is listening to the speech, speech to convince is by persuading a new group of people and which is the audience by delivering speech to gained the audience trust first that will help the speaker to convince them.

. In addition persuasive speech that uses action which is speech to incite action to gain the support of the audience example ask the help of the audience to donate their blood which the speaker needs to ensure their speech have the positive element. Persuasive speeches have the intention to make the audience to act positively after hearing one speech. Summary

Speeches is a persuasive tools but it depends on how the speaker present uses the basic public speaking three type of persuasive speeches such as speech to stimulate, speech to convince and speech to incite action where it will leave a positive impact to the audience that will change the surrounding. My View: Persuasive Purposes (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Principle into Practice” by James R. Andrews) Persuasive speaking is by getting the connection with the audience involving feelings, behaviour and action.

Persuasive purposes can be speech that designed to stimulate which is to give speech to the audience who already have an agreement with the speaker speech by reinforces their faith and belief, speech designed to convince which is a speech to attract with the audience in order to get them agree with the speech such as convincing the audience to always support the government action because it will lead to lots of advantages to them and speeches designed to actuate with the speaker having the objectives “ I want my audience to feel what I’m saying and react to it ” in order the speaker can secure the agreement of his or her listeners.

Summary Persuasive speaking have its persuasive purposes categories that has it principle to practice with speech to stimulate that reinforce faith and belief, speech to convince is to attract and speech to actuate that sets objectivity which to ensure the speaker and his or her listener to reach an agreements. My view: Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking” by George Rodman Persuasion is an act of motivating someone through communication process which involves us to take a side and defend it.

Persuasion can be worthwhile because it convince people on something example if a person persuade his parents to stop argue and they listen to it, it will be a worthwhile effort for the family institution. It also can be ethical, not every persuasive attempt related with lies because as a speaker we must always be honest if we construct a speech that lies to the audience sooner or later they will find it, and then it will lead to bad impression towards the speaker this show good ethics are needed in one speech.

Types of persuasion based on its approach it can be direct which speech that inform straight to the point without having any filter such as doing a speech about “You Smoke, You Die if to be compared with indirect persuasion “Is smoking bad? ” but still the message is proved to it is bad which both of this approach need to be inserted with element of convincing by changing the way they think and actuating to get their immediate intention and action which is the main strategy of persuasive speaking.

In order put persuasive strategy into an effect it needs credibility based appeals which the characteristic of the speaker play the main role in delivery the speech of authoritativeness and trustworthiness which mean all the information given are an honest information. Furthermore are the logical appeals that have good reasoning and emotional appeals by have the feeling of believe to the information given.

Lastly is about the techniques use for effective persuasive speaking such as knowing your audience by analyze and adapt to it, have a clear speech that is understandable, establish common ground by presenting the new update issues, organize it accordingly in ensuring the speech done smoothly and use variety of tools involving technology and creativity. Summary

Persuasive speaking is a motivation element that been applied with good ethics using direct or indirect persuasion on approaches and outcomes on in convincing and actuating by the speaker using all the credibility, logical and emotional appeals as strategy to an excellent speech with effective speaking technique that uses creativity My View: Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centered Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J.

Beebe) Persuasion is defined based on process of changing that involves reinforcing attitudes by the speaker to know the attitude of the audience before giving speech in order to know what they dislike and likes such as the audience dislikes topic about sports but likes about cooking. Next process is reinforcing beliefs by knowing the audience beliefs example if the audience are religiously educated, speaker need to insert some of the religious element on their speech to get the acceptance from the audience

and last process is reinforcing value by the speaker have the good attitude when they deliver their speech. In order the speaker need to reinforce the entire importance element above they need to be consistent of their speech according to dissonance theory so cognitive dissonance will not occur in your speech that will to discomfort both to the audience and speaker that can block all the good values on ones speech.

When it comes to persuading our audience speaker also need to understand the audience needs by using Abraham Maslow theory to understand their needs such as know their physiological needs like politician provide food and drinks to the audience before and after the speech to ensure that the audience will not distract their speech because they are hungry and thirsty, next is safety needs example politician provide security service with all the police securing the occasion place to be safe, social needs to make the audience feel the sense of belonging of the speaker example politician stated the importance of people is their responsibility, self-esteem needs can be explained as the cliche’s action can be explained by the politician telling the audience they are an important asset of the nation and self actualization needs which the speaker persuade the audience to realising their full potential.

Persuasive speaking can be informed my inserted the fear appeal to a speaker speech is by threaten or frightened the audience up such as “If you don’t stop smoking, you going to die horrifically”. When it comes to choose your topics for your speech a speaker need to choose topics the speaker and the audience comfortable to it which mean is a current issues or related issues to the audience which will develop your persuasive speech purpose. Summary Persuasive speaking is a process of reinforcing of attitudes, beliefs and values that will lead to a consistent speech under the dissonance theory to avoid cognitive dissonance by understanding the Abraham Maslow theory in order to understand the audience needs so the speaker can choose appropriate topics for their persuasive speech.

My View: Persuasive Speaking: Types and Design (Based on the book “Confident Public Speaking” By Deanna D. Sellnow) Persuasive speakers develop an argument in support if a position on a topic. Both informative and persuasive speaker seeks to create mutual understanding about a topic but persuasive speaker influence the audience instead of the informative speaker who just only inform the audience but the importance part is that can the speaker leave a good impact to the audience. In order for a speaker to avoid from public speaking anxiety, the speaker needs to make sure he is fully prepared mentally and physically and the most important part is to understand the speech he or she want to talk about.

To shape your speech, speaker needs to know about the audience analysis such as when the audience agrees with you the speaker need to seek action such as the audience know that smoking is bad but the speaker explained it more deeply why is it bad, when your audience looks undecided speaker need to seek agreement such as when the audience do not agree smoking is bad but the speaker try as he or she can to convince the audience and when your audience opposes your position speaker need to seek incremental change by requiring their feedback with provide answer and question section, ask their opinion during a speech asking them yes or no. Dispositional persuasive speeches is to influence the audience by concentrating belief which is acceptance of true or false, attitude respond to favourably or unfavourably to something and value all the positive element been inserted in a speaker speech. Actuation persuasive speeches are designed to influence behaviour, this can be done by the speaker explain the nature of the topics and seek for their agreement such as explaining about demonstration then focus on the effects.

In effective speaking there are three type of claim that can be use in your thesis statement such as claim of fact by stating factual information example explaining history of a country, claim of value by judges a concept or action is it bad or good example Smoking is bad or Natural beauty is better than Fixing beauty and claim of policy which is by telling or asking the audience of the action that need to be taken such as “What should be done to have a free smoking environment in Malaysia”. Things that one speaker need to know when organizing your main points which is for Dispositional Persuasive speeches are topical, causal, narrative, refutative , comparative advantages, invitational problem and for Actuation speeches problem, solution, modified comparative advantages and Monroe’s motivated sequence. Summary

Persuasive speaking needs to influence audience, where speaker need to analyze the audience before choosing the speech topic to avoid from public speaking anxiety by using dispositional and actuation persuasive speech with the support of three kinds of claim fact, value and policy that lead to good main point arrangement based on Monroe’s motivated sequence. My View: Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: The Evolving Art” By Stephanie J Coopman) Persuasion relies on language in term official language use, images in term position or level, and others means of communication to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions. There three type of question when it comes to address ones persuasive speech.

Firstly are speeches on question fact in asking either is wrong or right and facts and inferences example when defendant did commit a murder, while the defence argues the defendant did not, second are the speeches on questions of value where shows the quality of a speech and lastly is speeches on questions of policy by asking what course of action should be taken or how a problem should be solved and all of this question have their organizational patterns for speeches by the standard knowing the topic, general purposes, specific purposes, thesis and main points which the speaker need to identified before delivering their speech and they need to use Monroe’s Motivated Sequence to focus on audience outcome when organizing ideas by following it step by step starting from attention, need, satisfaction, visualization and action in order to know the speakers action and audience response.

There is five type of audience in public speaking, first is the negative audience which disagree on your topics and here where the speaker responsible in changing their perspective, secondly is the positive audience which an open audience that eager in accepting and know new thing, thirdly is the divided audience which half will favour your speech and the other half not because of their different perspectives, furthermore is the uninformed audience are unfamiliar with your topic and have no opinion about such as explaining religious information to a non religious believer group and lastly the apathetic audience which they know about the topic but doesn’t want it to be applied to them example they know smoking is bad but they want to know what it can cause a person who smoke. As a speaker you must have good ethics when delivering your public speaking such as honesty, trustworthy ethics. Summary Persuasive speech use to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions with question of facts, values and policies using the Monroe’s Motivated Sequence to focus on audience outcome to faces the five type of audiences that is negative, positive, divided, uniformed and apathetic which help the speaker to develop their persuasive strategies.

My View: Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: Concept And Skills For A Diverse Society” By Clella Jaffe) Persuasion is consider a democracy act where is have been defined as the freedom of speech. When it comes to deliver your persuasive speech, a speaker need find their subject which selecting a topic that you assume that you know more better than anyone with categorizing it to the speaker strong beliefs example you beliefs that homosexuality community is not a good culture and it should be illegal, next speaker strong feelings such as what did the topic make you feel example mad, speaker social ideas such as what you want to change example by having only human nature relationship not homosexuality and speaker personal ideas such as way to handle a situation example by educating and provide religion classes for them to change.

Then a speaker can make a persuasive claims also known as a challenge with four types of claims, firstly are factual claims the claims to know either is it true or false which involve debatable points example question the existence of aliens, causal relationship evidence that a particular phenomenon that leads to it example from the father smoking and pass through it to his son or daughter and predictions either things going to happened or not example speaker persuade to prepare of the world end, secondly are value claims which is arguments about right or wrong, moral or immoral example is it good eating vegetables, and lastly policy claims is an argument about the need or the plan for taking action. Speaker also need to focus on beliefs and action when it comes to deliver their speech to the audience, this can be show when what we believe to be true affects how we act, if we look unconvinced and unfocused when we delivering a speech it shows that we know nothing or do not stand for the speech that we speak, as speaker we also need to ensure the element of consistency are in our speech so it will keep the audience and speaker to get going but if inconsistency happened the level of beliefs of the audience will slowly decrease by time to time.

The use of Monroe’s Motivated Sequence is to focus on audience outcome when organizing ideas by following it step by step starting from attention, need by gaining audience attention from the starting of the speech till the end of it, then the need step by inserted element of statement, illustration, ramifications and testimony, also satisfaction, visualization step and action in order to know the speakers action and audience response. There are four type of pattern first is direct method pattern where you make a claim, then directly state your reason to support it, secondly is comparative advantages pattern is a pattern use to compare its advantages to those of the competition, furthermore criteria satisfaction which is form a basis for judgements and lastly negative method pattern use to shows other proposal is wrong and you’re is right. Summary

Persuasive speech topics selection needs to have a subject that the speaker well known to ensure it have the claim of fact, value, definition or policy to use as a shield to argue with beliefs, actions, values and attitudes in understanding types of audiences using the appropriate pattern with the Monroe’s motivated sequence as a solution. My View: Principles of Persuasive Speaking (Based on the book “Public Speaking: An Audience-Centred Approach” By Steven A. Beebe and Susan J. Beebe) Persuasion is the process involves attitude, beliefs and value. As a speaker must always motivate their listener by using dissonance the consistent way of speaking rather the discomfort way of cognitive dissonance which an inconsistent speech.

Furthermore speaker need to fulfil the needs of its audience based on physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self esteem needs and self actualization needs based on the Abraham Maslow theory. There is a way speaker can motivate the audience by using positive motivation appeal such as a politician promise if he won the election he will granted all the people with money or by using negative motivation appeal which is by politician telling the audience if they don’t vote for him you will see the last of him in protecting his country. When developing your speech a speaker needs to choose a topic that he believes he can carry it and know the purpose by developing it then the speaker can put the persuasive principles into practice. Summary

Persuasive speech use to involve identify people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions with speaker dissonance not cognitive dissonance by understanding needs based on The Abraham Maslow theory using positive and negative motivation appeals to attract audience and it will help the speaker to choose the topic that will present in their speech. My View: Article: I speak because There’s a need by Frances James (On the book “The Challenge of Effective Speaking”) People when the time comes, that need us to do something, we will stand by it and let people hear our voices out loud where Frances James find herself in the situation where she need to speak the truth to the public in order to save her community that involving lots of moral issues problem such as gang bangers and drugs, high murdered activities and many more brutalize activities.

From her public speaking experience that she gained in her school have help her a lot in making the speech she talk as a successful event where she nailed it by answering all the press question and counter them with question such as lack of security level in her community where she throw a statement where she said police are busy out looking for stolen Mercedes but our kids been shot were never a serious issue to be concern. Because of her amazing speech people gathered with her with the number of 200 people when to the police department and handed the report to them. From here we can see that public speaking is important and persuasive speaking that she use have win her lots of audience and convince the community to open their eyes. Summary

Persuasive speaking is a medium of your voices and opinions to wins any type of audience hear which you stand for to save and protect them in order it can be heard hope that action will be taken to open their eyes and improve one’s life to become better. CONCLUSION Persuasive speaking talks a lot of the speaker trying to attract, convince and persuade the audience to agree with his or her word for their importance but what persuasive speaking contribute to the community have much more impact to this world without one realizing that it helps to develop the speaker in term of speaking which leads to creation and development of new ability, attribute and speciality, whereas for the speaker it will help them to retrieve new things and to be repeatable inform about things that they know which can help them to develop them become a well educated person.

Procrastination and College Students essay help app: essay help app

Have you ever put something off? Thinking “Oh, i’ll just do it tomorrow? ” Have you ever thought you were showing signs of a mental disorder by doing that? You’ve probably haven’t. Actions such as putting off your task until the next morning would be called procrastination. The definition of procrastination is the act of delaying or postponing something for another time. Procrastination can be either putting off work for something else that the person believes is more important or just to do something more pleasurable.

Procrastination is normally just considered a bad habit that unorganized or lazy people tend to undertake in their daily lives, but chronic procrastination may be the sign of an underlying psychological mental disorder. You can identify if you have procrastination with a number of symptoms and at a greater extent this disorder can even be treated. Many physiological studies have been done on procrastination and many people are trying to find the underlying cause for this disorder. It is a mental disorder that is not quite understood or accepted by many psychologists.

According to Timothy A. Pychyl Ph. D. , “Immediate mood repair” is controlled by the brain’s limbic system. This system controls automatic responses and is a dominant part of the brain. It can overpower the prefrontal cortex which is a decision-making part of the brain. The prefrontal cortex is what makes an individual decide to engage in a task. The longer the task is put off, the easier it is for the limbic system to dominate and give instant pleasure feelings which the body and mind prefer. It becomes more satisfying to not do the task because of this limbic system.

Because of this, people learn that procrastination feels better in the short term and this can begin to control how or when they choose to perform tasks. Procrastination has been thought to originate from our viral age with all our laptops, and smart phones, and facebook, but that’s not true. Procrastination has been around since ancient Greek and Roman times. The Greek poet Hesiod around the year 800 B. C. , promoted people to avoid procrastination and “to not put off your work till tomorrow and the day after.

” And for the Roman civilization, the consul Cicero called the act of delaying actions “hateful. ” Procrastination is just a part of human nature; we as humans are lazy, we try to find the easy way to do anything, and if we can’t do that, then we think that we’ll just do it tomorrow. But what is work? The definition of work is “activity involving mental or physical effort done in order to achieve a purpose or result. ” Therefore procrastination is tied together mentally and physically. The mental aspect of procrastination leads mostly to school. Procrastination is considered a student’s worst enemy.

Every student encounters the feeling of procrastination once or multiple times either as a bad habit or as a mental disorder. Students go through procrastination without even thinking about it, by putting off the less pleasurable for the more pleasurable. We all encounter the bad feeling of procrastination and wish to stop. We could think of procrastination as a dangerous disease feeding off our productivity. Procrastination begins rapidly as time becomes your worst “enemy. ” Looking at a blank piece of paper for English, a blank document for an essay, or even your other homework leads to laziness.

We could think its just a lazy bad habit, but actually we’re procrastinating. What happens next after staring down your blank piece of paper desperately wishing it was done? You “need” food, a drink, naptime, or even a “break” from stress so then you make a cup of coffee or something to eat. Before we know it, we watch television for a couple of hours. Then what? The homework didn’t get finished by itself! It’s still there collecting dust “watching” you procrastinate from this mental disorder or bad habit. Furthermore, procrastination leads into older adolescence which stems off of childhood.

People don’t realize how procrastination can affect their lives and frustrate their future self into adulthood. Generally, procrastination through older adolescence is the time of actually knowing if this is a chronic psychological disorder or just a lazy bad habit. Academic procrastination in college students is widespread. Procrastination negatively affects college students which impacts their learning along with overall achievements. When pushing off a task because they may be “busy” or have a more pleasurable task to do affects their organization of work.

Work among college students is not only academic work but also physical job work which is affected too. In addition, the Natural Remedies For Total Health “Procrastination Explained” by Michael Locklear shows that 95% of college students are trapped by procrastination. The more pleasurable tasks outweigh the challenging tasks that the college students have to do. By doing the more pleasurable task instead of the original task, a delay in preparations for exams or other assessments occurs which is known as “cramming. ” The term

cramming is “bestfriends” with procrastination amongst college students who encounter it. Cramming is when college students wait until the last minute, pulling an “all-nighter” in order to complete the task they had to do that they’ve already known about and had more than enough time to finish. A study reveals that 75% of college students admit themselves to be procrastinators with half of them stating that they procrastinate on a regular everyday basis. The question amongst college students is that is this just a bad habit?

, or is this a chronic psychological mental disorder? Well the answer is that it is a mental disorder that is not quite understood or accepted by many psychologists. For the further future self in adulthood may seem as a bad habit but actually as bad “habits” continuously happen out of laziness leads to chronic procrastination. This creates stress, depression, and anxiety throughout life which affects ambition to complete tasks due from this disorder. The future self encounters procrastination as a psychological disorder which is associated with perfectionism.

The definition of perfectionism is “refusal to accept any standard short of perfection. ” This is tied with procrastination negatively due from postponing tasks because the future self feels pressured to meet their high standards so they put off their task for a more pleasurable task. Procrastination in adulthood is a roadblock to complete fulfillment in all kinds of aspects. One may push aside a building job while others may push aside taxes along with other tasks. Then when the deadline is met, it creates a rush in perfectionism.

Studies have shown that procrastinators during their tax returns pay an average over $400 due to errors caused by waiting until the last minute confirmed by H&R Block. This concluded with overpayments in the United States government in 2002 by $437 million. This disorder impacts adulthood of individuals which causes a great deal of pressure. As a disorder, overwhelming evidence shows that individuals who wait until the last minute is averagely below 70% of effectiveness towards finalizing their task. Procrastination not only impacts the future self, it also impacts the individuals that are involved.

The future self in adulthood as job workers, Christmas shoppers, last-minute tax rushers, individuals who avoid seeking proper medical exams and treatments, teachers, or even scientists encounter procrastination as a bad habit or as a psychological disorder. Procrastination is a serious issue when one encounters it as a bad habit which can be a continuous action leading into the disorder. In many cases, it becomes a threat to the qualities of life towards the future self eating away the time it takes to complete the task. http://sidsavara. com/personal-productivity/procrastination/procrastination-survey-results

According to this survey, the results of why individuals procrastinate is about putting things off for a more pleasurable task. The question that many psychologists have is, why do people procrastinate? Is it a bad habit? Is it a disorder? Through the lives of individuals who procrastinate encounter the reasons of no time, it’s just not urgent, don’t feel like it, or not sure what to do. So what then leads for the final answer for procrastination? The number one reason why individuals procrastinate is that they don’t feel like doing the tasks they need to do so they push it off for other favorable tasks.

The results of the two graphs indicates for encountering procrastination is about self management. The lack of productivity is often tied with time management along with prioritization. Individuals know that the priority of their task is more important but they would rather do the more favorable task. Individuals know that the task needs to be completed but they don’t feel like doing it. This results with the bad habits or the chronic disorder of procrastination. Mental, emotional, and physical focus is important in order to overcome procrastination.

The top four reasons are no time, it’s just not urgent, don’t feel like it, and not sure what to do. When needing to complete a task, time management is very important. Individuals push aside their task due to “not having time”, which then leads into no ambition to do the task because it’s not urgent. Therefore that’s when the more favorable task is encountered. This creates pressure and stress which is overwhelming because now the question is “What to do? ” in addition of not knowing what to do results in pushing away the task. Then the fulfillment of what the individuals wanted to complete doesn’t happen.

As procrastination continuously happens, it results with the question of is it considered a chronic disorder or just a bad habit? Conclusion: Procrastination is a mind game that individuals may encounter of delaying or postponing something for another time. The solution is to outsmart procrastination which is harder to do in order to overcome the bad habit or mental disorder. It’s natural to get overwhelmed by a simple task but the key is to attack the task without pushing it off before procrastination becomes the enemy. Break each part of the task down as if it were to be “cutting a tree.

” Instead of looking at the task as a whole like a “tree,” cut down the “branches” first of each part of the task which will fade away the whole part. By taking away the idea of what you can’t do and replacing it with what you can do, it defeats procrastination. Make your view of the task as the quality rather than quantity so being overwhelmed by a task doesn’t occur. Try to use time as your “bestfriend” instead of an enemy. By doing so, procrastination will fade away by blocking out the more favorable tasks to do after the task is completed.

Procrastination is the worst enemy one may encounter and there are many questions that are accumulated with it for further research. Why does procrastination get to me so easily? What makes me a procrastinator? Do I just have a bad lazy habit by pushing off my task or do I have this psychological disorder? This mental disorder is not quite understood or accepted by many psychologists. An individual may encounter procrastination as a bad habit while others encounter it as a mental disorder which will eat away the task before it’s fulfilled. “Procrastination is ‘the art of keeping up with yesterday and avoiding today. ’ ” – Wayne Dyer

John F. Kennedy Analysis summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

President John F. Kennedy gave his inaugural address on a January afternoon in 1961. His speech includes many rhetorical devices—included to help convey Kennedy’s subject to his audience. The subject is that human rights are determined by God, rather than the government. Some rhetorical devices Kennedy uses are parallelism, anaphora, and hortative sentences. John F. Kennedy’s use of rhetorical devices within his inaugural address help him convey his message to his audience. John F. Kennedy uses parallelism in his inaugural address to help convey his message to his audience. Near the beginning of his speech John F.

Kennedy says that Americans will “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe,” in order to preserve liberty. This example of parallelism clarifies to the audience that Kennedy intends to do anything it takes to preserve liberty. Kennedy uses parallelism again in the nineteenth paragraph when he says that both sides of a conflict should join in creating “a new world of law, where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved. ” His use of parallel structure here tells the audience that Kennedy’s goal is to help all people, while securing freedom and peace.

Kennedy’s strongest use of parallelism is in the sixteenth through nineteenth paragraphs when he says, “Let both sides explore what problems unite us… Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms… Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science…Let both sides unite to… let the oppressed go free. ” This example of parallelism repetitively states the idea of unity between nations. John F. Kennedy uses anaphora in his inaugural address to help convey his message to his audience.

In the eighth paragraph he says, “not because the Communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right. ” He is pledging to help those who are less fortunate. His use of rhetoric tells the audience that John F. Kennedy will stand for what is right, rather than what is popular. Kennedy uses anaphora again in the twenty-second paragraph when he points out the struggle against poverty, tyranny, disease, and war, “not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need; not as a call to battle, though embattled we are.

” This example of rhetoric emphasizes that we must bear the burden of poverty, tyranny, disease, and war, rather than fight them. John F. Kennedy uses hortative sentence in his inaugural address to help convey his message to his audience. Calls to action make up a good portion of Kennedy’s speech. His repetitive use of “let both sides” signifies that he does not plan on doing this alone. His approach commands that citizens ask themselves what they can do to help. Kennedy’s diction is very motivating. He uses words such as “formulate” and “seek” and “unite”.

These words serve as commands for his audience to formulate a plan, seek the means to carry it out, and to ultimately unite. He says, “All this will not be finished in the first 100 days. Nor will it be finished in the first 1,000 days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin. ” Kennedy is telling his audience that his goals will take a long time to accomplish, but he is calling them to action to begin in taking measures to achieve his goals. His use of rhetoric gives the audience a hope for the future, and motivates them to do their part as citizens for the good of the future.

He persuades them in this way before giving his final call to action. Kennedy’s specific diction, effective rhetoric, and committed tone throughout his inaugural address reassure Americans of the intentions of their new president. His use of rhetorical devices proves to the citizens that he has strong intentions of increasing peace and establishing unity, by emphasizing hiss views, reinforcing his objectives, and calling Americans to action. John F. Kennedy’s use of rhetorical devices within his inaugural address help to convey his message to his audience.

How heredity and environment shap us essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Why am I so cold? Despite that numerous evidence have shown that nature and nurture are both responsible for the development of our personality, the nature and nurture concepts still stir up a lot of controversy. It is more important to know not to focus on how each affects us independently, but rather how they both interact with one another to create the unique individuals that we are. We each have different experiences as to the amount of effectiveness nature or nurture has in shaping us. When it comes to my own personality, I know that it has been greatly affected by nurture. The ancient nature vs.

nurture controversy pertains to the discussion whether our personality is an aspect that is predetermined by our genes (the nature theory), or is it the environment, for example experiences and learning processes, that make us behave the way we do (the nurture theory). Evidence has proven that both nature and nurture affect our personality. We are born with certain abilities and traits and nurture takes these inborn tendencies to mold us as we experience life, learn new things and gradually mature. The question is now how much of our personality is influenced by genes and how much by the environment.

It is an endless discussion that has been going on for years and yet might still rage on for many years to come. Supporters of nature say that personality has been passed down through our genes from generation to generation. Children, for example, resemble their parents by their physical appearance (like the same eye color, double chin, or skin complexion) and also by their more abstract traits (such as intelligence, extroversion, or aggression), and are also automatically in the future more susceptible to the same diseases as their parents (such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus).

Joseph Le Doux, an author and professor of neural science at the New York University Center for Neural Science, points out in his article “Nature vs. Nurture: the Pendulum Still Swings with Plenty of Momentum” that the importance of genes has been proven with animals as well, for example, the way animal breeders utilize a process called controlled mating to breed dogs to get a desired behavior (1). Dogs are supposedly hunters until domesticated from the grey wolves thousands of years ago.

Many breeds have been created since then to accommodate humans as herders, to pull loads, for protection, to assist police with investigations, to aid handicapped individuals or just for companionship. These dogs have been bred under close supervision and with a great amount of care through several generations to get the desired behavior. Furthermore, in an article “Nature vs. Nurture? Please don’t ask,” Mark Henderson, a Science Editor of The Times, mentions an experiment involving identical and fraternal twins.

Fraternal twins were used because they are on a genetic level the closest related to one another than regular siblings. Both kinds of twins share the same environment. The results show that the identical twins share the same characteristics while the fraternal twins show less similarity with each other. The reason for this is because identical twins share their entire DNA and the fraternal twins share only half (2-3). This experiment is another indication that personality is innate.

An additional supporting argument is by Steven Pinker, an experimental psychologist, linguist, author and professor at Harvard College, who states in his book The Blank Slate that people are born with skills and aspects of personality that can only be the result of heredity, for example, the capability of children to learn a language so easily must have an innate connection (148). Children have the ability for easy language acquisition, because of the unique structure of the speak organs that we humans possess.

They have the ability to learn to speak very quickly, being that they have a vocabulary of 2000 words at age 5, which will double at the age of 7. Besides, language is unique to humans and that can only be because of inherited genes. Supporters of nurture say that we develop a personality as we live through life by experience, learning and interactions with our environment. What we inherit can change over time, for example, the influence that parents have on us when we were children and probably still even now as adults.

They have taught us manners that we are expected to apply to our lives. If we were to act rude, punishment would be the tool to get us to the right path. This shows that synaptic plasticity is important in the development of our personality. People are born with preprogrammed synaptic links that are connected with each other in order for the brain to communicate. As we grow through life, we go through different experiences, which alter (either changing or improving) the synaptic links to accommodate us.

This is called synaptic plasticity, a process that results in a change in behavior (Le Doux 1). At some point it was also thought that we are born blank slates, meaning that we are born without innate traits in our minds (completely empty minds). Our knowledge will come from experience from our parents and society as we grow each day (Pinker 148). When a baby is born, for example, we can shape it to become anything we want from a doctor to the most infamous thief on earth.

There are no genetics involved but just an influencing environment. Research and experiment also believe that our childhood experiences and learning processes throughout life determine our mindset (Henderson 3). Identical twins, for example, actually rarely share 100 per cent of their DNA with each other and that their IQ scores only show around 70 percent similarity. This is an indication that there must be another factor (nurture) besides inheritance that plays a role in the development of our personality.

When compared to my parents, I can see that nature has an input in my physical traits and personality as well. I am definitely a split image of my mother; we both have broad shoulders, wavy black hair, high cheekbones, slanted eyes, and a round face. Other than having the same shape hands and freckles, my father and I do not have a lot in common physically. My brother on the other hand resembles my father more. The only physical trait that my brother and I have in common is the slanted eyes.

Attitudes like friendliness, generosity, loyalty, honesty, respectfulness, and thoughtfulness towards others are characteristics that I have in common with my brother and my parents. I am also very humble, caring, modest and kind like my mother. When it comes to nurture I see that in my case it’s noticeable that I have other personality traits which I cannot find on either my parents or my brother, such as ambition, determination, and awareness of opportunities. I can see clear similarities in personality between my brother and my parents.

They, for example, take life with a grain of salt, living a laid back life surrounded by friends and engaging in parties, while I am constantly worrying about the future and finding ways on how to improve my life and secure my and my children’s future. Even though, my brother and I are born from and raised by the same parents, yet we do not have the same personality. The only difference between he and I is that my brother has stayed with my parents for a much longer time than I did. I had a great desire for independence and went on my own when I was only 18 years old.

My environment changed and I was exposed to different experiences from which I have learned so much more and which have changed my perception about life over time. As I matured in life, I also notice that I have become less friendly and less trustworthy of people. One example is that I was a friendly individual before I came to the United States. I always had a smile on my face and knew everyone and everyone knew me. As soon as I got to New York City, I realized that I had to change the way I was. I was very depressed because I did not understand why I could not just be myself.

After carefully observing my environment, I learned that being too friendly in New York City unfortunately only makes me an easier target to crime. My personality has changed from being friendly and trustworthy to less friendly and more guarded due to survival. Nature and nurture shape us to who we are today, but nurture does more of the work than nature. We are born with a set of traits, which lay the foundation to the individuals we are and any new trait would be impossible to experience unless there is change to our genetic material.

These inherited traits are constantly changing as we grow older, because the environment influences us by altering and developing us even more over time. Henderson agrees that “Nature works through nurture, and nurture through nature, to shape our personalities, aptitudes, health and behaviour” (3). We need both to make us who we are, because they definitely go hand in hand. As I look at myself now and revisit my experiences from the very first day that I can remember to the present, I admit that nature is just as important as nurture in developing the woman that I am today.

In my particular case it is obvious and fair to say that the environment I have been exposed to throughout my life impacted me more than nature actually did, and will still do so as long as I live. After all said and done, people will still have their own opinion about nature and nurture, which means that this debate will last for a (long) while. It is quite clear that personality is indeed caused by genes and environment, not individually, but together as proven. A gene though may make us behave a certain way, but it does not make us do things. Don’t we still have the option to choose who we want to be when we grow up?

“Chicago” writing an essay help: writing an essay help

Prohibition-era musical based on a 1926 play of female criminals in Chicago. It is a tale of sin, corruption, knockout dancing, and edge-of-your-story showstoppers that explore feminism as well as the relationship between sex and marriage. Not only does it entail social issues, but the changes in theatre too.

Roxie Hart and Velma Kelly are main characters of the musical. The plot follows them throughout their journey to freedom desperately trying to keep fame to their names with scandals and drama. (1920s)

Original: Based on a 1926 play by Maurine Dallas Watkins. A claimed reason for its more recent success is due to the way she crafted the play, with musical numbers as the plot. Watkin’s set the foundation on the Kander and Ebb production because she made personal. Events that occurred within the musical, are historical events that actually happened in Chicago that she wrote about first hand as a reporter in the 1920s. It is composed in the 1920s vaudeville style, but modernized by the issues at hand. The issues of society along with the feminist views exhibit Chicago’s impact in the history of musical theatre.

Emphasized show-biz and media, showing its large role in the 1970s happenings. The vaudeville style effected the music heavily. Stylistically, vaudeville brings not only drama, but comedy in the duration of the short acts. All That Jazz is an example of this.

Everything Comes Together: The lyrics work beautifully with the choreography to create the thematic essence that is necessary in a successful satirical musical. The plot is intricately intertwined with these two aspects to emphasize its uniqueness. The dancing seems more modern whereas the music is classic jazz, but it adds to the originality that is Chicago. It is a timeless musical. Humor. The relationships between men and women within the play are being implicitly exhibited.

Creative Team: Witty lyrics, funky rhythms, jazzy Risk-aye choreography for the time frame it was set in. Dancing: sexual and expressive

The creators carefully seleted the cast members in order to pull off this special masterpiece.

Vaudeville was a theatrical genre of variety entertainment popular in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s. Each performance was made up of a series of separate, unrelated acts grouped together on a common bill.

Roxie: It’s about her claim to fame. “Who says that murder’s not an art,” this line emphasizes the thought which, during this time period, many women felt that murder was not all that bad. It was justifiable. Killing Fred Casely is what initially brought her publicity. Moreover, Roxie is singing about how everyone is going to know her; she will be a celebrity with a lot of money. In the song she says the reason everyone love to watch because they “never got enough love in their childhood,” meaning that they share a twisted acceptance of rebellion. The song shows how celebrity hungry and selfish she is in general. Towards the end of the number she references Sophie Tucker, a former vaudevillian, saying how she will be enraged to see Roxie’s name has more of an effect than hers. This aspect of the song shows the harsh side of show business and interestingly enough she tells the truth in the song, which contrasts the theme of corruption. All That Jazz:

ATJ is a clever, brassy jazz song that introduces the cultural changes going on in Chicago. The music consists of mostly brass instruments, for impact. Velma Kelly sings about the theme of liberation of women. Adultery, showing skin, exotic dancing, and short hair are all things that were arising. All That Jazz is performed right after Velma murders her sister and husband and it vocalizes her new independence as a women. The choreography along with the lyrics showcase how suggestive and sexual the song is towards the audience.

Mr. Cellophane: Roxie’s husband, Amos, sulks about how not only his wife, but everyone he comes to know, hardly notices him. He feels invisible, like cellophane. His character represents the little people that tend to be forgotten once fame comes into the picture. Amos showed Roxie all the attention she craves, but it goes by unappreciated and unrecognized.

Culture and Diversity in Decision Making essay help for free: essay help for free

The definition of the mission and goals of the enterprise is the foundation for any business. Mission – is the answer to the question, what is the activity of the company is and what it intends to do. Procter & Gamble has a pretty clear statement: “We are there to improve your life” After the mission, the organization needs to define the purpose. In this case, the goal – to produce goods and services of the highest quality and customer value that improve the lives of today’s and future generations around the world. Consumers help to take a leading position in terms of sales, to ensure the prosperity of the business that contributes to the well-being of employees and shareholders, as well as those areas where employees live and work. The goal unites workers for the common cause of the growth strategy. It has great potential due to a simple idea to improve on daily lives of consumers around the world. It is this setting allows P & G to achieve maximum full growth. So, from the above we can highlight the important goals of the company: A. Providing quality products, customer focus;

B. Creating a stable, growing company. 3. About the P&G company’s culture signs. The company provides a certain amount of self – dependence divisional governance structure that provides greater flexibility and faster response to changes in the business environment compared to the linear and linear- staff. Managerial responsibility for the activities of the company both in the domestic and foreign market is shared between them. This type of structure combines centralized coordination and control of centrally managed. Key figures in the management of an organization with a divisional structure – not heads of functional units, and the managers in charge of the production department, the so-called divisions. The company groups are formed by categories, each of which includes experts in marketing, sales and advertising. These narrow specialists provide each its part under the direct control of the manager category.

The level of the manager is very high. 4. Factors that caused the organization to embody this particular culture. P&G company has been working toward keeping its reputation and standards in all field. Since it was established, P&G has built rich heritage of touching consumers’ lives with brands that make life a little better every day. Here is to motto says “Do the Right Thing – For each other” The culture of the company is based on the basic moral and ethical values – leadership, striving for the victory, the host’s respect, honesty and trust. These values are not something abstract – they define the actions of the company. 5. What type of leader would be the best?

In my opinion there are many reasons that this leader structure will be effective. First, as part of a huge company it managed to create an environment where every employee is interesting to work with. The responsibility of each employee, including the manager is the main driving force effectiveness. And this is the result of the constructed system of management, whose main task is to create conditions for the moral and material interests of each employee. Second, the complexity of management and collective management style in this company is proposed to use a single control method. The management system is structured in a complex of functional subsystems. That is, they include highlights key subsystems within each of which formed goals, measurable indicators are introduced, developed a system for calculating them are formalized standards, business processes and organizational procedures.

Disconnected from the management of the business functions of the company’s managers are moving to a collective system of integrated management of business functions. 6. Imagine that there is a decline in the demand of products. What the change in culture would be need to be in response to this situation. I think company’s CEO should work with the sale’s department. Look up their regular planning and control of the department and its employees, hiring, selection and adaptation of staff; employee motivation, training, exchange of experience, the general debriefing, evaluation of the department, the calculation of cost of sales, cost of sales regulation, evaluation of individual performance of employees. In one word they have to find out their mistake and fix it, because without a reason demand not decreasing itself.

References CNBC television channel – Documentary film about Procter & Gamble company. Retrieved from Charan, R. (2008, August 26). P&G’s innovation culture: How we built the world-class organic growth engine by investing in people.

Retrieved from Procter and Gamble. (2013). Our worldwide business conduct manual. Retrieved from Conduct_Manual.pdf Schermerhorn, J. R. (2012). Organizational behavior (12th ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Perfect in an Imperfect World essay help for free: essay help for free

Imagine long blonde hair, perfect tan skin, a tall slender body with perfect measurements and outfits that only accentuate the perfect features. It might be hard, or impossible, to bring to mind a human being who could fit these characteristics. If I were to say, long blonde hair, perfect tan skin, a tall, slender body with perfect measurements and outfits that only accentuate her plastic body, what comes to mind now? Young children have received Barbie dolls as gifts for many years. Many times the buyer of these toys only pay attention that it is just a toy, something any young child would love to play with. Barbie, although, should not just be viewed as just a toy, but also poor influence on children’s body image. Many factors of Barbie affect how a young child can perceive body image. The Barbie’s body measurements and proportion, and overall appearance can all be factors in distorting young children’s self-image.

We live in a world where no two people are the same. People come in all shapes and sizes, whether that is weight related or height related, however, Barbie only comes in one size. With the body measurements of Barbie being 36-18-33, referring to bust, waist and hips, many children begin to think that this is in fact, the correct body image. The question is, why would we want to supply a young generation with a doll whom they are likely to idolize, but can never reach her appearance? Authors Dittmar, Halliwell and Ive’s research (2006) found that girls who were exposed to Barbie’s at a young age, were found to have lower self-esteem along with a desire to have a thinner body (p. 284). This research supports my position that the Barbie dolls promotes children to believe that these small measurements are necessary to have a good body image. It is important to teach children that there is not one specific body type that is the correct and that everyone will have different proportions, but that’s what makes us unique and beautiful.

The world is imperfect. Nothing nor no one has seen perfection or will ever reach perfection. It is important to realize that along with providing these unrealistic body measurements, bad body image is also fueled with Barbie’s appearance such as the perfect hair and complexion. Children notice the small things, as they are so attentive to the world around them because they are learning every second of the day.

The traditional Barbie doll has the typical long blonde hair and perfectly bronzed skin. By promoting this look most often in their dolls, this can lead children to believe that these attributes are what make a person attractive. Personally, growing up I had a box of around twenty Barbie dolls. My favorite thing to do with them was to brush their hair and put pretend makeup on their skin. Although at a young age I was less aware of what complexion was, I was familiar with my hair. I always loved that Barbie has the long flowing golden locks, which made me long for hair just like my favorite toy, believing that this is what was pretty. At a young age, I felt deficient in looks because I had exactly the opposite hair color that my favorite doll had. Is it possible that other girls, as I did, find themselves feeling not good enough because they cannot match the perfect beach blonde hair of Barbie?

Barbie dolls have been a popular toy for many young children. They offer a friendship and someone they can look up to, who seems to lead the ultimate life with slender body measurements and an overall perfect appearance. Although it has been a toy that many enjoy, it can also have negative affects on the young children who idolize the appearance of the Barbie doll. These unrealistic expectations of what a woman or young adult is supposed to look like leads the young toy owners to believe that this is what they need to look like.

My position is also mentioned by Thomas (2006) who points out that Barbie’s body has a large influence on what we perceive as the epitome of a perfect figure, even though her body does not resemble the female population in the slightest bit (p. 27). In order to prevent bad self-image, I find it important that the suppliers of the dolls to the children offer reassurance that everyone is beautiful in their own way. This is possible with verbal reminders or by investing in the new Barbie dolls that provide different appearances such as brown hair, red hair, or even the new, more realistic curvy Barbie. While still letting children play with this beloved doll, and providing assurance that not one specific look defines a population, it is possible to avoid a cause of negative self-image that we commonly see today.

The Odyssey – Role of Women gp essay help: gp essay help

Although women occupied an entirely different position in society compared to men, they too held a certain sphere of influence and power; they simply exerted it in ways that were distinct from men’s strategies.

By observing the many female characters in The Odyssey, for example; Penelope, Circe, and Calypso, we are able to understand that back then women were inferior to men yet they had power in that they were able to draw men in so quickly and easily (for example sirens, they sing so beautifully that men get drawn in from lust for these things with such beautifull voices, but the sirens are killers and they kill any man on a ship that passes), also they are portrayed as being very wise in The Odyssey, Athena’s appositive most of the time is “bright-eyed Athena” which is portraying that as the godess of wisdom, even in disguise, as mentor etc.

, she still has her bright sparkling eyes which portray her as a very wise woman. This is the same with Penelope as she is portrayed as wise throughout most of The Odyssey. By examining the character of Penelope, the wife of Odysseus, one can see just how women exerted their power and influence in The Odyssey and to what ends. Penelope uses clever cunning and sexual charm to toy with men’s emotions and to meet her own needs while she is waiting for her husband to return from battle.

On one hand, she represents motherly characteristics – mothers in The Odyssey are seen as the givers of pity and sorrow rather than true “supporters” of their sons and husbands in terms of military or personal quests. Mothers as seen throughout The Odyssey are women in need of support and guidance as they are weak and fragile, without a steady male hand to guide them, these women apppear to be lost and inconsolable. – but she also has some of the traits associated with the seductresses seen in The Odyssey, such as Circe and Clytemnestra.

Following the role of a mother figure, Penelope mourns her lost love, seemingly oblivious (at first) to the attentions of the suitors. One major role of women in The Odyssey is their roles as seductresses. When Odysseus’ crew arrives on Circe’s island, they are attracted to Circe’s house because of the alluring voice of the beautiful but monstrous goddess. Homer describes her as “singing in a sweet voice as she went up and down a great design on a loom, immortal such as goddesses have, delicate and lovely and glorious in their work. ” (Book 10, Line 221) Odysseus’ men respond to this by calling onto her and entering her house.

The men’s desire for Circe allows the goddess to exploit their weaknesses, trick them, and magically turn them into swine. Odysseus, only, with the help of a protective drug and advice provided by Hermes, goes to rescue his men from Circe’s island. He follows Hermes’ exact instructions and when the goddess attempts to strike him with her sword, he lunges at her. Odysseus draws his sword and says, “Swear me a great oath that there is no other evil hurt you devise against me. ” (Book 10 Line 344) Homer has Odysseus draw his sword at this moment; perhaps he aims to show how a woman’s appeal and sexuality is a threat to male dominance.

Such interactions between men and women add a certain dynamic to the epic and make it more interesting and easier for the reader to identify with the story. Although, Odysseus is very sly and resourceful, many times even he finds himself lost when he is in these types of situations with seductive women. Odysseus was so infatuated with Circe that he remained on her island for a year, completely forgetting about going home until his men convinced him to leave. One other moment when we see the importance of gender in The Odyssey is during Odysseus’ seven-year stay with Calypso on her island.

When Odysseus relays the story of Calypso, he changes the story slightly to give the perception that he was held prisoner and lamented the entire time he was there. However, Homer gives us some insight when he says; “the nymph was no longer pleasing to him. ” (Book 5, Line 153) which implies that at some point Odysseus did enjoy himself with the goddess on the island. Calypso offered him immortality and a life of ease. When Odysseus was exhausted with this lifestyle and longed for his wife and homecoming, Calypso tried to use her wiles to convince him to stay with her.

She compares herself to Odysseus’ wife Penelope saying, “I think I can claim that I am not her inferior either in build or stature, since it is not likely that mortal women can challenge the goddesses for build and beauty. ” (Book 5, Line 211) When Odysseus still longs to return home, Calypso forces him to stay on the island. This is against the ideals of Homeric Greek women. Calypso diplays a dominant and manipulative side, which is another threat against male dominance. Calypso’s ability to impede Odysseus’ voyage for seven years, signifies the belief

that powerful women can create danger. In this situation, Homer tells us, if a woman does not accept her place as an impuissant, she is likely to slow down or prevent a man from reaching his goals. The Homeric Greek men consider women valuable but only to satisfy their physical needs. Zeus eventually sends Hermes as a messenger to command Calypso to allow Odysseus to return home. Calypso complains that the gods are allowed to take mortal lovers while someone always interferes with the affairs of the goddesses. Calypso complains about this double standard but eventually meets Zeus’ request.

This is an excellent example of the male biased Homeric Greek society. This epic is dependant on the role of women. It is difficult to completely judge the beliefs about gender roles in Greek culture based solely on The Odyssey. At times, the roles and actions of women in this poem show the male chauvinist view, that they are objects of beauty and have to succumb to manipulation and trickery to accomplish a goal. There are other times when a woman’s strength and intelligence come through. Homer uses this interplay to make the epic more interesting and develops an underlying theme of a battle of the sexes.

Vostok Ice core report college essay help: college essay help

Abstract: Global warming has been widely discussed all around the world as it is an issue that affects the living of all mankind in the world. It is argued that the ‘anthropogenic’ changes posse more influence on the climate change to the Earth, compared to the ‘naturally driven’ glacial and interglacial changes in temperature. This report is based on the Vostok Core by faculty at Columbia University as an example for us to investigate global climate change. Author of this report believes global warming is just part of the long term temperature fluctuation during the interglacial period as there is no convincing and valid evidence that shows human activities are the only reason of the raise of global mean temperature.

Introduction: This report is written to summarize the findings of the Vostok Ice-core lab, based on the data obtained in the ice-core. It mainly addresses the relationship between the composition of ice core and temperature change. Moreover, the controversy of main reason of global warming will be discussed.

Method: In this report, the data is obtained from the Vostok core drilled in East Antarctica, at an altitude of 3488m. The ice core has a total length of 2083m. In the sample, the temperature, composition of CO2, CH4, and dust in different each ice sheet layer is recorded. Through investigating the relationship between the composition of CO2, CH4, dust and the age of ice and gas, the paleoclimate including local temperature can be shown. It shows the fluctuation of climate in the past hundreds of thousands of years.

Due to limited resources and technology in the past, it is difficult to measure and record the climate data hundreds of thousands years ago. Through investigating ice sheets that were trapped in the ancient snow, climate data hundreds of thousands of years ago can be estimated.

The reason of using the ice sheet drilled at the East Antarctic as sample as the location is less disturbed by anthropogenic activities. With that being the case, it can be a proxy that shows the temperature in the past. Ice layers are formed in different part of time. The oldest layer of ice is formed at the base of the ice core and the youngest ice layer is formed at the top of the core. By seeing the composition of different ice age and gas age, the climatic data in the past can be estimated.

By generating plots and graph from the given data, we can see that the amount of CO2, dust and CH4 keeps fluctuating throughout different ice age. By comparing the three graphs, there are no similar patterns. It seems that the fluctuation is random. CO2, dust and CH4 are the main greenhouse gas and agent in the atmosphere that trap heat in the Earth. The global mean temperature is rising since the 18th century. Yet, there is no particular change of the composition of CO2, dust and CH4, which is mainly produced by human activities. To conclude, the amount of CO2, dust and CH4 cannot be an evidence to show that human activities are the main reason of the rising temperature in the Earth. The limitation of the data is that the ice core may not reflect the reality of the climate in that ice age. For example, for the data related to the gas age, it is assumed that the bubbles of gas are effectively trapped on the old layer of ice sheet.

Discussion: To a small extent, the data in the Vostok Lab can show that human activities are the main cause of global warming. Firstly, the data obtained is only estimation from the ice core. It is not an exact data that is record in the past. There are other factors that may alter the composition of the ice core. Formation of the ice core could be affected by other factors, like the weather at that time, landscape, external process, etc.

With that being the case, the ice core could not be a convincing data that show the climate change. Moreover, the fluctuating and irregular pattern cannot show the influence of the change of global temperature change, even when we consider the ice core as a valid evidence. CO2, dust and CH4 are the main source of greenhouses gases, which are produced mainly by human activities. If that is the case, the composition of CO2, dust and CH4 should be coherent to the change of temperature of the Earth. Yet, it is not shown from the data. Moreover, there are lots of different factors that keep affecting the temperature of the Earth. The energy of the sun, the albedo effect, Milakovitch Cycles, plate tectonics are the examples of the factors that affect the temperature.

Conclusion To conclude, based the given data, it is difficult to prove that anthropogentic changes are stronger than the glacial and interglacial changes in temperature, as there are not enough valid evidence from the lab. Studying climate change is not a short term issue. However, due to the limited technology level and the knowledge of the Earth, we could not obtain concise data to investigate the climate change. The ice core could be one of the proxies that help us to understand the climatic condition in the past. It is suggested to compare more other proxies, in order to draw conclusion of the main reason and the trend of climate change.

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