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Traffic jam essay help site:edu

Traffic jam is very hard to tell about the causes of jam in Dhaka as it does not follow any pattern. It is a common practice in Dhaka to blame rickshaws as the only reason for creating traffic congestion. But in reality there are several of reasons behind this problem. Effective reasons include:

Significant increase in population and also in all types of vehicles All of the major export oriented Industries, corporate offices, significant number of Export Promotion Zones, the head offices of almost all Multi-National Companies, higher educational facilities and even the major International Airport of the country, all are located in or around the greater Dhaka city. Thus the city controls the economic development of the whole country. For these reasons, most of the rural-urban migration of Bangladesh is towards Dhaka City and it constitutes about 60% of Dhaka’s increasing population.

Dhaka, at present, is one of the top most populous cities of the world. At present the greater Dhaka has about 10 million population. The city’s urbanization rate is one of the highest of the world and it is projected that by the year 2010, Dhaka will be the sixth largest city of the world with 18 million population. The increasing population obviously increases the demand for more vehicles on the streets. Also they can easily provide the necessary labor force, especially for the informal sector rickshaw pulling.

The more the traffic, the more will be the congestion, as the city has very limited infrastructure. Heterogeneous vehicles and inadequate public transport: Dhaka is a city of heterogeneous vehicles. There are both motorized and non-motorized vehicles occupy the same streets at the same time. It is quite difficult to control all these vehicles on the same road as they have different speed capacity. Besides this, public transport system in Dhaka city is not adequate and properly-routed.

Most of the rickshaw “pullers,” or drivers, do not have any training and they are not even aware of the traffic rules. Inadequate and unplanned roads: Dhaka City has very inadequate road networks. For a standard city, where the minimum road requirement is 25%, Dhaka has only 7. 5% road of its total area. 30% of this 7. 5% road is also occupied by the hawkers, salesman and shopkeepers. A significant portion is occupied by construction materials and waste-containers of the City Corporation. As a result, vehicles do not get sufficient space to move on. Traffic Mismanagement:

Insufficient number of traffic police and traffic signals, flaws in traffic markings, violation of traffic rules and regulations etc. can also be cited as some of the main reasons for traffic congestion in this city. Some points are discussed here: Violation of Traffic rules and regulations a. There is a lack of education and consciousness among the citizenry about the traffic rules. b. People who come to the city from villages for employment, rickshaw pulling becomes the most easily available job for them. They do not need any formal training to start this profession.

In most of the cases, they do not even take a legal license. c. Most of the time, the pedestrians crosses the busy streets even if there is no crosswalk. People do not usually use the over bridges or underpasses, which are constructed in the important and busy intersections of the city. d. The buses do not stop at the bus stops, they stop just at the intersection points, and rickshaws always follow them. As a result, the intersections of the busy roads always remain crowded by the people and different types of vehicles. Insufficient parking arrangement and road blockage:

Limited parking arrangement is another major cause of excessive traffic in Dhaka City. It has become a regular practice to park the car on road. Most of the new shopping centers or commercial buildings do not have adequate parking facilities. People have to park on the roads, which ultimately narrow down the effective width of the roads to a great extent. Before the approval, many building projects show that they will provide parking facility in the basement. But after getting the authorization to construct a project, the builders or owners usually do not follow the proposed plan properly.

Even during rush hours, people are seen loading and unloading their vehicles on a busy road. City transports also stop here and there without any valid reason. The three major bus stations, Sayedabad, Gabtoli and Mohakhali do not have sufficient capacity to accommodate all the buses operating from here. A recent addition to road blockage is the long queue of vehicles at CNG stations, which is really difficult to overcome. Rail crossing: Every day we are experiencing movement of 74 trains to and from Dhaka.

The existing “intercity rail line” passes through the four important Central Business Districts and a number of important and busy roads of Dhaka City. When a train passes, lots of vehicles have to wait near the rail crossing, which causes serious traffic jam at the interval of every 15 minutes as an average. Political reasons: Every day at least one or two street processions or protests occur in Dhaka because of the all-time political instability of Bangladesh. These processions slow down the traffic flow of the important streets during the peak hour.

Essay on “Good People” medical school essay help: medical school essay help

What does it mean to be a good person? How can one respect oneself without hurting others? Are we able to judge whether a decision is wrong or right? Do we really know what love is? … Questions like these have always existed, but what happens when an author tries to comprehend the complexity of being ‘good people’? Is it possible to write about an issue like this? In David Foster Wallace’s short story “Good People” from 2007 we experience an attempt to do so. In the short story ”Good People” Wallace manages to reflect upon the complex discussion of what ‘good people’ are, as this is the main theme of the text.

To discuss this the story revolves around supporting themes of religious, existentialistic and ethical character. The religious theme is expressed in the discussion of abortion, in which the main character Lane at one point admits that “he did not know what to do”1 about this dilemma. The existentialistic theme is conveyed in Lane’s realization that he had not “once said it, avowed that he did love her”2. The ethical theme we meet in the dilemma of Lane discussing whether he is dishonest and respectful.

Admitting that “he could not say he did: it was not true3” that he loved her, Wallace creates a starting point for a discussion on ethics about honesty, respect and self-respect. The plot of the story consists of one long reflection in the mind of our main character, plot-wise known as an internal conflict. He reflects on the difficult situation, that he and his fiancee find themselves in, by creating imaginary conflicts between the two of them, while also circling around the supporting themes with relevance to the main theme.

The internal conflict of the main character, created as the basis of the plot, results in a plot driven by a non-chronological structure. Instead of unfolding the subject of the story linearly, the story moves forward in circles. Along with this it describes a development in the main character’s cognitive understanding of the issue. The plot on one side consists of a sporadic, incoherent and associating reflection on the main theme, and on the other side it deals with an on-going cognitive development.

One of the most remarkable proofs of this is expressed in the following quotation, where several different topics jump to Lane’s mind: “Two days before, he had awakened very early and tried to pray but could not. He was freezing … but he had not thought of his father … which had once filled him with such pity … Lane Dean, Jr. , felt sun on one arm as he pictured in his mind an image of himself on a train, waving mechanically to something that got smaller and smaller as the train pulled away. Sheri’s hair was colored … They’d sat here long enough that only their right side was shaded now.

He could look at her head, but not at her. Different parts of him felt unconnected to each other”4. In the above quotation we see how Lane’s thoughts sporadically differ between four different things in only eight lines. Together with this the quotation illustrates that the associations stresses this common feature of the plot of revolving on the main theme in this rather incoherent way. The statement saying “Different parts of him felt unconnected to each other” explicitly shows an actual realization in the cognitive development..

This two-sided aspect of the plot is reflected in the rest of the story in different ways; in the narrative technique and in the characters and their relations. Through the narrative technique we comprehend how Wallace elegantly portrays the main theme. Wallace uses a 3’rd person restricted narrator with the point of view placed on Lane, creating a subjective perspective on how the story unfolds. The strongly placed point of view creates a characteristic voice in the story.

The voice ultimately reminds one of a ‘stream of consciousness’-technique, which influences the story in general. The element of changing appellations stresses how the two kinds of processes are going on in the story; the associating way of reflecting along with the developing state of mind. The different use of how the main character titles himself from “Lane A. Dean, Jr. … Lane Dean, Jr. … Lane Dean … Lane”5 shows how he is mentally changing back and forth, emphasizing this circularly and non-linear reflection.

On the other hand the naming of Lane’s girlfriend, Sheri, shows a linear development from “his girlfriend … the girl … she … Sheri … Sheri Fisher”6. The way in which the girlfriend is named gives an impression of how the main character is developing his view of the girlfriend throughout the story. From an anonymous approach, ‘the girl’, to actually addressing her by her full name “Sheri Fisher”, This use of the narrative technique creates a stream of consciousness and creates an associating but yet authentic feeling – a feeling that enlightens the complex main theme of the story.

The construction of the characters and their relation is also important to the perception of the story. Given the fact that the story is told from the perspective of Lane, it is interesting that Sheri’s character is described in a flat and static way. The author makes a construction where we only understand Sheri through Lane’s view on her, and Lane ascribes her some specific but changing values through the story. In fact Sheri’s function is to be a mirror to the way Lane feels at a specific moment through the story.

Lane’s character on the other hand is dynamic and round as his internal conflict about defining what ‘good people’ are evolves through the story. What seems to be a conflict between the two characters in the plot is actually Lane’s internal conflict of being split. This appears when he gets a “vision or moment of grace”7 in which he suddenly feels the capability to see “into Sheri’s heart”8 although they “through all this frozen silence”9 had not shared a word with each other.

He verbalizes an imaginary reaction in the example that could possibly create a conflict, but really this conflict is an expression of Lane’s own internal conflict projected onto Sheri’s character.. Conclusively David Wallace has written a short story that in its form and content emphasizes the difficulties of understanding the complex problem of defining ‘good people’. Wallace creates an authentic, reliable and identifiable story through the characters and the narrative technique with its stream of consciousness,.

He creates a form, which with its associating feeling, comes close to resembling a complex dilemma from real life. Ultimately Wallace enlightens that neither the religious, existentialistic nor ethical aspect of the dilemma can stand alone when defining ‘good people’. In fact it is still extremely difficult to answer the question when considering all the aspects. In the end it stands clear that Wallace wants us to understand is that the answer to such a complex question lies in ourselves – every person has their own conclusion on issues like these.

Observation technique high school essay help: high school essay help

Checklists are lists of specific traits or behaviors arranged in logical order Check lists are especially useful for types of behavior or traits than can be easily and clearly specified Information from anecdotal and running records can be transferred to checklists to make interpretation easier Advantages 1. They are easy and quick to use; 2. Little training required; 3. They can be used in the presence of the child or recorded later; 4. Helps to focus observations on many behaviors at once; 5.

Can be used for curriculum planning; activities can be planned to encourage certain behaviors that have not yet been observed; 6. Can be used to condense information from running record or anecdotal records. Disadvantages 1. Not very detailed; 2. Little information about the context or sequence of events; 3. May miss important information not included on the checklist. 4. Notes if a behavior occurred but not how often it occurs or the duration of the behavior. Something that happens once may not be very meaningful. Target child observation

This form of observation is used in group settings to find out whether children are getting worthwhile experiences in the group. The child may be selected for a particular reason or at random. The child is observed for a concentrated period of time noting: ? The language they use ? How they interact with others ? What they are doing ? What materials they are using Particular attention should be paid to whether the child is being challenged by activities that make them think, work things out and whether they concentrate on activities.

To gain an accurate picture of a child’s development at a given time it is advisable to complete observations over a few days or a week. The observer must bear in mind that one isolated observation, even though it may reveal a surprising amount of information about a particular child, should never form the basis for reaching conclusions about a child’s ongoing development. If the practitioner wishes to get a full picture, they will need to collect a series of observations made at regular intervals over a period of time. Checklist Observation

A guide used for assessing a child on a particular day against a list of specific ‘milestones’that should be reached at a certain time. Checklists can be used on all children on aregular basis to enable you to plan for each child’s needs. Advantages • It is quick and simple to use. • It is a fast way of presenting a great deal of information. • It can be used as part of a Longitudinal study. • It can be regularly repeated to assess developmental progress. • Parents/carers can use it. • The guide can also be used on a group of children to find out more detail about thegroup. e. g. Gender differences-or show that there are none. Disadvantages • It may allow you narrow and limited information. • The checklist may not give a true picture on the day if the child is upset or unwell. • It may be tempting to put a tick against a skill you think a child has achievedtherefore you are not being objective and may disadvantage the child. Focus /Target Child Focus/target child is the observation of a particular child for a specific amount of time. Pre-coded categories are used to record what is being observed this technique is a good wayof collecting data.

Advantages • Focus/target one child, providing a collection of precise data over a period of time. • Information and data are easily accessible. • Demonstrates areas mostly used by the child in the setting. • Shows which area promotes conversation. Disadvantages • Information and data are limited. • More interesting information may be obtained but left out. • Codes have to be learnt by the observer, • The observer needs to focus on one particular child. • The observer needs to develop the skill to summarise precisely.

Studing is what matters argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

Brain drain is also known as “The human capital flight”. It can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. Brain-drain can have many reasons, for example-political instability of a nation, lack of opportunities, health risks, personal conflicts etc. Brain-drain can also be named as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight, in which mass migration of financial capital is involved. For the balance of power and for the staggered development of the world, it is very important to stop the phenomena of brain-drain.

This will help a particular country to use all local skilled citizens for development and proliferation. But to hold these skilled workers at their native places, it is also important to provide them enough work opportunities and living facilities. For this purpose, developed nations should help developing countries with necessary money and resources. So that each and every human of this planet can have good standard of living and each and every nation can introduce itself as a developed nation. ****

Brain drain (or human capital flight), is the large-scale emigration of a large group of individuals with technical skills or knowledge. The reasons usually include two aspects which respectively come from countries and individuals. In terms of countries, the reasons may be social environment (in source countries: lack of opportunities, political instability or oppression, economic depression, health risks, etc. ; in host countries: rich opportunities, political stability and freedom, developed economy, better living conditions, etc. ).

In terms of individual reasons, there are family influence (overseas relatives), and personal preference: preference for exploring, ambition for an improved career, etc. Although the term originally referred to technology workers leaving a nation, the meaning has broadened into: “the departure of educated or professional people from one country, economic sector, or field for another, usually for better pay or living conditions”. [1] Brain drain is usually regarded as an economic cost, since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their training sponsored by the government or other organizations.

It is a parallel of capital flight, which refers to the same movement of financial capital. Brain drain is often associated with de-skilling of emigrants in their country of destination, while their country of emigration experiences the draining of skilled individuals. The term brain drain was coined by the Royal Society to describe the emigration of “scientists and technologists” to North America from post-war Europe. [2] Another source indicates that this term was first used in the United Kingdom to describe the influx of Indian scientist and engineers.

[3] The converse phenomenon is “brain gain”, which occurs when there is a large-scale immigration of technically qualified persons. There are also relevant phrases called “brain circulation” and “brain waste”. Brain drain is common among developing nations, such as the former colonies of Africa,[4] the island nations of the Caribbean,[5] and particularly in centralized economies such as former East Germany and the Soviet Union, where marketable skills were not financially rewarded #theme :technologiE

introduction: throught history technological innovations have helped humankind improve their standards of living,begining¬ with the simple invention of bonetools of prehistorie times,continuin¬g on to and beyond modern air conditioners,au¬tomobilies and super computers. nowad¬ays,when the rapideness of development and research is so imprssive ,it’s easy to think about the advantages of modern technology. .Nevertheless,t¬echnology can save lives and give us a lot of comfort provided that it doesn’t fall in the wrong hands. Yet,it’s blatantly conspicuous that the deleterious effects of technology out wrigh its benefits.

Teach¬ children self confidence+lear¬n them how to deal with certains obstacles ,how to defend him self+teach children how ti use their ineligence+faci¬lities researches communicatin+th¬e computer games are the best alternative to keep children safe at home ery good job also you can add this:To live, learn and work successfully in an increasingly complex and information-ric¬h society, students must use technology to Innovate, Collaborate, Investigate and Think Critically. Benefits*techno¬logy can save people’s lives*it shortens distances*it solves the problem of many childless parents*technol¬ogy improves other fields*the internet is a source on valuable information*tv makes the world look like a small village Understand that modern technology has benefited human beings by increasing production of goods and services, reducing the amount of labor needed to produce these goods and services, and providing higher living standards. – Understand that technology has also had negative effects on society—environ¬mental pollution,deple¬tion of natural resources, unemployment, and the creation of ethical dilemmas, among others.

Disadvantages*i¬t can teach violence*it can harm the eyes*it can cause pollution*cloni¬ng is perceived as smoothing immoral*childre¬n can be addicted to it*nuclear power and weapons destroy our world*machines can replace men at work characteristics of inventor ,, everyone dreams of being famous and remembered forever. some are known for their skills in inventing and designing new things to facilate humans life. in fact there ara many caracteristics required to be a seccessful inventor . first an inventor imagines , disigns and refers many times to previous results to build on tham, second inventors are determined to work intensively and at many time to earch a result. morever an inventor is commited to his work that is he dedicates his time , his mony as well as his effort to creating a useful appliance medicament or even an item of clothes ,, in this context ,, i may mention the work of alfred nobel who devoted his wealth to sponsoring students only to show that his invention was for the benifit of humanity. all in all we should encourag all the inventors and support tham.

•• Advantages and disadvantages of living in the country and in the city. There is a tendency in the modern society to abandon the country and to migrate to the city. More and more people, especially young and well educated, decide to live in large metropolises rather than in small towns or villages. The main factor that influences their decision is unemployment problem which is very acute in the country. The city offers many opportunities to young people. First of all, they can attend there the best universities and use the best learning resources which will allow them to develop their knowledge and skills.

Good educational background increases their chances to find employment in good companies which will offer them lucrative posts. People who are ambitious and want to be successful and pursue their careers find in the city many possibilities to realize their potential and to gain the best professional experience. Besides, large modern metropolises provide their inhabitants with limitless sources of entertainment. Young people can socialize in cafes, pubs, clubs or discos or take part in various cultural events, like for example concerts, art exhibitions or spectacles in the theatre.

Moreover, they can enjoy shopping in large shopping centres or department stores. All these charms and attractions of the city are appealing to young people, however when they start their own families they usually start missing peacefulness and tranquillity of country life. As they become older, people are tired with the hectic and stressful city life and often decide to move outside the city. However, country life, although more quiet and peaceful, has also disadvantages. ***Where shall we live? Some may choose to live in big cities, while other like the natural and quiet surroundings in the countryside.

As far as I am concerned, I would like to live in a big city because living in a big city has more advantages than living in the countryside. To begin with, the city is the symbol of human civilization and there are a many facilities for living, recreation and health care. Therefore, living there is more convenient than living in the countryside. Living in such a big city has a lot of advantages. There is a big offer how to spend free time. There are always plenty of social activities, sports events, concerts and other ways of entertainment.

There are more recreational places in big cities, such as opera houses, movie theatres, clubs, and swimming pools. You will have many kinds of entertainment in big cities, and meet many people. In countryside, however, the life may be dull and quite, and you may only have a few neighbors. In a big city, people can take the chances to study and work best. There are many good University choosing in a big city. There you can express your ability to study what you like. Moreover, when you graduate, you also find it easier to find chances to get a good job with good salary, that is quite difficult in small citiesor countrysides. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of living in a big city. Cities are very crowded. Everywhere there are crowds: on the pavements and in the buses. What is more, the traffic is heavy and city’s car parks are always very full. Sometimes it is very difficult to get from a given place to another. It may take hours! And it follows to that, that the air in the city is more polluted, than in the countryside. People in the city are like ants. They are always in hurry, busy and out of time.

Roles and responsibilities of Human resource professionals college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

?Roles and responsibilities of Human resource professionals Human resource professionals need to work together with line management in the management of the organisation’s human capital. The human resource professionals key responsibilities in this regard are to formulate and implement policy, advise and counsel, render a service, control personnel affairs, communicate, as well as be an employee advocate. Formulate and implement Policy: Human resource professionals draft policies and procedures relevant to the organisation’s people management.

Once accepted by management these policies and procedures then need to be implemented together with line management. The human resource department is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the HR policy by line departments. They also assist line management in the interpretation of the policies. Advise and Counsel: The human resource professional acts as an internal consultant to employees, supervisors, managers and executives.

Their knowledge of internal people management issues and the dynamics of the external environment allow the human resource professional to provide invaluable advice for the making of organisational decisions. Render a Service: Human resource professionals provide a range of services such as recruiting, selecting and training. The services offered by Human Resource should be directed towards facilitating the achievement of the organisation’s goals.

Control Personnel Affairs: The human resource professional monitors and controls the implementation of human resource related policies and procedures. Examples of control functions which human resource professionals perform include the following: Analysis of employment related data (example recruitment, training, promotion statistics) to identify the degree to which employment equity goals are being achieved. Analysis of data from performance appraisals for the purposes of determining whether performance management is being fairly conducted.

Analysis of absenteeism and grievances to determine problem areas. Communicate: Communication is critical to the effective functioning of any organisation, and human resource professionals play a critical role in the designing and implementing companywide communication strategies. Examples of types of communication methods which the human resource department facilitates are: New employee orientation Bulletin boards Communication meetings Newsletters

Employee handbooks Surveys Employee Advocate: An important responsibility of the human resource professional is to be an employee advocate. This involves actively listening to employee’s concerns and addressing these with management. In this way, human resource professionals can facilitate a greater fit between the employees and the organisation and in so doing promote employee satisfaction. Adapted from Mancosa Business Management 1B study guide pages 89 -91

Dr Pepper english essay help: english essay help

Inventing in coolers and vending machine. (Details to convince): In the United States, Dr Pepper Snapple Group does not have a complete network of bottlers and distributors, so the drink is sometimes bottled under contract by Coca-Cola or Pepsi bottlers. Currently, the majority of Pepsi and Coke bottlers bottling Dr Pepper are owned by PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company after their buyouts of their major bottlers.

Presently, Dr Pepper Snapple relies on its own bottling group to bottle and distribute its products in more than 30 states. And it is now also sold in Europe, Asia, Canada, Mexico, Australia,New Zealand (as an imported drink), South Africa (also as an imported drink), and South America. Dr Pepper’s company in US Promotion Free source of communication was achieved Secondary associations was also achieved Support of off-beat personalities, achieve cult-like status Use of real and natural communication means

Important of having spokesperson (Details to convince) :In the 1960s, Dr Pepper released the “Charge” ad The “Be a Pepper” series referred to fans of Dr Pepper as “Peppers”, and often featured crowd dance scenes with elaborate, over-the-top choreography. This became grist for a number of pop culture references and parodies. ( ph? n nay tui co down clip, khi nao lam powerpoint send sau cho) In the early 1960s, Dr Pepper promoted the idea of serving the drink hot with lemon slices in winter.

This idea appeared in the film Years later, another example is in the video game Pikmin 2, where one of the collectible treasures is a Dr Pepper bottle cap. Also, it appeared on the books. They also started an onpack promotion for free ringtones with up to 20 to collect. In 2010, Dr Pepper was part of a marketing/promotional campaign to promote the summer blockbuster Iron Man 2 In 2011, rapper Pitbull appeared in a commercial with the slogan “Let’s have a real good time. “

Parenting skills essay help: essay help

1) What role do you think discipline plays in developing a child’s self-esteem? What forms of discipline best serve the self-esteem of the child or adolescent? -the best self esteem comes from letting your child try reasonable challenges, helping just enough for them to see that they can succeed if they try , also I think discipline plays a vast role in developing a child’s self-esteem , it determines the way children collaborate with the public and theirs cause and effects to what may happen to the child depending on the way they were disciplined as a minor, such as knowing the difference from punishing and abusing a child.

Punishing a child too harshly can scar them for life and have them grow up with low self-esteem and not giving those enough punishments that they deserve might turn the child into a monster. The forms of discipline that best serves the self-esteem of a child might include boundary-based discipline, and emotion coaching. 2) List and discuss how activities, clubs, or sports, impact the self-esteem of children and parents. Provide at least two activities, clubs, or sports in your answer. -Children that participate in sports, clubs, etc. are more likely to have a high self-esteem because self-esteem partially comes from accomplishments and success and when children succeed in the sports and clubs that they are devoted in will give them that satisfactory that they have been striving and working hard for , Such as basketball players working hard on different techniques on how to win a game, that takes time, effort, and determination also , Being involved in a debate club also gives you that boost of excitement knowing that whatever your thinking is being heard and your knowledge is being shared with those who are present, after winning versus someone else gives you that high self-esteem, because you’ve just accomplished a great self-achievement .

Language Essay devry tutorcom essay help: devry tutorcom essay help

Most professions or trades use language specific to that line of work. In the workplace of psychiatrists, psychologists, and therapists, there is a specific language used in assessing, diagnosing, and treating clients and patients. I have come to be familiar with this as my mother is a therapist and we have talked about her work and diagnosing people with a variety of mental health disorders. The problem with such language and expressing that language in a book like the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) is that it can be used against people in a way that is not healing but harmful and something that very often too few people consider.

This language is sometimes used to take very human and real and normal life situations, like bereavement and trauma and sadness and anxiety, and somehow attach a medical diagnosis to them. And, of course, if there is a medical diagnosis, than there must be an accompanying treatment or cure for a cost. According to Philip Hickey in his article entitled, “Behaviorism and Mental Health” (2011) in 1952, homosexuality was listed in the DSM as a sociopathic personality disturbance and according to the American Psychiatric Association homosexuality was a mental illness up until 1974.

Neil Postman states in his essay The Word Weavers/The World Makers, “By naming an event and categorizing it as a “thing”, we create a vivid and more or less permanent map of what the world is like. ” (853) That is what happened in the world of psychology and psychiatry regarding homosexual behavior. The American Psychiatric Association agreed that this “thing”, homosexuality, is an illness and we are Page 1 attaching a name to it: sociopathic personality disorder. It suddenly becomes something very different by the use of those three words, something more frightening and more dangerous sounding according to Hickey (2011).

The language of psychiatry, defining a person’s behaviors and feelings and thoughts, and attributing to certain collections of these behaviors, feelings, and thoughts, a mental illness can be dangerous when not used with extreme care. How many people underwent intensive and costly therapy to “cure” their homosexuality and how many felt intense guilt and self-loathing? How much pain was caused and harm done in a profession whose first oath is to do no harm? Homosexuality is just one example of that.

Not to mention the fact that suddenly after 1974, homosexuality was not a mental disorder anymore. Were homosexuals suddenly “cured”? Of course not. A group of people who believed that their feelings, thoughts, and behaviors were not indicative of illness, gay rights groups, protested and brought enough pressure to bear that language was changed and, slowly, so were attitudes and beliefs. This year an up-dated edition of the DSM-5 was published. This manual lists the symptoms and names of the mental health disorders diagnosed and treated in this country.

Prior to this year the DSM-IV included the term Mental Retardation to describe people whose intellectual functioning fell below a certain pre-determined set standard. That term is now excluded and no longer used as it is considered hurtful and offensive. Why? Because a term that originally was used clinically as a short cut and more descriptive term for professional purposes became something used to insult people and put people down. As stated by John Grohol in “The Dangers of Diagnosis” (1996) the language and the term became harmful, not healing.

These professionals use terms like bi-polar, schizophrenia, depression, and others to quickly communicate to others who are familiar with the language. But often those short cut terms are used in hurtful ways or are simply misunderstood and used incorrectly. Page 2 Proponents of the DSM argue that one of the many reasons to use such specialized language is to have a short cut in discussing topics related to the work and as a tool to allow professionals to have a common understanding and clarity in the work.

Grohol (1996) states in “The Dangers of Diagnosis” it is needed in speaking to other professionals and it is needed to access the system of insurance and managed care. The language helps to communicate efficiently and effectively and the professionals who speak that language can move through the work more quickly and, at the same time, often get paid because it has become what not only the psychiatric and psychological businesses use, but also what insurance companies have come to use in way of what they will or will not pay.

The power to define is great and it should be used carefully, cautiously. Postman states, “For the point is that in every situation, including this one, someone (or some group) has a decisive power of definition. In fact, to have power means to be able to define and to make it stick” (837). The other power is that these labels and this language is used to access insurance and money that, without the labels, is otherwise withheld from people. Insurance companies will pay for certain conditions and not others.

They take the language and the list of symptoms and decide what is worth paying for and what is not. There is danger in that because someone could be labeled or diagnosed simply because it is the thing that the insurance company will pay for. Just because a small group of people have this ability to label behaviors and feelings and thoughts as certain “things”, does not mean the people in the field must use these terms or get so use to using these short cut terms that humanity in the field of psychiatry and psychology is lost or forgotten.

As Judith Butler states in Undoing Gender, “…relations of power that circumscribe in advance what will and will not count as truth, which order the world in certain regular and regulatable ways, and which we come Page 3 to accept as the given field of knowledge” (743). We are complicated, complex human beings experiencing a variety of wonderful and terrible things throughout our lives. Sometimes forgetting the labels and the short cuts and taking the time to focus on the person and what their unique experience is could be a way to improve the process.

As the reading states, our control of language aids in our perception of the world. We use language to bring what we see under control and make the complexities of the experience manageable. This is what diagnostic language is used to do. According to Grohol in “The Dangers of Diagnosis” (1996) some diagnosis are needed so that two professionals do not sit across from one another and recount fifteen types of behavior and thoughts when two words, for instance, paranoid schizophrenic, would do.

However, maybe what is needed is more conversations about those symptoms and what they mean. In a world where there is less time and more demands than ever, the answer to some of this might be to slow down and have conversations with colleagues about what patients are experiencing and perhaps bringing some of that power to bear over insurance companies. These days and in conjunction with the new Obamacare legislation that power could somehow be used so that mental health issues are covered in their entirety.

Because of the way language is used clinically some people do not seek treatment because of the fear that somewhere a diagnosis will be put on them that will follow them the rest of their lives. Clinical language is meant for helping professionals in their work not to stick someone with a label that will follow them wherever they go and maybe, unnecessarily restrict them in the future from doing things or holding certain jobs. The point of clinical language is to help the clinicians and doctors, not burden the patient with a label when they are already suffering with a mental health challenge. Page 4

Research Paper on PTSD assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD) is a disorder that occurs in people who have suffered through a traumatic event. Such as sexual abuse, natural disasters, war, etc. These people then go through three different types of symptoms; the first is called re-experiencing where they relive the event through nightmares, flashbacks and bad thoughts.

Then there’s the second set of symptoms which are called avoidance symptoms where they do things like avoiding an area where the event occurred or somewhere that reminds them of that event, getting a strong sense of guilt, depression, worry or becoming emotionally numb, not being able to remember the event or losing interest in things that they once enjoyed doing. Then there is the third set of symptoms called hyperarousal symptoms which include having angry outbursts, trouble sleeping, being easily startled and feeling on edge(“Post Traumatic Stress Disorder” 1).

PTSD can occur in anyone and it is something that is becoming a major disorder in today’s society with the Iraq/Afghanistan wars that have been going on since 2001. There has been a lot of research done on it to prove that PTSD is actually real and that it is affecting more and more people, especially war veterans, and going untreated. Review of Research: There was an experiment that was done by 7 doctors who have M. D. s and Ph. Ds. They did a random, controlled experiment on a small group of active service members with the goal of comparing which treatment for PTSD has better results, TAU or VR-GET.

The experiment procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board and an independent medical monitor. It was conducted at U. S. Navy medical facilities in San Diego and Camp Pendleton and followed all federal and military guidelines in the treatment of Service Members and research participants(McLay 224). The experiments and patients both were aware of what was going on in the experiment, had to sign consent forms that said they were allowed to leave at any time knowing that they would not receive active duty pay and that they were participating willingly and then the patients signed up for VR-GET or TAU and there was an equal amount of patients in each type of treatment(McLay 224). The abbreviation TAU means treatment as usual which means that the service members go through normal treatments for PTSD like prolonged exposure, cognitive processing therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, substance rehab, inpatient services or a combination of them(McLay 225). And the abbreviation VR-GET means Virtual Reality-Graded Exposure Therapy which is as it sounds.

It is a virtual reality simulation that allows the patient to experience their traumas and phobias in a controlled environment and also be monitored by equipment that measures their response to their surroundings in the virtual reality they’re experiencing. The therapist during this VR simulation can also increase or decrease the stressing factors of the environment based off the patient’s response to what they’re experiencing(McLay 223). The experimenters hypothesized that “patients with combat-related PTSD would be more likely to experience clinically significant improvements in VR-GET than treatment as usual(TAU)(McLay 224).

” To participate in the experiment the patients had to have CAPS scores of 40 or higher and then their medical records were reviewed. CAPS is the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale. The experiment was conducted over a 10 week period with a follow up assessment 10 weeks after the experiment ended and it was considered a success if the it showed a clinically meaningful improvement, which means 30% or greater, reduction of PTSD symptoms with CAPS(McLay 224).

They then went through their experiments and were assessed after the 10 week period. The results showed that of all 10 participants who had participated in the VR-GET, seven of them showed a 30% or greater improvement in CAPS and of the 10 who participated in the TAU treatment only one of the returning nine showed a 30% or greater improvement on the CAPS (1 did not show up to complete the post assessment until later)(McLay 226). The results show that the VR-GET treatment works better than the TAU treatment by a significant amount.

Though the researchers said that this should also be based off the patient’s needs since everyone responds to treatments differently and that there will probably be no “one-size-fits-all approach” due to the fact previously stated. A research team of 5 that conducted a PTSD survey on soldiers with amputated limbs or spinal injuries in a rehabilitation facility in Sri Lanka. The treatment for soldiers in the war in Sri Lanka is more physically based then mentally and it is a known fact that there is a higher risk of PTSD in soldiers who have been in battle(Abeyasinghe 377).

PTSD is prevalent in about 30% of war veterans, male and female both( Abeyasinghe 377). The study was one of the first done in Sri Lanka since no one has thought to do it previously and was carried out in 2009. They used a questionnaire that was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the questionnaire was made based on the Impact of Event Scale and PTSD symptom scale(Abeyasinghe 377). The questionnaire was translated into Sinhala and it was pre-tested in other injury groups and then from that, they refined the questionnaire to fit their needs and gave that to the spinal injuries and amputees(Abeyasinghe 377).

The research they did was a cross sectional study, which means that they used different people who had similar interests to the study, and then got willing participants to take part in the research. The results showed that of the 96 participants, 40 of them indicated a diagnosis of PTSD(Abeyasinghe 378). That means that 41. 7% of participants were diagnosed with PTSD and are not being treated for it and would not be if they had not taken the survey to find out.

They did this study with Vietnam veterans and soldiers who went to Afghanistan and found that 30% of those soldiers also had PTSD and were not being treated for it until afterwards also(McLay 379). This study shows that even though we give our soldiers the medical attention they need, they are not getting all of it and that should be fixed. There was an experiment done about the medical research done on twins, combat exposed and non-combat exposed, along with comparing previous studies of PTSD to their medical research. They used PTSD patients and a control group.

For the twins they are using the ones who have PTSD and the ones who do not and then comparing their MRIs(Pitman 772). The MRIs show that the combat exposed twin who has PTSD have an enlarged hippocampal area and that the combat unexposed twin had a high risk factor for PTSD because the twin had PTSD. Their hippocampal area was also enlarged when compared to the control twins who had no PTSD and a low risk factor(Pitman 772). The article goes through every part of the brain and compares the scans of the combat exposed and combat unexposed twin groups, control and experimental, comparing the area of study, like the prefrontal cortex.

They used previous neuroimaging literature that stated that the prefrontal cortex reduces in size with PTSD and did sMRIs to find that patients with PTSD had a reduced volume in their rostral(pregenual) vmPFC and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex(dACC). Which is the area of the brain that corresponds to Brodmann area and can also be called anterior mid-cingulate cortex(Pitman 772-773). It goes through every biological aspect you could think of and speculates off of the research previously done to the medical tests they have conducted to show how PTSD affects the brain, hormones, genes, and animal studies.

Then their conclusions at the end to tell you how this will help future medical treatments of PTSD. There was a study done about how the medical drugs that have been developed for PTSD are very lacking in the ability to help PTSD patients. Records show that patients who receive pharmacological treatments like SSRIs paroxetine and sertraline barely ever exceed 60% and even less patients(20-30%) achieve clinical remission(Bailey 221).

Even placebo-trials of other medications for PTSD have failed and recent studies of medications that are approved have failed to show desired results in patients(Pitman 222). The article is basically going over the effects of the drugs that are usually used to treat PTSD like noradrenergic, serotonergic, endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems along with hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and then from figuring out what works with these and what does not, a possible future pharmacological intervention that could actually work and show results(Pitman 222).

They then go into detail of each drug, explaining what it is made up of and how it does and does not work in relation to PTSD, including studies that have been done previously, charts, references to other works and explanations for the large words and confusing terminology. The conclusion of the article states that biological markers alone are not sufficient by themselves, especially since treatment is limited to symptom management rather than fixing the biological cause(Pitman 227).

Since there is not one drug that works specifically for PTSD, by using existing knowledge and research they can come up with treatments that relate to PTSD(Pitman 227). To conclude, there is a lot of research done on PTSD, statistics, experiments, biological aspects, pathophysiological aspects and so much more.

PTSD is a very new field of study in medicine and it is not known where it comes from exactly, whether its genes or just the body’s coping mechanism for events to stressful for the mind but either way it is something that is increasing in the world’s population with wars, natural disasters, physical/sexual abuses, etc. and it needs to be addressed. More and more people are suffering without a way to fix it and it is taking a toll on the mental health of the population. Works Cited

Range of early years settings academic essay help: academic essay help

*Mother and toddler group-this is a place where toddlers can socialise with other children of their own age whilst the mother and father can stay,play and learn more ways to look after and help with their childs development *Pre school-Is a private nursery,one that is paid for by the parents and children from 3 years can get 15 hours free a week by the goverment. They do not do compulsory hours and the child does not have a primary school place already.

Some children may go to a school nursery in the morning and a private nursery in the afternoon. Day care-Day care is for children of different ages from 3 months to 5 years,they have a different classes for different ages. The parents can drop their child off and pick them up when they wish. Some parents may only take their child for a couple of hours a day so that their child socalises and interact with children of their own age.

Creche-This is a drop in centre style childcare parents dont have to pay a monthly fee they only pay for the service when they need. Creches are located in different places ie gym,shopping centre church. *Reception-is a class is the first stage of infants school *Child minders are there to help parents who work long hours they pick or drop the child off to school or home *Childrens centre/Sure start centre are in place to help parents with all sorts of issues ie help with parenting,provide childcare and do courses for parents.

Analysis of an Artwork: Vanitas by Jean de Valdes Leal write my essay help: write my essay help

Introduction There are many works of art that focus on the materialistic aspect of mankind, as well as life and death. However, few works merge these themes together seamlessly into one, in a way that makes sense and seems effortless. Vanitas by Juan de Valdes Leal (Getlein, 15) is a work that achieves the combination of the materialistic theme with the theme of life and death. Leal is able to illustrate elements concerning both the fleeting moment of life along with the subsequent uselessness of materialistic possessions within one’s lifetime. Vanitas is an oil painting composed by Juan de Valdes Leal, in 1660.

The work currently resides in the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut. Formal Analysis of Artwork Vanitas offers two conceptually unified themes. One theme is the combination of materialistic objects and the things that mankind seeks after to ‘complete their life’. The second theme suggests the passage of time. The unity of the materialistic theme is accomplished through the grouping of materialistic objects such as wealth, knowledge, and power through such items as collection of wealth, books to impart knowledge, and crowns and scepter showing authority.

While, the illustration of passing time is signified by the pocket watch, sundial, a diagram of the passing of seasons, and a skull, which represents death. The work is unified by the use of an earth tone color palate; in shades of red, black, beige, and ochre. Due to this color palate, there is an antique feel to the work. This theme is further suggested by the collection of some things that seem like artifacts, such as the candlestick, a globe, crowns and scepter, as well as the painting of The Last Judgment partially hidden behind the curtain.

Our eyes are directed through this work in two ways, the first, and most obvious, is the use of color and light. Our eyes are drawn to begin in the lower right of the work. First we see the coins, candlestick, and jewels; then our eyes are pulled along to the left and upward in the painting by the lightness of the flowers and books, on to the globe, things of the earth and knowledge. Finally we are drawn up to the painting of The Last Judgment and the suggestion of moving toward heaven.

Another way we are guided through this work is through the use of lines. I found that the lines in this work were more implied lines, a specific example would be the man standing in the background pointing. The hand he is gesturing to the painting with is blurred. The blurred line of his pointing arm appears a suggested line, but the hand he is holding the curtain back with is focused and appears to be pointing up to the heavens. This further solidifies the theory that we are being drawn up to the heavens.

The colors that are used to draw our eyes through the painting give us the impression of light, otherwise known as illusionistic light. This technique of creating the impression of light is done with the utilization of lighter colors. In this particular painting the base is light and you are drawn up into the darkness of the top of the painting. Another principle of design found in Vanitas is asymmetrical balance. There is balance at the bottom of the work between light and dark.

However, as you travel to the top of the work the large, visually heavy painting on the left side is in stark contrast to the empty space on the right side. This is due to the texture in the form of the painting on the left side as compared to the simple man and dark space behind him on the right side. We are also faced with the visual weight of the work. When the visual weight of a work is seen as distributed throughout with balance, then we understand the work to be visually balanced.

This work seems bottom heavy because there is more light and texture at the bottom of the painting, than throughout the top portion of the work. This might be off putting, but the introduction of bigger blocks of color in the top, and the visually heavy feeling of the darkness, lends to a feeling of the opposition between the foreground and background. This is an element that lends a feeling of balance front to back, as opposed to top to bottom. It feels visually balanced as far as working with scale and proportion.

Another view of scale and proportion can be seen in the way that Leal uses hierarchical scale to illustrate how the things of the earth are less important than what happens in the afterlife. He does this by showing all the possessions one desires of the world such as money, power, and knowledge. As you take in the materialistic things of the world, you are then led up to the top portion of the work where we are shown religious concepts such as the Last Judgment.

Overall, I felt this work was engaging in its subject matter, interesting in the depiction of themes, and visually pleasing through its color palate use. The elements of light and dark, as well as color and balance work, together well to make this painting flow in its presentation of the themes at hand. Through the use of these principles Leal was able to tie in the themes of life and death with the theme of the pursuit of materialistic rewards, and how they should be counterbalanced against higher thinking and religious principles.

Discuss the Images In Sympathy That Reveal The Pain Of Slavery aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

When the wind stirs soft through the springing grass, Alliteration used twice using the letters W and S. I know why the caged bird beats his wing Till its blood is red on the cruel bars The poet is using imagery and a rather painful one by describing the bars of the cage covered with the bird’s red blood which is describe the struggle the bird is going through to be free. For he must fly back to his perch and cling When he fain would be on the bough a-swing

The poet describing why he must get out the bird must fly back to where he belongs to the tree branch where he will be happy and he will start swinging on the branch. And a pain still throbs in the old , old scars And they pulse again with a keener sting I know why he beats his wing! The poet tells us that it is not the first time that he beats his wings against the bars, Because there is pain pounds in his old scares. When his wing is bruised and his bosom sore, When he beats his bars and he would be free The poet uses alliterations here with the letters w and b.

He wants the reader to pay more attention to what the bird is going through and the fact that his wing his bruised when he beats the bars trying to be free. It is not a carol of joy or glee, But a prayer that he sends from his heart’s deep core, But a plea, that upward to heaven he flings A metaphor is used to describe the imprisoned bird which is comparing him with a human being that prays and unlike every other bird he does not sing he prays from his heart and requests for freedom and this metaphor is used to show how strongly the bird feels about wanting and needing his freedom.

Literary Criticism of The Namesake essay help writer: essay help writer

Allusions to Nikolai V. Gogol and his short story “The Overcoat” permeate Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake, beginning with Gogol’s being the name the protagonist is called through most of the book. Yet few of the reviewers of the novel mentioned Nikolai Gogol at all in their discussions of the novel, except to describe the protagonist Gogol’s loathing of his name, or to quote without comment or explanation Dostoevski’s famous line, “We all came out of Gogol’s Overcoat.

” So far, no one has looked beyond the surfaces to examine the significance of the allusions to Gogol that are so much a part of the fabric of Lahiri’s novel. Without the references to Nikolai Gogol, it is easy to read the novel as simply another account of the difficulties of a first-generation American trying to “find himself,” nicely written, but not particularly thought-provoking. It may seem merely unexamined documentation of the confusion of its main character, a confusion which itself has become a bit of a cliche.

The conventional wisdom about first generation Asian Americans is that an awareness of two cultures is a kind of curse which makes them unable to understand who they “really” are, as if identity were nothing more than cultural identification. Read with an understanding of the significance of the Gogol story, however, the novel is much more clearly an elucidation of the causes and meaning of that confusion, which comes not only from having a multiple cultural identity, but from some of the ways in which people in modern American society tend to view identity.

In particular, the allusions to Gogol, along with the motif of naming and Lahiri’s own unique literary style, seem to suggest that some of the characters’ unnecessary unhappiness arises from the tendency to identify oneself with the aspects of selfhood that William James called the material self, one’s surroundings, clothing, food, and possessions, and the social self, the loves and friendships that surround us. Furthermore, in a mobile society like modern America, unfortunately, the relationships of the social self are apt to be transitory, which seems to be part of the protagonist’s problems in The Namesake.

In addition, although James includes the immediate family as part of the material self, the protagonist does not seem to realize the extent to which this is true until too late, which is also not uncommon. In any case, what is often left underdeveloped is the essential self, the organizing consciousness that strives to understand the meaning and patterns of the events of one’s life in this world, that searches for continuity, or that seeks a way to make peace with the irrational.

At first it seems that neither the hapless Akaky Akakyvitch of Gogol’s story nor his eccentric creator can have anything in common with the bright, handsome, conforming Gogol Ganguli of Lahiri’s novel, or this fantastic, grotesque, and very Russian nineteenth-century short story with the seemingly realistic novel about a twentieth-century Indian-American’s search for an identity in American society. Nevertheless, “The Overcoat” is about identity, among other things.

The protagonist’s name, Akaky Akakyevitch, suggests a contradictory identity in itself, being a saint’s name and yet sounding like a Russian baby-talk word for feces; and of course the name is also simply a repetition of his father’s name. Akaky is a non-entity. A scrivener, he delights in copying out other people’s writing, and yet is strangely unable and unwilling to try to write anything of his own, or even to change a word in the original text when he is specifically asked to.

As a text, he isn’t anyone; he is simply copies of what is written by others. But this copying is bliss. His very lack of identity is the source of his happiness. This changes when is obliged to buy a new overcoat, a costly overcoat, and becomes another person. Or rather, he becomes his overcoat. He and his new overcoat are even invited to a party in its honor by the assistant head clerk of his department. He becomes a new man, noticing women, for instance, when before he would forget where he was while crossing the street.

As he is coming back from this uncharacteristic outing, his overcoat is stolen. When he reports the loss to a local dignitary (on his co-workers’ advice–no idea is his own), he is bullied and insulted for his temerity in approaching such an important person. Tellingly, the Very Important Person demands, “Do you realize, sir, who you are talking to? ” (Gogol 263), as if he didn’t know who he was himself, without its being reconfirmed by other’s fear of him.

Exposed to the cold once again, the overcoatless Akaky then catches a fever and dies, but this is not the end of the story. Shortly after Akaky’s death, a “living corpse” who looks like Akaky begins haunting the same square in which Akaky was robbed, but this time as a stealer of overcoats rather than as a victim. One of this Akaky’s victims is the same Very Important Person who bullied him, who had been mildly regretting his harshness, and who is now frightened into real repentance.

The last we hear of Akaky and his ghost is when a policeman sees a burly man whom he takes to be the ghostly overcoat thief, accosts him, and finds instead a man who is clearly not Akaky, but may be the original thief who robbed him. It’s a strange story, suggesting very non-American ideas about identity and the undesirability of having a fixed identity. The overcoat that Akaky buys at such cost seems to be both the material self and the social self, both of which he previously lacked, and which he then mistakes for who he is.

Vladimir Nabokov even suggests that for Akaky, the coat is like a mistress or a wife–some one/thing that defines him as a normal member of society and yet paradoxically causes him to lose his essential self. One can read the story as a kind of parable about identity theft and shifting identities, in which Akaky goes from being no-one, to being an overcoat, to being a ghost, and finally to being, perhaps, a version of the very person who robbed him, or at least into something that can be mistaken for him.

Charles Bernheimer has suggested that the story reflects Nikolai Gogol’s own horror of having a fixed identity. One of the reasons that Gogol was unable to finish Dead Souls, Bernheimer says, was that “for Gogol to write The Book would be equivalent to a fixing of his personality, an act of definition that would subject his secret soul to understanding, to penetration and violation by the other” (54). Richard Moore suggests as well that Akaky’s copying is parallel to Gogol’s own writing in which he assumes a series of voices.

There is a way in which Akaky, then, is a version of his creator. Moreover, the ending is deliberately ambiguous so as not to impose a meaning, an identity, on the story itself. The true protection seems to lie in not being known, not being knowable, and yet, some kind of outward identity is necessary too. “The Overcoat” is a meditation on identity and loss, but exactly what it is “saying” about these abstractions is ambiguous, because the story is clothed in language and structured to evoke meanings and evade them at the same time.

The meaning of the story is not just in the plot; in fact, Vladimir Nabokov suggests that to the extent that the story has a meaning, the style, not the plot, conveys it. The story combines voices and tones and levels of reality. Nabokov says, “Gogol’s art discloses that parallel lines not only meet, but they can wiggle and get most extravagantly entangled, just as two pillars reflected in water in the most wobbly contortions if the necessary ripple is there” (58). Multiple, contradictory realities and identities exist as once.

Like a Zen paradox, the story does not have a fixed meaning, but serves rather to create a space in which the reader can experience his own private epiphany. It is this ambiguity that draws Ashoke Ganguli, Gogol Ganguli’s father, to the story in the first place. As he reads the story on the almost fatal train ride that becomes a turning point in his life, Ashoke thinks, “Just as Akaky’s ghost haunted the final pages, so did it haunt a place deep in Ashoke’s soul, shedding light on all that was irrational, that was inevitable about the world” (Lahiri 14).

Lahiri does not tell us any more than this about what exactly it is that he understands about the irrational and the inevitable, because she, like Gogol, is working to evoke meanings rather than convey them. But perhaps one thing that Ashoke responds to in the story is the sense that both reality and identity are multiple, existing on many planes at the same time. Life is not a simple, rational, sequential experience. Ashoke gains some unarticulated knowledge from the story that enables him to be many people at once and accept the contradictions of his life.

He himself is both the dutiful son who returns to India every year to see his extended family and the man who left this hurt and bewildered family behind to begin a life in another country, both a Bengali and the father of two Americans, both the respected Professor Ganguli and the patronized foreigner, both Ashoke, his good name, and Mithu, his pet name. His world is not just India and America but the Europe of the authors he reads, his time both the twentieth and the nineteenth centuries. A person is many people, just as Akaky is all of the documents he copies and no one in himself.

For Gogol Ganguli, however, the several identities that he takes on in the course of the novel are a source of pain, perhaps in part because he passively accepts them one after the other, often conjoined to a relationship with a woman, apparently confusing a series of material and social selves for who he is. Moreover, because these outer selves are sequential rather than simultaneous, they provide him with no sense of continuity, which is part of their function in the lives of more contented and secure people. And as in Nikolai Gogol’s short story, the meaning of

Lahiri’s novel seems to lie not so much in the plotline as in the style. It is a type of realism that assumes that to show reality, one must abandoned the tight causal plot of realism to show the randomness and irrationality of the events that define the characters’ lives. In addition, the present tense prose, which at first may seem to be merely trendy and irritating, also creates the effect of “suppressing the shared past that connects writer and reader,” as Ursula Le Guin has observed with some asperity about present tense prose in general (74).

In this novel, however, the effect seems deliberate, as the characters are indeed cut off from their pasts–by physical distance, in the case of Ashoke and Ashima, or by the inability to understand the significance of the past, in the case of Gogol Ganguli and his wife Moushimi. Thus it seems appropriate that the readers are cut off from this past as well. Lahiri’s dispassionate, elusive style is one of the many items to come out of Gogol’s overcoat. From him through Vladimir Nabokov and the modernists she has taken the idea that the style is the meaning, not merely the means of conveying it.

The way in which she writes also comes through a tradition of American writers as well, particularly Hemingway and Raymond Carver, who acutely observe the details of physical reality as a way of implying the characters’ inner struggles (“Big Two Hearted River” and “Cathedral,” for example). Yet this style is blended with Gogol to create a hybrid entity, Russian, American, and Indian, through which Lahiri creates vivid characters whose identities are nonetheless unknowable. Lahiri layers on detail after detail, until we can see the last eyelet in Ashoke’s shoes.

But something essential is always left out. We learn the names of all the people who attend Ashima’s parties. We don’t know what Ashima or Ashoke like about these friends or what makes them more than names. We know that the first girl Gogol has sex with was wearing “a plaid woolen skirt and combat boots and mustard tights” (105), but we don’t know her name or what she looked liked or even the details of her body that a man would be more likely to remember than the girl’s clothing.

We know what Gogol reads as a boy and the names of his boyhood friends, but we don’t know what he thinks about these books or likes about these friends. We know what Gogol and his wife Moushumi say when they are chattering at yuppie dinner parties, but not what they say to each other when they are arguing or when they are expressing their love for each other. We sometimes learn what the characters feel, although more often, we are given a catalog of the details of their surroundings which they are noticing while they are having the feeling.

And we almost never know what the characters are thinking, about who they are to themselves as they experience the rush of sounds and sensations that are their lives. Introspection, even if it were presented as interior monologue, would suggest that this voice was who the character “really” was. The effect is both eerie and deliberate, and perhaps suggests the ways in which essential identity, the self as a continuous organizing consciousness, is beyond the power of words to describe. We can only know the surface.

A sense of what lies beyond the surface can only be evoked and illuminated. Four Perspectives Continued from Gogol’s Namesake: Identity and Relationships in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake Author: Judith Caesar The novel is told through the sensibilities of four different characters, Gogol Ganguli, his mother Ashima, his father Ashoke, and his wife Moushumi, all of whom reveal different aspects of the material world and the personal relationships which are a part of each character’s outer identity.

Of these people, Ashoke alone seems to have found the balance among the various aspects of self that enable him to live comfortably in a foreign country which his children will experience differently than he does. He has his family back in India, a network of Bengali friends whom he has known since coming to America, a house that he has lived in for years, and familiar Indian customs blended with American ones until the blending itself becomes familiar, all of which provide an outer protection for an inner self.

The material world of America seems to be a source of unhappiness to Ashima (it is her consciousness, not Ashoke’s, that frequently notices American habits with distaste). Thus throughout the book, she struggles to recover the material and social selves of her life in India and yet somehow adapt herself to life in the country to which she has come. For both Gogol and Moushumi, the process of finding a way to live comfortably with what seems to them a double identity, two very different outer worlds, is even more complex, since, like other young Americans, they tend to confuse the outer identity with who they are.

In part, they do this because modern consumer culture tends to encourage people to view themselves as their material selves, which makes finding a sense of self even more challenging for a person raised among different cultures and subcultures, especially if he concentrates on the question, “Which am I? ,” rather than realizing that he is both all and none of them. Ashoke Ganguli seems to want to help his son discover a way in which to live with the complexity of identity.

To begin with, following Bengali custom, he attempts to give him two identities, one identity, his daknam or pet name, who he is to the people who have known and loved him all his life, and another name, his bhalonam, his good name, who he is to the outside world. This will embed in him the knowledge that he is at least two people, who he is to his family and the people who care about his, and who he is to outsiders. Perhaps he also wishes to convey the idea that identity is multiple and many faceted, like reality. It is not one thing or another, but simultaneity, as his own life has been.

But the good name Ashoke later selects, Nikhil, the five-year old Gogol and his school reject; and then the eighteen-year-old Gogol rejects the name Gogol and becomes his good name, Nikhil, to everyone except sometimes his parents. Ashoke has given his son two names, two identities, but Gogol must find their meaning for himself in the country and the time in which he has been born. And with his acceptance and rejection of his two names, he begins a pattern of first accepting and then rejecting outer identities that seem imposed on him by others and which he is seems unable to distinguish from his essential self.

He seems to think he must be one thing or another, Bengali or American, rather than accepting ambiguity and multiplicity. The name Gogol means very different things to Gogol and Ashoke. To Ashoke, the name Gogol is first of all a reminder of the way in which the reading of Gogol’s short story saved his life, how it was his dropping of the page from the story that alerted rescuers that he was still alive after the train wreck and made them stop and pull him out of the wreckage where he would otherwise have perished.

It is a rebirth of himself in a different form, as a person who wants to leave India and travel to other places, to form an identity for himself different from the one created by his life in India. And so, in a way, is the birth of his son. But Gogol is also a connection to his own family, to his grandfather who told him to read the Russian realists, and whom he is going to see at the time of the train wreck. There is an identity here that transcends culture, as generations of Indians (ultimately, Gogol Ganguli becomes the fourth) find a sense of life’s essence in an English translation of a Russian work.

But to Gogol Ganguli, Gogol is simply a strange name that he has been saddled with by accident. It makes him too different. (And it probably doesn’t help that when pronounced correctly, the name sounds like the English word “goggle”). When he is in high school and supposed to study Gogol’s story in English class, he refuses to read it. And strangely, instead of leading a discussion of the story itself, his teacher tells them about Gogol’s life, focusing on Gogol’s inner torment and his death by self-starvation. Gogol the writer is reduced to what was most bizarre about his personal life, for the delighted horror of American teenagers.

He is treated in exactly the way the living Gogol most feared. He becomes his difference, not his genius. And ironically, because of Lahiri’s style, the teacher himself becomes nothing more than his clothing and his mannerisms. To Gogol Ganguli, then, Gogol becomes the identity of a foreign madman who never experienced sex or any of the other initiations that lead to an adult identity for modern Americans. And yet he is still ambivalent. As Lahiri explains, “To read the story, he believes, would mean paying tribute to his namesake, accepting it somehow.

Still, listening to his classmates complain, he feels perversely responsible, as if his own work were being attacked” (92). Throughout the novel, many of the most significant conversations between Gogol Ganguli and Ashoke begin with Nikolai Gogol, as Ashoke attempts to connect with his son through Gogol the same way that the Russian writer connected him to his grandfather. But Gogol Ganguli rejects these gestures, not recognizing them for what they are. When Gogol Ganguli is fourteen, his father gives him a hard-bound copy of Gogol’s short stories; Gogol thanks him politely and then continues listening to his Beatles’ album.

When Ashoke quotes to him, “We all came out of Gogol’s Overcoat,” Gogol Ganguli asks, “What’s that supposed to mean? ” His father doesn’t answer, but merely tells him it will make sense to him someday (78). Characteristically, Lahiri doesn’t tell us how it makes sense to Ashoke, or how it will later make sense to his son. Later, when Gogol is no longer officially Gogol but Nikhil, Ashoke does tell him directly part of the personal significance of the name to him, how it was by dropping the page of Gogol that he was rescued the night he almost died.

When Gogol asks his father if he then reminds him of that night, Ashoke replies, “You remind me of everything that followed” (124). For Ashoke, Gogol is a new life, a rebirth, the creation of another life in another country, both his own life and his children’s. While Gogol Ganguli is disturbed by this knowledge, Lahiri doesn’t tell us precisely what he understands from it, except to imply, perhaps, that he feels to some degree guilty about having changed his name to Nikhil. For at eighteen, Gogol rejects the name, and with it, the trans-cultural identity that his father tried to give him.

Although Nikhil is an Indian name, it enables him to try on a sophisticated identity he thinks he wants, sexy, cool, “normal. ” (He is “Nick” in dialogue later in the novel, especially when he is talking to Americans who are not the children of immigrants). Nikhil is his overcoat which makes the ways in which he is different from other Americans invisible. Thus it is as Nikhil that he first kisses a girl, thinking afterward as he tells his friends about it, “it hadn’t been Gogol who kissed Kim. Gogol had nothing to do with it” (96). It is Nikhil whom he becomes at college and as Nikhil that he has his first girlfriend.

Yet despite their apparent intimacy, he never introduces the girlfriend Ruth to his parents, because “He cannot imagine being with her in a house where he is still Gogol” (114). And Ruth herself is part of a series of identities which Gogol tries on, in this case, probably, the identity of typical Yale student. She is never precisely who she is in herself, since we never know the traits he values in her or what they talk about or who he is to her. The relationship dissolves when she goes to England and comes back full of British mannerisms and expressions which have no place in his life.

Thus, a person who had once seemed the emotional center of his life moves out of it forever, beginning a pattern which will continue throughout the course of the novel. Perhaps it is not particularly unusual that he seems to have no lasting friendships to give him a sense of continuity either; his emotional life centers on his lovers, and when each woman ceases being his lover, she moves out of his life entirely, taking with her the self he was with her. The overcoat, the name Nikhil, seems to represent part of the material self, along with the personal possessions, the clothing, the food, the houses and apartments. The transient love affairs like that with Ruth through which Gogol becomes a series of alternate identities are also the overcoat. Or to be more exact, his relationships provide him with possible identities which he passively accepts, at least temporarily. But to him, unlike his father, these identities come one at a time and are mutually exclusive and transitory. They are not what protect him from the outside world, but rather a disguise that he confuses for himself.

This becomes even more clear when time shifts, and we next see Gogol twelve years later when he is an architect living in New York, where he has gone in part to escape being too geographically close to his family. Although he is now a grown man, he still seems to be going through the adolescent struggle to form an identity for himself separate from the world of his parents. His being an architect seems to be a metaphor for the building of an outer self that he himself has designed. Yet he doesn’t seem to have been able to do that. Tellingly, he wanted to build homes, but ends up designing staircases and closets for offices instead.

Instead of making personal spaces, he creates impersonal public ones; even his own apartment remains as an impersonal space, without decor, without anything of him in it–or perhaps its very absence of personality reflects him and the way in which he lives elsewhere, in other people’s spaces and material and social selves. Maxine, a beautiful, wealthy American woman from an old WASP family has sought him out after they met at a party and absorbed him into her world and her lifestyle. He spends most of his time in the house where Maxine lives with her parents, learning their tastes in food, wine, dress, and conversation.

She has a sense of herself, of the continuity of her life with that of her parents and grandparents that he thinks he will never have, because he doesn’t have a sense of what he might have in common with his parents emotionally or intellectually. At one point, “He realizes that she has never wished to be anyone other than herself … This, in his opinion, was the biggest difference between them” (138). And yet he never actively tries to create another identity for himself, as his parents have done, or to make sense of the one he has by trying to understand more about the permanent relationships in his life, those with his family.

Maxine’s sense of continuity and selfhood enable her to weather unhappy love affairs (she has just gone through one before meeting Gogol) without being devastated by them. Perhaps this is part of what draws him to her. She and her house and her parents’ summer place in New Hampshire and their whole material world are his next identity. He is Maxine Ratcliff’s lover, or, as her parents introduce him, “the architect Max brought up with her” (157). It’s a lovely, expensive, comfortable identity, given to him as a love-token, which he seems to accept without thought.

The only problem is that he cannot reconcile it with his identity as Ashima and Ashoke’s son and thus on some level, it feels like a betrayal. It’s not just a rejection of the home and food and conversational style of his parents, or of personal habits that are not to his personal taste; to him it seems a rejection of them. Thus he imagines hearing the phone ring in the middle of the night at the summer cottage and thinks it’s his parents calling him to wish him a happy birthday, until he realizes that they don’t even know the number.

The call is an imaginary connection to a self he has tried to cut himself away from to become something different from the identity which he thinks has been given him by his parents. It is a reminder of the guilt he feels in rejecting their world and by extension, them. He hasn’t yet realized that instead of being an identity imposed on him from outside, they are part of the pattern of key relationships in his life through which he can define himself. Gogol’s way of living with Maxine and thinking about himself changes when Ashoke dies suddenly and unexpectedly of a heart attack.

The material self is not the real self. And yet it is also necessary, just as Akaky’s overcoat was. The paradox is true in the way the multiple realities and identities of “The Overcoat” are true. Ashoke has created a material self of familiar rituals, places, and foods and social self in his relationships with other Bengali families, both of which have formed a buffer for him, allowing him to live as a complex human being in a country which still seems to feel foreign to him.

When Ashoke dies, all that is left of him are his material and social selves, the anonymous apartment where he was living by himself while on a fellowship at another university, his clothing, which Gogol Ganguli collects from the hospital, his rental car, the meager possessions in the apartment, the more ample possessions in the house he shared with Ashima, the scores of condolence letters that come from colleagues and friends that represent a lifetime’s network of relationships. These things both are and are not Ashoke. They make the absence of his living self in all its potential so much more acute. Perhaps to feel that sense of lost potential, Gogol stays overnight in his father’s apartment, drives the car, and then returns to stay for weeks in the house in which Ashoke lived with Ashima, not only to comfort his mother but to immerse himself as much as he can in who his father was. Lahiri describes all of Ashoke’s possessions and the places he lived in intricate detail, catalog after catalog of specific and vivid descriptions of objects, their shape, color, texture, turning them into a trope for Gogol’s grief.

She describes the objects instead of the grief to show us more powerfully that grief’s intensity, for the grief is beyond words. Only the objects are not. They alone can evoke that an approximation of that grief. She also describes the objects because that is what Gogol focuses on while feeling that grief. Among Ashoke’s possessions is a copy of The Comedians, Graham Greene’s bitter novel about murder and revolution in Papa Doc’s Haiti, in which the characters come to regard the horror of the police state with a mixture of idealism, cynicism, and a strangely energizing despair.

Like “The Overcoat,” it’s a work about the absurdity of the human condition, and it’s a key to understanding something of Ashoke’s sensibility and his rich and complex intellectual life. This is the book he was reading when he died. But Gogol apparently never thinks to read it. After his father’s death, and in part perhaps because of his guilt over the way he had distanced himself from his parents, he separates himself more and more from Maxine and her world, presumably to Maxine’s confusion and distress.

But he himself doesn’t seem to realize why he is doing this. Finally, when the relationship ends, we are told almost nothing about what he thinks or feels. We merely learn what he does and more tellingly what he fails to do. When Maxine comes to visit him in his family home, now a place of mourning of which she is not a part, he “doesn’t bother to translate what people are saying (in Bengali), to introduce her to everyone, to stay close by her side” (182).

It is the same technique Lahiri used to convey Gogol’s desolation at the loss of his father, but now it is used to imply something different, to suggest, perhaps, the difficulty of understanding one’s own motivations, especially concerning deeply felt emotions. The self that he assumed with Maxine is abandoned, an empty shell of a self he can walk away from with few regrets. It is not who Gogol is. Indeed, Gogol defines himself primarily by who he isn’t, by rejecting or refusing to choose potential definitions, as he did when he was a baby and refused to choose the object that was supposed to foretell his occupation in life.

There seems to be in Gogol a reluctance to explore on his own, to make the active choices through which some people can gain a sense of self. After Ashoke’s death, a memory returns to Gogol, a memory of one of the few significant exchanges between father and son Lahiri reports which did not involve a discussion of Nikolai Gogol, perhaps because it suggests an idea about identity so different from that of Gogol, of identity as something to be actively created.

(Yet it too is one of the many simultaneous and contradictory truths about reality and identity). Ashoke takes Gogol Ganguli on a walk on Cape Cod, picking their way over the rocks to the last point of land, the furthest point east, the place where they can go no further, with Gogol literally following in his father’s footsteps. “Try to remember it always,” his father tells him. “Remember that you and I made this journey, that we went together to a place where there was nowhere left to go” (187).

The anecdote is an open metaphor, and although Gogol Ganguli himself doesn’t seem to explore its meaning, the emblematic image seems to suggest the way in which his father had wanted to guide him, to show him that exploration could be exhilarating, that he wasn’t “too little” to discover for himself where he could go and what he could do. It also suggests that the action of seeking can in itself be part of who one is, how one defines himself.

However, at the time, and indeed even as an adult, Gogol doesn’t seem to understand this meaning or this feeling. In fact quite the opposite sensation occurs to him later, when he is in Paris with his new wife Moushumi on what could have been like a honeymoon for them but which is not. He looks at the way in which Moushumi had created a new life in a foreign country for herself when she had lived in Paris before she met him.

He thinks, “here Moushumi had reinvented herself, without misgivings, without guilt … He realizes that this is what their parents had done in America. What he, in all likelihood, will never do” (233). The choice of Moushumi as a lover and then a wife seems to have been part of an unconscious attempt to concretize another identity, an adult identity that would connect him to his childhood world an

Monte carlo simulation university essay help: university essay help

Risk analysis is part of every decision we make. We are constantly faced with uncertainty, ambiguity, and variability. And even though we have unprecedented access to information, we can’t accurately predict the future. Monte Carlo simulation (also known as the Monte Carlo Method) lets you see all the possible outcomes of your decisions and assess the impact of risk, allowing for better decision making under uncertainty What is Monte Carlo simulation? Monte Carlo simulation is a computerized mathematical technique that allows people to account for risk in quantitative analysis and decision making.

The technique is used by professionals in such widely disparate fields as finance, project management, energy, manufacturing, engineering, research and development, insurance, oil & gas, transportation, and the environment. Monte Carlo simulation furnishes the decision-maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities they will occur for any choice of action.. It shows the extreme possibilities—the outcomes of going for broke and for the most conservative decision—along with all possible consequences for middle-of-the-road decisions.

The technique was first used by scientists working on the atom bomb; it was named for Monte Carlo, the Monaco resort town renowned for its casinos. Since its introduction in World War II, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to model a variety of physical and conceptual systems. How Monte Carlo simulation works Monte Carlo simulation performs risk analysis by building models of possible results by substituting a range of values—aprobability distribution—for any factor that has inherent uncertainty.

It then calculates results over and over, each time using a different set of random values from the probability functions. Depending upon the number of uncertainties and the ranges specified for them, a Monte Carlo simulation could involve thousands or tens of thousands of recalculations before it is complete. Monte Carlo simulation produces distributions of possible outcome values. By using probability distributions, variables can have different probabilities of different outcomes occurring.

Probability distributions are a much more realistic way of describing uncertainty in variables of a risk analysis. Common probability distributions include: Normal – Or “bell curve. ” The user simply defines the mean or expected value and a standard deviation to describe the variation about the mean. Values in the middle near the mean are most likely to occur. It is symmetric and describes many natural phenomena such as people’s heights. Examples of variables described by normal distributions include inflation rates and energy prices.

Lognormal – Values are positively skewed, not symmetric like a normal distribution. It is used to represent values that don’t go below zero but have unlimited positive potential. Examples of variables described by lognormal distributions include real estate property values, stock prices, and oil reserves. Uniform – All values have an equal chance of occurring, and the user simply defines the minimum and maximum. Examples of variables that could be uniformly distributed include manufacturing costs or future sales revenues for a new product.

Triangular – The user defines the minimum, most likely, and maximum values. Values around the most likely are more likely to occur. Variables that could be described by a triangular distribution include past sales history per unit of time and inventory levels. PERT- The user defines the minimum, most likely, and maximum values, just like the triangular distribution. Values around the most likely are more likely to occur. However values between the most likely and extremes are more likely to occur than the triangular; that is, the extremes are not as emphasized.

An example of the use of a PERT distribution is to describe the duration of a task in a project management model. Discrete – The user defines specific values that may occur and the likelihood of each. An example might be the results of a lawsuit: 20% chance of positive verdict, 30% change of negative verdict, 40% chance of settlement, and 10% chance of mistrial. During a Monte Carlo simulation, values are sampled at random from the input probability distributions. Each set of samples is called an iteration, and the resulting outcome from that sample is recorded.

Monte Carlo simulation does this hundreds or thousands of times, and the result is a probability distribution of possible outcomes. In this way, Monte Carlo simulation provides a much more comprehensive view of what may happen. It tells you not only what could happen, but how likely it is to happen. Monte Carlo simulation provides a number of advantages over deterministic, or “single-point estimate” analysis: Probabilistic Results. Results show not only what could happen, but how likely each outcome is. Graphical Results.

Because of the data a Monte Carlo simulation generates, it’s easy to create graphs of different outcomes and their chances of occurrence. This is important for communicating findings to other stakeholders. Sensitivity Analysis. With just a few cases, deterministic analysis makes it difficult to see which variables impact the outcome the most. In Monte Carlo simulation, it’s easy to see which inputs had the biggest effect on bottom-line results. Scenario Analysis: In deterministic models, it’s very difficult to model different combinations of values for different inputs to see the effects of truly different scenarios.

Using Monte Carlo simulation, analysts can see exactly which inputs had which values together when certain outcomes occurred. This is invaluable for pursuing further analysis. Correlation of Inputs. In Monte Carlo simulation, it’s possible to model interdependent relationships between input variables. It’s important for accuracy to represent how, in reality, when some factors goes up, others go up or down accordingly. An enhancement to Monte Carlo simulation is the use of Latin Hypercube sampling, which samples more accurately from the entire range of distribution functions.

Importance of steriochemistry in pharmacy research essay help: research essay help

Importance of Stereochemistry in Pharmacy with Special attention to DrugMolecules Introduction The importance of stereochemistry in drug action is gaining greater attention in pharmaceuticalsciemces, and a basic knowledge of the subject will be necessary for clinicians to make informeddecisions regarding the use of single-enantiomer drugs. Many of the drugs currently used in psychiatric practice are mixtures of enantiomers. For some therapeutics, single-enantiomer formulations can provide greater selectivities for their biological targets, improved therapeuticindices, and/or better pharmacokinetics than a mixture of enantiomers.

This assignment reviewsthe importance of stereochemistry with special attention to different drug molecules, thenomenclature for describing stereochemistry and enantiomers, emphasizes the potential biologicaland pharmacologic differences between the 2 enantiomers of a drug, and highlights the clinicalexperience with single enantiomers. In some cases, both a mixture of enantiomers and a single-enantiomer formulation of a drug will be available simultaneously. In these cases, familiarity withstereochemistry and its pharmacologic implications will aid the practicing physician to provideoptimal pharmacotherapy to his or her patients.

Some Basic Concepts Before going into the depth of this discussion let us have some concepts about the basic aspects of stereochemistry which eill ultimately help us to understand the importance of stereochemistry later on. 1 This section contains the basics needed to understand chiral drugs. The most important point is thatchiral drugs have 2 structurally similar forms that can behave very differently in biological systemsdue to their different shapes in 3-dimensional space. These 2 possible forms are termed enantiomers , and the 2 enantiomers of a given chiral drug should be considered 2 different drugs. This topic is discussed further in the next section. Chirality is formally defined as the geometric property of a rigid object (like a molecule or drug) of not being superimposable with its mirror image. Molecules that can be superimposed on their mirror images are achiral (not chiral). Chirality is a property of matter found throughout biological systems, from the basic building blocks of life such as amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids to the layout of the human body.

Chirality is often illustrated with the idea of left- and right-handedness: a left hand and right handare mirror images of each other but are not superimposable. The 2 mirror images of a chiral molecule are termed enantiomers . Like hands, enantiomers comein pairs. Both molecules of an enantiomer pair have the same chemical composition and can bedrawn the same way in 2 dimensions (e. g. , a drug structure on a package insert), but in chiralenvironments such as the receptors and enzymes in the body, they can behave differently. A racemate (often called a racemic mixture) is a mixture of equal amounts of both enantiomers of achiral drug. Chirality in drugs most often arises from a carbon atom attached to 4 different groups, but there can be other sources of chirality as well. Single enantiomers are sometimes referred to as singleisomers or stereoisomers . These terms can also apply to achiral drugs and molecules and donot indicate that a single enantiomer is present. For example, molecules that are isomers of eachother share the same stoichiometric molecular formula but may have very different structures.

2 However, many discussions of chiral drugs use the terms enantiomer , single isomer , and/or single stereoisomer interchangeably. The 2 enantiomers of a chiral drug are best identified on the basis of their absolute configuration or their optical rotation. Other designations such as D and L (note the upper case) are used for sugarsand amino acids but are specific to these molecules and are not generally applicable to other compounds. The terms d , or dextro, and l , or levo , are considered obsolete and should

Chromotography of Food Dye my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Today in lab I will separate mixtures of compounds into their constituent components using chromatography paper and an eluting solvent of salt water as well as rubbing alcohol. Materials and Methods: In this lab using the bag of FD&C dyes, bag of M&M’s, 2 packs of Kool-Aid , and a pack of Clover Valley store brand food coloring I am going to place a drop of each dye at the bottom of the chromatography paper. For the experiment with the rubbing alcohol I also placed a drop of each dye, but used a paper coffee filter. In order to get the dye color extracted from the M&M’s and Kool-Aid I added a little additional water.

After applying all of the dyes and allowing them to dry completely I placed the chromatography paper in an eluting solvent of salt water, that I previously prepared and placed the coffee filters in the rubbing alcohol, paying careful attention to make sure that the area that the dye was placed on the paper was above the level of the solvent. I left the chromatography paper in the solvent until all the solvent had been absorbed, approximately 2 to 3 minutes I removed them from the solvent, marked the solvent line and set them aside to dry.

By comparing the color columns of the unknown dye sample and food items, to the color columns of the identified FD&C Food Colors I was able to conclude the following- Unknown dye is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1 Strawberry Kool-Aid consists of Red 40 Grape Kool-Aid is a compound of Red 40 and Blue 1 Red M&M’s consist of Red 40 Blue M&M’s consist of Blue 1 Yellow M&M’s consist of Yellow 5 Green M&M’s are a compound of Yellow 5 and Blue 1 This lab taught us an approach in how we can separate the properties of a compound with the use of different solvents in an attempt to distinguish their individual properties.

Questions: A. Because the dye from pen would also run with the solvent. B. Because you will not be able to get an accurate equation of compound distance divided by solvent distance if the solvent has reached the end of the paper. C. To make sure that the dye spots don’t wash away in the solvent and are spread throughout the paper during the mobile phase. D. You have to mark the solvent line when you remove the paper from the petri dish because the solvent will continue to spread throughout the paper as it dries.

Hannah’s Ice Creeam assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Background Information Ike Telloni always wanted to start his own business; he completed a Commerce program at the University of Ottawa and later moved on to work for the Waterloo Ice Cream Company. Ike worked at the company as a sales representative and then a regional marketing director but after working there for ten years he wanted to find a job where he could be close to family. So he bought a business that was for sale in Elgin Beach’s main street called Hannah’s Ice Cream.

This forty year business was an icon in the town, everyone loved it and reason for that was because of how Hannah (the owner) treated her employees, she made sure they were happy at work and listened to what they had to say. However once the business had landed in the hands of Ike things started to go downhill, revenues and profits were down and the employee turnover was very high. This was because the employees did not work well under Ike’s management method; they found him to be very unfriendly and hard to work for. Being overwhelmed with all the work Ike promoted Nafeeza Shafie, an employee of five years to assistant manager.

Hearing about the competition Ike was facing with the new ice cream shop opening up he approached Nafeeza and asked her to create a marketing plan to win over the town on Canada Day. Nafeeza worked hard and did as she was told and created a whole campaign to get the attention of the community, she had asked Ike to submit the advertisement to the newspaper but he forgot and as a result Hannah’s Ice Cream had nothing to do for the Canada Day celebration letting down the community. Step 1 – Identify and Define the Problem The problem in this situation was Ike’s management style, he did not know how to treat his employees and motivate them.

This was evident when he yelled at his workers because he thought that was the only way they would learn, and loudly criticized their work by calling them names, and to make it worse Ike cancelled the employee bonus programs such as the weekly improvement meetings, picnics and etc. which less motivated the workers to put in extra effort. Another problem Ike had was the fact that he worked at home more than at the actual business and because of this he didn’t know what was going on and he didn’t have a good relationship with the employees.

Also the other ice cream shop opening up in town will cause competition which could be a create problem in the future profits as well as steal Nafeeza the assistant manager. All of these problems resulted in the greatest one of all which was the loss of profits and revenue. Step 2 – Generate and Evaluate Alternative Courses of Action One way to deal with the situation at hand would be to sell the business by doing this Ike will receive some money that he could use however he would not get the total amount he paid for because the business is not as profitable as it was before.

However by selling it does mean Ike would no longer have to deal with any more management issues, but it does show him as giving up and not giving his all. Another drawback of this plan is not only does Ike loose his dream of having his own business but he also will have no other source of income or employment which means he would have to start looking for a new job.

Another course of action that can be taken is Ike can change his management style this will make the employees work harder and be more respectful toward Ike and if the workers are treated right they will be happy which means they will be more productive and that could cause the business to create a greater profit. An issue that arises from this solution is first Ike must realize that the way he is treating the employees is not correct.

Even after he has realized it might be hard for him to change his personality, it could take a lot of time and effort, which Ike has to be willing to put in. One last solution to this problem could be to give more responsibility to Nafeeza by promoting her to manager, this could work because she has been working at Hannah’s Ice Cream for five years and it was said that the other employees respect her and enjoy working with her. Therefore if the employees are comfortable with whom they are working for they will perform better and that will result in the business running better.

However some disadvantages of this solution are Ike might not feel comfortable giving up his position as manager to someone younger than him, also it would cost more money for the business because Nafeeza’s salary would have to increase because she at a higher position with more responsibility. Step 3 – Decide on a Preferred Course of Action The best solution to this problem would have to be for Ike to change his style of management. He will have to work on being more kind and friendly to the employees and make sure he listens to what they have to say.

By Ike doing all this it will make the employees a lot happier which will result in them being more productive and efficient at work and they will want to give it their best because soon realize that their boss is putting in an effort to make it a good workplace for them. This will be effective because as mentioned it was Hannah’s kindness towards the employees that made then work hard and attract customers, therefore if Ike can work on his management style there is no doubt that Hannah’s Ice Cream can get back on his feet and be better than ever.

This is definitively an optimizing decision because after researching and evaluating all the other solutions this seems to be the one that has the most potential that can have the greatest impact on the business with low costs and with a low time period. Step 4 – Implement the Decision Once the best solution has been made a method must be made on how to get it into action. To get this solution working Ike should talk to Nafeeza and apologize to her for his irresponsible behaviour of not getting the advertisement to the newspaper and letting all her hard work go to waste.

After that he should talk to her about how they could work together to change his management style. Ike should always ask Nafeeza her thoughts on how to get the business going again and ask her to help solve the problem because after she is the assistant manager. It will also be idea for Ike and Nafeeza to work on creating another marketing campaign to make up for that last one which did not occur on Canada Day. Next thing Ike should do is call a meeting with all his employees and apologize for his very rude behaviour and let them know that he will be returning all the employee programs such as picnics, extra pay and employee meetings.

Also he should let them know about how he is going to work on getting more profits and as well as ask them for their opinion on how the business can increase their revenues. Some things Ike can do personally to improve his management style is he could take a course at a local university or collage on management so he could better enhance his understanding and improve his skills. Ike should also work on spending more time at the business rather than at home, so that he builds a better relationship with the employees also so that he is more aware of what is going on in the business.

One last thing Ike could do is work on a reward system for his employees so that they are motivated to work hard. Step 5 – Evaluate Results This step is used to see if the chosen solution is achieving the desired results and solving the problem. To make sure the results are achieved for this problem Ike must enrol himself in a management course to improve his management system and continue to hold the employee meetings about two to three meetings a month to discuss on how to improve and make better working conditions.

Ike should also continue to have reward system for his employees so that they are motivated which could be selecting an employee of the month. Another important action Ike needs to do is create the new marketing campaign with Nafeeza so that they can start attracting customers. If the employees are working hard and profits are high Ike should reward them by hosting a picnic for the employees and their families. If these actions are continued by Ike and the employees in a few months the profits and revenue should start to increase and Hannah’s Ice Cream will be as profitable as it was before.

Narrative essay about friend essay help for free: essay help for free

My adventure started when my family and I decided to leave our country. Our destiny was unknown and mysterious, and we didn’t know what the future was holding for us, until destiny managed to bring us to the United States of America. At that time, I was still young, but I realized the greatness of the country that I was headed to. Where people achieved their goals and reached all limit. But I figured there was a big problem, which was the language that I should be adapting to sooner or later.

Actually, I hated English ever since school, because our teacher was very bad looking and smelled like a rotten egg, and most of the time the class was disorganized. Students were very quiet and bored to death. And I felt like my heart was dimed in the darkness every time I walked into the classroom. Before going to school in America, I was scared that I would start whispering to myself or shouting loudly and felt my skin was cold and my surface was very smooth, whenever I thought that I can’t adapt to the culture and be part of the society at the time.

So I was looking for friends that speak my language to help me in school and guide me of what was going and be left behind. I met my first two friends Jihad who I called “Joy” and Murtadha. My parents and friends tried to convincing me not to be afraid or panic about school and that I was going to pick up language quicker than a sponge would suck water, but my fears overcome these cheers. I felt incapable of control my senses and I would take moment of silence every once in a while, breathing smoothly. I smelled bad wind blowing through my body and body was very heavy that I couldn’t feel my muscle, if like I was almost paralyzed.

And I almost felt like crying. I had a fight with my parent on the first day school in the morning to not go to school, but I was forced to go any ways. At the beginning, although I faced some difficulties in learning new language but by time past and with my friends help, I found solution for my problems and defeated the fears I had at the beginning. Finally, I gained an experience and own new friendship in this adventure. After look at this, I learned that don’t let fear overcome you and all your senses, and try to figure out a solution no matter how big is the problem. And if you need help don’t be scared to ask a good friend.

Frank O’Connor’s ‘My Oedipus Complex’ descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Frank O’Connor’s literary piece, ‘My Oedipus Complex’ portrays childhood in a subverted ight. He is exploring exaggerated aspects of mother-child relationships as a reflection upon human nature. Themes and ideas present within the story are of possession, in the protagonist’s view of his mother, and of jealousy. This short story shows the faults and dangers of human nature. Possession is a motif that permeates the text. Through a first person narration, the reader is able to have an insight into the main character’s perspective. “… what mother and I should do during the day.

” This quote shows the world that Larry, the child, exists within. Larry’s life is an exclusion of all things except hi and his mother. The line is an extract of Larry’s play, and imagination involving a dialogue between his ‘feet”. This technique of identifying Larry’s feet with conscience allows for the reader to infer the main character’s thoughts. As well as this, Larry is shown to classify his mother’s attention as his own. “… my time with mother. ” The use of the possessive pronoun in Larry’s inner narration allows the audience to gauge his views.

It shows the demanding nature that Larry feels toward his mother. This story shows the human flaw of possession through the character of Larry. Jealousy is another theme present within the story. Through the introduction of various figures, the attention that Larry recieves is diminished. The entrance of his father is a major disruption to Larry’s life. Described as, “… a stranger, a total stranger… “, the paternal entity is now a source of jealousy. The repeated assertion of unacknowledgement and disassociation is a representation of Larry;s inner turmoil.

Another example of this is the quote, “… Mrs Right right talked of the trouble that she had with her own father, till she put him in the Home. ” This is another representation of Larry’s views and ideas through the use of an indirect medium, i. e. Larry’s feet. The aspect of jealousy is explained and explored in Frank O’Connor’s short story. Through the main characater’s mentality, the short story is able to explore human nature. Frank O’Connor’s piece shows the faults and flaws in human nature

Peter Singer and his “solution” to end world poverty free essay help online: free essay help online

Although being “able but unwilling to donate to overseas aid” may been seen as selfish, it is in no way immoral, as Peter Singer would like to suggest. People should not have to bear the responsibility of having to care for every other human. Although people grow up with different opportunities, the one thing that everyone has in common is potential. Whether someone lived in a poor family or a rich family, there is the possibility of having a successful life if effort is put into their schoolwork/jobs.

Someone from a poor family might have to work harder than someone from an affluent family because they could have problems finding the money to go to college, but this is why there are scholarships. Someone who works hard, goes to school, gets good grades, and becomes very wealthy shouldn’t have to give up the majority of their money. People work hard for their money and should do what they want with it. If money that is normally spent on luxuries went to aid towards impoverished countries, the work ethic of many would people would drastically decline.

A popular ideal of life is to make a lot of money. Most people were brought up at an early age, to be conditioned based on reward and punishment. Doctors and scientists both have considerable amounts of “luxury” money. They went to school for a long time so that they could make a lot of money. That was their incentive. And without incentives, there would be a lack of scientific discoveries, regarding medicine and other useful things. What would be considered a “luxury” to one person, might be considered a necessity to someone else.

Peter Singer believes that “whatever money [is spent] on luxuries, not necessities, should be given away. ” The world, however, is not that black and white. For example, a college student would probably consider a laptop as a necessity because they would access to something portable in which they could write/turn in their essays or conduct their research. A farmer, on the other hand, might consider a laptop to be a luxury because it doesn’t have much to do with his profession/every day lifestyle.

People should always have money saved up in case of stressful times. Nobody plans on being diagnosed with cancer, but it happens. In situations like this, treatment options, like radiation, can be very expensive. Treatment might take several weeks as well. People need to save up money in case emergencies. Sending a young adult to college might be seen as a luxury to one person while being a necessity for someone else. The definition of luxury and necessity change depending on a given situation.

Although sending money/supplies to overseas nations would help alleviate poverty, it would only do so in regard to short term issues, as opposed to long term ones. In Africa, “aid-supported scholarships [helped send… girls to school,” which was great for a short amount of time. Even though the girls graduated, they still wouldn’t “be able to find a job in their own countries. ” They were educated but couldn’t do anything with their knowledge. In a way, the aid was a waste. Almost every stable/affluent country/nation have an “accountable government and an efficient civil service.

” These things alone “help meet social needs. Its people need jobs and the belief in their country’s future. ” Money alone cannot “achieve these goals. ” What is the exact definition of a luxury? A necessity? It’s different for everyone, but Peter Singer is trying to define these two ambiguous words. Work ethic would diminish and the quality of life would deplete due to lack of scientific advancement. There would also be no long term goals being met. Overall, donating most of your money to aid for impoverished countries would do more harm than good.

Robert Frost’s ‘The Tuft of Flowers’ history essay help: history essay help

Robert Frost’s ‘The Tuft of Flowers” is an exploration of human companionship. It discusses amity between men and it’s need for proximity. This is achieved through the conflicting themes of isolation, understanding & kinship, and the paradox that it creates. Robert Frost’s poem shows that companionship does not need a physical aspect or presence. Loneliness is a theme that leads the poem into further ideas. Heavily stressed upon, the audience can feel the protagonist’s isolation. “… as he had been – alone,”

This line emphasises the idea through the use of ellipsis. It is an example of a visual aspect of poetry. The word in the poem is set off-side and this furthers the imagery and meaning of ‘alone’. Solitude is also represented through the motif of death. “… his long scythe whispering to the ground. ” This line personifies the weeding object and gives an allusion to death. The Grim Reaper is referenced here, with a subtle use of anthropromorphism. This quote, with such references to death connotes ideas of isolation.

The separation in the poem is heavily emphasised and allows the poem to develop and expand. Conversely, a contrasting theme in the poem is of understanding and kinship. Through the main character’s and mower’s similarity of thought, this idea is portrayed. “The mower… had loved the them thus, by leaving them to flourish, not for us. ” The motivation of the mower was of beauty and this is reflected in the protagonist’s ideals. The connection between the two is shown. “feel a spirit kindred to my own.

” This line shows the connection the protagonist has made to the mower. The use of the word ‘spirit’ represents the metaphysical aspect and absense of a physical presence. This is an inception of the idea in which, connections between entities do not require presence. The companionship made between these parties has occured from a shared idea or understanding. This is a theme relevant in many texts. C. S. Lewis states, “Friendship is born at that moment when one man says to another: “What! You too?

I thought that no-one but myself… ” ” Understanding and kinship is explored within the poem, showing the need or non-essential aspect of physicality. (incompanionship) Paradoxes in this poem are used to show the related and entwined natures of loneliness and companionship. It reflects the interrelations and interdependancy of the ideas. “And I must be, as he had been – alone,” This description of seclusion is conveyed paradoxically with a comparison and establishment of connection to another being.

Another example that is used to conclude the poem, but also to consolidate the central theme of the poem is, “Men work together… whether they work together or apart. ” This line shows of how people are never alone even in the absense of physical beings. The theme of Robert Frost’s work “A Tuft of Flowers” is of how connections between people do not need proximity or physical closeness. Through exploration of the conflicting themes, isolation and kinship, a paradoxial relationshipship is developed between the themes. Robert Frost shows the intertwined nature of companionship and isolation

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