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Too Much Money Is Spent on Toys and Games global history essay help

All around the world, in every country and every culture, it is important kids can play with toys and games and learn how to have fun. A vital and essential part of learning and development comes from experimenting with games and toys. However, in some countries too much money is being spent on toys and games. Far too many children, and adults, have too many toys and games than necessary and instead of learning from toys; it is stopping kids from developing the right way and some adults from participating in society.

With spending so much money on games, some people have too many toys, some are becoming unhealthy as a result, and some are losing the ability to communicate and participate in social events. Too many toys are causing people of all ages to become poor communicators. One of the most popular types of games is video games. X-boxes and PlayStations, you name it! Toys and game systems such as these are fun, don’t get me wrong. However too many people spend too much money and too much time playing on them. This then stops people from socialising with each other.

It saddens me to see young people have their lives taken over by these consoles, and losing the ability to communicate with their peers. This problem is also an unhealthy one for our nation. Australia is fast becoming one of the fattest nations on earth. Child and adult obesity is caused by a combination of unhealthy eating and not getting enough exercise. Having too many games is giving people an excuse to sit on the couch all day, eating junk and playing with their toys and games. Do we want the future of our nation to be fat?

Spending too much money on toys and games is a massive health risk to our country. The indecent amount of money being spent on games is unfair in Australia. Some children have far too many toys than they could ever even play with! In comparison, children in under developed countries have little or no toys at all. Instead, they create toys using their imagination and learn to play with they have. Having too many toys creates two problems; children are losing their creativity and imagination by having parents who buy too many toys and secondly; the money wasted on pointless pieces of plastic is better pent on education and helping those who have less than us. Australians spend far too much money on toys and games. This is wrong as it is destroying the communication skills of Australian kids and it is expanding the waistline of all Australians as we become one of the fattest nations as more and more money is spent. Stop spending money on toys and instead, put it towards education of young Australians or helping out those who are less fortunate.

Marlow Lie personal essay help: personal essay help

Victorian viewpoint, and often paints them as being the embodiment of the more pure and gentle aspects of human nature. Conrad makes many references to a belief that women live in an ideal world which is separated from the evil side of human nature explored in the story, emphasizing that they must be protected from this darkness at all costs. This theme can be justified by many details within {em The Heart of Darkness}, but at the same time there are a number of points in the story which stand in stark contrast to this portrayal of women as noble and exalted creatures.

One of the first incident where Conrad discusses women in an idealized manner occurs in the very beginning of {em The Heart of Darkness}, as Marlow is about to depart for Africa. During his final meeting with his aunt, she talks to him of how noble she feels the Company’s attempts to civilize the African natives are: an opinion which makes her nephew rather uncomfortable. “It’s queer,” he says, “how out of touch with truth women are. They live in a world of their own, and there has never been anything like it, and never can be.

It is too beautiful altogether, and if they were to set it up it would go to pieces before the first sunset. ” Marlow believes that women cannot perceive the horrors that men are capable of because they are so distant from them by virtue of their sex. Another graphic example of this attitude comes when Marlow makes a reference to Kurtz’s fiancee, known as his Intended. He says of her: “Oh, she is out of it­­­completely. They­­­the women, I mean­­­are out of it­­­should be out of it. We must help them

Aboriginal Spirituality essay help online free: essay help online free

Land is the starting point to where everything began’ . (S knight, page 1 – www. creativespirits. com) Aboriginal people make no distinction between the secular and spiritual life. Aboriginal spirituality is a total way of life, with their total regard and respect of the land as the centre point of their spiritual existence. The basic principle that supports the Aboriginal spirituality is a notion commonly referred to as the Dreaming. The Dreaming is a term referring to Aboriginal spiritual beliefs about origins of the universe and existence of all life and objects.

It determines all relationships, responsibilities and laws which must be adhered to for living harmoniously and with reverence for the land. The Dreaming is therefore inextricably connected to the land, because as previously mentioned the land is the physical medium through which all aboriginal spirituality is based. The Dreaming is communicated between the believers through art, song, dance, story and ritual and therefore instills the knowledge and understanding to all Aboriginal societies about creation. It is the responsibility of elders to pass on the knowledge of the Dreaming to the younger generations.

Because the Dreaming is an all consuming belief incorporating the past, present and future into a total and present reality it is completely relevant to the Aboriginal believers today. According to Aboriginal belief, ‘all life as it is today whether it be human, plant   or animal is a part of a vast unchanging network of relationships which can be traced to the ancestral spirits of the Dreaming’ (Religion & Belief Systems in Australia, page 1, para 1). Aboriginal people regard the process of Dreaming as a life-long quest.

Once this life-long quest is over in this realm, an Aboriginal person’s soul or spirit is believed to “continue on after our physical form has passed through death”, (Eddie Kneebone – Aboriginal Reconciliation Campaigner and Painter – Creative Spirits). After the death of an Aboriginal person their spirit returns to the Dreamtime from where it will return to the land through birth as a human, an animal, a plant or a rock. The shape is not important because each form shares the same soul or spirit from the Dreamtime. On analysing Aboriginal Spirituality I believe it to be unique.

Some people may argue that it is a religion similar to Christianity, Islam and Judaism because like these religions the Aboriginal person’s foundation for life is taught through historic stories, paintings and rituals. However, unlike the mainstream religions, Aboriginal Spirituality is forever evolving and therefore the stories, paintings and rituals constantly growing. In addition, Aboriginal Spirituality is all encompassing and totally dependent on the land, this earth. Unlike mainstream religions which acknowledges this earth as only being a stopping ground, a portions of our soul’s existence.

Mainstream religions do not embrace this earth with the same reverence which they embrace heaven. These religions see this current dwelling place as a holding ground, as an abode where people will be tested. According to how well they live their life and how much they adhere to the teaching of their religious faith will determine their eligibility to enter and experience the glories of heaven. Conversely, should they be a poor parishioner and not follow the teachings of their chosen faith then they will be an outcast for all time exiled to hell.

The Aboriginal people see the whole cycle of life as sacred. From being created of the land, to being absorbed back into the land, and then beginning all over again. The stories, paintings and rituals which have been passed down for the last 40,000 years are about cherishing this land, our earth, which we dwell on here and now. They see this land as their heaven and also their hell. They do not dismiss this land as being a passing port in their soul’s journey; they believe it to be the owner and keeper of their soul.

Without the land, their soul would cease to exist and the foundation for the Aboriginal way of life would disappear along with their spirituality. ANNOTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Creative Spirits website “What is Aboriginal spirituality? – Updated 8th November 2012. Contributors – Mudrooroo, ATSIC, S Knight, Eddie Kneebone, Oodgeroo Noonuccal. In this article the contributors point out relevant facts to do with Australian Aboriginal Spirituality. The authors use information gained through long entrenched knowledge and express it via poem, story or dialect.

Their comments focus mainly on what Aboriginal Spirituality is, and what it means to the Aboriginal person. The article on the Creative Spirits website was of great interest to me, as it gave me a very relevant overview on my subject and a starting point to begin my assignment. The main limitation of the article was that it just gave overviews and statements and did not go into any real depth. This website was useful because it gave me an insight into Aboriginal Spirituality and made me curious to learn more. Study Mode website “Religion & Belief Systems in Australia Post 1945” Last updated January 2011.

Contributors – various not cited This website consisted of essays which various people had written on Aboriginal Spirituality. Much of the information was very similar, and many of the references the same. The authors had appeared to have gained their insight from studying articles on the internet. The many essays varied in their opinion and differed on focus points. Each essay was relatively in depth in regards to the focus topic. It was rather limiting because I was not a member of this site therefore I was only able to examine a very small part of each of the essays.

However it gave further understanding of the aboriginal Spirituality and gave me more information which I was able to research. Study of Religion 1 and 2 website “Aboriginal Spirituality Determined by the Dreaming” – Catholic Education Office in conjunction with Our Lady of Mercy College Parramatta. (no date cited) This website reviews all mainstream religions and spirituality within Australia. It is predominately a course website and offers information on many areas of religious study. The website has been put together using factual information.

The information I obtained from this website was mainly from the Definitions and Content Description sections. It was an interesting site, but very limiting for a research project. The information it did provide was very pertinent to my paper and it assisted me in streamlining my thoughts. Academia Website – Discussion Paper – Series No. 9 – Aboriginal Spirituality: Aboriginal Philosophy, the basis of Aboriginal Social and Emotional Wellbeing. – by Victoria Grieves – 2009 In this article Victoria Grieves reviews all the influences relevant to Aboriginal Spirtuality.

It would appear from the reading and also from her citations that she has gained her information from indepth research and renowned sources. The paper examines ‘What is Aboriginal Spirituality? ” and ‘Cultural Expressions of Spirituality”. This paper was exceptionally useful to my research topic as it covered in depth many aspects of the Aboriginal Spirituality. It not only looked at the Spirituality as a whole but also looked at individual aspects of this spirituality from Creation, Law, Role of Women, Connection to the Natural World and Aboriginal Spirituality and Christianity.

There were very few limitations with this article because although I did not cite anything directly within my essay, it allowed me to gain a comprehensive understanding of my subject. INQUIRY QUESTIONS 1. What does Aboriginal Spirituality offer in today’s mainstream contemporary Australia? 2. How is Aboriginal Spirituality determined by the Dreaming? 3. What methods are used in communicating the Dreaming in regards to Aboriginal Spirituality? 4. To what extent, if any, has Aboriginal spirituality enhanced Australia’s religious beliefs today? 5. Is there any other religion that could be considered similar to Aboriginal Spirituality?

Amy Tan college admission essay help: college admission essay help

Although the daughters know some Chinese words and the mothers speak some English, communication often becomes a matter of translation, of words whose intended meaning and accepted meaning are in fact quite separate, leading to subtle misunderstandings. •The first mention of this difficulty with translation occurs when Jing-mei relates the story of her mother’s founding of the Joy Luck Club. After attempting to explain the significance of the club’s name, Jing-mei recognizes that the concept is not something that can be translated.

She points out that the daughters think their mothers are stupid because of their fractured English, while the mothers are impatient with their daughters who don’t understand the cultural nuances of their language and who do not intend to pass along their Chinese heritage to their own children. Throughout the book, characters bring up one Chinese concept after another, only to accept the frustrating fact that an understanding of Chinese culture is a prerequisite to understanding its meaning. •The Power of Storytelling Because the barriers between the Chinese and the American cultures are exacerbated by imperfect translation of language, the mothers use storytelling to circumvent these barriers and communicate with their daughters. The stories they tell are often educational, warning against certain mistakes or giving advice based on past successes. For instance, Ying-ying’s decision to tell Lena about her past is motivated by her desire to warn Lena against the passivity and fatalism that Ying-ying suffered.

Storytelling is also employed to communicate messages of love and pride, and to illumine one’s inner self for others. •Another use of storytelling concerns historical legacy. By telling their daughters about their family histories, the mothers ensure that their lives are remembered and understood by subsequent generations, so that the characters who acted in the story never die away completely. In telling their stories to their daughters, the mothers try to instill them with respect for their Chinese ancestors and their Chinese pasts.

Suyuan hopes that by finding her long-lost daughters and telling them her story, she can assure them of her love, despite her apparent abandonment of them. When Jing-mei sets out to tell her half-sisters Suyuan’s story, she also has this goal in mind, as well as her own goal of letting the twins know who their mother was and what she was like. •Storytelling is also used as a way of controlling one’s own fate. In many ways, the original purpose of the Joy Luck Club was to create a place to exchange stories. Faced with pain and hardship, Suyuan decided to take control of the plot of her life.

The Joy Luck Club did not simply serve as a distraction; it also enabled transformation—of community, of love and support, of circumstance. Stories work to encourage a certain sense of independence. They are a way of forging one’s own identity and gaining autonomy. Waverly understands this: while Lindo believes that her daughter’s crooked nose means that she is ill-fated, Waverly dismisses this passive interpretation and changes her identity and her fate by reinventing the story that is told about a crooked nose. •The Problem of Immigrant Identity At some point in the novel, each of the major characters expresses anxiety over her inability to reconcile her Chinese heritage with her American surroundings. Indeed, this reconciliation is the very aim of Jing-mei’s journey to China. While the daughters in the novel are genetically Chinese (except for Lena, who is half Chinese) and have been raised in mostly Chinese households, they also identify with and feel at home in modern American culture. Waverly, Rose, and Lena all have white boyfriends or husbands, and they regard many of their mothers’ customs and tastes as old-fashioned or even ridiculous.

Most of them have spent their childhoods trying to escape their Chinese identities: Lena would walk around the house with her eyes opened as far as possible so as to make them look European. Jing-mei denied during adolescence that she had any internal Chinese aspects, insisting that her Chinese identity was limited only to her external features. Lindo meditates that Waverly would have clapped her hands for joy during her teen years if her mother had told her that she did not look Chinese. As they mature, the daughters begin to sense that their identities are incomplete and become interested in their Chinese heritage. Waverly speaks wishfully about blending in too well in China and becomes angry when Lindo notes that she will be recognized instantly as a tourist. One of Jing-mei’s greatest fears about her trip to China is not that others will recognize her as American, but that she herself will fail to recognize any Chinese elements within herself. •Of the four mothers, Lindo expresses the most anxiety over her cultural identity.

Having been spotted as a tourist during her recent trip to China, she wonders how America has changed her. She has always believed in her ability to shift between her true self and her public self, but she begins to wonder whether her “true” self is not, in fact, her American one. Even while a young girl in China, Lindo showed that she did not completely agree with Chinese custom. She agonized over how to extricate herself from a miserable marriage without dishonoring her parents’ promise to her husband’s family.

While her concern for her parents shows that Lindo did not wish to openly rebel against her tradition, Lindo made a secret promise to herself to remain true to her own desires. This promise shows the value she places on autonomy and personal happiness—two qualities that Lindo associates with American culture. •Jing-mei’s experience in China at the end of the book certainly seems to support the possibility of a richly mixed identity rather than an identity of warring opposites. She comes to see that China itself contains American aspects, just as the part of America she grew up in—San Francisco’s Chinatown—containe •

Storytelling – Narrative Style, Symbolism, Figurative Language •She uses storytelling to in order for the different characters to understand each others struggles as well as the reader to understand the lives and emotions of both the mother and the daughters •The stories they tell are often educational, warning against certain mistakes or giving advice based on past successes. For instance, Ying-ying’s decision to tell Lena about her past is motivated by her desire to warn Lena against the passivity and fatalism that Ying-ying suffered.

Storytelling is also employed to communicate messages of love and pride, and to illumine one’s inner self for others. •Another use of storytelling concerns historical legacy. By telling their daughters about their family histories, the mothers ensure that their lives are remembered and understood by subsequent generations, so that the characters who acted in the story never die away completely. In telling their stories to their daughters, the mothers try to instill them with respect for their Chinese ancestors and their Chinese pasts.

Suyuan hopes that by finding her long-lost daughters and telling them her story, she can assure them of her love, despite her apparent abandonment of them. When Jing-mei sets out to tell her half-sisters Suyuan’s story, she also has this goal in mind, as well as her own goal of letting the twins know who their mother was and what she was like. •Storytelling is also used as a way of controlling one’s own fate. In many ways, the original purpose of the Joy Luck Club was to create a place to exchange stories. Faced with pain and hardship, Suyuan decided to take control of the plot of her life.

The Joy Luck Club did not simply serve as a distraction; it also enabled transformation—of community, of love and support, of circumstance. Stories work to encourage a certain sense of independence. They are a way of forging one’s own identity and gaining autonomy. Waverly understands this: while Lindo believes that her daughter’s crooked nose means that she is ill-fated, Waverly dismisses this passive interpretation and changes her identity and her fate by reinventing the story that is told about a crooked nose. • All the stories in her books are interlocking personal narrative in different voices. The narrators appear as characters in each other’s stories as well as tell their own stories, Tan does not have to fully develop the narrator’s voice in each story. While American daughters like Jing-mei employ personal narrative as a way of telling stories, the ’’ Because this indirect means is the only way Jing-mei’s mother can interpret and express her experiences, she is shocked into silence when her daughter speaks directly about the daughters she abandoned in China years earlier.

Point of View •In “Two Kinds” the perspective moves back and forth between the adult and then child. In this way, Tan tells the story through the child’s innocent view and the adult’s experienced eyes. This allows reader to make judgments of their own, to add their own interpretations of the mother daughter struggle. Figurative Language •This literary device also invites readers to think about the way memory itself functions, how we use events in the past to help make sense of our present. Literary critic Ben Xu explains that ‘‘it is not just that we have ‘images,’ ‘pictures,’ and ‘views’ of ourselves in memory, but that we also have ‘stories’ and narratives to tell about the past which both shape and convey our sense of self. Our sense of what has happened to us is entailed not in actual happening but in meaningful happenings, and the meanings of our past experience . . . are constructs produced in much the same way that narrative is produced. ’’ •In other words memory is a two-way street; it shapes the story as much as the story makes the memory.

In Xu’s words, ‘‘memory is not just a narrative, even though it does have to take a narrative form; it is more importantly an experiential relation between the past and the present, projecting a future as well. ’’ Tan’s style is mainly composed of storytelling as a way for her characters to share their history and retell the significant events of their lives. The Chinese mothers find it exceptionally difficult to talk about their lives due to the language barrier; therefore Tan uses a strategy that is borrowed from Chinese folk tradition called talk story (Brent).

E. D. Huntley defines talk story as ‘‘a narrative strategy for those characters whose ties to Chinese tradition remain strong. ’’ It allows these characters to ‘‘draw on traditional oral forms to shape their stories and to disguise the urgency and seriousness with which they are attempting to transmit to their daughters the remnants of a culture that is fading even from their own lives. ’’ This means that the mothers, ‘‘who have been socialized into silence for most of their lives,’’ learn to ‘‘reconfigure the events of hese lives into acceptable public utterances: painful experiences are recast in the language of folk tale; cautionary reminders become gnomic phrases; real life takes on the contours of myth (Huntley). ” Story telling serves many different functions in the novel. Primarily, the mother’s use storytelling to communicate with their daughters about their past and better relate to their daughters. In Kitchen God’s Wife, Winnie and Pearl have a hard time understanding each other’s situation as they have had a disconnect since Pearl was a teenager.

However, after Winnie tells Pearl the stories of the hardships she had to face living with her abusive husband in China and how that has made her the hard person she is today, Pearl is able to connect better with her mother and understand where she is coming from. Another purpose of storytelling is so the mother’s can teach their daughters important life lessons that can help them be happy as many of the daughters are struggling with their marriages. Thus, she knows that the only way to save her daughter is to tell her story, the story of how her submission to fate and other people’s wills led to discontent and even agony.

In her novels, Amy Tan allows her characters to employ storytelling as a device for shaping their histories and making coherent sense of the significant events of their lives. For these characters, storytelling is a means of keeping the past alive and building a bridge between it and the present, of transmitting cultural codes and rituals, of subtly educating their daughters, and finally of somehow imprinting the essence of their selves on the next generation. Tan is especially gifted at weaving multiple stories with a variety of narrators into the intricate fabric of each book.

Tan herself has recognized her own ability to construct distinctive and memorable narratives, commenting that her storytelling gifts are responsible in large measure for the ongoing popularity-with readers and critics alike-of her work. She has said that her childhood exposure to Bible stories as well as “tons of fairy tales, both Grimm and Chinese” (Wang) has made stories a significant element in her writing, and she credits her parents with both instilling in her the impulse to tell stories and providing her with models for unforgettable. In an interview with Gretchen

Giles, Amy Tan reveals that she learned the craft of story construction from her father, a very busy Baptist minister who managed to spend quality time with his children by reading his sermons to them and then asking for their opinions on content and language. Citations Xu, Ben. ‘‘Memory and the Ethnic Self: Reading Amy Tan’s The Joy Luck Club,’’ in MELUS, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 3-16. Huntley, E. D. Amy Tan: A Critical Companion, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Brent, Liz. ‘‘Amy Tan Criticism Overview. ’’ Short Stories for Students. Ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1997. 19–20: 288.

Teenagers Behind the Wheel law essay help: law essay help

Nicholas Novaky drove his Durango into a tree on Wolfe Road in Budd Lake, New Jersey. It was 8:49 that Tuesday night when his mother got the call there had been an accident. Neil Solanky’s parents also got notified as being the passenger of the car wreck. The families of the two friends now mourn together in remembrance of the former high school students. These guys will never be able to do what they worked their entire lives for; Walk across the stage with their graduating class of Mount Olive High School that was scheduled just two days after the incident.

Eventually, everyone will cross paths with a dangerous driver in their lifetime, whether that person is talking on their cell, eating or putting on their makeup. You could be completely innocent in the whole situation. Nick, on the other hand, was not innocent. Sometimes it is very necessary to take a phone call while driving. The judgment is yours and Nick’s poor judgment caused him his life along with his best friend. Wolfe Road is a long, narrow street that curves sharply. We assume that Nick did not recognize this so his ignorance to his surroundings resulted in him being another negative statistic for teenage drivers.

Like Nick, many of today’s people are distracted while driving. However, the most dangerous driving habits are possessed by teenagers. Most young drivers are not fully equipped with the knowledge to be safe drivers. It’s so easy to obtain your permit and license without really knowing about how to operate a motorized vehicle securely. Also, the resources available go unrecognized. There are many classes, tutorials and improvement training and schools that one can take. Learning to drive is sometimes seen as a right amongst youth, but with driving, comes risk. With car crashes being the leading cause of death for teens in the U.

S, CDC Injury Center’s number one goal is to help stop wrecks and related deaths and injuries caused by minors. According to a recent study by Liberty Mutual Insurance and Students Against Destructive Decisions (SAAD), young drivers are influenced the most by their parents. As a fifteen year old, you’re sitting in the passenger seat. Assuming you are like many other adolescents, you critique your mom and dad more than anyone else. Imagine you are riding shotgun and your mother is behind the wheel. Now, anxious as ever, you only have three short months left in the quest to finally being able to hold your license in your hand.

As you sit there, you study and observe every time she doesn’t use her turn signal, every red light she runs and when your Aunt calls, she immediately reaches into her purse to retrieve her cell phone. Now as the mother, you don’t think your child notices the one time you read a text while at a stoplight or you adjusting your ponytail while speeding down the highway. In reality, that fifteen year old of yours is taking in every decision you make while behind the wheel; So when you decide to pick up that cell that one time, in your kid’s head, it legitimizes that action for the future driver next to you.

Teenagers are less experienced and therefore make them more likely to wreck while participating in activities that can take some of their attention off of the road such as digging in your purse, talking or texting. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety states that kids 16 years of age have higher crash rates than any other age group. In 2010, the latest year in which data is available, motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of death for people who were 13-19 males and females in the United States. Fifty nine percent of teenage passenger deaths occurred in vehicles driven by another teenager.

Among deaths of passengers of all ages, seventeen percent happened when a student under the age of 20 were driving. Today, it is not uncommon for a teenager to underage drink and then get behind the wheel of a car while intoxicated. This can also render our way of thinking, allowing us to feel more as if our actions are under control. This is how my sister, Kaylynn, felt that cold morning of March 22 when she got into her first car accident. Feeling sorry that she had been in the house all week, my mother decided to allow her to take her car and have a fun night.

Little did she know that Kaylynn would be participating in the consumption of alcoholic beverages, therefore she was not able to say her farewells to the car she purchased only three days prior to this night. Everything seemed normal when my sister got dressed and set out for the evening. I awakened to find a text sent from my mom at 4:10 that morning saying, “Kaylynn totaled my car and she is in jail for drinking and driving. Call me as soon as you get up please. ” Immediately I get up and throw on the first set of clothes I could find and head over to the house. My mom had been crying all night and her face was ed and stained with mascara from where her tears washed them from her lashes; her nose so raw from blowing that it looked like it would burn when touched by a Kleenex. I got the news that Kaylynn was OK but the car did not make it. Mom went to get her out of jail hesitantly. She felt as if she deserved to be there because, despite her knowledge of unsafe driving, she got behind the wheel anyway. In conclusion, safe driving habits is something that a lot of teenage drivers seem to lack there of. They simply have less years of experience and education than the majority of their elders.

Unsafe driving is something that evolves every year, however it can be improved. States like Kentucky, Virginia and California all require that before you receive your license, you must take a driver’s education and training class. This law in Kentucky just came about only a few years ago and it has already made a difference in the knowledge kids have before entering the driver’s seat of a car. There should be more requirements to being able to maintain your license throughout the years, therefore you are always equipped with what you should know about safe driving habits.

Texting, eating and fixing your hair are all just conveniences while driving. It is understandable that sometimes, under different circumstances, it is necessary to resort to these measures. Whether you are late on your way to work that calls for you to take your breakfast with you or there is an emergency at home and your mom or dad needed to let you know via text. It is your choice to determine what is more important; the conveniences of unsafe driving or the inconvenience of losing your life and possibly taking someone else as well.

Brave New World Totalitarianism Is the 1930’s essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Wrage Totalitarianism in the 1930’s Karl Marx’s Theory of History and the Recovery of the Marxian Tradition: Science & Society 8-22-12 Pages. 42, 30-54, 235-239 Marx had predicted that under communism the state would wither away. The opposite occurred under the Stalin. He turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. In this form of government, a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizen. You have already seen how Stalin purged political rivals and imposed central government control over industry and agriculture.

To ensure obedience, Stalin’s Communist party used secret police, censorship and terror. Huxley wrote Brave New World between World War I and World War II. The effects of the War, were became obvious. Huxley wrote about changes in the feeling of nationalism to Great Britain, and began to move toward more equality among the classes and between the sexes. During this time period between the Wars totalitarianism was apparent. Totalitarian figures appear in Brave New World as Huxley’s characters.

He uses names of socialist and totalitarian leaders and the name and personalities of most characters. Names such as Karl Marx(Bernard Marx), Lenin(Lenina Crowne), Fanny Kaplan(Fanny Crowne), Benito Mussolini(Benito Hoover), and Mustapha Kemal Ataturk(Mustapha Mond), as well as these leader’s beliefs and passions emerge as Huxley’s characters passions. For example Bernard Marx is a representative of Karl Marx, Bernard doesn’t meet the physical standard of the Alpha group and is thus an outcast.

This outcast feeling causes Bernard to question the government and wants to change the system. Like Karl Marx, who created socialism, which led to communism. Bernard is conditioned to remain common and to not be an individual. This is what feared Huxley, who believed that Communism in Russia, Fascism in Italy and Nazi Germany would lead to the loss of individualism in society. The character Mustapha Mond plays a big role in the novel, Mond is one of the controllers in the World State.

He states in the novel “Wheels must turn steadily, but cannot turn untended. There must be men to tend them, men as steady as the wheels upon their axles, sane men, obedient men, stable in contentment. ”(Pg. 42) when Mond says this he is stating that the people have no power and the government holds all the power, without the government the people would not be able to remain stable. This novel shows the darkness of Totalitarianism and its effects. Found at Prentice hall world history text book chapter 8 page 729.

Homelessness and Rwanda Genocide Act college essay help free: college essay help free

Eric Walters Ian is a sixteen year old high school student who is failing a course so he needs to go to a homeless shelter and put in his service hours or else he will fail. While going there he is saved from a bunch of thugs by a former soldier (peacekeeper) / (currently homeless) named Jacques. Ian wants to know more about Jacques’ past as a soldier. He finds out that Jacques was part of a genocide act in Rwanda where over 800 000 people were slaughtered.

Jacques was one of the many who witnessed, lived and feared this act of genocide. Ian doesn’t know very much about the Rwanda genocide act so for a few nights he stays up to look up that terrifying moment in history. He learns about the story of a boy named Jacob and his whole family was murdered and how he had is left arm cut off by a machete. Also, he learns that one death to just a single victim is a tragedy but death to hundreds of thousands of victims is just a statistic.

In this book Ian is realizing how much pain soldiers had to go through and how homeless people aren’t worthless but they are worth less than him. Ian gets taken to the dirtiest and poorest parts of his city to learn about the homeless and also to find more and more about Jacques. In Shattered the author Eric Walters brings a lot to the plate with some really important issues.

Data-Based Decision Making my assignment essay help: my assignment essay help

The findings have further demonstrated that most states are hesitant to make their data publicly known. “Skepticism about the quality and use of data continues because data previously were commonly used to punish rather than inform” where improvement is needed or revealed (Data for Action, 2011). Most states have also yet to realize that test scores are not the only form of data that needs to be considered important. The most useful data includes: 1. Longitudinal – following students over time . Actionable – timely, user-friendly and meaningful 3. Contextual – robuse, comparable and presented as part of the bigger picture 4. Interopirable- matches, linked, and shared across sustems and sectors The Data Campaign conducted a study which concluded that there were several challenges faced by the states. First and foremost, the majority of states do not have capacity to prepare students for jobs due to the lack of understanding of needed connection between jobs and education.

Second, states have not established a system to tackle time and trust issues, in addition to identifying critical questions of how to progress further. Finally, educators need training and professional development to be “data literate. ” These challenges need to be remedied in order to see positive change. (Data for Action, 2011) “One danger in the current environment is that we lose sight of the fact that decisions are judgments about what needs to be done within a particular set of circumstances and in light of a school’s local mission and shared values.

For example, if a school discovers that its testing program and curriculum are misaligned, it could embark on one of four possible paths: do nothing, change the curriculum, change the tests, change both” (Secada, 2011). Whatever the path chosen would be determined based on local circumstances, as well as judgments made by staff and administration. Any data collected should be used solely to guide and inform the decision on what to do, which still requires staff to meet and discuss the best course of action for improvement and success.

In 2001, Milwaukee teachers from six schools provided their insight of what they thought was the true definition of “data”: the idea that there’s more to it than just head counts, numbers, and test scores. The volunteer team members at each school worked collaboratively to collect data, learn different decision-making models, manage and interpret the data, while also how to effectively apply change. The volunteers admitted right away to lacking the necessary tools and training to collect, analyze, and interpret data; however, after the study the training proved to be successful.

Team members walked away with a new course of action for improving students’ reading scores by reallocating school resources, identifying low performing students to receive additional resources, and also by hiring two new reading specialists for the 2001-2002 school year. The members also planned to keep track of these plans to see if reading and student performance actually did improve. (Mason, 2001)

Most studies will indicate that one of the most sought after remedies to implementing “good” decision making processes is “taking advantage of accurate, timely, and useful data” (Picciano, 2006). According to Deborah Meir, there were several ways to improve education in the United States, including: 1. Policymakers, teachers, parents, and children being involved and knowing what is going on in their schools 2. Access to quality information is essential to good decision making in education 3. Data should be constantly collected and maintained over time, no just for the current school year

Data collection and integration of technology enforces accountability across the board – policymakers are requiring that administrators strengthen and “modernize the way in which they plan, monitor, and evaluate instruction and learning” (Picciano, 2006). This provides further implementation of ways to enhance educational progress and promote academic growth. Data-driven decision making is defined as a process used to inform when determining the best practices, policies, and procedures for improvement.

History has served as a valuable teacher and the idea that knowledge is power should not be lost according to Picciano. Administrators are the key to providing staff, students, and community members the information necessary to understand what is going on in the school. By taking the time to share their knowledge and experience with others, it provides further opportunity for schools to be led in a strong, positive manner, while providing collaboration and team work amongst staff members. It is important that adminstrators research and use good judgment in decision making.

As a result, budget planning, grants, and other essential components to grow will not be jeopordized due to lack of accurate information. Teachers and others in the system need to be provided with the necessary support and training to succeed. A huge issue at hand is the “problem that people don’t know how to read data, how to sift through it or understand it and that’s really a challenge for all of us” (Duncan, 2009). Parents should also be included more, as well as the commmunity, to enforce the idea that everyone plays a part in students’ education.

This will also create a better relationship amongst school-home. In my district last year, we implemented ISIPs, in which we utilized students’ NJASK scores to determine individual student implementation plans to help students improve and promote growth in areas of weakness. This process served as a guide and allowed teachers the opportunity to improve their own lesson and curriculum planning in order to better meet the needs of students individually. The ISIPs identified skills in which students needed further instruction and modeling – in response to scores and topics assessed on the NJASK.

The ISIPS in turn gave teachers data to differentiate their lessons in response to students’ weaknesses and areas needing improvement. Data should be used in several ways in order to not only improve classroom instruction and methods used by teachers, but also to improve curriculum design and district planning. According to Duncan, data is considered to be“… the road map to reform. It tells us where we are, where we need to go, and who is most at risk” (Duncan, 2009). Data should be referenced across the board to develop action plans for success and growth.

I think data is used effectively to an extent, but needs to be implemented more, especially within my district in reference to schools not meeting AYP and improved student achievement. Being that there are now 6 Title I schools in my district, I think it essential that data-based decision making is implemented more in order to ensure academic growth and higher student performance. There is always room for improvement, and as such it is imperative that it be recognized evaluation and assessment plays a huge role in the classroom in regards to approach and methods used.

Data should be reviewed and interpreted to evaluate whether recommendations are needed to intervene and bridge any gaps in curriculum. Teachers should collaborate to compare data results and teaching practices. In addition, feedback should be provided to help educators to improve assessment practices, rubrics, grading procedures, as well as creating tasks that are more performance-based to meet 21st century needs. Everyone should be on the same page horizontally and vertically schoolwide, districtwide for a more organized and successful approach. Administration also needs to perform accordingly to ensure progress and success.

The ultimate goal should be increased student performance, effort, and achievement. Strategies need to be set into place to drive meaningful learning opportunities for all. This includes: 1. developing PLCs that focus on student learning 2. providing teachers with training opportunities to research materials that are essential to learning necessary skills. In addition, skills should be taught on how to review student assessment data to fill gaps in curriculum 3. create benchmarks assessments to determine student progress and mastery of key concepts 4. evelop curriculum maps to pace instruction and determine strengths and weaknesses of procedures chosen for implementation for change Teachers and administration need to find out what works, and what will benefit the population in order to better the environment for all learners and staff alike. Only when schools and districts embrace change for the 21st century classroom, can students truly grow as life-long learners – they must be taught using what they will experience later in life. “The education sector will never reach this goal without effective data use and the political leadership to get us there” (DQC, 2011).

References: Data Quality Campaign. (2011). Data for Action 2011. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://www. dataqualitycampaign. org/files/DFA2011%20Mini%20report%20findings%20Dec1. pdf Duncan, A. (2009, June). Robust data gives us the roadmap to reform. Presentation at the Fourth Annual IES Research Conference, Washington, DC. Retrieved September 4, 2012 from http://www. ed. gov/news/speeches/robust-data-gives-us-roadmap-reform Education Northwest. (2012). Education Northwest Magazine: What the Research Says (or Doesn’t Say): Using Data for Decision-Making.

Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://educationnorthwest. org/news/1644 Mason, Sarah. (2001). Turning Data Into Knowledge: Lessons from Six Milwaukee Public Schools. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://www. wcer. wisc. edu/archive/ccvi/pub/newsletter/v6n1_spr01. pdf Picciano, A. G. (2006). Data Driven Decision Making for Effective School Leadership. New Jersey: Pearson Secada, Walter G. (2001). Using Data for Educational Decision Making. Newsletter for the Comprehensive Center Region VI. Volume 6, No. 1. Retrieved on September 4, 2012 from http://www. wcer. wisc. edu/archive/ccvi/pub/newsletter/v6n1_spr01. pdf

The Ballad of the Sad Cafe Formal Essy essay help writing: essay help writing

The Ballad of the Sad Cafe, by Carson McCullers (1951) advocates that there are two types of people in the world, which are: the “lover” and the “beloved”. The “lover” is a pathetic character so infatuated by the “beloved” that it totally changes his/her attitude or character completely. The feeling is so strong that although it causes the “lover” severe pain, he/she continue to love. The two main characters in the book fall under the mysterious spell which changes their lives forever.

McCullers also seems to suggest that the feelings of love and attraction are not fundamentally reasonable or logical to others, and if they are left unanswered it can cause the “lover” to return back to his/her true self. McCullers says: “love is a joint experience between two persons- However; the fact that it is a joint experience does not mean that it is a similar experience to the two people involved. There is the lover and the beloved, but these two come from different places. ” (26). Lymon is a strangely looking weird character in McCullers story as it stated in the book “the man was a hunchback.

He was scarcely more than four feet tall” (6) He was not very attractive “. The only thing he had was intelligence as he was able to fool Miss Amelia, who was the richest person in town. Lymon comes to find Miss Amelia so she can provide him with a place to live. He fooled her into thinking that they are cousins. Lymon went through his belongings and came across a very old photograph which he had used to prove that certainly he is her cousin even though the photograph was hard to differentiate the faces of the two women in the picture.

Lymon is a poor person who searches Miss Amelia and uses her for her wealth. As Miss Amelia see`s the photograph, she quickly accepts Lymon as her cousin and welcomes him into her home. Lymon stays with Miss Amelia because he can feel the power he has while living with her. Miss Amelia falls in love with Lymon and provides him with many clean clothes, good food, shoes, accessories and she even offers him her father’s room to stay in. Whatever Lymon wishes, Miss Amelia gets for him right away. No one can say anything or mess around with Lymon while he is living with her.

Lymon is getting all the attention and everything he wants, which makes him stay with Miss Amelia. Lymon has proven himself to be a friendly and outgoing person who enjoys entertaining the town’s people with his stories. He is an attention seeker who lives life to the fullest and loves being the center of activity at the cafe. Lymon was the one who had convinced Miss Amelia into changing her store into a cafe just for his own pleasure of entertaining people. Miss Amelia allows the change to occur out of love for Lymon.

Soon the store is transformed into the cafe and the cafe became a great place of entertainment for the people in the town. People became more well-mannered, respectful and were entertained by Lymon’s company at the cafe. Lymon loved setting up people into fights as it says in the book, “The hunchback was a great mischief maker… every other fight for the matter since he had come in town” (39). The transformation of the cafe had caused Lymon to act as the boss and the owner of the cafe, “as one who owns every plank of the floor beneath his feet” (18).

Lymon was the chief form of entertainment for the cafe who enjoyed watching people fight for his own pleasure. The arrival of Marvin Macy in town changes Lymon’s behaviour and attitude completely. Lymon “turns pale” (47) when he sees Marvin Macy which is strange as he does not know about the ten day marriage trial of Miss Amelia and Marvin. The author advocates that Marvin and Lymon might have known each other from before “He and the man stared at each other, and it was not a look of two strangers meeting for the first time… eculiar stare they exchanged between them, like the look of two criminals who recognized each other” (46). Lymon starts to carefully beam and follow around Marvin Macy, “keeping many paces away”. In addition, he is amazed by Marvin’s adventurous and exciting life. Lymon’s behaviour toward Marvin is immature and childish noticeably unimpressive and unflattering to all the people in the town, as it states in the book “He stood there wiggling his large pale ears with marvellous quickness and ease” (48).

Moreover, even when Lymon recognizes that his accomplishments are getting him nowhere at all, he still made new efforts to impress Marvin “He fluttered his eyelids, so that they were like pale… swamp haunt”. Even when Marvin hit’s him which makes him fall back, he shows no shame and still tries to impress him and to prove to him that he is still the best. In conclusion, “The Ballad of Sad Cafe” by Carson McCullers is an engaging and interesting novel with strange characters like Lymon who loves to live life to the fullest.

He loves being the center of attention and is a character that looks forward setting up individuals into fights. In addition, he is smart enough to fool and gain benefit of people such as Miss Amelia who loved him with all her heart and gave him everything he asked for even though in return he does not give her anything back but to leave her heart broken. Throughout the story, Lymon has demonstrated himself to be a selfish man who does not care for anyone but himself. At the end we learn that Miss Amelia, Marvin, and Lymon found no happiness just pain and loneliness out of love.

David Petrie – Distracted Driving essay help us: essay help us

His standpoint is extremely clear; he argues for greater publication and law involvement for enforcing “pull over and stop” in the occasion of child distraction. Petrie supports his standpoint with personal experiences and statistical evidence. He began by describing the different kinds of distractions that experts at the U. S. Department of Transportation say there are: visual, manual, and cognitive distractions. He then tells the reader that these experts believe texting to be the most dangerously distracting action since it involves all three types of detrimental distractions.

Once laying out the well known side of the arguments, he continues in the next paragraph to addresses his alternate or rather additional view of the argument. He quickly jumped to a personal anecdote as a means of bringing the subject close to home, for his target audience, and more relatable. His sentence structure becomes shorter and his diction relaxes greatly. At this point it became questionable as to whether Petrie was composing and arguing seriously or taking this subject into a “too comfortable and informal” direction.

Although his personal experience shows his knowledge of a stressful and distracting situation, he does not have direct evidence that this led to a hazardous outcome. Luckily Petrie backed up this story with a paralleled structure from the first paragraph stating how the three forms of distraction applied to his experiences in dealing with a young child in the backseat. Petrie furthers his desire to make the distracted driving campaign broader to include more than just texting while driving.

He brings in statistical polls to support the need for a wider range of distractions to be publicized for more drivers to be made aware of. Statistics showed in favor of young children being “one of the leading causes of driver-distraction crashes for people ages 20 to 29. ” The author asks a rhetorical question to spark thought over what should be done about the situation. Petrie presents the Department of Transportation’s way of fixing distracted driving; they say to “Put it down! “. Petrie suggests instead that it should be “Pull over and stop”.

This solution encompasses quite a variety of situations with a simple message that can be followed under most circumstances. Under his specific circumstances, he put action to the previous message: “Pull over and stop” and he also found an alternative to match his personal problem: a pacifier clip, something to soothe his distracting baby. To conclude Petrie’s argument, he poses a question to the audience inquiring their opinion on what the message should be to distracted drivers. It is a very valid point that Petrie argues.

Child distraction has been a problem since the invention of any transportation vehicle. The new enemy of the road; texting has become capitalized on, but to the point of causing other distractions to fall behind in a shadow. He has successfully brought light to a lesser publicized distraction in a comfortable, but statically supported argument. Petrie emphasized the need to recognize more than one contributing factor to distracted driving. His fight was to recognize children in the backseat as a major contributor.

A Walk in the Woods academic essay help: academic essay help

I thought there was something very honest, very human, in his sarcasm” (Jenna Baker, MST Publishing, 2011). Kirkus Review said, “…Bryson is a talented portraitist of place. He did his natural-history homework, which is to say he knows a jack-o-lantern mushroom from a hellbender salamander from a purple warty back mussel, and can also write seriously about the devastation of chestnut blight” (2004). Almost every review of this novel shows Bryson’s incredible duality of sarcasm and truth within the book.

The humor he uses is a very bright sarcasm that includes with circumstantial evidence and intelligence. Method of Development: Because this book is an autobiography, the characters were all completely real and developed from Bill Bryson’s memories of the actual events that occurred in his story. As Bryson’s trek progresses, so does his sense of self. Bryson is transformed from a soft middle-ager to a serious hiker. Along the long Appalachian Trail that stretches from Georgia to Maine, Bill Bryson encounters several people (characters) along the way.

An old school-friend of Bryson’s, Stephen Katz, joins Bryson for the trip. An out-of-shape and abrasive companion, Katz is also known for traveling with the author through Europe when they were in their early 20s, as documented in Bryson’s earlier book, Neither Here Nor There. Although Katz complains constantly and is often insufferable on the trail, his well-timed sarcastic commentary is often comedic gold. At other times he proves to be a sincere and loyal friend to Bryson. The first person the pair meet on the trail is Mary Ellen, an obnoxious Floridian who attaches herself to Bryson and Katz.

After a few days, Bryson and Katz ditch her by hiking to a road and hitchhiking into town. The pair then meet “Chicken John” later on the trail, a man famous on the Appalachian Trail for his tendency to get lost, sometimes walking in the wrong direction for days at a time. Bryson is delighted to meet him on one of his day hikes near Dalton, where Chicken John reveals that his name is really Bernard. Analysis of Devices: Diction: Bryson does not use complex diction in this novel, because he wants to really make it understandable and relatable to almost anyone that picks the book up to read it.

Although there may be some larger vocabulary words present in the writing, most of the words are smaller and more concise, used in everyday conversation like “remove”, “grinds”, “circumstances”, “depression”, and “frequently”. Some things key to the book are “denim-blue lakes”, “heavy green forests”, “compression straps”, etc. Bryson is very descriptive in his diction and syntax, which makes the writing very realistic for the reader. Point of View and Structure: In order for a reader to become interested in a novel, there must be a narrative hook portrayed by the author.

Bryson begins the book with a flashback, quite nostalgic, about how he viewed the woods in his childhood backyard. The reader is ultimately hooked by this thought of wonder and unexplored territory to the narrator. This book becomes a narrative told from the point of Bill Bryson, because he is retelling the story, through chronological flashbacks, of what happened on his adventures on the Appalachian Trail. The set up of the book with informative facts at the beginning of most chapters and story form for the rest of the book adds to the interesting structure of a narrative to the reader.

The readers generally prefer structure mainly because they are not thrown off from their train of thought while reading, if the book is well structured. As Aristotle once concluded, there are three different appeals that an author must touch on to grab his audience’s attention: ethos, pathos, and logos. To concur with the narration aspect of literary technique the narrator must establish common ground, and show that he is credible and good-natured to the reader, and only then can he begin with the narrative. Narrative structure is a key factor in this book to help Bryson get his overall purpose and message across to the reader(s).

Tone: In this book, Bill Bryson uses four different tones in his writing: informative, pragmatic, humorous, and reflective. The informative tone is especially apparent in the beginning of every chapter, where there are multitudes of facts presented. For example, when Bryson provides us with the story of Earl V. Shaffer, “…who was the first man to walk the Appalachian Trail from end to end in a single summer” (Bryson, 38). Bryson shows us that he is very credible through demonstrating his knowledge on life in the woods and nature.

The pragmatic or practical tone is apparent when Bryson is describing the improvisations and adaptations that he had to accommodate to when he experienced sudden changes in the woods. For example, during the snowstorm, they camped in a shelter with no front side and during the rainstorm they slept in their tents outdoors. All the compromises that Bryson had to make because of sudden changes contribute to his pragmatic tone whilst telling the story. Another main tone that Bryson uses is a humorous tone. All throughout the book, Bryson and Katz are cracking jokes to keep themselves alert and entertained in the woods.

Also, the people they meet along the trail and highways are humorous people, such as Darren and Donna in the car, Mary Ellen, and the Boy Scout troop. Lastly, I believe that there is a reflective tone seen in the book. Once Bryson and Katz go their separate ways at Front Royal, the book takes on a reflective tone through Bryson’s eyes regarding life on the trail without Katz by his side. Four Influential Points in the Author’s Life: 1. Dropping out of college: Bill Bryson was educated at Drake University but dropped out in 1972, deciding to instead backpack around Europe for four months.

He returned to Europe the following year with a high school friend, Stephen Katz, who later ended up hiking the Appalachian Trail with Bill. Some of his experiences from this trip are relived as flashbacks in Neither Here Nor There: Travels in Europe, which documents a similar journey Bryson made twenty years later. 2. Move to the UK: Bryson decided to stay in England after landing a job working in a psychiatric hospital—the now defunct Holloway Sanatorium in Virginia Water, Surrey. He met a nurse there named Cynthia, whom he married, and they moved to the USA in 1975 so Bryson could complete his college degree.

In 1977, they settled in the UK, where they remained until 1995. Living in North Yorkshire and mainly working as a journalist, Bryson eventually became chief copy editor of the business section of The Times, and then deputy national news editor of the business section of The Independent. 3. Chancellor Appointment: In 2005, Bryson was appointed Chancellor of Durham University, succeeding the late Sir Peter Ustinov, and has been particularly active with student activities, even appearing in a Durham student film (the sequel to The Assassinator) and promoting litter picks in the city.

He had praised Durham as “a perfect little city” in Notes from a Small Island. He has also been awarded honorary degrees by numerous universities, including Bournemouth University and in April 2002 the Open University. 4. President: In May 2007, he became the President of the Campaign to Protect Rural England. His first area focus in this role was the establishment of an anti-littering campaign across England. He discussed the future of the countryside with Richard Mabey, Sue Clifford, Nicholas Crane and Richard Girling at CPRE’s Volunteer Conference in November 2007.

Significant Quote with Explanation: “The American woods have been unnerving people for 300 years. The inestimably priggish and tiresome Henry David Thoreau thought nature was splendid, splendid indeed, so long as he could stroll to town for cakes and barley wine, but when he experienced real wilderness, on a visit to Katahdin in 1846, he was unnerved to the core. This wasn’t the tame world of overgrown orchards and sun-dappled paths that passed for wilderness in suburban Concord, Massachusetts” (Bryson, 25). This quote from the book demonstrates foreshadowing.

Through Henry David Thoreau, Bryson essentially describes himself. Thoreau thought “nature was splendid” until “he was unnerved to the core” when he truthfully and actually experienced it for himself. Bryson went through the same process and was equally shaken by his discovery. I like the way Bryson worded this quote. Instead of actually coming out and directly saying that he himself was shaken by his discovery of the harsh nature of the outdoors, he indirectly implied it through another source. Critique: As I read, what really won me over was not the actual events, but Bryson’s writing style.

Much of the book uses such a conversational tone that the inclusion of history and factual information doesn’t disrupt the narrative structure much. His humor manages to shine through at just the right moment. A lot of reviewers felt the author was a jerk who mocks many of the people and situations he encounters, but I thought there was something very honest, very human, in his sarcasm. A lot of his thoughts and actions weren’t exactly admirable, but I can’t say that I wouldn’t have done the same thing in certain situations while under such stress.

I am definitely guilty of having the same dry humor he exhibits. Maybe this is why I felt more of a connection. There is a lot more to the story than what I’ve written about here, but I don’t want to give much away. I think you know if this is a type of work you’ll be interested in reading, and I want to make sure that people are able to go in as fresh as possible. I didn’t know anything about this book when I started, and that only added to the enjoyment. A Walk in the Woods was definitely a good introduction to Bryson’s work.

While I don’t think I will ever take on such an extreme endeavor in my lifetime, I have definitely regained an interest in day hiking. I don’t have the time, stamina, or perseverance to hike something as enormous as the Appalachian Trail, but I do enjoy nature and being outdoors. Hopefully, I can start planning more trips to the trails now that spring has arrived, and the weather has improved. I would recommend reading this book if you are looking for a way to learn more about one of nature’s splendid creations in a down-to-earth, honest travel memoir format.

Informative Speech writing an essay help: writing an essay help

Once the push bar of the scooter-like contraption was broken off, skateboarding was born. No one really know who invented the first skateboard because at the time in the 1950s a lot of people had the same idea and a lot of people were coming out with their own versions of a skateboard. Know a day’s there are a lot of different types of skateboards there is the regular short board it has a concave body style they use them to do difficult tricks and you see a lot of people doing stunts on them.

Then there is the long board its another version of a skateboard and its longer they give you the feeling of gliding like your surfing their basically surf boards on wheels that you can use on land and then we also have what we call the slalom boards those are what a lot of racers use they can go up to 30 and 40 m/h and then their is electric boards their battery based so if you don’t want to push or do anything but steer the skateboard you have that option know.

Ever since skateboarding was invented it has been through a lot of ups and downs in the beginning it was a huge success until about 1965 a slew of so-called safety experts pronounced skateboarding unsafe because of its rough body style and the fact they used clay for the wheels so there were a lot of accidents then in 1973 the urethane wheel was invented revolutionizing the sport.

The new wheels provided much better traction and speed and, combined with the new skateboard specific trucks; it allowed skaters to push the difficulty of maneuvers to new levels. Tricks at this time consisted of surfing maneuvers done on flat ground or on banks. Then in 1976 Alan Gelfand, nicknamed “Ollie”, was the one who invented the Ollie an Ollie consist of a gentle rising of the nose and scooping motion to keep the board with the feet.

The purpose and functionality of a skateboard at first it was used for recreational uses and fun but know with the high gas prizes a lot of people are using them for close proximity transportation and you can actually work as a professional skater. Today a pro can make anywhere from $1,000 to $10,000 a month. These earning are based on winnings, depending on how well a skater places in any given competition and how many competitions a skater competes. I hope this speech has informed you about the history and variations of skateboards as well as its functionality and purposes.

Boy in the Striped Pyjamas Essay mba essay help: mba essay help

These points show that ignorance is often blissful, but it can also be incredibly dangerous. Ignorance can be bliss, which is shown by Bruno when he talks to Shmuel about the camp, Auschwitz (which Bruno calls Out-With). Bruno imagines the camp as a nice, friendly farm in which the residents spend the day playing with their friends. This is evidenced when Bruno comments, “It’s so unfair. I don’t see why I have to be stuck over here where there’s no one to talk to and no one to play with and you get to have dozens of friends and are probably playing for hours every day.

I’ll have to speak to father about it. ” (page 110-11). If Bruno knew the truth at this point, he’d probably be wary of Shmuel, and avoid talking to him. That would mean he’d never make friends, and he’d be miserable for his entire stay at the house. This demonstrates that sometimes not knowing is for the best, as you could hear information that would spoil your enjoyment of the experience. Ignorance most certainly can be blissful. Ignorance is bliss, but the realisation that you have been ignorant is certainly not.

When you discover that you have perceived everything in the wrong light, everything you thought was correct will fall away and reveal the truth. There are many examples of this in Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. When Gretel, Herr Lizst and his father start implying that Jews are evil and are not their friends, Bruno begins to question his friendship with Shmuel. There is a point where he realises how different Shmuel is. When Shmuel is in trouble, he pleads that Bruno gave him food, and he didn’t steal it. ‘”Answer me! ” shouted Lieutenant Kotler, “Did you steal something from that fridge? “No sir. He gave it to me,” said Shmuel … “He’s my friend. ” (page 171). Lieutenant Kotler is not inclined to believe Shmuel. He asks Bruno if he is friends with him, and Bruno realises how dangerous their friendship really is. Combined with his fear of the lieutenant, this causes him to say, “I’ve never spoken to him… I’ve never seen him before in my life. ” Lieutenant Kotler then beats Shmuel for stealing. This shows that when we learn things we previously didn’t know, it can have very bad consequences on us or our friends.

Ignorance can be terribly dangerous if we aren’t aware of the bigger picture. This is shown in The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas by Bruno, who unwittingly walks into a Nazi death camp. If he had been told the raw truth about what happened in the camps, it would have been bad for his friendship with Shmuel, but in the long run it would have saved his life. On page 198, when they are discussing the idea of Bruno visiting Shmuel’s side of the fence, Bruno says, “It would be a great adventure. Our final adventure.

I could do some exploring at last. ” By ‘final adventure’, Bruno means the last adventure before he moves back to Berlin. He is not to know that it will be their last adventure ever. Apart from foreshadowing the tragic climax of this story, Bruno’s innocent statement shows how blissfully unaware he is of the danger. Although Shmuel is partly aware of the horror of the camps, he still doesn’t know what is really happening to all the inhabitants, and he invites Bruno over to search for his father. Well? ” said Shmuel. “Why don’t you [come over here] then? ” (page 197). The two boys’ ignorance leads them to wander around the camp. They are rounded up with many other prisoners and sent into a gas chamber, where they are killed. This is an example of the way ignorance can be fatal. In summary, The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas shows that ignorance is bliss, but learning things you previously were ignorant of is not. Finally, ignorance is danger, and can be fatal.

Hedge Tiffany and Co.’s Foreign Currency Exposure in Japan essay help 123: essay help 123

M. Business Consultants would like to thank Tiffany & Company for acquiring our expertise in the area of Asian markets. Primary Issue: risk of foreign exchange exposure in Japan Controlling the retail sales within Japan could potentially translate into wider margins for Tiffany & Company, but the future is not without risk. Tiffany and Company will now assume all the foreign exchange risk previously held by Mitsukoshi, a major shareholder of the company. No longer will Tiffany be paid in American dollars like in the past. All sales will be made in Yen and be paid to Tiffany? s in Yen.

It is crucial that the board of directors for Tiffany & Company review the recommendations we will be offering in this report in order to access the best choice of all available alternatives that minimizes the foreign exchange risk. Overview of the Japanese Economy – June 1993 Tiffany and Company is looking to conclude an agreement with its Japanese distributors Mitsukoshi which would see the American company assume management responsibilities in the operation of 29 retail stores in Japan. Previously operated by Mitsukoshi, it is the goal of Tiffany and Company to have this agreement in writing by July 1993. D. A. M. M.

Business Consultants have researched the Japanese economy as a whole and the results are as follows: As a starting point in the analysis of the Japanese economy, D. A. M. M. Business Consultants believe it is necessary to use the last time the Japanese economy was at a peak of employment. This give us a better understanding at what point we are at today in the economy whether it be high (using measure like employment and GDP statistics) or low. The Japanese economy was at its peak of employment in 1991. (See appendices 1. 1) By August of 1992 a reduction of interest rates was implemented in the hopes to stimulate the economy. See appendices 1. 2) This did not halt the rise in the unemployment rate seen at the end of 1992. (See appendices 1. 1) The current year, although we are only half way through it, has offered us some insight as to where the Japanese economy could be going. What we do know is that growth in GDP has been on a downward trend since the high employment rates seen in 1991. (See appendices 1. 3) How much more of a decline will we see and how close we are to hitting the bottom or a recession will be purely speculative based on professional forecasts.

During the year 1992, the Japanese government forecasted a 3. 3% growth in GDP What we are currently witnessing is a 0% growth demonstrating that one can not count on predictions and must plan their operations with all economic scenarios in mind. At the beginning of this year (1993) the Japanese saw some favorable movement in the Japanese economy especially in residential investment but it was not long lived. (Economic planning agency the government of Japan, 1994) The Yen has appreciated this year and has had some negative impacts on the Japanese economy. (See appendices 1. ) This appreciation has resulted in deflationary effects where imports have become cheaper and wholesale prices in Japan have dropped. The strengthening of the Yen favours importers but has complicated business for export based companies. (Economic planning agency the government of Japan, 1994) Corporate profits have for have been negatively affected this year. The forecasts for the remaining months of 1993 are pessimistic with a decrease of about 10%. If the forecasts are accurate at the end of the year, the Japanese economy would be faced with its 4th consecutive year of decreased corporate profits. Economic planning agency the government of Japan, 1994) Unemployment in Japan is on the rise. Under the prolonged economic downturn experienced over the last 2 years, unemployment rates continue to rise. Japanese workers have been working more overtime and there has been a declining trend since the low unemployment rates seen in 1991. The unemployment situation has affected the middle aged, elderly, and those who hold managerial or clerical jobs. Firms are increasingly cutting back on the layers of management as a feeling of over-employment in these areas is surfacing.

Once this demographic becomes unemployed, it is difficult to re-enter the work force since markets for managerial jobs have little flexibility. (Economic planning agency the government of Japan, 1994) The opportunity to increase market share and profits can not be accomplished without risk. D. A. M. M. Business Consultants believe that expanding Tiffany? s control of operations in Japan during these turbulent could still be a lucrative opportunity for the company. Caution must be taken to insure all risks have been assessed and properly safe guarded before taken the leap into the Japanese market.

Industry analysis In analyzing the jewelry industry Japan we will borrow from a model created by Michael E. Porter that identifies and analyzes 5 competitive forces within all industries. This analysis will give Tiffany? s a clearer understanding of the jewelry industry? s strengths and weaknesses. The 5 sources identified by Porter that shape every industry are: 1. Threat of substitute products. 2. Threat of the entry of new competitors. 3. Intensity of competitive rivalry 4. The Bargaining Power of Customers 5. Bargaining power of suppliers (Quick MBA) In Porter? model, substitute products refer to products in other industries. Tiffany & Company have a low threat of substitute products from other industries as they target a specific segment or niche of the market. The products designed, manufactured and distributed by Tiffany & Co. are of high quality and the brand recognition associated with the „Blue Box? , adds value with its branding. (Quick MBA) Having a working relationship with your Japanese partners Mitsukoshi has made doing business in Japan much easier. It is very difficult for foreign companies to enter the Japanese market without the help of Japanese business.

The „Keiretsu System? of business in Japan is one of horizontally-integrated alliances across many industries. Many of the members of the Keiretsu system belong to one Bank that holds equity ownership of the various companies. The bank monitors and provides financial aid to companies in need. This ensures that hostile take-overs are avoided. The system in today? s economic environment is not as rigid, especially with the new norm of global business taking form. This economic system of alliances between Japanese companies is still a threat for foreign companies wishing to do business in Japan. Taylor, 1995) Major capital requirements to enter the retail jewelry sector in Japan would be required for new entrants into this market. The real-estate prices alone for a competitor to open a boutique in a strategic geographic area in Japan are enormous. Tiffany? s is well positioned with all its boutiques open and operating. Government policies favour domestic companies. Any foreign competitor in the jewelry market will be second to the needs of domestic Japanese jewelry retailers. The Japanese government is still heavily influenced by the Keiretsu system. (APAC, 1998)

There are a low number of competitors within this niche market of retail luxury goods items in Japan. This market is in its maturity stage and the prospect for growth has slowed down as a result of the slowdown in the Japanese economy. The competitive environment within this market is centered on brand loyalty where brands like Louis Vuitton and Bulgari are competing directly with Tiffany? s for market share. (NZ Trade and Enterprise) Demand within the industry has moved slightly towards higher-end brand names where customers have no switching costs between the various competitors.

Upper-tier brands like Tiffany and Co. and Bulgari have expanded their product lines, introducing lower priced products marketed towards brand conscious consumers and higher priced items marketed towards the ultra-rich. (New York Times, 1993) There is a high threat with the bargaining power of Tiffany & Co. suppliers. The inputs for the products produced have a low presence of substitutes. As there is a limited supply of the inputs used to produce the merchandise, there is exposure of Tiffany & Co. to shifts in their input costs.

As the cost of gold or diamonds increase from the suppliers, Tiffany & Company have little alternative other than to absorb the cost or pay the higher price and shift this cost to their consumers. (See appendices 1. 5) Internal & external environmental analysis: Tiffany and Co. A SWOT analysis is a useful tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. The SWOT analysis scans the external (threats and opportunities) and internal environment (strengths and weaknesses) of a company in order to better equip the organization in accomplishing its goals and objectives while at he same time overcoming obstacles that may hinder the company? s performance. (Quick MBA) The internal environment of Tiffany? s has attractive strengths that the company can use to its advantage. The access to liquidity through Tiffany? s partners General Electric Credit Corporation of a $100 million noncollateralized revolving credit facility is crucial for any company who may be experiencing some hard times within their business cycle. Access to cash when it is most needed can make or break a company. Access to this liquidity eliminates most of the liquidity risk that Tiffany may face in the future.

Tiffany and Co. also are retaining earnings all of which is readily available for the company if it wishes to expand or simply meet a liquidity need in the future. A great advantage that Tiffany has is their brand recognition. Everybody knows Tiffany? s famous blue box. The prestige and luxury associated with the brand name „Tiffany? s? is known world wide. This is a definite advantage in the jewelry industry where consumers tend to be quality conscience. Tiffany? s has grown over the years to be a major player in the global jewelry markets and the management team has the knowledge and experience when xpanding the business globally. Widening the jewelry market share in the Japanese market will be facilitated through Tiffany? s business partners Mitsukoshi who are currently in charge of the Japanese operations. Mitsukoshi is established Japanese Company who hold major shares of the Tiffany Company. Their support in Japan is crucial and will facilitate the operations within Japan. There is room for improvement. Currently Tiffany? s only has 1% of the jewelry market share within Japan of a 20 billion dollar a year market. (Case and Problems in Finance) Tiffany? must come up with a strategic plan to expand their market share in Japan. One other issue that arises within the management of Tiffany? s is the fact that there is little managerial experience when it pertains to running a business in Japan. In the past all the operations were controlled by Mitsukoshi and Tiffany? s should continue to engage in consultations with Mitsukoshi about the Japanese market. A scan of the external environment of the Japanese market poses some threats. The speculative bubble in Japan is coming to an end and many consumers are rejecting high priced goods which may threaten the sales in Japan for Tiffany? . (New York Times, 1993) Exchange rates between the Japanese Yen and the US dollar have been volatile over the years, and now Tiffany & Co. is faced with the risk of currency fluctuations accompanied by the overvaluation of the yen. As mentioned earlier the currency appreciation and volatility of the Yen to the dollar poses serious macroeconomic threats. The Japanese market is an attractive one. The opportunities are immense and if Tiffany can attain more market share the margins will widen exponentially. Japan alone consumes roughly 36% of the luxury goods in the world, however Tiffany & Co. nly have 1% of the market share leaving 99% of the market to be conquered. Case and Problems in Finance) (See appendices 1. 6) Financial analysis The primary concern for Tiffany and Company and its control of operations within Japan is it? s exposure to foreign exchange risk. As mentioned previously Tiffany? s will now bear all of the risk of foreign exchange as revenues will be paid in Yen rather than in dollars. Since 1983, the Japanese Yen has consistently been gaining strength against the U. S. Dollar. As of 1983, one dollar could be purchased with 231. 70 yen.

The yen then picked up momentum and as of June 1993 it took only 106. 35 yen to purchase one dollar. This resulted in the dollar being worth less than half of its 1983 value as of mid 1993. (See appendices 1. 4) Because Tiffany & Co (Tiffany) was not exposed to any foreign exchange risk in this time (Mitsukoshi bore all of the foreign exchange risk), this devaluation of the dollar against the yen was not of great concern. Further, even if Tiffany was facing foreign exchange risk, this devaluation of the dollar would have meant that sales in terms of dollars would be increasing.

However, by 1993 the yen was overvalued with respect to the dollar and looked to be primed for a drop. „Translation risk? is a reality for companies that have foreign operations and foreign assets. The fluctuation of exchange rates can cause significant variances between the figures reported from one quarter to the next. Any movement in the yen against the dollar can have a dramatic effect on dollar sales. (See appendices 1. 7) Although Japanese sales increased 16% from 6,598,975,860 yen to 7,639,971,300 yen from 1992 to 1993, due to the yen? s movement during that time, dollar sales increased by 36%.

If the yen were to move up to 50 yen/dollar, this same change in Japanese sales would have resulted in an increase in dollar sales of 189%. However, if the dollar were to regain its strength to its previous levels in 1983, this 16% increase in yen sales would result in an actual decrease of 42% in dollar sales. [See spreadsheet „Movement in JPY? (sales)] Fluctuating exchange rates can affect not only foreign sales, but also foreign assets. In terms of yen, Tiffany? s foreign assets lost value; dropping from 14,502 M yen to 14,062 M yen from 1992 to 1993. However, when he strength of the yen versus the dollar is factored in, this equates to a 14% jump in the value of assets in dollars. Any movement in the yen can have a dramatic effect on the dollar value of assets. (See appendices 1. 9) If the yen moves to 50 yen / dollar, that yearly gain is 142%. However, if the yen loses strength and retreats back to its 1983 levels of nearly 250 yen / dollar that would equal a loss of 52%, or nearly $60 M. [See spreadsheet „Movement in JPY Yen? (assets)] Japanese sales account for 11% of total sales for Tiffany. A 20% drop in 1993 sales in Japan would result in an overall loss of $14. 367 M.

If a drop of 40% is considered for 1993 Japanese sales, a $28. 735 M loss of sales would result. (See appendices 1. 10) Tiffany? s has nearly ten times this amount in working capital and could weather such a loss. [See spreadsheet „Drop in JPY Sales? (assets)] For proper planning of the operations in Japan, extreme fluctuations in the Yen need to be hedged. Companies attempt to minimize foreign exposure risk through tools available in the financial markets discussed below. Alternatives for hedging foreign exchange exposure D. A. M. M. Business Consultants has identified 3 methods used in today? s global markets when insuring one? operations against foreign exchange exposure. 1. Currency forward – Tiffany? s can enter into a currency forward by paying a premium to sell the Yen for American dollars. In this type of contract Tiffany? s will be obligated to sell the Yen at a specified price, amount and date stated in the contract. These contracts are very simple to use and available in the financial markets. The contracts available to Tiffany? s come in one and three month maturity periods. For example in exhibit 8, (Pg 344, Case and Problems in Finance) Tiffany? s can in the month of June, lock into a 106 Yen to the Dollar exchange rate.

Tiffany? s would be insured that in three months, the rate stated in the contract will stand even if the Yen has depreciated. This contact works well for short time periods. If Tiffany? s wishes to have a longer secured exchange rate for planning purposes, this would not be a wise decision as every three months you would be exposed to a new forward rate. Lastly, these contracts have no flexibility. Tiffany? s does not have the right to obtain the spot rate on the date of maturity rather than the forward rate hashed out three months prior. It is an obligation to deliver on the contracts terms. . Yen put options – This contract will give Tiffany? s the right but not the obligation to sell the yen at a specified price, amount and date. Currently there are 15 put contracts being offered to Tiffany? s in the financial markets with one to three month maturities. „In the money? is the phrase used when the Yen depreciates relative to the strike price within the contract. This option becomes more valuable as the price of the Yen depreciates compared to the strike price. Referring to exhibit 8 (Pg 344, Case and Problems in Finance), one could choose a strike price of 91. 5 Yen to the Dollar.

The premium for a two month put option is $. 85 to hedge 10,000 Yen. These contracts charge a premium because of the flexibility with in them. You are not obligated to sell the Yen at the strike price when it is „out of the money?. Therefore this contract saves you from depreciation in the Yen relative to the strike price and allows you to exercise the spot price on the maturity date if it is „out of the money?. 3. Currency Swap – This type of transaction involves the trade of principal and interest in one currency for the same in another. For example a Japanese company doing business in the U.

S. may want Yen and Tiffany $ Co. desire dollars. These two companies can enter into an agreement to exchange currency at a rate that works for both companies. This can prove to be an excellent tool for long term planning. These contracts with another company can last years. This can help Tiffany? s to ensure that the margins will not be upset due to currency fluctuations. This is a simple and useful way to hedge foreign currency exposure but it comes with risks. First of all your company has to be certain that it will be able to exchange the amount in the contract when specified in the contract.

If it can not it is breaking a legal agreement. It will have to pay the loss that the other company takes in as a result of one? s inability to provide the amount stated in the contract to the other company on the stated date. Recommendation D. A. M. M. Business Consultants believe that is necessary to diversify the currency hedging plan for Tiffany & Company. This Hedging plan should be carried out in a number of phases. Phase 1- Immediately enter into a three month forward agreement to secure an exchange rate for the next three month. It is of most importance that Tiffany? s only hedges 80% of et Yen they took in the three months prior to entering the forward agreement. This will provide some insurance in case sales decline in the next three months. This first phase may take longer than three as will be discussed below. Phase 2- It is important that Tiffany? s creates a new department that deals with the hedging plan. This will involve opening an office, hiring management and employees and attracting professional talent in the areas of foreign exchange markets. This will take considerable time and expense but must be done so that the main risk (FX) is reduced in the Japanese market.

During this time we would recommend that Tiffany? s use the expertise of The Mitsukoshi Company and enter into a Swap agreement with a Japanese company doing business in the U. S. Extreme caution must be taken when choosing a hedging partner as Tiffany will have to trust that the Japanese company will deliver the specified dollars on the specified date. Tiffany? s should enter into a partial hedge using 80% of past revenues as a bench mark. The length of time for the swap agreement should be 1 year. This gives flexibility and the ability to look for new swapping partners if the current partner is not working out.

Phase 3- Review. After a year the markets need to be reanalyzed. If the Yen is stable Tiffany? s may want to use forward contracts. If they are unstable, locking in for a year through a currency swap may be the best alternative, but a review of the hedging plan should be done on a yearly basis. The future is bright for Tiffany? s. The Japanese welcome a product with world recognition and class. D. A. M. M. Business Consultants would like to thank Tiffany? s for giving us the opportunity to access the foreign exchange risk that the company will be facing in the years to come.

Appendices 1. 1 US and Japan unemployment rates, 1985 – 1992 (% of labour force) http://www. ips. org. sg/pub/wp2-charts. pdf Source: The Economist (June 28, 1998, p. 20) 1. 2 Japanese interest rates 1982-1993 http://www. ips. org. sg/pub/wp2-charts. pdf Source: The Economist (June 28, 1998, p. 20) 1. 3 US and Japan GDP growth rates, 1985-1992 http://www. ips. org. sg/pub/wp2-charts. pdf Source: The Economist (June 28, 1998, p. 20) 1. 4 Yen/Dollar exchange rates 1. 5 Porter’s 5 sources 1) Threat of Substitute Products low threat of substitution (niche market) igh perceived level of product differentiation high level of product differentiation Threat of the Entry of New Competitors brand equity – Blue Box high barrier to entry – The Keiretsu high capital requirements high barrier to distribution – The Keiretsu government policies – restricted access to Japanese markets government is heavily influenced by the Keiretsu Intensity of Competitive Rivalry low number of niche market competitors market maturity slower growth due to market conditions competition for brand loyalty; eg.

Louis Vuitton The Bargaining Power of Customers Demand within the industry has moved slightly towards higher-end brand names. Upper-tier brands such TIF and Bulgari have expanded their product lines, introducing lower priced products marketed towards brand conscious consumers and higher priced items marketed towards the ultra-rich. Bargaining Power of Suppliers – High threat of inputs relative to selling price – low presence of substitute inputs 2) 3) 4) 5) 1. 6 SWOT Analysis: Tiffany and Co. Strengths Access of Credit through General Electric Co. Retained dividends for expansion Brand Recognition.

The famous blue box Knowledgeable management Partnered with Mitsukoshi Ltd – A well established company that has many stores in Japan Three organized distribution channels – US Retain, Direct marketing, and International Retail Threats With the speculative “bubble” ending in the Japanese economy, many consumers are turning away from high priced brand luxury goods and may threaten the sales in Japan for Tiffany & Co. Exchange rates between the Japanese Yen and the US dollar has been volatile over the years, and now Tiffany & Co. is faced with the risk of the currency fluctuations accompanied by the overvaluation of the yen.

Weaknesses Only holds 1% of the market share (Case and Problems in Finance) Have not been involved in the past with the management of operations and sales in the Japanese market Opportunities ? Japan alone consumes roughly 36% of the luxury goods in the world, however Tiffany & Co. only have 1% of the market share, meaning that there is a lot of potential by gaining more ? Louis Vuitton (LVMH) reported a 20% decline in net earnings, meaning that there is a possibility for Tiffany & Co. to take market share. http://www. iht. com/articles/1993/03/19/lvm h. php ? Implement marketing campaigns that have been successful in the US.

In the 1960s, De Beers introduced to Japan the “Diamonds are Forever” campaign that was successful in the US in the 1940s. http://science. howstuffworks. com/diamond5. htm) 1. 7 Sales scenarios Effect on U. S. Sales by Movement in JPY Yen / $ $180,000,000. 00 $160,000,000. 00 $140,000,000. 00 $120,000,000. 00 $100,000,000. 00 $80,000,000. 00 $60,000,000. 00 $40,000,000. 00 $20,000,000. 00 $250 JPY Yen / $ 200 JPY Yen / $ 150 JPY Yen / $ 100 JPY Yen / $ 50 JPY Yen / $ 1. 8 Transaltion Foreign Currency Translation Adjustments $4,000,000. 00 $2,000,000. 00 Gain (Loss) $- $(7,655,000. 00) $(2,000,000. 00) $(4,000,000. 0) $(6,000,000. 00) $(8,000,000. 00) $(10,000,000. 00) $(5,608,000. 00) $2,680,000. 00 Total FX Adjustment July 31, 1993 1992 1993 1. 9 Value of foreign assets Fluctuation of JPY Yen on Foreign Assets $300,000,000. 00 $250,000,000. 00 $200,000,000. 00 $150,000,000. 00 $100,000,000. 00 200 Yen / $ $50,000,000. 00 $250 Yen / $ Actual Change in Foreign Assets 1992 to 1993 ($) 50 Yen / $ 100 Yen / $ 150 Yen / $ 1. 10 Scenario projections Total Sales with Potential for Decline in Japanese Sales $600,000,000. 00 $500,000,000. 00 $400,000,000. 00 $300,000,000. 00 $200,000,000. 00 $100,000,000. 00 $- Sales

Total Sales Total Sales w/ 20% Decrease in JPY Sales 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 Year 1993 Total Sales w/ 40% Decrease in JPY Sales Bibliography APAC report http://www. aftermarket. org/International/Foreign_Market_Reports/Foreign_ Market_Reports. asp#APAC Economic planning agency the government of Japan. (1994). http://www5. cao. go. jp/e-e/doc/summary. html Investopedia http://www. investopedia. com/ Kogler, E. (2006). Japanese Luxury Consumption. Enjoy the freedom but follow the rules. Centre for East and South-East Asian Studies. http://theses. lub. lu. se/archive/2007/03/13/1173782542-8188937/KoglerEvelyn. df New York Times. (1993). http://query. nytimes. com/gst/fullpage. html? res=990CE5DE123DF935A157 5AC0A9659C8B63 http://query. nytimes. com/gst/fullpage. html? res=9F0CE0DD143EF930A357 52C0A965958260 NZ Trade and Enterprise http://www. nzte. govt. nz/section/14716/18747. aspx Quick MBA. http://www. quickmba. com/strategy/porter. shtml http://www. quickmba. com/strategy/swot/ Taylor, B. (1995). With reference to a specific example explain the nature of the Japanese phenomenon known as keiretsu. http://www. staffs. ac. uk/schools/business/bscourse/jbe/s7. htm Wikipedia http://www. wikipedia. org/

Critical Essay-Pig’s Can’t Fly cbest essay help: cbest essay help

Pigs can’t fly is the story of a young boy who is torn by reality and his family’s efforts to suppress his true sexuality. His internal conflict eventually leads him to self destruction, when his beloved sari is torn into pieces. Because of the gender social norms of his family, he is forced to transition form the beautiful, loving world of the girls to the harsh, unforgiving world of the boys. In Shyam Selvadurai’s Pigs can’t fly, the gender social norms imposed upon Arjie causes turmoil within him, and ultimately destroys him morally.

His turmoil is caused by his mother’s rejection of him, his cousin Her Fatness’s weakening of his influence amongst the girls, his feelings of not belonging with the boys, and his forced transition to the world of the boys. In Pigs can’t fly, Amma rejects Arjie by not letting him watch her change and play with her jewelry, which ultimately torments him. Arjie had always been used to being present while his mother got ready for spend-the-day. He always enjoyed watching her drape her sari, and playing with her jewelry which he found so beautiful.

After speaking with Arjie’s father, Amma realizes that if Arjie turns out “funny”, she will be blamed. She sets out to correct Arjie and forever destroys their relationship in the process. “I crept quietly to my bedroom, sat down on the edge of my bed, and stared at my feet for a long time. It was clear to me I had done something wrong, but what it was I couldn’t comprehend. I thought of what my father said about turning out “funny”. ” (355) This quotation explains Arjie’s feeling of rejection from his mother. She cares and looks after him for his entire life, and then she simply dismisses him like that.

Arjie clearly doesn’t comprehend what he had done wrong. He had overheard his parents arguing about him the night before, so he knows only to blame himself. Ultimately, his blaming of himself leads him to turmoil, and his lowering of self worth. Later on after several minutes of sobbing in his room, Arjie overhears his mother speaking and thinks by himself. “ As I listened to the sound of her voice, I realized something had changed forever between us. ” (355) Arjie realizes that the precious bond he shares with his mother has forever been broken.

His changing from being a child to being an adult makes him realize the harsh realities of life, rejection being one of them. When Amma shuts the door at Arjie’s face when he tries to come in her room, she destroys a ritual that was sacred to him and torments him. Arjie then starts to truly despise his mother. Her Fatness causes Arjie turmoil by weakening his influence and essentially causes him to lose his position of power. Her Fatness is one of the cousins who was given that that nickname because of her corpulent nature. Upon her arrival, she tries to take away Arjie’s position as leader of the girls.

She ultimately succeeds at doing so when she diverts everyone’s attention to her new dolls. “Her Fatness turned to the other cousins and asked them if they wanted to hold the dolls for a moment. They nodded eagerly, and the dolls passed from hand to hand. I moved closer to get a better look. My gaze involuntarily rested on Her Fatness, and she gave me a smug look. ” (349) In this quotation, Her Fatness gets everyone’s attention by showing off the dolls, and throws in a smug look at Arjie in the process. As leader of the girls, Arjie gets to dress up as the bride, which is what truly makes him happy.

Her Fatness seems to toy with Arjie and gets some kind of pleasure out of it. She hides his sari and claims to have never seen it. “Her Fatness slipped into the room. I became aware of her presence and turned. But too late. She took the sari from the shelf where she had hidden it and ran out the door. ” The society Arjie lives in is a very narrow minded one, and homesexuality is not tolerated. When Arjie dresses up as a bride, his family feels he might turn out “funny”. Her Fatness uses that to her advantage and threatens arjie with it. Also, the sari is sacred to Arjie, so when Her Fatness steals it from him, she is truly torturing him.

Arjie’s loss of power amongst the girls as well as Her Fatness’ torturing him contributes to his turmoil, and ends up destroying him. Arjie is tormented by the thought of playing cricket with his brother, because he feels he doesn’t belong. The world of the boys is very different than the world of the girls, it is unforgiving and competitive. The other boys have no patience for Arjie and immediately reject him. The truth is, Arjie is simply can not fit in with other boys, because of his personality. “Why do I have to play with the boys? ” “Why? ” Amma said. “Because the sky is so high and pigs can’t fly, that’s why. (357) Amma is unable to give Arjie a reason for which he has to play with the boys. As per her response, it is evident that what she is doing to Arjie is hurting her more than it is hurting him. She can not provide him with a real response because she doesn’t know how to justify her actions to him. The social gender norms set in place by the society they live in are what forces her to these actions, and essentially explain the sense of the title of the story. She knows that he will not enjoy playing with the boys, and this is what torments him. “ If you ever come near the field again, you’ll be sorry. “Don’t worry,” I replied tartly. “I never will. ” And with that, I forever closed any possibility of entering the boys’ world again. ” (363) Arjie is rejected by the boys as well as his mother. He chooses to stand up for himself when even his brother denies him his rights, and he gets hated for him. His brother ends up hating him. The reason why the story is in a sense a tragedy is not only because Arjie’s morale is destroyed, but because he never seems to do anything wrong, but trouble always seems to come his way. Arjie’s transition from the world of the girls to the world of the boys is very harmful to him as a person.

He is not used to the setting he is immediately immersed into. He is hated and rejected by the boys, and his position of power amongst the girls is lost because of Her Fatness. He has nothing left. In the last scene of the story, Arjie is sitting alone on the sand and says: “Now both the beach and the sea, one so familiar, were like an unknown country into which I had journeyed by chance. ” (371) This quote represents how he is no longer welcome to any world, he doesn’t belong anywhere. He is a victim of his own society, because of the standards he is set to follow.

To conclude, Arjie is a tragic character who is destroyed by the norms of his society as well as his own family. The gender social norms imposed upon Arjie causes turmoil within him, and ultimately destroys him morally. His turmoil is caused by his mother’s rejecting him, Her Fatness’s weakening of his influence amongst the girls by diverting the attention away from him, his not belonging in the world of the boys, and his forced transition from bride bride to cricket. As a whole, the norms set by the society Arjie lives in has caused him to transition to an unfamiliar world, which eventually leads to his self destruction. 1316 words

Robert Frost Essay global history essay help: global history essay help

Frost utilizes imagery, metaphors, rhyme and rhythmic patters, emotionally charged diction, and sound devices to clearly and insightfully describe a typical day, seeing the beauty and complexity in simple and average events and objects. Frost utilizes imagery in his poetry in order to created a vivid image in the readers mind and have a deeper emotional connection with them. Creating a solid picture in the mind of a reader allows them to more intellectually understand deep concepts. This is true of all types of learning whether it be math, architecture, or physics.

If you give a person a diagram or picture, they grasp a concept much more efficiently. The statement, “A voice said, Look me in the stars”, in the poem “A Question” creates a defining picture of a supreme being, and creates a picture of the galaxy in the form of a person. Many people will see this beautiful collection of diction as a description of a heavenly father or mother. The use of any imagery also entertains the senses of a reader leading to a longer lasting memory and more cognitive involvement.

In addition to imagery, Figurative language such as metaphors is a key device in Frost’s writing. Frost incorporates metaphors in his poetry to make strong comparisons to events and ideas in which the reader can relate to. Comparing complicated ideas with other similar objects or ideas gives the reader another example and thing to use as a tool of understanding. For example, “soon the sun’s warmth makes them shed crystal shells” when speaking of the melting snow after the winter seguing to spring allows the reader to more easily understand Frosts vision of the melting snow.

Comparing melting snow to a creature that is shedding a shell made of crystal allows the reader to better understand what Frost means to depict. Metaphors and similes have the same effect but metaphors require a more elevated understanding of symbolism to recognize and define them. Also rhythmic patters seem to be a common and effective device in much of Frost’s poetry. Rhyme and Rhythmic patters in the poetry of Robert Frost provides a natural flow of words and contributes to the specific tone of a work to allow the reader to more easily receive the intended message.

Rhythm and rhyme are crucial to leave a lasting memory in the mind and has been proven to be cognitively helpful when memorizing things. For example, in the poem, “After Apple-Picking” Frost uses a rhyme pattern of abbacc in the first six lines, which allows things to flow and be easily recalled to memory after the fact. People enjoy reading things that rhyme; it gives them an expectation for what is to come, in addition to pulling a reader in. The ability to relay a message in iambic pentameter while incorporating a rhyme scheme is a talent and creativity unmatched by many.

Another example of rhythm and rhyme is in music. The uses of rhythm are an enormous part of why people love music and constantly listen to it. Music also leaves a lasting impression on people for years long after hearing it and allows the piece to be continuously listened to without becoming repetitive and boring. Continuing on a musical note, sound devices fill Frosts poetry and are many times hidden. My personal favorite is the use of sound devices in order to make the poem sound pleasurable to the reader and to make sounds in the diction and syntax in order to create a certain tone.

Many times Frost specific words and syntax to create a sound that contributes to his intended mood. For example, Frost will use certain words such as “through”, “two”, and “toward” with long vowels to create an emphasis tone. Also Frost will use short choppy words like “still” and “shock” to create a quicker pace in tone. The use of certain consonants and vowels cause the reader to read at different paces and concentrate on certain parts and speed through others. Another incredible tool to successful poetry is emotionally charged diction.

Frost strategically uses emotionally charged diction in order to better describe his ideas. Using diction that “packs a punch” and carries a load of emotion in it provides more energy to a phrase. The phrase, “I’ve tasted of desire” from the poem “Fire and Ice” for example. The combination of the words “tasted” and “desire” create a lustful and sinister tone in just a simple short sentence. Whether it is the emotion of happiness, fear, depression, love, or tranquility the use of specific vocabulary can create that specific tone.

Just as a motivational speaker uses strong words to inspire, Robert Frost uses strong words to inspire or express. Frost effectively uses emotionally charged diction to write incredibly powerful poems in a short amount of words. Short and simple is the most effective type of persuasion method. It ensures the reader is still engaged and does not lose interest due to an excess of length. Robert Frost effectively depicts the beauty and complicity of an average day and typical ideas by using imagery, metaphors, rhythm patterns, emotionally charged diction, and sound devices.

To effectively write poetry one or more of these devices must be used. To effectively entertain anyone or cause him or her to want to make a change, the recipient must feel some sort of emotional connection. Robert Frost uses specific wording, descriptions, and rhythms to create this effect. The fact that Frost incorporates all of these devices in his poetry makes him a profound poet and his poetry incredibly well known and successful.

Rugmaker Conflict Essay academic essay help: academic essay help

War has always been the background to my life……and it’s surely helped to form the way I thought about things”. How does this conflict shape life? Body paragraph | Explanation | Introduction | Focus on other body paragraphs- political conflict in paragraph 1 (asylum seekers)- weave in people smuggling. Body paragraph 2- war: armed (rocket scare when Gorgalli was killed and others injured) body paragraph 3- war in Afghanistan family motion (family/familial ) | Body paragraph 1| Political spectrum- project the idea of civilians seeking asylum due to war stricken countries and problems that arise due to war and political corruption.

Relate to the extract (quote) by examining and producing how Najaf sought asylum himself due to problems with the Taliban and people smuggling. | Body paragraph 2| War: armed. Mention how the country Najaf lived in was that horrific and violent and at any moment you could be struck down. Talk of horror and the long term effects of losing a family member because of a country that was unable to stabilize itself. | Body paragraph 3| Family/familial- the wars in Afghanistan between the US and the Soviets was over safety yet it only destroyed safety.

Project family structure and how it adapts depending on the situation. “I work hard too but you don’t hear me crying about it”. | Conclusion | No quotes only statements. Reflect everything previously mentioned and establish the outline of my essay. | Najaf Mazari has been moulded by his war stricken life. His opinions and daily views are shaped by his once violent life in Afghanistan. People can be shaped and changed by a life filled with conflict. Different conflicts have constructed Najaf’s personality such as political conflict and family conflict.

The world conflict might prompt us to think of images of warfare, struggle, tears and despair. The tension on the UN security council over Iran’s nuclear program, the ongoing war in Afghanistan and the plight of asylum seekers. These are the conflicts that dominate news headlines and the pages of our newspapers. However, there is another side to times and hardship; lessons learned the triumphs against all odds and the inner resilience people can build in response to the periods of hardship and that inevitably a part of our lives.

It is through times of adversity and conflict that we find inner strength and ourselves. Personalities are moulded and become real. Asylum seekers are a main political conflict that can change the face of lives. Najaf Mazari “jumped the queue” and travelled illegally on a boat that was overcrowded, not safe and full of individuals seeking refuge in Australia. As demonstrated in the autobiographical novel Rugmaker, Najaf experiences things differently in Australia than natives who were born here. He has to try to fit into a society that is completely opposite to his home.

His home was plagued with death, war and conflict within families and political leaders. The United States and The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan during the reign of the Taliban. The Soviet Union failed, yet the United States overthrew the power of the torturous empire. Najaf experienced firsthand the wrath of the Taliban. He was captured and tortured in order for the Taliban to gain knowledge on someone. Najaf was shaped and changed during this time. He learnt the ability of adaptation and had to apply it to many conflicts that occurred during his adventure from Afghanistan to Australia.

Woomera camp is a political camp in which Najaf was processed in. Here he learnt the political structure and differences of Australia. The experience of refuges and asylum seekers is perfectly highlights that personalities and conflict come from times of pain and suffering. Najaf Mazari, a refugee from Afghanistan, travelled to Australia in the 1990s in search of a new home far from the warring mujahedeen and Soviet Union soldiers in his home town of Mazar-e-Sharif. Najaf’s travels took him through the war ravaged Pakistan, the limbo of Indonesia and the horror of Woomera Detention Centre.

For over a year Najaf’s resilience was testes as he tried to maintain his sanity behind the barbed wire of the ‘November’ unit. Although the time period in which this happened was torturous, it shaped Najaf as a person and has inflicted events on him that he did not want to conceive. Rather than break his resolve Najaf’s desire to settle in a place of peace ‘where bombs do not fly overhead’ became even stronger. Najaf’s desire to be re-united with his family consumed his every thought and helped him stay strong despite the uncertainty of his visa application.

Without a visa Najaf knew he would be sent home. This is why he feared breaking the rules and became a team player. Najaf has become an artwork- he is moulded by every experience he has and is tested at every corner he walks by. Each event in his life moulds something into the sculpture that is Najaf and if an event is too strong, the sculpture may break. But it is always up to Najaf to make the sculpture beautiful again. Najaf’s experience on the political side of conflict whilst seeking asylum highlighted what was most important in his life, peace, freedom and family.

The Great Gatsby Suspense Is Killer research essay help: research essay help

Suspense is Killer F. Scott Fitzgerald, author of The Great Gatsby, uses suspense to introduce Jay Gatsby who is clouded in a veil of mystery as no one knows who he really is. Jay Gatsby is thought of a huge partying millionaire and who mysteriously obtained a fortune, his past is foggy and rumors fly around about potential pieces that fit into the puzzle of Gatsby’s past. Nick Carroway, our narrator, wanders the party with Jordan Baker and the twins talking about the mystery that surrounds their host.

Nick had heard many rumors surrounding Gatsby, “Somebody told me they thought he killed a man once… “I don’t think its so much that,” argued Lucille sceptically “it’s more that he was a German spy during the war” (Fitzgerald 44). But the conversation flipped around as new information came up that he was in the American army during the war. Nick and Jordan soon went searching for their host who went incognito at his own party, another mystery about our host was found in his immense library. All the books in this library were never read as all the pages were never cut, were they all just for show?

Fitzgerald wanted to keep the reader enticed as rumors upon rumors piled on top on the man named Gatsby. This method keeps the reader on his or hers toes as they don’t know what to think of the imminent protagonist. Its human nature to question everything around them unfortunately for Nick and his friends, Gatsby case is unknown by all and will stay that way till the meet the man clouded in mystery. As Gatsby can still no longer be found Jordan and Nicks search soon ends as they end up talking with a man and another woman across the table which they were sitting at.

Little did Nick know he had more in common with this man than he knew. They begin to talk about how they were both in the war together and invites Nick over to his hydroplane for a little fun. Little did Nick know the man he was talking to was their host, “This is unusual party for me. I haven’t even seen the host. I live over there-” I waved my hand at the invisible hedge in the distance, “and this man Gatsby sent over his chauffeur with an invitation. ” For a moment he looked at me as if he failed to understand. “Im Gatsby,” he said suddenly. “What! ” I exclaimed. Oh, I beg you pardon”(Fitzgerald 47-48). Nick doesn’t even realized he’s talking with Gatsby as no one is introducing themselves to the host. This brings more mystery around Gatsby as he doesn’t play the host of the party and never introduces himself. He comes across as a shy millionaire who hosts parties and probably doesn’t enjoy them, what motive could he have to throw parties and not join in all the festivities. Scott Fitzgerald uses the mystery and suspense around his character, Jay Gatsby, to produce an enticing mystery of the motives of a shy partying millionaire.

Encoding Decoding Theory college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

In the 1980’s, new audience theories saw the onset of ‘active audience’ theories, which came out of the Centre for Contemporary Critical Studies at the University of Birmingham, England. One of the major stimuli for the development of the active audience theory was British sociologist Stuart Hall’s well-known encoding/decoding model, which revolutionised the way in which audiences were regarded. Halls model highlights that although media messages are embedded with a ‘preferred reading’, audience interpretations of these texts is dependent upon the individual’s assumptions and social context.

As such, this model prompted shifts towards qualitive studies of audiences thereafter. Stuart Halls seminal paper: Encoding/Decoding (1980), arose primarily from Halls reservation about the theories of communication underpinning mass communications research. Mass communications research became prevalent after the Second World War and was funded by commercial bodies wanting to know how to influence audiences more effectively through advertising. It worked on the assumption that the ‘media offered an unproblematic, benign reflection of society’.

According to the mass communications model, the sender (mass media) generates a message with fixed meaning, which is then communicated directly and transparently to the recipient (audience). Halls paper challenged all three components of the mass communications model arguing that – (i) the message is never transparent to audience (ii) meaning is not simply fixed or determined by sender; and (iii) the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning. Halls encoding/decoding theory, focus’s on the different ways audiences, generate, rather than discover meaning.

Halls theory encompasses a number of what Hall terms as ‘moments’ (such as circulation/distribution) but is primarily concerned with the points of production/encoding and consumption/decoding. The linearity of traditional models ie – mass communication model, is replaced by a ‘circuit’. In the circuit – the sender becomes the ‘producer’ and the receiver becomes the ‘consumer’. In the past, the ‘receiver’ was seen to have passive connotations leading to the conclusion of the communication process, however Halls theory sees consumption as an active process that can reproduce the original meaning that was sent. Consumption determines production just as production determines consumption’. According to Hall, encoding is a crucial moment of entry constructed by ‘material context of production of which it occurs’. Thus, Halls encoding/decoding theory is an ‘articulated model’ of communication, in which the audiences understanding of the message is not guaranteed at a particular moment of the circuit. In addition to the difficulty in identifying a particular moment of understanding by the audience during the communication process, is the difficulty of understanding the ‘preferred’ reading intended for the audience by the producers.

According to Hall, ‘ideology of text is not guaranteed’ (Hall,1980) however the text is certainly not free of encoded structures. ‘Texts will always be inscribed with a particular social relations who produced them’ (Hall, 1980). According to Hall, texts establish a ‘dominant cultural order’ (Hall, 1980), which imposes a ‘taken for granted’ knowledge of social structures’. (Hall, 1980) The understanding of the text by the audience is known as the ‘decoding’ stage. In order for the encoded message to formulate overall meaning and have an influence on the audience, the viewer must decode it.

Although media producers ‘encode’ certain meanings into media texts, the audiences ‘decode’ meanings in accordance with their own opinions, identity, and cultural knowledge. Thus, media texts are ‘polysemic’ and can be read in a number of ways. Furthermore, Hall stresses that although texts can be understood in different ways, an unlimited number of interpretations should not be assumed. Hall suggested that there are three kinds of hypothetical, ‘hegemonic’ decoding positions for the reader of a text: dominant, negotiated and oppositional.

The first decoding position is the dominant or ‘hegemonic’ reading, when the audience decodes the message in the same position within which it was encoded. The audience fully accepts and reproduces its ‘preferred reading’, which could easily be a subconscious intention on the producers part. The second position is the negotiated position. In this position the audience might accept the hegemonic viewpoint on a general level, however its meaning may be manipulated by audiences beliefs or behaviour.

It is a position mixed with ‘adaptive and oppositional’ elements. The third position is the oppositional position. In this position the audience decodes message in a ‘globally contrary way’ due to identity, opinion or social situation. The audience understands the preferred reading however does not share the texts code and rather rejects this reading by substituting the text with alternative structure of reference. The three positions outlined should be understood as part of a continuum across which the audience moves, rather than separates.

Once an audience takes up a position this does not mean that they reject the other positions permanently. These positions are flexible and audience views are adaptable. The positions of the audience in Halls encoding/decoding theory were pointed out by him to be hypothetical and not intended ‘as prescriptive templates for studios of actual audiences. ’ Hall established these positions to be tested and refined in a continuing process to understand audience interpretation and theories surrounding ‘active audience’. Word: 940

Squash Origins and Effects on the New and Old World college essay help service: college essay help service

They were referred as sister crops because maize created a supporting structure for bean vines to climb, while the bean rooted the corn to the ground, and provided nitrates for all three sister crops. Squash kept out weeds, moisturized the soil, and kept insects and animals away with prickly stems. Squash are generally split into two varieties, one being winter squashes and summer squashes. The summer variety was grown and used generally throughout the Americas by the Native Americans as a staple part of their diet, and they had edible soft rinds.

The winter variety originates from northern Argentina in the Andes, and had a tough and strong rind. The winter variety was used as a food source during the winter, as they could be stored throughout the winter, and were especially important to the Wampanoag Indians. Impact on the New World In the beginning settlers did not appreciate squash. It was until that settlers realized that squash could be stored during the winter without much care, that they started to appreciate it more.

Because squash made it possible for the harsh winters to be survivable it slowly became part of their staple diets. For example, one of the reasons why the pilgrims were able to survive through their first few years was because they were taught by neighboring Native Americans how to raise and cultivate squash and maize, which allowed them to have food for the winter and make it through without starving. Winter varieties were also used as storage containers as their hard rinds provided a good container.

Winter squash was generally baked and softened with syrup or animal fat, and they were also stuffed with various food products and baked. Impact on the Old World Spain mainly brought back crops from the New World and introduced a variety of new crops most of which were slightly looked down upon such as tomatoes, potatoes, being part of the nightshade family. Squash was generally accepted because of their resemblance to cucurbits that were used by the Romans.

Though they were accepted, they weren’t very popular in northern Europe as they did not thrive well in short wet European summers. In southern parts of Europe such as Italy they thrived very well and became a staple part of diet. Overall squash did not leave much of an impact in Europe neither was it dramatically important like other crops such as potatoes. Work Cited Page Essortment. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 May 2013.

Squash Named from an Indian Word | Archives | Aggie Horticulture. ” Squash Named from an Indian Word | Archives | Aggie Horticulture. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 May 2013. How Did the Squash Get Its Name? ” How Did the Squash Get Its Name? Everyday Mysteries: Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress. N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 May 2013 Columbian Exchange. ” Enotes. com. Enotes. com, n. d. Web. 23 May 2013. O Say Can You See? ” ‘O Say Can You See? ‘ N. p. , n. d. Web. 23 May 2013.

Rembrandt Van Rijn college essay help online free: college essay help online free

Steadfastly, Rembrandt van Rijn, the greatest Dutch portrait painter of all time, revealed his brilliance by creating realistic masterpieces of poor, working-class subjects, and the ones he loved and lost. Life Rembrandt van Rijn was born in Leiden, Netherlands on July 15, 1606. The son of Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn, a miller, and Neeltge van Suydtbrock, the daughter of a baker, Rembrandt was the youngest of at least nine children. At the age of seven, he attended the Latin School in Holland. Rembrandt then entered the University of Leiden seven years later.

His parents allowed him to take up painting, assisting him to Jacob van Swanenburgh, a pedestrian painter of portraits and architectural scenes. Rembrandt spent three years in Jacob’s studio, learning the mechanics of painting. In 1624, he traveled to Amsterdam to work for six years with Pieter Lastman, who made a deep impression on Rembrandt. In Pieter’s studio, mythological and religious subjects attracted Rembrandt. He especially became interested in Biblical subjects, shown in many of his works. At the age of nineteen, Rembrandt van Rijn returned to Leiden, as an independent artist, making headlines quickly.

In 1628, a jurist from Utrecht visited Leiden and wrote highly about Rembrandt in his notebook. “The Leiden miller’s son is greatly praised, but before his time” (White 19). On June 8, 1633, Rembrandt married Saskia van Ulenborch. Saskia was born on August 2, 1612. Her father, a former Burgomaster of Leeuwarden, past away when Saskia turned twelve. Many of Rembrandt’s works are of Saskia. Rembrandt and Saskia moved to Amsterdam and bought a house in Nieuw Doelenstraat. Unfortunately, Rembrandt faced financial difficulties as well that he never paid attention but would later affect him.

After Saskia gave birth to four children, only the last one, Titus, survived to grow up. Many believe that the birth of Titus explained Saskia’s fatal illness. On June 14, 1642, Saskia van Ulenborch died when Titus was only a year old. Five days later, she was buried in the Oude Kerk. In the 1640s, Rembrandt van Rijn hired Hendrickje Stoffels as his servant that later became his mistress after the death of Saskia. Yet, he could not marry Hendrickje or else he would have lost the income from Saskia’s part of the estate. Hendrickje played “Saskia’s role in all but name” (White 129).

Hendrickje and Titus became models in numerous works of Rembrandt. Rembrandt and his new partner soon had a girl named Cornelia. In 1653, Rembrandt began to face trouble, the worst year of the economic depression caused by the First Anglo-Dutch War. The war almost led to a financial collapse in Amsterdam. Rembrandt owed money for his house, paid no interest on the exorbitant amount for the past five years, and had let the original owner pay the taxes on the house for the past three years. Rembrandt van Rijn sold many of his possessions to pay off his debt.

He finally left his house and moved into a simpler one on the other side of the city, Jordaan. In July of 1663, Hendrickje Stoffels died. Many say that the plague could have possibly killed her. Her burial took place in the Westerkerk. Titus then administered and looked after his father’s affairs along with supporting his father financially. In February, 1668, Titus married Magdalena van Loo, the daughter of the silversmith, Jan van Loo. The newly-weds went to live on the Singel, where Magdalena’s mother lived; this left Rembrandt alone with his fourteen-year-old daughter, Cornelia.

Sadly, the marriage lasted approximately seven months before Titus died. Titus died in September and was buried in Westerkerk as well. However, Magdalena gave birth to a daughter named Titia six months after the death of Titus. About one year later, on October 4, 1669, Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn died. His burial took place in Westerkerk where he would be buried with Hendrickje and Titus. Works The Night Watch, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, The Jewish Bride, Portrait Jan Six, Titus, and several other self-portraits are considered to be Rembrandt’s greatest works. Rembrandt van Rijn had a variety of themes in is works, ranging from mythological and religious subjects, landscapes, nudes, and portraits. He also had different techniques that were uncommon during his time ear such as glazing. During the course of his life, Rembrandt focused on different themes at one time. Every aspect of his art contained variety. Rembrandt was interested in portraits. The people closest to Rembrandt often appeared in his works. His main models consisted of Saskia, Titus, and Hendrickje as well as himself. His self-portraits gave an idea to viewers how Rembrandt felt at the time he painted them. Rembrandt’s interest in landscape evolved in the late 1630s.

Some of his drawings include imaginary, mountainous scenery. Many of his works consisted of basic everyday landscape including The Clump of Trees and other views in Amsterdam such as the River Amstel from the Blauwbrug, Diemen. Occasionally, he would paint more realistic images such as Winter Landscape and The Landscape with a Stone Bridge that pictured the scenery of a tributary. “Significantly, it provides human interest hardly less important than the landscape itself” (White 99). Detail was an important feature in Rembrandt’s paintings particularly his landscape paintings and drawings.

Rembrandt’s taste in mythological and religious subjects came from his second master, Pieter Lastman. Rembrandt’s Biblical subjects remained with him throughout his lifetime. However, a majority of these works appeared in the 1650s. Examples include Christ appearing to the Apostles, Christ taken Prisoner, and Nathan admonishing David. “They provided a means of expression of Rembrandt in private” (White 169). Impact Rembrandt van Rijn had a great influence on the art world today. He had many styles of painting techniques. The tremendously, successful artist began to use a new style of the time, glazing.

Rembrandt laid down a base coat and then put semitransparent layers of paint over it. Light would then pass through each color and reflect back, giving the painting a beautiful glow. As well as glazing, the artist started experimenting with a new style where he would mix globs of paints directly on the canvas. The newly created style influenced much of the expressionist and other modern movements in paintings. The artist became a master of chiaroscuro, meaning light and dark. Rembrandt brought a new meaning to the world of art. In Amsterdam, he set up a school where he taught his pupils his art styles.

Many later artists adopted his technique of painting, etching, and drawing. The school created successful, young painters just like Rembrandt such as Gerrit Dou, Govert Flinck, Ferdinand Bol, Nicolaes Maes, and Carel Fabritius. Conclusion Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn found his talent at a very early age. His success grew as time passed on. However, Rembrandt faced many tragedies in his later years. He faced a significant amount of deaths especially in his family and financial difficulties, forcing him to sell his house and possessions to pay off the dept.

The 17th century painter, who dominated the Dutch Golden Age, remains to be one of the most revered artists of all time. Rembrandt’s works show his greatest achievements. The well-known artist had a variation of themes, mostly caused by his second master, Pieter Lastman. Rembrandt van Rijn changed the way people viewed art. His precision inspired other artists to follow in his footsteps. Bibliography http://art. docuwat. ch/videos/great-artists/great-artists-rembrandt/? channel_id=0 Ernst van de, Wetering. “Rembrandt Van Rijn. ” Britannica Biographies (2012): 1. History Reference Center. Web. 15 May 2013. Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn. ” Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd ed. Vol. 13. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 91-95. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 May 2013. “Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn. ” 2013. The Biography Channel website. May 15 2013, 08:54. “Rembrandt van Rijn”. Encyclop? dia Britannica. Encyclop? dia Britannica Online. Encyclop? dia Britannica Inc. , 2013. Web. 15 May. 2013. Rollyson, Carl. “Rembrandt. ” Great Lives from History: The Seventeenth Century. Ed. Larissa Juliet Taylor. Salem Press, 2006. Salem History Web. 15 May. 2013. White, Christopher. Rembrandt. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc. , 1984.

School Uniforms ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

The author also discusses empirical data to support the advantages of adopting school uniforms. ” “schools need the authorization to implement uniform clothing requirements. ” On the other hand, it also states, “The governing board shall provide a method whereby parents may choose not to have their children comply with an adopted school uniform policy. ” Constitutional Law — Free Speech Clause — Fifth Circuit Upholds Texas School District’s Dress “The article discusses a court case in which a student Paul Palmer is infringed upon his First Amendment right to free speech in a school dress code violation.

The Fifth Circuit court affirmed, on different grounds, the district courts denial of a preliminary injunction to join enforcement of the school’s dress code as to the plaintiff’s political speech. The court erred in applying the intermediate scrutiny due to the school’s dress code was not a content-neutral regulation” “maintain[ing] an orderly and safe learning environment . . . and encourag[ing] professional and responsible dress,” “by their terms [they] distinguish favored speech from disfavored speech on the basis of the ideas or views expressed. “‘* Konheim-Kalkstein, Y. L. (2006).

A Uniform Look. American School Board Journal, 193(8), 25. “The article explores the issues associated with school uniforms, particularly in the areas of violence prevention, school climate and finances. The arguments presented by supporters and opponents of school uniforms are discussed. Proponents have said that school uniforms have many benefits such as the fact that it can lead to improved discipline and classroom behavior and increased school attendance. Opponents, however, argue that requiring school uniforms violates students’ rights and that uniforms are not responsible for decreased violence.

In exploring the advantages and disadvantages in requiring school uniforms, this article highlights several researches and articles associated with the issue. ” “Every child in this country has the right to a public school education, and that right cannot be conditioned upon compliance with a uniform policy. Some parents and children will have religious objections to uniforms. Others won’t want to participate for aesthetic reasons. ” “For a public school uniform policy to be legal, it has to have an opt-out provision,” ReferencesEssex, N. L. (2004). Student Dress Codes Using Zero Tolerance?.

Education Digest, 70(2), 32. “Focuses on the enforcement of a zero-tolerance policy on dress codes for students in the U. S. Challenges faced by school boards in dress code enforcement; Information on the Supreme Court ruling in Tinker versus Des Moines Independent Community School District which viewed disruptions in school operations; Guidelines that can assist in developing defensible dress code policies while minimizing legal challenges. ” “startling, unusual, immodest, disruptive, or brings undue attention to a student’s anatomy. ” Walmsley, A. (2011).

What the United Kingdom Can Teach the United States About School Uniforms. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(6), 63. “The article discusses the benefits of school dress codes that would require students in the U. S. to wear uniforms and discusses the impact that school uniforms have had on schoolchildren in Great Britain. The cost of school uniforms in Great Britain is kept low, the author states, because generic pieces of clothing are selected and because of competition between retail stores. The opinion of British parents and teachers on the necessity of uniforms is examined as s the impact of the uniforms on student behavior. The differences in the sorts of clothes that are used in school uniforms for girls and boys is considered. Other topics include the use of school uniforms in high-poverty areas and ways that school dress codes can be enforced. ” “Uniforms set the tone for a proper attitude towards work” When I’ve asked students why they still wear their uniform, they say they don’t like “contests” that begin between students about who has the latest and greatest item of clothing

Rosewood Hotel Cltv Analysis essay help online free: essay help online free

The hotel management needs to fully understand the value and the lifecycle of its customers in order to prioritize marketing and services offered. If the branding strategy is to be implemented, several steps should be taken in order to maximize an efficient return of investment. Most of the preparation steps needed should be geared towards the guest comfort and satisfaction; which in turn “entices” the guest to return. The more guests, the more return of investment. The hotel management would need analyze and implement some of the following changes: • Encourage trips to their other properties – (cross promotions across all hotels) • Incentives to property owners and guests when they try a new Rosewood hotel. Preserve the uniqueness of each property while still promoting the Rosewood brand/name • Invite artists, designers and architects to visit and aid in the renovation of the properties (in order to keep decor, while incorporating brand) • Develop a metric to measure quality of service and customer satisfaction and implement it across the border in all properties • Develop and successfully use a database of customers (both national and international) which will allow the collecting of data easier and will be beneficial when presenting offers to different customers. • The hotel will need to differentiate their business in order to avoid “feeling” like the other chain-like luxury hotels. However, each property should be enhanced and upgraded individually in order to retain its originality. • Flexible check-in and check-out • Loyalty programs With all of this being said and analyzed, management could make a compelling case about why it would be a good idea to rebrand the hotel.

It would be easy to compel and convey the message that by rebranding the hotels, the Rosewood brand will be recognized and respected as the consummate and top operator of ultra-luxury hotels in some of the most desirable locations in the world. It would also be conveyed that Rosewood hotels deliver exceptional service to the guest, as all employees are willing to go the extra mile. It is important in any customer oriented business to foster a work environment that provides the employees a sense of belonging and personal pride through the accomplishment of the job duties while maintaining a balance between work and personal life. Lastly, it is imperative to analyze and understand how the rebranding will affect the market in terms of their competitors.

Will the competitors (Ultra Luxury Hotels) design a “counter attack” to the rebranding strategy? Will this rebranding of hotels as “Rosewood luxury” saturate the already crowded field of operators? 3. What would be the implications if the retention rate with corporate branding increased only 10% of the average guest retention rate reported in the case? Would it change your decision? Let’s look at the overall financial picture of the consequences of the retention rate being only 10% above the average guest retention. These figures are the results of the increase of rate retention from 16. 67% to 18. 337% (10% increase) | |21. 67% Retention Rate (compared to|18. 4% Retention Rate with |Loss of revenue | | |16. 67% & no corporate branding) |corporate branding | | |Total NPV of CLTV |$450. 64 |$426. 47 | | |Increase in CLTV per customer as result of |$72. 16 |$47. 98 |$24. 17 | |corporate branding | | | | |Increase in profit of Rosewood from corporate|$8,297,972. 0 |$5,518,068. 84 |$2,779,903. 36 | |branding | | | | |Total Increase in revenue |$25,931,163. 12 |$17,243,965. 12 |$8,687,198. 00 | It is evident that the loss of 3. 33% (21. 66% as expected after branding strategy) in rate retention is representing 8. 6M in revenue to the company. However, if you consider that the company will need to invest $1,000,000 yearly in additional expenses, the loss is astronomical.

The decision to pursue corporate branding would need to be re-evaluated as it would cost the company 9M in additional expenses (advertising alone), while the return would only be 8. 6M On the other hand, the decision to pursue corporate branding is appropriate if the retention rate can be expected at or above 21. 6%; anything lower than that, the profits will dwindle down and the overall strategy would need to be re-evaluated. In summary, a retention rate which produces less than the needed expenses should not be considered as there is not return on the investment. Nonetheless, if it can be proven, that this small increase in retention is then set to increase after a small period of time, then a different kind of analysis would be needed to explore said strategy.

Road to Mecca essay help writing: essay help writing

Question 1 will require you to write a short essay based on language acquisition theories. (30 marks) Question 2 will require you to write a short essay based on English in Education. The question will focus on issues revolving around Motivation for language. (30 marks) Section B counts 25 marks. You will have to answer questions based on various aspects of language covered in this module, such as word-formation and morphology; content and structure words; and parts of speech and their function.

These are the kind of questions you met in Assignment 01 & 2 for this module. You will have to write your answers in your examination book. Section C counts 25 marks. You will also answer questions based on various aspects of phonetics and phonology- the kind of questions you met in Assignment 01 & 2 for this module. You will have to write your answers in your examination book. The total for the paper is 80 marks. Remember the other 20% of your final mark is based on your Year Mark. ) There only choice is in Section A of the examination paper. However, to prepare for this paper, you will have to revise all the material covered in the module. Please note that dictionaries are not allowed in the Examination room. If you revise your study material thoroughly, you will have nothing to fear. We wish you all the best in your studies and preparation for the examination. GOOD LUCK EED 201J Team

Intolerance in Nigeria essay help app: essay help app

ABSTRACT This paper examines the relationship between religion and sustainable development, as well as the role of Nigerian intellectuals in ameliorating religious crisis in the country. Religion, as a system of faith is based on belief in the existence of a particular God or gods, to some extent, influences or contributes in developing and coordinating the expression of the capacities latent in human nature for the progress of the society.

All the elements that made up the resources originating from human are expressed in their actions, behaviour and daily activities, either in positive and constructive ways, or in a negative and destructive ways, especially with respect to their inherent power to generate value by leveraging other production variables for economic growth and development. Empirical results obtained, using descriptive analysis approach, indicate that religion plays an important role in shaping the moral and social values necessary for development.

Based on these findings, some recommendations are offered which include: Re-examine education policies in the light of its contribution to individual growth and to bring about fundamental structural changes in society, changes which are necessary for the creation of a just, peaceful, and harmonious environment, hence teachers and other intellectuals must be a model of nobility, selfactualization and discipline, since sound character is ultimately more important than intellectual brilliance.. Keywords: Religion, Economic growth, Amelioration, Tolerance and Intellectuals.

INTRODUCTION A religion can be broadly described as a set of common belief and practices generally held by a group of people. Oxford Learner Dictionary described religion as a system of faith that is based on belief in the existence of a particular God or gods. According to Oke, Oloruntimehin and Akinola (1996), it is generally accepted by social scientists that people’s religious beliefs and their social organizations are closely interrelated. They quoted Emile, as noted that religion is a social artifact symbolizing what a society considers sacred and the most sacred thing to any society is the society itself.

In view of this, religion provides an organized picture of the universe and establishes a more or less orderly relationship between man and his surroundings. Early economists and other researchers have paid little attention to any link between religion and economic development, rather it is seen as something personal between man and his God. The early relationship between religion and economic was established by Marx, who was of the opinion that the strength of an economy would influenced a religion or belief. However, the like of Max Weber, an eminent sociologist of early 20th century was of contra opinion.

According to him, the source of the growth of the western economy is religion, especially the reformation of protestant and its doctrine about 40 Religion and Economic Development: the Role of Nigerian Intellectuals Saheed, Zakaree S. and Alofun, G. O. O. simplicity and moral responsibility to work (Skousen, 2007). Weber Marx (1930), believe that capitalism originated from religious ideals and not historical materialism. Specifically, the protestant reformation teachings changed the western culture, and led to the rise of capitalism, which in turn led to the growth and development of their economy.

Islam as a religion also played a positive role in the development of the Arab society and transformed it to such a remarkable extent that it not only overcame its own handicaps but also brought about a revolutionary change in the societies that came under its influence (Charpra, 1998). Barro and McCleary (2003) suggested that higher rates of religious beliefs stimulate growth because they help to sustain the aspect of individual behaviour that enhances productivity. The higher number of church or mosque attendance, for instance, tends to depressed growth because it signifies a greater use of esources including land, buildings and other capital, by the religious sector. However, that suppression of growth is tempered by the extent to which church or mosque attendance leads to greater religion beliefs, which in turn encourages economic growth. In Nigeria, traditional communities are essentially religious. In these communities, religion is kinship based because it governs the people’s lineage or family relationships; it governs the doctrine of collective responsibility and forms the basis of the family, which in turn is the basic unit of social control.

Indeed, religion is so important in the society as a form of social control because of people’s adherence to religion, whether traditional, Christian or Islam (Ikporukpo, 2001), which are the recognized religions in Nigeria, though the last two are more pronounced. Christianity and Islam, especially have a great influence on the daily lives of Nigerians, and plays a significant role in the socio-political and economic development.

According to Nwite and Wilson (2010), churches in Nigeria has contributed immensely to the economic development of the country through investment in different sectors of the economy like real estate, capital market, shopping complex and schools. The essence of economic and human development embodied health, for which life expectancy is taken as a reasonable gauge; knowledge, which is expressed as a combination of literacy rates and average years of schoolings; and per capital income (Lynn, 2001).

Any effort put forward towards the development of these determining factors would amount to stirring the economy towards development. Given the foregoing, the paper proposes to critically examine/analyses: i. The contribution of religion to the education sector in Nigeria. ii. The role of religion in the development of health sector in Nigeria. iii. The role of religion towards creation of job opportunities in Nigeria. iv. The role of religion and Nigerian Intellectuals in socio-ethnic crisis in Nigeria.

To this end, the paper is organized into five sections. Following this introduction is section II, which focuses on conceptual issues. Section III discusses the role of religion on economic development in Nigeria. Section IV analyses the role of religion on socio-ethnic crisis in Nigeria, while section V summarises the findings and offer policy recommendation. 41 Journal of Social Science and Public Policy Volume 3, December 2011 CONCEPTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT There are different conceptions of development.

First, it could be viewed as the development of the mind in which case the humanity of man is no longer subjugated to nature, but has transcended the confines of nature to progressively understand the whole of the world in order to be able to develop from it an environment which is most suitable for him. Moreso, economic development means sustained and sustainable growth per capita income, accompanied by diversification of production, reduction in absolute poverty, and expanding economic opportunities for all citizens (Lynn, 2003).

The definition implies an economic growth which can be maintained over a long period of time. Moreso it requires diversification of economic activities so that the nation can be producing variety of goods and services, with the economy gradually progressing from primary, to secondary and then to tertiary economy. This should be able to create an expanding opportunities for people to make a choice of work and earn income through which they can improve their lives and able to participate in the social life of the community.

Most importantly, there should be reduction in the level of absolute poverty in the country. The conception of development also connote growth with changes, which usually demands significant structural transformation within a country, and that includes the reorganization and reorientation of the economic and social systems, radical arrangements in installations and administrative structures, as well as reorientations in popular attitudes, customs and belief (Ogunkola and Egwaikhide, 2001). In contemplating development, more than access to goods and services is at stake.

As such, in measuring level of development, the Physical Quality of Life (PQL) is considered, and it is equal weighting of an infant mortality rate, life expectancy, and basic literacy. However the United Nations Development’s version of development measurement refers to as Human Development Index (HDI) incorporates an income measure. All these elements considered in measuring the level of development of a nation are subject of level of development of the health and educational sectors, where the eligious sectors in Nigeria has contributed, as can be seen in the Holy Scriptures. For instance: Both religions in Nigeria, that is, Christianity and Islam recognize that the created universe is subjected to man for the enrichment and fulfillment of his life (Quran 45:12-13, 14:32-34 and Genesis 1:26-28). More so, contrary to the view that religion only emphasis faith and not works, the Bible and Qur’an invite men to labour and action (Qur’an 13: 11, 2:275 and Exodus 20:9, Proverbs 16:3, 2. Thessalonians 3:10).

All the elements that made up the resources originating from human are expressed in their actions, behaviour and daily activities, either in positive and constructive ways, or in a negative and destructive ways (Zainun, 2006), especially with respect to their inherent power to generate value by leveraging other production variables for economic growth development. In carrying out development activities, religion provides some code of norms and obligations which subject man to regulations necessary for the progress of the society. 2 Religion and Economic Development: the Role of Nigerian Intellectuals Saheed, Zakaree S. and Alofun, G. O. O. The Role of Religion in Nigerian Economic Development Religion has contributed much to development of human race, and it will be totally absurd to ignore the contributions of religion, especially Christianity and Islam. Both religious communities have become the key determinants of history and destiny of the nation, and its vast population, as well as deciding the course of development and building of the nation.

Religion is given a reasonable degree of recognition by governments of Nigeria and some other countries as a major factor determining the stability of a nation. The roles of religion in economic development are more pronounced in the educational and health sectors, as well as creation of job opportunities. The Role of Religion in Educational Sector in Nigeria Education is a continuous and creative process which aimed at developing the capacities latent in human nature, and coordinate their expression for the enrichment and progress of ociety, by equipping students with spiritual, moral and material knowledge. Education in terms of the knowledge, qualities, skills, attitudes and capacities that enable individuals to become conscious subjects of their growth and active responsible participants in a systemic process of building a new world order. In Nigeria, Christian missions pioneered the establishment of primary and secondary schools, and ever since then the two religions, that is, Christianity and Islam, have played a significant role in the establishment of schools in Nigeria.

As the primary schools and their products multiplied, secondary schools were established to satisfy the demand for higher education. The Catholic Missionary Society (CMS) established the C. M. S. Grammar School in Lagos in 1859, followed by the Methodist Boys’ High School in 1879 and St. Gregory’s College, established by the Catholic in 1881. It is on this foundation that secondary schools education has rested in Nigeria (Olurode, 1999). Many other religion based secondary schools later emerged.

These include, Ahmadiyya Grammar School, Anwar-Ul-Islam Grammar School, St. Theresa College, Islamic High School, Ebira Muslim Community College among many. The religious sector in Nigeria is also involved in establishment of higher institutions, to enhance government effort towards educational development. Among the religion based private higher institutions in Nigeria are listed in table 1. 0 below: Table 1. 0 Some religion based private higher institutions in Nigeria S/N Institution 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8.

Bowen University, Iwo-Osun State Fountain University, Osogbo- Ondo state Founder/Sponsor The Baptist NASFAT Islam Bishop Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo – Anglican Churches Oyo state Al-Hikama University, Ilorin – Kwara State Islamic Foundation (AROIF) and Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) Redeemer University, Lagos state The Redeemed Churches Wesley University of Technology, Ondo The Methodist churches State. Covenant University, Lagos state Living Faith Church World 43 Journal of Social Science and Public Policy Volume 3, December 2011 . 10. Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Osun state Christ Apostolic Church VERITAS University (Catholic University of The Catholic Churches Nigeria), Abuja. Source: Culled by the authors from lists of private universities in Nigeria The Contribution of Religion to the Health Sector in Nigeria The spread of western ideas including medicine and social welfare also owed much to the advent of religion in Nigeria. According to Olurode (1997), by the end of the nineteen century, the hospital; was as effective as the school.

By 1914, various missions had established hospitals such as the C. M. S. Iyi Enu Hospital near Onitsha, the Wesley Guide Hospital in Ilesha, the Baptist Hospital in Ogbomosho and the Sacred Heart Hospital of the Society for African Missions in Abeokuta. Missionary involvement had, as its aim, the eradication of superstitious beliefs about such diseases as smallpox. In Yoruba land, for instance, the god of smallpox shoponna had a strong hold on the people which took western medicine, specifically vaccines to break.

Even where orthodox medicine failed, some religion has been playing a significant role to proffer spiritual solution to cure illness. The Role of Religion and Nigerian Intellectuals on Socio-ethnic Crisis in Nigeria According to UNHCR (2008) as quoted by Saheed and Alofun (2010), since 1999, more than 10,000 Nigerians have been killed and more properties worth billions of naira have been destroyed in sectarian and communal attacks and reprisals between Muslims and Christians. The most serious of these clashes occurred in Kaduna state in February and May 2000, and November 2002; Jos, Plateau state in

September 2001; Kano state and Yelwa, Plateau state between February and May, 2004; and in the northern and southeastern Nigeria in the wake of the controversy over depictions of the Prophet Muhammad in the Danish press in February 2006. Table 2. 0. Some of the Religious Crises in Nigeria in the last one decade Date Events Victims Sept. 2001 July, 2007 Sept. 2007 Dec. 2007 Dec. 2008 July, 2009 Violent clashes between Muslims and Christians in 3,000 people killed Jos, Plateau state.

Violent clashes between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims over 5 people killed the murder of a Sunni cleric in Sokoto Rioting in the northern state of Kano 19 people killed Three churches burned in the northern state of 10 people killed Bauchi Violent clashes over disputed election result which 400 people killed degenerated into religion crisis in Jos, Plateau state Two days battle with radical Islamists in two northern 150 people killed cities of Yobe and Bauchi Source: Culled by the Authors from the records of UNHCR, GlobalSecurity. org and Mail and Guardian online, 2009 44

Religion and Economic Development: the Role of Nigerian Intellectuals Saheed, Zakaree S. and Alofun, G. O. O. All these events, as shown in table 2. 0 above, have a negative effect on Nigerian economy in terms of capital and loss of lives, especially manpower or human resources with high productivity potentials. In each of these events the role of Nigerian intellectuals calls for question. In the two widely acknowledged religions in Nigeria, that is, the Christianity and Islam, the leaders are intellectuals who are well educated, many of whom are holders of various degrees ranging from bachelor, to masters and even doctorate.

They are very influential among their followers and the congregations. Their words are like policy within that congregation. They are leaders who are supposed to articulate an ideological vision congruent with deeply held value of the country. They are supposed to engage in alignment, with interpretive orientations such that the country’s interest, value and belief as well as these religions activities, goals and ideology becomes congruent and complementary. Universal education must be relevant to he true needs of a community and contribute to the unification of mankind, in such a way that it will enable the people to move in the direction of their own chosen field and help them appreciate those universal qualities that distinguish the human race (Saheed, 2008). However, a situation where misunderstanding between two people in a community degenerated into communal clashes that claimed several lives, or members of congregation dispersed from their places of worship and created anarchy in the street, then the impact of the message of such religion leader becomes questionable.

Is it a sermon of peace or hatred? CONCLUSION AND POLICY ISSUES Religion, especially Christianity and Islam, to some extent, has contributed to economic development either indirectly, by influencing and coordinate the expression of the capacities latent in human nature for the progress of the society, and by shaping the moral and social values necessary for development, or directly by its contribution to the growth of the educational and health sectors in Nigeria.

However, religious intolerance among the people which often lead to crisis claiming several lives and destruction of properties has a negative impact on Nigerian economy. Adherents of the religious communities, to some extent, have lost focus of their responsibility towards nation building, and are embraced vices such religious fanaticism or intolerance and its attendant problems such as unending intensive strives, fight of superiority, loss of human and material resources.

To promote religious tolerance towards national development, the religious communities in Nigeria must wake up to their responsibilities in home so that the problem of moral decadence plaguing the nation will radically reduced. Since many Nigerian families are facing the pangs of unemployment, inability to pay their children and wards school fees among other hardships, the religious bodies should resume their pioneering work in the area of health, education, industry and vocational training to assist the nation, especially in the area of human development.

Education should be examined in the light of its contribution to individual growth and to bring about fundamental structural changes in society, changes which are necessary for the creation of a just, peaceful, and harmonious environment, hence teachers and other intellectuals must be a model of nobility, self-actualisation and discipline, since sound character is ultimately more important than intellectual brilliance. A well educated community 45 Journal of Social Science and Public Policy Volume 3, December 2011 ember is a determined yet humble participant, who helps overcome conflict and division thereby contributing to a spirit of unity and collaboration. Therefore, Nigerian education, like a universal education, must be relevant to the needs of the Nigerian communities and contribute to the unification of the people of Nigeria, regardless of their religion and race. It must enable the people both to move in the direction of their choice and help them appreciate those universal qualities that distinguish the entire human race. REFERENCE Barro, J. B. and McClear, R. M. 2003), Religion and Growth, Havard University Press, U. S. A Ikporukpo, C. O. (2001). Government, Society and Economy. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers (Nig. ) Ltd. Lynn, S. R. (2003). Development Economics: World. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River Theory and Practice for a Divided Nwite, S. C. and Wilson, A. (2010). Churches in Nigeria and Investment Strategies: Problems and Prospect. Book of Abstract. Second World Congress on Research and Development, University of Ibadan. Oke, F. A. , et al. (1996). Introduction to Social Institutions. Ibadan: Akinlabi Fayinmi Ventures. Saheed, Z. S. (2008). Ebira: What Our Problems Is. http://jakomodebiravonyainternational. blogspot. com The Ebiras and the World. Saheed, Z. S. and Alofun, G. O. O, (2010). Nigeria, Five Decades of Sovereignty: Rich But Poor. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Development Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1. Skousen, M. , (2007). Modern Economics Theories. Indonesia: Prenada Media Group Publication. Sushmit, N. (2007). Religion & Economic www. mpra. ub. uni-muechen. de/8181 Growth and Development. MPRA. Zainun, B. (2001). Indonesia Human Resources Development. Jakarta: PT. Gunung Agung Tbk. 46

Josh Hutcherson aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

Josh Hutcherson Not Afraid to Be Himself Many celebrities to this day are recognized for their scandalous acts and wrong doings. Not many people stay true to themselves in today’s society, even less are willing to donate their time and money to help others that need it. Josh Hutcherson is one of these people in others eyes, he has always been himself either on set of a movie or at home with his loved ones. As a child he had to deal with the lose of both of his uncles, they died from AIDS during the height of the epidemic. “They were n their early thirties, in great shape, but unfortunately they were taken away from us too soon. Both passed away at about the time I was born. ” (Hutcherson). Though he didn’t get a chance to meet his uncles, he saw how this affected the rest of his family and from that point on he wanted to make sure that they wouldn’t die in vain.

Josh Hutcherson is a hero to many for his desire to help others, always staying true to himself, and donating his time and money to charities. Josh Hutcherson was born in Union, Kentucky as an only child and at the age of four his ounger brother was born. Shortly after he started to become interested in acting and being on television, his parents figured it was just a phase like most children would have. Over the years his fascination with acting grew stronger to his mothers surprise and she eventually decided to help him pursue his goal so at the age of nine josh and his family moved to California. After getting settled down josh started auditioning for roles and landed very few, very minor parts. But with his determination he landed a role in ER in 2003 ( Anonymous , 2012) . From that point on josh’s acting areer took off and he starred in many TV shows and some small movies. After “Bridge to Terabithia” was released he was a highly regarded actor and many studios wanted him to fill in roles.

He quickly made friends that had the same lifestyle and views as himself, one of the most prominent was Avan Jogia. Avan founded the organization called SBNN (Straight But Not Narrow). Avan, an actor, musician, writer, and big picture thinker. His idea, his passion and his voice started it all. Seeing the hardships young adults face, both in and out of school, ignited his desire to take a stand against ullying. (anonymous) Josh knew he wanted to be a part of something great and became a part of the group and helped spread the message. Actors today are usually fake and doing what their name implies, acting. Yet, some do stay true to their ways and don’t let all the fame and attention sway them. Hutcherson is a perfect example of this. You can see that even in his movies the roles he plays are true to his own personality, some stars that have worked with him on set have said that even offstage he has the same nice, boyish charm that his characters have in movies.

Ever since he was nine and started acting he has always been himself even tho most studios and sponsors want him to act fake and perfect he wants to always stay true to himself and not ever put on an act just to please someone else. Being yourself with all of the stress and publicity is an extraordinarily large task and many fail to do so. But Hutcherson is one of the few that have rose above the others and proved himself as a strong idividual As a small child Hutcherson had a very strong personality and always spoke his mind, this characteristic has stuck with him his whole life and he is still the same way to this day.

So when something wasn’t right, Hutcherson would not hesitate to speak up. Because of the death of his uncles to AIDS and how they were treated for being homosexuals he hated when someone treated anyone like they didn’t matter. He hated bullying and whenever he hears about it or witnesses it, he feels the strong need to do something. Hutcherson clearly expresses his feelings towards gays being bullied for who they like, Josh Hutcherson received the Van Guard award at the GLAAD Media Awards for his help to stop gay bullying( Giannotta, 2012) . Helping others that are being bullied or that need someone there or him have just been natural to Hutcherson. Because of Hutcherson family history with homosexuality he had very strong views on gay rights and equality of all people. He decided to join his friend Avan Jogia and his organization “Straight But Not Narrow”, this was a group dedicated to opening the eyes of others to the fact that we shouldn’t care who a person dates, its about the persons personality and actions(Jogia, 2011) . He became the main advocate for the group and has been the most active member since the start. But Hutcherson has done more deeds outside of SBNN as well.

On June 3, 2012 Hutcherson took place in a charity celebrity picnic where many popular stars and actors come together and throw a picnic. This even has raised more than $33 million since 1989 to fund pediatric AIDS research and the Foundation’s international medical programs to prevent new HIV infections in babies and to keep HIV-positive mothers alive through lifesaving treatment (anonymous, 2012). Hutcherson has done a lot of things to help kids and even adults in need since his career took of, making him a hero to many people who know of the actors deeds.

Dolphins college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Bottlenose dolphins can grow to be thirteen feet long and weigh up to 600 pounds (Bottlenose Dolphins). This makes bottlenose dolphins the largest of the beaked dolphins (Dolphin Research Center). Bottlenose dolphins have slick and rubbery skin with no sweat glands or hair. Their epidermis is ten to twenty times thicker than that of other mammals. It can be replaced every two hours, which is nine times faster than human skin. The peeling of their skin helps to reduce drag when they swim. The skin is dark gray on their backs, and fades to white or pink on their bellies.

This coloring is called countershading. From above the dolphins blend in with the dark water below, and from underneath they blend in with the sunlight. Countershading helps dolphins hide from predators and prey (Bottlenose Dolphins). Bottlenose dolphins are piscivors, or fish-eaters. They have eighty-eight to one hundred small, sharp teeth for grasping slippery squid and fish (Parker and Burton) (Dolphin Research Center). When catching fish, dolphins usually herd a school of fish together and then dash through the school one at a time to feed.

It has been observed where 200 bottlenose dolphins were in a single row, working together to find food. Dolphins can also use their tail flukes to toss a fish out of the water and then retrieve the shocked prey (Bottlenose Dolphins). If a dolphin catches a large fish, it will smack the fish on the ocean floor or the water’s surface to break it into smaller portions (McClintock). After a dolphin catches its prey, it uses its tongue to swallow the fish and push the water out of its mouth (Dolphin Research Center).

Dolphins can eat up to thirty pounds of fish in one day, so it is helpful that they have three stomach compartments, similar to that of a cow (McClintock) (Lockley 69). Bottlenose dolphins find fish by using echolocation. This is when a dolphin sends out a beam of short sonar pulses from its melon, or forehead. The beam reflects off of fish or other objects and echoes back to the lower jaw. The echoes are then sent to the ear bones where they are characterized. Using echolocation, dolphins are able to locate prey that is buried up to one and a half feet under the sand (Cahill 140-141).

Bottlenose dolphins are excellent swimmers. They can jump up to sixteen feet in the air. Three to seven miles per hour is their normal swimming speed, but they can reach speeds of eighteen to twenty-two miles per hour. Dolphins also porpoise, which is when a dolphin swims fast enough to repetitively come out of the water and back under the water in one swift movement. This uses less effort than swimming fast at the ocean’s surface. When dolphins swim in deep open water, they often dive. They dive to 150 feet regularly, but they have been recorded diving up to 2,000 feet (Bottlenose Dolphins).

When a dolphin needs to breathe, it comes to the surface, exhales, and then inhales. If a dolphin stays underwater for a very long time, it can exhale at over 100 miles per hour (Cahill 77). It only takes about 0. 3 seconds for dolphins to breathe (Bottlenose Dolphins). Dolphins exchange 80% of their lung air with each breath; when humans breathe, they exchange only 17% (Bottlenose Dolphins). They come to the surface to breathe every twenty-eight seconds when they are not diving, but they can hold their breath for up to twelve minutes (McClintock) (Bottlenose Dolphins).

Before a dolphin can hold its breath for a long time, it has to slow its heart rate down to twelve beats per minute. A slow heart rate helps to conserve energy and oxygen while diving (Dolphin Research Center). In order for dolphins to be able to swim, they have to have fins. Bottlenose dolphins have three different types of fins on their bodies. The most recognizable is the dorsal fin. It is located in the center of the back and is the cause of dolphins sometimes being confused with sharks. The dorsal fin is helpful for balance but is not essential.

Dolphins also have flippers on both sides of their bodies called pectoral fins that are used to steer. The bones in pectoral fins look similar to human hands because they have five digits. The two parts of a dolphin’s tail are called flukes. Tail flukes are made up of tough connective tissue with no bones or muscle. The tail’s spread is 20% of the total body length. The dolphin’s back muscles move the flukes up and down to push the dolphin through the water. All of the fins and flippers use the process of countercurrent heat exchange to conserve body heat.

This means that the arteries in the fins are surrounded by smaller veins so that some of the heat from the blood is transferred to the blood in the veins instead of being released to the environment (Bottlenose Dolphins). Dolphins need to conserve heat to stay warm in cooler waters. The lifespan of a bottlenose dolphin is twenty to thirty years. They can reproduce every three years for their entire lives starting at the age of six (Bottlenose Dolphins) (Cahill 98). The gestation period lasts twelve months.

Baby dolphins, called calves, are usually born tail-first to prevent drowning, and the umbilical cord between the mother dolphin and calf snaps during birth (Cahill 98) (McClintock). “85% of all firstborn calves die” (McClintock). Newborn calves typically weigh twenty-two to forty-four pounds and are thirty-nine to fifty-three inches long (Bottlenose Dolphins). Since dolphins are mammals, calves drink milk produced in the mother’s body (World Book 296). Mother dolphins have to swim constantly with their calves in their “slipstream” because newborns do not have enough blubber to easily float (Hecker).

At about four months old, young start to eat fish and are entirely weaned from milk between the ages of one year and eighteen months (Lockley 169). Each dolphin develops a signature whistle at one month old. In order for calves to recognize their mothers by their whistle, mothers whistle to their calves almost constantly for several days after birth (Bottlenose Dolphins). A dolphin will stay with its mother for at least six years and some dolphins stay with their mothers for their entire lives (Bottlenose Dolphins). Bottlenose dolphins are very social animals.

They travel in pods, which are groups of two to fifteen dolphins (Bottlenose Dolphins). Dolphins are very protective of each other, and they have killed sharks that were too close to their pod by repeatedly hitting them in the gills (Lockley 172). They will also try to save an injured or dead dolphin by keeping it at the surface for hours or even days (Lockley 19). Bottlenose dolphins are usually very friendly towards humans. Some wild dolphins even go into bays and interact with them (Dolphin Research Center). Dolphins also love to have fun. In captivity, they enjoy teasing each other and humans that are around their tanks (Lockley 48).

In the wild, dolphins like to ride ocean waves or a boat’s stern or bow wake (Bottlenose Dolphins). They sometimes toss jellyfish and seaweed to one another and use plastic, seaweed, or other objects as “dolphin jewelry” on their fins, beaks, and necks (Cahill 93). Bottlenose dolphins truly are intriguing and individual animals. It’s hard to believe that some people actually hunt them. Beloved and admired by many, they should be protected in both captivity and the wild. Bottlenose dolphins have been entertaining people in for over eighty years, and hopefully they will continue to do so for many years to come.

Why Teachers Should Have Guns essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Of all the places in the world, you would think that a school is the safest place for a child to be. Sometimes this isn’t the case. In this speech, I will talk to you about how allowing teachers to carry concealed weapons will be a good idea. I will talk about the advantages of allowing teachers to carry a concealed weapon, how allowing teachers to carry concealed weapons is helping other countries, and why Gun-Free zones aren’t working. Let’s start with the advantages of allowing teachers to carry a concealed weapon. There are three main advantages for allowing teachers to carry a concealed weapon.

The three advantages are casualties will be reduced if you could take down the shooter quickly before the shooter kills any more people, teachers can be a tremendous deterrent to crime, and teachers can help stop another school shooting for example, Columbine or Virginia Tech. Let’s start with the first advantage. Casualties will be reduced if you could take down the shooter quickly before the shooter kills any more people. An armed teacher provides more immediate protection for the students than a police officer on the phone.

It will take probably 5-10 minutes before the police will even get there. That is too much time for the shooter to do whatever he wants. So, if some teachers were carrying a gun, they could take down the shooter quickly before more damage is done. The second advantage is if teachers have guns and the public knows about it. It’s a good thing because that would alert anyone coming into our schools armed with a gun. The last advantages is for protection and it would make the students and parents feel a lot more safe! Those are the three advantages I think why teachers should have concealed weapons

Pride and Prejudice Character Chart college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Elizabeth B. -2nd oldest daughter of the Bennet family -Prejudice towards action and behavior -Uses her heart instead of her head in certain occasions for ex; -when Collins to her, she did not accept because she had no feeling towards him of any kind, she would rather marry for love. Hates Darcy at first -Then falls in love with Darcy Catherine B. (Kitty) -Two years older than Lydia -Want to be like Lydia Mr. Wickham – was the steward to the old Mr. Darcy -Seems to have happy manners -Gets by with his good looks, countenance, and his pleasing address. -Seriously in debt -His debts and wedding gets paid off by Mr. Darcy -Married to Lydia

-Enemy of Darcy -Has the charm to attract young women Fitzwilliam Darcy -His behavior at the ball makes being around him very unpleasant -Friend of Bingley -Appears to be dull and silent He comes off as conceited and selfish, but throughout the novel he improves – Has affection towards Elizabeth – Falls in love with her -Pays the debt of Wickham -Advises Bingley to leave Jane alone since she shows no interest -He is actually intended for Anne De Bourgh -Marries Elizabeth Mr. Collins -Rector of Hunsford in Kent – Cousin and heir to Mr. Bennet and his estate -He is very wealthy -Easily manipulated by Lady Catherine -Proposes to Elizabeth -Marries Charlotte -Comes off as a brownnose but he actually just wants to take care of his image Charlotte -Eldest daughter of the Lucas Best friend of Eliza -Married to Mr. Collins -Marries him for social class and wealth (convenience) -Not romantic -scarified her feelings for worldly advantages Lady Catherine -Mother of Anne De Bourgh -Aunt of Colonel Fitzwilliam -Aunt of Darcy -Benefactor of Collins

-Makes her visitors feel inferior to her superior rank -Surprised when Eliza talks back at her -Threatens Eliza not to do anything with Darcy, but then she eats her own words Colonel Fitzwilliam -Cousin of Darcy -Cousin of Anne de Bourgh -Cousin and guardian of Georgina Darcy Mrs. Bennet -Daughter of an attorney Mother of the Bennet Sisters -Her goal in life is to get all her daughters married -She can be understanding, have a temper, and with little information Jane B. -Oldest and prettiest daughter of the Bennet family -Honest and faithful -Appears to show no emotion -Falls for Mr. Bingley -Marries Mr. Bingley -Companion of Caroline B. -Often shows a “want of cheerfulness Lydia B. -The youngest of the Bennet Family -Gets married to Mr. Wickham -Favorite daughter from her mother -Is very romantic and decided with her heart -Big flirt Mary B. -3rd sister of the Bennet family -Fond of Mr. Collins Enjoys entertaining people -Plain one in the family Mr. Bennet -Sarcastic, humorous, reserve, and caprice -Married to Mrs. Bennet -Light-hearted man -Laughs at Lydia and kitty’s behavior instead of restraining them -Prefers Elizabeth over the rest of his daughters -like his wife’s ignorance Caroline Bingley -Bingley’s sister -Attracted to Darcy -jealous of Elizabeth because of the interest Darcy takes in her -Companion of Jane B. -Tries to persuade Darcy away from Eliza -Likes to associate with people of higher rank -Is described by Eliza as being conceited, proud, but well educated

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