The microeconomic theory explains perfect competition as a market structure that both buyers and sellers have the power to set the price of the homogenous product. The taxi industry in Athens could be considered as one is that there are a large number of firms each with an insignificant share in the market. This is because a taxi cab cam only transports an average of five people in a trip at a go, therefore a truly small extent clearly, since increasing the number of passengers has no effect on the cost of gas. Taxi services are offered by a wide range of companies such as Apollon, Enotita, Aseteras, Glyfada and Athina 1 as well as international ride-sharing companies such as Uber. However, uber offers its service as only UberTAXI after it suspended the UberX service after a change in legislation which imposed stricter regulation on the sector.
The is a positive economic impact of the Taxi industry in Athens. How is the taxi industry in the city of Athens an illustration of a perfect competition market?
The theory to be researched in depth include the following:
Characteristics of a perfect competition market
Externalities of the taxi industry and how it conforms to perfect competition market
The data used will be gathered through secondary sources. These secondary sources include economic textbooks, newspaper articles, government publications and research from think tanks such as KEPE. These sources will inform the formulation and findings of the research.
Characteristics of perfect competition
The taxi market has grown at a fast speed, owing to its increasing demand sharing and the ability to book for taxis on online booking applications. In recent years innovations in technology have evolved the taxi business, these involve making bookings and payments via smartphones.
Nevertheless, conditions present for perfect competition are strict, it results in there being a few perfectly competitive markets which entail the following assumptions.
In the market, there is a large number of buyers and sellers in the firm, and therefore the seller can only supply a small part in the total production of the service offered in the market. As a result, neither customers nor the sellers can affect the prevailing prices since no single firm can neither influence the market price nor the market conditions present. Therefore price is determined by market forces of demand and supply and each firm would consider the price as given below:
AR= average revenue
The demand curve for the market would be firmly inelastic, indicating that the taxis can sell any amount of output at the prevailing market prices. This demand is because every single firm is said to be a price taker, and uses the stipulated price for the whole industry. No firm can set their prices any higher given the fact that they will not be able to sell their products at all and neither can the rational seller lower it below the market price as well given the fact that it can sell its commodities at the prevailing market price.
Subsequently, there is perfect knowledge of the firm. This knowledge is due to the availability of information freely about the firm devoid of time lags in the flow of information, for example, the fare prices for taxis, which means risk-taking is minimal, and the entrepreneurs’ roles are limited. So if a taxi company like Apollon were to hike its rates above the market price, a substantial substitution effect would take place mainly if the quality of service is relatively similar to that offered by other competitive taxis in the market. Many of its customers would replace their option of using its services and opt for a cheaper alternative to other taxis services like Enotita or Glyfada. For that reason, it is assumed that both the buyer and the seller will make coherent decisions to maximize their self-interests, with customers looking to maximize utility while the sellers maximize on profit.
Into the bargain, the perfect knowledge elucidates the lack of aggressive product promotion through advertisement, and it is also marketed by word of mouth by their customers from one’s personal experiences, influencing heavily the decision to choose whose services to use to achieve an optimal level of satisfaction. This satisfaction is achieved by satisfying the users’ experience in providing the service by taxi drivers.
Additionally, this market structure is also characterized by ease of entry and exit into the industry. The decision for taxi companies to join or leave the market by a firm is profoundly made by the firm themselves, with the reasoning behind this theory is that if super-normal profits are arising from the industry. New firms attracted into the industry due to the earnings that the already existing firms are amassing as this is made possible by freedom of entry and exit into the industry. This results to shift in the supply curve whose effect is felt as it lowers the prices. Due to the availability of supply, its impact in turn results in a decrease in price thus super-normal profits deteriorates to healthy profits in the long run. This deterioration gradually continues until the economic profit approaches zero consequently prompting firms to exit the industry. If the firms do not register any profits, they may leave the market as there are no exit barriers. Therefore, the market is open to invasion by new competition at any time but later on affects the long run profit margin made by each firm in the industry (BC Eaton, The Economic Journal pp7)
Last but not least, there is the mobility of factors of production. Factors of production include labor, capital land, and investment. Mobility in factors of production exists either vertically or horizontally, and its flexibility depends on the mobility of said factors. Mobility can be classified into three main categories:
a) Geographical mobility
b) Horizontal mobility
c) Occupational mobility
This geographical essentially means that the factors of production change in the site they are located in, except land which is geographically immobile. For example labor, a taxi driver can pick up a passenger from the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and take them to the Benaki museum easily due to the mobility of the driver.
This points towards the desire of laborers for moving from one industry to another but in the same place but still retaining the same occupation.
It is a complex mode of mobility for factors of production with the reason being that it necessitates knowledge and technological efficiency, experience and dynamism. The invention of new technological advancements and their use in the industry among the labor force that may require the provision of training and reorientation. For instance, the emergence of uber taxis services that enables a client to call for a taxi up to where they are situated rather than the hailing of taxis, where the client can assess the quality of service and even rate the driver as well.
However, mobility can also be subdivided into two more compartments as it seeks to explain the mobility of its factors of production.
If compared to labor, capital has less mobility, but the capital goods are used to produce different types of goods and services. Additional income is pumped into the market either via investments or plowing back profits and transferred to the taxi industry if there are signs of development. So capital has the mobility to bring about changes in the volume of production.
The land is immobile and hence cannot experience mobility as a factor of production as it cannot shift from one area to another but the yield is originating from it may be shifted to different areas. This land is considered also to possess the characteristic of mobility. This mobility enables a way to introduce new techniques and increase their output in the market
Benefits of perfect competition.
It can be argued that perfect competition yields the following benefits:
Only normal profits are realized; hence sellers cover their opportunity cost.
Expenditure on advertising is not necessary since there is perfect knowledge of the market and can also rely on word of mouth as a means of product promotion by their customers depending on the experience their customers had with them.
Due to perfect knowledge, there is no lack of information as its evenly shared between all participants.
Existing firms cannot develop any monopoly power as there are no barriers to entry in the market.
Perfect competition can achieve the maximum possible consumer surplus and economic welfare as well.
There is a maximum allocation and production efficiency when the equilibrium occurs where price (P) =marginal cost (MC). This equilibrium means that the production is achieved at the lowest resource cost possible given the level of production of other products.
Externalities in the market for taxis in Athens as a perfect competition
Although the taxi market possesses a lot of the attributes present in perfect competition, it also lacks in some as well. It is assumed that there are no externalities in the production and consumption of services in the perfect competition market and therefore no variance in cost the social and private expenses incurred as well as its benefits. However, there are small inconsistencies in the taxi market concerning perfect competition.
The taxi sector in Athens has been regulated in terms of fare and entry control, with its objectives being to correct certain shortcomings in the taxi market. An essential distinction in the different modes of taxi distinction is amongst quantity regulation, quality regulation and the ethics of market conduct regulation. Quality regulation encompasses the standards of the vehicles, driver as well as the operator. Therefore, this is more of a safety regulation measure to ensure the wellbeing of the clients using taxis as their preferred means of transport and driver as well. It also looks to safeguard the company’s car is up to par and safe for use as commercial means. Quality regulations on the other hand mainly include price regulations and entry restrictions while market conduct regulation consists of rules regarding the picking up of passengers, modes of conducting themselves professionally or even an association with a radio network.
Firstly, there are barriers to entry and exist, a quantity regulation. Restrictions of entry to the taxi market have been incorporated in many cities around the world like Athens, but in hindsight, they have been degrading their markets with the most common explanation being the protection of taxi drivers incomes. Other reasons include environmental concerns such as air and noise pollution caused by the circulation of taxis within the city. As a result, the most common tool for inhibiting entry is charging relatively high prices for the acquisition of taxi licenses, therefore, creating an escalating difficulty in acquiring authenticated licenses. According to the Ministry of Transport in Greece, a specific percentage of ownership of the overall licenses in a particular area will be issued with Athens receiving only 5% whereas half of the taxis in Greece are located in the city of Athens (GRReporter 06/10/11). This regulation means that they set restrictions on the supply of taxis following the city’s acreage and populous. By increasing the difficulty in acquiring licenses or significantly raise management cost, local authorities can control the number of taxies in the city and at the same time gain revenue from taxes collected.
In addition to other factors also make it difficult for taxi drivers such as rise in price of gasoline as has the consumption tax imposed on fuel while still amid of security safety concerns such embezzlement by their customers, bad weather hampering their ability to carry on with their job harassment by traffic officials as well as car breakdown.
Secondly, there is an avid government interference case in point the Greek Transport Ministry Bill to restrict taxi apps. This interference may force E-platforms offering taxi services to shut down according to Greek daily TA NEA, app developers offering ride-hailing services were required to have entered in a three-year contract with taxi drivers and operate as taxi companies. Also, the government might enforce quotas on the number of taxies within a city.
The graph is an illustration of the effect of enforcing a quota on many taxis in the city. This effect causes the equilibrium quantity to shift to the left from Q0 to Q1 and hence the price at which the passengers have to pay shifts from P0 to P1.
Furthermore, irrational pricing and differentiated service are also an externality of perfect competition in the taxi market. Since it necessitates that the taxi driver is the price taker and has no impact on the market price whatsoever and that the prevailing market price is determined solely by the forces of demand and supply thus creating a perfectly elastic demand curve and that the profit maximization point should be where marginal revenue (MR) = marginal cost(MC). Nonetheless, the existence of franchising of taxis has affected the market price since not all drivers own the vehicles they use and not all vehicle owners drive the taxis. In reality, most taxis are owned and operated by a different taxi firm and contracted to individual owners. The drivers have to pay a fee from the revenue they have generated from the job to the taxi firms as per the contract agreement stipulated. Due to the location of the different parts of the town and the route used, providing different levels of quality of service thus differentiated experiences for the customers the more the likelihood to charge at different prices. For example, Uber X which offers luxury rides will cost higher than Enotita does to its clients due to the different levels of customer satisfaction.
In addition to, the assumption of both the clients and taxi drivers rationality is put to question by behavioral economists since can be subjected to bias as well as the rule of thumb ‘guidance’ when they are faced with severe and complex situations (D Kahneman,2003).
Correction of externalities
Although achieving a perfect competition is almost impractical due to its hypothetical nature, the externalities can be reduced for the taxi industry to mimic an ideal competition market through the following ways:
First and foremost, the reduction of licensing fees set by authorities to lessen the financial burden constraining the taxi drivers. This way more people will be willing to use taxi services due to lowered price charges and create an easier means of entry into the market by taxi firms as well.
Secondly, regulatory authorities to loosen restrictions of quotas on taxis therefore not limiting new taxis entering the market, in turn, letting the market naturally resolve and set the appropriate sellers. Furthermore, the equilibrium will return to its original position making it more favorable for the customer to use taxis as a result in a fall in prices.
Also, setting and implementing service standards such as vehicle and driver safety
Consequently, it creates employment opportunities as more new taxis enter the market as well as reduce social collisions on the emergence of illegal taxis since each person is accountable to their decision to enter and leave the market.
Finally, the government should step aside from and deter from the practice of setting standard price lists for taxis but move to provide more solutions to resolve the conflicts arising on different levels of service to attend to respective target groups. Adoption of a new pricing system that is based on other factors such as stoppage times during the trip between the destinations rather than just the mileage alone.
In conclusion, having deduced our data from the basis of evidence and reasoning drawn above, the market for taxis can meet the criteria for perfect competition market structure as it virtually comes into agreement with the assumptions set for the market and fulfilling them reasonably. Moreover, an ideal competition model can be a useful yardstick that evaluates levels of competition that exist in the real taxis market in Athens. Nevertheless, perfect competition in the real world cannot exist without stable and favorable market conditions and regulations. The occurrence of externalities such as barriers to entry and exit in the market, government interference like the imposition of quotas, regulation of taxi licenses as well as safety regulations and product and service differentiation of service offered by firms in the taxi market. However, these externalities can be corrected in various methodical processes, to reduce the extent of their interference in the perfect market. With these characteristics paired together with the simple assumptions such us mobility of factors production and excellent knowledge of the market by both buyers and sellers, reassures that in Athens the extent to which the taxi market is a representation of perfect competition is accurate, and it complies with the set rubric.
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Fashion Comparison Essay essay helpYamamoto Bio
Yohji Yamamoto is a Japan-born and based designer who has taken an active role in the fashion industry for over fifty years. Although he graduated from Keio University with a law degree, he later decided to pursue his interest in fashion. Moreover, English (2011) together with other individuals such as Wissey Miyake and Kawakubo note thatYohji was an influential figure in the wave of avant-garde designers.
This group of designers emerged during the 1970s and the 1980s. Yohji Yamamoto defines his favorite color as being black and has tailored many unique pieces. He is credited for the formation of the Y-3 brand which has gained widespread recognition in Japan, New York, and Los Angeles (Kawamura, 2004).
Yves Saint Laurent Bio
Yves Saint Laurent is defined as having been one of the most successful French fashion designers. He was born in 1961 and had an interest in fashion. This ledto the creation of the Saint Laurent brand.According to Lee (2005), Yves has great regard for the black color and defines it as having the ability to fit in different styles and purposes. Despite his death in 2008, he is still hailed as one of the most skillful designers.
Over the years, there has been the creation of films, books, and television shows that strive to reconnect his contribution to the fashion industry. Some of the films include SaintLaurent(2014), Yves SaintLaurent, and The Yves SaintLaurent: A Moroccan Passion. Currently, many designers tend to base their work on the designsthat were created by Yves. His designs can be found in major stores and museums.
Comparison of Yohji Yamamoto and Yves SaintLaurent
When comparing these two individuals, it is evident that their work has received worldwide recognition. Despite their varying approaches to fashion, they tend to agree on the black color which also serves as their favorite. Not only are their designs in major global stores, but they are also kept in museums (Lee, 2005). They can be credited for playing a leading role in the transformation of the global fashion industry.
Nonetheless, Yohji Yamamoto appears to be both a stylist and a master tailor. It is worth noting that most of his designs are in museums as opposed to stores. Both SaintLaurent and Yohji Yamamoto have gained recognition beyond their place of birth. They receive widespread recognition in European countries. Yohji Yamamoto can further be credited for having pushed the Japanese design aesthetic into the global market.
Yohji Yamamoto unique skills have seen him win many awards such as the Medal of Honor with Purple Ribbon and the Royal Designer of the Industry. The debut of Yohji Yamamoto can be traced to Paris in the early 1980s. The Yohji Yamamoto brands are common in Tokyo and are seen as being unique to other brands. He also has flagship stores in both Antwerp and Paris. Other than the two primary lines, it is worth noting that there are other principal lines such as Pour Homme and diffusion line.
A similar trend can be seen in SaintLaurent who was also successful in launching fashion lines such as the SaintLaurentbrand (Moine, 2017). Nonetheless, Yohji Yamamoto is seen as having more fashion lines as compared to SaintLaurent. It is imperative to note that the two individuals have in the past been credited for coming up with unique products that are different from the ongoing fashion trends.
Comparison of the Quotes
Different meanings are associated with black color. Over the years, the black color has been used by many stylist and fashion enthusiasts. It is worth noting that black is often associated with elegance, death, evil, formality, strength, authority,and sophistication. It can thus be used to relay a wide set of feelings.
Unlike other colors, black has a variation of hue and depth. In the quote, “Black is modest and arrogant at the same time. Black is lazy and easy – but mysterious. But above all, black says this: ‘I don’t bother you – don’t bother me,’” Yohji Yamamoto highlights the diverse nature of the color.
The stylist compares women to the black color and regards them as being both weak and strong. In most cases, the more a woman strives to abandon and hide her feminism, the more it seems to emerge from her heart of existence. The quote indicates that black color can have different meanings and purposes in fashion( Lee, 2005).
The second quote, “I love black because it affirms, designs, and styles. A woman in a black dress is a pencil,” focuses on the authority and affirmation that is given by the black color. Just like the first quote, there is a reference to the similarity between the color and the female gender.
The quotes define a woman as being black. This implies that she has the authority and affirmative power. The mention of a pencil refers to the artistic importance of women and the black color. The quotes note that a woman in a black dress has the effect of communicating different elements and emotions to the audience.
English, B. (2011). Japanese fashion designers: the work and influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, and ReiKawakubo. Berg.
Kawamura, Y. (2004). The Japanese revolution in Paris fashion.Fashion Theory, 8(2), 195-223.
Lee, M. S., &Luo, Q. Q. (2015). Theses: A Study on the Postmodernism Tendency Expressed in HediSlimane’sMens Wear Design-Focusing on the Comparison Between the Collection of Dior Homme and Yves Saint Laurent. 패션비즈니스, 19(6), 58-73.
Moine, R. (2017). Saint Laurent on Screen: Fashion Icon, Doomed Artist, or Celebrity?.Fashion Theory, 21(6), 733-748.
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Bias in the Mass Media Outlets online essay helpIntroduction
At some instances, you can sit down and listen to a new story on mass media you feel like that it sounds one-sided, or at times you may hear the news and feel like it does not seem like it is reporting the whole story or sometimes feel like it is evading some critical aspects of the story in question. From a personal experience is the recent news that covered some puppies that got stuck in a storm drain. The story in the news mainly looked at how the firefighters worked hard and for a long time to successfully rescue the puppies. From the look of things, the puppies had come from a nearby animal shelter, but the media tried as much as possible to exaggerate on the story (Hamburg, Felix, Karsten Donnay, and Bela Gipp). From what was reported, it was clear that the news story did not mention anything to do with how the puppies escaped from the shelter and why they ended up in the drain. Above is just but an example of how media is biased. To further understand the concept of media bias, it is critical to understand what is meant by the term media criticism. Media criticism refers to the act of closely analyzing and judging the media. It is through media criticism that one can identify some bias in the way the mass media present their stories. A bias mainly occurs when the media reports news stories in a racist manner. It is most evident when the media tries to push some specific viewpoint rather than objectively reporting the news. To further understand the media bias, it is important to note that it occurs when the media tries to ignore the essential aspects of the story being reported. For instance, in the story of the above, it w was clear that the media did not mention the critical elements but exaggerated that fact the firefighters took a look to rescue them from the drain.
Forms of Mass Media Bias
Omission and Selection
Omission bias involves leaving out some crucial aspects of the story being reported. An excellent example of the above media bias is the one outline about the saving of the puppies. For example, in the case provided above, it is clear that the shelter was underfunded and therefore understaffed. The reporter must be have omitted the facts above the shelter due to some selfish reason. Some of the potential reasons may include: the reporter did not want to criticize the city or the shelter workers or they were trying to protect the owners from the open investigation regarding the city budget.
Another excellent example of bias by omission is evident in political stories. In most cases, the media reports stories basing argument from the liberal point of view while neglecting the facts that support the conservative point of view. The above is mainly done for personal interest or gains. During political campaigns, not all areas a leader’s visits are attended with a significant magnitude of people. In some areas, the leaders are received negatively and with the limited number of people, but for publicity reasons, media capture areas where the leader is well received and omits areas where they experience a limited and negative reception.
Bias by omission is directly related to by selection of the sources. The above type of bias involves selecting sources that mainly supports the idea being reported. In this case, the media leaves out the causes that support an opposing point of view of the story being told in the news. An excellent example of the above type of bias is when the media decides to quote the conservative sources without regarding the sources from the liberal point of view (Eberl, Jakob-Moritz, Markus Wagner, and Hajo Boomgaarden). Going back to the story about the puppies, two points of view can come out of the story. First, an expert may argue that the animals are poorly managed and the whole blame to land on the worker while another person can say that the shelter was understaffed due to lack of funding and the large city be blamed.
Bia Selection and Placement
The above type of bias involves the reporting patterns of news stories concerning some specific agenda. The high kind of bias occurs when media outlets try to report stories that favor only one political point of view. For instance, a newspaper may decide to print story or a case produced by a liberal group while neglecting a similar tale and studies provided by the conservative groups (Elejalde, Erick, Leo Ferres, and Eelco Herder). Or at times a television station may decide to cover story on corruption against a conservative candidate and neglecting to include a similar allegation against a liberal candidate. The above relates directly with the bias by placement whereby the news outlet tends to prominently place stories with a specific objective while burying those with opposing agenda.
Media Bias Images and their Explanation
The image above is a clear illustration of mass media bias. From the first image from the camera lens, and what is being produced, it is clear that it is the person in the left attacking the one on the left. It is clear that the media is using camera tricks to make the person to the remaining evil yet the person is running from danger. The above images are a perfect example of selection and placement bias. From what is depicted on the camera, it influences personal opinion, and everyone could condemn the person to the right without any knowledge that it was out of the camera trick that the person to the left is depicted to be evil while in the real sense the person is running for his life.
Image 2 shows an Arab attacking a woman with children with a knife and Israeli police trying to contain the situation. But what is captured by the media indicates that Arab is being shot without any reason. The press hides the fact that the Arab is carrying a knife and He is trying to hurt the woman and her children. The above type of bias can be considered as omission and selection. The news outlets capture what objectively favors those they want to support. It hides the reality from the general public. If someone sees the above on a newspaper or a TV, they will be forced to sway their opinions and stand against the Israeli police stand with the Arabians who was trying to harm innocent souls.
To sum it all, it is evident from the above discussion that the media determines what the general public will know and how they want them to view it. It is one of the critical influencers of public opinion. Out of the bias in the media platforms, public notices and decisions have been compromised since the information the public gets is altered and does not represent anything next to the truth. To make the media clean again, it is essential for rules to be established to manage and ensure media freedom. The media platform that alters information or is biased in any way should be subjected to the law and even be shut down for the truth to be told.
Hamburg, Felix, Karsten Donnay, and Bela Gipp. “Automated identification of media bias in news articles: an interdisciplinary literature review.” International Journal on Digital Libraries (2018): 1-25.
Eberl, Jakob-Moritz, Markus Wagner, and Hajo G. Boomgaarden. “Party Advertising in Newspapers: A source of media bias?” Journalism Studies 19.6 (2018): 782-802.
Elejalde, Erick, Leo Ferres, and Eelco Herder. “On the nature of real and perceived bias in the mainstream media.” PloS one 13.3 (2018): e0193765.
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Interest Rates (Monetary Policies) a level english language essay helpThe article makes reference to the conflictbetween Donald Trump and Fed Chairman, Powell. While the Fed Chairman is in support of the decision to raise the interest rates, Donald Trump remains adamant that the measures would propel economicgrowth in the country. Recently, the FederalReserve has been raising the interest rates despite the fact that the inflation levels have been low.
Since the undertaking to normalize the interest rates in 2015, the Fed has made several changes in the rates. The recentmove has been the raising of the rates from 2.25% to 2. 5%. However, the move is seen to alarm Donald who worries that the Fed may consider making another raise. From an economist standpoint, the raise is a deviation from the 2% symmetric objective theyear.
The Fed maintains that the move was in line with the trajectory economic growth, inflationrates, and the labor markets. Other than these elements, interest rates have direct impacts on saving investment levels. Investorsremain unaware of the direction of the Open MarketCommittee. Past economic analysisindicates that the Fed is contemplating three possible increases in both 2019 and 2020.
It is these events that create the worry that the Fed is moving too fast and may affect some spheres of the economy. Not only have stock indexes moved to the correction territory, but they have also recorded a negative progression in the first quarter of 2019. An example is the Dow Jones Industrial Average which recorded 352. The points are asignificant drop from the initial 733- points. Rises and falls in the interest rates reflect different changes in the economy.
During a recession, the Fed may adoptmeasures that intend to lower the interest rates with the objective of increasing the creation of more jobs. The lowering of interest rates is a stimulus package that encourages spending in the markets as well as fostering girth. The case has been evidentsince the 1990s where the Fed has ensured that the interest rates remain low. However, the year 2015 saw a shift in this approach as there has been a consistent increase in the rates.
(Marginal efficiency of Capital)
80% 100 Quantity of Investment
The graphindicates that a rise in the interest rates to7% would correspond to a reduction in investment levels by 20%. The Fed notes that the economy is strengthening hence the need to increase the interest rate in a move to curb a possibleinflationscenario. It is an indication that the country is moving out of recession. While Donald Trump is keen on making the country have a better economy, there is the worry that the interest rates will lower the level of economic growth. In most cases, adjustments on the interest rateare due to the prediction of a rise in the level of inflation.
The move by Powel to raise the rates is thus a way to moderate the economic growth levels. Interest rates have the effect of causing an equal increase in the cost of borrowing and also lowers disposable income. The move creates the fear that both consumption and investment levels in the country will be disrupted. A limit in the consumer spending level is a deterrence to the investors and thus creates the risk of stagnating the economicgrowth levels.
Focusing on the insights by DonaldTrumpindicates that while he agrees that a review of the interest rates is vital, the changes are occurring at an increasingly high speed. While the Fed focus on the positive elements such as the increased levels of return on savings and reduction in house process, there is the risk of having lower investments levels, an appreciation in the exchange rates and reduction in the consumption levels. It is worth noting that any attempt to lower the inflation level has the unintended consequence of lowering the economic growth rates.
I agree with the view expressed by Donald Trump on the rate of interest rates in the country. While the Fed is charged with the duty of stabilizing the economy, I believe that there are no alarmingeconomicindicators. In 2018, inflation was at 2.54%. Although this a rise in the inflationlevel s compared to 2.14% in 2017, other factors can stabilize the economy without the radical increase in the interest rates. The Fed only focuses on the consumption and inflationlevel but fails to consider other sectorssuch as investment and repayment of loans.
There is the danger that another increase in the interest rates will make loans and house mortgage more expensive. Consequently, there are chances of increased defaults thus creating a possible re-occurrence of the 2008 housing bubble crises. The progression of the USA economy is tied to the ability to attract more investors. More investments imply that there will be the creation of more jobs and growth in the GDP levels. While there are many divergent views, interest rates are sensitive and may derail the economic aspirations of the country hence the need to make informed decisions.
Akram, Q. Farooq. “Commodity prices, interest rates, and the dollar.” Energy Economics 31.6 (2009): 838-851.
Becker, Gary S. Economic theory.Routledge, 2017.
Diaz, David, BabisTheodoulidis, and Carlos Dupouy. “Modelling and forecasting interest rates during stages of the economic cycle: A knowledge-discovery approach.” Expert Systems with Applications 44 (2016): 245-264.
Harvey, David I., et al. “Long-run commodity prices, economic growth, and interest rates: 17th century to the present day.” World Development 89 (2017): 57-70.
Lee, Kang-Seok, and Richard A. Werner.”Reconsidering monetary policy: An empirical examination of the relationship between interest rates and nominal GDP growth in the US, UK, Germany, and Japan.”Ecological Economics 146 (2018): 26-34.
The president says he is not happy with Fed Chairman Jerome PowellBy Kate Davidson Updated Oct. 17, 2018, 6:09 a.m. ET
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Event in which you felt like an outsider custom essay helpThere are incidences where one feels as if they are not a part of the rest of the members that attended the events. I have attended many, and the one that I felt disgusted is a wedding that participated in last year. The wedding was of my best friend who we have been friends for many years. I attended the wedding after being invited by my friend with whom we have known each other for many years. Majority of the people participated in the wedding know me, and I know them as well since we have met before. The event started well, and the people who attended the wedding were either close friends of the wedding couple and family members.
I have attended many wedding before, but the unique thing about this wedding is that the wedding was attended by the people who were invited only. I had never attended a wedding before where the guests were a few people who consisted of close family members and friends before. The wedding had few people such that the outsiders could think that it was a family gathering. All the things were running well until the time to sit together and have dinner together came. The planning was organized such that the guest had their names on the seats that they were supposed to sit on. The thing that made me feel as an outsider is finding that my name was not included on the guest list.
I lacked seat to sit on because the number of places that were available all had their owner. People began to view me as if I was not among the guest. This made me feel like an outsider because I wondered what the people thought of me seeing me without a seat. I was worried that people would think that I attended a wedding that I was not invited to.
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Defective decisions custom essay helpDefective Decisions
The decision by the Union Carbide to shut the plant refrigeration with the aim of cutting costs.
The decision by the UCIL to neglect isolating the processing pipeline by the slip blind before cleaning the system
The UCIL’s decision of switching of the Vent gas Scrubber machine.
Illusion of Control
This psychological tendency where people think they are immune to risks. For instance, the scenario where managers tend to assume possible damages their firm might have on society. They imagine that the damages their firm has on the people are not as massive as that of other companies. In other words,A company or organization can lightly look at possible damages the company can cause the society but end up assuming that this can barely happen, hence neglecting vital processes of prevention. For instance, the decision by President Kennedy on invading Cuba proved disastrous since it was wrong for the president to have assumed the battle outcomes. Concerning the bipolar disaster, for instance, an illusion of control is what could have clouded the mind of the Union Carbide management to have ordered the closure of the refrigeration. For one, the Union Carbide through the illusion of control had assumed the possible risks which could have occurred in case the refrigeration was off. It is for a fact that the Union was fully aware of the lethal gas (Methyl Isocyanate) the plant was operating on. Another example that can best explain this tendency is the assertion of executives underestimating the vitality of events, hence coming to understand through experience. However, assuming that the risk if possibly occurred in the plant, could not be dense hence shutting off the refrigeration could help cut the costs. This decision turned out to be the worst since had the refrigeration been on, it could have helped in reducing heat during the reaction process of the MIC gas and water.
Illusion of Optimism
According to Bazerman people live an illusive dream of overestimating the good things that will happen to them while underestimating the possibility of the bad too taking place. For instance, he talks of the optimism of the US’ leaders believing that they could win the Pacific fleet which they did not. This fact goes to the extent of many people considering themselves immune to risks hence exposing not only the company but also the people to hazards. Another example of this tendency is the sinking of the Herald of Free Enterprise ferry that sank due to a simple act of leaving the bow doors open. In the bipolar tragedy, it is possible that the optimism tendency is what had driven the UCIL managers as well as workers to assume the need to isolate the processing pipeline with the slip blind. The presence of this slip blind could have stopped the water from moving into the gas chambers had it been considered and embraced in the daily cleaning routine. However, with the employees having assumed that the water could never go up into the gas chambers, they saw the isolating process as being tiresome given the fact that it was a process that could take up to two hours. In other words, the UCIL managers and employees were optimistic of the profits the company was bringing forgetting to check out for possible risks that the same company could have for the people if the plant system were not operated on carefully.
Undervaluing Collective Outcomes
When relating this fact to the bipolar gas tragedy, it is evident that the turning off of the Vent Gas Scrubber machine by the UCIL was a decision that undervalued collective outcomes. In most case, most of the managers have a tendency of ignoring the collective outcomes in making decisions that affect the organization. The UCIL undervalues the possible outcomes of turning of the vent gas machine which plays a significant role in the neutralization of the lethal gas released into the atmosphere. The vent machine had not been operating for quite some time because the company assumed that this machine was of less importance. However, this tendency had a negative impact on the UCIL management decision since had the Vent Gas machine been on, then the lethal gas released in the atmosphere could have been neutralized reducing its harmful nature to the people and the environment as a whole. This is similar to the situation Bazerman speaks of. A chemical firm releasing its waste in the lake an act that pollutes the lake and negatively affects the firm’s reputation.
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H&R Block Analysis online essay helpQuestion 1:
An organizational structure outlines how accomplishments such as supervision, harmonization, and task allocation direct towards the attainment of corporate prospects. H&R Block, Incorporates, is a tax preparation firm in the U.S. functioning in America, India and Australia. The company’s organizational structure takes considerations as the observing glass through which the stakeholders view their organization and its environs(Scholz, 2017). According to Russell Smyth, the Chief Executive, the company uses Formalization in its organizational structure. The system according to the boss, yet offers tremendous benefits to the firm. It is a system that functions with an aim of objectifying the structure. Through this, delineations of respective affiliations and roles appears more external and objectifying to the participating stakeholders.
H&R Block Inc. champions a lot in an active workflow, good use of organizational charts, adherence to best practice and supervisory guidelines by the application of the irrational formalization system. It affects a form of teamwork in an organization, while at the same time fueling the debate of who performs best than the other. It leads to collaboration and competition thus influences morale among the workforce as a whole (Steimle, 2016). The employee also needs to understand that due to unpromising economic conditions, the company might prefer to modify its organizational structure. An employee is thereby obliged to adhere to any amendments as it arises with time. Through the People Center department, any employee has the permit to report any allegations or seek any inquiry should there any need appear.
By the use of the irrational formalization system in its organizational structure, H&R Block finds it easy outlining its policies governing the conduct of employees during working hours. Smyth praises the ever-present self-monitoring disposition among the employees. According to him, the criteria tend to offer significant variable insights into the subtleties of working hours’ impression(Scholz, 2017). At the company, the working hours are flexible to meet the employee’s schedule. Throughout tax season, for instance, the firm needs 24 hours/week of disposal. But then, a day can considerably be any blend of 4 + hour blocks. The company provides to the workers a set schedule. It is a guarantee of hours that best fits your schedule.
According to one of the client service leaders, he praises the company in terms of its flexibility towards working hours. And at times, the firm could opt to send the employees home earlier than usual, in situations that there are no customers to serve(Scholz, 2017). But then, towards the culmination of January, and first days of February the operations become busy due to many clients. As a result, an employee might see the essence of staying longer to satisfy every customer seeking the company’s assistance.
However, come around March, the firm often experience a significant drop in the clientele base. It forces most of the company’s operations to come to a standstill. Not a good deed for the firm, but then it does not have any option than to cut the working hours of every employee. At times, it forces the company’s offices to be open less (Steimle, 2016). For those employees who own other separate jobs, it is a massive opportunity for them. Should there be a Tax Pro who always have this drive and urge of signing in for like, a couple of hours? Well, the company offers them the preference of operating only during the weekends, and never on weekdays. I think; generally, the working hours are pretty much flexible.
The corporate policies and procedures acknowledgment of the company outlines in “the code” – H&R Block Code of Business Ethics & Conduct. The company acknowledges “Corporate Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment Policy” that prohibits any form of discrimination at the workplace. It protects the employees from harassment and discrimination on aspects comprising of national origin, race, sexual orientation, disability, religion, and age. As a policy, the company also prohibits any form of veteran status(Scholz, 2017). In the document, the firm even consents to reach wide-spread employment pronouncements from merit. It swears to undertake this duty in the absence of any aspect under protection by the Federal Laws.
As a policy, H&R Block also does not condone or participate in any form of sexual harassments. It is thus every employee’s mandate to not hesitate from reporting any violations — reports on allegations direct to H&R Block People Center on 877-222-5547. Under the “the H&R Block Corporate Information Security Policy,” it outlines security specifications of company’s and clientele’s data. Every employee has a responsibility to safeguard the client’s confidentiality as well as to the associated information (Steimle, 2016). It is a policy that also protects the trademark and copyright pertinent to the company’s affairs. Hence every employee should understand the specifications of the security page thoroughly. Afterward, they should adhere to the policies without any exception whatsoever.
As an employee, one need to comprehend that “Neither the Company’s Procedures or Policies, nor any other Corporate Human Resources Procedures and Policies, shall be taken as a pact, implied or else, between H&R Block and either of its contingent employees or associates, or an assurance of either a duty or an obligation for any particular period.”Every employee should abide by the above regulation for the end benefit to the firm as a whole (Scholz, 2017).
Scholz, T. (2017). Big data in organizations and the role of human resource management: A complex systems theory-based conceptualization. Frankfurt is Main: P. Lang.
Steimle, J. (2016). Chief Marketing Officers at Work.
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The Time college admissions essay helpIntroduction
The calendar is a book written to give a deeper insight into what the concept of time means from a theological perspective. Besides this, the book brings a greater understanding of the Christian faith where God is spoken of in Trinity with each branch explained. The detailed ideas make it simple to understand all that pertains to the heavenly tasks and thinking. This is in other words, a suitable book for clergies to use in teaching the church on the true meaning of the Christian faith from a timely perspective. In this case, the essay will focus on evaluating chapters one and two of the Calendar: Christ’s Time for the Church to get the general message of the two chapters.
The main message or theme for this chapter is time. The author explains that humanity is centered on time and eternity. However, many a time people fail to realize how valuable time is because they get pressure from the worldly things. The details of life, as well as the hiddenness of God, creates a negative result in the sense that time negatively impacts on the eternity factor. This is the reason why Christ came to keep track of time in various ways amongst the people through God the father. For instance, there is a day explicitly set to rest from everyday chores to worship God (Saturday or Sunday). Other days include the Easter, the Pentecost, Christmas, advent, lent, epiphany among others. All of these days are set aside to remember the good works of Christ while still with the people on earth. Looking at eternity, the author makes it clear that Christians have a role of observing seasons, hours or even days that are evident to make eternal exist among the people through understanding how timekeeping help organize a person’s life and experience. To validate how precious time is, the author considers those that have been deprived of the joy of time by being imprisoned. He uses an example of Terry Waite who was imprisoned for four days and could not be told what time was.
Arguably, the author explains the concept of time through aspects of the past, present, and future. The three are aspects of time, and as many may look at them as separate containers, they indeed have a relationship in understanding what time is in greater depth. For instance, looking at the past, we get an understanding of time through events that at one time happened or in other words, historical events. This is a time that at one point existed, but it has been replaced with the present or the current time being experienced today. By contrast, the future, in this case, is that time that will later exist when people have done away with the present. This is why the Bible speaks of end times, a time that is expected to mark the end of the world. For the believers of the gospel, the future together with the past shapes the present. Only this can, however, be understood by religious thinkers or rather Christians. The concept of time and eternity are also evident in the Cross where there came a time when Christ had to be humiliated as a result receive exaltation.
The chapter further elaborates on the concept of time through the resurrection of Christ which is believed to transform believers in how they perceive time in aspects of past, present, and future. The human sin had ruined the first creation due to their rebellious characters, but through the resurrection of Christ, there was a renewal as marked in the Easter event. Anew era of time had been created, and the Creator had redeemed the world through Christ. It is for this reason that the early believers assembled on the first day of every week to celebrate the resurrection of Christ as written in Acts 20:7 as well as 1corintians 16:2. A further look at time as proposed in chapter one is the model that explains the continuous moving of time between the past and the future is evident in the Lord’s Day. The believers or the church in the present time understanding much about the past through anamnesis the Lord’s resurrection and its preparation, as well as the future evident in the fulfillment of God’s reign. In other words, what the author is trying to explain is that both the past and the future through the resurrection makes it easy for the people to live in the present by experiencing the resurrection power in their lives thus begin living in the ways of the future. This implies that the experiences in today’s life has an impact in the future either positively or negatively and thus the need to embrace Christ as the center of all things. Arguably, the Lord’s Day is considered to determine the calendar (the liturgical year). Due to liturgical celebrations, it is vital that Christians have to hold a weekly feast as this is a good way of appreciating the humiliation-exaltation Christ went through to liberate humanity. It does not mean that the annual festivals are wrong and does not appreciate the Christly sacrifice, but the weekly observance is a tone that makes greater commercial potential. The Easter day, for instance, represents the entire fifty days season inclusive of the Pentecost day.
On the other hand, Lent is a preparation of the annual resurrection observance, derived from the day of Easter. In light of this fact, the Lent-Easter cycle is viewed under the Advent-Christmas cycle as being a representation of the first half of the solar year balanced by the second half mostly referred to as Ordinary time. In other words, both chapter one and two explain time through the events that are defined in the death and resurrection of Christ.
Given the fact that the first and the eighth day are considered the same, is it conclusive that a week starts on Sunday and not Monday?
People go to church on Saturday while others on Sunday, which is the rightful day?
With this confusion whether Saturday or Sunday is the rightful day, is it conclusive that the important thing is the same God is worshipped?
In considering the strange nature of time, Sookey reveals in chapters one and two that past, present, and future are all linked together. This is further explained through the event that takes place in the life of Christ from his crucifixion to the resurrection that brings exaltation. In this case, the life that people live must be emulated from the transformation of Jesus Christ from being humiliated to being glorified.
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The Sweet Smell of Youth — Love’s Baby Soft essay helpThere is clear evidence that individuals living in the Western consumerist society judge others based on their outlook. Western civilization relies on the products that enhance beauty in order to make it better as compared to other groups. The type of advertisement that I selected seeks to promote beauty among young girls and markets the brand, “The Sweet Smell of Youth — Love’s Baby Soft.” After assessing the advertisement, I noticed that it emphasizes the ways in which mainstream media uses the consumer’s insecurity as well as teenagers to idolize the connection between children and sexuality. Based on the content reflected in this advertisement and relating it with intersectional researchers like Sut Jhally, I agree that there are numerous cases of exploiting innocent teenagers and the risks associated with young girls as a result of identities created by the mainstream media. For instance, the media convinces the teenagers to buy beauty products with the promise that they will look sexy as they continue to maintain their youthful stages.
According to Sut Jhally, she tries to examine the connection between rituals, values, and attitudes practiced by customers and the market structures of the beauty products. The media has greatly influenced the consumer society, and advertisement has changed the daily lives of people including both media and public spaces. Individuals are encouraged to exercise the image-based model as a means of representation which helps to counter the rapid spread of innocence forms of entertainment (Jhally 328). The media has a significant role to play, and it helps in shaping our identities as well as monitor the deviance in order to maintain the expected status quo. As a result, our culture continues to remain a site of contestation. Gender mainstreaming seeks to establish equality between men and women by advocating for similar treatment. The media uses women with beauty to advertise various products as compared to men.
The advertisement about “The Sweet Smell of Youth — Love’s Baby Soft” teaches people on how to maintain the beauty and stay a happy life, this implies that the majority of the consumers appreciate happiness. However, the advertisements represent the methods used by the market to distract society and encourage people to purchase new products. In the article, Jhally explains how the industry influences values of the consumer society and shapes the cultural behaviors using products. She supports my argument by stating that the marketplace concurrently constructs and exploits causal connection existing between social norms and beautifying teenagers. Mainstream media focus on achieving massive purchases at the expense of young teenager girls.
In the article, Sut Jhally believes that modern politics need to be practiced based on the imagery system. She states that the current world is centered on visual images which define its reality; therefore, the imaging system is essential in every situation. The media incorporates images to convey relevant information to the public through advertisements. I acknowledge the fact that visual pictures from the dominant language of the world where diverse information is communicated. The world can be reconstructed to be a meaningful place and considered a place of substance on the terrain of visual images. The advertisement in question applies the imagery system to attract many customers and uses an attractive brand logo to convey the message. As mentioned earlier, Western society is obsessed with beauty and personal appearance. Most people living in this society chase new products that enhance beauty to make themselves better.
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Change Management at XeroHospital college essay help onlineChange has become inevitable for many organizations in this era of globalization. Leaders have to devise strategies of overcoming challenges that affect their companies for firms to withstand competition in the market. However, in the process of implementing change, barriers emerge from internal and external forces that may cause organizational failure. Nevertheless, influential and team leaders navigate the challenges in time by harnessing strategicleadership qualities. The change affects employees, and they are the primary barrier to a successful transition to success.I managed resistance to change at XeroHospital by understanding why employees resist change and involving employees in making decisions that would affect them during the transition process.
The primary advantage of managing change is that it prepares the firm and its leaders for handling future challenges.The number of deaths occurring from medication errors has been increasing in the recent past, calling for an intervention to address the issue. The primary intervention to save the public image of the hospital and improve service delivery at Xero Hospital is to employ retired nurses in the intensive care unit (ICU) and introduce mandatory training programs for new nurses.This decision will only succeed with the proper implementation of change management. Angonese and Lavarda (2014) define change management as a successful transition of the organization and its team to a desirable future state. Unfortunately, employees are often comfortable with their current state.This makes them see change as a threat. Leaders are disappointed when they learn that employees are resisting decisions that mean the welfare of the organization.
Some factors that make employees resistance to change emanate from the organizational level, while others are external. As a result, the leader has to understand the nature of the factors before delving into the change process. When implementing change at XeroHospital, I will analyze internal factors to understand anticipated challenges. Others include insufficient resources and shortage of financial resources.External challenges may emanate from the government’s regulation activities and customer satisfaction. Nevertheless, change is compulsory and has to happen for the firm to maintain its competitive position in the market.
As a team leader, I will respond to challenges instead of reacting to problems that emerge during the change process. Reacting impedes successful transition and maximizes issues. On the other hand, responding to challenges is an active process as it involves deciding careful consideration of alternatives.I will start by analyzing and understanding the reason why employees may resist change. This initial step will help my team prepare for potential challenges in implementing change.Pierterse, Caniels, and Homan (2012) explain that some of the reasons that cause opposition to change arethe loss of employment, fear of the unknown, poor communication and engagement, and organizational culture. Employees see change as an interruption to normal operations.
Change is a collective process. Team leaders do not cause the change to happen. They influence change by harnessing the abilities of employees and other agents within the firm and beyond.Once I have understood the main challenges and reasons why employees will oppose the transition to improve productivity, I will delve into implementing change.Change is a gradual process that seeks to yield a long-term outcome. While the decision to recruit retired nurses to work in ICU will help solve short-term problems, we do not intend to depend on retired nurses. The hospital seeks to create a vibrant workforce of trained and competent nurses to maintain a competitive advantage. The successful implementation of change in this stage will help the firm cope with competition and deliver quality services in ICU facilities.
To manage resistance, I will engage supervisors and other top-leaders to inform them of the new intervention to address the issue.Yilmatz and Kilicoglu (2013) explain that employees resist change because of poor communication. I will notify the top managers within the hospital about the problem and the need to address it. Proper communication is a powerful strategy as it minimizes the spread of rumors (Paycor, 2014). The next step is to form a task force for addressing the problem and informing the team of challenges that we anticipate. Seeking the views of the team and keeping communication open enhances collaboration with the team and other stakeholders. We will convene a meeting with nurses to discuss the issue and seek their suggestions. We will also share our opinions and explain to them why training programs are essential for them and the hospital at large. The purpose of involving them in decision making is to make them feel part of the change process and minimize opposition.
Sometimes the firm will engage external service providers to address resistance to change.We will take our nurses to a benchmarking tour in some of the hospitals that have implemented the training program. Additionally, we will assure them of their job security once they have completed the training program. To make our staff advocates of change, we will keep channels of communication open and create a suggestion box where they post their views.Additionally, the first group to complete the training will host a meeting to tell others what they have learned and how they have benefitted from the program.Schuler (n.d.) explains that celebrating victories increases the rate of response from employees. The change management team will assess the impact of the program and compile a report and publish it in mainstream media. All employees will be awarded a salary increment once they have completed the training.
I think that the most difficult challenges will be to engage external stakeholders.External stakeholders such as patients and trade unions may impede the successful implementation of this program. We may not be in a position to engage each customer why we are making changes, but we will use mainstream media and our social media platforms to inform clients why we are changing our operations. We will also write to trade unions to tell them why we are employing retired nurses and the need for exposing nurses to compulsory six-month training.Additionally, the new program may impact the financial performance of the hospital. We will inform the nurses that they will be on payroll during the period of the study to help them pay for training programs. This decision is a financial burden,and the board may not approve of it.
Employees are the primary setback to change process in organizations. They see change as an interference with the traditional method of working. Nevertheless, change is mandatory for the success of the firm. The change management team will succeed by analyzing factors that may cause nurses to oppose change. The team will engage nurses and external stakeholders by explaining to them why there is a need for change and how the new program will affect them. Once implemented, the new program will yield positive impacts on the organization and the whole team.
Angonese, R. &Lavarda, F. (2014).Analysis of the factors affecting resistance to changes in managementaccounting systems.VIIANTCont Congress, 25 (65), 215-226. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rcf/v25n66/1519-7077-rcf-25-66-0214.pdf
Coetzee, M., Visagie, J., &Ukpere, I., M., (2015).Responding to change management in a large organization from the leadership angle.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (2014), 827-837. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wilfred_Ukpere/publication/271848418_Responding_to_Change_in_a_Large_Organization_from_a_Leadership_Angle/links/54d4bd2d0cf2970e4e638e94/Responding-to-Change-in-a-Large-Organization-from-a-Leadership-Angle.pdf?origin=publication_detail
Overcoming employee resistance to change in the workplace (2014).Paycor.Retrieved from https://www.paycor.com/resource-center/change-management-in-the-workplace-why-do-employees-resist-it
Pieterse, J., H., Caniels, M., & Homan, T. (2012). Professional discourses and resistance to change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 25 (6), 798-818. Retrieved from https://www.ou.nl/Docs/Faculteiten/MW/artikelenThijsHoman/PIETERSECANIELSANDHOMAN2012-JOCM25(6).pdf
Schuler, A., J. (n.d.). Overcoming resistance to change: Top ten reasons for change resistance. Retrieved from https://uthscsa.edu/gme/documents/chiefres/ChangeLeadership/OvercomingResistancetoChange.pdf
Yilmaz, D. &Kilicoglu, G. (2013).Resistance to change and ways of reducing resistance in educationalorganizations.European Journal of Research on Education, 1 (1), 14-21. Retrieved from http://iassr2.org/rs/010103.pdf
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Psychology, Criminal Justice Study Guide best college essay helpThe objectives and learning outcomes
Upon the completion of the psychology and criminal justice course students will be capable of;
Complete identification and description of the methods through which the psychologist and other related professions work together in criminal justice for them to come to the right judgment.
Be capable of describing the importance and the shortcomings of the criminal psychology theory and concepts to study crime, criminal behavior and the system of criminal justice in general theory and methods to the study of crime, criminal behavior, and the criminal justice system
Identification and description of the relationship that exists between the individual-level as well as the society-level elaboration of behavior in crime, and the application of these concepts and theories to deal with the scenario of cases.
Understand the applications and criticism of evidence from psychological evidence because it is allied to doing forensic interviews, assessing the offender’s risk, management of cases, giving eyewitness testimony and profiling crime and criminals.
Be capable of identifying the various disciplinary connections and points of the relationship between psychology and psychology.
Important terms and their definitions
Crime- it’s any action that goes against rules and laws.
Psychology- it’s the science of the study of any individuals mind as well as behavior.
Criminal justice- it’s the delivery or doing of justice to the individuals who have committed a crime.
Criminal justice system- these are government institutions or urgencies mandated with the responsibility of identifying, arresting and delivering justice to those who break the law (Andrews and Bonta,2014).
Criminal psychology- it is the method of applying knowledge from psychology and psychological techniques to increase the comprehension of crime, criminal justice system and the behavior of criminals. It focuses on identifying crime, explaining criminal behavior, judging criminals using courtroom procedures and making use of eyewitnesses’ techniques.
Antisocial behavior- it is any behavior that is not against the rules and law, but the overall majority of people do not approve of it (Kocsis, 2018).
ASBOs- antisocial behavior orders are the behaviors that are not a crime but are not accepted by the majority of people.
Recidivism- it’s when an individual repeats a crime or behavior even after he or she was punished or treat.
Token economy- they are forms of modification of behavior based on operant conditioning principles.
Modeling- a technique of learning something through imitation of the behaviors of others especially after watching happen to someone live or on media such as TV and social media.
Stereotyping- the tendency of grouping people and classifying them to be doers of a given thing based on the evidence collected from that group’s member. That characteristic is assumed to be in the other group members by default.
Eyewitness testimony- it’s the account that people give after witnessing the occurrence of an incident or crime (Andrews and Bonta, 2014).
Psychopathology- it is the science of studying mental illness.
The history of the application of psychology in the justice system
The first case was in 1843 when Mr. Daniel McNaughton was acquitted because he was insane.
The establishment of the American psychology-law society in 1868 to look into psychological issues in details.
Development of a psychology and law degree in the University for Students to learn the relationship that exists between crime and psychology (Bartol and Bartol, 2014).
The merger of the American society of psychology-law with the American psychology association to establish a link between crime, law, and psychology.
Recent cases where psychology was used to determine them such as the Bill Cosby case in the United States.
Importance of psychology in criminal justice
Induction of nomothetic information such as 80% of people with x characteristics is likely to commit Y offenses (Bartol and Bartol, 2014).
Helps in the analysis of crime.
Helps in the courtroom decision making (Greene and Heilbrun, 2013).
Help in counseling law enforcement officers.
Psychological concepts and theories in criminal justice
Treatment of crime
Offender and geographic profiling.
The procedure for undertaking a psychology study in a case (CDAE)
Creating a design for the experiment.
Determination of the method for the experiment
Analysis of the study results.
Evaluation and making of conclusions.
Andrews, D. A., &Bonta, J. (2014). The psychology of criminal conduct.Routledge.
Bartol, A. M., &Bartol, C. R. (2014). Criminal behavior: A psychological approach. Boston: Pearson, c2014. xxiii, 644 pages: illustrations; 24 cm..
Greene, E., &Heilbrun, K. (2013).Wrightsman’s psychology and the legal system.Cengage Learning.
Kocsis, R. N. (Ed.). (2018). Applied criminal psychology: A guide to forensic behavioral sciences. Charles C Thomas Publisher.
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Earnings Management of MEITU argumentative essay helpQuestion #4: Discuss the expected earnings mentioned in the prospectus and offer price compare with the actual result reported in the latest annual report and the stock price on the day off and one year after the announcement of the actual results.
MEITU was incorporated in the Cayman Islands under MEITU Inc. in July 2013, as one of the exempted companies with limited liability under the Companies Law. The business has been doing relatively well since its inception which has led to the exceptional business being generated by the company(Diri, 2017). Over the years, MEITU was incorporated into the stock market with its shares being traded publicly in the share marketplace.
The expected earnings are usually among some of the critical information which the shareholders are typically interested in at a company. There is a need for the analysis of earnings management at MEITU. The earnings could be obtained from the consolidated financial statements and information.
Earning per share is always critical as it dictates to the company the amount of money that has been realized from the operations of the company. The stock price continually fluctuates depending on the earnings of the company.
Cash, as well as the cash equivalents, are inclusive of the money in hand, short term liquid investments that have a maturity of 3months or less as well as the short-term bank deposits which are the deposits that have their original maturities over three months. The day of the announcement of the stock price and one year after the publication of the actual results differ significantly from the results that have been achieved from the earnings (Diri, 2017). Earnings per share for the shareholders need to be distributed based on the diluted market price as is consistent with the shareholder policies and procedures. Income tax expense is one of the elements that affected the financial position of MEITU as it reduced the earnings that have been made by the company by a given proportion. Overall, this reduces the shareholders’ profits.
The presence of public shares always requires a significant effort as well as expenses which do not end after the completion of an IPO. Public companies face the risk of lawsuits as well as legal actions which are related to the public shares. Earnings of a company could be taken to be the profits as well as the losses that have been incurred in the process of business operations(Diri, 2017). The expected earnings that have been mentioned in the prospectus, as well as the offer price, compare in the sense that they are directly related and are all the aspects that are affected by the income statement.
The income statement will play a significant role since the auditors will understand the key adjustments that are made to the financial statements. A company of the magnitude of MEITU needs to ensure that towards the end of a fiscal year, an analysis has been done on the financial proceeds that have been realized by the company and effective measures and approaches made which are aimed at ensuring that shareholder value has been realized.
On analysis of the consolidated statements of the cash flows, it is evident that the net cash used in investing activities increased significantly in 2017 from the figure that was reported by the company in 2016(Diri, 2017). Of course, this implies that a portion of the retained earnings which were not shared out as shareholder equity was invested back into the business to finance other activities which are likely to increase the revenue base for the company.
Diri, M. E. (2017). Introduction to Earnings Management (7th ed.). Basingstoke, England: Springer.
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Sheffi’s Steps college essay help near meIntroduction
Multiple occasions may prompt a company to modify its supply chain approach. Most arguably, the gradual modification in every cycle of the product is to assist the company to uphold competitiveness. The entrance of a new manager could also prompt refurbishing of the pre-set visions hence, necessitating adjustment of the current supply chain. Establishment of a supply chain that is demand-responsive is stress-free and very possible (Roberto et al., 2011). As such, Yossi Sheffi, a renowned Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, presents the Functional Strategy Mapping Method (FSM), which directs and captures the supply chain technique of every firm. This paper presents itself as a good point of reference for the majority of supply chain managers intending to employ the FSM approach in their supply chains.
How Managers Achieve Improvements through Adopting the Practice
In various perspectives, a supply chain manager could achieve improvements for the company by adopting FSM practice. For instance, the approach ascertains the presence of effective communication in the supply chain approach of a particular firm; thus, making it easier for the supply chain criteria to oblige as a strong starting point for its evaluations (Roberto et al., 2011).
FSM method is of great significance to the managers as it aims to free the company from dependence on external information. It includes any relative data obtainable in outside setups and might not even apply to the real situations of a company. In the placement of outside information, FSM seeks to offer an intuitively and least appealing supply chain structure for the company (Roberto et al., 2011). The approach creates an even structure for the managers that enables them to carry out assessments of a company’s supply chain criteria. In most of the corporate setups, this technique is mostly applicable for persons who have an in-depth familiarization with the firm’s supply chain history.
Another importance of this strategy relies on its four broad criteria. In the first criteria, it supports the necessity that every undertaking in a firm projects the overall prospects of the organization. Subsequently, the FSM technique is also consistent because of its alignment with the objectives of senior executives of a firm. It makes sure that for a specific firm, every aspect of its supply chain is harmonious to one another, and it creates simplicity in the modification process of the product in its life cycle (Roberto et al., 2011). Coverage makes the third component, and its involvement is that as a senior manager, one must ensure that all areas of attention in the supply chain method are effectively thought of and minded. Sufficiency, as the last criterion, makes sure that both the strategic and functional prospects of the firm are content.
Despite its tremendous significance towards influencing steady supply, experiences from various corporations and corporate agencies still identify two challenges it presents to managers. First, most managers find it hard handling feuds presenting themselves in set-ups associating with pending conflicts. Different workforce happens to develop varying views on varying matters, which the managers find challenging to conceptualize and resolve (Roberto et al., 2011). Another turmoil for managers is how to implement the FSM method to an organization, more so when such a firm is under refurbishments. For a firm that has already put the focus on achieving a select goal, will find it hard transitioning the format, hence lead to a difference in ideology.
In comparison to other methods, FSM still presents itself as the best tool to help managers evaluate consistencies within the supply chain. Through this, a firm becomes positive of exploring the affiliations between mutual compatibility and support for pertinent aspects from the FSM criteria. In summary, the FSM approach is significant as it identifies relative gaps in a supply chain and providing solutions to improve the firm’s undertakings.
Roberto. P., Mahendera. S., & Yossi. S. (2011). Expressing a firms supply chain strategy: A framework and a Method. Retrieved from
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Landmark U.S. Supreme Court Cases best college essay helpCase: Plessy v. Ferguson 163 U.S. 537 (1896)
The case Plessy v. Ferguson is civil where Plessy petitions district court on a ruling favoring Ferguson who claimed that the petitioner infringed his rights as an African American. The law involved in the case is the one that allows legal distinction between the white and the blacks.
Plessy, petitionerin the case had paid for a first class seat on East Louisiana Railway to travel from New Orleans to Covington (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). Plessy got in the train and sat in the unallocated seat where there were white people. The railway company was bided by the Louisiana law, which did not distinguish between white and black. However, the conductor instructed the petitioner to shift to the allocated seat although the black accommodated the area (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). The penalty of ejection and imprisonment was guiding the conductor to issue instructions to the petitioner. Plessyrefused to vacate the seat where a police officer took him out and imprisoned him in the parish jail.
Later, the police took Plessy toa parish of Orleans criminal district court where he argued that the claims were null and void because the act by the conductor was against the US constitution which secured immunity to the citizens (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). The court charged Plessy for refusing to sit on the coach assigned and to which his race belonged and insisting on seating on a coach of a different race. The Supreme Court upheld the decision by the parish of Orleans criminal district court.
According to the Supreme Court judge, the constitutional act, which gave the petitioner immunity against people of black race, conflicted with the thirteenth amendment, made to abolish slavery. according to the court, displacing a black person and claiming protection against such acts was slavery, which implied servitude (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). Aso, the constitutional act which the petitioner based his argument on conflicted with the fourteenth amendment. According to the bill, all people born in the state or naturalized and are subjected to the jurisdiction are US citizens and of states of residents and that the state cannot make any law which shall deprive privileges or expose immunity of its citizens. Through the argument, the Supreme Court judge held that no passenger is allowed to sit in a coach assigned to a person of different race and therefore, the petition was dropped (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896).
How the Bill of Rights Address the Facts
One of the rights, which emerge from the case, is the right to protection from slavery. In one of the issues, the petitioner occupied a seat belonging to a black American and refused to move when asked by the conductor. Supreme court interpreted the act as slavery, which the fourteenth amendment of the US constitution prohibits (Lash, 2019). Another right applied in the case was the right to protection from discrimination by race and the right to own property. Another detail about the matter was that the petitioner was refusing to move from the seat because the person who was to occupy it was an African America (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). According to the judge, that was discrimination because every person had the right to property regardless of the race.
Another fact on the case was that the person who was supposed to occupy the coach occupied by the petitioner was a US citizen. The state of Louisiana was made up of missed races, which the petitioner did not recognize as citizens. Fergusongrew in the USand therefore became a US citizen according to the constitution and had the right to be protected against all sorts of harmful acts against him.
The outcome of the Case and Opinion on the Interpretation of the Bills of Rights
The court ruled in favor of the train conductor as well as the African America who was assigned the seat occupied by the petitioner. It found that the petitioner was using one constitution clause to defend his actions, which was violating other several rights (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). In one of the court argument, the petitioner was taking advantage of the constitutional right of immunity as a US citizen to propagate slavery, which the fourteenth amendment in the same constitution prohibited (Lash, 2019). Also, the petitioner was assuming that the African Americans were not US citizens just because of color not putting in to consideration of other factors which made any person a US citizen such as naturalization or birth(Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). The petitioner was wrongly using the clause of immunity to infringe the right to property of the respondent.
The court interpretation of the bill of rights was correct in the ruling. First, every US citizen who is born or naturalized in the US has the right to citizenship (Lash, 2019). The Supreme Court interpreted the bill of right to mean that the respondent was also immune as a US citizen and was protected by the law (Case 163 U.S. 537, 1896). The interpretation is justifiable, as the law does not discriminate on the mode through which a person became a US citizen. The Supreme Court judge also interpreted the right to property ownership correctly that the respondent had the right to seat on the coach allocated. Being a US citizen, he could own anything as a shareholder of the country as long as the state allocates it to him or her, which the train attendant represented.
In the casePlessy v. Ferguson, Plessy had occupied a coach in a train belonging to Ferguson, a black American and when ask to vacate refused with the claim that that was the area for the white. The Supreme court uses the bill of right to citizenship to show that Ferguson was a US citizen and had the right to own the sit and that Plessy could therefore not get immunity. Also, the court argued that Plessy was subjecting Ferguson to slavery which was prohibited in the fourteenth amendment.Ferguson also had the right to be protected from discrimination against race,and therefore, the bill was used to show that Plessy was wrong to interpret that there is a region for the black and white people in the train. The court interpreted the bills of right correctly with the basis that Ferguson was a US citizen and therefore applicable in the case. Also, the court interprets the bills of right well since Plessy had assumed that Ferguson was not a US citizen and therefore infringe his rights according to the details given.
Case 163 U.S. 537 (United Sates Supreme Court, 1896)
Lash, K. T. (2019). Federalism and the Original Fourteenth Amendment. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 42(1), 69–79.
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The African Americans college essay helpThe African Americans were considered as people of the underserved population in America. Several people of African descent were adversely affected by the type of frustrations that they were facing in the ancient time of slavery and increased levels of racism. African Americans were psychologically tormented, and they still experience trauma from the past events of racial segregation. To stay healthy and have a smooth living in society, African Americans need healing. The modalities of healing are on the psychological effects that they experienced from the past trauma which affects their social lives through a negative transformation in their behavior. Currently, in the US, the police are complaining of the rising levels of crimes which are committed by the African Americans. The crimes committed ranges from murder, drug trafficking to theft and burglary. There is a problem somewhere that needs to be fixed, and it is primarily in the mental healing of the African Americans with the aim of streamlining their behaviors and making them become productive people in the society. Psychological experts have identified various healing modalities that are more specific to the African America population. The African Americans are always reluctant to seek for a solution to their psychological problems since most of them are stigmatized and cannot attend similar facilities to other Americans. The African Americans still have a high number of unmet needs as compared to the whites in relation to seeking therapy for mental health issues. Among some of the recognized methodologies by psychologists encompasses the healing power of music, African Dance, spiritual (through prayers), stories, memories, and indigenous healing. African Americans can benefit from the proposed healing methodologies when they are effectively applied to the population.
Healing Methodologies for the people of African Descent
Spirituality has a value in the treatment of African Americans who experienced the adverse effects of slavery and racial segregation. American Families prefer using their religion and the bible during moments of challenges so that they can cope well with their stress and troubles. Studies have estimated that African Americans report increased levels of church and religious involvement than the whites. Since most of the black Americans’ population in America highly values spiritual seeking during troubles, they do not view treatment for mental health problems as culturally accepted and desirable. The Black Americans believe that when one seeks assistance from a therapist, they must be spiritually weak. The families of the Africa Americans believe in the power of prayers as a solution towards physical health problems and mental distress such as unusual social behaviors. When an African American is faced with a stressful situation, they have a core spiritual belief that is said to empower them during the awkward moments. There is a common phrase that the African Americans often state when they are confronted with a stressful situation “God will provide me the strength to overcome all obstacles.” A therapist must be observant of the spiritual belief of the African families as they strive to provide a positive outcome on the African Americans who experienced trauma from past experiences. Psychologists are often bound to the Ethics Code which compels them to respect the cultural and religious beliefs of the clients. It is thus imperative that all the professionals observe this issue so that they are able of attaining good results. The psychologists should understand the spiritual belief of the African Americans and then become their advocates through coordinating with the state to promote prayer services in most of the churches so that a good number of the target population can get a consolation.
Indigenous Healing (Traditional healers)
Traditional healers always share the cultural aspects of the client and are hence individuals whom individuals can get healings and guidance. Indigenous healing does not follow the same procedures as psychotherapy, but it considers a holistic perspective towards well-being. The methods of traditional healing are natural, help giving and informal pathways available in the cultures that promote interdependence in healing. The groups who are referred to as indigenous healing are always assigned to only particular members within the society. Because the literature shows that African Americans try to escape obvious needs through using indigenous and interdependent form, it is clear that African Americans do not feel comfortable with Western Psychological Services. Several studies have provided tangible evidence to express how much willing these people are towards receiving informal services of care from the clergy, traditional healers, family, and friends. The Americans of African descent often rely on ministers who play an essential role in counseling the people and guide them mentally. Several studies have reported that Native Americans who did not have an opportunity to see a native healer say that they should be provided the chance to see a native healer. The native healer can offer excellent psychological guidance towards the stability of the mind of the traumatized African Americans. Native healers can control and understand the memory of the Americans of the African descent hence provide better healing services that offer comfort to the people. Indigenous healing significantly improves the physical status of the African Americans, and the recovery process was found to be faster as compared to when the same person was subjected to psychological therapy of the western people.
The psychotherapy services are not relevant ways to heal the African Americans since; the psychotherapists do not understand how cultural biases can affect their services. Psychotherapy excludes the people from the interdependent cultures, collectivistic relationship, and emotional expressiveness and this is why they are not most preferred for the African Americans. The use of traditional healers is a culturally appropriate method that should be applied to the individuals and families of African Americans. Engaging and treating the African Americans by including the services of the traditional leaders may seem to require a more significant investment of resources, but it can also result in improved future benefits to the people.
The healing power of music
The technology through which people experience music has gone through several advancements over the last century. The digital evolution of music has dramatically disrupted established business models. However, just like technology has gone through several improvements, so must music also evolve to awaken, empower, inspire and heal humanity? Historically music has played significant roles in the lives of those who are frustrated with life and are not having the hope of living in the world anymore. For example, the African Americans had several problems with the American ways of treating the black Americans, and in the process, most of them were starting to lose hopes with the living that they were undergoing during such moments. Music was used as a powerful means of communication among the people since it transcends the bridges, cultures, language and unites the African Americans through how it creates an excellent emotional feeling. Music can bypass the head’s intellect and successfully pierce through our emotional core. In the past, those who were most associated with music were the Negroes who were often using music to boost their morale to continue the fight and inspire their happiness during moments of mystery. For example, the Negro Spirituals were critical during slavery times since they were used to soothe the distraction that the people were experiencing during slavery times. Music types like Jazz of Charlie Parker, Duke Ellington, and Armstrong were used during the great depression, and the inspirational Calypso and work songs were outstanding during the early civil rights movements. Music was liberating especially during the tough times when certain music could be played, and the people would feel just okay and relieved from their problems.
Currently, it is essential that as a psychotherapist are trying ways to heal those who were affected by their past when the black Americans were going through tough moments, it is imperative to use music to make the people recover from their history. There certain types of music that were used in the past by the people to as assist them to go through the awkward moments and when the same music is played the traumatized African Americans will be able to think through their lives and feel motivated of how far they managed to come through their struggles. When an individual can reflect into their lives through the memories that they get in music, they will be able to heal faster as compared to the ordinary means of psychotherapy. When the music of the African descent is played especially those that were performed during the moments of struggle and slavery, most of the African Americans will be able to appreciate their culture, strength, and personality and hence the instances of an individual developing low self-esteem will be rare. African Americans often engage in several criminal issues due to the tough moments their people faced in life and hence as a means of recovery most of them develop selfish behavior that does not promote healthy living among the people. Playing music will help in shaping personality, attitude and developing positive self-esteem among the affected individuals so that they can live a happy life.
Dance healing (“Sankofa” Healing)
Sankofa is a form of traditional dance that was mostly used by the African American women to reach back into their African Ancestry, retrieve the heritage rituals and transform them to initiate the healing of their present communities. The integral of the Sankofa healing process is the establishment of the community. The healing process requires the participants to retrieve the traditions of the Africans and bring them back so that they can be used in healing for their communities. There is a necessary procedure that requires the first identification of the participating communities before any hills are identified. Through the dance, the communities can have conservations on the ills that plague them, but this requires that the participants must first come into terms with the racial identity conflicts of their childhood. The core principle of the dance is that it compels all the women who were majorly the participants to focus upon their work on the liberation of all the people, but this was explicitly the African American women. The dance was done in a way to restore the balance between the environment and the people and also to help in reconciling human life and spiritual dimension. Drummers also play a significant role in the dance since they maintain the rhythmic integrity of the movement and in the process, they can control spiritual disturbances for the performers. Dancing is also meant to fix the African Americans through solidifying their roles of becoming committed to the community. Through regular dance training, African Americans become the keepers of the history, religion, and culture of traditions of the society.
Dance has curative and functional properties, and this is why most African Americans should use them to go through their trauma successfully. To dance is said is to human and technically humanity always expresses itself in dance through its ability to interconnect with other human life aspects like communication, social relations, political dynamics, belief systems, learning, loving, fighting, and change. Dance when used in rituals, it plays a significant role in the social and spiritual development of several communities throughout the world especially the African cultures. Dancing is not only regarded as a form of healing but as a symbol of the communal, personal and social narrative of the African American societies. Trauma among African Americans is destructive and results in a mental breakdown. Trauma which is experienced among the African Americans is mainly associated with past adverse experiences that the African Americans faced. As a means of restoration, dance is essential in the re-establishment of stabilization. The African American dances have meaning, and symbolic making dimensions of the African centered healing processes with the spiritual transformation and the availability of a sacred space. The transformative religious role of dance allows individuals to be equipped with therapeutic properties which are necessary for ensuring that the healing process is possible among the African Americans.
Memory as medicine
Memory as a means of healing is attained through the establishment of the National Memorial for Peace and Justice (NMPJ) and this act as a healing of the unspeakable acts in the history of the African Americans. Such an establishment is a milestone towards the endeavors to ensure successful healing among the people of African ancestry. Through documentation of the gravity of the massacres, the NMPJ can give names to the nameless, count the uncounted and also give freedom to the victims who were mistreated by the perpetrators of the atrocities of the racial terror. The methods that NMPJ has applied are intended at promoting social justice important in liberating and validating the people of African descent. The aim of the establishment of memories through the NMPJ is to free the African mind, illuminate the African Spirit and empower the people of African ancestry. The most psychologist believes that the restoration of memory is a form of healing which requires the establishment of a story in which the victim is not held accountable for the infliction of abuse which is essential in rebuilding a sense of independence and self-efficacy. To assist the African Americans to restore resilient, stories can be used to help them negotiate the distress of historical trauma and this is most appropriate when the focus is placed on their strengths so that they can learn ways in which they can use to overcome challenges through self-determination
In conclusion, the people of Africa descent are really in need of the most appropriate ways to assist them in recovering from the historical mystery that they faced in life. Several studies conducted by psychologists suggest that most of Africa Americans do not prefer psychotherapy as a solution to the trauma. After a series of research conducted it was found that applying much of the traditional means of healing, the use of music, dances, and memories can assist in the restoration of the mind for the African Americans. The healing modalities discussed have significantly impacted the lives of the African Americans since they have successfully healed from their past and developed positive self-esteem that propels their modern living.
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Personal use of Media argumentative essay helpMedia is one of the platforms that have been used by marketers for a long time. There are a number of factors that have influenced the rise in the use of media. Among the reasons that favour the use of media includes its flexibility and convenience, which make it to be a better option for marketing as compared to the traditional methods that lacked flexibility and also led to the wastage of time as the marketers traveled from one point to the other as identified by Geraghty& Conway, (2016). In addition, today’s media has enhanced the ability of marketers to specialize, segment and target specific groups of consumers thereby increasing the potential of sales and minimizing the cost of sales. Social media is one of the best marketing platforms that one can use today to boost their sales as compared to traditional media.
To start with, the traditional media includes such mediums as the television, print media, broadcast media and the billboards. I use traditional media mainly as a source of entertainment whereby I listen to a variety of radio channels and watch different TV stations during my free time. I easily zap one channel to another every time one channel starts flooding with advertisements whether it is a radio or a TV station. Similarly, I only skim through the advertisements in such printed media like newspapers and magazines and I never focus on their content. According to Stephen &Galak, (2012), traditional media may be an ineffective medium of advertisement and product promotion when compared to social media.
On the other hand, today’s media like Facebook has become a product promotion where trade is made. People with different products createawareness to the public, and since most people are using the platform, it becomes accessible to a large group of people (Morra, Ceruti, Chierici& Di Gregorio, 2018). I have made a couple of the online Facebook orders and it also feels secure because I only make my full payment after my orders have been delivered. Other social mediums like Twitter also help share information and ideas among different individuals. By using Twitter, I get to understand that various problems can have different ways of solving them depending on which one suits better. Great ideas and opinions are given by individuals from different fields of life, therefore, creating a suitable learning environment.
Additionally, Instagram is another great social media platform that has created a room for interaction and communication among different people in different horizons across the world. The increased convenience in communication has made the world a global village and it has helped to bridge the physical distances between people from different geographical locations(Morra, Ceruti, Chierici& Di Gregorio, 2018). Instagram has helped me to interact with people from different continents, learn various values from their cultures that have, in turn, helped me to respect other cultures that may differ from my own. Instagram also links with other platforms like YouTube to offer detailed lessons on different topics. I spend a considerable amount of time in my social media accounts, mainly Instagram and Twitter because they offer me valuable lessons in different fields. In both platforms, I have followed people who challenge and inspire me and that has helped me to keep growing.
In conclusion, social media has taken over traditional media in the current world since it offers better and improved functions and services that the traditional media used to provide. While social media is a great source of entertainment for its users, it has also been used widely by marketers to push their products to potential customers as well as pull customers to their retails. Social media also offers great lessons about almost everything in life and all an individual need is to choose the topics that are most relevant to them.
Geraghty, G., & Conway, A. T. (2016). The Study of Traditional and Non-traditional Marketing Communications: Target Marketing in the Events Sector.
Morra, M. C., Ceruti, F., Chierici, R., & Di Gregorio, A. (2018). Social vs traditional media communication: brand origin associations strike a chord. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 12(1), 2-21.
Stephen, A. T., &Galak, J. (2012). The effects of traditional and social earned media on sales: A study of a microlending marketplace. Journal of Marketing Research, 49(5), 624-639.
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Alternatives to LIDAR in autonomous cars writing essay helpIntroduction
Autonomous vehicles have played an important role in technological development and advancement in the future of cars. Increased production of self-employed however comes with several considerations including the environmental impacts and other ethical considerations (Levinson et al., 2011). Research on autonomous systems has also led to the improvement with dramatic advancement and other available computers at a reduced cost that requires computing technologies. The most commonly used computing technologies in autonomous vehicles are lidar, radar, and vision. The lidar technology has numerous advantages including efficiency, dependency and a high level of accuracy. This makes a perfect sense for the market of the self-driving vehicles. Many developers of autonomous cars use LiDAR for vehicles except Tesla. Despite this, several disadvantages come with lidar sensors. One of them is that they are not easy to acquire and they are quite expensive. Because of these factors, there is a need to have better alternatives. The alternatives include; radar, vision, and AD, all of which have the advantage over lidar.
Requirements, needs, and specification associated with sensor technology
There are several requirements of a better sensor technology that is used in an autonomous car.The anticipation surrounding autonomous vehicles calls for better conditions and the need for improvements in road safety to eliminate human errors. Most of the accidents that took place on the road come from the errors done by the humans and the burden that is placed on the human drivers (Amzajerdian et al., 2018). Self-driven vehicles should result in better productivity and enable people the time to rest as well as combining the different foreseen benefits with the ongoing anticipations. The past three decades of leadership to a steady increase in efforts to develop technology for self-driving vehicles as well as advances in sensing and computer technologies. Major research works and the need for efficiency have also fuelled this growth lowering their prices of self-driving computer technology. The perceived societal benefits have continuously grown as the population around the globe also glows. The increase in population has also lead to increasing vehicle ownership with the number of vehicles in the world are currently estimated should be 1.7 billion as the population heads towards 8 billion.
Possible autonomous control and processing options
There are several possible autonomous controls and processing options for the unmanned systems that are based on the operational environment and availability of new technology. These controls are witnessed in some of the business towns around. Autonomous cars are those that are driven by 21st-century drivers. Autonomous cars operate through the use of LIDAR, vision, AD or Radar (Filisetti et al., 2018). These are the readily available options to the cars. Lidar is a piece of hardware that unlocks self-driving cars for people. Lidar operates just like a reader but emits infrared laser instead of sending radio waves. These leases are invisible to the human eye, and they measure the distance that the car will take to heat any nearby object. This process is done more than five million times within a second and compares the result in a way that it points to a cloud that works in a real map world giving the details of the sport that has been identified. Once identified the object, the computer of the card and then predict the behavior at the object and how the car should be driven. Self-driving cars use other sensors that can be noted like radars and cameras. However, all the senses cannot match the laser vision. The technology has proven to be reliable and also offer digital resolution by giving a detailed translation of 2d images that requires machine learning power and puts it into a 3-D understanding. On the contrary, Lidar offers data that is in the form of direct measurement and one that is computer friendly.
The appropriateness of considered elements and the components that support the intended use
Various ideas have to be considered for the intended use. Several weaknesses of Lidar that have led to many companies competing for the alternatives to this technology. The main weakness is that Lidar is lack of toughness for the road especially the rough roads. Lidarsensing techniques have also been around for several decades especially those that have been used to map the surrounding.This technology offers a different kind of vision. Primitive laser scanners have also been pushed for the development of autonomous vehicles. Apart from the lack of toughness that is associated with lidar, there are other limitations that it has (Wolcott, and Eustice, 2017). The technology is quite expensive as the cheapest sensor that can be found in the market is $4000. For a car to successfully incorporate LIDAR into full operation, it has to have several sensors that would cover on its surrounding.The other limitation is that lidar works the car too much and in a hard way. Technology and other devices that are integrated with the cars have to be robust and why important to leave reliable as they have to withstand all the potholes and temperature variations. The device also has to work for several years continuously. Deploying other technologies such as AVsand vision have made it simple for the people. The other downside is that the lidar sensors have to entirely rely on weather conditions (Messikommer, Schaefer, Dubé, and Pfeiffer, 2017). The technology does not give an inaccurate image in case there are challenging conditions such as a form or a storm hits the road. This means that the technology must be paired with another secondary sensor. The problem is that they are quite expensive that the user has to incorporate the secondary sensor. Lidar cannot effectively detect the speed of the other vehicles. Spinning lidar that transmits lasers usually shoot them to different directions requiring different moving parts. This leads to an increase in maintenance and installation cost. The 3-D images that are generated allow the computer to predict the actions of the road users can’t help in deciding for the next movement.
Major sensor alternatives
There are alternatives such as radar, AV and vision. These are technologies that are based on the environmental safety and availability of new technologies. The environment has a massive role to play in developing the controls for autonomous cars. Depending on the nature of the road, a specific type of technology have to be used to ensure the longevity of the vehicle. These sensors act as the eye to these autonomous cars (Mollison, 2017). Lidars and radar systems have been competing for the top spot about the most effective system that can be used in autonomous cars. The competition between these two senses has led to an intense rivalry within the automotive industry. Many companies such as ford and general motors usually use lidar. Alternatives are also available for the cars including Luminar that has presented a massive competition for these two senses.
These are various technological operations for these lasers. These technologies used light to detect the range of an object and the surrounding of the car. LiDARuses the near-infrared light that scans objects to provide a three-dimensional map of the surroundings of the car. By transmitting with a laser beam that bounces of the object, the image of the object is returned to the sensor.There have to be several considerations that can provide the most accurate technology that can be used in driving. The technology has to give a 360-degree view of the surrounding. This has to be combined with the identification of the objects that can see through the road and other vehicles while also considering the pedestrians. They also have to distinguish between animals and cyclists as well as other objects that require a specific type of reaction such as slowing down or stopping completely while on the road. This technology can also track moments and the direction of these incoming movements. The other appropriate consideration is the decision-making while the car on the move.
There are several specific solutions or research strategy to address the perceived need, including a theory of operation, and appropriate recommendations. The first recommendation is to use radar as an alternative. Radar technology brings about the best out of the cars, and it is affordable. Other alternative technologies include radar, vision, Argo AI, and AV. Also, all the weaknesses that are associated with LiDar are not in addition to that the radar, vision, Argo AI, and AV. Self-Drive technology. When it comes to the rough roads, radar is also the best option even though it does not have the accuracy of the lidar; it has its advantages that can be identified. The theory of operation is that the market will always offer something different in operation. If the product has weaknesses, it is likely that a competitor will take advantage of the weakness. This is the specific solution that can be recommended for the manufacturers of the self-drive cars. The man alternatives to lidar technology include Radar, vision,Argo AI, and AV. These are specific technologies that can act as alternatives to Lidar and also provide cheaper services.
In inclusion, the increased availability of computing technology and reduced cost of sensing equipment have made the invention of autonomous driving technologies have fastened the device within the last few decades. Various components that make up universe vehicle software have been invented with different alternatives. However, the most common sensor technologies are; radar, lidar, AV, and vision. All these technologies have limitations and advantages that can be associated with them. LiDAR has been dominating the computer technology used in autonomous vehicles. This is because of its efficiency and range of resolution associated with it. However, it has numerous disadvantages and limitations including orange resolution and inability to work in a severe weather condition. It also has zero velocity alongside the high prices that come with their technologies. Safety and reliability have to be considered besides the social and legal acceptance of these free driving methods. Environmental conditions and perceptions have to be considered waiver different robust fusions are leading to a need for further development in this area.
Amzajerdian, F., Hines, G. D., Pierrottet, D. F., Barnes, B. W., Petway, L. B., & Carson, J. M. (2018, May). Navigation Doppler Lidar for free ground, aerial, and space vehicles. In CLEO: Applications and Technology (pp. AW3R-3). Optical Society of America.
Filisetti, A., Marouchos, A., Martini, A., Martin, T., &Collings, S. (2018, October). Developments and applications of underwater LiDAR systems in support of marine science. In OCEANS 2018 MTS/IEEE Charleston (pp. 1-10). IEEE.
Levinson, J., Askeland, J., Becker, J., Dolson, J., Held, D., Kammel, S., …&Sokolsky, M. (2011, June). Towards fully autonomous driving: Systems and algorithms. In Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2011 IEEE (pp. 163-168). IEEE.
Messikommer, N., Schaefer, S., Dubé, R., & Pfeiffer, M. (2017). Cone Detection using a Combination of LiDAR and Vision-based Machine Learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.02079.
Mollison, M. (2017). High-Speed Autonomous Vehicle for Computer Vision Research and Teaching (Doctoral dissertation, University of Western Australia).
Wolcott, R. W., &Eustice, R. M. (2017). Robust LIDAR localization using multiresolution Gaussian mixture maps for autonomous driving. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 36(3), 292-319.
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Recommendations for Pepsi Company essay help freePepsi Corporation
Pepsi can beat Coca-Cola by introducing more healthy products in the markets. The company should use natural raw materials like mangos, pineapples, grapes,and oranges to produce its beverages. The decision is strategically relevant since most of the company’s products are similar to those of Coca-Cola. Besides, customers are becoming health conscious and do not want beverages that have additives which might pose a health challenge. The firm can promote these products through the use of mass and social media platforms.
In addition, the corporation should also expand its operations beyond its borders in the USA. Furthermore, the business can extend its activities to the neighboring nations like Canada and Mexico. It is a wise decision since these nations are near America; thus, making it easier to penetrate these markets. The company can open additional distribution stores in these nations and expand its delivery channels. The decision is tactical since it will assist to reach more clients in the marketplace.
Moreover, Pepsi should develop a strategy that will help to deal with the issue of seasonal fluctuations. In the past, the company experienced a decline in sales because of the changing weather patterns. For instance, few people consume their drinks during cold seasons. Therefore, the company should introduce hot drinks to deal with the challenge. The decision is strategic since it will assist in maintaining the company’s sales.
Consequently, Pepsi can remain to be profitable by 2020 by adapting to customers lifestyles and preferences. The two issues keep on changing as time goes by. Therefore, the company should acquit itself with the relevant market information to increase its revenues.
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Art and Interpretation college admissions essay helpAs an aspect of Anthology of readings in Aesthetics, Dayton defines ‘Art and Interpretation’ as a broad aspect whose function is to delineate essential philosophical challenges. Through this, it influences mutual vocabulary specifically to those persons from different backgrounds(Dayton, 87). In this essay, Dayton expresses the significance of everyday vocabulary in philosophy, as it leads to effective communication regarding the essence of the said aesthetic challenges.
In art and interpretation, the author seems to be providing assortments from a broad basis of the aesthetic theory, be it modern or classic. One major significance of applying this approach owes to its cross-multidisciplinary aspect. From a philosophical approach, Dayton expresses that art and interpretation seek to stabilize traditional analytic readings(Dayton, 72). It is an approach that also puts into consideration both the feminist readings as well as to the postmodern deconstructionist. From the information as already mentioned above, its places ‘art and interpretation’ as a widespread perception amongst many individuals.
But then, Dayton identifies the approach as a clusterof various sections of every group reading. It entails Marxist Theory, Aesthetic and Expression aspect, Gender and Cultural Differences and Psychological Interpretation. The above aspects are found out to aim at providing a sort of in-depth handling of every aesthetic or philosophical challenge arising. In the essay, the author presents his understanding of substantial historical assortments ranging from Aristotle, Shelley, Hume, Nietzsche, Plato, and Kant. Through these readings, one can acknowledge the groupings in every vocabulary reading. Hence, it is easy to comprehend and establish various aesthetic issues in philosophy (Dayton, 52).
In its capacity to influence the identification of various challenges in aesthetics, it thus places this reading as an essential point of reference when it comes to the familiarization of art and interpretation in philosophy.
Dayton, Eric. Art and Interpretation: An Anthology of Readings in Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. Peterborough, Ont: Broadview Press, 1998. Print.2(5). Pg. 45 – 90.
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Decision-Making Process Leading Up to The Purchase Decision essay help freeThe product I bought last was I was an energy drink. I was driving for a long distance, and on my way, I started feeling dizzy and sleepy. It came to mind that I need some energy drink to boost my energy and concertation throughout the enter journey which otherwise could result in me causing an accident or kill myself driving. There were some energy drinks in the store, but I had a good experience with one specific drink known as Red-Bull. According to my red-bull drink works effectively with my body according to my knowledge. The above reason didn’t allow me to go into comparing with any other alternatives, I just worked into the store and picked, paid and left the store.
According to me, the essential attributes that lead to me to go for the drink was my experience with the bottle. From my past, I had used them, and it changed my driving experience. The glass has an instant effect when taken (Gursoy, 2019). Like glucose in the bloodstream that does not need to undergo digestion but directly absorbed into the bloodstream and help in generating energy to keep an individual alert, red-bull power is instant, and it keeps you awake for a long time. According to the information indicated in the can, the drink is specialized in improving concertation, and it is recommended for people traveling for long distances.
The fact that the product satisfies my needs when working on something that needs great concentration, I can say that yes, I will always buy the product if the need arises. It is a matter of urgency that will lead me to buy the product named earlier. I am aware that I will always be driving or doing some strenuous activities that could need the product to keep me alert.
Gursoy, D. (2019). A critical review of determinants of information search behavior and utilization of online discussions in the decision-making process (invited paper for ‘luminaries’ special issue of the international journal of hospitality management). International Journal of Hospitality Management, 76, 53-60.
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Benefits and Concerns of Biotechnology college essay help onlineIn an interview, Robert Horsch states that biotechnology aims to genetically improve agricultural production with the new tools of molecular biology. He says that Biotechnology is a useful tool that allows for more food production with less damage or depletion to the land, water resources and biodiversity (Nemecek, 2001). He believes that an increase in population and the rise in incomes will increase the demand for food in the next 25 years. Therefore, biotechnology is imperative in helping the world meet the rapidly growing demand for food as well as agricultural products (Nemecek, 2001). Horsch reiterates that biotechnology aims to create an affordable, land-based alternative that has properties that enable the development of delicious food products as compared to the current ones.
Horsch points out that the use of Biotechnology to produce genetically modified products has a lot of benefits. He cites the lower use of pesticides as an environmental benefit of this technology. According to Horsch, between 1996 and 2004, 380 million pounds of pesticides were not used on the land, and he asserts that many more will not be used in the future (Nemecek, 2001). This he says is a benefit to the environment because it does not harm the land and does not release toxins to the environment. Another benefit Horsch says is a boost in yields. He argues that biotechnology help to increase production and therefore provides benefits to the whole nation.
Lastly, Horsch points out that biotechnology helps to create more nutritionally enhanced foods. For example, Horsch says that there are continuing efforts to modify fatty acids that will help make vegetable oils healthier for consumers (Nemecek, 2001). Biotechnology helps to design healthier oils that produce foods with low levels of saturated fats. Additionally, biotechnology helps in producing foods that are enriched with omega-3, and this will be rolled out in the next decade.
According to Horsch, Omega-3 will provide consumers with ways to improve cardiovascular health. Another point that Horsch makes is that biotechnology has lead to a global initiative called ‘Harvest Plus’ which attempts to use biotechnology and conventional breeding to improve the levels of zinc, vitamin A, and iron in crops like cassava, beans, wheat, sweet potatoes, and rice (Nemecek, 2001). By this, Horsch asserts that biotechnology helps to enhance nutrition in food products.
However, Horsch says that there are risks of using GMO foods. For example, he says that vegetarians are concerned about consuming vegetables that have animal genes in them. Similar concerns are raised by certain religious groups and cultures that do not lean towards animal products. However, these concerns have been addressed, and biotechnology experts are now avoiding using any types of animal genes in food crops (Nemecek, 2001). Horsch says that there are no significant risks as far as GMO products are concerns. He adds that numerous national and international organizations such as American Medical Association, The National Academy of Sciences’ and the World Health Organization have conducted research and found that there are no measurable risks from the GMO that are being developed.
Additionally, Horsch says that biotech has provided important environmental and economic benefits and future efforts will provide greater benefits. These benefits include developing crops with significant drought tolerance, efficient use of nitrogen, enhanced nutrition, and increased crop yields.
According to Horsch, the most significant concern about GMO development is the risk of converting nonallergenic foods into allergens (Nemecek, 2001). He also cites the risk of introducing new toxins in to food products, but he adds that scientists are working to mitigate these risks.
Horsch concludes by saying that the greatest concern about the debate about biotech is that it diverts the attention from dealing with world hunger problems (Nemecek, 2001). He argues that stakeholders should be concentrating on more significant issues such as infrastructure, trade policies, land reforms, and much more. He adds that these are more critical issues as compared to biotech.
Other studies agree with Horsch’s sentiments. For example, a study by Martin Qaim (2015) shows that GM crops have numerous benefits in regards to raising agricultural productivity and reducing the need for environmentally harmful pesticides. According to the study, GM crops provide significant environmental benefits. These benefits include reduced spraying of toxic insecticides and herbicides in to the environment and controlling farm wastes that pollute water resources (Qaim, 2015). He adds that the use of GM technologies helps to reduce mechanical weeding thus preventing the loss of the topsoil in the land.
According to Qaim, biotech is beneficial to developing countries as it was found to generate employment. This is because there are high yields produced and therefore more workers are needed to harvest the yields thus creating employment. He cites a study done in India where biotech cotton was found to generate 82% higher revenues for small farmers as compared with the 41% revenues produced by conventional cotton (Qaim, 2015). The study found that farmers in developing countries who employ biotech achieve yields 14% higher than those using traditional methods of farming.
The study also agrees with Horsch that some major concerns relate to health risks, such as loss of biodiversity and allergenicity of transgenes. Qaim also found concerns about social implications such as GM technology undermining traditional systems and the monopolization of seed markets (Qaim, 2015). He, however, concludes by stating that these risks have not yet materialized and the risks that currently exist are manageable.
Nemecek, S. (2001). Does The World Need GM Foods? No. Scientific American, 284(4), 64-65.
Qaim, M. (2015). The benefits of genetically modified crops—And the costs of inefficient regulation. Weekly Policy Commentary.
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Ethical Decision making process essay help site:eduQuestion 7
When considering culture and social orientation in this study, one should take into account whether Mr. Greenspace actions contributed to the entity’s success in the market. The corporate culture should consider the primary goals, concepts and the values of the therapist’s actions. The basic principle is that the employee should maintain confidentiality while dealing with the client. From his actions, it is evident that he breached the policy of privacy (Fraedrich, Ferrell & Ferrell, 2013). One of the instances is where he gave paper containing confidential information to children to draw on. In this case, he could have shred all the documents containing sensitive information. Instead, he could have given the kids who were in the waiting blank sheets to draw on. By providing children with papers with confidential information, it could be easy for anyone accessing the waiting room to obtain the facts contained in the document. Therefore,Greenspace actions also indicate that there was an element of negligence on his part.
From this case, social orientation will assist in determining why the therapist behaved in this manner. One of the reasons is that he had the habit of recycling every piece of paper before discarding it. In this case, the family therapist never acted in the best interest of the client. Therefore, moral conflicts might arise from this case because of the failure to safeguard the customer’s secrecy. Ultimately, the customer was not satisfied with his service.
There is a dual relationship in this study. First, there is a contract between the family therapist and the client. Mr. Greenspace is supposed to offer guidance and counseling services about family issues to the client. Therefore, everyone must obey the agreement and play his part appropriately (Husted & Husted, 2008). It is because their covenant is binding to the two parties. The customer should pay for the services before the therapist offers his or her services. Additionally, the counselor should maintain confidentiality while dealing with the client. He should avoid disclosing the customer’s information without seeking one’s consent. As a result, all the papers containing the client’s vital information should be kept away from unauthorized persons
The ethical decision-making model involves eight steps. The first one is to gather sufficient information regarding the subject. The report comprises of the assumption made about the topic and statistical data. The factual evidence collected can include information regarding current and future challenges in life in case of a family therapist. However, any information whose outcomes are not valuable should be avoided. The second step is to define ethical issues. There are some occasions where two essential values might conflict. For instance, the right to a safe workplace can conflict with the privacy of an individual. Therefore, consider if there is a code of ethics that that advises on which values should be given the highest priority.’
Thirdly, it is also essential to identify all the affected parties. These are the people who might be affected by a particular decision. Some of these individuals comprise of the clients, workers and the community at large. Moreover, it is also essential to consider the consequences of your actions to all the parties that have been identified. Check whether the decision has long-term or short-term effects on the people. Finally, try to avoid any negative consequences associated with any choice.
Identify your obligations by considering the rights and principles involved. One should always avoid harming others while executing his or her duties. The sixth concept is to consider your integrity and character(Zsolnai, 2017). Consider how people might view you after making a particular decision. Moreover, bear in mind the specific virtues that may be vital in the current situation. Also, think creatively about specific actions. Avoid being forced into a dilemma after making certain decisions. Also, come up with alternatives and choices that have not been considered. The last step is to put your plan into action during the execution stage. This is after weighing the merits and demerits of each action.
Alternative decision-making process
The rational method is another decision-making model that can be used by individuals and corporations. Individuals analyze, use facts and follow specific procedures before making any decisions. This process is short and might assist companies to come up with fact-based decisions. Six steps must be logically followed in this process. First, a problem that needs to be solved must be identified (Fraedrich, Ferrell & Ferrell, 2013). For instance, the challenge might be how to prevent water pollution within a particular jurisdiction. Secondly, one must also identify decision criteria. It is done by using variables that will determine the choice outcome. Thirdly, gauge the best approaches for the decision you intend to make. It will assist you to come up with the best alternative after weighing several options. Additionally, create several opportunities that can help you to come with the best approach to solve the solution at hand. Moreover, it is also prudent to assess the alternatives before selecting the best option depending on the situation at hand.
Fraedrich, J., Ferrell, O., & Ferrell, L. (2013). Ethical decision making for business. Mason, Ohio: South-Western.
Husted, J., & Husted, G. (2008). Ethical decision making in nursing and healthcare. New York: Springer Pub. Co. hio: South-Western.
Zsolnai, L. (2017). Responsible Decision Making. Milton: Taylor and Francis.
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Definition and Differences in the Valuation of Business Assets essay help site:eduIn the finance field, there are certain general levels of valuation for a business’s assets; they include; intrinsic value, liquidation value, book value, and market value. Each of these levels gives accountants and analysts a way to classify the average value of a company’s assets. Liquidation value would be the accumulated worth of a firm’s physical assets at the current market price if the company were to go out of business. Assets such as inventory,real estate,equipment, and fixtures determine the liquidation value of a business. Book value refers to the worth of a company as portrayed in its financial records(Seth, 2018). It shows the total value of an organization if they sell off all its assets and pay back all its liabilities. If the company went for liquidation, this is the amount that their investors and creditors would expect. Market value, on the other hand, is defined as the highest price at which a company’s security or asset can be sold or bought in the market(WallstreetMojo, 2018). It is a reflection of the company’s stock value in the market currently. Intrinsic value refers to the estimated cost of business, tangible and intangible factors included(Kenton, 2018). It is calculated through fundamental analysis, one of the factors considered when estimating the intrinsic value of assets in a company is the value of currency where the company is operating.
Saudi Arabia being an oil-rich nation has one of the largest oil companies globally by revenue. Aramco has been identified by financial analysts as the most profitable company worldwide, based on valuations applied. Therefore, the business leaders of Saudi need to ensure the valuations of the business remain positive for the nation to continue a giant in the world’s economy.
Kenton, W. (2018, July 26). Intrinsic Value. Retrieved from Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/intrinsicvalue.asp
Seth, S. (2018, November 06). Market value versus book value. Retrieved from Investopedia: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/110613/market-value-versus-book-value.asp
WallstreetMojo. (2018). Book Value Vs Market Value. Retrieved from WallstreetMojo: https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/book-value-vs-market-value/
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Social and Detail Division of Labor essay help site:eduIntroduction
Division of labor comprises the process in which cooperative labor specializes in specific and circumscribed tasks and roles that aim at increasing the quality and efficiency of the output(Larivière et al., 418). The quality of human labor dramatically influences the value of goods and services that are traded in the local and international environment. The natural division of labor dates back to the beginning and development of civilization where labor was divided by age and gender within the family, and this later grew to the community level as the population continued to increase (Larivière et al., 419). They typed of work, trade, and craft performed by each community members varied and started defining them. When different communities came into contact in the effort of exchanging products with one another, a gradual need of bringing together the different production mechanisms and spheres of this people emerged thus resulting to creation or more or less interdependent branches of combined production within the society (Larivière et al., 422).This essay focuses on critically discussing the existing differences between social and detail division of labor as claimed by Braverman, how the capitalist management of work differs from pre-capitalist, the current social consequences of the capitalist organization of production and how the Rice’s play can be used in this study to illustrate the labor effects that Braverman describes in his discussion.
Variation between Social and Detailed Division of Labor According to Braverman
The comprehensive analysis of the working of capitalism in the United States during the twentieth century is enhanced through the use of the ‘Labor and Monopoly Capitalism’ which is a written work that was published by Harry Braverman in 1974. In this publication, Braverman consistently uses the various concepts that are borrowed from the work of Marx in the attempt of establishing a critique that critically demonstrates how work continued to degrade in America an aspect that is still taking place up-to-date(Braverman 46). Majority of Braverman’s arguments in this publication are primarily based on the increased need of creating a new efficient system where control and coordination of labor force were possible in the efforts of maximizing profits plus also his high dislike for the capitalist economy (Braverman 47).
In any industrial organization, the division of labor is considered as a fundamental principle and critical success driver. According to Braverman, in the capitalist industry, a division of labor is assumed to be significantly different from the distribution of crafts, tasks or specialties of production throughout the society (Braverman 48). Braverman suggests that none of the communities in America sub-divided its work in a systematic and precise manner like the capitalist society did through limiting the involved operations although all organizations were known for dividing their work into productive specialties prior the introduction of capitalism (Braverman 49).
In any market that is characterized by the free labor force, it is increasingly very essential to critically investigate and comprehend the various ways in which the capitalists manage to expand their capital and the existing foundations that monopoly has in capitalism. Braverman claims that a detailed division of labor is the earliest and most essential mode of production in a capitalist economy (Braverman 51). He further argues that social division of labor, on the other hand, plays a crucial role in determining the extent of socio-cultural solidarity and cohesion, stratification in the labor force, effects of inequality and how fast technological development takes place by breaking down the social labor on the basis of craft specialization (Braverman 52).
Moreover, Braverman states that during the manufacturing process of a product, detailed division of labor mainly focuses on the use of breakdown method whereby the manufacturing process is critically divided into several distinct processes, and each of these processes is assigned a workman(Braverman 53). There various benefits that are received through the use of the detailed division of labor such as improvement in the skills and competence of the employees as a result of repetition of operations and enhancement of productivity since time is saved in passing the task to the next worker which is contrary to what happens in the social division of labor. The managers can gain more control over the pace of the entire process of work since more details are available when dividing up work thus making a detailed division of labor one of the most crucial factors which capitalists put into consideration when increasing control of the labor process(Pagano 1411).
Unlike social division of labor which focuses on a broad range of tasks, a detailed division of labor emphasizes continued specialization in a single task. However, Braverman argues that this method of dividing labor results into the individual worker of a given task becoming unskilled in the long run since he or she fails to develop any other particular skill that can be offered in the labor market (Braverman 55). On the other hand, social division of labor overcomes this shortcoming by ensuring that the individual workers involved in the work close interact and cooperate with one another towards gaining completing the assigned tasks, and it is through such interactions that these workers can learn new skills from each other hence enabling each one of them to offer new special skills in the labor market. In the detailed division of labor, the continued reluctance of the capitalists to provide more than the regional rate for the labor offered significantly inhibits the ability of the unskilled laborer to increase his or her wage (Pagano 1414).
It has been discovered that particular division of labor always works in the interests of the capitalists in the sense that it focuses on the various ways in which productivity can be increased while at the same time decreasing the existing levels of wages thus exceedingly controlling the labor process in a capitalist society (Pagano 1417). In his analysis, Braverman argues that such effects negatively affect the social and cultural system that is supported by the social division of labor thus contributing to the emergence of a polarized capitalist society in which a mass of the laborers are found at the bottom while a small section of powerful elites only controls the top.(Braverman 57). Workers are transformed into a “labor force” under a capitalist system since the initial aim of the capitalist mode of production is minimizing costs incurred in acquiring labor and at the same time increasing capital or profits gained through maximizing productivity.
Differences between the Capitalist Movement of Work and Pre-Capitalist Forms
The capitalism system focuses on enhancing the value of capital by using productive labor. Capitalists aim at making a maximum profit through using the available labor and always focus on getting more value for the labor that has been employed than the cost that he or she has incurred when investing in that labor thus accumulating as much capital as possible through the profits made(Brophy 411). The interests of the capitalist class significantly shape the working environments of the labor force are by a great extent determined by the capitalist society. In a situation in which technology is continually changing, the capitalist is increasingly faced by the labor-management problem since there is a constant need of increasing the level of production with the aim of improving profit (Brophy 413). One of the labor-management issues that are faced by the capitalists is determining the most effective strategy in which labor can be bought and sold (Brophy 415).
Braverman suggests that, among other techniques that are used in controlling labor, various effects occur as a result of mechanization and scientific management of labor (Braverman 63). Across all industries, most of the management has since the early twentieth century is taking advantage of the ever-changing circumstances within the labor sector to impose different alienating practices onto their employees since mechanization and scientific techniques have made it possible for them to gain more control over their employees(Hudis 54). Capitalism movement of work has mainly been facilitated by the emergence of scientific management and mechanism which has seen the replacement of human labor with machines within most of the industries(Kelly 298). Taylorism that emerged following the introduction of capitalism led to the replacement of most of the pre-capitalist forms which are mainly characterized by low labor division in most of the industries that were existing (Kelly 302). Taylorism is considered to have replaced the crafting system that was living in the pre-capitalist period whereby there were indirect forms of employment and control that were relatively personalized and not interactive (Kelly 305).
According to Braverman, the aim of the capitalist economy to facilitate its progress using the available free labor has significantly contributed to the continued degradation of labor. One of the critical determinants of the Babbage Principle is the division of labor (Braverman 64). The Babbage Principle suggests that capitalists try to purchase labor at the lowest price possible and at the same time focuses on splitting the production process in a repetitive manner(Tinel 255). The decrease in the number of skilled artisans, the transformation of the working class and increase in the number of mass workers can be associated with the connection that exists between the Babbage Principle and the division of labor (Tinel 257). By borrowing on Taylorism theory of Frederick Winslow Taylor, Braverman focuses most of his argument on the possible outcomes that emanate from scientific management of labor and how organizations are using the knowledge and skills of the employees to advance their activities (Braverman 68). This contrary to the pre-capitalist period in which there was a limited division of labor and most of the organizations did not rely on the existing knowledge of the employees (Hudis 56). Unlike most of the craftsmen during the pre-capitalist period who relied on the knowledge of how to produce a variety of things, most of the factory workers after the emergence of the capitalist have lost oversight of the production process thus limiting their knowledge and skills (Hudis 57). Contrary to the high level of independence that existed in craftsmen among other people in various labor activities during the pre-capitalist, most of the workers in the capitalist society have increasingly been subordinated to a system where the management makes all the plans and decision that are relatively disliked by the employees given the fact that they disempower them (Hudis 59).
Social Consequences in Capitalism Production
There exist various social implications that tend to emerge in a capitalist organization of production, and they are either positive or negative. For instance, class struggles are known to be a significant element of capitalist accumulation in the production process(Thelen 138). The two major determinants of the class struggle in capitalist society are both capital and labor and the uneven pattern that has been taken by the process of capitalist accumulation over the years has dramatically intensified this social aspect (Thelen 141). Differences in the socio-economic interest in the society have resulted in a rapid increase in tensions between the different social classes that are present within the societies (Braverman 87). Across the globe, social struggles have been experienced either directly or indirectly. In the direct form, different social classes are considered to fight over the available cheap labor and other resources while in the indirect form, conflict occurs as a result of low wages, inadequate and unsafe working conditions and even as a result of both poverty and starvation (Thelen 143). Moreover, class struggle has in the past one century being experienced politically through the efforts of politicians to make laws that result in unfair labor practices and destruction of labor unions (Thelen 144).
Another social implication of the capitalist organization of production is the social instability or alienation that occurs in society as a result of the continued erosion of both values and standards (Braverman 89). Such alienation is also known as anomie is in most cases brought about by the continued emergence of unchecked economic progress that takes place within the society thus resulting in occurrence of changes in the normalness that is had once prevailed in various segments of social regulation (Thelen 147). Additionally, inequality is also a social implication that can be attributed to the capitalist organization of labor. There is an increased need for correcting the natural mechanism that has caused unequal economic systems to emerge despite the economic ability that is inherent in capitalism (Thelen 148). The ability of only few individuals to have maximum control over the available resources in the community has significantly contributed to such inequalities since in most cases, this small group of people having such controlling power of the available resources always end up using them to serve their interest rather than those of the entire society(Braverman 89). These individuals are also known for extensively exploiting the existing human resources who primarily rely on the provision of labor as a means of meeting their needs thus implying that more benefits are only attained by the capitalists who focus on accessing cheap labor that those in the lower socio-economic class are willing to provide (Thelen 148). It is only through creating an economic system that promotes equal distribution of wealth and diverse in the way it establishes sources of income that this problem can completely be eradicated. However, capitalist organization of production also has positive social implications such as supporting the emergence of new methods of productions that have facilitated the production of high-quality products and services that can meet the daily necessities of people (Thelen 153). Furthermore, capitalism has led to the emergence and development of industrialization that has resulted in the creation of new job opportunities and an increase in levels of production.
The Way ‘Rice’s Play’ Helps in Illustrating the Effects Described by Braverman
According to the Elmer Rice’s play, “The Adding Machine,” the replacement of the workers by machines when it comes to completing tasks has had a significant effect on the humans especially those that belong in the working age(Rivas 22). In the play, Rice explores the different effects that are associated with capitalist rationalization which is a concept that Braverman extensively explores in his book, “Labor and Monopoly Capitalism”(Rivas 27). Rice also critically analyzes the actual far-reaching effects that occur as a result of the replacement of manual labor by machine-based labor and how dehumanizing capitalism has proven to be (Rivas 29). According to Rice who similarly to Braverman dislikes capitalism, the level of alienation that is caused by capitalism can be considered as equivalent to the domination of the living by the dead (Rivas 31).
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Nursing Note (Soap note on ANEMIA) writing essay help1). Identifying data
“For the past two months, I have been feeling tired. My appetite is very poor, and sometimes I feel dizzy. I have heavier periods and bouts of severe headaches.”
a). History of present illness
The patient in question reports low energy levels, shortness of breath when performing activities, loss of appetite, and difficulty in concentrating, dizziness, heavier periods, and headaches. Fatigue is reduced by rest and but nothing soothes the problems.
b) Current health status
M.A. has no known allergies. She intends to get a flu vaccine today. The patient does no drugs or drinks and does not smoke. She is heterosexual but has not been sexually active for the past six months. She is currently receiving treatment for hypertension, but she says that it has been three years since her last pap smear and physical examination. She reports that she tries to eat healthily, but due to her busy schedule, her diets mostly consist of fast foods and take outs. She states that she enjoys playtime with her children, but the fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath and headache does not allow time for that.
c) Past medical history
Beside her hypertension, the patient states that she is generally in good health. She has had two hospitalizations for vaginal deliveries. She hasn’t had any surgeries, fractures, fractures, or childhood illnesses.
d) Social history
M.A. is a single mother of two boys who resides in Riverdale County. She works as a sales rep at a clothing store. The patient says that she receives financial help from her sister who lives in the county. Her children’s father helps by paying child support. She considers her Catholic faith to be an essential factor to which she is and feels that her spirituality will help in her medical care.
d) Family history
Father- alive with HTN history receiving medication
Mother-Alive with HTN and DM. Receiving medication
Sister-Alive with no medical condition
Children-Alive with no medical complication
e) Systems review
General: Healthy overall
Head/Eyes: Presence of headaches, no change in vision, eye pain.
Cardiovascular: No chest pain or palpitations
Respiratory: Present shortness of breath
Gastrointestinal: No nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain
Female: LMP was 9/2/19, G3T2D0F2. Placed under IUD 3 years ago for birth control
Musculoskeletal: No back pain, muscle weakness, numbness, or joint pains
Neurological: No change in sight, taste, hearing, or smell
Psychiatric: No history of anxiety or depression
Hematologic: Denies easy bruising or bleeding. Heavy periods
a) BP: 124/96 T: 96.7 F P: 81 R: 18 O2 Sat: 100% on RA Ht: 5’5” Wt: 192 Ibs
General: Alert, no acute distress, well-groomed, obese
HEENT: PERRLA, MMM, head norm cephalic, neck supple, clear oropharynx-no lesion; no enlarged lymph nodes, Slight periorbital edema noted, No cervical lymphadenopathy or tenderness, Thyroid midline firm without palpable masses.
Cardiac: RRR, normal S1/S2
Pulmonary: symmetrical chest expansion
Skin: no rash, pink and moist
a) Differential diagnosis
Iron Deficiency Anemia (D50.9)- Iron deficiency anemia indicated by diminished production of red blood cell due to low iron stores. It is a common nutritional disorder that accounts for half of the cases. Causes include inadequate iron intake, heightened iron demand by the body, low iron absorption, and increased iron loss. Anemia is indicated by the hemoglobin level of two standard deviations below normal for age and sex (Short &Domagalski, 2013). A CBC to provide information about the cause and degree of anemia; Hemoglobin and Hematocrit levels reflect the degree of anemia. Total Iron-Binding capacity (TIBC) should be increased in iron deficiency anemia since although the ability to bind with iron is high; hemoglobin is low in both MCV and MCHC.
M.A. seems to be suffering from iron deficiency anemia. According to Short and Domagalski (2013), White females above the age of 20 should have a hemoglobin level of 12.7 or higher than 80. M.A. falls below these numbers with anHgb of 10.1 and MCV of 74.1. Ferritin levels should be drawn to diagnose iron deficiency anemia officially. Ferritin is the most appropriate test as it shows iron stores.Ferritin levels below 15 ng per mL indicate iron deficiency anemia.
CBC: WBC 8 Hgb 10.1 Hct33 RBC 3.2 MCV 74 MCHC 27.8 RDW 18.1
TSH:6.5mIU/L antithyroid antibodies: 1:1,800
Check Free T4 level
Rx:Prescribe if Free T4 is low-primary hypothyroidism. Prescribe Ferrous Sulfate if ferritin level is less than 15.
Education: Patient to be educated about the causes, signs, and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia as well as treatment options. Iron supplements should be administered regularly together with vitamin C rich foods such as orange juice and food to help reduce stomach upset.
Referral/Consults: Refer to an endocrinologist in case of high Free T4.
Follow Up:Return on a subsequent day to draw the Ferritin level to fully evaluate iron deficiency anemia and start treatment (Gaitonde, Rowley &Sweeney, 2012).
Dains, J. E., Baumann, L. C., & Scheibel, P. (2015).Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care-E-Book.Elsevier Health Sciences.
Gaitonde, D., Rowley, K., Sweeney, L. (2012). Hypothyroidism: An update. Am Fam
Physician, 86(3):244-251. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0801/p244.html
Short, M., &Domagalski, J. (2013). Iron deficiency anemia: Evaluation and management. Am Fam Physician, 87(2):98-104.Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0115/p98.html
Williams, M. S. (2017). Utilizing Evidence-Based Practice to Reduce Hemoglobin A1c Levels in Primary Care by Increasing the frequency of Office Visits.
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Mr. Y’s diagnosis: Acute Joint Inflammation college admissions essay help
Based on presenting symptoms and lab findings, what is most likely diagnosis that will be made for Mr. Y?
Gout – this illness results to an unexpected extreme pain, swelling or inflammation, warmth and redness episodes in some of the joints. Typically, Gout will affect one of the joints at a time. Mostly, it will affect the big joint of the person’s big toe. It could affect the ankle, wrist, knee, elbow and the foot joints as well. This disease is an extreme type of arthritis which is referred to as crystal arthritis or other times called microcrystalline arthritis since the crystals are tiny. These crystals will appear in the joints and as the body tries to eliminate them, a throbbing swelling happens. In some unusual instances, it can later on affect the spine, shoulders and hip joints. Therefore, this would likely be the diagnosis that will be made for Mr. Y. an example of these symptoms that the patient experienced are his toe is red and had become swollen in the last day that he could not put on shoes.
What is the anticipated pharmacologic plan for managing Mr. Y’s acute pain? Provide a justification for the plan including a citation from a peer-reviewed source.
ULT or Urate Lowering Therapies would be the anticipated pharmacologic plan for managing Mr. Y’s acute pain. The reason for reducing the concentration of serum urate would be to inhibit tophi development and acute pain attacks. This therapies can be started during an attack of gouty as long as the effective management of anti-inflammatory has already been administered. Additionally, Prophylaxis would also be recommended for Mr. Y to lower the threat of gout attacks that are linked with the commencement of the Urate Lowering Therapies. Mr. Y will need to continue these Prophylaxis for about six months. An effective medication titration and subsequent monitoring of the urate medications, advert treatment effects and renal functions will be important. The result would be a lower serum urate concentration anticipation of less than 6mg/dl. For instance the three types of drugs that would be prescribed to Mr. Y may be uricase agents, xanthine oxidase inhibitors or uricosuric agents.
What is the anticipated pharmacologic plan for long-term management of Mr. Y’s diagnosis? Provide a justification for the plan including a citation from a peer-reviewed source.
The anticipated pharmacologic plan for long term management of Mr. Y’s diagnosis would be the administration of colchicine, corticosteroids and non-steroidal-inflammatories to be able to manage the inflammations and pain, prevent damage of joints, prevent future attacks as well as shorten the inflammation period. This medications may be administered to the patient for the rest of their lives to help them manage the acute pain and also prevent attacks that may occur in the future.
Identify the key elements of the education plan that would be appropriate for the patient about the acute and chronic pharmacologic plans you identified above.
Key elements that may be appropriate for the patient about the acute and chronic pharmacologic plans identified include emphasis on the modification of lifestyles and diet. These will include the management of weight, reducing drinking of alcohol and lowering seafood and meat takings. Mr. Y would also need to watch on his diet as a way of managing the acute pain. Mr. Y may be advised to avoid foods that may lead to the raise of uric acid completely. The education should also help the patient effectively adhere to the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies. It would also be important for the pharmacists to educate the patient about the gout medication, consisting of duration of therapy, drug interactions, contraindications, appropriate dosing and the adverse effects that relate to the disease. The information from the education would greatly assist the patient improve their management for the disease.
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Effects of Childhood Obesity on Adulthood online essay helpChildhood obesity is steadily growing to be one of the significant public health issues in the 21st century in most parts of the world. This global problem is common in the urban settings of both low and high-income countries. According to a survey done in 2016, the number of children diagnosed with obesity under the age of five was estimated to be over 41 million (“Childhood overweight and obesity,” n.d.). This problem has reached epidemic levels in both developed and developing countries, hence bringing more concerns on how it can be stopped with the high number of causatives that rise every day. The condition is known to have a significant impact on both the psychological and physical health of the victims, which need to be alleviated in the best ways possible(Eriksson, Forsén, Tuomilehto, Osmond & Barker, 2001). It can profoundlylead to effects on the child’ssocial and emotional wellbeing in the futureor when they have grown up. This paper will, therefore, look into this issue and analyze the effects it has on adulthood.
Childhood obesity is a dangerous condition that has the potential of causing severe health issues in both childhood and adulthood. In extreme cases, these conditions could lead to death. There are so many diseases, which are associated with obesity. These include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and cardiac-related ailments(Mahmood, 2015). Research has shown that childhood obesity is the leading cause of adulthood heart diseases such as heart attack, hypertension, and many others. It has revealed that a higher percentage of adults suffering from heart conditions were obese in childhood (Biro & Wien, 2010). This condition has also been associated with increased chances of disability and premature deaths when one attains adult age. These children have more likelihood of staying obese even at their adult age. Therefore, this might lead to the development of incommunicable diseases. The significant effects of childhood obesity are not often realized until the kid reaches the adult age. At this stage, they will suffer from cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and certain types of cancer (“WHO | Why does childhood overweight and obesity matter?”, n.d.). Therefore, it is argued that there is a need to stop this endemic since its damage is irreparable in most instances.
Childhood obesity can also have devastating effects on a person’s quality of life and mental health. Aside from the many reported physical health issues associated with obesity, there are also several mental and emotional issues that accompany this condition. When a child is obese, there are high chances that they will also turn out to be obese in adulthood. Research has, therefore, shown that children that have had a difficult childhood while struggling with obesity are more likely to suffer from depression in adulthood. They are also more likely to be affected by low self-esteem. Many obese children suffer from mental problems when they are young. Most of them are reported to face bullying in schools and body shaming from their peers. This majorly weighs down on their mental health, and most of them retract to having low self-esteemwhich lasts to adulthood (King, 2008). As these children grow older, they try several measures to cut their weight(“Consequences of Obesity | Tampa General Hospital,” 2019). If their efforts do not bear fruits, most of them fall into depression, and in extreme cases, there have been reports of suicide attempts.
Obesity has also been reported to harm the reproductive health of a person. When a child grows to a reproductive age while still obese, there are effects that the condition may have in their reproduction. When a woman who has reached reproductive age is overweight, the secretion of gonadotropin is affected due to the increase in the aromatization of estrogens and androgens(Ozcan Dag & Dilbaz, 2015). The resistance of insulin and the hyperinsulinemia in these women can cause hyperandrogenemia. The growth hormone, the hormone binding globulin, and the growth factor binding proteins are then decreased while, at the same time, the levels of leptons are amplified. Therefore, there is the deterioration of the neuro-regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis (Ozcan Dag & Dilbaz, 2015). All these alterations, thus, explain the reasons as to why obese women have a low sexual desire and impaired ovulation.
In a nutshell, this paper has, therefore, gone through several effects of childhood obesity on adult life. It has shown that obesity at a tender age has profoundly devastating effects on one’s life at an adult age. When children are obese, they have an extraordinary likelihood of developing non-communicable diseases. These diseases include diabetes and hypertension. These are conditions that will ultimately affect the child’s adult life. Mental health problems have also been associated with this condition where one may be prone to depression and low self-esteem issues caused by this problem. There are also suicide cases that have been associated with this condition. Children with obesity and especially girls have been reported to have reproductive health problems at adult age. It is, thus, prudent that the necessary measures should be taken to mitigate this problem.
Bhadoria, A., Sahoo, K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, A., Sufi, N., & Kumar, R. (2015). Childhood obesity: Causes and consequences. Journal Of Family Medicine And Primary Care, 4(2), 187. doi: 10.4103/2249-4863.154628
Biro, F., & Wien, M. (2010). Childhood obesity and adult morbidities. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 91(5), 1499S-1505S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2010.28701b
Childhood overweight and obesity. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood/en/
Consequences of Obesity | Tampa General Hospital. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.tgh.org/services/weight-loss/consequences-obesity
Eriksson, J., Forsén, T., Tuomilehto, J., Osmond, C., & Barker, D. (2001). Size at birth, childhood growth and obesity in adult life. International Journal Of Obesity, 25(5), 735-740. doi: 10.1038/sj.ijo.0801602
King, L. A. (2008). The science of psychology: An appreciative view. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Mahmood, L. (2015). The childhood obesity epidemic: A mini review. International Journal Of Medicine And Public Health, 5(1), 6. doi: 10.4103/2230-8598.151234
Ozcan Dag, Z., & Dilbaz, B. (2015). Impact of obesity on infertility in women. Journal Of The Turkish German Gynecological Association, 16(2), 111-117. doi: 10.5152/jtgga.2015.15232
WHO | Why does childhood overweight and obesity matter?. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/childhood_consequences/en/
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Customer Segmentation argumentative essay helpSummary of Customer Segmentation
Customer segmentation is a very critical component of marketing as it ensures that customers have been grouped according to their common characteristics. It helps an organization as they will be in a position of efficiently and effectively meeting the needs of their target customers. Selecting customers and grouping them according to their inherent characteristics is critical as this will ensure that their needs are studied and satisfied appropriately. The customer could be grouped based on their previous consumption patterns, the region, age, gender or even the geographical and spatial distribution(Ibrahim et al., 2010). Segmentation is one of the critical elements to the marketers as it always ensures that the needs of s given niche market have been studied exclusively using the models that are presented. It helps address the problems and issues within a segment independently.
In the segmentation process, it is vital to ensure that the knowledge systems, as well as previous customer experiences, have been incorporated; this is effective as it will help an organization get to know their target market effectively and at the same time develop strategies that are effective for ensuring that the emerging needs of such a segment and the emerging markets have been satisfied(Ibrahim et al., 2010). Customer segmentation will be achieved when an organization have the right customer data as well as being informed on some of the needs and the changing patterns in the customers. Customers are diverse, and as such, this knowledge will be useful in ensuring that an organization realizes their critical objective of customer satisfaction.
Knowledge Discovery in Database
Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) is a process of discovering useful data from the knowledge or a collection of data. Overall, KDD is among the processes involved in data mining, and it includes the preparation as well as a selection of data, cleansing of the data, and incorporation of the prior knowledge regarding datasets as well as the interpretation of the accurate solutions from the results that have been observed.
KDD includes an amalgamation of several activities, and this includes storage of data as well as the access, scaling of algorithms to massive data sets and the interpretation of results. Data cleansing and data access processes will include the facilitation of data warehousing. Artificial intelligence supports the KDD process through the discovery of the empirical laws from observation and experiment(Ibrahim et al., 2010). Some of the patterns that are recognized in the data must thus be valid on the new data as well as possess some degree of certainty. The discovered patterns are considered as new knowledge. The following are the main steps of KDD as tabulated appropriately:
Data Mining technique involved
Precaution when the mining algorithm is applied
Understanding of the application domains
It is one of the critical steps which makes an organization to understand the fields to use in customer management.
K-Means data mining algorithm, and it creates groups from a set of objects.
There is a need to classify the data based on their inherent characters.
Simplify the data sets through the removal of the variables that are unwanted
To remove the variables that are not needed
Naïve Bayes Data Mining Algorithm
Differences could be experienced in the groups that have been selected.
Search and analyze the patterns of interest- this will include the classification of the trees, use of regression analysis as well as clustering techniques.
To classify the data using regression analysis
C4.5 Data Mining Algorithm
Ensure that the data within the range is analyzed and closely observed.
Identification of the KDD process from the perspective of the customers
Understanding of the application domains that are involved and the knowledge required
Selection of target data or the subset of data samples where discovery need to be done
Cleanse and process the data through making a decision on the strategies in handling the missing fields as well as altering the data as per the needs and requirements.
Simplify the data sets through removal of the variables that are unwanted
Match KDD goals with the methods of data mining so as to suggest the patterns that are hidden (Ibrahim et al., 2010)
Choice of a mining algorithm – it includes a decision on the models and parameters appropriate for the overall process.
Search and analyze the patterns of interest- this will include the classification of the trees, use of regression analysis as well as clustering techniques
Interpretation of the knowledge from the patterns
Use of knowledge and its incorporation into other systems for action
Documentation of the results and making it available to interested persons.
Ibrahim, M., Küng, J., Revell, N., International Workshop on Database and Expert Systems Applications, & LINK (Online service). (2010). Database and expert systems applications: 11th international conference, DEXA 2000, London, UK, September 4-8, 2000: proceedings. Berlin: Springer.
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