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Trade Unions in Singapore extended essay help biology

Trade union is a labor union of craftspeople or workers in related crafts, as distinguished from general workers or a union including all workers in an industry (Dictionary. com 2010). It is a de facto of the government, and they as often act as government representatives to workers’ trade union. It compromises those who are not part of the elite society. (Michael D. Barr, 2000, page 480). In this essay, I will first discuss the characteristics of trade union in Singapore which will include a brief history. I will also give my opinion of Michael D. Barr’s article if Singapore is a trade union.

Secondly, I will continue my writing with the characteristic of trade union in China including a brief history, and my opinion of Taylor and Qi Li’s articles if china is a trade union. Lastly, I will conclude the essay by comparing and contrasting these two trade unions. Trade Union in Singapore In 1961, the non-communist party National Trades Union Congress (NTUC), being the sole union movement in Singapore, was formed. As NTLJC and People’s Action Party (PAP) (government) shares common goals, it worked closely with the PAP, forming a system, the tripartite system which was well established.

This is a system whereby PAP government, employers and employees work together for the benefit of all parties (Michael D. Barr, 2000, page 480). NTLJC as the National Federation of trade unions made up of working people in the industrial, service and public sectors consisting of 60 affiliated unions and 6 taxi associations. Today, the NTUC has 540,000 members. 9 cooperatives and 6 related organizations that are founded to serve the needs of its members. After reading the article (Trade Unions in an Elitist Society: The Singapore Society), I agree with the Journalist, Michael D.

Barr’s opinion that Singapore is not a trade union. Firstly, in accordance to the definition stated, trade union comprise of those who are not in the elite group. However, some of the NTUC union leaders are members of the government. For instance, the current Secretary General of the NTLJC is a also a PAP member of Parliament, a Minister without portfolio working in the Prime Minister office, and the chairman or deputy chairman of several government bodies (Singapore Government Directory, 2000}.

Secondly, Secretary General of NTUC’s senior official, Lim Chee Onn, proclaimed that both the PAP and NTLJC “came from the same mother – the struggles with the ommunist and the colonists” (The Sunday Times, 1982). Although he claimed that the NTUC and the government had common goals, the NTUC is Just like a “vehicle of government policy’. Barr’s article also pointed out that in the 1960s the NTUC was formed ‘so that’ the government was able to fight against with the communist parties Thirdly, Trade Union leaders are appointed by union members, but NTLJC was being controlled by the government.

In 1982, with 91 percent of union votes, Lim Chee Onn was re-elected as Secretary General. But after 11 month of re-election, Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew wrote a letter to him. This was an inform letter, that Lim would have to leave the NTLJC and take charge of a Government Ministry and other member, Ong Teng Cheong, a member of parliament (MP) would take over his position as Secretary General (NTUC). This shows that the NTLJC was being control by the government to appoint the members to be in its organizational structure. The government has an authority to reject or accept members to lead the Trade Union.

In addition, at the time of appointment as Secretary General in NTUC, Ong Teng Cheong was already a chairman of the PAP, and a former minister of Ministry of labor in the government sector. Fourthly, many important decisions are being made by the government. One of the most significant events is the industrial relations event in the 1970s. Lee Kuan Yew took up the decision to modernize the trade union movement to enable it to meet the demands of Singapore’s attempt to move out of low-cost, low skill labor market and into the medium cost medium skill market Oonathan Rigg, 1988).

The NTLJC did not stand up to object or give ideas to the decision. According to Caraway, East Asia’s labor laws offer similar levels of protection for individual labor rights to the rest of the world when firing costs are taken into ccount, and low regional averages are primarily an effect of Singapore’s extremely weak individual labor rights'(Caraway, 2009). For example, recession hit Singapore in 1985, the union movement ‘agreed’ to have a pay cut of 15%. The government may be the one who suggested it, and employee had no right to disagree with the act.

Lastly, trade unions are supposed to be able to insist on having strikes or to fight to achieve goals but it is unlikely to happen in Singapore as the government has a law against that. However, to pre-empt labor disquiet and disinvestment, the overnments offer ‘credible apologies’ that include punishment and monitoring of government when economic performance is less than optimal in the country. When they fail to offer credible apologies, labor and producers respond with strikes and disinvestment. (O Fiona Yap, 2003).

In addition, According to Law Society of Singapore official website, under Penal Code (Singapore, 2005) Chapter VIII: Offences against the public tranquility, rioting (S146 and S147) if you are part of an unlawful assembly and force or violence is used, every member is guilty of the offence of rioting even if the egree of participation of each of you is different. You can be Jailed up to 5 years and can also be ordered to be caned. With all the evidence shown, I agree with Michael D. Barr that Singapore trade union is not a trade union. It does not fulfill many of the characteristics of a trade union.

In my opinion, the NTLJC is more like a government sector that fulfill employee needs of Trade Union in China Unlike NTUC, trade union in China the All China Federation of Trade Union (ACFTU) is a communist party. The ACFTU was established in 1925, being the only recognized nion in People’s Republic of China (PRC). According to the ACFTU’s official website fgures released at the end of September 2006, there are 31 provincial trade union federations, 10 national industrial unions and 1. 324 million grassroots trade union organizations (in 2. 53 million enterprises and institutions) associated with the ACFTU. While protecting the overall interests of the people, the ACFTU aim to stand up for workers, protect workers’ interests, fulfill their social functions of protection, construction, participation and education in an all-rounded manner, give prominence o the protective function of trade unions, and unite with and mobilize the masses of workers to strive for the realization of the country’s socialist modernization (All-China Federation of Trade Unions Official English website, 2007).

Today, as China has increasingly economic power, ACFTU is working very hard to keep up with its trade unions power. After reading the article (Is the ACFTU a Union and Does It Matter? ), I agree with Taylor & Li’s opinion that China is not officially a Trade Union. Firstly, I will start with the relationship between ACFTU and Chinese Communist Party (CCP). CCP is a party that has authority to control the government. ACFTU as a part of the government is also controlled by the party.

Therefore, it means that ACFTU not only serves the government in government interest, but in its role in serving the interest of the CCP so as to aid in managing government matters (Taylor and Li, 2007, page 707). In other words, ACFTU is working closely together with government instead of by itself. Secondly, Union leaders in ACFTU can be from the elite group of the society with many positions. For example at the Ninth Trade Congress, held in October 1978, a ember of the CCPs Politburo, Ni Zhi fu, became chairman of the ACFTU (Feng Cheng, 2009, page 668).

The CCP and the government have the right to reject or accept a union leader. This shows that union leaders are being appointed instead of elected. Thirdly, as the ACFTU is the sole movement of trade union in China (with no other opposition party), employees are lacking the power to fght for their rights. As many finances in the union are sponsored by the government, if any party of the union were to go against the government, the CCP and the government have the right to emove its sponsorship from any department.

For example, if any one of the union member is to go against the government decision, CCP or the government can remove their sponsorship. This will affect ACFTIJ directly, as they will not have enough money to pay its workers and to continue its operations. Therefore, the because the unions are generally incompetent or incapable of acting on the workers’ behalf (Taylor and L’, 2007, pg 709). Lastly, being the one and only large organization, the ACFTU is characterized as a bureaucratic union, with highly focus group of authority, and incumbent problems of nflexibility, accountability and performance (Taylor and Li, 2007, page 703).

Although China’s union has a vertical organizational structure paralleling that of the party and government, the ACFTU is far less able than the party and government to exercise authority over its grassroots organizational cells”in fact, they are subject to the complete control of management. The union, thus, has administrative power but no effective enforcement units. (Feng Cheng, 2009, Pg664). For example, if there is any conflict among the subordinate and the superior, union bureaucracies acted as a middle man between protesting partied.

They will have to accept the ‘mediate’ of the union bureaucracy as it sort of a government ‘command’. With all the supporting evidences, I agree with the point that China is not really a trade union. Different from Singapore, China trade union work closely together to promote both workers and the government interest. Overview In comparison, both Singapore and China trade unions are ‘not really a trade union’ as the unions operates with the aid of the government. They have many factors in common.

Firstly, the two unions are trying to promote employees interest in their countries and oth are the only union in their countries respectively. Secondly, the union leaders of the 2 countries are mostly from the elite group. In addition, union leaders are being elected by the government instead of being appointed by the union members. However, there are differences between the 2 unions. First, Singapore’s trade union the NTUC is a non-communist party but in China, the ACFTU is a pro-communist party.

The working structure of the 2 unions is different too. NTUC is a parallel organizational structure but the ACFTU works in a vertical organizational structure. In conclusion, although these 2 trade unions do not fulfill the requirement(s) of a trade union, it works to a common of giving the employees in all industry a helping hand. Today, both trade unions are improving themselves to maintain a peace working environment in their countries.

Writing a Reaction Paper college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

Writing a Reaction Paper v A reaction paper is an analysis and an evaluation of the material presented. v In a reaction paper, make sure to give a detailed overview of the experience and tell what exactly was taken out of the experience. v A reaction paper should be more than a simple summary of the material that you are reacting upon. v It should include your opinion or reaction to the material. v This may take on a variety of forms: S You may compare the work to other related material; S You may come up with ways to improve the work; S You may express what you learned;

S You may concur with the work or argue against the work v You can even use “l”, or the first person, in this type of paper. How to Write a Reaction Paper Consider these general steps as you plan your writing: Pull your thoughts together on what you Just experienced. Come up with a thesis statement. Come up with what reaction you want to put down on paper. Decide on your organization and format draft your reaction paper. As a starting point for your reaction paper, select two or three major points from the following list and write a paragraph for each point. S React to the ideas presented.

Are they clear and suitable? Explain the ideas, give examples of their application in the material presented, and compare/contrast the ideas with your own. 5 Compare it to another material. How was it similar to the other material? How was it different? Which did you enjoy more? What makes it more enjoyable? Which did you learn more from? S Discuss specific insights or facts you have learned or gained from reading the material presented. Discuss each insight or fact you have learned in a detailed paragraph, using direct examples from the material presented. Include a page reference to the material you are reacting to.

S Make a Judgment about the material presented and support it. Did you like it? Why or why not? Elaborate on your answer by commenting on the content, style, clarity, validity of ideas and method of presentation. S Analyzed the material presented. What is its purpose? How does it go about achieving its goal? What is the plan/ method of presentation? S Tell what others might gain from the material presented. Is it valuable? Is it informative, entertaining, or accurate? Do you think your instructor should use it again? Why or why not? In your conclusion, summarize your ideas and tie them together.

Writing a Reaction or Response Essay Reaction or response papers are usually requested by teachers so that you’ll consider carefully what you think or feel about something you’ve read. The following guidelines are intended to be used for reacting to a reading although they could easily be used for reactions to films too. Read whatever you’ve been asked to respond to, and while reading, think about the following questions. How do you feel about What do you agree or disagree with? Can you identify with the situation? What would be the best way to evaluate the story?

Keeping your responses to these questions in mind, follow the following prewriting steps. Prewriting for Your Reaction Paper The following statements could be used in a reaction/response paper. Complete as many statements as possible, from the list below, about what you Just read. My Reaction to What I Just Read Is That I think that; I see that; I feel that; It seems that; In my opinion; Because; A good quote is; In addition; For example; Moreover; However; Consequently; Finally; In conclusion. What you’ve done in completing these statements is written a very rough reaction/ response paper. Now it needs to be organized.

Organizing Your Reaction Paper A reaction/response paper has an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. The introduction should contain all the basic information in one or two paragraphs. I Sentence 1: publication you read. I This sentence should give the title, author, and I Isentence 2, 3, and sometimes 4: I These sentences give a brief summary of what you read (nutshell) I Isentence 5: I This sentence is your thesis statement. You agree, disagree, identify, or evaluate. Your introduction should include a concise, one sentence, focused thesis. This is the focused statement of your reaction/response. The body should contain paragraphs that provide support for your thesis. Each paragraph should contain one idea. Topic sentences should support the thesis, and the final sentence of each paragraph should lead into the next paragraph. I Topic Sentence I Idetail example –quotation –detail example quotation detail example quotation detail example –quotation ( You can structure your paragraphs in two ways: I Author I You OR I in contrast to I ISummary Sentence ( The conclusion can be a restatement of what you said in your paper. It also be a comment which focuses your overall reaction.

Finally, it can be a prediction of the effects of what you’re reacting to. Note: your conclusion should include no new information. Conclusions are often the most difficult part of an essay to write, and many writers feel that they have nothing left to say after having written the paper. A writer needs to keep in mind that the conclusion is often what a reader remembers best. Your conclusion should be the best part of your paper. A conclusion should stress the importance of the thesis statement, give the essay a sense of completeness, and leave a final impression on the reader.

Suggestions Answer the question “So What? ” Show your readers why this paper was important. Show them that your paper was meaningful and useful. Synthesize, don’t summarize o Don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. They have read it. Show them how the points you made and the support and examples you used were not random, but fit together. Redirect your readers o Give your reader something to think about, perhaps a way to use your paper in the “real” world. If your introduction went from general to specific, make your conclusion go from specific to general.

Think globally. Ђ Create a new meaning o You don’t have to give new information to create a new meaning. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a new picture. Often the sum of the paper is worth more than its parts. Strategies Echoing the introduction: Echoing your introduction can be a good strategy if it is meant to bring the reader full-circle. If you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay was helpful in creating a new understanding.

Example Introduction From the parking lot, I could see the towers of the castle of the Magic Kingdom tanding stately against the blue sky. To the right, the tall peak of The Matterhorn rose even higher. From the left, I could hear the Jungle sounds of Adventureland. As I entered the gate, Main Street stretched before me with its quaint shops evoking an old-fashioned small town so charming it could never have existed. I was entranced. Disneyland may have been built for children, but it brings out the child in adults. Conclusion I thought I would spend a few hours at Disneyland, but here I was at 1 A. M. closing time, leaving the front gates with the now dark towers of the Magic Kingdom behind me. I could see tired children, toddling along and struggling to keep their eyes open as best they could. Others slept in their parents’ arms as we waited for the parking lot tram that would take us to our cars. My forty-year-old feet ached, and I felt a bit sad to think that in a couple of days I would be leaving California, my vacation over, to go back to my desk. But then I smiled to think that for at least a day I felt ten years old again. Challenging the reader: By issuing a challenge to your apply it to their own lives.

Example Though serving on a Jury is not only a civic responsibility but also an interesting xperience, many people still view Jury duty as a chore that interrupts their Jobs and the routine of their daily lives. However, Juries are part of America’s attempt to be a free and Just society. Thus, Jury duty challenges us to be interested and responsible Looking to the future: Looking to the future can emphasize the citizens. importance of your paper or redirect the readers’ thought process. It may help them apply the new information to their lives or see things more globally.

Example Without well-qualified teachers, schools are little more than buildings and equipment. If higher-paying careers continue to attract the best and the brightest students, there will not only be a shortage of teachers, but the teachers available may not have the best qualifications. Our youth will suffer. And when youth suffers, the future suffers. Posing questions: Posing questions, either to your readers or in general, may help your readers gain a new perspective on the topic, which they may not have held before reading your conclusion. It may also bring your main ideas together to create a new meaning.

Example Campaign advertisements should help us understand the candidate’s ualifications and positions on the issues. Instead, most tell us what a boob or knave the opposing candidate is, or they present general images of the candidate as a family person or God-fearing American. Do such advertisements contribute to creating an informed electorate or a people who choose political leaders the same way they choose soft drinks and soap? Summary In summary, this handout has covered prewriting and organizing strategies for reaction/response papers. Prewriting o Read the article and Jot down ideas. o How do you feel about what was said? Do you agree or disagree with the author? Have you had any applicable experience? o Have you read or heard anything that applies to this what the writer said in the article or book? o Does the evidence in the article support the statements the writer made? Organizing o Write the thesis statement first. o Decide on the key points that will focus your ideas. These will be your topic o Develop your ideas by adding examples, quotations, and details to sentences. your paragraphs. o Make sure the last sentence of each paragraph leads into the next paragraph. o Check your thesis and make sure the topic sentence of each paragraph supports it.

Self-Esteem need essay help: need essay help

A person is defined according to his or her own manners, good moral values and right conduct. All of these say so much about a person’s personality. It is because of her personality she could be treated fairly and looked up to because of how she treats other people. Ones personality could bring her to the top and conquer all that gets in the way. One important value a person could possess is obedience.

Obedience is when you learn to follow rules and treat these rules as a treasure for uccess. There are so many rules that each and every one of us should follow. One of these rules comes from our own parents. Our parents nurtured us from day one. All their sweat and hard work are for us, their children. For this, we too should treat them right and by simply obeying to their rules as our parents; it makes them feel secured that nothing wrong would ever happen to us. Their rules are probably even the most important and simplest of them all.

Some of them may be letting them know where we are and who we are with or coming home on or before the time they told us to ome home and even helping our siblings with the household chores. Also, respecting them and putting ourselves in the right position is a simple sign of obedience. As for Filipinos like us, learning how to address the elders with “pd’ or “opd’ is already a sign of obedience. When we learn to follow these and not whine about what the elders are telling us, we could say that we are obedient daughters or sons.

As teenagers, it is our obligation and right to come to school. In our schools, we also have so much rules to follow, may it be in our classrooms or in the whole campus. When our professor tells us to search for some sources for our paper or bring certain materials for our project and we do it, it is a sign of obedience. When our classmate asks for our favor to do a certain part of our group project and we do it, it also is a sign of obedience. These are Just the simplest form of obedience in school.

Sometimes, we may even have to follow even bigger and more complex rules such as those that our student handbook states. Following the dress code, respecting our professor in and out of the classroom, not cutting classes, staying away from off- imit places and not bullying our schoolmates are some of those campus rules that we have to follow. When we do, we are obviously obedient students and we should be proud of this. We all belong to a certain community and it is important that we work as one to create a difference in our society.

If l, for one, follow all rules and regulations that our community dictates, then in my simplest way I am helping in creating or starting a change. This helps a lot because if other people see that the change I have started is this we all are working as individuals and together as one to create the biggest hange of all. This is a sign that people in our community are obedient. It is because of our obedience that the world is progressing and is gradually changing to its best.

We all should be obedient to anyone in our surroundings; obedient to our parents, to our professors, to the leaders in our society and basically, to anyone. It is also important that we know when we should be obedient. If you are asked to do something wrong or improper then obviously it is alright to forget about being obedient. Yet if we are asked to do something right, then put yourself in a much etter place and simply do what’s asked of you. This is not hard to do especially when it gives other people a good impression of you.

So basically, when I am trying to say is that being obedient is really important and we should never forget about it. We always should know why we should be obedient, to whom should we be obedient and when should we be obedient. Let’s Just say that possessing this value says a lot about who we are and it is important for other people to see it so that we would have a good impression on anyone and that people may want to be friends with us and influenced by us.

Consumer Behaviour get essay help: get essay help

What kind of decision process can you expect in the following cases and why ? (a) Purchase of a greeting card for a close friend. (b) Purchase of an after shave lotion/moisturizer. Ans. Before giving answer to both questions first of all we must know what product involvement and purchase involvement). because meaning of both term determine direction of decision . Purchase involvement – As the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase.

Thus, purchase nvolvement is temporary state of individual or household. It influenced by loat many factors Product involvement – involvement of consumer towards particular brand .In process of purchasing a greeting card for close friend involve “limited decision making purchase process”. Limited decision making process involve few alternative and simple decision rules and a little post purchase evalution Why- limited decision making process occurs in some emotional and situational needs. Purchasing a greeting card for friend also influenced by our emotion and ituation .

Situational factor affect in this manner like for what type of occasion we are presenting greeting card to our friend. it may be occasion of birthday, achievement and some other occasion Emotion – our friend ship is product of our emotional bonding with some one and emotional attachment always form limited decision making . purchasing of product you always anticipate what would be impression of my card. In limited decision making Use and post purchase of given vary less importance because product ( greeting card )would be use by some another erson who still have not form his expectation abut particular brand. b) Purchase of an after shave lotion/moisturizer- Nominal decision making Purchase shave lotion involve nominal decision making because nominal decision making referred also as a habitual decision making which occur at number of time such as purchasing of lotion also happen number of time in nominal decision process problem is recognized ,internal search provide one solution what type of LOTION you are using previously ,what is your preferred brand and evaluation occurs only when f previous LOTION brand fails to perform .

Nominal decision making occur when low purchase and involvement . in case of purchasing of LOTION there is very less purchase involvement because person are more conscious about brand of LOTION. 2. How would knowledge of perception & learning help you in designing your marketing program for the following products and services? Justify your answer with reasons. a. Disposable Diapers Designing market programme for Disposable diapers we need to develop and evaluate for Ps of marketing to position product in mind of

Internet Service Provider homework essay help: homework essay help

Although broadband technologies (DSL and Cable) are all the rage right now, in reality, a lot of people still only have access to analog hone lines. Dial-up modems will remain a good way to get on the Internet for several years, especially in retired area in United States. When looking for an internship I had three criterias : 1. Language and culture : I wanted to do my internship in a foreign country to improve my english and to discover a different way of life and business culture. 2. Technical diversity : a main point was to learn new things and especially not in software enginering, like I did in my formers internship. . Responsabilities : I looked for an experience that will proof I am able to manage things by myself. My Job was to make the whole infrastructure stable, up and running. As described in this report I was focused on three main projects : 2 The mail server migration from Windows to Linux. The web server migration because of an hardware failure

However, there are still a lot of users connected to local ISP, even if it is a little more expensive. The main reason is not difference to connect to a local ISP, however for other users, they know that if they ave problems connecting they can have free hotline support, or they can bring their computer and have it repaired, they can come and have their questions answered. This is what makes the difference with big ISPs, and probably why there still is a lot of small ISPs in the united states. The wireless market tend to show up more now with company like Clearwire.

RogueLink is starting to get partenarship with this company to counter the dial-up death. 1. 3 The internship RogueLink is used to hire trainee from both Epita and Epitech and others french school and university. I found this internship thanks to a student from Epita who ade an announce on school newsgroups. It was not easy to obtain on time the J-1 visa required for this kind of internship. Indeed, it was properly the time France was not able to provide biometric passports. So the United States immigration administration was flooded of visa request for simple tourists (instead of passport). I was hosted by and near the house of my managers, Kate and Jacques Lecompte, owners of the business. The company is split in two different places located at about 20 minutes by car from each other : The server room, where all the servers are is a few miles away from the downtown where the office is located. Ђ The office is where customers can come and pay their bill, bring their computer to have it repaired, ask questions about their dialup connection or web hosting, etc This is also where the hotline support is located.

I was working most of the time at the office. This allowed me to be in contact with customers and to be aware of issues as soon as possible in order to give advice to hotliners. The hotline support was really knowledgable and Linux enthousiasts so I had no difficulties to explain things. I was working on the servers remotely, using terminal servicesl and ssh from my linux laptop. Sometime, I ad to take my car and go to the server room. 1. 4 Timeline The first month was more to acknowledge the system and what would be my projects.

I had also to start organising thoses projects to see how long it will take for each one. The mail server migration took about two month (including the canceled outsourcing project). The web server migration took one month. The billing system set up took also one month. Services or Terminal Server Edition (TSE) is a component of Microsoft Windows NT operating systems (both client and server versions) that allows a user to access applications or data stored on a remote computer over a network connection.

Terminal Services is Microsoft’s take on server centric computing, which allows 1 Terminal 8 2 TECHNICAL ASPECTS 2 Technical aspects This section is split into three parts. It is related to main projects I worked on, but as a reccurent background task I had to monitor services and to fix some little issues, like buying new SSL2 certificats for online carts, adding new domain names in our DNS, setting up new web sites, fixing front page extensions3 . For instance, I also had to delete a shopping cart customer’s account directly into the SQL database.

The first week I was here, it was mainly to take notes on how the infrastructure is running. Thanks to a wiki4 filled by formers trainees I was able to learn more faster but some of thoses informations was also obsoletes. I also set up some scripts for graphing the network activity on the DMZ5 : are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet for such things as e-mail, internet faxing, and other data transfers. 3 Software technology that allows Frontpage clients editor to communicate with web servers, and provide additional functionality intended for websites.

Frequent security problems have marked the history of this Microsoft proprietary technology. 4 A wiki is type of website that allows users to easily add, remove, or otherwise edit and change some available content, sometimes without the need for registration. This ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for collaborative authoring. 5 DMZ stands for DeMilitarized Zone. In computer security terminology, a DMZ is a network area that sits between an organization’s internal network and an external network, usually the Internet. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), its successor, 9 We have a 5Mb bandwith on both way thru fiber optic provided by Charter. We have 0 IP addresses (127 block) with this connection. 10 2. 1 Mail server migration during this internship. I will explain here : Why this server migration was necessary and urgent. What was part of the migration (password recoveries, mailbox synchronisations, address books, webmail, mailing lists, aliases, administrators and administration interface) How I did the migration (DNS, firewall, choose of components, scripts). . 1. 1 The old system When I arrived, the mail server that was used was ‘Mail v8. 05 from Ipswitch on a Windows 2000 server, which is probably one of the worst email server program available. The main problems with this server were : 1. Ipswitch ‘mail is RFC ignorant (RFC 1893 or 3463). For instance, when a server answer with an Error code beginning with the number 4, it means that it is a Persistent Transient Failure, not a Permanent Failure, and sending again in the the future the same message may be successful. ‘mail doesn’t and bounce the message with a В« user unknow В».

Knowing the fact that most spammers won’t take the time to send again their message when they receive a temporary some people had the idea to use a method called Greylisting6 to block a significant amounts of spam by first ejecting an email from an unknown server with a temporary error (with an error message begining with a 4), then accepting and adding the sending server to a whitelist when it try to send again the same email after a certain amount of time. The spams are then rejected while the emails sent using a regular email server are received.

The problem is that the ‘Mail server doesn’t handle this correctly, and it was not possible for our customers to send emails to servers implementing GreyListing because of the В« unknown user В» problem. is a simple method of defending electronic mail users against e-mail spam. In short, a mail transfer agent which uses greylisting will “temporarily reject” any email from a sender it does not recognize. If the mail is legitimate, the originating server will try again to send it later, at which time the destination will accept it.

If the mail is from a spammer, it will probably not be retried 6 Greylisting 11 2. The server used to crash for no reasons and needed to be reboot very often to В« solve В» problems. 3. We had hackers, directly logged on windows (moving the mouse and everything… very impressive to see ! ) using our system to send spam. 4. The onfguration is saved in the Windows Registry which is horrible. 5. All the confguration and management of accounts is done using a Graphical User Interface (which is not convenient for scripting tasks).

The GUI is program that allow you to crash the whole mail server in a few clicks. It happened to me once but fortunately I had a backup of the Windows Registry. 6. The program lacks many options, and is not modular. For example it is not possible to add external spam flters, add special routing instructions, add greylisting. For all thoses reasons it was more than urgent to switch this server to a quality open-sourced one. . 1. 2 Accounts and password recovery from the old system As explained the ‘Mail windows server stored accounts into the windows registry.

I installed ActivePerl, Wich is a bring of the Unix Perl to the extract user attributs, including the encrypted password. The password algorithm used on the old system was not a common one (like crypt, md5 or shal) which made impossible to copy encrypted passwords directly because the new system would not be able to use them. However, thanks to a very weak and sadly amusing encryption algorithm on the old system it was possible to extract, decrypt and re-encrypt them ith a usable algorithm (crypt) for the new system. 12 The encrypted password in hexadecimal was in fact the addition of the email address and the clear password.

This was done with a few efficients lines of Perl : # my $mail ” “test”; # my $password = “BDD4EAE2EDD4E8”; my @hex_mail = unpack(“C*”, $mail); my ($1, @decrypted_password, @hex_password); while ($password) { push @hex_password, hex(substr($password, O, 2, } foreach (@hex_password) { push @decrypted_password, ($_ – % length($mail)]); } print pack(“C*”, @decrypted_password). “n”; 2. 1. 3 Mailboxes synchronisation Another difficulty was hat the migration had to be transparent for end-users. I had to plan synchronization of their mailboxes so it will take a minimum amount of time during the migration.

I used a recurrent approach for that. The first time it was really long to syncronize mailboxes using the IMAP protocol and during this long time new messages came. So I did it again and it take a little less time. So, during this inferior amout of time a little less messages came, etc… At the end it took only about 6 hours so it was enough for doing that the night of the migration. I also prevent a problem that would be catastrophic if not noticed. Indeed, POP3 uses special IDs, Wich are named IJID, to know which messages were already downloaded by the end-users.

If thoses I-JID are not synchronized between the old and the new system, then all users would have to download all their emails again. Those would be very unconvenient for end-users that use slow dial-up connections for instance and would result in a lot of phone calls. Besides that, everybody downloading all their mails would made a huge load on our server. Thanks to the fact that the old mail server kept those id directly in messages I was able to confgure the new system to use them. 13 2. 1. Address books In the old webmail their was address books.

I had to extract thoses, using Perl scripts, to put them in the new webmail database which use a different format. Old address books were stored in a different files and directory for each domain and we host about 200 domains… The new database of address books was really usefull for the new anti-spam system as I will explain there after. 2. 1. 5 Mailing lists7 They were also important mailing lists on the old mail server, used by to set them up on the new linux server. I did that manually and Just cut and past members’ email of each mailing lists.

The main part for this Job was to explain to each administrator of each list how the new system works. It was pretty successful. 2. 1. 6 Mail aliases (forwarding) I had to extract, using Perl scripts, each redirection rule in the 200 domains we host. That was not easy because the old system had different ways to store aliases. Most of them were stocked into the Windows registry and it was scriptable so. But for the other ones I had to extract them manualy using the GI-Jl. 2. 1. 7 Firewall and DNS8 preparation Because updating DNS for the new server can be pretty random, I prefered to use TCP redirections.

So if their was a problem, it would be for everybody and a lot more easy to fix. Also it would be possible to switch back to the old system really quick. The rollback possibility was really important and I take care of that in every step of the migration. mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients. 8 The domain name system (DNS) stores and associates many types of information with domain names, but most importantly, it translates domain names (computer hostnames) to IP addresses.

It also lists mail xchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, DNS is an essential component of contemporary Internet use. 7A 14 I first updated DNS for all domains we host to point to a firewall that will do the redirection. I had to use bash and perl scripting to update all domains. Then, I did the switch on the router a few days after the DNS so I was sure that everybody was using the router. 2. 1. 8 The new system The new system improved a lot of things and I had a lot better control on what is going on with the system.

It allows access to more detailed log files. I was also able to set up some cron 9 tasks to email the hotline support about biggest mailboxes every week for instance or to email me the mailing lists activity or the backup results. Anti-spam Before, there was only greylisting thanks to a linux mail relay in front of the ‘Mail windows server. Because the new system is a linux system we were able to do the greylisting directly on the server. There was also blacklist like relays. ordb. org, an Open Relay DataBase or bl. spamcop. net, A fast and automatic list of servers reported to send spam.

But there was still spam so I setted up a statistical spam filter. Statistical filtering, once set up, requires no maintenance per se: instead, users mark messages as spam or nonspam and the filtering software learns from these Judgements. Thus, a statistical filter does not reflect the software author’s or administrator’s biases as to content, but it does reflect the user’s biases as to content; a biochemist who is researching Viagra won’t have messages containing the word “Viagra” flagged as spam, because “Viagra” will show up often in his or her legitimate messages.

A statistical filter can also respond quickly to changes in spam content, without administrative intervention. The task non-spam. It is really important to provide both spam and non-spam or the filtering would be catastrophic. The webmail provides a convenient way for end users to report messages as spam via an HTTP link. They do it well after we explained to them that doing so will reduce their amount of spam. cron server, found in Unix and Unix- like operating systems, is used to schedule commands to be executed periodically. A 15 The amount of spam reported decrease of 90% ! I assume that users receive 90% less spam than at the begining of the filter learning proccess. I had some congratulations from customers about that. For non-spam, I find out that all the address books that customers have in the webmail would be a good way to mark as non-spam messages coming from people in thoses address books. I did a script on the mail server that look into the address books database for every message comming in. If the expeditor is into an address book then the message will be marked as non-spam.

I used also what we call В«spam trapsВ». This is non-used mailboxes, with names choosen to be easily spammed like firstnames or В«infoВ», or В«contactВ», etc… All messages received from thoses mailboxes are then automatically reported as spam o the statistical filter. 16 Webmail The new webmail is Horde IMP which is a famous open source webmail. It is based on IMAP and allows customers to report problems easily, to manage their address book and folders and to report messages as spam.

They can also set up filtering using both withlist and blacklist but as far as the anti-spam is efficient enough they don’t use it so much. There is also online help but the system is pretty intuitive. I customized a little bit default options after getting some customers feedback. I had to write scripts to update the configuration database for each customers. 17 Administration interface The new administration interface is simple which is certainly the main quality of it. The old one was really slow. Now, this is more like a frontend on the backend database used by the mail system.

Here you can create, delete, and change password of those more than 2,000 accounts split on 200 domains different level of permissions. Indeed, I had to write scripts to extract kind of В«flagsВ» into the windows registry of the old system to distinguish normal user and administrators. On the new system, endusers can also change their password using a dedicated part of the administration interface. This is a security improvement (negligeable regarding the improvement from Windows to Linux) because it was not possible on the old system. 18 2. 1. Database and backups The new system use an SQL database to store encrypted passwords. The Postfix SMTP server and Dovecot POP3 server both use this database to check passwords. Thanks to this database, a backup of the accounts is made every day on another server. Because people don’t leave their messages in their mailboxes too long a bacup of them would be both difficult and not so usefull. 2. 1. 10 Conclusion The migration was a great success. Although I took all precautions there was still risks but I didn’t have to switch back to the old system.

The system is actually really stable and end-users are already used to it. Every day, domain’s administrators use the administration interface and end-users report spam via the webmail. There was a project to outsource the mail server to a dedicated hosting service but the project was canceled by my managers. Also, the greylisting was at first on a separate outsourced server but the company that was hosting this server disconnect it after a delay in their payment. I had to install the greylisting service on the new server and verything was fine but it was a huge change. 19 2. Web server migration (I’S, Frontpage, Webtrends and FTP) This task was less complex than the mail migration but the difficuly here was to find out a way to automatize the procedure to avoid errors and to get it done as soon as possible. For most of the tasks I found how to automatize the migration but for some others I had to do it manually. This project was also a good opportunity because I was not used to Windows servers. 2. 2. 1 Why When I arrived, the 11S web server (Microsoft Internet Information Services) had only one hard drive left out of the six slots available.

It was more than urgent to fix that because the single hard drive could die at any time, bringing in his death the hundreds of web sites we host. We host company’s website and shopping cart. Some of them process thousands of dollars a day. No need to say that any interruption of service would not be appreciated. Because it was too risky to put new hard drives and try a syncronisation with the one left, we set up a new server. I had to automatise as much as possible web domains creation. On top of domains thereselves there was a lot of related services like FTPIO,

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