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# Turner Test Prep Co. Case A Level English Language Essay Help

Student
Professor
Institution
Date

Turner Test Prep Co. Case

What is Jessica’s break-even point?

If each session is 3months long, we can then multiply each monthly cost by six to get the total fixed costs per year.
Fixed Costs
Professor Salaries for 1200 hours/year @ \$75/hour                                 90,000\$/session
Office Space @ \$2000/month                                                                 12,000\$/session
Utilities and Insurances @ \$1000/month                                                  6,000\$/session
Printing @ \$500/month                                                                             3,000\$/session
Marketing @ \$400/month                                                                          2,400\$/session
Travel @ \$200/month                                                                                1,200\$/session
Total                                                                                                 114,600\$/session
Variable Costs
Materials @ \$600/student            \$600.00
Selling Price per student            \$1,100
Number of Students Jessica Needs to break even
Break-Even Point = Total Fixed Costs/ (Selling Price – Variable Costs)
BEP=114,600/ (1,100 – 600) = 229
Therefore, Jessica will need 229 students to break even.
In order to make a profit turner prep test will have to enroll more than 229 students per year.

How does Turner Test Prep overcome the competition from NTC?

Turner Test Prep needs to stop marketing and target its activities to students who only take CPA exams. It can venture into enrolling more types of students, for instance, high school students taking the SAT, undergraduate students who intend to take graduate school entrance tests for example GRE or LSAT among others.

Turner test Prep can also develop more on its differentiation strategy. Jessica can continue teaching students in her own different way, which she finds effective. She can continue with her one on one sessions with her students, which they appear to appreciate in gaining much knowledge. This can be helpful in building brand loyalty from her students and potentially lessen price sensitivity.
What does Jessica need to do to display her strengths over NTC?
List at least four ideas and explain them in detail for a full credit.
Jessica can reconsider her stance on advertising her pass rate to including her pass rate statistics. This is like publishing a company’s performance in a certain financial year or quarter of a year. Advertising her pass rate will help Turner test prep show its success rate and performance thus proving its strength over NTC.
More qualified staff
Turner test prep can employ and show case her more qualified and skilled staff. This can help demonstrate its aim to provide high quality services and its endeavor to ensure students pass their exams. For instance, Jessica has worked with accounting, finance and law professors to come up with a curriculum that will help have a comprehensive methodology in preparing for exams
It is cost effective
Unlike NTC which prices its courses depending on the services the students use, Turner Test Prep has a uniform fee where the students receive all facilities and services of preparation on offer. With its price of \$1,100 compared to NTCs maximum price of \$1,500, Turner does indeed offer a cost effective model with more services and benefits for its students
Superior services over NTC
Turner Test Prep has professors who offer three live, one-hour lectures per day unlike its competitor NTC. Jessica its owner, also teaches test taking techniques and organization strategies that are required for the students to easily acquire more information and link it with what they learn in the lectures. Moreover, Turner Test Prep uses various ways of evaluating students’ progress and challenges as they prepare for the exams thus helping the students tackle problems early enough and progress in their exam preparation smoothly.

How can Jessica achieve greater market share?

In order to improve her market share, Jessica needs to fully understand her existing and potential customer’s needs and preferences. She needs to know what students want, why they enroll in her program, other potential students she can enroll, and effectively cater for their needs thus ensuring their satisfaction and happiness is guaranteed and consequently gain loyal customers.
She can then study expected trends in the students behavior and the market and try to exploit a niche and gain a market share.
What can Jessica do in addition to displaying her strengths over NTC to increase her sales?
List at least four ideas and explain them in detail.
Increasing the number of certification tests.
In order for Jessica to achieve greater market share she can add on to the number of tests she can prepare students. With her current program of preparing students for only CPA, exams Jessica may be limiting her target market. She can think of introducing more tests preparation programs for instance high school students taking the SAT, undergraduate students who intend to take graduate school entrance tests for example GRE, or LSAT among others.
Improving pass rate for first time takers
Jessica can aim at ensuring that she has a higher pass rate than her current percentage especially for first time exam takers. This will help increase its appeal to students, as they will be confident that when they enroll with her program they will have a high chance of passing their examinations. This strategy will definitely improve customer satisfaction and will contribute to Jessica attaining repeat customers who will help ensure her businesses sustainability. Moreover, happy students who have passed their exams will also recommend her program to the colleagues and friends thus leading to more students joining Jessica.

Differentiation
Jessica can do things in her own unique way that she finds effective. She can continue with her one on one sessions with her students, from which they appear to appreciate and gain much knowledge .This can be helpful in building a brand and reputation for her business that will be desired by students due to the value gained.
She can also hire more teachers and professionals with adequate skills and experience who will be a valuable asset to her program. They will be able to lecture students and impart knowledge that will be helpful in assisting them tackle exam questions.

Jessica can try to improve her marketing and advertisement strategy. She can take more flyers and advertise her program to more schools in the country. In addition, she can also advertise pass rate in a bid to attract more students.
This will help her have more students knowing about her program thus translating to more students enrolling. She can have promotions and talks in various schools and business forums where she can advertise and try to make her name known to more students and potential exam takers.

Social welfare in Europe best college essay helpName
Course
Course Professor
Date of Submission
Social welfare in Europe
Social welfare generally refers to a common state of well-being of a particular society, usually a particular time. While social welfare has been confused with the general standard of living for a group a people in the society, it actually involves the overall quality of life because of the quality of the environment and its components. Environmental components such as the quality of soil, air as well as water determine the quality of peoples’ health in relation to disease prevalence. In addition, the level of crime, drug abuse, and spirituality and the availability and provision of basic and essential social services also determine the social welfare of a society.
The current social welfare status in Europe is epitomized by a plethora of factors that point to a signs of inequality in the distribution of national resources. For example, France is a typical member state, whose public education service manifests inequality. It is evident that the quality of education offered in the public schools ranks lower than the private sectors. Richer parents therefore have, and explore further options, while children from poor families remain disadvantaged, when forced to cope with the less challenging education set up in public schools.
More particularly, the ongoing euro crisis in Europe is a major pointer to the dilapidating social welfare, especially when the consequences of such crisis is analyzed from an economic point of view. There would be a wider gap between the poor and the rich, with no redistribution of welfare resources to cater for the needs of all people. The European member states therefore have a duty to reconsider and restructure their strategies to enhancing equitable education, and improve employment rates and status of its citizens.

Work cited
Pascual, A. S., & Magnusson, L. (Eds.). (2007). Reshaping welfare states and activation regimes in Europe (Vol. 54). Peter Lang.
Simulated News Conference Paper writing essay help
Simulated News Conference Paper
Name
Institution
Course
Date
Simulated News Conference Paper
Introduction and description of the crisis including the stage of the crisis that the press conference is taking place
There was a huge crisis-situation at my work place that attracted a nationwide attention due to its humongous effect on the customers. I work in a bank that has branches in all the corners of the country and it has a huge customer base. The bank happens to be the biggest bank in the country in terms of its customer base, capital base as well as in its branch networks. The bank has also earned numerous awards among them being the best bank in country for its exemplary customer service standards. The bank has continuously won this prestigious award since 2006 when the bank was established. It is for these noble reasons that the bank has been able to attract many customers and thus making it the biggest bank in terms of the customer base.
However, two months ago, the bank was installing a new bank software program that is reputable worldwide for its excellent performance. The bank was installing this software program so that it could handle all the bank transactions that were initially overwhelming the previous software program. Unfortunately, things did not go as planned since even after having notified the banks’ esteemed customers that their transactions would be affected by this transition. The bank had been advised by the software installation engineers that it would take close to twelve hours to install and operationalize the software program.
An advance notice had be issued in the public media so that the bank’s customers could be aware about the inconveniences that would be caused. The twelve hours that the banks’ management had been given by the software installation engineers expired and efforts to transit to the new software program proved futile. This caused a major crisis-situation for the banks’ customers and this led to a nationwide protest that attracted the media. The crisis-situation led to the customers not being able to transact their usual businesses such as withdrawing money, depositing money, paying their bills, and payment for overseas transactions. The bank had attracted many businesspeople and this crisis-situation could cripple the country’s economy since a lot of them could not do their transactions. The government was also one of the banks’ major client and it was not able to conduct its businesses as usual since majority of its money were being held by the bank.
This press conference is taking place at a very sensitive moment whereby people around the country are currently holding protests and demonstrations for the entire bank to be closed down and the government is not able to conduct its businesses as required. The country’s economy is nearly on its knees since this crisis-situation has affected all the major sectors of the economy including the government. The country’s’ media is awash with news about this crisis and the software providers have adamantly refused to own up and issue a statement that they are wholly responsible for this crisis-situation. This is the major reason that the management of the bank has agreed to hold a press conference so that it can inform the entire country and its esteemed customers on the present status regarding this crisis-situation.
Description of how I will handle a press conference, including what types of media will attend, who will manage the start and finish of the conference, and who will be the designated spoke-person
The press conference will be handled in a professional manner whereby all the media houses including the print, television, and radio stations will be invited to attend it so that the bank can be able to inform the public on what is really happening. The press conference will be held at the bank’s boardroom since it is spacious and it has conference facilities that can accommodate all the country’s media houses. International media houses will also be invited since this crisis-situation has also attracted an international attention. The bank was to launch an expansion program that would have seen it open other branches in the neighboring countries. It is therefore integral to invite the international media to the press conference.
The public relations department will be in-charge of drafting the press statement in consultation with the General Manager’s office since the general manager himself will sign it. The invited media houses will be requested to send their questions in advance so that the spoke-person can be ready and aware of the nature of questions that will asked. The public relations manager will both manage the start and the finish of the conference. The designated spoke-person will be the General Manager of the bank since he is the face of the bank. The general manager of the bank is a renowned personality and he will therefore be able to reassure the banks’ customers that the crisis-situation is under control. The spoke-person will be act as the bank’s ambassador and he will be able to answer all the relevant questions to be asked as well as expound exclusively on the crisis-situation.
A draft statement that the spoke-person will present
Below is a statement draft that the spoke-person will present:
Our esteemed and distinguished customers. Allow me to send my sincere apologies to all of you for the inconveniences caused since last week on Wednesday. The bank had notified you that it was to install a new software, which would have enabled us to continue serving you better. However, despite the promise and reassurance that we had been given by the software installation engineers that the whole process would have lasted for twelve hours, the situation still persist. Let me assure you that all efforts are being directed towards ensuring that this crisis-situation does not continue any further. The banks’ Information and technology department is working round the clock to ensure that the system is restored back to normal.
The bank has also hired external expertise from one of the best software engineers in the world to assist in ensuring that the crisis-situation does not persist. As a bank, we understand that the country’s economy is being affected by the situation and the bank will ensure that it compensates all the affected people and parties. We highly apologize and regret that the crisis-situation continues. I can confirm to you that this crisis-situation will not last for another 24 hours. I take the opportunity that I will personally ensure that this deadline is achieved. I will personally supervise this operation and I promise that all the operations of the bank will resume within the stipulated 24 hours. We highly apologize and as a bank, I wish to assure you that we will continue serving you better than before. Kindly accept my sincere apologies. Thank you very much.
Three trick draft questions that the reporters may potentially ask in this particular situation, and the answers to these trick questions
Three trick questions that the reporters may potentially ask in this particular situation are:
1) Where has the duration to restore the bank software system taken this long?
2) What measures are the management of the bank undertaking to ensure that the system are restored in the next 24 hours?
3) What were the main reasons for installing another new bank software system yet the previous software system was working effectively and efficiently?
In response to the first question, the management of the bank had been assured by the software installation engineers that the whole process was to last not more than 12 hours. The software engineers have vast experience and are reputable in the information and technology sector, our only option was to trust their words. Unfortunately, this did not take place and the explanation were have received from them is that, there was a technical issue with the encoding of the entire program. Therefore, the entire program had to be done afresh by the programmers and this is the major reason it has taken this long. The software program that was to be installed by the bank was ideally tailor-made in accordance to our own specifications and it was only recommendable to redo it again. The good news is that this has already been done and within the next 24 hours, the new software program should be up and running. It is worth noting that despite this crisis-situation, the new software program will indeed revolutionized the entire banks’ transactions which will ensure that our customer have a ‘Wow experience’.
In response to the second question, I have already stated that I am personally going to follow up the remaining process to ensure that the 24 hours timeline is achieved. Prior to the press conference, I had to consult with various experts within the bank software industry and I have been assured that it will be achievable. I therefore reassure all the customers’ of the bank that all the operations will have resumed within the next 24 hours.
In response to the third question, the main reasons why the bank was to install another bank software system include the paramount requirement of offering exemplary customer service experience to our esteemed customers. The previous bank system was also being overwhelmed by the numerous transactions that it was handling on a daily basis. The bank was also planning to expand regionally and the new software-banking program will handle such humongous transactions on a real-time basis. The new software program will be more customer-friendly and it will handle numerous transactions as compared to the previous software program.
Using the cloud computing on public sector college essay help online

Using the cloud computing on public sector
Students’ name
Professors’ name
Institution affiliation
Course title

Executive Summary. 3
Introduction. 5
Case Study: Large Av Manufacturer (LAM) 6
Benefits of Cloud Computing. 8
Challenges of Cloud Computing. 11
Conclusion. 12

Executive Summary
According to Alvarez, James & Jessica (2012), Cloud computing provides IT infrastructure services and software whenever required through the network, hence, offering attractive benefits to the public sector. For instance, it can minimize ICT costs by virtualization of capital assets such as disk storage and processing cycles into a reasonably priced operating expenditure. Some public sector agencies have shown early interest into cloud computing. For instance, in Washington, D.C., nearly the public employees have unrestricted access to Google documents and services like Gmail. Recently, the United States general services administration declared shifting the government’s wide portal to the cloud and issued a request for cloud infrastructure services. The Japan government shares a similar plan of transferring all the public sectors into cloud computing by 2015. The most important cloud computing benefit that the public sectors acquire is the sharing of the ICT resources among the numerous organizations. The effort by various governments to build frameworks meant to ascertain the success of the shared services encounters numerous challenges. Cloud computing provides a simple less troublesome route to an effective management of public sector data. This is especially true for third world countries that lack the technology, skilled employees, or resources to build classic ICT infrastructures (Sorofman, 2013). Of course, cloud computing comes with challenges:

Service providers providing private services pose a threat to security risks.
There is the likelihood of vendor lock-in because of open standards and interoperability
Data security is a major concern when adopting cloud computing
Business stability becomes a continuing concern.

However, cloud computing, may also minimize the risk, as cloud dealers can use strong and well-maintained computing mechanism that offers high redundancy and are likely to last. There are several crucial steps that public sectors should take in adopting cloud computing.

Recognize all the opportunities for shifting from the existing computing services to cloud computing
Guarantee that private infrastructure set off cloud-based computing services
Virtualization is a key constituent of a well-matched infrastructure
Create a cost/benefit and risk evaluation mechanism to endorse decisions on how to adopt cloud-computing services (Brodkin, 2011).
Create a plan for computing the existing ICT atmosphere for adoption of public and/or private cloud computing services
Recognize which data is risky to handle under the cloud computing services.
Recognize and secure private competencies required in managing efficient adoption of cloud computing services
Create a cross-functional team to examine cloud computing services, providers, and standards, and evaluate their effect on the plan.

Introduction
Gens (2008), defines Cloud computing as a computing model use by IT experts to manage public organization. Cloud computing in numerous aspects resembles a utility that users can use to access IT resources at any time and from numerous locations, and enhance their IT capacity as required. By adopting this flexibility, cloud computing enhances IT efficiency and makes IT organizations more responsive. In the public sector, cloud computing will permit agencies to invest freed-up resources in mission-critical activities and become more receptive to new laws and regulations and to citizens’ growing needs (Alvarez, James & Jessica, 2012).
Governments across the global world have identified the potential for cloud computing to change the way they invest in, set out, and access IT infrastructures. Major organizations are currently providing cloud-computing services. Major players today include Google, Amazon and Salesforce.com. Major ICT dealers such as IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco have cloud-computing approaches, products and services, and other smaller organizations are accessing the market. Most organizations around the ICT industry are apparently expecting cloud computing will eventually become a leading model of enterprise computing. Cloud computing is a current stage in the ICT advancement of the last several years. Most of the advances in ICT service delivery occur because of networking innovations (Jadhwani, 2009).
Governments, education and healthcare agencies are adopting clouds as a way to expand their operational effectiveness and development while as well maximizing investments and reducing costs. Cloud computing provides these public sector utilities the opportunity to increase its agile and innovative by combining, virtualizing, and computerizing their ICT infrastructures. The push by the IT organizations, together with the benefits that cloud-computing promises to offer makes one believe that cloud computing will be used extensively in the near future. Equally, it is clear that the distinctive characteristics of public sector information management imply that governments need to assess whether, where, how, and when to adopt cloud computing. This paper intends to support a cloud computing process. It offers a high-level impression of cloud computing, highlights some of the key benefits it could provide to government, evaluates some of the most significant challenges cloud computing may masquerade to the government, and recommends some early steps necessary during the adoption process (Kisker, 2012).
Case Study: Large Av Manufacturer (LAM)
Large AV Manufacturer (LAM) is a reputable global producer and marketer of both the audio and visual equipment. It is recognized for innovation and is diversifying its operations into other business fields LAM operates lean technology businesses with about 100 IT staffs for each 10,000 employees (Armbrust, 2010). Furthermore, it has managed to standardize its business operations on SAP and PeopleSoft. It uses Microsoft applications including the Office, Exchange, SharePoint and Link. Furthermore, it has integrated its operations with a third party for co-locating its information center. Its customer service base is large with numerous customer service personnel. Although the company has standardized its operations on the Commercial off The Shelf (COTS) packages, every department must meet its objective through the custom packages. The organization has over 100 applications (Kisker, 2012).
The driving factors for LAM are R&D and effective marketing strategies for its products. Technology plays a prime role as an effective enabler of LAM’s business activities. The IT agency at LAM plays a central role and has the primary duty for making decisions, implementing and maintaining technology solutions, which facilitate business. Business relies on the IT department for technology requirements.
The Centralized IT department at LAM has pushed for consistency in technology settings and standards. Therefore, LAM has standardized its SAP and PeopleSoft as its central business solutions and Microsoft for efficiency and CRM solutions. The standardized solutions are also applicable in its contract centres. Although the standards are acceptable without any much hindrance, business is at liberty to go past the IT organization to accomplish organizational objectives (Sorofman, 2013).
LAM started evaluating the need of adopting cloud computing before it became a catchphrase. In 2010, LAM analyzed the various aspects of cloud and steadily tilted itself towards cloud without explicit authorization to adopt cloud. Consequently, LAM lacks specific objectives linked to cloud. Therefore, LAM considered cloud as a philosophy instead of a strategy because it has integrated cloud option within its technology adoption process and analyses the options as an auxiliary in the decision-making process. The evaluation conditions serve as the drives for the programs that eventually become cloud programs. The adoption of cloud as a Philosophy was a decision arrived at by both the IT organization and the business (Mattoon, Bob & James, 2011).
LAM uses various Microsoft solutions such as Office, Exchange, and Link. Initially, various departments of the organization used diverse version of the Microsoft solutions, which caused interoperability and productivity issues. LAM implemented a program to enhance the solutions and arrived at a decision to either continue using the On-Premise Microsoft solutions or adopt the cloud-based services offered by Microsoft. It analyzed the various alternatives and opted to adopt the cloud-based services that Microsoft offers (Sorofman, 2013).
LAM implemented the service in 2011 and launched it in 2012. Since the service was beneficial to its employees, LAM performed a pilot phase with nearly 150 employees interviewed from the various departments within the organization. After conducting a successful pilot study, LAM settled on adopting cloud-computing services. Among the benefits, LAM acquired from adopting cloud services are the standardization of Microsoft solutions across LAM and a transition process for users. LAM’s IT department considers cloud-based services as the drive for the standardization process. LAM has some personnel that help deal with Microsoft solutions issues and actively encourage community-based support for the solutions.
LAM is also implementing a program that will help upgrade its Human Capital Management solution to use cloud-computing services. However, after evaluating the storage capacity in the cloud, LAM realized that a cloud had a limited storage space, which could not meet the desired needs. LAM has integrated cloud as an alternative in its decision-making process. If cloud solutions prove effective in managing the IT Organization, LAM will go ahead adopt it, and it becomes a public cloud solution (Mattoon, Bob & James, 2011).
Benefits of Cloud Computing
Cloud computing can intensely transform the way organizations access and utilize ICT products and services. Rather than possessing and managing ICT products and services, organizations using cloud-computing services can accomplish ICT demands with flexible, on-demand, and swiftly scalable model managed by other organizations. The user and the service provider benefit from the extensive economies of scale and scope under such an understanding. Many organizations are using cloud-computing services as the current and future strategy in public sector management. While there is a likelihood of businesses adopting cloud computing more swiftly than the public sector, there exist some remarkable early indicators taking place in government. For instance, in Australia, particular the education department in New South Wales opted to use Gmail for its over 1.5 million students. In Washington D.C., nearly all the public employees have unrestricted access to Google services and Gmail (Smith, 2012). Other benefits include:
Saving costs
Organizations are likely to trim down or reduce ICT capital expenses and lessen continuing operating expenses by paying for only the costs incurred and, potentially, by decreasing or redeployment of their ICT personnel.
Simplicity in implementation
It becomes possible to use cloud computing without necessarily acquiring the hardware, software licenses, or implementation services (Mattoon, Bob & James, 2011).
Flexibility
Cloud computing gives adequate flexibility, usually referred as elasticity that assist in comparing ICT resources against business functions than the earlier computing methods. There is also the possibility of leveraging staff mobility by allowing accessibility of business information and applications from different locations and/or devices.
Scalability
Agencies adopting cloud computing should not struggle to safeguard the hardware and software as the network load increases, but can rather increase or decrease the potential as the network orders.
Accessibility to high IT potentials
Especially for smaller organizations, cloud computing can permit accessibility to higher-caliber hardware, software, together with ICT employees
Relocation of I.T Staff
An organization can divert its attention on the high potential tasks carried out by Staffs when it has few server updates to handle and other computing tasks. Moreover, by decreasing expenses incurred in the application, organizations can invest the available time and money in concentrating on high valuable ICT staffs.
Focusing on major strengths
Arguably, the potential to manage data agencies, create, and handle software applications in unnecessarily a key strength for most IT organizations. With the adoption of Cloud computing, it becomes simpler to decrease or get rid of these functions, allowing organizations to focus on crucial matters for instance, the government can develop policies, create, and provide public services (Smith, 2012).
Sustainability
The inadequate energy effectiveness in various data centers, because of poor design or ineffective asset exploitation, is environmentally and economically untenable. It is essential to realize that the economies of scale of such benefits, the capability to embrace them, and the cost/benefits ratio attained rely on numerous factors and vary considerably. These entail the position of the organization with its ICT capital expenses and systems growth sequence, its existing hardware and software structural design and its personnel and management potentials. In the public sector, understanding the legal and policy conditions is particularly significant. The model chosen for cloud computing services will also determine the likelihood of realizing these benefits (Jadhwani, 2009).

Challenges of Cloud Computing
Most of the challenges hindering successful development of cloud computing services for the public sector are linked to its inventiveness and the underdevelopment of the market to embrace the cloud computing services. For the public sector, the technical and cost factors are the determining factors on whether to adopt cloud computing. Information is what propels the government, and decisions on how to manage such information can trigger other considerations such as the political, social, and economic factors. Adoption of cloud computing comes with numerous similar risks and challenges faced when using the outsourcing services (Rouse, 2013).
One aspect of the challenges relates to open standards and interoperability. Most governments have invested in the expansion of business architectures and interoperability mechanisms. These assist in minimizing the risk of private government agencies creating ICT systems that hinder replication of ICT assets. Most governments utilize ICT systems that adhere to the open industry policies to minimize the operation cost likely to occur when working with poor systems. Another aspect   cloud computing challenges faced by the public sector relates to sovereignty. Organizations must show special interest in using cloud-computing service to safeguard data that is pertinent to national security, to preserving public trust and assurance in government. Governments require some assurance of a secured sovereignty regardless of whoever provides the cloud services (Jadhwani, 2009).
Another significant concern is the data security in cloud computing environments. Public sector managers must be certain that the form of security surrounding the cloud services adheres to the laws, regulations, and procedures. Although numerous suggestions indicate that cloud environments are more secure compared with other ICT systems, the key concern comes about because of multiple users. The government may lack confidence with some of the users and may feel reluctant sharing its computing services (Babcock, 2012).
Data privacy is a key concern. Similar to security concerns, the public sector is uncertain about the privacy of its data when placed into a cloud-computing environment. Since the public sector will have minimal control over its private data held by cloud computing, public managers must be certain about the privacy of the shared information.
Governance and management of cloud computing is another challenge the public sector faces. Equally, public managers must have the assurance that cloud-computing services adhere to the legal and policy conditions. Another key challenge is the assurance of business continuity. The public sector must understand the business continuity risks linked with cloud computing and have the assurance of remedies to mitigate those risks. Some of the remedial actions may include the creation of strong and manageable computing frameworks that what most organizations can offer (Rouse, 2013).
Conclusion
Public managers should show the same interest in the adoption of cloud computing as for any other computing architecture. There is a need to evaluate cloud-computing services for the potential to facilitate public organizations to perform t business operations efficiently and effectively. As the cloud services continue to gain momentum in the public sector, they will provide considerable flexibility, consistency, and cost-effectiveness benefits, despite the numerous hurdles. It is significant for public managers to understand how cloud computing is developing, and its adoption trends (Babcock, 2012).

References
Alvarez, V., James, S & Jessica, M. (2012). Assess Your Cloud Maturity. Cambridge: Forrester Research
Armbrust, M. (2010). A View of Cloud Computing.” Practice
Babcock, C (2012). State Street Private Cloud: \$600 Million Savings Goal. <http://www.informationweek.com/cloud-computing/platform/state-street-private-cloud-600-million-s/240002596>.
Baker, J (2012). The Technology–Organization–Environment Framework. Dwivedi, Y K. Information Systems Theory: Explaining and Predicting Our Digital Society. Springer Science Business Media
Brodkin, J. (2011). State Street Modernizing with Cloud, Linux Technologies. http://www.networkworld.com/news/2011/041411-state-street-cloud.html
CDAC. (n.d). Cloud Computing at CDAC. http://cdac.in/index.aspx?id=cloud_ci_cloud_computing
CXO today News Desk. (2012) Government of India Keen on Cloud Computing. http://www.cxotoday.com/story/government-of-india-keen-on-cloud-computing/
Fleischer, M., Alok, K. C., & Louis, G. T. (1990). The Processes of Technological Innovation. Lexington Books

Gens, F. (2008).Defining “Cloud Services” and “Cloud Computing”. http://blogs.idc.com/ie/?p=190
Intelligence Community Information Technology Enterprise (IC ITE) Task Force. (2013).”IC ITE Doing in Common What is Commonly Done.
Jadhwani, P. (2009). Cloud Computing Building a Framework for Successful Transition. White Paper. Herndon: UNICOM Government
Kisker, H. (2012). The Changing Cloud Agenda – Cloud Computing Shifts From Cost To Innovation. Cambridge: Forrester Research
KPMG. (2012). “Exploring the Cloud: A Global Study of Government’s Adoption of Cloud.”
Mattoon, S., Bob, H, & James, B. (2011). Cloud Computing Maturity Model – Guiding Success with Cloud Capabilities. White Paper. Redwood Shores: Oracle
Rouse, M. (2013). Virtual Desktop. http://searchvirtualdesktop.techtarget.com/definition/virtual-desktop
Smith, D. M. (2012). Hype Cycle for Cloud Computing 2012. Hype Cycle. Stamford: Gartner
Smith, R (2013). Cloud Maturity Models Don’t Make Sense. http://www.informationweek.com/software/business-intelligence/cloud-maturity-models-dont-make-sense/229208663.
The Defense Science Board. (2013).Cyber Security and Reliability in a Digital Cloud. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics

Law enforcement, courts, correction custom essay help

Law enforcement, courts, correction
Name
Institution
Course
Date

Law Enforcement
Riding with the superintendent proved critical in strengthening my understanding of the obligation of a new officer in ensuring compliance with the law. In attempting to affirm my fears that the job is challenging, I indulged the officer in an interview. The intention was to relate the theoretical aspects of the discipline with the practical obligation of a police officer. During the interview with the officer in his car, I asked questions aimed at scrutinizing the system while acknowledging very well that officers abide by certain principles in carrying out their mandate. In turn, questioning the superintendent proved critical since I learned the intricacies of law enforcement, as well as the role of an officer in facilitating administration in the society. I customized the questions in order to encourage the respondent provide information relating to criminal justice in a broader perspective. I selected the city superintendent because I believed the superintendents understood the area of specialization very well.
I began the process by seeking clarification to the definition of legal terms such as law enforcement and justice. From the finding, the superintendent affirmed that law enforcement is a formal approach to dealing with cases of violation of the law (Dalzell & Kennedy, 2014, p. 6). While proceeding with questioning the superintendent, he provided responses suggesting that the coordination of the efforts of other officers in maintaining peace and stability is the responsibility of a police superintendent. Using the interviewee remarks, the interview concluded that the profession was challenging.
While referring to the questionnaire, I made inquiries about issues related to the enforcement system in the country. I also inquired about the role of the officer in solving domestic disputes. In responding to the questions, the officer referred to the constitution in justifying his remarks on several instances. He also reiterated the need to use force in dealing with dangerous criminals (Dalzell & Kennedy, 2014, p. 21). His understanding was that the safety of the society is paramount hence the needs to deal with violent criminals with force. On proceeding with the questions while seated with the officer in his car, the interviewer evoked the emotion of the officer who was to become his boss by referring to him as the society’s watchdog. For the most part of the process, the conversation was fruitful. On rare occasions, did we disagree or had squabbles despite acknowledging the use of force by the officers. The interview progressed as planned and by the end both parties learned the processes people follow in making decision.
Additional information obtained from the process is that the work of an officer is not restricted to restraining criminal, but devising ways for eradicating increase in cases of crime. The superintendent affirmed the statement by stating that it is the duty for all to assist in fighting crime in the society. He is opposed to the ideology that officers should steer the process. He believed that corporation in the society is necessary for curbing crime since the law serves all. Another insightful information mentioned by the superintendent is that joblessness contributes to increase in cases of crime (Jurkanin & Hillard, 2005, p. 4). Aside from encouraging teenagers to adopt practices that improve their wellbeing, the officer encouraged consensus in solving societal problems.
The expectation one gains after watching the series Suits rings true from the discussion since the superintendent mentioned the procedure of enforcing the law beginning with the identification of a case of violation of the law. He also identified the differences in nature of crime and the differences in laws barring criminal acts. According to the officer, the police force is a recognized agency worldwide and, as such, the survival of the State is dependent on the efficiency of the agency in maintaining order in the society. Another interesting thing is that the force is restricted to some extent in dealing with cases of different nature, but the officer was shockingly opposed to the idea.
Court case
Upon attending the proceeding of a case in which a banker was facing conviction for committing a crime, I learned that courts are important in ensuring fairness in societies. From the observations on the proceeding of the court case, both parties were anxious to hear the verdict of the judge. As a witness, I analyzed the turn of events during the process before presenting views on the subject as well as the role of the court in ensuring justice to the masses. In a fully packed courtroom in at around 11 o’clock, a suspect is brought before the court for fleecing a client cash in the month before. According to the evidence presented to the judge, the plaintiff who was a client of the bank where the suspect withdrew money from the bank without the victims consent. On seeking audience of the manager, the leadership compensated the client and left the matter unaddressed. On noticing the laxity of the administration in punishing the criminal, the victim took it upon himself to file the case in a court without the knowledge of the manager. The complainant decision was based on the premise that reporting the offence will deter banking staff from engaging in similar offence in the future. The assumption was that addressing a crime helps deter crime.
From the turn of events in a fully occupied courthouse, the witnessed learned many things about the mode of operation of the judiciary in his country. The witness inferred that the brevity of the victim was commendable because dealing with the case outside the case would have thwarted the fight against white-collar crime. Filing the case in a district court was necessary because such act fall under the jurisdiction of federal court (Dyck, Morse & Zingales, 2010, p. 7). In the United States, the Supreme Court handles cases different from the on presented by the complaint. Therefore, it was unnecessary filing the court in the Supreme Court, but there is the possibility of the case reaching the appellate court. Had the hearing taken place before, referring the crime to the appellate court would have been appropriate. Outside the courts, an arbiter could have helped the two address the issue as argued out by the prosecutor. However, consensus is mandatory in ensuring success in the process.
Within the trial court, the judge read the complaint with the accused having the opportunity to respond to the comments. On the other hand, the lawyer serving the accused defended the persons of the crime by alleging that the plaintiff lacked enough evidence to support his case. The statement of the prosecutor led to confrontations that lasted for about ten minutes, after which both sides aired their grievances. Subsequently, the judge consulted with the jury widely before sentencing the victim for three years for the offences. The consultation with both the parties during the adjournment session justified the jury’s verdict. At the end, people left the court ruling discussing the matter with many satisfied with the ruling. The lawyer of the accused, on the other hand, felt aggrieved. As a result, he encouraged his client to seek parole in a higher court of which the victim ignored due to guilt. The decision implies that the judicial system in the United States is somewhat fair (Davis, 2011). Furthermore, courts rely on facts in passing judgment hence lack of it means withdrawal of the case.
Attending the session was insightful because one learns about the functioning of the court system in the United States. In addition to exploring criminal justice in detail, attending court sessions gives one an insight into the intricacies of dealing with legal issues. The objective of the court in passing judgment also manifests through the proceedings. According to the judge, a ruling has to follow clear guidelines in order for the sentencing to befit all. Failing to comply with the guidelines¸ befits the goal of the institution in steering the process. Secondly, the public play a critical role in ensuring efficiency in the operations of the institution.
Movie relating to the topic: Shawshank Redemption
The movie Shawshank Redemption presents an overview of the life of criminal inside a correctional facility. It begins with the correctional officer communicating to the two convicts about life in prison. In their own words, correctional facilities help people learn behaviors that promote peaceful coexistence in society. The sentiments explain why some refer to the institution as prison, but the two consider the place their second home. As depicted in the movie, people end up in the facility due to many reasons, among them a violation of the law (Edwards, 2012). There are also cases of rise in temper contributing to the violation of the law as it was with the Andy Dufresne who reported hitting committing murder out of anger. Given the circumstances in which the person committed the offence, lack of self-control is contributing to decay in the moral in the society.
Officers in charge of the facility monitor the progress of the clients with the objective of strengthening the moral fabric that hold the society together. Although the institution serves as the center of teaching morality in the society, two villains continue with the heinous acts within the facility. Prior to allowing the convicts to seek parole, the officers in charge of the facility established the motive behind criminal acts. The step that followed was the scrutiny of the behavior of the murderers. Nevertheless, the victims united in undertaking daily chores such as cleaning and observing personal hygiene (Albrecht, Albrecht, Albrecht & Zimbelman, 2011, p. 3). Learning also formed part of the program. Throughout the process, the occupants learned about the dangers of engaging in crime as well as the significance of obeying the law in the society. Aside from the lessons, the inclusion of people from diverse backgrounds at the facility was commendable in the movie since it espouses the challenges that all face in life.
Out of the measures in place to ensure coordination in communication in the prison, the principal duty of the police unit is enforcing amendment enacted into law. Unlike in the past, crime is becoming so complicated due to the growth in the number of gangs, and as such, police ought to brace themselves with the new strategies in dealing with murder suspects. It is also important to sensitize people on the need to uphold moral values since order is achievable only where there is respect in the society (Glaze & Parks, 2011. P. 32). Even though the movie is educative, sections of people have criticized the producer for failing to conceal the identities of the persons in the facilities. The opposition is due to the notion that tormenting the offender hardens the individual instead of motivating the person to change. The law also requires film producers to follow certain guidelines in composition movies. In particular, film producers ought to consult legal practitioners prior to releasing such movies in the market. As discussed, consultation is necessary because it helps avert cases of violation of the law.

References
Albrecht, W., Albrecht, C., Albrecht, C., & Zimbelman, M. (2011). Fraud examination. Cengage Le
Dalzell, S., & Kennedy, B. (2014). Integrated Law Enforcement: A Holistic Approach to Solving Crime. IBM Redbooks.
Davis, A. Y. (2011). Are prisons obsolete? Seven Stories Press.
Dyck, A., Morse, A., & Zingales, L. (2010). Who blows the whistle on corporate fraud? The Journal of Finance, 65(6), 2213-2253.
Edwards, N. A. (2012). WWADD? What Would Andy Dufresne Do? The Idea of Life after Death in the Shawshank Redemption.
Glaze, L. E., & Parks, E. (2011). Correctional populations in the United States, 2011. Population, 6(7), 8.
Jurkanin, T. J., & Hillard, T. G. (2005). Chicago police: An inside view–the story of Superintendent Terry G. Hillard. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

1980 US Olympic Hockey compared to 1980 Soviet Olympic Hockey college essay help near meName:
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1980 US Olympic Hockey compared to 1980 Soviet Olympic Hockey
In 1980, the American Olympic team defeated the previous cup holders of Soviet Union 4-3 to clinch that year’s Olympic tournament and received the gold medal. Their captain during that time was Mike Eruzione who was considered an essential leader of the team. This histrionic triumph was achieved because Mark Johnson scored two goals, which proved to be instrumental in their win. Credit was also given to the team’s goalkeeper, Jim Craig, who made 36 saves out of the 39 shots fired by the team of the Soviet Union. The coach of the American team appreciated that the victory was owed to their goalkeeper (U.S. Hockey Hall of Fame, para1). Even though the Soviet team dominated the match, they failed to convert their attempts to goals.
There are a number of factors, which contributed to the United States win. For instance, the Soviet Union team came into the match thinking that they had already won considering that they were the previous champions. They had experienced players who had participated in various tournaments before. For instance, most of their players were considered legends since they had played more than two Olympic Games. Even though the American team was believed to be the underdogs in the finals, they managed to accomplish their dream because they had young, talented, and focused players (Allen, para1). The head coach of the American team had carried out trials to obtain the best players previous year before the actual tournament where he (Herbs Brooks) he came out with the best 20 experienced players. In contrast, the Soviet Union head coach mainly relies on his long-time professional players.
Five months before the start of the 1980 Olympic hockey tournament, American head coach begun exhibition play where they played more than 60 games. Since they mainly played the European teams, Brooks adopted their mode of play give emphasis to wide-open mode of play where there is minimal body contact. The head coach believed that this was the most appropriate way to defeat the soviet team. The soviet head coach stated that their victory was overturned because they did not have enough preparation and underestimated the American team. During for the preparation of the teams for the real tournament, soviet coach did not start with his professional and experienced players to give them room to assess the game rather than taking part in the actual skate. Conversely, Brooks went on with his strong, attacking style, skating tough practices and reprimanding his players who were weak to gain some stamina during the game. Moreover, the American coach focused on speed, training, and self-control to unite his team.
American players played specific roles during the tournament. For instance, Mark Johnson understood the game more than the Americans did because he was the son of the renowned coach of the U.S hockey team, Bob Johnson. In addition, Mike Eruzione also played an important role in the team as a senior and experienced player (Fitzpatrick para1). He guided other players by motivating them to maintain speed and focus, especially at the last minutes of the game. In conclusion, the Soviet team did not win their game because their head coach failed to recognize the seriousness of the tournament. For instance, he thought that his victory would depend on history. On the other hand, Brooks made appropriate decision making before and during the game leading to their triumph that was unbelievable to the fans of both teams.

Works Cited
Allen, Kevin. College Kids Perform Olympic miracle. 2014. Web. September 19, 2014. http://espn.go.com/classic/s/miracle_ice_1980.html
Fitzpatrick, Jamie. Miracle On Ice: American Hockey’s Defining Moment. 2004. Web. September 19, 2014. http://proicehockey.about.com/cs/history/a/miracle_on_ice.htm
U.S. Hockey Hall of Fame. The 1980 U.S Olympics Team. 2003. Web. September 19, 2014. http://www.ushockeyhalloffame.com/page/show/831562-the-1980-u-s-olympic-team

Surname 1 essay helpName
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What do you think of the approach to change espoused by Don Edwin?

Don Edwin approach is very risky and can cause the business to incur tremendous loss and perhaps collapse. Change is very necessary for the business to remain relevant. Therefore, waiting to see the shift in competition may either favor the business or lead to a failure (Goetsch, & Richburg 156-178).

If you were a friend of Don Edwin, how would you explain the need to anticipate change to him?

Any organization must always identify the changing conditions in the market. It is significant for the organization to anticipate the needs for change. First, the management must identify the reasons for anticipating change before focusing on the creating a contingency plan. Secondly, anticipating change gives the organization an ample to time to balance off its resources to use both at present and future within a sustainable environment. In addition, Don Edwin should understand that the business world is changing at a high rate.
Therefore, if the organization is slow to adapt to changes, it may fall a victim of unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. For example, technological changes often accelerate the process of transition, and it becomes difficult to predict the future. Therefore, with a robust contingency plan, the organization stands a better position to deal any condition.
The third piece of advice to Don Edwin is that changes occur without issuing any warning. Therefore, organizations that focus much on the immediate needs often find themselves caught up by changes unexpectedly causing them to either close down temporarily or collapse. There is therefore a need to shift the focus to the future in order to create time creating future-based methodologies to deal with anticipated crisis.
Fourthly, Don Edwin must understand that the need to anticipate change gives the organization the opportunity to grow and develop before others identify it. In this regard, keeping an eye on the competition is a risky affair because other organizations might identify opportunity without your knowledge (Laguna 123-135).
.

Works Cited
Goetsch, David & Richburg, James. Effective Change Management: Ten Steps for Technical        Professions. New Jersey: Pearson, 2005
Laguna, Manuel. Business process modeling, simulation, and design / Manuel Laguna, Johan        Marklund, Upper Saddle River, NJ; México: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2004

United parcel service best essay help

United parcel service
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The following table gives an overview of the Board of Directors for the United Parcel Services.

Name
Job Title
Primary employer

Date Joined BoD
Committees

Ann M. Livermore

She was elected 1997 to the board of United Parcel Service
She has built good customer relationship that are significant HP’s competitive advantage. Livermore has a bachelor’s degree in economics and master’s degree in business administration

Clark T. “Sandy” Randt,             Jr
He is currently the president of Randt & co. LLC

Sandy is a diplomat, an attorney and a great businessperson with a lot of experience in Asia. Randt served in the U.S Air force security service.

Dr. Candace kindle

She is the co-founder and chairperson of kindle Inc.

Michael J. Burns
March 2004
Served as the president of general motors in Europe since 1998.

2009
He was the senior vice president of systems and technology. In 2001 he won the golden torch award. In 2002 he was among the 50 greatest black executives in America.

Stuart E. Eizenstat
Heads the international legal practice of Covington and burling.

Carol B. Tome
Executive vice president of the home depot
2003
Holds a degree in communication and a master’s degree in finance from university of Denver.

D. Scott Davis
Serves as a non-executive chairman of UPS

F. Duane Ackerman
Aug 29, 2007
Former chairperson and CEO of Bellsouth Corporation.

Kevin M. Warsh
April 2011
Economic and financial market expert. Former central banker and presidential advisor

Michael L. Eskew
2001 – 2007
Chairperson and CEO at UPS for 6 years.
Currently chairman of the board of trustees of The Annie E. Casey Foundation.
Currently a Member of the Board of Directors at IBM and Eli Lilly.

Rudy H.P. Markham
8th November 2007
Has worked for long at Unilever thus extensively Experienced in the finance department.

William R. Johnson
2001
Is active in supporting community organizations and quite patriotic.

References
www.ups.com/pressroom/us/board/board
https://www.jnj.com/news/all/CEO-and-Chairman-of-UPS-D-Scott-Davis-Joins-Johnson-Johnson-Board-of-Directors

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Atheer Review
Institutional economics emphasizes on the advancement of institutional processes that provide the physical means of life. It is not often that one finds a journal of economic issues such as “Reasonable Value” Versus “Instrumental Value: “Competing Paradigms in Institutional Economics. The author, an Associate Professor of Economics in the University of Rhode Island talks about “institutional economics” and constitutes of “institutionalism”. Many people inside the self-identified community desire for the broader acknowledgement that institutionalism constitutes a substitute for the accepted economics. There are those who go so far as to associate institutionalism with a scientific paradigm. An example is Marc Tool who stated, “Development has proceeded to the point where paradigm status may be accorded and is a substantial alternative perspective for mainstream orthodoxy that may be proposed and asserted,” (Ramstad, 761). The journal shows us just how hard it can be to display constitutes of institutional economics.
One great thing about the article is the way it emphasizes that the association between institution economics and scientific paradigm it misplaced. Institutional economics is extensively accepted and recognized as a substitute of standard economics by many. This makes it a success in several measures since it is structured and follows a systematic approach to its findings. By equating to a scientific paradigm, contributes to its acceptance. This association brings out a significant development in the field from a practical research perspective and relevant dataset that can transform it. In addition, examination of economic problems may use the approaches in a scientific paradigm. However, the scientific methods in institutions and schools are systematically understood and used. As a scientific paradigm, institutionalism in economics may come to an agreement about its reliability as another perspective on ordinary accepted views.
Linking of institutional economics and a scientific paradigm is very significant since they tend to share some aspects of research. This is because one can acknowledge the desire to relate the institutional economics and a scientific paradigm as correct or a misplaced action. With proper institutional arrangements, it creates benefits to the institutional economics from a scientific paradigm.
Another great thing about the article is the author’s argument on the need to associate institutional economics with an approach to the analysis of economic issues.
On the other hand, a scientific paradigm is inappropriate. The association between the two may have both positive and negative impacts.
“Reasonable Value” Versus “Instrumental Value: “Competing Paradigms in Institutional Economics is an informative article for anyone who seeks to understand contemporary economic issues. The article is educative on current financial issues and offers intriguing ideas about institutional economics. In addition, the journal gives a clear view of how to understand institutionalized economies. It provides insight into reasons why institutional economics association with a scientific paradigm is misplaced. In my understanding, institutional economics encompasses issues of interaction between individuals and institutions in shaping an economy. Scientific paradigm can be applied in many fields of study as it deals with questions that can be asked in a research concerning the subject.
Work Cited
Ramstad, Yngve. Reasonable Value” Versus “Instrumental Value: “Competing Paradigms in Institutional Economics. Journal of Ecnomic Issues, 23.3, 1989: 761-777. Print.
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Executive summary
Capital punishment has existed for many years as a way of rendering justice to murder victims by executing them. This research paper talks about the reasons for and against this mode of punishment. This paper involves broad research topics conducted to provide evidence to every argument with various examples provided.
Different individuals have been involved in the analysis of whether capital punishment is against the constitution. Defenders of the penalty argue that execution of criminals is a lesson to other bad-minded people because it serves as a warning sign to those planning to commit such criminal activities. Research also provides that capital punishment reduce crime rates.
The paper also elaborates on the faults of capital punishment. Many innocent characters are put to death for the capital punishment. There are various reasons behind these faults including, lack of proper investigation and pressure from powerful people. There is also no constancy in the judgments. For example, two similar crimes convicted in different states may have different judgment. Another flaw discussed is the racial difference is that statistics has proven that black convicts are more likely to face death penalties than white criminals are. It has passed down the lineage since colonial era where blacks were killed for killing whites, but whites did not face the same punishment for killing blacks.
There is also a contradicting element on the capital punishment where, the constitution provides that every person have the right to live. This element of the constitution has brought arguments on whether to eliminate capital punishment or continue with the mode of punishment. This document also explains various methods of executions conducted on a sentenced criminal. Some of these methods appear to very inhuman and cruel.
Introduction
Capital punishment refers to the execution of criminals found guilty of committing serious crimes. Recently, most states in the world have abandoned the capital punishment. Only Japan, South Korea, and the U.S maintain the policy of the death penalty. There are many ways of execution available to enforce the capital punishment. Different states practice different methods, or they combine all methods. Unions and activists argue that the capital punishment is cruel and should be abandoned. Unions in America propose that the defendant should have the right to choose whether he/she wants a death penalty and not a judge. They claim that capital punishment is against the human rights.
In the U.S government, the capital punishment is a controversial topic on the state levels of government. Out of fifty states, only thirty-five states have enforced the death penalty. The remaining fifteen states support life sentence without bail. Capital punishment is the only exception that the society allows to the prohibition against killing.
Capital punishment is one of the ancient criminal punishment. It has three purposes namely, to discourage crime, to discourage its repletion and to punish the crime. This mode of punishment mostly acknowledges the harm to victims and preventing capital crimes by prospective offenders. During past times, capital punishment was conducted in front of a multitude of people to dishonor the criminal activity and to warn other people against the practice (Marzilli 2009 pg. 39).
Is capital punishment too costly than life sentence without parole?
Death penalty is expensive compared to life without parole. The constitution requires a very long and complex court process for capital cases. The time spent on death trial case is about 40 days while the case where death is not an option it lasts 16days. This process is long because the court needs to ensure that innocent persons do not suffer for crimes they did not participate because this process is irreversible.
Defending death penalty case costs four times more than defending normal sentence case, research conducted by the Kansas judicial council found that there have been 34 death sentences from 2004-2011. The research also found that the cost for death penalty trials costs \$395,700 per case as compared to \$98,900 on a normal sentence case. Even the cases that the defendant pleaded guilty, and did not go for a trial caused the same amount or even more. However, the risk of execution of an innocent individual cannot be eliminated even with these protections.
Life imprisonment without parole costs millions less than the death penalty. The death penalty is supposed to be replaced with life imprisonment so that the money may be used for community development programs. The millions could rather be used on drug control, education, roads, mental care services public sector programs and many more. For example, California could save \$1 billion by replacing death penalty with life imprisonment. The amount of dollars received from taxpayers per death row prisoner is extremely high compared to regular confinement.
Does it do what it claims to do?
Extensive researches have taken place to prove whether death penalties have effect as its purpose states. Columbia university research concluded that there are numerous errors in deterrence studies. These errors include improper statistical analysis; missing data and variable necessary provide a real picture of the evidence. There is no reliable evidence that shows execution can exert a deterrent effect. This result renders the sentence unreliable as a basis for law policy that generates decisions. Although, some other studies prove that each death sentence prevent three to32 murders. Fagan explains that researchers are not taking their work seriously thus providing vague results.
Committees have raised issues regarding the research conducted on whether capital punishment deters murder. The committees have noted that many recent studies reports on the capital punishment deterrence to murder are have been accused of omitting important factors in their reports. Claims show that the researchers are not done in an appropriate manner thus resulting to vague results. It is clear that death penalties deter murder because citizens know the consequences therefore refrain from committing murder.
The following comparison shows how capital punishment saves life. Considering a country that permits capital punishment, it is suggested precisely that executions save lives. Considering the lives of innocent people, and ignoring the deaths of the convicts, capital punishment saves many lives. For example, a serial killer may commit several murders but when he/she is executed, it saves more lives. Subtracting murders caused in brutalization states roughly 5246 from those saves in deterrence states roughly 6918, and it shows that the net lives saved nationwide is 1672. From this argument, it is clear that capital punishment meets its goals. (Mandery, Evan & Mandery pg. 61)
Is it cruel and unusual punishment?
There are reasons behind arguing that death penalty is a cruel and unusual punishment. The executions are conducted through chocking lethal injections and other methods that vary depending on the intensity of crime. A number of judges have argued that these executions are too slow and impulsive. A federal court ruled that the mode of lethal injection is hazardous that an inmate suffers extreme pain. The court argued that this is cruelty because it‘s inhuman and unlawful.
The effort to abolish the death penalty is not new. It started a long time ago during the 1840s, where it came close to succeeding but was defeated. Capital punishment reached its peak in 1930s to the tune of 190 executions in a year. The civil right tried to intercede, but it was argued that it was a fair play to the families of the innocent victims. The civil right attack to the death penalty sought to convince the Supreme Court to declare death punishment as defilement of the eighth amendment rendering it cruel and unusual punishment.it was a brilliantly led campaign but eventually failed. (Radeletand Michael pg. 5)
Capital punishment is considered cruel and unlawful because of various aspects associated with it. One of the aspects is the lack of effective counsel. Capital protectors lack resources and training to offer satisfactory counsel to their clients. The other factor is the execution methods that include electrocution, hanging, gas chamber, lethal injection, and firing squad. People considered these methods cruel and unusual. Execution of the innocent can also happen. A number people have been released from the death sentence after being proven innocent of crimes they were convicted. Thus indicates that innocent convicts can fall victim of execution if the jury still has doubts on their case. Mental ill persons have also fell victim of this punishment. The standards for protecting the intellectually disabled from executions are low, and there are many mental ill persons on death row.
Racial imbalance associated with capital punishment
Racial disparity in capital punishment is the racial bias that the jury racially decides who faces execution. Racial imbalance in capital sentencing is a historic reality. In 1930 to 1967, 54% percent of the people murdered under authority in America were African American. However, arguments conclude that the blacks were the ones committing major crimes than the whites. This history proves that racism is a risk factor that can prevail when passing these judgments.
Various researches have been conducted to show the presence of racism in the capital punishment, and have proved that this problem has not slackened since historical times. The research has shown that those involved in capital punishment decisions are exclusively white. From the days of slavery where blacks were considered as property, capital punishment has always been influenced by race. Researchers like Baldus and Woodworth have carefully conducted an analysis of race and death penalty that shows the possibility of getting a death sentence if the defendant is black are for times compared to white. These results came from research on the harshness of the crime and background of the defendant. The data was carefully analyzed and it concluded that blacks were sentenced to death more than the other defendants for same crimes were.
Despite the evidence of discrimination, the courts have always denied that patterns of racial differences are not enough to prove that there exists racial bias during decisions. However, it is proven that decisions on capital punishments are racial. Thus presenting the effect of racial discrimination where blacks are put to death for murdering whites, but whites people are rarely executed for murdering blacks. Such system is unfair and unconstitutional.
Critics of capital punishment believe that death penalty should not exist in a democratic society. They argue that innocent persons can fall victims of execution. For example, according to the research by Radelet and Bedeau, 350 wrongful murder convictions have passed since 1900 and led to 23 innocent executions. Three death sentences are returned in the court where the defendant is falsely accused due to false conviction result from, suppression of evidence, false identifications, and forced confessions. The research showed that out of the 23 executions, 128 serve more than six years on false convictions, and eight died while serving their sentence. (Siegel pg. 513)
A new poll conducted recently finds that majority (52%) of Americans prefer life without parole as punishment for murder while 42% prefer the death penalty. Compared to previous poles, this is the first-time supporter’s life without parole sentence have defeated the supporters of the death penalty. These people argue that no man is supposed to take life out of somebody, as it is cruel and unconstitutional. Americans also argue that those who commit murders have unsound mind and strong motives driving them to that decision. Hence, majority prefer life imprisonment without parole.
Conclusion
Studies and research have provided balanced views on whether capital punishment should be scraped off or not. The results have provided almost equal argument and points supporting and opposing the mode of punishment. According to my point of view, I beg to both agree and disagree on this topic. On the justice provision point of view, I support that capital punishment should continue. The main reason of my decision is to show that murder victim’s family need to see the case put to justice. Thus, the defendant should face the consequences of his/her actions. However, there are many faulty judgments that are passed on the defendant due to lack of sufficient evidence required to prove innocence and lack of proper and accurate investigations. This case leads to innocent capital punishment convictions that are unfair to the defendant. In addition, due to racial imbalance judgment, the inferior group may suffer innocently false convictions.
Executing the innocent is extremely inconsistent with the constitution of America. It is contrary to the contemporary standard of decency, very deplorable to the conscience of the society and unpleasant to the victim and their families. The execution of a legally innocent person is an event that cannot been tolerated by the constitution. The jury should ensure that they are extremely careful when making these decisions because they are irreversible. (Latzer, Barry and David McCord pg. 348).
To ensure fair trial in courts, the government should select highly qualified members of jury and legal representatives. This will help in ensuring that there are no favors on cases no matter how wealthy you are. The government should ensure that they fight racism to ensure free and fair trials.
References
Kronenwetter, Michael. Capital Punishment: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2001. Print.
Latzer, Barry, and David McCord. Death Penalty Cases: Leading U.S. Supreme Court Cases on Capital Punishment. Burlington: Elsevier Science, 2010. Print.
Mandery, Evan J, and Evan J. Mandery. Capital Punishment in America: A Balanced Examination. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011. Print.
Marzilli, Alan. Capital Punishment, New York Second Edition InfoBase Publishing, 2009. Print
Radelet, Michael L. Facing the Death Penalty: Essays on a Cruel and Unusual Punishment. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989. Print.
Rooney, Anne. Capital Punishment. Chicago, Ill: Raintree, 2005. Print.
Siegel, Larry J. Introduction to Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
Zimring, Franklin E. The Contradictions of American Capital Punishment. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Internet resource.
China and Japan before World War II a level english language essay helpName:
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China and Japan before World War II
CHINA AND JAPAN AND THE DEVELOPMENTS LEADING TO WORLD WAR II
A. The Emergence of Modern Japan to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895
The Charter Oath played a crucial role in Japan’s modernization and democratization process by proposing discussions in matters affecting the nation (1). During the Meiji rule, power was restored to the emperor who was largely a symbolic figure since his advisors made all the necessary decisions. Okuma Shigenobu was among the notable individuals who promoted the introduction of western learning and Christianity in Japan (3). Shigenobu also played a critical role in Japan’s foreign affairs in the newly established Meiji government.
While the government sought to follow the Western examples in its constitution and development, the opponents agitated for popular elections that gave them an opportunity to run the government. The opponents believed wanted fair elections in Japan where the number of votes would determine the individuals to run the government. The opponents found that the Meiji constitutional system was unfair since it did not describe how the cabinet was chosen and its composition. Although Japan sought to westernize its political system, it was resistant to implement extensive reforms that could threaten the ruling class. Consequently, only partial constitutionalism efforts were realized in the 1870s (4). The first elections in the modernized Japan occurred in 1890 and the opposition parties comprised of the Freedom Party (Jiyûtô) and the Progressive Party (Kaishintô). The freedom party won 130 seats while the Progressive Party had 47. The ruling party won 79 seats in the election, and this demonstrated the discontent against the government at that time.
The constitution was a means of power sharing between the emperor and his subjects. However, the emperor retained the powers to initiate changes or make changes to the law (6). The Diet, the general staff, the Cabinet, and the Privy Council were responsible for governance and administration of the country. The diet served legislative purposes while the general staff was responsible for maintaining the country’s security. The cabinet was in charge of advising the emperor while the Privy Council’s function was evaluating of the constitution and advising the emperor on important matters (7). Yamagata reorganized the army by introducing the Goshimpei (Imperial Force) to replace the feudal armies that were highly disorganized. He introduced conscription that forced all men of fighting and health to join the military (11). He also separated military command structures from civilian control structures to liberate decision-making within the military. Yamagata followed the Prussian (German) model to build Japan’s army and navy that was divided into smaller units to enhance logistics and mobility (12).
The development of the military changed the Japanese economy from an agrarian one into an industrial economy. The peasant men who previously worked in farms were recruited into the army. This recruitment proved decisive in Japan’s victory over China in the first Sino-Japanese War. Korea was rich in natural resources, and Japan sought to exploit these resources by signing unequal treaties with the Korean king. During this time, Korea was part of China, and all the tributes from Korea were paid to China. In 1894, a rebellion arose in Korea and China sent its troops to quell the uprising. Japan also sent its troops to Korea since it had vested interests through its treaties with the nation. The confrontation between the two armies resulted in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 – 1895 (11). Japan won because it had a modernized army against China’s outdated forces. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonseki (11).
B. Imperial Japan
1. Foreign Policy and Empire Building:
The aims of the Japanese foreign policy were to empower the nation so that it could compete with the western powers while maintaining the traditional Japanese values. Japan also sought to deter communism within its territories. These aims were defined by introducing western lifestyles in Japan and the government’s decision to send several individuals in western countries to learn the ways of the westerners. Japan obtained equality with the western powers by abolishing its feudal system, introducing education up to the university level in Japan, and investing in the industrialization of the nation. Japan had imperialist ambitions and sought to cede more land from China. Japan had free access to many ports in China, and this enabled it to import many goods that were acquired cheaply from the Chinese mainland. China also paid a heavy indemnity to Japan after the first Sino-Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion. The relationship between the two countries increased the demands for reforms in China and its modernization.
Japan was to abandon its demands for several ports the Liadong Peninsula and South Manchuria after defeating China in the Sino-Japanese War by France, Germany and Russia. However, Russia took over Port Arthur that had commercial and strategic significance to Japan’s expansionist ideals. Japan believed that Russia’s presence in the region threatened its ambitious plans, and it sought to remove Russia from the region. Britain was interested in reducing naval competition posed by Russia and its alliance with Japan started after the signing of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. The agreement was made easy because Britain had helped Japan oversee the modernization of its economy and army as well as in defeating the Boxer Rebellion. The significance of the alliance was that Britain would declare any country that supported Russia in its war against Japan as an enemy. Since Germany and France had no interest in waging wars against Britain, they left Russia to fight its war against Japan and eventually lost.
Japan started the Russo-Japanese War by attacking a fleet of Russian ships at Port Arthur. The initial attack was made before Russia received a formal war declaration from Japan. The war had high casualties on both sides and Japan badly destroyed the Russian fleets. After it suffering heavy defeats by Japan Russia had no alternative except to sign the Treaty of Portsmouth that ended the war. Russia also lacked adequate resources to continue its war against Japan. The world was shocked at Japan’s victory over Russia since it was the first time an Asian country had defeated a modernized Western army such as Russia. However, the United States was worried that Japan’s victory threatened its interest in the region because Japan could be motivated to start another war with the United States.
The Portsmouth Treaty allowed Japan to control South Manchuria and several parts of Korea. Japan took over control of the Russian-built Railway and Port Arthur. Japan also acquired the southern part of the Sakhalin Island from Russia. However, Russia refused to pay the indemnity costs of the war and the Japanese considered this an affront. The decision by Roosevelt to support Russia in refusing to pay the compensation costs was met with suspicion as the Japanese felt that the Americans had vested interests in the region. The victory in the Russia-Japan War allowed Japan to exert its influence in the Manchuria region and allowed the nation to impose a puppet government in Manchuria to protect Japan’s interests.
2. What impact did the war industry have upon Japan’s economy?
Yamagata believed in the supremacy of the emperor, and his relationship with the political parties was based on coercion and bribery whenever possible. On the other hand, Ito believed in a democratic process that accommodated all the political parties in Japan. For instance, Yamagata proposed the suspension of the constitution after the Kenseito (Constitutional) Party won the 1898 election by a wide margin. On the other hand, Ito suggested that the Constitutional Party assume the control of the government, and this was a more peaceful alternative than Yamagata’s suggestion. The military played a significant role in influencing the political atmosphere in Japan on several occasions. For instance, the army’s victories in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars helped enhance the nationalist ideals among the Japanese citizens. Although the peasants initially resisted forceful conscription into the army during the start of the army’s modernization program, support for the army increased after the decisive victory over China in the Sino-Japanese War.
Katsura and Saionji era was marked by the reduction in the size of the genró and withdrawing the genró from the administrative posts (14). Katsura and Saionji also resisted the attempts of creating hereditary political aristocracies, and this indicated a modernization of the Japanese politics. Katsura also opposed party government just like his mentor, Yamagata (13). On the other hand, Saionji maintained the alliance between his party and the bureaucrats just as his mentor, Ito, did earlier. Saionji was the last genró, and he remained influential in selecting prime ministers.
Ito Niobium founded the Seiyúkai Party in 1900, and the party consisted of a partnership between former Kenseitó members and bureaucrats. The Seiyúkai was very powerful in the Diet, and it promoted large-scale spending by the government and the public sectors. However, the party was dissolved in 1940 after four decades of existence, and the Imperial Rule Assistance Association succeeded it. The successes of the party include conducting policies to restore the Japanese economy and floating the yen. Hara Kei was an important member of the Seiyúkai Party, and he molded the party into a highly democratized one (15). Kei was born in 1856 into a prominent samurai family in northern Japan, and he completed his university education at Tokyo University. Under Kei, the Seiyúkai Party sought civilian support by promoting various economic activities through legislations. Kei also made the Seiyúkai Party successful by enlarging the electorate base by reducing the voting qualifications.
The Zaibatsu sought to form political allies with the ruling government because the government would protect and support the growth of the Zaibatsu through various incentives. The general trend for the Zaibatsu was to oversee and promote Japan’s industrialization efforts while the government protected the Zaibatsu from unwanted competitions. The influence of the oligarchs started declining after people such as Itagaki Taisuke criticized the unrestrained power held by the oligarchs (2). Another reason for the decline was the quest by the military to find more autonomy from the oligarchs because it believed that they had no corporate interests in the military. The void was filled when the political parties gained the power to rule Japan, and the influence of the political parties grew. The WWI resulted in increased activity within Japan’s economy. This arose as the competition for various products from the European manufacturers decreased as most of the European countries were engaged in the war (17). Japan used the war as a ruse to invade some parts of China that were held by Russia, and this increased the animosity between the countries.
3. Foreign Affairs & Political development during the 1920s:
One of Japan’s successes in foreign affairs is its inclusion in the League of Nations since this implied that the United States and other powerful nations recognized Japan’s influence in international matters (18). However, Japan’s failure resulted from its decisions to attack China in an attempt to protect its interests in the region. The decision made other powers to alienate Japan, and this marked the beginning of the decline of Japan’s influence in foreign affairs. Due to the rising population and scarcity of natural resources to sustain its vibrant industrial sector, Japan sought to invade the Manchuria region that was rich in resources. Japan’s investments in the region included the railway line and Port Arthur that facilitated Japan’s commercial interests in China (19). Japan also had interests in the metallurgical industry in China.
The prime ministers who served in Japan between 1924 and 1933 included Kiyoura Keigo, Kato Takaaki, Tanaka Giichi, Osachi Hamaguchi, Wakatsuki Reijiró, Inukai Tsuyoshi and Saitó Makato. The increasing power of political parties in Japan signified the increased democratization of Japan’s political environment. Kato’s government passed several important reforms that included the General Election Law that allowed all males over 25 years to vote. His administration also ratified the Peace Preservation Law that inhibited radical political organizations (20). Kato’s government sought the reduction of government spending and finalized the Soviet-Japanese Basic Convention. However, Kato’s government was unsuccessful in realizing its goal of reducing government spending as Japan continued pursuing its expansionist ambitions.
Hamaguchi Osachi’s government promised to eliminate corruption and improve Japan’s economy in the face of the damaging recession. Hamaguchi’s government sought to realize its goals through the rationalization of industries, deflation, and retrenchment. Hamaguchi succeeded in reducing military spending despite failing to maintain the value of the Japanese yen. Hamaguchi’s government also faced increasing discontent due to the high rates of unemployment. Hamaguchi’s opponents tried to assassinate him on November 14, 1930, although he survived with severe wounds. Hamaguchi was unable to resume office due to his poor health and Kijúuró Shidehara was appointed to act as the Prime Minister. Shidehara’s diplomacy sought peaceful foreign policy, including the accepting the tariff autonomy demands by China. During this time, the military was largely inactive as both Hamaguchi and Shidehara were against militarism. These developments cast doubts on the freedom and legitimacy of political parties in ruling Japan since the Seiyúkai pressurized both Hamaguchi and Shidehara to rescind their foreign policy decisions.
D. The 1930s and World War II: Japan
1. The Manchurian Incident – Causes and Consequences:
The Japanese political setup during the early 1930s was marked by increased militarism in Japan and China. The military activities sought to impose a dictatorship on Japan. The opponents of Japan’s constitutional government and other political parties initially welcomed the increased military activity although they later became wary about the possibility of living under a military dictatorship. The military officers welcomed the new political setup because it gave them more control over the countries affairs and allowed Japan to consolidate its hold over Manchuria and other regional interests. However, the somber minded military officials considered Japan’s aggressiveness dangerous to the peace and stability of the country since it put it in direct conflict with other powerful nations.
The assassins felt that Zhang Zuolin failed in stopping the Nationalists after Chiang Kai-shek’s army defeated him and his non-compliance with Japan. Japan’s Kwangtung Army was responsible for staging the bomb attack that killed Zuolin along the Huanggutun railroad. Japan considered ceding territories to either Russia or China as unacceptable, and Zuolin’s defeat by the Nationalists implied Japan could lose its Manchurian territory. The Kwangtung Army assassinated Zuolin so that it could replace him with a new leader who could defend Japan’s interests in the region properly (21).
While Kwangtung Army was making preparations to assassinate Zuolin, it was also preparing Yang Yuting to assume leadership of the Fengtian Army that was previously led by Zuolin. However, Zhang Xueliang (Zoulin’s son) succeeded his father and reconciled with the Chiang Kai-shek Nationalist government, and this made him recognized Manchurian leader instead of Yuting. Consequently, Japan’s attempts to impose its rule were in jeopardy, and its political hold on Manchuria weakened. Manchuria, Japan sought pretexts to attack Manchuria and reassert its position over the region in an effort to regain its power in the area. This decision was also influenced by the capture and execution of Captain Nakamura Shintaro by the Chinese forces. Eventually, the Japanese Army decided bomb its railway line in Manchuria and blame the attack on the Chinese (24). The attack occurred on 18th September 1931 and in its aftermath; Col. Itagaki ordered an attack on the Mukden’s fortifications and the Chinese barracks in Manchuria. Within 24 hours, the Japanese Army had killed more than 400 Chinese. On 21st September 1931, the Korean Army moved into Manchuria and the Chinese asked the League of Nations to intervene in the issue.
2. Japanese Politics and the Road to War:
In 1932, the Kwangtung Army decided to undertake a full invasion of Jinzhou and Manchuria without the approval of the Imperial government. Hirohito publicly praised the army for taking measures to defend itself against the Chinese rebels, and this resulted in an assassination attempt against him. When the Chinese attacked several some Nichiren monks, Admiral Koichi sought help from Japan to quell the uprising. The Japanese used fighter planes to kill very many Chinese citizens. A Nichiren priest gave several assassins orders to kill several targets and some of the assassins succeeded in accomplishing their tasks (26). The assassins were absolved of any wrongdoing when they were later arrested and taken to court, and this signified Japan’s approval of the actions of its army and mercenaries in Manchuria.
During the 1930s, the army gained greater influence in Japan’s activities within the country and abroad while the Navy was relatively dormant. The army’s perceived importance caused its leaders to change its name from Rikugun to Kógun (the Imperial Army). Extremists within the Japanese army were discontented with the Japan’s economic and political structures that they felt prevented Japan from becoming the dominant force in Asia. The extremists decided to eliminate individuals who were close to the emperor and attempt to overthrow the Imperial Government. The coup attempt occurred on February 26, 1936 when army officers killed two of the emperor’s advisors. However, the coup attempt failed, and the leaders were convinced to commit suicide to prevent trials that would embarrass the Japanese army. Extremist military leaders were also removed from the army (28). The elite officers viewed future warfare as a means of demonstrating their commitment to the Japanese as it prepared to engage in a war against the Soviet Union. The army received increased funding after the coup attempt. General Senjúró Hayashi’s first act upon assuming office as the Prime Minister was to try to dissolve the House of Representatives. His primary objective in this idea was weakening the political parties. However, the political parties rejected his ideas, and the elections were conducted as scheduled (27).
3. Expansion of the War into a Pacific War:
Japan considered the Soviet Union as a threat to its regional interests in Asia, including its imposed state of Manchukuo (25). Japan sought to further its expansionist interests, and it believed that the Soviet Union would be an impediment to its goals. Through the signing of the Anti-Comitern Pact, Japan sought an alliance with Germany in an effort to contain communism spread by China and the Soviet Union in Asia. The first fight between the two nations occurred in 1938 during the Battle of Lake Khasan while the Battle of Khalkhin Gol occurred in 1939. Eventually, the Soviet Union overwhelmingly defeated the Japanese forces and in 1941, the two countries signed a neutrality pact.
Germany’s decision to include Japan in the Tripartite Alliance with Italy caused Japan to revoke some of its earlier treaties with the United States (30). Germany encouraged Japan to attack the British’s interests in Asia since this would weaken Britain’s military and prevent the United States from joining the war in Europe. However, the Japanese officers avoided another war with the Soviet Union following Japan’s defeat in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol. Japan was also concerned about the United States’ influence in the Pacific region. The Japanese military believed that it could only achieve its expansionist ambitions by attacking the United States that was committed to preventing Japan from achieving its objectives. One reason for Japan’s sentiments was the decision by the United States and Britain to limit the size of Japan’s naval vessels.
Japan’s decision to capture French Indochina increased tension between the two countries and set Japan and the United States on a collision course. The United States, the Netherlands, and British responded to the invasion by imposing embargos on Japan’s trade with the countries. In addition to opposing Japan’s invasion into the French Indochina, the United States also demanded that Japan withdraw its armies from China and stop its plans to colonize Asia. However, this infuriated Japan and made its Prime Minister, Hideki Tojo, to threaten the United States and Britain (32). Although his threats were not taken seriously, Japan’s naval fleets set out for Hawaii. The attack on the United States’ navy in the Pearl Harbor resulted in the death of 2,403 servicemen, loss or damage of many planes, battleships, cruisers, and destroyers.
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Company Case Analysis
Under Armour is a manufacturing company dealing in production and sale of performance clothes and gear designed to keep sportspersons cool, dry, and light all the way through a game, or workout. Its various types of apparel that is specially designed for different climate and weather, is the company’s biggest revenue earner. Under Armours target market inludes college and university sports teams, womens sport’s teams, athletes, Major League Baseball and National Hockey League teams. At the end of September 2005
Under Armour’s main market is in North America with the company having almost 18000 retail stores in 2011. With its consistently gowing income level and favourable international age demographics, expanding its market outreach internationally, will be very helpful in maintaining long term success. Consequently, Under Armour has made investments in China, Japan and Europe for instance by partnering with Hannover 96 Football Club in Germany. However due to the major prensence of its competitors e.g Nike and Adidas, who are leading operators in the industry has proven quite a challenge in its penetration into some foreign countries’ market. As seen in its increase in net revenue in 2013, earned from international sales, Under Armour can enjoy greater market share from other regions.
Its demographic target market includes of mainly young people. However, it seems to concentrate on young male consumers due to the concentration of male dominated sports such as football, and lacrose. In its effort to raise its market share and profits, it has of late been trying to establish a relationship and boost brand loyalty with female consumers.
Under Armour visibly has more concentration on young athletes and sports teams. Therefore it has a number of contracts with college programs around the United States of America. It has hosted about 50 camps for young athletes in various sports regionally in the United states. It has also tried to attract young players and made its brand known by more people through competitions such as All American football game that draws participants from top seniors in high school football, The Under Armour Marathon, The Under Armour All American lacrosse Classic and sponsoring American Youth Football which promotes the development of young players in America.
Under Armour has mostly generated revenue from sales in the United States of America. It has only about 6% of its revenue being gained from other regions. This has been attributed to the fewer years Under Armour has been operational as compared to other industry operators such as Nike and Adidas. The rest of the world is a highly potentially profitable market for instance Eoropean countries where it has a contract with Hannover 96 Football club and other regions that it can to tap into.
Under Armour’s products target middle to upper class income earning individuals. It has set up itself as a premium perfomance sportsgear outfitter. This image has enabled it to put its products prices a bit higher than most of its competitors and substitute products in the market. It has implemented a value based pricing structure where the price of each product is quite higher than its cost of production. This is influenced by its products being perceived to be of a higher value due to their special design. Moreover, Under Armour has created a brand image that justifies the price for its products. However, in some locations, Under Armour products may be seen to be too expensive thus it has some outlets that sell older products but at alower price.
Under Armours net revenue has been increasing gradually as it has been gaining experience in the market and expanding its market share over the years
Under Armour has increased its operations by introducing innovative products into the market over the years. It has also been targeting more customers in its camps, attending inter college and major league sports competitions thus has considerably made a name for itself gradually. This has translated into more sales and a higher net income.
Under Armour
Income statement
For year ending December 2012
Year Ending
Dec 2012 Year Ending
Dec 2011
Revenue 1.83B 1.47B
Cost of Revenue 912.54M 723.55M
Gross Operating Profit 922.38M 749.14M
Selling, General, and Administrative Expenses 670.60M 550.07M
Research & Development 0.00 0.00
Operating Income before D & A (EBITDA) 251.78M 199.07M
Depreciation & Amortization 43.08M 36.30M
Other Income – Net -73,000.00 -2.06M
Special Income / Charges 0.00 0.00
Total Income Before Interest Expenses (EBIT) 208.62M 160.70M
Interest Expense 5.18M 3.84M
Pre-Tax Income 203.44M 156.86M
Income Taxes 74.66M 59.94M
Net Income From Continuing Operations 128.78M 96.92M
Net Income From Total Operations 128.78M 96.92M
Total Net Income 128.78M 96.92M
Normalized Income
(Net Income From Continuing Operations,
Ex. Special Income / Charge) 128.78M 96.92M
Net Income Available To Common 128.78M 96.92M
Under Armour
Balance Sheet
As at December 2012
Year Ending
Dec 2013
Assets
Cash and Equivalents 347.49M
Receivables 209.95M
Inventories 469.01M
Total Current Assets 1.13B
Property, Plant & Equipment, Gross 396.09M
Accumulated Depreciation & Depletion 172.13M
Property, Plant & Equipment, Net 223.95M
Intangibles 24.10M
Other Non-Current Assets 47.54M
Total Non-Current Assets 448.93M
Total Assets 1.58B
Liabilities & Shareholder Equity
Accounts Payable 165.46M
Short Term Debt 104.97M
Other Current Liabilities 22.47M
Total Current Liabilities 426.63M
Long Term Debt 47.95M
Other Non-Current Liabilities 49.81M
Total Non-Current Liabilities 97.76M
Total Liabilities 524.39M
Common Stock Equity 1.05B
Common Par 35,000.00
Retained Earnings 653.84M
Total Capitalization 1.10B
Total Equity 1.05B
Total Liabilities & Stock Equity 1.58B
Corporate Social Responsibility essay help site:eduName
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Corporate Social Responsibility
According to business research studies, there is no universal definition of Corporate Social Responsibility. However, the term generally refers to the various transparent business activities, with a basis on ethical values, the level of legal compliance of business operations, respect for the surrounding communities and overall environmental sustainability. Corporate Social Responsibility comes as equal priority with the core objective of making money and enhancing the value of stakeholders. In the modern age of business, corporate sectors have an additional responsibility of taking the totality of their impact on both human beings and the entire environment.
Stakeholder Perspectives
The Corporate Social Responsibility to the people involves the social responsibilities that the business to individual stakeholders in different capacities. For example, such stakeholders include business partners, the government through their regulatory and legislative roles, suppliers and commodity vendors, investors, and the entire surrounding community in which the business is located. Different classes of stakeholders have an increased expectation that business operations should take into consideration their responsibilities in efforts to enhance environmental sustainability and the social community.
According to stakeholders, Corporate Social Responsibility also refers to corporate citizenship, in which every business enterprise should act as a good neighbor o the surrounding community. In this understanding, the business does not only increase its awareness and participation in conserving the environment, but also builds and enriches a reputable relationship with community. Furthermore, a good relationship between a business enterprise and the location community ensures higher profitability owing to higher sales for the primary customers.
Investors, suppliers and vendors, in their frequent interaction with the public and the surrounding communities, have shown that modern business corporations require a functional Corporate Social Responsibility to gain the requisite level of competition, production and overall relevance in the market. The modern business age is mainly characterized by globalization and increased application of technology. The trends of globalization and technology application have therefore erased national borders and community boundaries. It therefore implies that most business corporations have a global social responsibility, as well as global market opportunities. In this regard, business stakeholders therefore have an increased urge to manifest better management techniques in profit making and risk handling techniques, in order to enhance the current and future brand reputations.
Further implications of the globalization and increased application of technology on the business corporations involve a trend of increased competition for skilled employees, potential investors and the loyalty of consumer groups. Research has also identified the role of such significant stakeholders such as investors, local community as the primary consumers, and skilled employees in ensuring the success of business in achieving its core objectives. In this case, stakeholder perspective indicate that the success of a business corporation depends on its relationship with the employee body, the hosting community, which acts as the primary market place. It is therefore significant for the business corporations to consider and devise functional mechanisms to ensure a reputable relationship with these stakeholders. Research studies have identified the enhancement of Corporate Social Responsibility as a major tool to enhance such relationships to ensure business success in the modern age.
Stakeholders also have an idea of CSR suggesting that business corporations are an integral part of the society in which they are situated and beyond. Business corporations have an obligation to answer directly to different classes of stakeholders regarding the impacts of their operations to the surrounding environment. Business corporations therefore incorporate both social and environmental concerns, as well as appropriate stakeholder interaction on voluntary grounds. In addition, business writers have also backed up this perspective by suggesting that part of business accounting should also include environmental audits in which they assess the impacts of their operations in the environment. This strategy would act as a point of responsibility and an obligation that all business corporations would often aspire to achieve, thereby increasing environmental safety and overall sustainability.
On the other hand, there are contrary stakeholders, whose opinions have manifested hesitance in the speedy adoption of CRS din the modern business corporations. For instance, there are stakeholders whose perspective prioritize profit maximization at the expense of other responsibilities such as environmental sustainability. This perspective has been advanced by various business writers, whose works have shown a common claim that business corporations should not concern themselves with social responsibilities, at the expense of the core objective of making profit out of the resource inputs. According to this opposing school of thought, a business should maximize returns from all the resources inputs used. This view therefore implies the investing in other activities relating to environmental conservation and building a reputable relationship with all stakeholders is a waste of resources, and loss of to the corporation. According to this view, a business ought to maximize on profit making as the sole agenda, as far as it remains compliance to the business operation rules of free competition, without acts of deception or fraud.
Similar views in this contrary school of thought hold the view that CSR is a conditional option. This view holds the idea that the choice of engaging in CSR within a given area by a business corporation is dependent on economic factors, other than an imposed obligation to please the stakeholders and stay relevant to the market. Corporation managers therefore have the liberty and the mandate to make appropriate decisions, through proper consultation, as to whether or not to take part of different aspects of CSR in their areas of operations. For example, engaging in CSR for companies whose accounts warn of looming losses from such operations would be a corporate mistake to avoid. However, if such actions would be in tandem with profit making objectives of the corporation, taking CSR would be advantageous and worth a corporate action.
Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility
Enhances Corporate Accountability
A functional system of Corporate Social Responsibility offers a rare remedy to perpetual challenge of lack of accountability in most organizations across the globe. Corporate accountability refers to the process in which corporate leaders such as Managing Directors and Chief Executive Officers conducts himself in a manner that ensure ultimate integrity. Accountability is a responsibility, in which leaders seek to align all the demands, overall stakeholder needs and interests, including investors, employees, suppliers and vendors, government and the non-governmental organizations, as well as the environment.
For corporate sectors in CSR, it is important to incorporate a reputable record of accomplishment of such activities in both the internal structural operations, as well as the external supply chain. This is the main reason why there has been an increasing pressure on non-governmental organizations to manifest appropriate trends of participation in CSR, as an example to those under their influence and similar pressure. Accountability involves efforts more than making of false promises. Leaders strive to satisfy all such promises as an effort to ensure that their reputation and relationship with stakeholders remain workable for organizational success.
Enhances partnership with stakeholders
Participation in Corporate Social Responsibility involves the interaction between different business actors, each having a significant role to play. The modern business age prioritizes environmental safety and sustainability to enhance the endangered human life, as one of the main roles of modern business corporations. In addition to the changing business tactics to suit the societal demands as key business stakeholders, there are increased expectations from business partners and the entire society to deliver better results from their operations.
The modern business environment therefore calls for a collective approach by all stakeholders to achieve a common goal for their business. The stakeholder come together with a common interest of ensuring a reputable image of their corporation to enhance the future survival of such enterprises. Stakeholders involve themselves in efforts to meet global and local needs while considering individual cultures. In the end, collective approach by stakeholders hastens achievement of business goals, and contribution to the enhancing the lives of local populations.
Helps to improve the health status of the hosting community
The business community in different parts of the globe have a tremendous ability to enhance an overall state of good health, especially when there is a functional partnership with the hosting government and the civil society body. This is owing to the fact that business opportunities have the ability to open up some of the most remote regions, often characterized by lack of social amenities such as hospitals. Historically, business corporations had participated in charity works including health programs, philanthropy and other civic activities aimed at benefiting the hosting communities. However, studies have indicated that these efforts did not yield much fruits in achieving the core mandate. This failure has been attributed to the lack proper strategic planning, as well as the lack of prioritization of such programs to effective social change.
With the increased awareness and need for Corporate Social Responsibility for businesses in societies, CSR has acted to provide a favorable ground of collaboration with various non-governmental organizations to participate in collective efforts for community based projects. Such organizations such as the USAID, have taken partnership efforts with various private sectors through Corporate Social Responsibility platforms to roll out health programs for local populations. This is a mutual relationship, in which both the USAID benefits from the private sector donations to boost its initiatives of alleviating disease prevalence.
On the other hand, the private sector also benefits by promoting its name in charity efforts, thereby creating a business rapport with the local population. Furthermore, through resource advantage, the USAID can expand its family planning and other health programs at different levels including work-based initiatives, market and community levels. The USAID conducts these health improvement strategies in communities where the partnering private sectors have a presence. In return, the private sectors can benefit from the increased health status of the members of the local community through reduced cases of absenteeism, loss of skilled work force through deaths, as well as better performance from increased morale and trust.
Organizational challenges with CSR
The main argument against CSR emanate from the the challenges associated with its implementation. Business corporations must relate with various forces, ranging from political, religious and cultural aspects of the hosting communities. The complex nature of operating in a new environment with a new set of conditions calls for fresh demands upon the organization, particularly its leadership team. Government policies often change through legislation, and require compliance. The efforts to ensure such compliance are not only costly, but also time consuming.
It therefore depicts a sense of a less clear relationship between the hosting government and the business, owing to the frequent and unpredictable changes. In order to enhance the ethical behavior in business corporations, it is required that they take into account the prevailing culture of the local population. In addition to the cultural dynamics, it is also necessary to analyze and comply with the religious views of all the stakeholders in order to prevent a possible conflict outbreak. Many societies have varying cultural heritages and religious views, which they prioritize as their identity.
Conclusion
Based on the emergent literature and analysis of the current business age across the globe, there is an urgent need that business corporations have to contain and enhance its overall relationship with the wider society in order to succeed. It is the collective stakeholder responsibility, and their leaders, to shape the impacts they remit to the surrounding. Corporate Social Responsibility have a plethora of advantages to the hosting communities, as well as the organizations themselves.
Works Cited
Clapp, Jennifer, and Ian H. Rowlands. “CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY.” Essential Concepts of Global Environmental Governance (2014): 42.
Shin, Kwang-Yong. “Corporate Social Responsibility.” Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting in China. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014. 1-21.

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