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Understand the Expected Pattern of Development for Children essay help for free

Emotional development is the expected growth pattern of a child’s ability to feel and express an increasing range of emotions. Social and behavioural development is the expected growth pattern of a child’s ability to relate to others around them. Birth – 3 years At this stage baby’s cry to communicate their needs, they solely depend upon their parents carers for their needs to be met.

Babies will smile at faces they recognise of trusted carers/ parents, but show reservations of unknown adults: by around 6 months old. At this age they respond to games of peek-a-boo, and reach out for familiar faces and wish to be picked up/ held etc and communicate with mum and dad through babbling. By 1 year a child will be able to distinguish varying members within its family and act socially with them. At this stage a child will know its own name, obey simple instructions. By 18-months- 2 years a child’s social & emotional development has come a long way, they will show empathy to an upset/ sibling/ family member and try to console them.

They will show frustration or have tantrums if their needs are not met, but on the other side of the coin are capable of being loving and responsive. By 3 years old a child will have gained a certain amount of physical and emotional control, they will feel secure when left away from main carer, they are able to interpret situations and behave accordingly. They have the ability to now share and take turns, and use language to express themselves rather than communication through tantrums and physical outbursts. 4-7 years By the age of 4 most children will have started school/nursery and meet a variety of new people.

They are now capable of being very sociable and play within groups of children; they will also mix well with either sex groups. They will have acquired a degree of independence but still turn to carer for comfort when hurt/tired/ill. By the age of 5 most children will confidently task to most people, and show good overall control of emotions at this stage of Development a child will prefer to play rivalry games instead of team games, and want to win showing a desire to excel. By the age of 6 a child will show signs of independence from their family/ parents and their peer groups become increasingly significant to them. -12 Years By this development stage a child may be more aware of themselves and the world round them.

They may become very aware of the groups they socialise in and a need to be wanted/ liked/accepted by a group is deemed most important. By the age of 10 a child may be much more independent and be capable of making their own decisions, and be able to express their individuality and views. At the age of 11, a child will have started secondary education, at this stage all their social skills will by put to the test with making new friends and mixing in new mixed sex friendship groups. 2-16 years By this stage of a child’s development, they become aware of many new emotions and behavioural patterns.

They may become aware of an interest of the opposite sex, also school life becomes more pressured with exams, and this can cause a sense of being overwhelmed and anxious. A teenage child will become confrontational with adults and disagree with parents views. Mood swings will appear at home, and a child may tend to spend more time with their peers, giving them a sense of belonging and understanding. 16-19 years

By the time a child/ young adult reaches the age of leaving school and starting college/ sixth form, they will show a great deal of independence from their parents they are now capable of making their own choices and are sociably and behaviourally and emotionally maturing. They will tend to go through less conflict with parents and become sociable again. Their capacity for understanding who they are and where they fit on society is beginning to take shape, and with their new found independence and emotional feelings, they gain a deeper capacity for sharing and developing more intimate relationships. Intellectual & communication

In this early stage of development, babies learn how to communicate with others in a pre-lingual stage. Within this development babies quickly learn to communicate with their carers, so by the age of 12 months, most babies will understand what is being said to them and will start communication by pointing to/ or showing the carer the object/ or need they desire. 0-3 years A baby at this stage can recognise different tones of voice, they will coo and gurgle when content, communicate through crying to show hunger/ tiredness or distress. By around 6 months they will be able to babble short sounds etc “da da “ “ma ma”, and laugh and squeal.

They may also have recognised emotion in parent’s voice. By around 9 months a child should be able to imitate simple words and pointing begins. Their babbling will begin to reflect the intonation of speech. By 12 months babies babble will become more tuneful and inventive. They will use gestures to ask for things, and respond to basic instructions i. e. come here and clap hands. At around 15 months this being the linguistic stage a child will be able to form words that they will use consistently, they will them progress to holophrases, using single word to convey many meanings.

By 18 months a child may be able to put two words together i. e. bye bye, they may also use telegraphic speech i. e. ” mama come”. By the age of 2 children quickly learn new words. They will also use plurals i. e. ” dogs” and make errors such as drawed, horses. Sentences become longer but still telegraphic speech. By the ager of 3, generally speech is understood by people outside of the family unit. They can now form sentences and can understand and sing nursery rhymes and will often commentate to themselves during periods of play 4-7 years

By this stage vocabulary is extensive; the child will use longer and more complex sentences. They are usually able to narrate stories and in sequence of events. Their language skills now allow them to collaborate, argue and share. They can also begin to describe feelings. And questioning is at its peak i. e. what? why? whom? Where ? Speech is fully intelligible with a few minor incorrect usages. By the age of 5 a child will have a wide vocabulary and use it appropriately. Their questioning will become more precise and include shapes, colours and numbers.

By 6-7years a child will become aware of mistakes in other peoples speech and Correct them. They will also become aware of the world around them spatially i. e. time intervals and seasons of the year. 8-12 years By this stage a child will be fluent in speech and perhaps even bilingual due to family’s culture. They will show few lapses in grammar and hold meaningful conversations with those around them, and discuss their own ideas confidently. Knowledge is expansive at this stage with learning new ideas and school curriculum covering a wider range of topics of learning 2-16 years.

From the age of 12-16 years a child’s intellect is tested to the full. At school they will be taking sats/ exams and starting gsce`s. here their communication diminishes and intellect takes over. They become communative with their peers, but lack any comms with adults; they become increasingly aware of likes and dislikes and are fully established in their social roles. 16-19 years At this stage of development a child’s intellect and communication is at its peak. They are perhaps going to sixth form or college, and will be making career choices.

Also meeting new peers, and interacting with adults on another level i. e. tutors and parents. They are now fully aware of the social and economic ways of the world, and will hold themselves accountable in society. Physical Children’s physical development relates to the body’s increase in skills involving movement. To indicate gross motor skills and fine motor skills. 0-3 years At birth babies are lacking significant movement. By around 306 months a baby should be able to hold its head up. By 6-9 months a baby should be able to roll over onto its back, and may be able to sit up aided.

Between 9-12 months the child should be able to maintain a sitting position and will transfer objects from one hand to another. It may also be able to stand with the aid of furniture at 12-18 months. At 18 months a child may well be able to walk unaided, play with bigger toys and be able to pick them up without falling over. The child may be able to tackle going up and down the stairs holding onto a rail. Balance is now a key role in physical development, hence the great joy of jumping with both feet. By the age of 2 the child may be able to run and walk up and down stairs two at a time. -6 years

By this stage a child of 3`s coordination skills are improving and here we see gross motor skills developing such as running/ climbing/ kicking / riding bikes catching and throwing a ball. Fine motor skills her consist of the ability to write i. e. holding pencils. They should be able to dress themselves, tie shoe laces and button up buttons. Use scissors at school and brushing of teeth should all be gotten to grips with at this stage too. 7-11 years By the age of 7-11 years a child’s physical development involves a lot of body changes. Increased body strength being one of them.

By now they have mastered balance and co-ordination. Their concentration pattern is more increased and the child will start to develop talents in different areas i. e. musical instrument, art, sports. They are able to read full stories and writing becomes joined up. 12-16 years A child’s physical development between the ages of 12-16 years changes rapidly, with factors such as puberty, growth spurts and hormones. Their bodies will be going through physical changes too with body development. Weight can gain or be lost in both sexes. Their fine motor skills developing all the time, through skills such as art, I.

T and textiles. And their gross motor skills developing through sport i. e. football, basketball and hockey. 16-19 years At this stage of development a child’s physical appearance or image is very important to them. Again issues or weight gain and lose playing major role through hormones. Between these ages a young person may also find the opposite sex a major attraction, hence the self conscious image. Between 18-19 years a young persons appearance is sustaining, they are more self aware, and aware of the opposite sex and may well be sexually active. They now have a wide and varied set of gross and fine motor skills.

Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important. Children will develop at different rates, information and sources we receive are only suggested guidelines. The guidelines help us to monitor what children can and can’t do at certain stages in their lives. It also helps us to plan effectively, to ensure the child gets the attention they need, in any areas the child finds challenging. Physical development follows a definite pattern sequence, i. e. a baby would have to first learn to hold their own head up, before they would be able to sit up.

While the sequences are common amongst most children, what often changes is the rate in which they develop the skills they need. It is paramount we monitor a child’s sequence and rate of development, in order for us to determine any kind of assistance they might need, and whom they may be referred to for this help. Cross reference with Q. 1 1. 1 Q. 2 2. 1 & 2. 2 Explain how children and young peoples development is influenced by a range of personal and external factors. There are a number of reasons why personal and external factors may influence a child’s development. Background.

Children may come from a varied range of family environments. Cultures and circumstances may influence a child’s development in the fact their parents may come from a foreign country and have different language s and religious beliefs. All this may affect the child as they may be taught one thing at school, and a different thing at home, which may confuse the child, i. e. talk one language at home, and talk another outside the home, causing problems with language barriers. Health. A child may suffer from poor health or even a physical disability i. e. missing limbs, hearing impairment.

Pupils lacking fine and gross motor skills etc. , these children will need extra support in their learning development. A child may also suffer from mental disability/ impairment, i. e. dyslexia, dyspraxia, A. D. H. D, autism, Aspergers. All of which require specialists help, with referrals to correct department to help and aid the child with their learning plan and development. Health can also be affected by low income families and a wide range of socio-economic factors i. e. access to quality health services, premises selling food at affordable prices etc. he individual’s emotional development may also be impacted depending on their disability/ illness.

It is paramount the carer/ teacher in school life are aware of these situations and circumstances, so the child can get the support they need. Environmental Different circumstances or environment, to which children are exposed to during early years to adolescence will also affect their development. A family may go through significant changes i. e. illness, family break ups, moving house, even changing countries. these factors will all have a major impact on their development, and children will respond in different ways.

Many environmental factors can affect a child’s ability to development, other countries as well as our own suffer from environmental disaster, such as pollution when drinking water is sullied and food is scarce, leading to malnutrition. Disasters such as land slides are suffered both here and abroad i. e. the children trapped in a school in Wales. Children can also affect the path of their own development, as in the choices they make in life can affect this i. e. As the child grows up they may think that they are making the right decisions about their future, but the child could end up making the wrong decision, i. . truancy, dropping subjects/ dropping out of education.

This could affect everything they have worked toward. Emotional transition Within a family a child may have lost a family member, if the child has a close connection with this person, it may be hard for them to understand what has happened, and this may lead to them being withdrawn, they may see those around them in the family being upset, and not wanting to talk about the lose as it is upsetting, this can lead to the child becoming emotionally unbalanced and becoming disruptive in school settings, as they do not know how to vent their emotions.

We must here learn to listen to the child and help them understand their feelings. Physiological A child going through puberty is a major change of development. This transition for a child is hard, and as the process may be one that may progress over a long period of time, the child will need support and reassurance of what is happening to them is normal and that everyone goes through this transition. Intellectual

A child may find the transition of going through the change from nursery to primary school a challenge. Due to the change in new routines, i. e. a child moving from key stage 1, whom is given more or less help every step of the way, now moves onto key stage 2, where they have to take responsibility for more day to day tasks, and may find it hard to cope. This is where the teacher/ T. A can support them in their needs.

Planning and Strategy Formulation medical school essay help: medical school essay help

Planning and strategy formulation are critical for an organisation to set up goals and accomplish it. It is crucial in order to perform better in market and environment better than its competitors. This section will include Qantas’ aim and main goal, vision, mission, and values, and current actions. Aim and Main goal Qantas’ aim is to meet the highest standards of safety, service, citizenship, and environment responsibility.

The CEO of Qantas, Allen Joice, states that Qantas Groups continually renews its fleet, creating low operating cost, fuel efficiency, and releasing new planes to improve passengers’ comfort. The goal of Qantas is to deliver great place to work, provide training and development for their people and harness their passion. Qantas used Cost Leadership Strategy to responds the changing market conditions by creating Jetstar, the lower fare airline. Cost Leadership Strategy is an effort of organisations to operate more efficient to minimise the cost.

Vision, Mission, and Values The vision of Qantas is to operate each airline the best in their class, the world’s best premium airline, Qantas, and the world’s best low fares carriers, Jestars. This organisation is focused on safety first, right aircraft right routes, customer service excellence, operational efficiency, and two strong complementary brands. The Qantas’ short-term mission is improving environmental performances such as reduction of fuel, water, electricity, and waste, and the new technology, Next Generation Check-in, that involve Operational Plan.

Operational Plan is a short-term objective in order to progress the goals. It is include: – Production plan ( involves machine, tech, and methods – Financial plan ( money required – Facilities plan ( facilities and work layout – Marketing plan ( requirement selling and distribution – Human Resource plan ( recruitment, selection and placement of people/ employee. The famous value of Qantas is about safety issues. Qantas has invest $1. 4 billion each year in engineering and maintenance to ensure that highest standards of operational safety and performances.

In 2009, Qantas Management System was covering safety, health, management and security performances. Based on Qantas’ Annual Review 2010, the Lost Time Injury Frequency Rate has reduced from 31. 7 (2001/2002) to 4. 3 (2009/2010). Current Action The domestic flying with Next Generation Check-in, which take in advance seat selections, online and mobile check-in, automatic check-in, Kiosks, and Kiosks service point. The Next Generation Check-in is an action taking from listening to customer about the long queues and big hassle.

As a result, Qantas is releases the ease and fast ways to check in through Next Generation Check-in. Qantas’ first priority, Safety First, is one of the organisation current actions. Major problem of an aircraft is natural disaster. The current eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano in Iceland on 15 April 2010 had an unprecedented impact on airlines around the world. At that time, Qantas has shut down the European service for six days and impacting over 15,000 customers.

Qantas has experience in planning and operating services safely in areas of known volcanic activity to monitoring the level ash concentration and related airspace restriction. Qantas’ predictions and awareness of natural disaster has shown a reflection of scenario planning. Scenario Planning is an action taken to predict future and making plans to deal with it. The starting points of Scenario Planning are: – Organising: allocating and arranging resources for the key tasks – Leading: guiding staffs to accomplish given tasks Controlling: monitoring and assessing tasks.

The benefit of Scenario Planning is to improve focus and flexibility. Through Scenario Planning, the organisation with focus knows the best need of their customers and how to serve them well. By Qantas, to improve the domestic check-in process, Qantas already know what best for their customers. On the other hand, organisation with flexibility is willing and able to change and adapt to shifting and operates with an orientation to future. Qantas has changes the process of check-in on the domestic flying.

The changes will includes more training and adaptation in order to accomplish their goal to serve with fast and easy domestic check-in. Another advantage of Scenario Planning is to place organisation is state of Readiness, which making the organisation more: – Results – oriented ( creating performances – Priority – oriented ( to get the first attention; the most important – Advantage – oriented ( ensuring that all resources for the best all advantage – Change – oriented ( anticipating problems and opportunity so the organisation can deal in best way

Ethnicity and Education homework essay help: homework essay help

Ethnic differences in educational achievement are primarily the result of school factors” Most studies found that overall ethnic minorities tend to do less well than other members of the population when it comes to educational achievement. The government sponsored “Swann report” found that “Asians” did almost as well as “Whites” however not as well, one Asian group in particular the “Bangladeshi’s” did particularly badly and “West Indians” preformed considerably worse than “Whites”.

Many factors which occur inside the school are the cause of educational achievement however other factors contribute. The expectations of teachers on ethnic minorities have caused differences in educational achievement. Bernard Coard believes that teachers expect “Black” children to fail therefore labelling the child as a failure. Interactionalists are concerned with how teachers “pidgeonhole” students this is the labelling theory, this is where the teacher makes a judgement of the child based on the child’s appearance, behaviour, previous family members and relationships with other students.

However most labels are based on stereotypes rather than evidence, the reality is that once a label starts it is difficult to get rid of and this can cause problems for a student’s educational achievement. Teachers will discuss the students label in the staff room and other teachers will attach the same label to the child and this can lead to the child not being allowed to attend school trips. If a student is labelled as a failure by a teacher then the teacher is likely to put the student into a lower tier exam thus the pupil can only achieve a maximum of a grade C and can’t achieve to the best of their ability.

When a student is labelled as a failure the student can begin to believe that the label is true and begin to make it part of their part of their identity, become a failure this is known as the self-fulfilling prophecy thus creating ethnic differences in educational achievement within the school system. David Hardgreves argues that anti school sub cultures can be formed as a result of negative labelling. However Maureen Stone and Swann both indicate that those who are labelled may not accept their labels. Institutional Racism within schools can lead to educational achievement and the differences it causes within ethnic minorities.

The “Swann report” found that a small number of teachers are consciously racist however there are a great deal of teachers who are “unintentionally” racist. Bernard Coard states that the British educational system  makes children become educationally subnormal he states that “West Indian children are told that their language is second rate and unacceptable” he states that within the British educational system the word “White” is associated with “good” and the word “Black” with evil. Coard also states that the attitudes portrayed in the classroom are reinforced by the pupils outside of the classroom.

Many sociologists would also argue that the mispronunciation of student’s names and not learning them can be classed as racism within the school system. Cecile Wright found that majority of staff are committed to ideals of equality but despite these ideals there are still considerable amounts of discrimination in the classroom. Asian children were often excluded from discussions and teachers expressed an “open disapproval of their customs and traditions”, these comments from teachers made Asian children feel more isolated from other pupils.

Martin Hammersley found that racist comments in the staffroom did not lead to racism in the classroom. J. Taylor found that “most teachers are concerned to have a fair policy towards the treatment of black pupils”. Mac an Ghaill studied 25 afro Caribbean and Asian students studying A levels. He found that “although they disagreed over the extent of racism within education, this did not directly determine their attitude to education and their levels of academic success. The way that students responded to schooling varied and this was influenced by their ethnic group”.

This could eventually lead to the formation of anti-school sub cultures. These are pupils who have rejected some or all of the values and rules set down in the school ethos. Peter Woods identified 8 different groups ranging from Ingratiation total conformity to Rebellion outright rejection of school rules and values. This can cause ethnic differences in educational achievement within the school system. The Ethocentric curriculum can cause ethnic differences in educational achievement this is the school being biased towards one particular culture.

Many sociologists argue that the curriculum is geared towards white middle class students. The curriculum is set in place for white middle class students and this means that ethnic minorities will not understand the curriculum and will fall behind and not do well thus leading to educational underachievement. Parents from ethnic minorities may not be able to afford or have the right experience to make an informed choice on the best school to suit their children’s needs whereas middle class parents have the money and correct experience to make an informed decision on the best school for their child.

Ethnic differences in educational achievement are the result of school factors however other factors have significance. Material Deprivation is the effect poverty has on educational achievement. Poorer parents from ethnic minorities may not be able to provide their children with the educational toys needed such as computers. Cramped housing means less space to study. High rate of illness can lead to missing days of school. Children from poorer backgrounds may need to contribute to the financial running of the home thus getting part time jobs which will affect their studies and will leave school at the earliest opportunity to start work.

Harker states that overcrowding causes a negative effect on educational achievement which can cause differences in ethnic minorities which can cause bullying and truancy. Cultural Deprivation is the term used to describe serious inadequacies in the socialisation process and its effects on educational achievement. Poor parenting means children underachieving in education. Many sociologists argue that ethnic minorities tend to be more fatalistic meaning that parents tend to have low aspirations and expectations for their child meaning less emphasis is placed on doing well in education.

Whereas “White” middle classes would have high aspirations and high expectations. Socialisation focuses on the values, expectations and norms transmitted from parents to children. Children from Ethnic tend to focus on immediate gratification where they try to reep their rewards at the earliest opportunity such as leaving school at 16 to earn money. Whereas “White” middle class children aim for a bright future described as deferred gratification which is putting off short term rewards to gain better rewards in the future.

Cultural Deprivation can affect the way parents prepare their children for school. Working class children would sit and watch T. V. whereas middle class parents would take their children to museums. Driver and Ballard state that high achievement in Asian groups may be linked to the fact that they live in close knit families that can help each other. Price highlighted a high rate of single parent families in black Caribbean communities which may explain high underachievement. Linguistic Deprivation is the ability to use appropriate language which is an important factor in educational success.

Bernstein came up with two codes of language Restricted and Elaborate codes. The Restricted code is used in casual situations. This is limited vocabulary and Simplistic grammar which can only be understood if you are aware of this topic. The Elaborate code is used in formal situations. This is sophisticated grammar and vocabulary and can be understood if aware of the topic. Bernstein found that White middle class children had the ability to switch between the two codes whereas children from ethnic minorities were limited to using the restricted code.

This means they are severely disadvantaged in education where the language is all formal. In conclusion, it is probable that a number of factors work together in producing the lower levels of achievement found in some ethnic groups. The Swann report concluded that racial discrimination inside and outside school along with social deprivation were probably the main factors. Others would add that cultural factors also play some part in explaining the differences.

Strategic Direction college essay help online: college essay help online

This report discusses the actual and potential impact of information on the strategic direction of Tesco, a food and grocery retailer. This report also analyse the important of customer in Tesco and how they use Clubcard to earn customer loyalty. Tesco is the UK’s largest grocer and they not only offer fresh food and chilled meals but also increased sales in the non-food sector (Datamonitor, 2009).

Tesco know the basic principles of how to run a mass-scale, create value loyalty programme and had been proven and are still used today. Tesco can understand what their customer wanted by collecting data and with the simple marketing model for example ‘Every little helps’ and saying ‘Thank you’ to customers can achieve customer loyalty (Seth and Randall, 2005). In addition this report studied the interaction of five different forces that happen in the business using Porter’s Five Forces Model introduced by Michael Porter (1980). The benefit of using of IT and internet for online shopping also gives benefit where Tesco can gain more profit.

Implementation issue of strategy also explained for instance they have a problem when there was too much data and the problems with the data warehouses and how they create the solutions. This report also examined about the customer value in Tesco and discovered how they build a strong relationship to their customers. Lastly, the report concludes by recommendation that would be used by the organisation in order to maintain their growth in the food and non-food products. INTRODUCTION Information becomes a resource when it gives value to the organisation.

According to Garai (1997), all information started as data and it has to be converted into information, knowledge, understanding, communication and intelligence in order to be useful and powerful data. We look from the perspective of Tesco in order to understand the aspect of knowledge, information and data and how they apply in the organisation. Tesco had a 30. 7 percent share of the UK grocery market (Datamonitor, 2009).

It means that Tesco leading the market position and dominate the food and retailer sector. Tesco was the first UK grocer launched loyalty card and until recently they still use the information to mail customers every month Palmer, 2004). What is more, Tesco is the most successful internet supermarket in the world, the biggest grocer in the UK and grow very fast in financial services companies. There are three levels of the company products, value, normal and finest. Tesco also has gas stations and become one of the Britain’s biggest independent petrol retailers. (Datamonitor, 2008). Tesco very focus on customer data and they use data warehousing to analyse and organized data (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). From the data, Tesco can divide their product through customer segmentation.

Discount of particular product also given to their value or loyal customer base on the data mining. Many strategies have been use to get the customer loyalty. For instance Tesco used customer loyalty contract so that the loyal customer can be a long term stakeholder for example they launched ‘Student Clubcard’ and ‘Points on Petrol’ as marketing techniques to get more customers (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003).  Tesco started collecting data on customer with process which took about seven to eight years and they not only analyse but make sense of it (Mutch, 2008).

Realistically Tesco try to develop individual into group target or put the groups into the data and make classification of customer. Tesco started from questions by asking customer not from collecting data where they use many useful capital customers and question (Mutch, 2008). They try to develop individual into group target and put the groups into the data. They make it in group to make different or using customer segmentation. Segmentation is making assumption and making decision knowing about customer. For instance in UK postcode is being used to do marketing.

In addition, Tesco has a very strong customer orientation. They put people strength ‘every little helps’ and offer products at affordable price. However, Tesco also has a range called premium product which has high quality store and high price. For instance, when Tesco produce it for the first time it’s only at the certain store and in wealthy area. Morover, through University of Kent and dunhumby Academy of Consumer Research help Tesco to produce analysis of loyalty card data and sales (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). Tesco can analyse data on customer with the profile who buy a product in every single shop.

Therefore Tesco can adjust how much they need to put in the shop base on the data. From club card and data analysis, Tesco can make history who is buying the product and in what time they are buying the product (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). Porter & Miller (1985) argued that organisations need to alert about the new IT. Tesco do a lot of marketing research not only on people but also analyse the data in what other combination in what other trend do something with it. Tesco became success because they came historically very good in different people.

Considering the popularity of online shopping in the UK, Tesco launched their Tesco. com in 2000. (Mintel Report, 2008). It gives the opportunity for the company to get new customers, earn better margins and save infrastructure costs. ‘ 1 shows that food and groceries have the highest percentage of purchase through internet. In addition, Tesco expanding their non-food range product in the internet through Tesco Direct like books, furnishings and home electricals. It increased sales rapidly by more than 50 percent in 2009 (MarketWatch, 2009).

As a result, it helps the company to drive sales when it offer product at low priced. Technological advances also help Tesco in their daily business operations such as self check-out machine, wireless devices, electronic shelf labelling and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. As a result, this technology helps Tesco’s ability to increase the service and products at the same time controlling costs. It can be said that IT has taken up a central role or function in business strategy formulation. In terms of data warehouse, Tesco is a customer store based model.

It starts by gathering data to answer a specific set of questions then grow to take in further types of data. By having a centre warehouse, Tesco may develop more customers and they can order stock based on customer needs. The problem with data warehouse come out when the project is used as a technical which the purpose is to get all the data together and see what kind of questions can be asked (Mutch, 2008). Westerman (2001) argued about the best form of data warehouse for organisation with some preferring the smaller datamart. This is because it can reduce time and the data can be better appropriated to specific needs.

A Porter’s five forces focus at the external factors that impact to the company. The idea was based on the competitive advantage that came from the competence to obtain a return on investment that was better than the average of the industry sector (Johnson and Scholes, 2003). By using this tool as shown in ‘ 2, it may identify the problems facing Tesco including it examine the buyer power in relation to grocery purchases, the threat of substitutes from other competitors, grocery supplier power and the power of the customer.

Threats of new entrants The threat of new entrants is normally based on the market entry barriers. However, the market entry barriers exist when it is not economically for an outsider make a copy of the incumbent’s position (Porter, 1980). According to Ritz (2005), in the last 30 years, grocery market has been changed into the supermarket-dominated business that has been controlled by competitors including Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury’s and Safeway. As a result, it gives a great impact on the small shops like bakers and butchers.

It has a strong barrier for new companies to enter the grocery market due to high cost in developing supply chains. For instance Tesco invested a huge amount in advanced technology for the stock control systems and checkouts so it gives the impact for the new entrants. Bargaining power of suppliers The power of suppliers can be affected by grocery chains and fear of losing their business to the large supermarkets. Retailers pay a price of the good based on the suppliers demand. They do not get the goods if the retailers didn’t pay the price.

However, Tesco can dictate the price that small shopkeeper pay to the supplier. Therefore the supplier will be left with a small market if they do not reduce the price. Bargaining power of buyers According to Porter (1980), the more products that become standardized, the lower switching cost, therefore more power is given to buyers. Buyers will use their power of buying and move to other supermarket if prices are too high. Tesco’s loyalty card, Clubcard is one of the most successful strategies in order to gain more profitability.

Tesco focuses in fulfilled their customer’s needs by maintain their customer base for example give better choices, low prices, customizing service and continuous flow of in-store promotions. In addition, supermarket starts to sell non-food items when there is a large demand from consumers doing most of their shopping in supermarket. It provides supermarkets with a new market area like pharmacies and banking. Threats of substitutes There is a threat of consumers switching to alternatives when substitution capable to lower demand for a particular product (Porter, 1980).

For example Tesco has competition from other competitors like Sainsbury’s that able to provide substitutes for their products so it makes the prices down in both supermarkets. Tesco also try to gain small scale operations and opening Express stores both in local and city centres (Ritz, 2005). Bargaining power of competitors In many aspect of the market, Tesco has a big competitive rivalry from other competitors such as Sainsbury’s, Morrisons, Asda and Waitrose. They were competed each other through price, product and promotions.

Tesco’s express main rivals are the Sainsbury’s and the Co-op one way in which they compete through distribution with Tesco. This made Tesco more competitive in sustain customers where these businesses have stores. In addition, Tesco also compete with petroleum suppliers for instance Esso, Texaco, Bp and Shell. They are using the same principle to compete one another by having price wars and introduce their special branded fuels like high octane fuels. However, according to Ritz (2005), Tesco has large amounts of consumer information that can be used to communicate with consumer.

Innovation also can be seen in the development of trading formats due to changes in consumer behaviour, therefore UK grocery retailers have to be innovative to sustain and build market share. USE AND COLLECTION OF CONSUMER INFORMATION Tesco tries to acquire long-term loyalty from their customers through Clubcard. From the data collected on shopping patterns, Tesco could arrange their product in stores. For instance The Baby and toddler club has been specified among families with children and new babies.

The loyalty scheme also has a lot of purpose like customers receive variety of coupons and discounts that linked to a certain product. This will affect customer behaviour in spending pattern. Moreover, customers also have opportunity to pursue buying into financial and other services for instance by giving cardholder discounts for first time buyers. From the data that Tesco collected, they can detect the customers purchasing history. Tesco can provide customers with variety of products and range throughout the stores.

For example Tesco launches three brands there are ‘Tesco Value, Tesco and Tesco Finest’ and these are the three price quality positions and the priced accordingly at Tesco targeted customers (Dawson, Larke and Mukoyama, 2006). ‘ 3 shows the principles of Clubcard loyalty contract, it is simple but profound. Tesco promises their customer if they open a Clubcard account, they will get a lot of benefits and join Tesco to be a long -term stakeholder. Data that are collected by Clubcard is part of the contract. This concept also important for Tesco as a tool of their communication strategy to keep commitment between Tesco and customers.

In addition, Tesco launched Student Clubcard in September 1995 where it was based on the research among 600 students that think loyalty cards didn’t give any advantage to them and by August 1996, one in five UK students was a member, this made 4 percent of Tesco profit came from member of Student Clubcard. (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). However, students are not really engage with the loyalty card because they tend to move house for at least once a year, so it is difficult to keep track where they live. Tesco have difficulty to communicate with them effectively.

Other strategy that has been done by Tesco is giving points on petrol. If customer spent ? 9 on groceries, ? 1 was spent on petrol so Tesco get immediate effect on sales when customer want get more points so that they can filling up their tank especially from the male customers. (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). Tecso had a big problem when there was too much data flooded in 1995 because as the most successful retailer in the world, Tesco need to handle output of more 50 million shopping trips in three months and need to comprising more than two billion purchased items for more than 5 million Clubcard holder. Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003).

Tesco use the expertise from dunhumby to develop the strategy for data analysis. Tesco got huge or mass volumes of individual data of their value customer. At once a week, the analysts took 10 per cent of the data then they processed the data and applied the findings to the other 90 percent of the file, this process took time and need the intellectual and put the insight to work quickly and at that time, dunhumby only have 25 person in the company and Tesco agreed to cover the cost and hardware to deliver the analysis (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003).

In addition, Tesco also has problem with data warehouses. According market research in 1996, 46 percent of large companies were attempting to build a data warehouse, with a further 26 percent planning to use one by the end of the year (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). The data warehouse had plenty of small databases in customer service, human resource and logistics. Tesco obviously need a data warehouse to run Clubcard and by using this system Tesco would be able to get information about their value customers. They can know or the data will show who shopped at what time and customer particular of age, store or location.

On the other hand, Tesco can identify the lifestyle of particular customer by profiling what he or she bought. Data warehousing created problems because there are so many different sources and they are never in a common format. Time is also important because if they take several months to analyse data and get the conclusions it is already out of date. In retail business, time is very important because the old data is not relevant with the current business situation. Build a data warehouse need a huge cost because organize mass volume of data means need to store them in high computing memory and processing power.

Analyst Ovum calculates that they need to spend ? 4 pound to put data for every ? 1 spent building a data warehouse and Ovum also reported that more than two-thirds of data warehouse projects had failed but Tesco proved that Clubcard’s project return on investment. (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003). In addition, the new technology like web can be threat to some operations but Tesco used it to further cement their position. To route success in customer data, Tesco making a warehouse called datamarts (Humby, Hunt and Phillips, 2003).

They created data that can build a miniature data ware house to solve the problems for example if they want only to look the data at one group of customers. They based the solution on the operational online transaction processing (OLTP) which ran the store stills. Using this system, they can get the information as quick as possible while data are getting more information while it is analysed. Tesco had the most popular and most recognized loyalty programme, Clubcard in the UK. The basic principles of how to run a mass-scale, value creating loyalty programme had been tested and proven and are still followed today.

To remain useful, Clubcard data had to be turned into customer knowledge that would create value for the Tesco business beyond the targeting of offers. Communication to the customer via branding and all aspects of store operations is very important to the value customer who is unlikely to have any information of the organization but yet can know and understand what retailer offer is different, new and of value. Data gathered from data warehouses are used to differentiate customer into different categories so that they can provide variety range of product for particular customers.

From the data they also can maintain the stock level s on the shelves because the decision is still in their control. Although Tesco is a leader in the UK grocery, they still face competition from major retailers that want to increase their market share. In future Tesco might face fierce competition to sustain and grow their market share. In order to put Tesco in a strength position, they need to expand their store network in the domestic and international market and must constantly adapt to any fast changing circumstances. Therefore generating revenue may diversify and strength for it’s the global market position.

A Personalised Induction Will Always Be More Effective essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

I do not believe the statement on the front of this essay to be true. I believe that in some cases this may be needed, but not always. I think it depends on the client and what their individual needs are. A personalised induction allows for a much more personal approach and this is provided with this type of induction. However, in many cases this is not necessary or possible. For example, group therapy or self help CD’s to help you quit smoking or help you sleep.

A generic induction can also work as an ice breaker for clients who want help but are afraid of sharing too much personal information with the therapist at the start of treatment. Some clients find it hard to trust their therapist and some just do not trust hypnosis. I believe there are arguments for both sides the personalised induction and the generic screed. I do not believe either is better or worse than the other, they are as effective as each other but in different ways. Personalised Induction A personalised induction is a hypnotic induction tailored to suit a specific client.

They are used by therapists because people are individuals and deserve the personal touch. There are many reasons why a personalised induction needs to be carried out; it will give you some very useful information on the client. Firstly, it is very important to ascertain the mental health of the client. A hypnotherapist must never work with anyone who has or has had psychosis. If the client is on any kind of psychological medication or has a history of mental health, then the hypnotherapist will need to get written permission from the client’s doctor to carry out any therapy.

Secondly, it is also important to confirm the physical aspects of the client and whether they are pregnant or suffer from epilepsy. However, in many cases you can only go by the information the client provides you, which is why it is important for you as a therapist to be aware of the client’s appearance and how they react on the outside, as this will be a reflection of their internal self. Everybody has individual characters and personalities which differentiate in many ways, both internally and externally, despite superficial similarities. We have different likes and dislikes.

We come from culturally diverse background and religions. Our upbringing will have provided us with a particular set of values and standards. In order to carry out an effective induction we should ideally include as many of the likes and very few if any of the dislikes in a person’s life. The idea of the induction is to put the person at ease, as explained in an earlier essay relaxation is the key to an effective induction. During the initial consultation it is important to obtain the relevant information and find out the history of a person in order to personalise an induction.

However, a person’s preferences and modalities are not always fixed and sometimes situations change and too much can be presumed after an initial consultation, this means that inductions have to remain flexible. By understanding your client, and having an idea of which modality they favour will help them and you feel more comfortable. The Hypnotherapist may use a variety of means to discover what type of induction will be most appropriate. They will take notes on the client’s appearance, noting such things like colour of their clothing, body language, speech pattern, lateral eye movement and lifestyle.

Personality and behavioural traits will also assist when compiling an induction (Chrysalis client screed assessment sheet will help). All the above are essential because it is estimated that about only 7% of communication is through the words we use, with tone and volume coming in second at 38%, and 55% is through body language (hypnosis and mental health). As the client will most likely have their eyes shut throughout an induction the hypnotherapist will lose over half of their opportunity to communicate. Techniques

There are two generally recognised techniques of hypnotic induction that the therapist will use to induce the client into a state of relaxation, Authoritarian and Permissive. The Authoritarian technique is commanding and direct. Its purpose is to establish control over the client and alter behaviour through the use of repetitious commands. This approach was used in early experiments because hypnotists believed that the authority they had over their client increased their chance of success (hypnosis for change: 26). The phrases used are: Close your eyes now or you will listen to my voice and my voice will make you relax.

Dave Elman was an influential figure in the Authoritarian approach. Elman was born in North Dakota on the 6 May 1900. As a teenager Elman became an entertainer, he was a talented saxophone and violin player. He also staged hypnosis acts, this was however short lived. In 1948 Elman was producing a charity event when the main act cancelled, to fill the gap left, Elman preformed a hypnosis act. Much to the applause of a group of doctors, who asked Elman to teach them his approach? The authoritarian approach that Elman used almost seemed to bridge a gap between stage hypnosis and hypnotherapy.

Stage hypnosis uses very direct and sharp techniques. Elman incorporated these approaches to make a therapy. Although this approach may seem domineering, it only creates an illusion of the therapist being in control. The client has to be willing to be told what to do, so therefore the client is actually in full control and can stop the therapy at anytime. The Permissive technique employs a softer tone of voice to lull the client into relaxation. In contrast to the authoritarian technique, the hypnotist and the client are equal partners in the process.

More imagery is used to enhance suggestions, and greater responsibility is given to the client (hypnosis for change: 27). The phrases used are: You may like to close your eyes or you may like to move around a little. Milton Erickson was born in 1901 in Nevada. Erickson was an influential man in the permissive approach. He used an unconventional approach to hypnosis, Erickson believed that by allowing people to participate in their own therapy this would allow them to take ownership of the changes and suggestions being made to them.

Erickson used therapeutic metaphors and stories like scripts instead of orders in his therapy. This approach also allowed the clients to move at their own speed. Modalities Modalities play a big part in delivering an induction, and as such during the initial consultation with a client the hypnotherapist will pay particular attention to everything the client says, their actions and their personality. The Visual, Auditory and Kinaesthetic (VAK) are the three main modalities with Olfactory, Gustatory and Auditory Digital being the remainder.

Each of the modalities are present in a person’s physiology, language, behaviour, social and working life and also in their lateral eye movement (LEM). Lateral eye movements are thought to show the response to the type of thinking we need to employ in order to access certain information. Each of the modalities has their own LEM and use of words: Visual thinking people have a tendency to daydream, fantasise and imagine, and they generally speak faster in a high but clear tone. They may hold their body in a less relaxed way and the LEM for this modality are likely to be defocused or looking up to the left or right.

They look up to the right when they are forming images, maybe making something up and look to the persons left when they are actually remembering images. Effective language in a screed for this modality would use words like look, imagine, watch, bright and would include phrases like I see what you mean, the future looks bright or looks good to me. Auditory thinking people have a tendency to imagine sounds such as music and speech and they often have a melodious voice style. They may tilt their head to one side and exhibit rhythmic body movement at times.

The LEM for this modality will be around the horizontal midline, looking to the person’s right when they are constructing sounds and looking to the left when they are remembering sounds. Effective language in a screed for this modality would use words like say, remarks, discuss and would include phrases like loud and clear, that sounds good or I hear what you are saying. Kinaesthetic thinking people have a tendency to want to touch everything and may have a soft or lower tone to their voice. They may have rounded shoulders and the LEM for this modality will usually be to look down to the right.

Effective language in a screed for this modality would use words like touch, smooth, gentle, move, and warm and would include phrases like I know how you feel or put your finger on it or hold on a moment. The other modalities that could be used are Olfactory, which means smell and Gustatory, which means taste. A personalised induction can be very beneficial for the client as it is tailored to suit each person’s modality and whether they prefer a permissive or authoritative induction. It also aims to include the client’s likes, and avoids their dislikes.

The more the client likes are incorporated into the induction, the more the client relaxes the more successful the treatment will be. Also eliminating any undesired distractions like outside noise and having to stop the induction to visit the toilet, would avoid the client from having their anxieties raised, as this will reduce the effectiveness of the hypnotic induction. As you have read there are many advantages to a personalised induction, but what are the disadvantages? Firstly there is the length of time it takes to create a personalised induction; this can be a very lengthy process.

Secondly, not all hypnotherapy is carried out on a one to one basis, for instance it can be used in group therapy for weight loss or to stop smoking. The therapist would not be able to use a personalised induction in this setting, as everybody in the group would be at different levels of need, and so need different things from the induction. Finally, hypnotherapy treatment can be pre-recorded, duplicated, for example DVD or CD, and can be distributed to reach a larger audience, so a personalised induction would not be suitable in this instance.

Other things that need to be considered are that the client’s preferences may not be fixed, and so could change from one session to the next, which would mean having to rewrite the induction. Conclusion At the start of this essay I believe that a personalised induction was not needed all the time and a generic screed would fit all. However, after reading and researching about personalised inductions, I now believe that a personalised induction will always be more effective where there is a one to one session for all of the reasons I have stated.

There is however, still a danger of spending too much time on a personalised induction, only to find that when you next see that individual, events in their lives may have changed meaning that the induction you have done for them is now inappropriate. In this respect I believe a hypnotherapist should be flexible and open-minded when carrying out the induction. I believe it cannot tell us absolutely everything you will ever need to know about the client. I also believe that there is an element of the therapist in the induction as they us their skills when speaking to the client at the first meeting.

I feel that the permissive and authoritarian styles will generally be quite easy to establish and sometimes a client’s job will also give this away. For example if someone is in the armed forces they would probably respond well to an authoritarian induction but you can never assume anything.

Consumer Society Gives People Choice grad school essay help: grad school essay help

In the past thirty years we as a social society have moved from being classed as an Industrial Society, where everything was centred on who we were based on what we did for a living to a Consumer Society, where we are no longer thought of in terms of what we do, but more by what we are into and how and why we consume the way we do. The consumption of goods and leisure services is considered to be one of the most important social activities. The Consumer Society we live in today offers us as consumers a wide and varied choice. Choices not only of where and when to shop at our own convenience but also choices of what we want to purchase.

Most of the shopping in the UK today is done at the out of town Supermarket or Retail Park, where you can purchase just about anything from groceries to cameras, clothes to household furniture. The High Street however is still very popular among those who prefer or are unable to travel out of town and there is also the option of catalogue and on line shopping. What we do purchase can be seen as an indicator of who we are. The majority of consumption is about expressing who we are as individuals rather than actually buying things for their use.

People buy certain goods because they have meaning to them or because they want to belong or fit in. People feel they are measured by their clothes, their cars and even by their houses. Take mobile phones for example; a regular cheap phone verses the new designer phone that includes all the extras, both phones serve the same purpose, both have a camera, mp3 player and the latest games. The difference is the price tag. People buy these expensive phones to show off to others, as they believe phone says something about who they are.

This behaviour is better known by Social Scientists as Conspicuous Consumption. In his book The Theory of the Leisure Class, 1899, Thorstein Veblen studied the consumer habits of the rich towards the end of the nineteenth century. Veblen stated that, “luxury items that were bought were put on display in their homes, so guests would see the trappings of success on display”. (Hetherington 2009, p. 32) Even though this was observed over a hundred years ago, it can still be seen today with people showing off their cars, holidays and luxury household items such as televisions and computer games consoles.

Upbringing and education can also influence our decisions, as can income and the way goods are advertised. We as a Consumer Society are very seduced by the power of advertisement. If goods or leisure services are advertised in the right way out attention is caught and the advertising agencies know this. The use of someone famous promoting the latest perfume or sporting equipment seems to work, and we as consumers tend to rush out to buy the latest fashionable items on offer. We are led to believe that we create the lifestyle that matches our identity.

Consumer Society does offer people choice, however not everybody has the same choice. Not everybody is able to consume in the same way, some of us have low paid jobs or simply no interest in being caught up in the game. The Consumer Society of today is very much a Divided Society. This is properly due to restrictions between the elderly and the young, the employed and unemployed. The unemployed are not able to consume in the same way as those with high paid jobs, the elderly and those without cars will not be able to visit the large Retail Parks.

Much of this comes down to Zygmunt Bauman’s 1988 theory of the Seduced and the Repressed. Bauman divides Consumer Society into two categories, the Seduced who are able to consume effectively as they have the means and the social circumstances are in their favour and the Repressed who unfortunately are not in the position to consume as the Seduced do, due it be to lack of money, physical or mobility difficulties. Due to this, a group of friends might exclude a young man without a job from going out night clubbing with them.

The choices we have about where we shop are sometimes influenced by some of the big Supermarkets. The big Supermarkets and Retail Parks always seem to be full. Whether people like or dislike doing their weekly routine shop, most people will choose to shop there as they offer a wide range of goods at low prices, and they are perceived by most to be a safe and convenient way of shopping compared to the often overpriced High Street. Supermarkets have grown in power and size in the past forty years and they influence our choices in relation to what and where we buy.

Some would say that Tesco hold the Monopoly in the UK; they now have over 2000 stores nationwide and are increasing their market share. Around a third of the UK’s grocery shopping is done at Tesco’s. Asda, Sainsbury’s and Morrison’s closely follow behind. Most our shopping is usually done in one of these big four, which means, shoppers do not really have that much choice over where to shop, as all four sell the same products at more or less the same price, so it is more of a personal choice over which one of the big four we choose rather than the choices they offer us.

There are many arguments for and against Supermarkets, some people will choose not to shop there, for reasons such as they disagree with what they represent. These tend to be green-minded people who care more about the environment, so they choose to shop at their local organic street markets and support their local farmers. These type of people portray a different message about who they are compared with someone buying the same less expensive goods from one of the big Supermarkets. Many shun Supermarkets as some feel that they offer cheep prices at the expense of vulnerable workers at home and abroad.

Whilst others argue that it is better that these people have a job rather than no job at all. Either way the debate between the two is still on going. Helen Rimmer from the ‘Friends of the Earth’, states that the growth of the big four Supermarkets has made it extremely difficult for the smaller shops on the High Street to survive, and “approximately fifty small shops close every week”. She also states “around the country there’s growing concern about the dominance of Supermarkets on our High Streets and our town centres”. Evidence in the Social Sciences (2009) CD 1).

In contrast, Richard Dodd from the ‘British Retail Consortium’ disagrees and argues in favour of the Supermarkets, stating that it is the prices that attract customers, “Ninety per cent of people actually use one of the big four Supermarkets at least once a month and welcome what Supermarkets do and use them regularly”. (Evidence in the Social Sciences (2009) CD 1). Consumer Society seems to favour those with money and those who wish to be part of the in crowd.

Retail Parks and Shopping Centres are becoming more and more popular as people prefer to do their shopping in one place and because they offer more choice at better prices and because they feel safer than on the High Street, this however is still an open ended discussion.

National Logistics Management medical school essay help: medical school essay help

In less than two decades National Logistics Management has already become one of the most successful and fast growing logistics companies of the USA. Despite increasing competition in logistics, NLM continues to adapt itself to the changing environment. Suffice to state just one fact: two years in a row ( in 2004 and 2005 respectively) – two reputable and well-known magazines- Inc. magazine and Start magazine recognized NLM as one of the most innovative and fast growing companies.

Undoubtedly, the innovative strategy of providing cost-effective way to facilitate and expedite premium freight is behind the success of the company. About the Company: * The company was founded in 1991 by Taylor, right from the start the company implemented an innovative approach- premium shipments were put by bid to the definite group of carriers. * The former had to respond quickly in order to receive the order.

Once several responses had been obtained the contract was awarded to the best bidder (the winner was determined by the number of factors: the price, the quality of the services provided and etc). NLM tracked the status of the order until the goods had been delivered, keeping all parties informed. * Despite the obvious fact that this system was more convenient and more efficient, some carriers as well as plant managers were dissatisfied with it, but NLM took several steps to remedy the situation. * The company has maintained its approach since 1991.

The innovative strategy implemented by company has several important advantages: * Asset visibility (Transparency) * Ease of use * On-time delivery * Value (lower cost) National Logistics Management (NLM), a third-party logistics company, is a successful, profitable business that provides a more cost-effective and efficient means to expedite premium freight. With the logistics landscape changing, NLM’s market niche is threatened NLM Operations: Challanges in NLM: * Can NLM survive in the newer, faster e-business logistics world? * What are NLM’s options for growth? * Constantly under pressure from large customers. * Additional source of revenue.

New market * Not having effective supplier compliance system Lacking a clear vision of information system strategy (EMS). * System is prone to error. Company Strategy: * More cost effective and efficient means to expedite premium freight. * 3PL internet based strategy-Creating a network of carriers through an online and phone bidding system. * Specialising in orders that have a high degree of urgency. * On time and onsite delivery. * Focus on 3 top automakers companies e. g. , Ford, General Motor and Chrysler. * Selection of the carrier based on quality and price. * The use of EMS to streamline operations and support decision making.

British Economic History compare and contrast essay help: compare and contrast essay help

To what extend did the growth of overseas trade led to Britain’s Industrial revolution? ” Introduction The development of Britain as a modern industrial economy, happened simultaneously with the expansion of foreign trade and that led many scholars to stress on the significance of exports. Some went even further to express the idea, that the growth during the industrial revolution depended on the overseas trade. During the industrial revolution,some of the major developing industries ,like textiles and coal,grew even more by selling their products abroad.

The technological innovations of the late 18th century made the British goods cheaper,”attracting” export markets,and soon Britain became the new commercial capital and the ”international industry” of Europe because of its exports. However, it seems that this flourishing of trade did not contribute substantially to the industrial revolution since the benefits of trade in the economy are much higher after the classical years of industrial revolution,although the trade’s importance should not be neglected or even worse be underestimated.

For example,in 18th century, the proportion of national income derived from exports and then spent on imports doubled in comparison to the national income. However, in 19th century although the ratio of trade to national income continued to grow,paradoxically this ratio did not increase during the industrial revolution itself. Undoubtedly trade contributed to the industrialisation of Britain but it is more difficult to find causal connections between trade and economic growth[1] .

General evaluation of trade during Industrial Revolution 1760-1850 During the classical years of industrial revolution,we can distinguish two different periods of changes in the trend of trade growth. 1760-1781 This period follows a recovery period for the growth of exports that it was attributed to the end of the Seven Years War and its special circumstances. Thus in 1764, exports reached 11. 5 million pounds which was a record figure up to then. However, after 1764 there was a downward trend for the exports.

More specifically,exports declined after 1764 up to 1770-1 when there was an imperceptible recovery . After 1771 there was an uninterrupted fall in the amount of exports that ended in 1781,reaching the lowest since 1945 of 7 million pounds. Furthermore the growth of exports during the whole period of 1760-1781 was negative. The above is an argument for the scholars that stress the importance of the home market and its contribution to the early years of the industrial revolution.

The causes of this fall in the number of exports , is justified initially by the difficulties in the European markets and then by the conflict of Britain with the 13 colonies and their boycott to the British products. 1781-1856 This period is very significant for Britain,since during these years the momentum of exports that had been defined from the previous period,changes. In fact,exports in 1780s entered in a completely new age and during this period it was observed the most ”rapid and sustained upsurge of exports than in any other previous period’.

Exports increased dramatically from 7. 6 to 18. 3 million pounds from1781 to 1792. However,many scholars are of the idea, that the reason for this upsurge lies in a combination of factors like the artificially forced low level of exports set by the War Of American Independence,the cessation of hostilities,the backlog of export orders that had been accumulated when Britain was in War and finally the fact that the starting point of 1781 was very low and thus any growth in exports would be exaggerated. 3] In addition, it seems that the losses of the previous period were not canceled by the post-1781 gains. During 1799-1802 there is positive growth of exports but afterward there is the period of 1803-1808 in which the volume of exports declines again.

In the next few years from 1809 to 1814 the figures of exports peak again but their value is much lower during the period 1802-1814 than the respective of 1800. It seems that during the Napoleonic war and the post-war wars,the growth of exports is generally much slower ,something which continued until 1826 when both volume and value f the exports went to nadir levels. Finally after 1826 the volume of exports progressively recover and reach a peak in 1856. From the above, it is obvious that trade overseas did not contribute to such a great extend to the economy during the years of the industrial revolution. The wars played an important role on this weakness of Britain to take advantage of the technology that had been developed during the industrial revolution.

On one hand ,whatever Britain won after the wars from the opening in new markets like the Latin America was just offsetting the losses of the European market and on the other hand the embargo of Britain towards the other European countries weakened more their purchasing power since they could not export and at the same time were financially declined. Evaluation of trade in specific categories during the Industrial Revolution The development of technology made the agriculture more efficient and as a result, even in 1851, its production played an important role to the increase of the national income.

This development in agriculture was a coin with two sides for England. On the one side of the coin, this development made the demand for some scarce imported products less and thus prevented higher demand which would mean higher prices which in turn would mean higher profits. On the other side of the coin,the significance of this development was defining for the industrial revolution itself. In 1973 the government was in panic (some of the reasons are explained above) and made the decision to permit the unconditional import of grain.

So,when 40 years later were imposed again severe restrictions on imports,the agricultural production was ample though the population was now the double. During this period ,when there were no imports and the trade did not work properly,the development in agriculture ensured the industrial revolution since the increased population could not be fed otherwise. Furthermore,industries that were making small medal goods or others like pottery and cotton manufacture were expanded and by 1977 many of them depended on export markets. However,these exports did not contribute to the beginning of the industrial revolution.

Cotton and textile industries had been developed in the 1970s and changed little over the next 80 years. Thus they had no comparative advantages over similar industries in Saxony ,in France and in America and therefore their trades did not influence industrial revolution. Also, other industries exported cotton textiles and the exchange that they earned, they were using it to buy raw materials and foodstuffs. After the Napoleonic war,the development of technology in combination with the increased competition,reduced the prices of the exported goods like for example the prices of cotton cloths.

Therefore,at the same time the benefits of technology was transferred to foreigners via exports and the prices reduced. Thus,aggregation of national income overstates benefits of such trade transactions or it is even better to say that the growth of exports increased the industry’s size but had not so impressive results on national income. [4] Conclusion The development of Britain into an industrialised economy happened together with the growth in overseas trade.

Private merchant firms and corporations exploited the opportunities for new markets and established trading relationships with the Orient and the America. During the industrial revolution ,great industries like metal working and textiles through overseas trade, grew even more and they exported large proportions of their output. However,during industrial revolution it seems that the increase in demand for British products did not occur because of the already existing prices but because technology caused a fall in prices and these products became more ”attractive”.

As a consequence this fall in prices reduced the value of exports which they grew slower than national output. Concluding I would say that industrial revolution encouraged overseas trade and not the opposite.

Pricing Strategy write my essay help: write my essay help

Pricing is one of the four elements of the marketing mix, along with product, place and promotion. Pricing strategy is important for companies who wish to achieve success by finding the price point where they can maximize sales and profits. Companies may use a variety of pricing strategies, depending on their own unique marketing goals and objectives. Premium Pricing Premium pricing strategy establishes a price higher than the competitors.

It’s a strategy that can be effectively used when there is something unique about the product or when the product is first to market and the business has a distinct competitive advantage. Premium pricing can be a good strategy for companies entering the market with a new market and hoping to maximize revenue during the early stages of the product life cycle. Penetration Pricing A penetration pricing strategy is designed to capture market share by entering the market with a low price relative to the competition to attract buyers. The idea is that the business will be able to raise awareness and get people to try the product.

Even though penetration pricing may initially create a loss for the company, the hope is that it will help to generate word-of-mouth and create awareness amid a crowded market category. Economy Pricing Economy pricing is a familiar pricing strategy for organizations that include Wal-Mart, whose brand is based on this strategy. Aldi, a food store, is another example of economy pricing strategy. Companies take a very basic, low-cost approach to marketing–nothing fancy, just the bare minimum to keep prices low and attract a specific segment of the market that is very price sensitive.

Price Skimming Businesses that have a significant competitive advantage can enter the market with a price skimming strategy designed to gain maximum revenue advantage before other competitors begin offering similar products or product alternatives. Psychological Pricing Psychological pricing strategy is commonly used by marketers in the prices they establish for their products. For instance, $99 is psychologically “less” in the minds of consumers than $100. It’s a minor distinction that can make a big difference.

Business-plan marketing strategy includes the sales and promotional methods you will use for procuring customers. Significance Business-plan marketing strategy should include at least a three-year sales forecast for your company. Project monthly sales for your business during the first year, the Small Business Administration advises. Make quarterly projections for your second and third years. Besides revenue projections, factor all business expenses such as labor and production costs. Subtract expenses from your anticipated revenue to derive annual profit estimates.

Calculating your profit will better help you determine when your company will break even. Identification Include a detailed competitive analysis as part of your business-plan marketing strategy. Order secondary research information on your competition and industry. Secondary research information will help you determine the market share and business strategies of key competitors. Market share is the percentage of total sales a competitor earns in an industry. You can obtain secondary research information from market research firms such as the NPD Group and Forrester Research.

Conduct a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis for your company. Write down strengths and weaknesses of various competitors and compare them to your own company’s strengths and weaknesses. Look for opportunities where you can take advantage of your strengths. For example, you may have a high quality rating versus other competitors, which you can use as a major selling point. Minimize any potential threats. For example, differentiate your product line in additional markets if your industry is at its saturation point. Features Another important aspect of your business-plan marketing strategy is personnel.

Determine in advance what type of marketing employees you will need to hire. For example, you may have a marketing vice president and director but need to hire an advertising copywriter and product manager. Determine how many copywriters and product managers you will need initially. Decide when you will need to hire additional marketing personnel, based on your sales forecast. Function The crux of your business-plan marketing strategy should be focused on sales and advertising. Determine where and how to disperse your sales team. For example, decide in which regions you need sales managers.

Consider employing inside sales reps to handle small town or rural markets. Additionally, establish an advertising budget for your company. Decide which types of advertising media you will use to market your products, such as direct mail or radio advertising. Allocate a certain percentage of your budget to each specific advertising media. Considerations Factor the product life cycle of your products into your business-plan marketing strategy. All products go through various stages: Introduction, growth, maturity and decline. Products can become outmoded because of new technology.

Health Governance in Bangladesh college application essay help online: college application essay help online

The main aim of this assignment is to uncover the dynamics of politics in the agenda setting of the health governance of Bangladesh through investigation of the role of deferent actors. In every policy process politics play an important role in idea generation, formulation and implementation. Policy reform in health sector is not different from other policy reforms. In the process of health policy making of any country, different actors try to bring the governance in their favor through playing significant role.

This interaction of deferent actors in governance is known as politics of public policy. In the complex political process of health sector reform viability of special agenda, type of changes in policy reform, vision of national politics play an important role. In Bangladesh, health is one of the most important sectors since good health ensure more social and economic production and good quality of life. Beyond debate, priority of the health sector is forefront in the development discourse, even though, ‘health sector’ it is associated with multi sectoral factors and actors.

Thus, making implementation of health sector policy requires interplay of actors and factors from different sectors and levels: local, national, regional and international. Health situation in Bangladesh Till today, health situation in Bangladesh is not quite satisfactory. Lack of broad national health policy or policy vacuum, lack of policy priority setting, discontinuity of policy, lack of policy ownership, lack of resource allocation and lack of proper uses of resources due to lack institutional arrangement and elite dominated health sector are the main characteristics of health sector in Bangladesh.

These characteristics create hindrance in the process of achievement of national and international goals and ultimately health situation of common people remains vulnerable. Bangladesh, being a country with small land size of 144,000 sq. km, has the burden of a huge population of 140 million. Still, with low per capita income and low literacy. Though Bangladesh has one of the strongest networks for delivering countrywide health services among developing countries, still the quality of services are not up to the mark and the services are neither client focused nor need based.

In the following tables we demonstrated the trends of basic health indicators of Bangladesh Indicators1970s (1978-80)1980s (1990)1990s (1996-972000s (2003)2007 Population growth rate2. 72. 101. 741. 54NA Infant mortality rate(per 1000)150116776652 Maternal mortality rate105. 74. 13NA Delivery care by trained2581218 Under 5 mortality rate(per 1000)2991101169465 Table 3. 1: Trends of Basic Health Indicators of Bangladesh Heath governance system

The government driven healthcare service has a network in all over the country from the centre to the extreme periphery, having two wings, one concerned with Population and Family Planning and the other concerned with Health in total. The service network has three approaches with primary care at upazilla level; secondary care at district level; and tertiary care at divisional level. To administer administrative activities the country has six administrative divisions and 64 districts and furthermore the districts are divided into upazilas (476 in number) and upazilas into unions (4,770).

It is estimated that each of the union consist of 25,000 people in most cases each of the unions are again divided into nine villages. The upazila health complexes (463) acts as the first referral centers for primary health care along with one district levels hospitals at all districts (64) and most of the specialized hospitals resides at tertiary levels, mostly in Dhaka – the capital of Bangladesh. There is a standard setup for health services in an upazilla consisting of one upazilla health complex, one union health & family welfare center (UHFWC) at union level (4062) and community clinics at village levels for every 6000 populations.

It is mentionable that the community clinics were established under the Health and Population Sector Program (HPSP) – a donor driven mega program – were not functioning till now and being revitalized in recent periods (from the regime of interim caretaker government to present AL government) Apart from general health services other services i. e. minimal reproductive, maternal, and child health care services get provided by these centers for the local people free of cost.

The ratio of physicians and registered nurses to population is 241 and 136 respectively per million people and the number of hospitals available for a million people is 10, while the availability of hospital beds is one for about 4000 people. Non government organizations (NGO) and private sectors also play an important role to provide health services for the country. Numbers of NGOs have targeted projects, program and facilities to provide antenatal care (ANC) and safe delivery care. Besides in urban areas the number of private service delivery centers and private physicians are also on the rise.

Thought the private clinics get operated privately, most of the doctors working in public hospitals work there on part time basis. These clinics have high charges and operate on commercial basis and people living in highest quintiles prefers such clinics for good quality service, which sometimes is not available in public sectors, as per the wealthiest quintiles perception. Recent politics in policy making Like many other developing country the lifetime of a public policy in Bangladesh depends on the change of political power and health policy is no exception.

Visions and directions of all health policies got changed with the change of ruling government. Likewise the NHP 2000 was also interrupted as the government changed. After that two attempts were made to revise the policy till 2008. This instigated disruption in policy implementation rather than bringing any positive change. Many arguments took place in favor of policy reversal by the policyactors but the decision remained absolutely political. The following subsection illustrates the policy vulnerability of NHP 2000 as reflected in its reversal and formulation of NHP 2006 and 2008 and the political dynamics behind it (BHW, 2010).

The first and fully operational national health policy was initiated in 1988 during the autocratic regime. In 2000 the democratic government promulgated a national health policy with five goals and objectives, in October 2001 after the Bangladesh Nationalist Party-led coalition government came to power. This new government deviated from NHP 2000 and got engaged in redrafting a new health policy, without rejecting the existing one in its entirety. This NHP 2000 was to some extent rejected when two of its essential components related to structural transformation were made dysfunctional.

The issues were i) unification of health and FP wings ii) the issue of community clinic. Key policy actors (both politicians and bureaucrats) had staid uncertainties about the outcome of these two major reforms and believed that these two issues introduction had been politically motivated by Awami League (AL), which finally resulted in non-implementation. The following segments give an outline of how two major reforms proposed by the policy faced rejection. Integration or unification of health and FP wings – the ornerstone of the NHP 2000 – was formally approved earlier through the HPSS and HPSP (1998-2003), did not experience smooth implementation even during the AL arena.

This unification was intended to provide health and FP services in a package for improved service efficiency by minimizing duplication and overlapping of service delivery, which did not take place due to bureaucracy. During the era of 2001-2006, reversal of NHP 2000 became the interior of a whirlpool of conflicts, delays, and difference among policy players, including the bureaucrats, politicians, medical professionals and donors.

At the early stage of BNP regime, the system of government held substantial power over the execution of NHP 2000. And the final decision on reversing unification was taken by the Health Secretary and the Prime Minister. The new senior level bureaucrats during this period contrasted the amalgamation and community clinics. The bureaucrats believed that incorporation would marginalize the FP section of the health sector, when it was decisive to uphold the responsibilities and sovereignty of the FP workers.

The ruling BNP leaders were rigid to renounce the NHP 2000 since it was formulated by the previous AL government. And political leaders played a fundamental part in the policy implications during 2001-2006. It has been observed that the harmonization between the medical professionals and political leaders led to dealings with the bureaucrats and other forces and exercise more power (BHW 2010). The partial refusal of NHP 2000 can be accredited to the customs of confrontational politics and prejudice that permeates every level of the polity, rather than ideological dissimilarity often political parties.

There was little ideological difference between the BNP and AL governments, as demonstrated in similar policy proposals of the two respective health policy documents. Interest group & policy issues According to the views presented by the study respondents, numerous problems were highlighted by different levels of organizations and individuals. More than 160 organizations and individuals have submitted written demand to the Program Support Office (PSO), HNPSP, MoHFW more prior to the preparation of the final draft. All of these demands reflected personal or professional interests.

The written comments covered about 70 issues and a significant number of NGO participation was seen. All the policy issues were not dominant. Weight of the problems and proper evidence and strategy to highlight the problems play important role to catch attention of the policy makers. Among the policy issues, following were more dominant compared to others. State policy in health governance State actors and non-state actors play their role in the policy process. During the time of agenda setting interest groups try to influence the policy makers to consider their preferable issues.

Like other policy process, different actors and factors impacted the generation of ideas in health policy. Till today, health situation of Bangladesh is not satisfactory in term of ‘equity and justice’. In the literature of policy ownership, source of ideas/visions is treated as one of the major indicator to measure the ownership of policy (Osman, 2006). In public policy process ‘agenda setting’ is a stage where owner of ideas/vision and promoter of the ideas adopt different strategy to draw the attention of the policy makers.

In public policy making ‘ownership’ can be measured with participation of different actors in policy process. In this connection role of the different actors were investigated in this study. According to Jhon Kingdon’s Garbage Can Model, an issue becomes agenda with three confluence “streams”. Different actors play their role from their own perspective in these steams. In this study it was found that three steams emerged at the same time and opened a window. In problem stream evidence production and dissemination were highly supportive for highlighting the problems of community health issues as policy agenda.

In proposal stream national and international policy coherences, international and national good practices and positive attitude of donors were among other factors that supported the community clinic issues as policy proposal. Also, political support of the ruling party (AL) was also positive to highlight the community clinic and community health issues. These problems were highlighted in different documents of governments, NGOs and donors. Moreover, these problems were recognized by bureaucrats, politicians, media people, donors and NGOs.

Apart from evidences, ordinary people through experiences and observations also recognized these problems. Thus, all stakeholders had good faith about these evidences. It can be said that three confluence streams emerged and opened a policy window to take a decision for establishing community clinic for solving the community health problems in Bangladesh. In every stream, different actors and factors played vital role to highlight the issue. Evidence is crucial to guide improvements in health systems and develop new initiatives.

In this connection state actors and non-sate actors create evidence for highlighting the importance of a policy problem or issues. In this study effort has been made to analyze the system of evidence creation and evidence dissemination. From the systems perspective, it is important to understand how research and knowledge from various sources are produced and synthesized. In addition, effort has also been made to investigate how the research findings were highlighted to strengthen the demand of good health services for community people.

These evidences revealed that maternal health situation and services have not reached to the satisfaction level. Situation of child health is still in an alarming condition for attaining national and international goals. Till now population problem is a big challenge for development of Bangladesh but evidence showed that there are human resource gaps in community level to offer proper services to the community people.

Cost of health services, absenteeism and distribution of health service providers in the community level were dominant factors which played vital role to highlight the community health situation as a problem. It was found that about 160 organizations and individuals took part in the agenda setting process of the health policy. Among the participants, NGOs presence was significant considering their number. A one may wonder why a significant number of NGOs took part in the agenda setting process.

The answer is a large number of NGOs are working in health sectors of Bangladesh whose mission is to highlight the common peoples’ rights and external support for doing policy advocacy. Majority of the participants’ expressed their personal, organizational or professional interest.. Health professionals from government side played significant role while creating evidences. In the absence of wide ranging government sponsored research these professional remained engaged in writing articles in journals and news papers. Due to contracting system of evidence creation, bureaucrats were guided or assisted y a number of consultants and their influences are decreasing nowadays.

Apart from the findings of the present study many previous studies showed that during unification of two wings of MoHFW (family planning and health) IMED created evidence to analyze the context. Research findings showed that bureaucrats who were influential during the period of 1996-2001 did not able to exert influence after 2000. It is mentioned that successive health secretaries were either explicitly against or remained passive over the unification process and community clinic program, resulting weak bureaucratic leadership within the ministry.

Among the professionals who are involved with party politics, DAB (Doctors Association Bangladesh, aligned with the BNP) and SCP (Shawdhinata Chikitshak Parishad, aligned with the Awami League) played influential roles in agenda setting health issues. In this study it is found that these members who are affiliated with SCP remained vocal from the very beginning of the policy process when Health Advisor of immediate past caretaker government (2008-09) initiated the process of health policy formulation.

Historical evidences showed that DAB had great influence in the agenda setting during the draft preparation in 2006. In case of NHP 2010, SCP played an important role in community related agenda setting since they are well connected with the Prime Minister and Health Minister. Medical professionals, particularly physicians, were in favor of the implementation of major reforms under the NHP 2000. Previous researchers found that support of the professionals for the two major elements of the NHP 2000 was reflected in the policy document prepared by the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA) (BHW, 2010).

Donors provide financial supports during evidence creation. While offering financial support, donors imposed some conditions including methodology finalization and indicators setting which ultimately, influenced the process of making evidence based policy. In addition, donors suggested government to include NGOs in this process on the ground of GO-NGO collaboration or public-private partnerships. In the community health related evidence creation USAID, UNICEF and WHO played leading role since 2000.

Thus, it can be said that donors had great influence in evidence creations about community health issues. Of course, this is not new in the health sector of Bangladesh. In case of evidence creation for Sector Wide Approach introduction donor community provide guidance and financial supports for evidence creation. When compared to equivalent government operations, NGO services generally run more efficiently and cheaply keeping closer ties with communities. For this reason, donors often favor them as entry points to accessing communities in Bangladesh, especially since the 1980s.

In other words, NGOs become powerful and influential, especially because of their external sources of financial support, cooperation, and advocacy. In this regards, NGOs are considered as spokesman of donors. Civil society/NGOs are potential actors to highlight health rights and social welfare goals through mobilization of citizen demand. Through different activities NGOs emphasized on the decentralization as a means of localizing policy-making, bringing decision- making closer to disadvantaged groups, and encouraging local participation.

Also NGOs are playing roles of academics and professionals by monitoring and analyzing contextual factors. In this study we found that NGOs remained more or less equivalent in the creation of evidences. Bangladesh health watch was in the leading position to provide evidence for policy making Present Government and Health Strategy: According to the majority portion of respondent, the present government consists with a number of health professionals and they were very much enthusiastic to promote the health facilities issues for ensuring the health rights of community people of Bangladesh.

Also as a political party AL has commitment to the people to provide health services for the betterment of common people. Election Manifesto of AL in Election 2008 highlighted the health issues in the following way – “In order to ensure health facilities to every citizen of the country, the health policy of the erstwhile Awami League government will be reevaluated and adjusted according to the demands of the time. In the light of this policy, 18000 community clinics, established during Awami League rule, will be commissioned. ” [Source: Election Manifesto of AL in Election 2008]

Conclusion It can be said that proper evidence for highlighting the problem, stakeholders support in the solutions and strong political support highlighted the community health issues as issues to be considered in government actions. In evidence creation and conducting advocacy, NGOs who backed by the donors remained vocal. Top level bureaucrats also played their role with the help of consultants who were generally recommended by the donors. Finally, recognition of ruling political party played an important role in this regard.

The Death of Marat college admissions essay help: college admissions essay help

The most obvious comparison between these two works is the subject matter as one is a recreation of the other, though a recreation for a completely different reason to that which the original painting was created, and where one is a masterful oil painting from the eighteenth century the other is a powerful piece of photographic art. Jacques Louis David was probably the most influential and leading artist of the neo-classical period and a political propagandist of the French Revolution. His most famous work from this time is “The Death of Marat”.

David career was completely tied up with the politic of the day and this is first noticed in his painting “The Oath of The Horatii”. Painted in 1784 “a number of historians have identified an element of pre-revolutionary radicalism and was seen as profoundly anti acadamie. ” He soon joined the revolutionary “Jacobin Club” and was then commissioned to paint his first truly political painting “The Tennis Court Oath” which depicts the constitution of the national assembly at the royal tennis courts in the “Chateau of Versailles”.

This historical event is said to have been a leading factor of the revolution and in turn the fall of the monarchy. As David became more deeply involved in politics he allied himself to “Robespierre” and “Marat” two prominent figures during the “reign of terror”. Marat, a journalist as well as friend and colleague of David is believed to be indirectly responsible for the deaths of countless “enemies of the revolution” by way of publicly condemning hundreds of people to the guillotine through his writings.

However Marat himself was soon to meet a violent vengeful death at the hands of “Charlotte Corday”. Upon gaining entry to his apartments under false pretences she stabbed him to death whilst he was in his bath tub. Following his death Marat was commissioned to paint the scene in honour of his friend and fellow revolutionary. Although Marat was disfigured from illness and believed to be quick to take offence and also to violence, David paints him as a young healthy man and “the face is marked by suffering but at the same time is also gentle and suffused by a growing peacefulness”.

Through his clever use of imagery such as the knife, the writing desk, the petition from Corday “David discreetly bears witness to his admiration and indignation, in perfect harmony with the drawing, the blending of outrage and compassion David felt at the sight of his victim” Although often described as an opportunist because of the ways David made use of the political unrest with his paintings showing constant parallels with the successive regimes of the period.

With works from “The Oath of The Horatii”, to later works such as “Bonaparte Crossing the St. Bernard Pass”, David in a way can be described as a social artist because many of his paintings documented and expressed the political and emotional feeling of the times. This brings me onto Vik Muniz’ portrayal of David’s “Marat”. Vik Muniz is a contemporary artist and photographer. He often recreates well known works of art and images from popular culture.

By using unconventional materials to make huge temporary sculptural drawings or installations to create his own versions of these well-known images and then photographs. It is these photographs that then become his finished works. Muniz’ “Marat” is from his collection “Pictures of Garbage “and also his documentary “Wastelands”. This collection of work is a piece of social documentation in which Muniz spent two years creating art with the “catores” or scavengers who live and work on one of the world’s biggest landfill sites, the “Jardim Gramacho” of Rio de Jenero in brazil.

In these installations Muniz uses both the people from the landfill and the refuse collected to create his work while the Academy Award nominated documentary truthfully portrays the lives and struggles of the catore as well as Muniz’ efforts to help bring the plight of these low paid workers to the world. “”these people are the other end of the consumer culture” says Muniz” I was expecting to see people who were beaten and broken, but they are survivors “. The humanity of these marginalised people is captured in heart breaking interviews with the workers and in small details: in one scene meals are cooked in the dump from reclaimed food.

In Muniz’ “Marat” the artist photographs the catore, Mr. Tiao Santos sitting in a reclaimed bathtub in the likeness of the original painting. This is then recreated on his studio floor using refuse dirt and soil from the landfill. Once this is done he then photographs as a finished piece, an ironic and fitting end for the “career of the revolutionary rabble rouser Jean-Paul Marat” of David’s original painting. These images whilst depicting the same scene are as different as they are alike if not more so. From the obvious differences such as the mediums used to create them, to the social aspects and meanings each image takes on.

David’s painting portrays a heroic martyr of the revolution where in fact Marat’s radical denunciations of the counter revolutionaries supported and caused the much of the violence death and paranoia which raged through France at the time of the revolution. In turn Muniz’ ironic depiction, a far cry from the real Marat and this violence he is associated with, uses his art to help bring about change and awareness and to give back to a community.

Michelin Analysis melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

Michelin financial analysis| Michelin Company Profile Michelin is a tire producing company created in 1863 by the Michelin brothers. Originally based in Clermont Ferrand, the company is now located in more than 170 countries and owns 84 production site all around the world. Even if their core business is the production of tires they diversified their activities in 1900 with the first Michelin map & guides and extend their knowledge for special sector with new type of tires such as plane tire for instance. Michelin is the second leader of tire market after Bridgestone.

In 2010, they had a turnover of 17 891 millions € with an increase of 20% from 2009. Michelin is on the stock exchange market since 1951 which means the company can increase their equity thanks to investors and at the same time stay secure and independent. In 2010, Michelin launches its biggest increase of equity introducing 27. 2 million of new shares for a total amount of 1. 2 billion euros helping to finance its development cost estimated at 1. 6 billion euros.

They have 3 major products families : * Production of tourism tyres * Production of truck tyres Others specialties (tyre for airplane, space shuttle, maps & guides, GPS…) We can see that their core business is the tire market with more than 86% of their activities. Geographically, their major market is Europe with 49. 9% of their revenues (7. 7 billion euros) followed by North America with 34. 4% and other regions with 22. 7%.

Michelin’s major market which is Europe has been declining by 7. 5% between 2005 and 2010 whereas North America gains 1. 7% and 5. 8% for the others regions as emerging countries. Through the years and to extend their activities worldwide, Michelin has developed new rands. Michelin and BF Goodrich are the two worldwide brands, established in many countries. Then, Michelin also developed regional brands such as Kleber, Uniroyal, Warrior with a strong presence respectively in Europe, North America and China. Added to these brands, Michelins created few distribution brands as Euromaster, TCI, respectively in Europe and North America. I. Market analysis Michelin is represented in two different markets: * Market of new tire This market is especially dealing with car manufacturer through partnership.

For instance, Michelin has an old partnership with Citroen which is buying big quantities of tires in order to be set up directly on their production chain. In this market, Michelin is very dependent from the car manufacturer’s market and fluctuate according to the increase or decrease of new car sales. In 2010, this market has been increasing by 15% thanks firstly to the revival of the car industry in the Western countries, mostly helped by country states and secondly to the growth of exportation to emerging countries. * Market of replacement

This market is linked with retailers, as they buy and sell tires in stores to replace a defective one. This market is less dangerous for Michelin as it is almost constant and represents ? of tires production market. Concerning the replacement market, products are distributed via dealerships and replacement service centers. This is done either via Michelin’s own distribution brands (Euromaster in Europe and TCI in North America), but also using brand partnerships and franchises to be present in 27 countries all over the world. Equipment repartition per segment| Car segment| Truck segment| Original equipment| 28. 10%| 17. 40%|

Replacement equipment| 71. 90%| 82. 60%| In 2010, the replacement market has increased by 9% in the segment of tourism and van tires in Europe with the increase of the demand for special winter tire due to severe weather condition last winter. II. Competition Michelin operates in a very competitive market with several competitors, either from Europe or emerging countries. The four main producers are Bridgestone, Michelin, Goodyear and Continental which are counting for more than 50% in the worldwide market. However, new entrants such as Sumitomo, Yokohama, Hankook and coming from Asian countries have gained market shares rapidly.

These emerging countries are developing a middle class with enough purchase power to buy either Michelin tires through distribution centers or new cars equipped with Michelin tires. As we can see on the table above, the Asian market is now growing as fast as traditional market such as Europe and North America. The most increasing market is South America which increases its demand by greatly in 2010. Furthermore, these emerging countries will account for 50% of global automobile output in 2012, showing that Michelin has to be on these markets in order to preserve its 2nd largest producer worldwide rank.

Asian market Michelin is already well implanted in the replacement segment with their distribution centers “Tyre Plus” leading the Asian market with more than 570 local centers in China and a total of 970 centers in 9 Asian countries. Michelin has also developed its own brand called “Warrior” to enter in the Asian market, especially the Chinese market in order to compete with Hankook. To be closer to the demand, Michelin has already built 3 productions sites and will add a new one in 2011 in Shenyang.

Indian market Most of the increase of Michelin on the Indian market was due to new partnership with truck manufacturer such as Tata, the biggest one in India. Michelin became an original supplier of Tata for tires in the original equipment for truck segment in 2010 helping it to increase theirs sales and to gain brand recognition. Following this path, Michelin opened 6 new truck service centers the same year and plan the opening of a new production site in Chennai in 2011. South American market

Michelin has known a significant progression in 2010 on Brazilian, Chilean, Colombian and Argentinean truck market with a global increase of 41% in the replacement market. Added to that, Michelin did few partnerships with local truck manufacturers and benefit from the 47% increase of new trucks purchases last year. * Invest in Research & Development Michelin has to face two main issues: innovation in the tire market and raw material raising cost. In both issues, R&D is a key solution. During the last years, Michelin has invested 500 million euros per year in R&D to find alternatives solution to rubber issue and keep innovating.

Cost of raw material Globally, the tire industry uses nearly 70% of world’s natural rubber production. With more than 60% of production costs depending only on rubber, Michelin is facing difficulties when there is an explosion of the price on the market. Since 2009, natural rubber price has increased by 60% and synthetical rubber, as it is made with petroleum, is increasing too. Like oil, which is also used to make synthetic rubber, nonrenewable raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce and will remain expensive in the years ahead, notably due to strong demand from China and India.

Optimizing raw material use is essential if these resources are to be conserved over the long term and if tires are to remain affordably priced. With R&D, Michelin can find alternatives materials to rubber and increase the production of synthetical rubber to replace the natural one on basic tires. Unfortunately, high performance tires will still require natural rubber, whose properties make it irreplaceable, especially for truck, farm equipment and earthmover tires. Innovation In order to compete on the global market, Michelin has to be on first line for innovation.

Michelin has started to invest in R&D to create new types of tires, which will have less impact on fuel consumption and smaller eco-footprint. For instance, in 2010, Michelin has released a new truck tire called “Michelin X Energy Saver Green”. On average it permits the standard family car to reduce fuel consumption by 520 liters per year thanks to a better road holding. This new eco-friendly product matches the demand from trucks manufacturer, states upcoming laws about transport and final clients. As several countries are becoming more and more environmental friendly.

Michelin has to anticipate the vote of laws to protect environment especially in Europe and North America, its two biggest markets in terms of sales. By increasing the production of eco-friendly tires, they would be able to face the new environmental requirement from government, organism and even from their car manufacturers partners that are already investing in hybrid and less polluting cars and trucks. Tires companies that are not anticipating these changes would not survive in this highly competitive market.

Squirrels nursing essay help: nursing essay help

Squirrels live on trees * They eat nuts and seeds * They are small bushy tailed animal New Words I Learned: * Gambol- leap playfully * It is well worth while to attract them near the house so that one may enjoy the sight their gambols and minister to their wants by suitable diet. Frolic- play lightheartedly * Then the window was opened and the nuts put on a table inside the room, and there little “Frolic” sits whilst we are at meals and forms one of the family * Whilst- while * Then the window was opened and the nuts put on a table inside the room, and there little “Frolic” sits whilst we are at meals and forms one of the family * Agile- mentally quick.

One would not think she could catch the agile little creature. * Nectarines- smooth-skinned peach They certainly nibble the young shoots of firs and horse-chestnuts unmercifully in the spring, and one very dry summer they took very kindly to our peaches and nectarines. Things I learned from the topic: * The squirrel’s great enemy is the cat. * They chase each other round a tree-stem with wonderful agility * They express their animosity with angry grunts and a stamp of the foot like a rabbit. * I have learnt that the squirrel’s tail has quite a language of its own.

The most interesting thing I learned about the topic: I have learnt that the squirrel’s tail has quite a language of its own. It can be curved over its back and so spread out that on a wet day it forms a complete shelter from rain. It will take the form of a note of interrogation or lie flat on the ground, stand out at an angle or bristle with anger, according to the mood of the possessor. I think the essay did a good job of teaching me about the topic Because I knew about squirrels!

Enhanced Oil Recovery essay help websites: essay help websites

Oil and Gas refers to the naturally occurring liquid and natural gas specifically made up of long chain hydrocarbons and various organic compounds found beneath the surface of the earth in entrapments called reservoirs; the presence of oil and gas in these reservoirs is the reason humans survive everyday and carry out their daily activities effectively. Different activities are usually carried out to ensure that the oil and gas present in the reservoirs continue to support humans through their day-to-day activities; such activities include exploration, development, production and finally, abandonment and reclamation.

This process is what is referred to as “the oil and gas process”. On completion of this process, numerous efforts are made to increase the quantity of oil that can be extracted again from the oil well and we refer to these efforts as “recovery”. There are three main types of recovery, primary recovery (solution gas, gas cap and natural water drive) secondary recovery (gas injection and water flooding) and tertiary recovery (enhanced oil recovery EOR, polymer flooding and steam flooding).

In this article, analysis on the “enhanced oil recovery” technology and trends will be emphasized upon. Enhanced oil recovery becomes very vital when oil production has to be increased to obtain a recovery percentage of at least 75% (Rigzone, 2009). This can only achieved by using any of the four basic methods of EOR; these methods include chemical flooding, miscible gas displacement, thermal recovery and microbial EOR. Among these four mentioned, “Thermal methods are the oldest EOR methods, they have been developed over the last thirty years” (Elsevier, 1981).

Miscible gas displacement also called “gas injection” by some engineers refers to the process of injecting CO2, natural gas and Nitrogen into a reservoir; “in miscible gas displacement, the gas is injected at or above the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) which causes the gas to be miscible in oil” (Bandar, 2007). Chemical flooding also called “chemical injection” involves injecting chemicals such as a polymer directly into the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery. Thermal recovery introduces heat to the reservoir to reduce the viscosity of the oil.

Many times, steam is applied to the reservoir, thinning the oil and enhancing its ability to flow (Rigzone, 2009). Over 50% of the tertiary recovery method employed by the United States of America is the thermal recovery method. The most common gas employed when “gas injection” is being used is the CO2 (carbon dioxide) gas. The two major reasons why carbon dioxide is used are because it is miscible with crude oil and also it is the cheapest of all the other miscible fluids present.

Carbon dioxide injection into the reservoir based on previous experiences has shown that a recovery of up to 15% of the oil that was originally in the reservoir is achievable. With the injection of the carbon dioxide gas, changes occur in the reservoir such and temperature and pressure changes. Through the changes in temperature and pressure, carbon dioxide can form a solid, liquid, gas and supercritical fluid (Teledyne, 2007).

Furthermore, when carbon dioxide has been injected into the reservoir, it begins to form a homogeneous mixture with the crude oil thus, the light hydrocarbons, which are present in the crude, mix with the carbon dioxide gas and this dissolves the oil. Upon miscibility of the carbon dioxide gas and the crude, the physical forces separating the liquid phase and the gaseous phase gives way and this helps the carbon dioxide gas move the oil from the rocks towards the wells for production. According to the USDOE, a very good example of an applied carbon dioxide gas injection technique is the Wasson.

Field’s Denver Unit CO2 EOR project which has resulted in more than 120 million incremental barrels of oil through 2008 (2010). Moreover, carbon dioxide is not the only gas employed when the gas injection technique is employed. Nitrogen is another gas commonly used for gas injection basically to maintain the reservoir pressure; it can also be employed when gas cycling and gas lifting are to be employed. The minimum miscibility pressure of nitrogen depends largely on the pressure, temperate and the composition of the reservoir fluid.

According to Schlumberger, “above the MMP, nitrogen injection is a miscible vaporizing drive. Miscibility of nitrogen can be achieved only with light oils that are at high pressures; therefore, the miscible method is suitable only in deep reservoirs” (2011). Both methods of miscible injection from past experiences have proved very effective. When oil has been effectively recovered from these reservoirs using the miscible gas, the gas that has mixed with the recovered oil is separated from the oil and re-injected into the reservoir to enhance the oil recovery once again.

This process can be repeated until the reservoir is completely depleted and cannot produce any more oil. Note that nitrogen gas injection is used when dealing with reservoir containing light oils and also very economical allowing a recovery of up to 40%. A practical example of nitrogen gas injection is in the Cantarell oil field in Mexico. Upon application of this enhanced oil recovery methods, there was a noticeable increase in the oil production from 1. 9 million bpd to 2. 1 million bpd. Fig 1: Typical illustration of the miscible gas process using CO2 and water (University of Kansas, 1999)

Chemical flooding can also be referred to as chemical injection and is the process whereby chemicals and polymers are injected into a reservoir to increase its “recovery factor”. EOR methods involving the use of polymers usually yield a recovery range of ~6% to ~30%. When these chemicals are injected into the reservoir, the oil that is trapped there is released thus it can flow freely into the production wells. Furthermore, “polymers help increase the effectiveness of water-floods and boost the efficiency of surfactants” (Duncan, Ferguson, Sudip and Neptune, 2011).

The use of polymers in chemical injection further helps to enhance the competence of the surfactants and also the efficiency of the water flooding; to be precise, water soluble polymers are best used for this process. The polymer that is regularly utilised during the process is the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide and with development in technology, the quality has improved over time. In order to achieve the best results from the chemical injection process, there are certain characteristics that need to be in place.

These characteristics include “high remaining oil saturation, low water-flood residual saturation, high permeability and porosity, high polymer concentration and slug size, fresh water and soft water and reservoir temperatures of less than 220F” (Gary, 2007). Favourable characteristics are not limited to these that have just been mentioned but if these characteristics are present, then the expected recovery from the reservoir in question would be satisfactory as up to ~30% recovery is achievable.

Moreover, economics have shown that chemical flooding is not profitable when the price of the surfactants is compared with that of the price of oil; it usually cost a lot to obtain the surfactants needed to recover oil from reservoirs and in some cases, the chemicals which are injected into the reservoir are more expensive than the oil which they extract from that reservoir. Chemical flooding can prove to be very pricy and at the same time provide the engineers with the needed results.

Thermal recovery is usually applied to reservoirs with depths lesser than 3000ft. These reservoirs usually contain very viscous oil. There are four main types of thermal flooding that can be applied to any reservoir; they include: Fig 3: The steam injection process (The Piping Guide, 2009) 1. Cyclic stem injection: Popularly known as the “huff and puff” technique, it differs from all other types of thermal flooding in that it uses a central well to carry out every function from the injection of steam to the extraction of oil.

The technique is quite straightforward, steam is pumped into the well and the well is covered up for some time so that the steam can get to the reservoir rocks and upon arrival, the steam enhances the oil flow. To improve the oil flow further, this process can be repeated over again which leads to a new process called “steam drive”. 2. Steam drive: In this process, steam is re-injected into the reservoir constantly. Moreover, this process cannot be as effective as required if the reservoir rocks have fractures.

If there were fractures, “the steam would simply head straight through those into the producing wells instead of working its way through the reservoir rock” (Anon. , 2008). After the steam is injected, underlying heat is formed and this eventually aids the oil to flow with ease. 3. Thermally assisted gas-oil gravity drainage: this process is best suited for highly fractured reservoirs. In this process, the steam is injected directly into these fractures to reduce the viscosity of the oil and allow it flow easily.

According to the petroleum development Oman, the steam “just needs to get the oil flowing more easily. This then allows gravity to take effect, causing the oil to drain down into the fractures and then into horizontal producing wells that are situated towards the bottom of the reservoir” (2008). 4. In-situ combustion: In this process, a reasonable quantity of the oil in the reservoir is actually set on fire to act as a steam and gas generator. According to the petroleum development Oman “it’s the trickiest of the four main thermal EOR methods to get right.

It is generally only used in a reservoir that has high permeability (i. e. fluids can flow easily through the reservoir rock) and even then only as a last resort” (2008). Some of the oil might be lost during burning but more can be recovered as a result of the steam that has been generated that drives the oil towards the producing well. MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (MEOR) Microbial enhanced oil recovery also known as microbial flooding refers to the process whereby microorganisms are injected into the reservoir to increase oil production from a well.

The process of MEOR is a biological based technology in which these microorganisms react with the reservoir fluids in order to mobilize the oil and move it towards the production wells. Usually, MEOR is used in the third stage of EOR after 12% to 20% of the oil in the well has already been recovered. The characteristics of the reservoir in which the MEOR process is being applied will greatly have an effect on its success. There are two types of MEOR, “those in which the microorganisms react with reservoir fluids to generate surfactants and those that react with microorganisms to generate polymers” (Ronald, 2001).

MEOR is an economical way of increasing oil production and as genetic technology keeps improving, it would become the most attractive and cheapest method of enhanced oil recovery as the improvement lowers the cost of oil production. Conclusively, certain strains of bacteria that exist and are used for the MEOR method sometimes do not survive due to the harsh conditions they encounter in the reservoirs but as mentioned earlier, microbiologists are working on a different strain of bacteria that can survive in the reservoirs irrespective of these harsh conditions.

Enhanced oil recovery has an outstanding economic potential to increase oil recovery thereby maximizing profit. EOR also has it disadvantages that have negative effects on the ecosystem. Steam injection causes serious air pollution and also, polymer flooding which falls under chemical injection also leads to contamination of underground water which eventually makes it unfit for consumption. Furthermore, during the EOR process, a substance called “brine” is produced at the surface of the well; this substance is highly toxic and also radioactive. On exposure to humans, it can be very dangerous and highly detrimental.

In my opinion, more research on how the chemical injection process can be carried out without affecting the underground water supply and also how the thermal process of steam injection can be done safely without a threat to the atmosphere. Regulations put in place to control the environmental impacts of EOR should be as strict as possible so that eventually, the eco-system is preserved and oil and gas companies can still maximize profit.

Conformity and Modern Man college essay help los angeles: college essay help los angeles

Conformity as a disease of modern man. Conformity is defined as a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group. Conformity is also known as a majority influence. The factors causing this change in society could be due to pressure, bullying, persuasion, or just the desire to be liked or be part of something where if you were yourself, you couldn’t be part of it. There are different types of conformity but the fundamental part of it is changing to be someone you are not.

In the modern world, everybody conforms at least once in their life, when a certain or new circumstance or situation occurs and they are confused and not knowing what and how they should act upon it. The opposite of a modern man is a natural man. Natural people are not worried about what others think of them, they don’t have any expectations upon them and they are confident in who they are. Modern people on the other hand are dependent on people’s thoughts and opinions. The one flaw of modern society is that people are constantly concerned about their reputation, morality and how people perceive them.

In the essence of doing so, modern man forgets or loses himself and becomes unrecognisable to who he actually was. Modern men therefore don’t have their own say to what they really believe or think. They have no control over their choices or doings. They really never know who they are and that becomes one big problem because they become confused with themselves and life because of the constant social pressure they are under. Hence conformity becomes a disease. They have no control over it and they don’t recognise themselves after a while.

This disease could be an addiction as well, where people conform their whole life and become someone they are not, resulting in them not loving and accepting themselves, which is quite ironic. In ‘One flew over the Cuckoo’s nest’ there are many approaches to conformity. As we read that the hospital teaches them how to vote and be social, teaching them how to be normal when it comes to society, therefore conforming the patients. At first when McMurphy enters the hospital for the first time, he does not conform at all. He stays as the laughable and loud mouth person he is.

He continues to be himself and not let anybody, especially Nurse Rattched change him. Later on in the book, when he starts speaking to the lifeguard and learns that to get out of the hospital sooner than later is to be committed, settle down and do what is required of you, resulting in conforming himself to what is expected of him and what he is supposed to do to get what he really wants, which is to get out of the hospital. Conforming, I think, comes natural to many people when they are placed in a situation which confuses them and where they don’t have any grounding. They become vulnerable and change is almost automatic to adjust or fit in.

The Role of Capital Market Intermediaries in the Dot-Com Crash of 2000 mba essay help: mba essay help

Intended role of each institution/intermediary: Venture Capitalists – They screen companies with good business ideas from bad ones and provide capital to the start-ups with good business ideas. The required return on capital for VCs is very high to compensate the shareholders for the higher risk in investing in new businesses, and this is achieved when VCs sell their stake in the business through IPOs or trade sale. Thus, VCs will work to ensure the business is sound so that it will fetch the highest possible price when going public.

They provide advisory financial services, price the IPO, underwrite the shares as well as introduce the company to the public. They are then paid a commission fee based on the amount the company manages to raise in the IPO. Thus to maximize their fees, IBs are motivated to pick the best companies which the public will pay the most for. Sell-side Analysts – They provide support during IPO process by providing research to the buy-side before the company goes public. They also publish research on public companies and make recommendations on the stock, which could be very influential on investors.

They are compensated based on amount of trading fees and IB revenue generated through their research. Buy-side Analysts/Portfolio Managers – These are institutions that actually buy or sell public stocks. The analysts research the companies and provide recommendations to the portfolio managers. Compensation for the analysts is based on how good are their recommendations. Portfolio managers act on behalf of investors and will buy the actual stocks based on the analysts’ recommendations and their own judgment.

Their compensation is determined by the performance of their portfolio compared to the benchmark return. Accountants – They audit the financial statements of companies, ensuring that companies’ financials reflect the true state of the firm and are also in compliance with established standards. Investors rely on the opinions of the auditors and the auditors receive audit fees from the companies they audit as compensation. 2. The incentives for VCs, and Buy-side Analysts/Portfolio Managers are aligned with their roles.

However, some of the incentives of the institutions and intermediaries are not properly aligned with their intended role, such as IBs, Sell-side Analysts and Accountants. IBs and Sell-side Analysts are motivated to price the IPO as high as possible as their compensation is based on the amount the IPO is able to raise, so they could potentially over price the IPO intentionally and are also subject to optimistic bias. Accountants are supposed to verify the accuracy of companies’ financial statements but they are also paid by those same companies.

In order to keep their clients, accountants may be motivated to audit the company in such a way that caters to the companies’ expectations rather than according to established standards. 3. Each institution and intermediary from the VCs to the retail investor has played a part in contributing to the Internet stock bubble. It was the combined over-optimism of the IBs and Analysts and the investors who listened to them which created the stock bubble. In my opinion, the IBs and Sell-side Analysts are the most to blame.

It began with their overvaluation of companies during the IPO offering which were unsustainable and they continued to issue buy recommendations even when stock prices were going down, knowing that investors will follow their advice. Investors on the other hand also played the momentum game and listened to the analysts’ recommendations without researching to understand the companies they are investing in. 4. The cost of a stock bubble is extremely high could affect the entire economy. Companies and investors are the ones who lose the most in a stock bubble.

Once the bubble bursts, companies will find that equity markets are closed to them and if they are operating at losses and strapped for cash, they will quickly close down. Investors also suffer the consequences of a stock bubble, often ending up empty handed when the companies they invested in go bust. Losing money, consumer confidence will fall and decrease in wealth will dampen consumer spending. This could potentially put an economy into recession. Stock bubbles are also a waste of resources, as resources ploughed into them could have been used for other, more sustainable ndeavors.

As an investor, the lessons I learnt from the bubble is to always do my own, comprehensive research before investing in any companies, no matter how aggressive or optimistic the market sentiment is at the time. As an IB or analyst, prudence should be observed when issuing recommendations, and the ultimate goal of my job should be to price a company stock as fairly as possible. Finally, as an accountant, any audits must closely follow accounting standards, and going concern clauses should be added whenever needed.

Point of Sale Proposal computer science essay help: computer science essay help

This document will also list the benefits of implementing a new system. In general, it will provide a detailed analysis of all the major aspects of the business and will specify the current situation of the business. The  furniture shop deals in wooden furniture, it gets its raw materials from the suppliers for furniture design. Customers may place an order for customized furniture or buy the one available in the shop in its raw state. A customer can choose to have their furniture painted in three different colours, i. e. Mahogany, oak, and burgundy.

A customer may get their furniture stained and varnished in the shop at an extra cost or he/she may stain and varnish the product themselves. Stains applied to the products are categorized into two type’s stain1 and stain2, both at different prices. A customer may place an order for a product that is not readily available in the shop and the company will have it made and customized according to the customer’s specifications. The company also offers deliveries for the goods purchased at an additional fee, but only if the customer requests that the goods be delivered.

The current system keeps track and stores all records on paper which is done manually. When a customer buys a product the transaction is captured on paper, an invoice is given to the customer as a proof of payment. When a customer places an order the salesperson will enter the data on an order document and manually calculate the initial amount payable. Then an initial payment receipt is issued to the customer, this receipt will be presented upon collection of goods. Delivery of goods is available upon request from the customer on an additional fee.

There is a list of all products sold in the shop each with a unique product code, product description, size (dimensions), prices when raw, with stain1 or stain2. Basically it is a file processing system in use. All data is manually kept on paper and stored in filing cabinets. This makes it vulnerable to data loss. The system cannot effectively store all the important data of the company. When a mistake is made by the user, it is difficult to trace which user made the error. Data processing takes a very long time as compared to having an electronic system.

The main purpose of this project is to develop and implement a more time efficient system, cost effective system (no longer buying materials like paper and pens for record keeping) and an information system to keep track and store all important records. A point of sale system will be developed and implemented to this effect. Benefits * Save time by computerising every record keeping activity and providing automated calculations. * Make the transaction process less tedious. * It will be much easier to keep track of all customer orders.

Loss of information would be reduced exponentially. Information retrieval will be much easier and faster. * Cost reduction. * All products/furniture will have a record in the system according to its specific product code. This will make it easier to track information about a specific product.

Describe the Factors to Consider When Promoting Effective Communication rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

However this would not be suitable in a situation whereby a resident is upset say for example if they have wet themselves and are embarrassed, this would need a quieter and understanding tone to reassure them. Use of language is important, when talking to residents you need to keep things simpler than if you were walking residents without dementia, however if you’re talking to an adult using very simple instructions this may be deemed as patronising, so it is important to choose your language carefully. The speed in which you talk is also key.

When talking to residents I tend to get down to their level if they are in a sitting position and talk to them at a relatively slow speed, this way they are more likely to understand me more than if I was walking round above them talking. Non-verbal communication: Facial and hand gestures, again this needs to be tailored to the situation or topic. In the example above, a smil and perhaps a hand on their shoulder is sufficient to the situation. Where by frowning and waving arms as if annoyed would be detrimental to the feelings of the resident.

Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on what you are discussing. By making eye contact you are directing your conversation at that specific person, demonstrating that you are devoting your time and are not able to be distracted as if you would by looking around. Body language plays an important part, for example folded arms can indicate you are being defensive or not open to suggestions, whereas slouching, hands on hips, rolling of eyes and huffing can seem rude and disrespectful.

It is always advisable to evaluate a number of factors before communicating information: What is the information I need to communicate? Who is my audience? Is written or verbal the best form of communication? What is the best time of day, in the morning or afternoon. Where should the communication take place, would it be appropriate to talk within ear reach of others or is the matter sensitive, therefore needing privacy. By considering the above, you are demonstrating professionalism and considering the needs of others.

Psychosocial Treatment of Schizophrenia need essay help: need essay help

The early psychosocial treatments of first episode psychosis is of crucial importance in the improvement of the prognosis of the illness. When ensuring successful care, timely maintenance of treatment response is optimal in regards to better long term outcomes. The appropriate use of psychotherapeutic drugs to suit each individual can be a difficult task as the side effects of the medication can impact on adherence to treatment. Psycho-education in regard to illness and medication.

The treatment of more established schizophrenia has significant differences compared to first episode psychosis. Treatment options and medications can differ as can dosages of antipsychotic medication. The aim of this essay is to discuss the differences between treatment of first episode psychosis and more established schizophrenia. The average age for onset of schizophrenia differs between the sexes. The average age for males is between 15 and 25 years with 39% of males having their first episode of psychosis before the age of 19 years.

Twenty-three percent of females with schizophrenia have their first episode of psychosis before the age of 19 and the average onset is between 25 and 35 years (Gearing & Charach, 2009). Gearing and Charach (2009) state the primary reason for hospitalisation in psychiatric institutions is for psychotic disorders. The average length of stay for adolescents is between 25 to 45 days. Perkins, Gu, Boteva and Leiberman (2005) state there are at least two reasons why it is important to understand the causes and consequences of untreated psychosis.

Firstly, the period of untreated psychosis is a potentially variable prognostic factor, and understanding its relation to outcome could guide the way to enhanced therapeutic strategies and public health schemes. Second, a relationship of duration of untreated psychosis to outcome may indicate a neurodegenerative process and so have significant implications for understanding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. On the other hand, the duration of initially untreated psychosis could possibly be associated with the severity of illness and as a result may be a marker rather than a determinant of outcome (Perkins, Gu, Boteva, & Leiberman, 2005).

Perkins et al (2005) state the possibility of relapse, even with total recovery from a first psychotic episode, is especially high. Within five years of initial treatment response, more than 90% of these patients will experience a relapse of psychotic symptoms (Perkins et al. , 2005). The major results from a meta-analysis and review by Perkins et al. found that a long-lasting episode of psychosis experienced prior to the commencement of antipsychotic treatment is linked with poorer levels of symptomatic and functional recovery from the first psychotic episode.

It was also found that period of initially untreated psychosis is connected with severity of negative symptoms but not with severity of positive symptoms or general psychopathology at the primary clinical evaluation (Perkins et al. , 2005). The decision on which antipsychotic drug to prescribe first for a patient with psychosis can be difficult as there are no clear recommendations that exist for this choice (Johnsen, Kroken, Wentzel-Larsen, & Jorgensen, 2010; Kumra et al. , 2007) . Second generation antipsychotic drugs are usually considered first line agents for people with first episode psychosis.

This is based on their ability to alleviate not only positive symptoms but also negative symptoms of schizophrenia (Abbasi et al. , 2010; Johnsen et al. , 2010). Rosenheck (2008) found little or no advantage for the use of atypical antipsychotics as compared to the older typical antipsychotics, for use with patients suffering chronic schizophrenia. When atypical antipsychotic drugs were compared to typical antipsychotic drugs like intermediate-potency perphenazine or high potency antipsychotics which were used in low doses or used with prophylactic anticholinergics, there were no advantages found (Rosenheck, 2008).

Kumra et al. (2007) state there are concerns about the severity of side effects and the lack of efficacy of first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) for use with children and adolescents with first episode psychosis. This prompted a search to find an agent which was more effective, was tolerated better and had fewer side effects, for use with younger, antipsychotic naive, patients. Second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) include drugs such as risperidone, olanzepine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and clozapine.

These drugs, as a class, have reduced tendency to cause adverse motor side effects and prolactin increase when they are compared to FGAs of similar strength (Kumra et al. , 2007). Maguire (2002) states an increase in prolactin levels can result in serious short and long term problems. Short term problems include depression, menstrual irregularities and sexual dysfunction and long term problems include osteoporosis and decreased bone density. These short term problems can be a cause of non-adherence due to the sexual dysfunction and depression.

Relapse  psychosis can occur due to non-adherence (Maguire, 2002). Other factors such as impaired cognition, other side effects, and lack of insight are all associated with non-adherence among young people with psychosis. Another important determinant of patients and families attitude toward treatment is the quality of the relationship they have with their clinicians during acute admission of first episode psychosis (Kumra et al, 2007). Non adherence to medications are being acknowledged as the other drug problem, as stated by Robinson, Harris, Harrigan, Henry, Farrelly, Prosser, et al. 2010). Non adherence to antipsychotic medication is associated with negative clinical outcomes and occurs in 20-56% of people with a first episode of psychosis (Cassidy, Rabinovitch, Schmitz, Joober, & Malla, 2010).

The rising costs associated with non-adherence and subsequent relapse and readmission to hospital extends into tens of billions of dollars annually (Robinson et al. , 2010). A study by Petersen, Jeppersen, Thorup, Abel, Ohlenschaeger, Christensen et al. 2005) compared integrated treatment with standard treatment to find whether there were any positive effects on clinical and social outcomes for patients with first episode psychosis. It was found that the integrated treatment enhanced clinical outcome and compliance to treatment. The integrated treatment was assertive community treatment. The treatment was provided by two multidisciplinary teams and included specific family involvement and social skills training. It was offered to each patient for two years.

It also included psycho-educational family treatment for 18 months, in a multi family group with two therapists. This focused on problem solving and development of specific skills designed to help patients and families cope with the illness (Petersen et al. , 2005). Compliance with treatment ought to be associated with lessening in symptoms during the early phase of treatment, and therefore, symptom change offers a construct which can be used to confirm different measures of compliance.

Ethics And Governance essay help: essay help

It raises the interelated notions of individual rights, fairness, equality and entitlement. The principles vary in numerous dimensions. These issues explore the appropriate distribution of social and economic benefits and related costs. There are five principles included an equal share for each individual, a share according to the needs of each individual, a share according to the efforts of each individual, a share according to the social contribution of each individual and a share according to the merits of each individual.

There are three theories of distributive justice included Libertarianism, Utilitarian and Egalitarianism. Libertarianism approach It is a theory that defends unlimited laissez-faire capitalism as the only morally justified regime. Libertarian required for the maximization of freedom and liberty or the minimization of violations in these as long as the corporations don’t harm other’s freedom and not breaking the law. Following Locke, Nozick, the entitlement theory depends on the original acquisition of holding, the legitimate transfer of holdings to/ form others and the illegal acquisition of holdings.

Libertarianism is doesn’t consider actual distributing in society. It means that the right of every individual to unlimited utilization of his own person (self-ownership); and the right to unrestricted, or relatively mildly limited, appropriation of external resources without suffering others and fraud from these transactions. In addition, an individual has exclusive right to all the goods that are product of use of his talents and efforts and he has either the right to appropriate all natural resources, which he finds and takes before others.

Whether the distribution is just depends solely on how holdings were acquired. Property rights are derived from an individual’s basic moral rights, which take priority over all social or legislative arrangements imposed by society. This theory is interested only in this that the above procedures are satisfied and that nobody has used violence to take some goods from others. Forceful intervention of the state for the sake of helping the poor is not allowed. Therefore, any taxation involves violating of libertarianism and allowing some people to own other people.

As my choosing company – PARKnSHOP Supermarket which organized by Hutchison Whampoa Limited, it is affecting environment that stop handing out plastic bags automatically for customers. For libertarian view, they have used the libertarian approach on their corporate actions and the legitimacy of their actions. The customers have their freedom and choice and right to buy something with plastic bag. Everyone kwon that the plastic bag offered by PARKnShop’s which is not good for the environment. However, most of people like to buy something with plastic bag because they have their freedom and self-ownership.

For libertarian, it is ethic for PARKnSHOP’s can offer biodegradable bags and do the promotion on use biodegradable bags and involuntary levy on bags to the customers. It is because PARKnSHOP’s is rewarded so long as they are not breaking the law and don’t harm other’s freedom. However, it’s has some arguments against the libertarianism. It is because any taxation and helping environment involves violating of libertarianism. But, it always helping environment and do a lot of community activities such as involvement in the “Say No to Plastic Bags” campaign. Utilitarian approach

Utilitarianism is the ethical doctrine that the moral worth of an action is solely determined by its contribution to overall utility. Following John Stuart Mill, utilitarian approach is a theory that takes as its primary aims the attainment and concern with maximum possible personal happiness of a society as a whole, which should ultimately determine what is just or unjust behavior. This goal is to be achieved in such a way that one first checks what makes every particular individual in a society happy, then sums up all these various wants and preferences, and finally finds out how to satisfy the greatest number of them.

John Stuart Mill acknowledged that the society can receive more return from the more efficient laborer and it is just that talented workers can receive the greater remuneration. It is obtain efficient us of the resources if allow people to benefit from labor. A redistribution of resources increases general happiness of a society. However, the arbitrary and great disparity of distinctions and advocate strict equality may cause the unjust behavior and may cause social breakdown. It is because it would have an adverse influence on the working motivation of the able individuals, and thereby on the overall wealth of the society.

Therefore, the utilitarian standard is essential for resolving any conflict between rival principles of justice and increases the allover happiness of a society. The main task is to find a balance between factors that point towards equality and those ones that go against it. It seems that the utilitarian view can be found in PARKnSHOP’s. For PARKnSHOP’s, it concerned with the maximization of happiness of society. It’s has providing a lot of jobs opportunity for the people. Also, PARKnSHOP’s are willing to do the supports community programs, which operate at the grassroots level, usually focused on local, global environment-related issues.

It’s always giving back to society and help to create a better end and achieved to the utilitarian. However, it is not mean that can justify the ends. It is because the plastic bag of PARKnSHOP’s is a big problem. The research from the Friends of Earth (HK) shows shoppers want a bag whose need to pay 20 cents for each one. If the levy is constrained, they will initiative to reduce plastic use. One of the reasons of this research is because of they have already build up a habit of using plastic bags. They are driving a change with making profit and contributions.

It is a big problem and not concerned with the maximization of personal happiness and argues to the Utilitarian View. Egalitarian approach John Rawls explores the egalitarian approach and tries to determine principles of just society with the help of hypothetical contract among members of a society. His hypothetical introduces the notion of an abstract social contract to establish principles of justice. It is supposed by John Rawls that individuals who make this contract primarily care for their self-interest, that they are rational, well informed about human nature and functioning of society, and that they are placed under so called veil of gnorance. They are also assumed to know nothing about those of their characteristics, individual situation and circumstances that might influence impartiality of the decision-making. In egalitarian, that all members of a society should have the equal social, political, and economic rights and opportunities. John Rawls addressed that each person has equal right to the most extensive scheme same basic liberties and defends this notion that every individual would be assured justice as equal treatment for all once the veil of ignorance is removed.

In addition, John Rawls addressed that social and economic inequalities are to meet two conditions. The two conditions are economic inequalities are allowed but only if they benefit even the least advantaged individuals and attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair quality of opportunity. The basic social structure, not the transactions between individuals, should establish justice as a cooperative project for the mutual benefit of society, and minimize the socioeconomic consequences or random natural differences between people.

For PARKnSHOP’s, the stakeholders of it is included employees, customers, suppliers materials, wholesales, creditors, government and the environment society. It seems that the equalitarianism can be maintained. It’s paid the high taxes. It’s has always been committed to serving the community through involvement in the territories many social services for all stakeholders as well as charity work such as World Wide Fund for Nature.

In addition, they are care about the welfare of people and built up the Li Ka Shing Foundation for the people who in hospital, education, construction and support the community activities and benefit people worldwide. It’s help people in need around the world and gives the equal social, political, and economic rights and opportunities for the people. It is the mutual benefit of society, and minimizes the socioeconomic consequences or random natural differences between people. Moreover, It’s gives the equal job opportunity to the minority and women.

How Stable and Well Served Were the Tudor Monarchy? essay help tips: essay help tips

After Henry VIII’s reign ended, many historians believe that there was a crisis because of a young King followed by a Queen however considering the details you can see that it was not a clear as first perceived. Many events in each monarch’s reign could show instability however all of the main rebellions that could have been considered a threat were overcome with quite small danger to the reigning monarch, if any.

As none of the Tudor monarchs were successfully overthrown indisputably this shows their real ability to hold onto their position and control England, even if their popularity may have fluctuated through throughout their reign. Henry VIII’s reign was viewed by Witney Jones as one of the two Tudor ‘high noons’ however he had his own problems including many rivalry factions and rebellion which imply that his reign was not as stable as perceived when compared to Edward and Mary’s reigns. The struggle between the factions in his court is a key point when observing how well served Henry was.

The two main competitors were created when Anne Boleyn became queen because of the introduction of the Protestant religion, which meant he could marry her. She was crowned on 1 June 1533 and by 11 July Pope Clement VII had excommunicated Henry. But her faction had many enemies such as Thomas Cromwell on a personal level and the Aragonese faction as religious conservatives and these, led by Thomas Cromwell, plotted her downfall by fabricating evidence of adultery and treason resulting in her death on 19 May 1536.

Declaring Elizabeth a bastard and still refusing to legitimise Mary threw the succession into crisis with his bastard son dying in July 1536 as well. In addition to this, his cruel treatment of the Mary’s supporters helped fuel the Pilgrimage of Grace. His reign became unstable at this point as he had no legitimate heir in his eyes and no wife; because of the weakness the leaders of factions had the opportunity to act. Cromwell tried to advise him to marry Anne of Cleves so to create an ally with the German Protestants.

This ended in annulment within six months and the Duke of Norfolk and other such as Gardiner convinced him Cromwell was a traitor, which led to his execution in 1540 and no resistance to the introduction of Catholic Catherine Howard. This was again followed by accusations toward the Duke of Norfolk in 1546 leading to his execution and once again there was no resistance to placing another girl in court for Henry to marry, Catherine Parr, a devoted Protestant, showing their eventual victory.

This rivalry between the factions created an unsettled government and Henry seemed to have little actual control, the power being held by the rivalling factions with him as a figurehead, constantly being advised to follow differing paths by his advisers Also Henry started the Dissolution of the Monasteries, protest started in Lincolnshire in 1536 and even though it was stopped before it reached Yorkshire, a lawyer, Robert Aske took over the protest and it became the Pilgrimage of Grace, gathering around 35,000 protesters.

It spread to York, Hull and Doncaster, where the Duke of Norfolk intercepted them and promised them pardons and that their complaints would be heard but when a further protest broke out, he backed out of the promise, captured the leaders and they were later executed. Although the protest seemed to be completely religiously based the pilgrims only tried to restore 16 of the 55 monasteries leading it to be thought that there was more economic reasons for the protest as well.

These could have been the taxation measures or the two years of bad weather and harvests. Although Henry was quickly victorious over the uprising people he re-organised the Council of the North that shows that he clearly saw the North as a difficulty in controlling the country, being so far from London. He visibly felt threatened as he executed Robert Aske, Lord Darcy, Sir Thomas Percy and 177 supporters and surely if he thought himself well-served then why would such an act be required to keep control?

However you could argue that if Henry felt that his position was threatened then when appointing men to run the Council of the North would he not appoint only high ranking men not a mere gentleman such as Sir William Eure to the position of Warden of the West March? Although this rebellion could be viewed as a counter to the idea of Henry being well served, it was the only rebellion large enough to worry Henry into action and even then Aske never wanted conflict and this lead to Henry’s distinct advantage as he invited him to discuss the feelings of the rebels.

Aske returned to his followers and dismissed them but when another protest broke out in Cumberland; the Duke of Norfolk punished the rebel leaders and the rebellion fell easily. After Henry’s death, his son, Edward was crowned 1547; however being only nine years of age, the Duke of Somerset was appointed as his protector. On the king’s death, he and his ally Sir William Paget kept this fact secret for four days in order to rally support for Somerset, which quickly succeeded with Somerset being made Lord Protector with great power over the Privy Council by the end of February.

Even though in Henry’s will it dictated Northumberland and Somerset should work together to rule the country Somerset seemed to claim the greater amount of power of the two. However it is quite clear that he didn’t greatly use this power as the government used the same methods to deal with rising problems and he did not introduce any new reforms. Somerset clearly didn’t have the will to become an effective leader and so in 1547 when rebels started to form armies he was reluctant to withdraw troops from Scotland and France to support the ruling elites subdue the rebellions.

The Prayer Book Rebellion started in June 1549 with William Body tried to introduce religious reform, however because of his unpopularity caused by Protestant views and arrogance he was mobbed and run out of the county and murdered by local priests when he tried to return from London to impose the destruction of Catholic images. The main leaders of this rebellion were local clergy rather than gentry as they were unwilling to act against the government.

It was Devon that caused the most difficulty for Somerset as it raise an army of 6000 at Exeter led by a prominent local gentleman, Humphrey Arundell who was a skilled and experienced strategist. In East Anglia in the same year another rebellion was forming, but this for different reasons, not religious based as the Prayer Book Rebellion was the Ket Rebellion was set out to stop the rising taxes and enclosure of land by the gentry. Led by local yeoman, Robert Ket gathered an army of 16,000 and set up camp on Mousehold Health and within a month was able to capture Norwich.

The reason for this rebellion most likely lay within the strict organisation that Ket created, with every gentleman apprehended being brought before Ket and his council. However, as neither Lord Russell or John Dudley had the troops or resources to stop the rebellions, it was only when the Privy Council was able to grasp the significance of the rebellions and provide additional troops that Lord Russell and John Dudley were victorious over the rebels in the West country and East Anglia.

These rebellions showed Somerset as a man unwilling to take a firm hand to leading the country and therefore the newly victorious Northumberland has no problem in arresting him in 1549. It could be perceived that these rebellions started because of the sense of weakness in the government, with a child monarch, people would see more chance of an easy victory; this did cause some considerable instability in the government with Somerset’s fall in 1549 however Edward was relatively untouched by this and remained well served throughout the transition from Somerset to Northumberland and their respective phase of power.

Moving through to Northumberland’s rise to power, he increased the Privy Council to 33 members of whom he held trust, even releasing Somerset’s supporters of ability such as Paget and Cecil to increase his control over the government. As an extra precaution, taking Somerset’s fall into account, a perfectly reasonable one, he chose many men of military experience so he could be sure of immediate armed support in the event of more rebellions.

Also in response of the religious rivalry plaguing the kingdom he attempted to change the succession with the support of Edward so that Mary would not take the throne, but rather Lady Jane Grey, a devout Protestant. Even though there were large rebellions against the government, it seems to be just that and not aimed at Edward in a direct attack and so it is hard to argue that he was not well served in this time; as the two Lord Protector’s Somerset and Northumberland took the blame for the problems that England encountered in his reign.

His government might not have been the most stable of the Tudor monarchs however it does appear that he ever became unpopular with the people. In the change to Mary there were certainly complications to consider such as the Lady Jane Grey being forced onto the throne by Northumberland and her family and the rivalry between Protestantism and her own Catholicism in the country.

However she was greatly received by the public and even though Northumberland did his upmost to secure Jane Grey as queen when she was crowned in July 1553, within nine days she was overthrown by Mary Tudor and sent to the Tower of London, later executed. Mary quickly arranged her Privy Council, however she was forced to use several members of her Royal household and this therefore resulted in a Privy Council too large to function at times reaching 43 and with few people in a position to support her, lacking in any political ability.

She soon realised this was a problem and employed several of Northumberland’s supporters into her Council as councillors. Contrary to helping solve the problem, she had no faith in the councillors and even though they did have a vast supply of knowledge, the size of the Privy Council restricted how effective they could be with huge rivalry between the Protestants and the Catholics within the Council.

These wo factions were led by Pager and Gardiner, who were able politicians but even though they did help to create a stable government Mary did not seem to have any faith in her Council and avoided collecting them if possible, preferring to confer with Renard, a Spanish ambassador, on decisions of state. However this was a problem in itself as the anti- Spanish feelings were growing stronger in the country with the word of the queen marrying Philip of Spain.

This led to start of the Wyatt Rebellion that started in January 1554, led by Sir Thomas Wyatt, who supported her accession, Sir James Croft and Sir Peter Carew. Their plan was never to harm the queen ‘we seek no harm to the Queen, but better counsel and councillors. ’, but to convince her to stop the Spanish marriage as they feared that Philip would take control of England. Three rebellions started in Kent, the Midlands and the West Country causing the Queen to panic as there was also a French fleet blocking the English Channel.

The proximity of the uprising made it the most dangerous of the Tudor rebellions, and Wyatt took full advantage of this, by raising an army of 3000 men of his own and then soon after the deserter troops of the Duke of Norfolk’s army. However Mary proved to be well served when appealing to the citizens of London to help defend the city as although Wyatt enjoyed some success, they were eventually trapped and defeated at Ludgate. Mary ignored the rebellions and continued to marry Philip of Spain though his proposed coronation was postponed as the anti-Spanish feelings rose again and he left after just a few months in England.

Although her government became increasingly stable throughout her reign compared to the start as factions co-operated better and her council shrunk, her popularity dramatically dropped throughout her reign and her death in 1558 was as well received as her accession five years prior showing she was not well served in the sense of faith in her policies and views shown by the Wyatt Rebellion and continuous faction rivalry which she distanced herself from therefore becoming increasingly out of favour with her people.

The crown was peacefully given to Mary’s half sister, Elizabeth, crowned in 1558. She had a powerful Council around her, full of wise and influential men, yet what won her the most respect was her strong yet humble personality, she kept the classes in line and never relinquished her power to her councillors. However this sometimes led to her disagreeing with majorities in the Council such as the Puritans, who never persuaded her to alter religious settlement in 1559 nd her deep suspicion stopped her joining with the Dutch against Spain despite a clear majority in Council.

She also kept a strong hold on the government and her Council by refusing to name her successor for fear of men plotting treason against her. Still, her greatest challenge to power was by Mary, Queen of Scots, who after fleeing to England spent twenty years attempting to claim the English throne but the only plot that caused difficulty for Elizabeth was the Northern Rebellion of 1569.

Within the first week of November the Earls of Northumberland and Westmorland tried to change the Queen’s policies with their first demonstration holding Mass at Durham Cathedral and they soon moved to Bramham Moor with over 5000 men. Although their clear advantage over Sussex, they turned back to wait for help from Catholic nobles and the Spanish. They were defeated by the end of December, both of the leaders exiled to Scotland and Elizabeth eager for revenge, though many of the proposed 700 executions were commuted.

Elizabeth was clearly well served as the rebellion was quickly disposed of and if she had felt threatened by Mary, then she would have imprisoned her or at least made a move toward stopping her create more plots against her. As for a stable government, her firm grip on her councillors and government showed her to have a very secure hold on her position for most of her reign only losing slight support in the last decade of her reign. Ultimately to make a judgement on how stable and well served a monarch was we must consider their reactions to events within their, how the people perceived them and how close they ever came to being overthrown.

Considering the Tudor monarchs in their entirety, it is clear that there were obvious threats to their power such as others in the line of succession or rebellions of powerful nobles. Nevertheless each Tudor monarch quite easily overcame these difficulties and kept their government and Privy Council in order in their own way, which leads to show that even though there were obvious problems in all of their reigns, their stability was shown by them keeping their throne until their death and how well served they were by the fact that all had enough loyalty within their country to stop any rebellions that arose.

Critical Thinking essay help free: essay help free

Strong critical thinking (CT) skills are necessary for every successful nurse manager. Giving them an edge at creating a positive work environment, that is conducive to job satisfaction and retention of staff RNs. This study is entitled, “Critical Thinking of Nurse Managers Related to Staff RNs’ Perceptions of the Practice Environment. ” The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) was used to measure critical thinking in nurse managers in relation to their respective staff RNs.

Enhancing critical thinking skills is important, staff RNs that work in an environment perceived to be positive are in a better position to deliver higher quality and safer patient care. As nurses we are responsible for helping a patient every way we can, being able to engage in critical thinking is a skill that must be obtained. This study was based off of twelve volunteering nurse managers and their respective one hundred and thirty-two staff RNs. Assessment of Nurse Manager’s Critical Thinking Skills

This study (Critical Thinking of Nurse Managers Related to Staff RNs’ Perceptions of the Practice Environment) used the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) to measure CT skills in nurse managers in relation to their staff RNs. This study was conducted in a nonprofit, hospital in the northeast United States. This study was completely voluntary, only thirty-one percent of nurse managers chose to participate, leaving the pool of staff RNs slim. This article is about a study that took place in the northeast United States at a 490 bed nonprofit, tertiary care hospital.

The study explores,” the differences between nurse managers’ dispositions to use critical thinking skills and their respective staff RNs’ perceptions of the practice environment” (Zori, Nosek & Musil, 2010). This study was completely voluntary and with a limited number of nurse manager participants, the number of staff RNs was also very limited. Nurse Managers need to have good leadership skills and critical thinking skills; these skills are assed in comparison to those of their respective staff RNs.

Research Question & Hypothesis There is a correlation between the Critical thinking skills of Nurse Managers and their respective staff nurses perception of the practice environment. Nurse Managers skilled in the use of critical thinking, may be able to create a positive practice environment for staff RN’s. Positive practice environments means increased retention of staff RN’s and improved job satisfaction. Sample of the Study Twelve nurse managers and one hundred and thirty-two staff RN’s were sampled.

The study was conducted at a 490-bed voluntary, nonprofit, tertiary care hospital located in the northeastern United States. Only nurse managers who voluntarily chose to answer the CCTDI were included in the study (31. 6%). Sample size limited the ability to address how the difference in type of unit and full- or part-time work may influence the outcome. Descriptive Study In this descriptive study nurse managers were categorized as weak or strong in critical thinking dispositions based on scores achieved on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI).

Then, staff RNs from the units of participating nurse managers completed the Practice Environment Scale (PES). Staff nurses’ Practice Environment Scale (PES) results were dichotomized based on the critical thinking disposition scores of their nurse managers. A two-tailed, independent sample t test was conducted to determine if there were significant differences in the Practice Environment Scale(PES) mean overall and subscale scores of the two groups of staff RNs (Zori, Nosek & Musil, 2010). CCDTI was created based on the APA Delphi Study.

Reliability testing was conducted, with an overall score of . 90. The CCDTI is therefore considered reliable. Practice Environment Scale PES was developed from Nursing Work Index (NWI). Reliability testing of the final 31 items was conducted on both individual nurse scores and on the aggregate of subscale scores. Individual nurse subscale scores (n = 1,610) were analyzed using Cronbach’s ? , with ? > . 80 for all subscales except the collegial nurse-physician relations (? = . 71). The nurse manager ability, leadership, and support of nurse’s subscale scored the highest.

The results are reliable. The PES has been endorsed by the National Quality Forum and is used by the ANA as part of the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators to measure staff nurse job satisfaction (Lake, 2007). Enhancing critical thinking skills and dispositions of course managers may help to create positive work environments for staff RNs. Staff RNs who work in an environment perceived to be positive may be in a better position to deliver high quality, safe patient care (Zori, Nosek & Musil, 2010).

Table One Table one, of the article is entitled, “Nurse Manager California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) Score Distribution and Standard Deviation by Subscale. ” This table breaks down the CCTDI Scale into seven subscales: truth-seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, CT confidence, inquisitiveness, and cognitive maturity (Zori, Nosek & Musil, 2010). The table also shows the minimum score, maximum score, mean score, median score, and standard deviation for the twelve sample nurse managers. Table Two

Table two of the study entitled, “RN Staff Nurses’ Practice Environment Scale scores by Nurse Managers’ Critical Thinking (CT) Dispositions. ” According to the study, “As this table indicates, there are significant differences in PES scores when they were compared based on their nurse managers’ strength or weakness on the CCTDI subscales of analyticity, systematicity, open-mindedness, and critical thinking confidence” (Zori, Nosek & Musil, 2010). The biggest difference between staff nurses and nurse managers scores were in the truth-seeking subscale (strength versus weakness), within the nurse-physician relationship.

Limitations This study was conducted in one medical facility in the northeast United States. This may not be a proper representation of the whole population of nurse managers and their respective staff nurses. Also the nurse managers who participated did so by choice and were not required to, therefore, the number of staff RNs were limited to those whose nurse manager participated. Out of thirty-eight nurse managers only twelve chose to participate, this limited the three hundred and twenty-seven possible staff RNs down to one hundred and thirty-two.

If there were more willing participants then the findings could be better generalized to the entire nurse manager population. My Findings and Improvements Nurse Managers skilled in critical thinking create a positive environment for staff RN’s resulting in increase in job satisfaction and retention of RN’s, decreasing job turnover. This study is extremely important because the World Health Organization (WHO) anticipates the RN shortage to reach 285,000 by the year 2020. If I was conducting this study, I would look at part-time vs. full-time employees, and areas of practice.

Is burn-out more noted in critical care areas? Statistical Procedure, Methodology & Measurement This was a voluntary survey conducted at one tertiary hospital. A t-test was conducted. Scores of 40 or above were considered strengths, and scores of 39 and below were weakness. Scores on inquisitiveness and cognitive maturity were all in the strength range. Final Analysis As nurses we must use critical thinking every day, nurse managers are no exception to this. This study shows that by having a nurse manager who has strong critical thinking skills, the staff RNs respond positively.

Cold War Essay mba essay help: mba essay help

The Cold War was led from 1945 to about 1991, it was a war fought between the Communists led by the Soviet Union and the Democratic nations led by the United States. Before the Second World War had begun there were economic, political and social differences between the two ideologies, which were only intensified after the war, as a result of suspicions both sides had. To a certain extent it is clear that the Cold War was a more or less natural development of the Second World War. When the war ended and Democrats and Communists had defeated Fascism, the two ideologies broke down, leading to the Cold War.

Conflicts between the USSR and the US firstly arose in 1945 at the Yalta Conference, where the US, the Soviet Union and Great Britain were to discuss their issues. In 1946 the Truman Doctrine supported the tensions that were already there. Greek communists fought the Greek Civil War and America intervened by aiding nations defending themselves against communist forces. This was of course not liked to be seen by the communist USSR at all. One year later, in 1947, President Truman launched the Marshall Plan, which again went again communism and backed up the Truman Doctrine, which had been developed in the earlier year.

The Russians felt that the US was launching an anti-communist campaign against their country and suspicions between the two different ideologies began to rise. Meanwhile the Soviet Union also intervened in the political issues of the eastern European countries. Bulgaria and Romania suffered from the declarance of the People’s Republic and the most extreme example was the overtaking of the Czech government, showing how eager the USSR was to spread communism when they showed desire to kill the Czechs leader for independence. In 1948 Berlin in Germany became the centre of attention in the Cold War.

The Berlin Wall was at that time the tangible symbol of the Iron Curtain. The USSR began what is known as the Berlin Blockade and stopped Germany from receiving supplies and support from the USA. By this time the only eastern European country not directly controlled by the Soviet Union was Yugoslavia. When World War 2 ended the countries in Western Europe had become too weak to prevent the spreading of communism and the Soviet Union was seemingly getting stronger. The United States and the USSR seemed to be in need of demonstrating their power during the Cold War and the US took this opportunity to showcase their newest cientific and technological development.

The two also competed for superiority in space, constantly trying to be in power. However, the Atomic bomb may also be a reason why the tensions between the two countries relaxed, both countries realized that they were able to destroy each others countries with the use of this weapon and in order to avoid a military clash their relations were bound to improve. It may not be easy to determine whether the United States or the Soviet Union were to blame for the Cold War, however it is clear that through the Second World War the tensions between them increased and therefore naturally led to the Cold War.

Ethical Dilemma Case Study essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

Nurses are faced with ethical dilemmas every day. There are a lot of different beliefs surrounding ethics and the code of ethics. Ethics and ethical issues have always existed, that is why they have put in place the code of ethics. The American Nursing Association (ANA) Code of Ethics isa guideline to help nurses determine which course of action to pursue. Every minute many ethical decisions are made, some may not comply with guidelines and others the patient’s will never understand. In this case study the nurse is put in an uncomfortable position and has two find a way to comply with the family, the patient, and the doctor’s orders.

How can she report to the doctor the information the daughter has told her? How she approached handling the situation and not let the patient know his daughter does not want to care for him? How does she break the news to the patient that he will not be going home with his daughter? These are just several of the questions the nurse will have to answer to provide the best possible care for her patient. All ethical decisions should comply with the code of ethics and always be for the patient’s health. Ethics should be recognized from the patient, the family, nurse, and doctor’s point of view or scope of practice.

The purpose of this paper is to find ethical issues within the case study. The paper will highlight the definition of ethics, the dilemma the nurse faces in the case study, and the possible solution. The case study involves a 65-year-old Hispanic male admitted in hospitalwith hyperglycemia. The ethical issues beganwhen the nurse is told by the daughter of the patient she cannot care for him. The nurse is put in a position of finding a place for her noncompliant patient. The nurse is also informed the patient has sought help from a curandero.

A curandero is ann Hispanic folk medicine practitioner. “Curandero use a range of procedures from messages, herbal supplement, prayer, magic, and talk therapy to treat people. The strong focus on talking to the patient and embracing often deeply held superstitious beliefs offers a fertile ground for the placebo effect”. (RationalWiki, 2010). The patient has not taken his prescribe medication and his eating habits are also noncompliant. The patient is dealing with the death of his wife and the patient’s daughter believes he is acting this way on purpose and is unable to care for him properly.

The aughter does not want to tell the doctor about the patient seeing a Curandero,but wants her father to be admitted into a nursing home in order for him to receive the proper care he needs. The nurse would need to consult with the Code of ethics book on the nursing floor to proceed with the best possible solution to the problem. The code of Ethic for Nurses is a guide for carrying out nursing responsibilities in a consistent manner with a certain quality in nursing care(American Nursing Association, 2001). There are ethical principles that a nurse should learn to apply to each situation that they feel an ethical decision will need to be made.

The history of ethics has been around for a long time. Nurses have an ethical obligation to care for patientsand do no harm. Ethical conflicts and dilemmas occur every day in the health care world. “Ethics is defined as the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession”(FARLEX, 2011). The nurse should have the adequate skills and experience to provide great care to the patient. Nurses should always accept their moral and responsibilities that come along with their job and title. Nurses help to minimize risks and provide safety measure for the individual who is receiving care.

There are several ways the nurse can approach this situation. The first is to help easy patient’s S. Z. daughter’s fears about her father. The nurse will need to talk with the daughter and they both can collaborate on how they can get her father to comply with doctor’s orders. The second is to educate patient S. Z. on the importance of eating right, taking prescribe medication, and the dangers of combing his medication with herbal medication. The third, is to speak with the doctor and inform the physician on the patient situation and all the information that the daughter has informed her on.

The first two choices leave the doctor out of the equation. The best possible solution will be to speak with the doctor and let him know what is going on with the patient. The doctor will need to know everything that is going on with the patient in order for the doctor to give the patient adequate care. This solution will allow the doctor, the nurse, and the patient’s daughter to collaborate and set up a care plan for the patient. “Collaboration is not just cooperation but it is the concerted effort of individuals and groups to attain a shared goal”(Ruth Ludwick & Mary Cipriano Silva, 2011).

Collaboration requires a mutual understanding and respect among the healthcare team providing the care for the patient and having an open dialogue amongst the people involved. The doctor, the nurse, the daughter, and the patient will need to discuss how to care for the patient once discharged from the hospital. The patient’s daughter may not want to voice her concerns in front of the patient, but the patient will need to be informed on why he is going to an assistant living facility instead of home with his daughter.

The nurse and doctor will be the ones to inform patient S. Z. on the reason he his being discharge to a nursing home in a matter that he can understand and avoid letting him know his daughter cannot provide adequate care for him at her home. The doctor will need to have a psychologist assess the patient because of his depression and admit him into an assistant living factuality so they can help watch over him like his wife use to. In order for patient S. Z. to receive the care that he needs the nurse will need to inform the doctor on what is going on with the patient.

The standard of nursing practice and the nurse’s responsibility to provide quality care requires that relevant data be shared with those members of the healthcare team who need to know”(Ruth Ludwick & Mary Cipriano Silva, 2011). Only the information that pertains to the patient treatment and wellbeing should be disclosed. With patient S. Z. having diabetes and substituting his medication for herbals medication can put his life in danger. Keeping his cultural beliefs in mind, the nursewill need to educate the patient on the importance of taking his medication in order to keep his blood sugar under control.

Ask him for a list of his herbal medication that he is currently taking, to see if it is safe for him to take with his prescribe medication. Allowing the patient to combine his beliefs with his care plan will bring a better out come for the patient’s health. If the doctor is unaware of the patient’s holistic approach to his health can prescribe him medication that iscontraindicateand can cause the patient harm. Taking what the daughter’s concerns into consideration, the nurse will have to make the ethical decision to inform the physician on every detail about the patient’s health.

If the nurse can help the daughter understands that it is her goal to ensure the best possible help for her father. In order for the patient to receive that care, she will have to disclose the information that she entrusted her with. “Interactions with the patients and their families who are struggling with these issues are emotionally demanding and fraught with the potential for understanding. In the midst of anger, confusion, and often dysfunction healthcare professionals are expected to provide safe care and arrange for optimum disposition or placement”(Richard A. Bryan & Childers, 2004).

The patient’s daughter should come to the understanding that it is in the best interest for her and her father. The American Nursing Association (ANA) codes of ethic are the guidelines in which nurse’s follow to help them determine the course of action to take. The Code of Ethics compels nurses to do the right thing in the patient’s best interest. This case study raises several questions on how to provide the patient with the care and help he needs while incorporating the family wishes. It is important for the nurse to help the family cope with the situation as well as the patient.

Merwin Analysis best essay help: best essay help

Merwin mixes-up chronological time in his poems to combine the past with the present. Using time as a major tone in these three poems, it allows the reader to unfold how Merwin delivers this duality of what was to what is the case. “For the Anniversary of My Death,” Merwin writes about his appreciation and love for the life he had, as he mourns himself upon his own death.

The poem uses the themes of death, eternity and life, which all coincide with this concept of time. The author blurs together the idea of the life that will go on, even after death. In the first part of “For the Anniversary of My Death,” it says: “Every year without knowing it I have passed the day, when the last fires will wave to me,” is a notion that Merwin envisions for his death. Merwin uses fire in the statement “… the last fires will wave to me,” as a metaphor for possibly the people who have come to his funeral and are saying their last goodbyes.

The entire first stanza is a description of how Merwin feels when he is alive, while the second referring to his life before death, using “then,” as a way to explain the past. In the entirety of the poem, it seems as if Merwin is longing for death, which is quite strange. When he states “timeless traveler, like a beam of a lightless star,” it symbolizes eternity. As a “timeless traveler,” he is someone who has spent his life whether emotionally or physically constantly moving, to a “lightless star,” as in a star that has been fading for a long period of time.

Merwin is saying that he himself has been slowly diminishing for an endless amount of time. The metaphor of life and death is used in the last few lines it states: “As today writing after three days of rain…hearing the wren sing and the falling cease… and bowing not knowing to what. ” “Three days of rain,” represents life, while “hearing the wren sing and the falling cease,” is interpreted as death because the rain has ended, and so has his life. He seems to be obliterating chronological time when the rain is pouring and when the rain is coming to an end.

In the last few lines when it states, “And bowing not knowing to what,” Merwin is possibly referencing to life after death. The entire poem is about his intuition of his own death. Merwin’s “Drunk in the Furnace,” begins with “For a good decade. ” Here, we can find contrast in what exactly the author means by this line, and what he is saying about time. He is either speaking about an approximation of time, or when he says “good decade,” possibly pertaining to how enjoyable the decade was. In the first stanza it states: “no more to them than a hulking black fossil to erode unnoticed with the rest of the junk-hill…

This poem is possibly about the demons we face, like alcoholism, and the furnace might represent hell, or that low place one goes to subconsciously when drinking. The black fossil “eroding unnoticed,” could represent the drunk himself, suffering and corroding over time by his own sins, but yet still aware in time of what’s going on when it states: “to confirm, one morning, a twist of smoke like a pale resurrection, staggering out of its chewed hole…cozily bolted behind the eye-holed iron door of the drafty burner, had there established his bad castle. It is interpreted as the aftermath of the drunken stupor, “a twist of smoke like a pale resurrection, staggering out. ”

Also, Merwin uses dark metals and iron works to represent this ‘hell,’ or ‘evil place,’ the drunk goes to. The drunk merges his past and present simultaneously from being drunk in the present time, but also the small pieces of remembrance from nights being intoxicated. In “Losing a Language,” the first two lines along with the title set a tone of loss and the loss of time.

When it states: “the old still remember something they could say, but they know now that such things are no longer believed and the young have fewer words” it describes how the history of language and life change with time, but that the older generations long for how society once was. That older generations are simultaneously caught between how language was, to how people interact in “todays,” society. Merwin conveys this idea that the loss of ones information of words to define a specific thing through language, results in a loss of knowledge when it states nothing that is here I known.

The last line ends with great pause and emphasis when Merwin writes: “Here are the extinct feathers, here is the rain we saw”-If one loses the language, they have lost the knowledge that went with it. W. S Merwin writes these three poems “Losing a Language, For the Anniversary of My Death, and The Drunk in The Furnace,” with multiple meanings of how life is simultaneously combined between how it once was, to what is happening in the present time.

Drunk in the Furnace,” was memorable for the metaphors of the furnace possibly representing ‘hell,’ or a horrible place “the drunk “goes to either physically or mentally when he is caught between what is actually happening, and his drunken stupor. I also noticed that Merwin uses this theme of religion in a few of his poems by “the last fires are waving to me,” in “Anniversary of My Death”, and ‘the furnace’ in “Drunk in the Furnace. ” “The last fires waving to me,” possibly representing last moments of sins before death. It is very noticeable that Merwins use of loss and time are greatly prevalent in each one of these poems, leading the reader to believe that Merwin’s thoughts on his own human experiences are not necessarily the most positive ones.

Nature Versus Nurture writing essay help: writing essay help

Homosexual is defined as: “of, relating to, or characterized by a tendency to direct sexual desire toward another of the same sex” (Webster’s Dictionary, 4th ed. , 2003) The nature approach is based on a chance that humans are born with a specific gene that determines if they will be homosexual. In other words, some people are born gay. ” (Johnson, 2003) The nurture approach tells that people are influenced by their surroundings.

In this approach, “A nurtured gay person is one that is ‘made’ gay. ” (Johnson, 2003) Originally the American Psychological Association (APA) had deemed homosexuality a mental disease. The debate now- a-days revolve around if sexuality is based on nature, a person’s environment, or based on nurture, a person’s upbringing. Alfred Kinsey pioneered one of the earliest experiments in the 1930s.

Kinsey’s research resulted in little besides putting the word homosexual into the common language. Karen Hooker completed the first psychological test in 1957. The research was put together to investigate the relationship between homosexuality, psychological development, and illness. The subjects were given three tests, the Rorschach, TAT, and MAPS. She determined that there was no link between social determinism of sexuality. As an outcome of Hooker’s research, the APA released a statement in 1975 saying that homosexuality was not a mental disorder.

According to a recent brochure from the APA, they have “called on psychologists to take the lead in removing the stigma of mental illness that has long been associated with lesbian, gay, and bisexual orientations. ” (American Psychological Association 2008 ) D. F. Swaab organized the next major research experiment on post-mortem brains. “Swaab found in his post-mortem examination of homosexual males’ brains that a portion of the hypothalamus of the brain was structurally different than a heterosexual brain. The hypothalamus is the portion of the human brain directly related to sexual drive and function. (Johnson, 2003).

The part of the brain called the hypothalamus includes a portion called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN was two times larger in heterosexual males than their homosexual counterpart. About the same time, scientist Laura Allen had a similar outcome with her research. Both Swaab’s and Allen’s conclusion became a platform for the biological argument on homosexuality. Simon LeVay conducted an experiment based on the hypothalamus in 1991. LeVay also based his results on a post-mortem examination of the brain; however his tests were conducted on people that died of AIDS related illnesses.

His research concluded that the difference in anatomy was not a result of nature or nurture, but a result of prenatal cerebral development and structural differentiation. Social behaviorists are not sold on the idea that homosexuality is a result of biological influences; most social theorists take childhood components as the largest leading factor to homosexuality. Most psychoanalytic theories emphasize the aspect of parental and family structure, not society. Behaviorists concluded that some gender and sexual differences result from the roles by family and friends during childhood.

There was no evidence that supported that homosexual children were brought up differently than a heterosexual child. Social theorist David Halperin believed in Planophysical theory. This concept thought that homosexuals were mutants. His theory is discredited by a large number in the psychological community. His theory only provided results, not a cause. He failed to show any scientific results. At the same time, another social theorist Jean Foucault believed that homosexuality was a mental disorder, and then had evolved into a species resulting in the term homosexual.

There are three differences in the two theories. Foucault concluded that the depth of desire was nothing more than superficial preferences. Halperin said that homosexuality is more of a psychological disorder than sexual preference. Foucault did not segregate people into different classes. Halperin divided people into heterosexuals, gay men, and lesbians. The last difference was that Halperin saw homosexuals all as equals. Foucault believed that homosexuality was always based on unfair differences in age, race, education, and social status.

Dean Hamer conducted a study examining genetics called the linkage study. He and a group of scientists discovered characteristics that passed from generation to generation in a family. According to this study, the group of doctors believed homosexuality was inherited. In July 1993, the prestigious research journal Science published a study by Dean Hamer which claims that there might be a gene for homosexuality.

Research seemed to be on the verge of proving that homosexuality is innate, genetic, and therefore unchangeable a normal variant of human nature. Is there a “Gay Gene”? , n. d. , para. 4) Scientists are still conducting research to determine what causes homosexuality. The latest research develops around a theory that all developing fetuses begin as females. Other studies evolve around health issues of the mother during pregnancy and food borne ailments. There may never be a answer to what causes homosexuality.

Song Analysis Micheal Jackson- college admission essay help: college admission essay help

In 2009, we lost one of the greatest entertainers in music history, however his music still lives on, inspiring and touching people’s heart. I have always been a fan of Michael Jackson, and the reason why I picked this song is because it presents a strong message. Not only did Jackson make a powerful statement with his lyrics, he also made one with his choice of rhythm and beats. The guitars and drums that were used, give the song a dramatic rock vibe.

According to music critics Jackson’s album Thriller seemed to be inspired by “a mixture of several genres which previously were never combined” ( thrilleralbum). It is pretty obvious what message Michael is trying to bring across, the song is about gang violence and about making the right choices. During the video shoot of the song “Beat It”, Michael was interviewed by Tom Joyner, and he stated that “the theme of the song is about two gangs who are coming together to rumble and Jackson’s objective was to spread the message that we turn the other cheek, we don’t fight.

This basically means that if we know when something is not right, we should ignore the fact and move on instead of getting into trouble. An eye for an eye mentality would only cause more problems, therefore it is always better to just “Beat It”. Michael repeats the phrase “Beat It” several times in the chorus of the song. The chorus for the most part, expresses the intention of a song and helps the listener to comprehend what message the artist or person who wrote the song is trying to bring across (Riley). Informally, the phrase beat it is defined as “ a rude way of telling someone to go away”(thefreedictionairy).

I believe the reason why Jackson used the phrase repeatedly is because he wanted emphasize that it is totally acceptable to just walk away and avoid a dangerous situation. The first verse is an introduction to what is to follow. “They Told Him Don’t You Ever Come Around Here/ Don’t Wanna See Your Face, You Better Disappear. ” The members of the gang are giving a clear warning , stating that if you don’t want to get in trouble, you need to go away. The second verse talks about making the right choice to just go away instead of shedding blood, and trying to be a tough guy.

The third verse simply describes that even if one chooses to walk away, it is better to be alive than to risk it. The fourth verse in my opinion talks about the consequences of fighting and that if one chooses to be violent, chances are that they will get hurt. As mentioned earlier the chorus defines to just walk away although “No One wants To Be Defeated. ” It is better to go because in the end “It Doesn’t Matter Who is Wrong Or Right. ” Jackson uses very powerful words and explains that it is always best to look out for yourself instead of proving yourself to others. It is not worth the struggle (songfacts).

As I was analyzing the song, I was listening for specific sounds and noises that would symbolize the meaning of the song. I heard a police siren which could symbolize that if you get involved with gangs and violence, you will end up in jail. I also heard a snapping sound and deep breathing sounds. The breathing sounds could represent the sound of someone running away and catching a breath. I could detect sounds as if someone was getting punched and sounds of blades which could represent a fight. While searching for different meanings of the song I came across an interesting observation.

A person said, as she was reading the lyrics she could envision a little devil and angel sitting on top of a young boy’s shoulders who was trying to get involved with a gang. The Angel would tell him “They Are Out To Get You, Better Leave While You Can” and the Devil would respond with “Don’t Wanna Be A Boy, You Wanna Be A Man”. The Devil and Angel scenario could be used for all of the Verses in the song (nersa). Besides violence and gang mentality, I could also see that this song could be about how Michael is struggling to find his own identity.

During the time when the album was created, Michael experienced the feeling of sad and loneliness and felt undervalued in the music Industry (thrilleralbum). In Joyner’s Interview, Jackson said “he is now just learning about the value of friendship, and getting to know people”. I find it very strange that a 24 year old man never experienced friendship before ,although for Jackson it seemed to be normal because he grew up on stage. Michael also revealed that he had tutors, because it was impossible for him to attend public schools due to the fact that he was famous.

I interpret the first verse (…Don’t Wanna See Your Face , You Better Disappear / The Fire’s In Their Eyes And The Words Are Really Clear… ) as if the media is attacking Michael Jackson, and spreading rumors about him. He is trying to get even with the media when he says “You Have To Show Them That You Really Not Scared/ Showin’ How Funky Strong Is Your Fight. ” Jackson defends himself and says that he is “Bad”, as in the best entertainer around. Nobody can judge him, who affirms what’s wrong or right? But on the other hand he doesn’t know how to handle all the stress, and accusations made about him.

Should he fight back or just keep moving because he is better than them. In the blogs, a lot of people also related this song to a sexual context. Djcu77, mentioned in his post that the song is about masturbation. I also read post that claimed that “ Beat It” is about child molestation (songmeaning). In my opinion, this was the early stage of MJ and in the early 80’s, when the song was released MJ was not associated with child molestation. Therefore I think that this claim is incorrect. Generally, I believe that the moral of the song is that violence is never a solution for anything.

Sometimes it is better to just walk away from a negative or violent situation and get control over feelings that might motivate someone to cause a fight, instead of dealing with an issue by means of being physical violent. Michael Jackson is known to be a peace maker and he stands for peace, not war. When he was interviewed, he admitted that he never hit the streets, which basically means that Michael has never experienced any type of gang related violence (Joyner). Still, he wanted to tell the world that it is okay to just “Beat It”.

The Chemistry of Batteries and Its Implications on Modern Society english essay help online: english essay help online

Batteries have proven to be the core of modern day technology, without batteries modern day technology and some electronics would have never existed. Nations that invest more in battery run technology tend to have a higher labor productivity rate. This is because battery powered electronics increase could potentially increase the productivity rate of labor and thus an increase in capital goods. Electronics have also been seen as the driving force of emerging economies, in fact almost all R&D expenditure in China is for telecommunications and electronics (Huwai, 2011).

For example China’s invest in research and development in electronic factory machines (Industry Innovation, 2007) allowed Chinese manufacturers to boost overall domestic production providing lower cost goods and allowing it to further compete in the global market. A rechargeable car battery (or an automotive battery) is a battery that supplies electrical energy to an automobile and allows us to start up the vehicle’s engine, lights and electrical necessities, cars.

The benefits of batteries in todays societies is incomprehensible, whether it be the use of batteries in smartphones to flashlights or even to car batteries, the use of batteries has helped developed and create a modern society that we live in. Without batteries smartphones and mobiles would have never been created and telecommunications would be nothing more than house phones and primitive electronic devices. The convenience of batteries is that they are portable and rechargeable allowing them to be carried with. In sense batteries is just an energy storage device that does not need to be plugged into an energy source to be functional.

Chemical energy is stored in the battery and when required the converted energy is released. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells. In the redox reaction that powers the battery cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode while anions are oxided. In this world batteries seem to be the only convenient and portable technology available to power the thousands of different electronic devices that are used everyday.

Since its invention the battery has helped create orld-shaping convenient equipment ranging from the flashlight to common childhood toys to car batteries. Batteries have helped mankind accomplish innovative inventions throughout the previous century, and continues to do so, it has also contributed to the development of modern society by constantly powering new trends. However is there a price to all this, and if so, does the benefits of batteries outweigh the costs? Used dead lead batteries are almost always dumped into landfills that can severely damage the environment and the health of well-beings nearby.

In fact 20,000 tons of batteries were landfilled annually in the UK alone (Rebatt, 2007), and global lead battery production is approximated to be worth $36. 2 billion in 2010 and is steadily increasing (OakIsland, 2006) meaning that an increasing number of lead batteries are dumped every year. Toxic led batteries can cause dirt contamination that is provoked by the attendance of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or supplementary alteration in the usual dirt environment. Dumped batteries are a toxicant to the environment, which is the result of the continuous human choice of wealth over the environment.

Over 120 million people are affected negatively by this exposure of led, 99% of whom reside in developing countries (Rebatt, 2007). Scientific studies display that long-term exposure to even puny numbers of lead can cause kidney and brain damage, hearing impairment, as well as setbacks in children (Mary, 2009). Automobiles worldwide use over one million metric tons of lead every year, in which 90% are attributed to standard lead-acid vehicle batteries (HybridCars, 2011). However, there are other environmental solutions towards dealing with the disposal of lead batteries.

Instead of dumping thousands of tons of dead batteries into dreadful landfills, we are able to recycle these batteries therefore getting rid of the disposal problem. By recycling batteries a manufacture could potentially minimize the resources required in creating new batteries. However the process of recycling lead batteries is nearly as toxic as dumping them in landfills. Recycling procedures further discharges tons of lead into the environment. Lead is disappeared and emerging fumes are released into the air.

This toxic metal is next obtainable for human absorption as airborne, beforehand resolving in dust and soil (Marry, 2009). The fundamental base of reactions is the movement of electrons from one atom to another. Energy comes in different forms and the battery uses electrochemical cells to convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy via electron transfer (Bellis, 2006). This allows energy to be used to create additional reactions. The battery uses the redox to create electricity portably without needed to be plugged into a continuous electric source.

Chemical energy is stored in the battery and when required the converted energy is released. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells (Mary, 2008). In the redox reaction that powers the battery cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode while anions are oxided.

Research Article Critique Presentation Power Point easy essay help: easy essay help

The research study that you selected in Week Two Develop a 10- to 15-minute presentation in which you address the following points: Strengths and weaknesses of the study Theoretical and methodological limitations Evidence of researcher bias Ethical and legal considerations related to the protection of human subjects Relationship between theory, practice, and research Nurse’s role in implementing and disseminating research How the study provides evidence for evidence-based practice

Identify the following for the research study: Quantitative Research Article Critique (pp. 422-446 of the text): Phase 1: Comprehension Phase 2: Comparison Phase 3: Analysis Phase 4: Evaluation Qualitative Research Article Critique (pp443-446 of the text): Use the critical appraisal guidelines Format the presentation as one of the following: Poster presentation in class Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation including detailed speaker’s notes Video of yourself giving the presentation uploaded to an Internet video sharing site such as www. youtube. com Submit the link to your facilitator

7 Wonders of the Industrial World essay help site:edu: essay help site:edu

The movie “7 Wonders of the Industrial World” by Christopher Spencer is a film full of great artwork and remarkable engineering from all over the world. From the creation of the ground-breaking Panama Canal which linked the Atlantic and Pacific oceans to the construction of the London sewerage system. These are now celebrated as great wonders of the world – revealing as much about human creativity and the determination of the human spirit as they do of technological efforts.

Each of these industrial wonders not only represents a stunning display of craftsmanship and architecture but at one point added something useful and incredible to the world. Each is truly a marvelous wonder and deserves its place on the list. The slowly evolving era became the foundation of their ideas and gave life to these dreams in cement, iron, stone, and steel. The pioneers were practical visionaries seeing beyond the horizon to create an infrastructure that will embody the new industrial age and fulfill the needs of their fellowmen in a more artistic way.

Joseph Bazalgette, the chief engineer of the London sewerage system is a great example of true perseverance and determination as he was challenged to fight for his ability and ideas for 7 years. His proposal to build an underground network that linked London’s 1,000 miles of street-level sewers to extinguished the cholera epidemic that caused deaths to the people was repeatedly rejected by the parliament and thus resulting to a greater epidemic.

But due to the Great stink from the river Thames, the parliament realizes that something must be done and so passed a bill that permit Bazalgette to proceed on his plans. Surely it was a crazy idea to build the sewerage system of a state that can take up to 12 years and so, but he did not hesitate and lose to the negative critics of the people instead during the 7 years of waiting, he and his men worked harder to improve every detail of it hoping that the time to put it into work will come. And they were right about that time, but the real problem has just began when various obstacles come their way.

As a leader, he must make critical decisions to complete the work and it started with the choice of cement to be used because the slightest change in the mixture will change the capacity of the cement and it may cause disaster. Even after many accidents and tragedies happened like the artillery firing, collapsing of railway which buried people alive, they still continue to devote themselves to the work. Bazalgette didn’t sit in one corner and regret but instead he took a great risk that may ruin his reputation and may cause more deaths.

He made the press witness the successful joining of the two tunnels to regain the public’s trust and hope. After all the years of planning, politics and worrying, they applauded him for the 4 biggest steam engines that constitute the new sewerage system and improve the health of the people. all of this is due to the great management strategies that Bazalgette has, he made sure that his plans will be carried out by organizing the necessary materials and directing the people’s work .

He made modern London and saved many lives as he accomplished another wonder of the industrial world. He give importance not just for the completion of his dreams but also to the different social responsibilities that they need to follow. In the second documentary, the creation of Panama Canal it features not only the hardwork of many people but also the sacrifice made by them. The entire construction of the Panama Canal involves the danger in the safety of the people and the safety of the reputation of the engineers involved.

The leader in this work does not only need to construct the canal but he must also pay attention to the major obstacles on their way like the river and the mosquitoes that need a lot of financial support. De Lesseps faced the engineering problems as well as financial instability that result to bankruptcy. He died with ruined reputation and health, and he was accused for bribing the press and government for concealing the tragedy in Panama. Later on, the word Panama is synonymous to corruption and disgrace and the construction was discontinued.

But De Lesseps’ legacy was not put into waste as President Roosevelt continued the canal through John Stevens. In the end they successfully finished the canal that linked the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and made useful not only to Panama but also to the ships that will route there. They won over the most comprehensive, complex, and dangerous engineering project because of their belief that they can make things possible. The engineers, workers, investors and people who gave their life, effort, knowledge and money to construct the greatest infrastructure were truly remarkable.

They faced many obstacles to achieve their proud works and suffered many issues that almost destroy their lives and that of their family. But they take them all and stood straight to show the world that nothing is impossible. And that’s what I learned from these documentaries. They showcase different scenarios that a true leader would have, and survived all of it as they have their reputations, investment, hardworks and life on it. They sacrifice blood and sweat to every detail of their work. They planned an unimaginable work of art and made their dreams a reality.

And that a crazy and almost impossible idea will be known and wondered by people around the world. Truly they are admirable and inspirations for everyone to see how they weave their path for the future. They taught everyone who watched it that to be able to become a good manager and leader one must plan, manage, organize, suffer and solved the different obstacles they faced head high. With diligence, sacrifice and loyalty we can have success. So we must apply what they taught us not just in engineering but in any field that we embark our paths on because it is not just a lesson of the movie, it’s a lesson of the life.

Industry in Detroit custom essay help: custom essay help

Detroit has always been the quintessential industrial city; it has an extremely volatile economic timeline that has shown highs and lows at an astronomical level over the past century. This literature review is researching Detroit’s broad economic spectrum and the industrial drivers which resulted in its instability. ‘Detroit turned out to be heaven, but it also turned out to be hell’. (Marvin Gaye) 2. 0 History of Detroit As this literature review is focused mostly on the narcotics and motor industries within Detroit, the time period it is focused on is primarily post 1900.

Detroit has a particular need to understand the past, as the city has developed to a current state that is widely considered to be negative”. (Rudary, 2008) According to Scot M. Bernstein, Detroit had the reputation of being a rowdy river town long before the advent of modern organised crime. ‘Under French, British, and, finally, American rule, smuggling, gambling, brothels and other forms of vice flourished, and with the birth of the automobile industry the city of Detroit grew rapidly. (Bernstein, 2006) The cities rapid growth and reliance on the automotive industry has meant that Detroit is always severely affected by changes in the industry itself.

For example America’s energy crisis in 1979 opened people’s eyes to the fact that the large American gas guzzlers where becoming obsolete compared to the more fuel efficient Japanese counterparts, this realisation was the beginning of the end for the kingpins of the motor city. (Temple, 2010) 3. 0 The rise of Detroit “Yes Detroit is enjoying its finest hour, there is a renaissance, a rebirth in the city.

There’s newness in Detroit. I am honoured to be serving as Mayor at this most eventful and productive time in Detroit’s history and I’m honoured to be a participant in the Detroit story. ” (Jerome Cavanagh, 1965) 3. 1 Motor Industry By shortly into the twentieth century, Detroit presented itself to the world as, according to historian Olivier Zunz, a “total industrial landscape. ” The status of Detroit as a small centre of production transformed overnight, when early one June morning in 1896 Henry Ford’s “quadricycle” rolled down Grand River Avenue for the first time.

This lead to the invasion of the automobile factories, and the industrial boom that followed transformed Detroit, helping cement the city’s role as a “world-class industrial center. ” The automobile defined Detroit, creating an image of the “Motor City” that will always make Detroit synonymous with American cars. Workers poured into the city as Henry Ford developed the assembly line in 1913, and intensified even further with the introduction of the $5 a day workday in 1914 – more than twice what any worker had been paid before. Sen, 2006)

In the immediate post World War II era, the auto industry was seen as both a pillar and a beneficiary of American growth and economic achievement. General Motors Chairman Charles Wilson proclaimed in the 1950s ‘what’s good for the country is good for general motors and vice-versa’ more than half the automobiles sold in the US were then GM. (Klepper, 2002) In its first fifteen years the U. S. automobile industry was characterised by a great influx of workers and the number of firms exceeded 200.

Despite robust growth in the market for automobiles, the industry subsequently sustained a prolonged shakeout in the number of producers and evolved to be an oligopoly dominated by three firms, GM, Chrysler and Ford. The industry also evolved to be heavily concentrated around Detroit, Michigan between 1900 and 1930; Detroit experienced nearly unparalleled growth for a large city, growing six-fold from a population of 305,000 to 1,837,000.

There was no secret formula behind this growth, it was fuelled by the concentration around Detroit of the automobile industry, which by 1929 was the largest industry in the U. S. Davis, 1988). 3. 2 Wartime Detroit By the early 1940s, Detroit had reached its “industrial zenith,” a national leader in progressing economically beyond the crippling losses suffered during the Great Depression. (Sugrue, 1996) Soon, however, the United States entered World War II. Following the call of the Michigan National Guard into service, Detroit men began registering for the draft; by the end of the war, over 200,000 Detroiters had served the country in the armed forces. The needs of the nation turned from automobiles to planes, tanks, jeeps, and other war paraphernalia.

Having already established an infrastructure for ass production over the previous forty years, Detroit was in the unique position of being able to quickly convert its plants and factories to producing these war machines in mass quantities, earning the city the nickname “The Arsenal of Democracy. ” By 1944, Detroit had been awarded almost $13 billion in war contracts, with more to come.

The Fall of Detroit “We as a nation seem to be self-destructing-environmentally, economically and culturally. Detroit is just doing it more quickly and more wilfully”, Marvin Krueger in a letter to the New York Times. 4. 1 Narcotics Industry When a crack-head comes to you and his woman is on his back, his babies don’t have no Pampers, he hasn’t eaten in two days, and he’s about to spend his last five dollars on crack, you have to make him feel good about spending his money. ”, Larry chambers’ alleged advice to a door man at one of his crack houses.

According to the DEA by 1988 crack had replace heroin as the “greatest problem in Detroit” The power of the narcotics industry within Detroit is hard to quantify accurately as any black market activity is but the affects of the crack epidemic within the city as well as across the United States is undeniable.

The DEA’s budget rose from $362. 4 million to $769. 2 million between 1985 and 1990. (DEA) Paediatricians at Hutzel Hospital, one of the largest obstetric facilities in the metropolitan area, have pioneered the testing of meconium (the faecal discharge of a newborn) to detect maternal drug use during pregnancy. Of a sample of 1000 infants born at Hutzel, 42% showed traces of at least one of the drugs tested for (cocaine, heroin or other opiates, cannabis). Cocaine was found in 21%, opiates in 24%, and cannabis in 12%.

All told 38% had been exposed to either cocaine or opiates. (Haaga, Scott & Hawes-Dawson, 1992) At dinner recently with two friends, the conversation turned to our respective, black middle-class families and how each had been battered by the rock cocaine epidemic: How after the initial shock of learning of a brother or sister’s addiction, more nightmares began of having to watch their personality disintegrate under the influence of the drug and their family collapse, with the kids bearing the brunt of the catastrophe. (Jervey Tervalon, 1995) 4. 3 Race War

The need for workers brought on another influx of workers from around the country, a movement known as the start of the “Second Great Migration”. From 1940 to 1943, this included more than 50,000 blacks from the South, and 200,000 whites from the Appalachian states, many so called “hillbillies” with racial prejudices. (Sen, 2006) This, exacerbated by a poor housing situation which had become intolerable by 1941, helped bring about a clash in what had previously been a relatively harmonic racial mix. The darkest day for Detroit’s racial unrest came in late July 1967 when a brutal riot swept the streets of the city.

On July 23rd during a summer heat wave the Detroit police department decided to raid an illegal after hours saloon on 12th street which was in the heart of one of Detroit’s largest black communities. These raids were fairly regular occurrences but they would generally involve the arrests of a hand full of people, being the owners and staff, on this night in question the decision was made to detain all people within the premises on the street outside until reinforcements could arrive. This meant holding a crowd of 85 drunk and angry people in the uncomfortable heat.

As unrest spread throughout the crowd and allegations of police brutality were being made it soon got out of hand. A son of one of the owners of the establishment William Scott II threw a bottle at a police officer and shouted “Get your God damn sticks and bottles and start hurtin’ baby! ” By 08:00am a crowd of over 3,000 had started rioting a looting, they were finally stopped by a force of nearly seventeen law enforcement officers after causing $36 million worth of damage to insured property and a loss of 43 lives.

Taking all of the aforementioned information into account it is easy to understand the affects that the automotive and narcotic industries have played on Detroit over the past century and quarter century respectively. Essentially Detroit seems to have problems with over reliance; whether it is the motor industry which the city itself relied on for economic strength or the drugs which have fuelled so many of the inhabitant’s addictions. Jerry Herron sums up Detroit ell when he says, “Detroit is the most representative city in America.

Detroit used to stand for success and now it stands for failure. In that sense, the city is not just a physical location; it is also a project, a projection of imaginary fears and desires. This is a place where bad times get sent to make them belong to somebody else. ”(Herron, 1993) It is our societies need for industry that has made Detroit this fickle projection of the times we live in.

Equity vs Debt Market essay help for free: essay help for free

This project is about the comparison. This project also helps to understand which market is best the equity or the debt market by correlating the debt and equity. The market in which shares are issued and traded, either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets. Also known as the stock market, it is one of the most vital areas of a market economy because it gives companies access to capital and investors a slice of ownership in a company with the potential to realize gains based on its future performance.

This market can be split into two main sectors: the primary and secondary market. The primary market is where new issues are first offered. Any subsequent trading takes place in the secondary market.  The environment in which the issuance and trading of debt securities occurs. The bond market primarily includes government-issued securities and corporate debt securities, and facilitates the transfer of capital from savers to the issuers or organizations requiring capital for government projects, business expansions and ongoing operations.

The market in which shares are issued and traded, either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets. Also known as the stock market, it is one of the most vital areas of a market economy because it gives companies access to capital and investors a slice of ownership in a company with the potential to realize gains based on its future performance. This market can be split into two main sectors: the primary and secondary market. The primary market is where new issues are first offered. Any subsequent trading takes place in the secondary market.

A stock market or equity market is a public entity (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) for the trading of company stock(shares) and derivatives at an agreed price; these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. The value of the derivatives market, because it is stated in terms of notional values, cannot be directly compared to a stock or a fixed income security, which traditionally refers to an actual value.

Moreover, the vast majority of derivatives ‘cancel’ each other out (i. e. , a derivative ‘bet’ on an event occurring is offset by a comparable derivative ‘bet’ on the event not occurring). Many such relatively illiquid securities are valued as marked to model, rather than an actual market price. The stocks are listed and traded on stock exchanges which are entities of a corporation or mutual organization specialized in the business of bringing buyers and sellers of the organizations to a listing of stocks and securities together.

The largest stock market in the United States, by market capitalization, is the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). In Canada, the largest stock market is the Toronto Stock Exchange. Major European examples of stock exchanges include the Exchange, London, Paris Bourse, and the Deutsche Borse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange). In Africa, examples include Nigerian Stock Exchange, JSE Limited, etc. Asian examples include the Singapore Exchange, the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Shanghai Stock Exchange, and the Bombay Stock Exchange.

In Latin America, there are such exchanges as the BM&F Bo Vespa and the BMV. Market participants include individual retail investors, institutional investors such as mutual funds, banks, insurance companies and hedge funds, and also publicly traded corporations trading in their own shares. Some studies have suggested that institutional investors and corporations trading in their own shares generally receive higher risk-adjusted returns than retail investors.

The state of the current world environment is causing a more conservative investment attitude, which was clearly a plus for developed markets last month as investors turned defensive and digested strong corporate earnings, some signs of recovering activity. Strong export demand from Asia and the United sates also helped boost manufacturing and hiring in number of developed countries. In addition, as fuel and food prices surged and threatened to undermine growth, inflationary concerns and uncertainty about the global economic outlook continued, boosting gold prices and hurting the US dollar.

The impact of rising fuel and food price has helped send core US inflation to a good level for US equities (the Federal Reserve said that in wont raise rate anytime soon), while inflation in some large emerging markets remained well above central bank target levels and in other developed market was somewhat subdued. Some investors feared that near-term rate increases from central banks around the world including in Europe, china and Brazil, as well as more increase expected later this year, could hurt corporate profit growth.

German equities switched gears again and rallied in April, rising about 11% in US dollars and outperforming the broader global market. Stronger-than-expected corporate earnings and a number of positive economic reports helped boost shares. In economic news, German unemployment fell below 3 million for the first time in almost 19 years (in adjusted term) in April as German companies hired to meet strong export demand, and German factory orders increased by 2. 4% month-over-month in February, surprising economist who predicted a 0. 5% increase.

Positive sentiment outweighed higher oil prices, continuing European sovereign debt problem and weaker-than- expected April investor confidence data. In April, the euro appreciated about 4. 4% versus the US dollar. Looking ahead, we maintain a positive outlook for Germany, which looks like a bargain compared to historical prices and prices in other developed markets. United Kingdom: Equities in the Kingdom reversed course again in April, rising 7% in US dollars and outperforming the broader market, as investors focused on signs of a recovering economy.

UK consumer confidence roe in March from a record low in February amid more optimism about the outlook for the economy. In other economic news, UK GDP grew 0. 5% quarter-over quarter, matching the median forecast and erasing the concentration of the previous three months. Services, which expanded 0. 9%, led the return to growth. Still, UK manufacturing unexpectedly stalled in February. As inflation slowed to 4% in March from 4. 4% in the previous month, the Bank of England’s target and outpacing wage growth, spurring an economic recovery took priority for the bank over the threat of rising prices.

In April, the pound appreciated 3. 9% versus the US dollar. Looking ahead, our outlook for the United Kingdom remains neutral. Switzerland Swiss equities reversed course again in April and rallied, finishing up 9. 5% in US dollars and outperforming the broader global market. Strong earnings, including from Swiss lender UBS, and merger and acquisition news helped boost shares as did signs the Swiss economy is recovering, thanks to low unemployment and strong export demand.

In local economic news, Swiss export rose in the first quarter on demand from Asia and the United States and unemployment in March hit the lowest level in nearly two years as companies hired to meet the global demand. The indicator, which gauges the economists who had expected a decline and suggesting the economy, is recovering. Swiss inflation accelerated more than economists forecasted in March to the fastest pace in almost a year, and April, the Swiss franc appreciated nearly 5. 1% versus the US dollars.

The Swiss market, which is made up of many defensive plays such as pharmaceuticals, may also have benefited from investor uncertainty and belief that the market was undervalued. We hold a neutral view of Switzerland. CANADA The Canadian market rose slightly in April, finishing up nearly 1. 2% in US dollars and underperforming the broader global market. Canada’s economy unexpectedly shrank in February following four months of expansion, as production dropped at factories and wholesalers. GDP output fell 0. % versus economist’s expectation of change.

Canada’s annual inflation rate also accelerated in March to 3. 3%, the fastest pace in 2-years and exceeding all forecasts, which added pressure on the bank of Canada to raise rates. Earlier in the month, the bank had left its target interest rate unchanged at 1%, saying a strong currency was bigger concern than inflationary pressures. The Canadian dollar appreciated nearly 2. 5% versus the US dollar in April. Looking forward, we hold a neutral outlook of Canada.

We like emerging markets longer terms, with inflationary concern taking center stage in April, we prefer developed to emerging market in the short term. BRAZIL Brazilian equities underperformed the broader global market in April, finishing down nearly 0. 7% in US dollars. Investors in Brazil shrugged off rising commodity prices and upbeat earnings as inflationary concern continued to weigh on shares. Brazil’s central bank slowed down its pace of rate increases, raising its selic rate by 25 bps to 12%, because of uncertainty over the global recovery and the local slowdown.

The move surprised analysts who had expected the bank to maintain the 50 bps pace of the previous two meetings and signaled that the bank may keep rising borrowing costs for a longer period of time than previously expected to guarantee inflation returns to it 4. 5% target in 2012. Brazil’s inflation rate rose to the highest level since November 2008- with consumer prices up 6. 44% in the years through mid April –as food and fuel prices surged. A record volume of imports in March also helped inflation to accelerate and the Brazilian real to appreciate 3. % against the US dollar.

While we believe there is much to encourage favor for Brazilian equities long term, including excellent demographic, reasonable valuation, and strong independent central bank, we have decided to avoid a formal overweight view due to short-term inflation concerns. We would prefer to see either an actual drop in inflation from the current level or a drop in valuations relative to world markets before favoring an overweight to Brazilian stocks. For now, we remain neutral and wait for a better entry point. Russia

Russian equities finished nearly flat in April as measured in US dollars, underperforming the broader market. While higher oil prices continued to help the country’s energy sector, inflationary concern weighed on shares. With inflation above the central bank’s target since October, thanks to rising fuel and food prices, the bank unexpectedly increased its benchmark rate 25 bps to 8. 25%, the second increases this year as the bank tries to quell inflation. The Russian economy grew 4% last year, beating economists’ forecasts, after a 7. 8% contraction in 2009, and is forecast to expand 4. 2% this year.

Amid the inflationary concerns, the ruble appreciated 3. 7% versus the US dollar. Still, we maintain a positive tactical outlook for Russia relative to other emerging markets. Russia is a natural beneficiary of the spike n crude prices and appears to be the one emerging market that is significantly undervalued. Still, a lack of corporate governance and transparency prevents us from recommending Russia over the long term. Portugal Agreed in early May to a 78 billion euro bailout by the European Union and the international monetary fund, the third euro zone country to do after Greece and Ireland.

In Finland, the euro-skeptic True Finns party won 19% of the votes in the national election. The party opposes additional funding to the European Financial stability Facility, which is backed by the six AAA- rated euro zone countries. Currently, it looks like Portugal’s bailout will get parliamentary approval in Finland.  The Indian Equity Market is more popularly known as the Indian Stock Market. The Indian equity market has become the third biggest after China and Hong Kong in the Asian region. According to the latest report by ADB, it has a market capitalization of nearly $600 billion.

As of March 2009, the market capitalization was around $598. 3 billion (Rs 30. 13 lakh crore) which is one-tenth of the combined valuation of the Asia region. The market was slow since early 2007 and continued till the first quarter of 2009. A stock exchange has been defined by the Securities Contract (Regulation) Act, 1956 as an organization, association or body of individuals established for regulating, and controlling of securities. The Indian equity market depends on three factors – * Funding into equity from all over the world * Corporate houses performance * Monsoons

The stock market in India does business with two types of fund namely private equity fund and venture capital fund. It also deals in transactions which are based on the two major indices – Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and National Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (NSE). The market also includes the debt market which is controlled by wholesale dealers, primary dealers and banks. The equity indexes are allied to countries beyond the border as common calamities affect markets. E. g. Indian and Bangladesh stock markets are affected by monsoons. The equity market is also affected through trade integration policy.

The country has advanced both in foreign institutional investment (FII) and trade integration since 1995. This is a very attractive field for making profit for medium and long term investors, short-term swing and position traders and very intra day traders. The Indian market has 22 stock exchanges. The larger companies are enlisted with BSE and NSE. The smaller and medium companies are listed with OTCEI (Over The counter Exchange of India). The functions of the Equity Market in India are supervised by SEBI (Securities Exchange Board of India).

History of Indian Equity Market The history of the Indian equity market goes back to the 18th century when securities of the East India Company were traded. Till the end of the 19th century, the trading of securities was unorganized and the main trading centers were Kolkata Mumbai.  The environment in which the issuance and trading of debt securities occurs. The bond market primarily includes government-issued securities and corporate debt securities, and facilitates the transfer of capital from savers to the issuers or organizations requiring capital for government projects, business expansions and ongoing operations.

Most trading in the bond market occurs over-the-counter, through organized electronic trading networks, and is composed of the primary market (through which debt securities are issued and sold by borrowers to lenders) and the secondary market (through which investors buy and sell previously issued debt securities amongst themselves). Although the stock market often commands more media attention, the bond market is actually many times bigger and is vital to the ongoing operation of the public and private sector.

The bond market (also known as the credit, or fixed income market) is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the Secondary market, usually in the form of bonds. The primary goal of the bond market is to provide a mechanism for long term funding of public and private expenditures.

Sociology Term Paper essay help: essay help

Resocialization refers to a social process through which an individual acquires new norms and picks up a new role in a new social setting. Discuss how an organization or social group carries out resocialization. What are the distinctive features of resocialization? Not all organizations or groups are able to resocialize their members successfully. Can individuals retain their autonomy in the face of social pressure exerted by their organizations or groups?

How do they manage to do that? Resocialization, as stated in the topic, is a social process through which an individual learns new norms, cultures and values, which in most occasions, though not necessarily, are contrary to the original norms that the individual possesses. In other words, resocialization is the modification of the ‘self’ idea, which helps transit one’s role from a social group to another social group. In this essay, I would like to identify how different organizations carry out resocialization and investigate its distinctive features.

Next, I would discuss the ways individuals adopt to retain, or even protect the idea of ‘original self’. The distinctive feature of resocialization is that it is divided into 2 steps. The 1st step is role dispossession, which means the abandonment of the old norms and values. The 2nd step is the role establishment, the introduction of new values and norms. These 2 steps will be the backbone of the coming discussion. Resocialization can be classified into 2 types. One is voluntary, and another is involuntary.

Some of the examples of voluntary resocialization are the transitions between life stages, and the transitions of career, which are relatively mild. The intensive type is usually adopted in prisons or mental hospitals, which may link to some humiliation and mortification. Therefore, they are rather intense in nature. Although their approaches are somewhat different, the key to resocialization remains the same. While voluntary resocialization may only modify one’s view and actions with mild adjustment, the involuntary resocialization may even isrupt the core value of one and a complete transformation may be resulted. As stated above, the 1st step to resocialization is role dispossession. (Goffman, 1968) To carry out this, the removal of identity and role of the previous social group is necessary. For mild one, taking schooling as an example, the change of uniform will be a part of such process. The change of uniform during the transition from the primary school to the secondary school reminds one’s change in his identity. The shield of the school on the uniform also plays the role of this reminder.

To give an example of the transition of career, one may consider the idea of transiting from an investment bank, which is a private company, to a government institution, which is, as described, run by the government. In investment banks, the first language is mostly English instead of the mother language in which the investment banks locate. However, once a worker resigns and get to the government institution, the mother language will become dominant and his routine of speaking English will be stripped off. This is a typical example of role dispossession with the abandonment of an international language which is commonly used before.

In some total institutions, which are institutions being cut off from the outside world and under total control by officials who run them, some intense methods such as the removal of personal possessions and no matter physical or mental, and the withdrawal of the privilege of having visitors. (Goffman, 1968) In the Police College, one may find that the junior are called by his assigned number, but not his full name. At the same time, the junior are required to get hair cut which is consistent with other junior. In other words, it is personal defacement. Goffman, 1968)

In prisons, the property dispossessions are reinforced by not allowing lockers. (Goffman, 1968) All these are adopted to remove one’s identity from its previous social group. The 2nd step is the role establishment. This step is generally done through a series of rewards and punishments. (Wikipedia: Resocialization) Some other collective tactics such as initiation of campaigns are also commonly used for resocializing new employees from the previous career to the new working environment of a completely new career.

For example, Pingan Securities (Group) Company Limited inputs the elements of ‘War Cry’ into its daily morning assembly. Every time before their assembly, they need to shout a war cry, with the aim of giving the employees the sense of belonging to the company. This type of tactics is sequential and collective, and is commonly adopted in Chinese enterprises. The initiation of rewards and punishments is to provide one with the incentives to do and not to do something.

Therefore, by rewarding the one who satisfies the core values and norms during resocialization and punishing the one who remains its previous values, the inmate would have the incentive to follow the norms and values of the social group. For instance, to gain the privilege of having a phone call or reading a book, prisoners are required to follow the rules and complete the tasks assigned by the authority. Such rewards usually generate a high level of conformity among prisoners. A typical example of establishing one’s social role in the social group through punishment is physical contamination.

In some total institutions, inmates are obliged to take oral or intravenous medications, whether desired or not, and to eat his food, however unpalatable. If the inmate refuses, forced feeding is required. (Goffman, 1981) The purpose of doing so is to establish a social relationship perceptually through contaminative exposure from the same group. From the whole process of resocialization, one may see some features concerning involuntary resocialization, which I would like to use Hall Orientation in HKU as example. First, collective behaviours are demonstrated.

No individual behaviours are appreciated, though there may be secondary adjustments, which will be discussed later. During the Hall Orientation, all freshmen are required to partake in tasks, shouting cheers, eat and rest according to the decision of the Organizing Committee (OC), which is unified. No exception is granted. Severe physical or mental punishments such as push-ups and being scolded in front of the freshmen are imposed if there are any individual actions which are regarded as selfish, such as sitting behind without contribution in the group.

Such an action is to undercut individuality and produce the sense of belonging to the new social group. It reminds the inmates that they belong to this social group by demanding them to contribute. Another feature is that dignity is disregarded. One of the most heard features in the HKU Hall Orientation is that there is a session called Mass Orientation, in which the freshmen are demanded to stand in front of all the other freshmen and OC and answer the questions raised by the OC. If the OC are not satisfied with the answers, they may scold, or even insult them with mortification.

Symbolic implications are incompatible with his conception of self. This is a violation of one’s informational preserve regarding self. (Goffman, 1968) The purpose of this is to make inmates evaluate, or even challenge himself from his core values and norms, which is first step to disrupt his concept of ‘self’. Lastly, it is inescapable and out of the desires of inmates. Freshmen are not allowed to leave during the Hall Orientation except extremely special circumstances such as sickness.

Freshmen have no choices but have to follow what the OC say; otherwise their integrity and physical fitness will be challenged through a series of punishments such as insults and push-ups. The purpose of such is role dispossession. Not allowing any escape is meant to ensure a deep initial break with past roles and effective new role establishment. (Goffman, 1968) And overlooking the inmates’ desire is to challenge their core values and norms. However, one should note that resocialization is not necessarily successful.

One may retain his autonomy even there is social pressure. According to Goffman, the idea of secondary adjustment not only allows the inmates to better integrate into the social group it tends to belong, but also helps inmates retain himself as an individual, but not just a piece in the group. (Goffman, 1981) To begin with secondary adjustment, one should realize that primary adjustment is the original resocialization process adopted by the social group the inmates need to integrate into.

Secondary adjustment is defined as any habitual arrangement by which a member of an organization employs unauthorized means, or obtains unauthorized ends, or both, thus getting around the organization’s assumptions as to what he should do and get and hence what he should be. (Goffman, 1981) To simplify, the organization allows a certain degree of freedom during the whole resocialization process. Instead of strictly forbidding property possession, the mental patient may wear large-sized clothes and store part of their lunch in their pockets as mid-night snacks.

Some tabooed activities are allowed in some bounded physical spaces where restrictions are markedly reduced, though with some degree of security. To use HKU Hall Orientation as an example, the OC will relax its restrictions and requirements if freshmen do not show much progress in completing the tasks. Taboos like speaking foul language or insulting OC, which is forbidden during the whole orientation, can be found by OC at the designated resting place, while no punishments are imposed. Freshmen may leave for home in case if there is real emergency.

The reasoning behind these is that the model of socialization is modified to be more flexible. Instead of having the new social group defining the whole ‘self’, certain complication is granted and the inmate is defined as a stance-taking entity, a something that stands between the identification with the new social group it tends to belong and the opposition to it. Flexibility of striking a balance between the original ‘self’ and the role in the social group is appreciated. (Goffman, 1981) One should admit that everyone has many roles in the society as the society is getting more complex nowadays.

As a university student, one can be an executive committee member of a student society, a loyal hall mate, the only son in the family, and a secondary school student part-time tutor at the same time. One cannot completely integrate into any of the roles; otherwise the status of selflessness is the ultimate end. Therefore, roles are arranged along a hierarchy of salience from peripheral roles to hose that merge with the self. (Adler, P. , Adler, P. A. , 2010) Therefore, some roles are more salient to the ‘real self’. Since ranking of roles is unique among all inmates, one may retain his autonomy and uniqueness.

Of course, the back-up from the flexibility of resocialization is needed. From a wider perspective, resocialization is unavoidable during one’s life. With the society getting more complex than before, resocialization is more frequent among social groups. One should be aware of the ‘prisonization’ which causes difficulty in integrating into other social groups while being resocialized in any particular social group. By ranking the social groups we belong to at the same instance, together with the secondary adjustment during resocialization, one may retain his autonomy in the face of social pressure.

Law and the Coporation homework essay help: homework essay help

The case analyses the legal implication made with regard to company act and corporate law. 2. Definition of term The Company’s Act does not define a promoter thus making it an obligation of a company to proof beyond reasonable doubt that indeed an individual (Felix) acted as its promoter (McGaughey, 2006, p. 1; The University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1906, p. 66). However, based on lawsuit Whaley Bridge Printing Co v Green [1879] the court observed that ‘promoter’ was more of a business term than law term which was used to mean all the business transactions which assisted in company formation (The University of

Pennsylvania Law Review 1906, p. 66; Bourne & Pillans1999, p. 25). Additionally, in the lawsuit Emma Silver Mining Company v. Lewis [1879], a promoter was defined as “the idea of exertion for purpose of getting up and starting a company” (The University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1906, p. 66). The implication made on this two occasions is that a promoter aids in a company start up by providing services like purchase of a property on behalf of a company.

The definition and role of a promoter can also be found in Twycross v. rant (1877) case where Cockburn J said that a promoter carries a certain project during the initial formation of a company until that particular assigned purpose is accomplished (Bourne & Pillans1999, P. 25). 3. Case analysis Felix entered into a contact with a company as a promoter to provide land. As a company’s promoter, Felix “owes fiduciary duties to the company” (Bourne 1998, p. 26). The implication made is that Felix was liable for the actions he did as described in s. 52 of the Financial Services Act 1986 as well as at Regulation 13 of the Public Offers Securities Regulations 1995 (Bourne & Pillans1999, p. 25).

From this basis, it can be argued that Felix carried his duties as a promoter as he provided the required land. However, he sold the land he had bought for an exorbitant profit of ? 200,000. Felix made a huge profit at the expense of the company which means that Felix failed to carry his fiduciary duties as a promoter.

As required, a promoter is expected to disclose any profit made after a transaction has taken place (Bourne & Pillans1999, P. 5) which Felix failed to oblige to. He could have made the disclosure to potential and actual shareholders as it was in the case of Salmon v A. salmon & Co Ltd (1897) and also in the Lagunas Nitrate Company v Lagumas Syndicate (1899) case (Bourne1998, 26). In both cases, the profit was disclosed to the shareholders. Alternatively, Felix could have made the disclosure to the board of directors as it was in the case of Erlanger v New Sombrero phosphate (1878) (Goulding 1998, p. 37).

The company had faith and trust in Felix, but he dishonestly and secretly issued a high price prospectus while knowing the real price of the land. This action can be referenced in Gluckstein v Barnes (1900) case where Lord MacNaghten said that the case was transacted dishonestly and secretly hence a breach of duty by the promoter. Felix deliberately planned to misappropriate company’s funds for his personal gains which is legally offensive.

As noted in the case, Felix as a promoter failed to disclose the potential profit and his knowledge of the land. Goulding (1998, p. 5) observe that in the Erlanger v New Sombrero phosphate (1878) case, Lord O’Hagan concluded that a promoter is supposed to disclose a transaction and accept their fully knowledge of the property under sale instead of making the company and board of directors’ belief the property belonged to another party and not the promoter. The shareholders of the company had no idea of disclosure of the property under sale.

Breach of promoter’s duty Under the fiduciary duties, a promoter is not required to engage in a deal where profit would be made secretly at the expense of the company’s shareholders innocence and trust (Goulding 1998, p. 4).

Additionally, a promoter should not engage in actions which may defraud a company under question by actively concealing transactions relative to the company’s existence. If either of the above is carried by the promoter in the course of business transactions, then a breach of duty occurs. The promoter has a legal duty to disclose transactions and not to secretly make profits without a company’s consent or disclosure to independent board of directors or active and potential shareholders. Felix failed to adhere to either of these hence misappropriating funds at the expense of the company which was unethical.

Legally, Felix was fraudulent as he failed to fulfill his fiduciary duties as a promoter since he acted dishonestly and secretly hence breach of duty. 5. Damages and Remedy When an incident involves breach of duty by a promoter who makes secret profits, a company normally takes a legal action which seeks damages. However, under certain circumstances, a company may be required to enter into a rescission. A rescission implies that the promoter and the company are put together in a contract to the positions the two were before the contact was entered in the first place.

Nonetheless, “restitutio in intergrum’ has to be possible” (Goulding 1998, p. 36) for a recession to take place. However, in cases where rescission does not hold, the recovery of the secret profits by the company can only be possible if the profits were made after the promoter entered into the contract (Bourne & Pillans1999, P. 28). When a promoter breaches fiduciary duties, a company may wish to keep the property and recover the profits incurred. In thi case, the company may seek a legal action that would entitle them full recovery of the profit made.

In the lawsuit Gluckstein v Barnes (1990) similar reward was awarded to the plaintiff (Goulding 1998, p. 37). In the case of Re Leeds and Hanley Theatre of Varieties Ltd (1902) the plaintiff was awarded as a result of property overvaluation (Bourne 1998, p. 27). The same damages could be awarded to the company. The company can sue Felix to return the profit as it was the case of Henderson v Huntingdom Copper and Suphur Co (1877) since a company is not required to have suffered pecuniary loss as a result to be compensated (Bourne 1998, p. 27).

Lastly, the amount of the remedy may not be possible to determine where the property was purchased before the contract was entered and the promoter failed to disclose the profits. In such occasions, recession may be advisable. In summary, Felix failed to honour fiduciary duties and acted secretly and dishonestly.

As a result, secret profits were made without full disclosure to either the shareholders or the company directors. Instead, Felix misappropriated funds at the expense of a company’s shareholders. The action by the promoter led to breach of contract duties. Legally, the damages can be compensated through rescission, full recovery of the profits or keeping the property and claiming damages resulting from the acquisition of property.

Murabaha research essay help: research essay help

Bai-Murabaha may be defined as a contract between a Buyer and a Seller under which the Seller sells certain specific goods permissible under Islamic Shariah and the Law of the land to the Buyer at a cost plus agreed profit payable in cash or on any fixed future date in lump sum or by instalments. The profit marked-up may be fixed in lump sum or in percentage of the cost price of the goods.

In respect of dealing parties Bai-Murabaha may be of two types. 2. 01Ordinary Bai-Murabaha If there are only two parties, the seller and the buyer, where the seller as an ordinary trader purchases the goods from the market without depending on any order and promise to buy the same from him and sells those to a buyer for cost plus profit, then the sale is called Ordinary Bai-Murabaha. 2. 02Bai-Murabaha on Order and Promise

If there are three parties, the buyer, the seller and the Bank as an intermediary trader between the buyer and the seller, where the Bank upon receipt of order from the buyer with specification and a prior outstanding promise to buy the goods from the Bank, purchases the ordered goods and sells those to the ordering buyer at a cost plus agreed profit, the sale is called “Bai-Murabaha on Order or Promise”, generally known as Murabaha.

This Murabaha upon order and promise is generally used by the Islami Banks, which undertake the purchase of commodities according to the specification requested by the Clients and sale on Bai-Murabaha to the one who ordered for the goods and promised to buy those for its cost price plus a marked-up profit agreed upon previously by the two parties, the Bank and the Client. In this Bank, Bai-Murabaha is treated as a contract between the Bank and the Client under which the Bank purchases the specified goods as per order and specification of the Client and sells those to the ordering Client at a cost plus agreed upon profit payable within a fixed future date in lump sum or by fixed instalments.

Thus it is a sale of goods on profit by which ownership of the goods is transferred by the Bank to the Client but the payment of the sale price (cost plus profit) by the Client is deferred for a fixed period. It may be noted here that, in case of Bai-Muajjal and Bai-Murabaha, Islamic Bank is a financier to the Client not in the sense that the Bank finances the purchase of goods by the Client, rather it is a financier by deferring the receipt of sale price of the goods sold by the Bank to the Client.

If the Bank does not purchase the goods or does not make any purchase agreement with seller, but only makes payment of any goods directly purchased and received by the Client from the seller under Bai-Muajjal/Bai-Murabaha Agreement, that will be a remittance of the amount on behalf of the Client, which shall be nothing but a loan to him and any profit on this amount shall be nothing but Interest (Riba).

Therefore, purchase of goods by the Bank should be for and on behalf of the Bank and the payment of price of goods by the Bank must be made for and on behalf of the Bank. If in any way the payment of price of goods is turned into a payment for and on behalf of the Client or it is paid to the Client any profit on it will be Riba.

It is permissible for the Client to offer an order to purchase by the Bank particular goods deciding its specification and committing himself to buy the same from the Bank on Murabaha, i. . cost plus agreed upon profit. 3. 02It is permissible to make the promise binding upon the Client to purchase from the Bank, that is, he is to either satisfy the promise or to indemnify the damages caused by breaking the promise without excuse. 3. 03It is permissible to take cash/collateral security to guarantee the implementation of the promise or to indemnify the damages. 3. 04It is also permissible to document the debt resulting from Bai-Murabaha by a Guarantor, or a mortgage, or both like any other debt.

Mortgage/ Guarantee/ Cash Security may be obtained prior to the signing of the Agreement or at the time of signing the Agreement. 3. 05Stock and availability of goods is a basic condition for signing a Bai-Murabaha Agreement. Therefore, the Bank must purchase the goods as per specification of the Client to acquire ownership of the same before signing the Bai-Murabaha agreement with the Client.

After purchase of goods the Bank must bear the risk of goods until those are actually sold and delivered to the Client, i. e. after purchase of the goods by the Bank and before selling of those on Bai-Murabaha to the Client buyer, the Bank shall bear the consequences of any damages or defects, unless there is an agreement with the Client releasing the Bank of the defects, that means, if the goods are damaged, Bank is liable, if the goods are defective, (a defect that is not included in the release) the Bank bears the responsibility.

The Bank must deliver the specified Goods to the Client on specified date and at specified place of delivery as per Contract. 3. 8The Bank shall sell the goods at a higher price (Cost + Profit) to earn profit.

The cost of goods sold and profit mark-up therewith shall separately and clearly be mentioned in the Bai-Murabaha Agreement. The profit mark-up may be mentioned in lump sum or in percentage of the purchase/cost price of the goods. But, under no circumstances, the percentage of the profit shall have any relation with time or expressed in relation with time, such as per month, per annum etc. 3. 09The price once fixed as per agreement and deferred cannot be further increased. 3. 0It is permissible for the Bank to authorise any third party to buy and receive the goods on Bank’s behalf. The authorisation must be in a separate contract.

Request potential Client to open an Al-Wadia Current Account. Let him maintain the Current Account satisfactorily for a reasonable period. (This will generally mean six months). 4. 02Hold preliminary discussion with the prospective Client regarding his Investment needs and business experience. 4. 03Brief him on the salient features of “Bai-Murabaha” Mode of Investment.

Apprise, in particular, the usual terms and conditions under which the Bank makes such Investment. 4. 04Look to the past performance of the Client. Check-up Head Office Current Investment Policy and Branch’s track record of Bai-Murabaha Investment of the item(s). 4. 05If the Proposal is found suitable, advise the Client to submit formal Application (F-167A -as per specimen at page 34). If not found suitable, regret politely.

Pride and Prejudice essay help cheap: essay help cheap

In the novel of Pride and Prejudice written by Jane Austen, the title of the novel itself bears significance to the themes pride and prejudice. Pride is defined as a feeling of honour and self-respect, satisfaction or pleasure taken in one’s own or another’s success or achievements (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000), while, prejudice is defined as the act or state of holding unreasonable inflexible judgments or convictions especially towards other people (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000).

In the novel of Pride and Prejudice, both themes are clearly signified through the character traits of the characters . For example, in the beginning of the novel, after a ball, Mr. Darcy said ‘she is tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me’ to Mr. Bingley when they talking about Elizabeth Bennet. This situation gives the readers an imagery of Mr. Darcy feeling arrogance as he comes from a family of high status. The introduction of the story already indicates the idea of pride which is a theme in this novel.

The theme of pride which defined as feeling of honour and self-respect surely exemplified through the plot of the novel. As said in the words of Mary Bennet at the beginning of the novel, ‘human nature is particularly prone to pride’ (volume 1, chapter 5) (Austen, Jane, 1775–1817). In my opinion, the words of Mary Bennet can be the keywords of the theme pride in the novel. This is because the word pride was mentioned by her during her conversation with the miss Lucases.

The theme of pride is related with the keywords as shown through the conversation because the conflicts between Darcy and Elizabeth contributes them to prevents them from seeing the reality of a condition and leads them to be apart from achieving joy in their relationship as their pride makes them to be prejudice to each other. Moreover, the theme pride can be expressed through the relationship of the characters. In the novel, when Darcy started to fall in love with Elizabeth, he tries to win her heart. Unfortunately, because of Elizabeth’s pride, she becomes blind to all of Darcy’s kindness towards her.

This scenario shows that the pride is one of the main barriers that creates obstacle to Darcy and Elizabeth relationship. In addition, due to Darcy’s pride at the first time he meet Elizabeth, as he occupied a high position among the society its leads him initially to disrespect anyone outside his own social range, and this causing Elizabeth to have a bad impression towards Darcy while she thought that Mr. Wickham is the good guy. Besides that, the theme pride in the novel also portrayed through the settings of the novel.

Through the storyline of the novel, we can conclude that the setting of time is on 19th century in England and the social classification becomes a major issue during the century. Based on the novel, Darcy is a person that has a large income. On 19th century in England, anyone who has a large income will be classified as the second class while anyone with miscellaneous work will be classified in the fifth class (Kristine Hughes, 1998). As referred to the novel, Darcy is a person that occupying the second class while Elizabeth are in the fifth class.

The range of social class between them will ignite the pride among themselves. This is why Darcy prone to scorn the people with lowers social class and thinks that they have no right to be respect by him. The other theme is prejudice. Prejudice is known as unreasonable opinion or feeling towards people (Macmillan English Dictionary, 2007). As the first theme discussed above, prejudice was actually catalysed through pride. The theme prejudice can be exemplified through the character traits of the characters.

In the novel of Pride and Prejudice, prejudice starts to happen when Darcy being ego to the people around him especially Elizabeth whom he treat disrespectfully. This situation is Darcy’s fault as his attitude makes him become a bad person in Elizabeth first impression. The bad intuition of Elizabeth indirectly contributes to her prejudice towards Darcy. Furthermore, Darcy himself also being prejudice to Elizabeth as his first intuition about Elizabeth is just to get a rich man to get married in order to have a luxurious life.

Darcy thought that Elizabeth is same with her mother who only wants her daughters to get married a rich man without actually have the feelings of love towards each other. In addition, the theme prejudice also shown in the aspect of literary devices. One of the literary devices that expressing the theme prejudice is symbolism. The novel title itself, ‘Pride and Prejudice’ becomes a symbolism to the theme of prejudice. Most of the main characters in the novel are being too obsessed with their opinions of others on initial impression and what social class they have being classified and that is the prejudice.

Moreover, the theme prejudice also expressed through the settings in the novel. As mentioned in the theme of pride, the setting of society on 19th century in England obviously concerning about the social class of the society. The high class characters such as Darcy, Bingleys, and Lady Catherine de Bourgh will always have prejudice towards the lower class people around them. This is because they are afraid of losing their wealth to the people. Besides that, they always have the thought that they are well-mannered than those lower class people.

The tendency of being prejudice to others among the high class people is unbearable as the society during that century is overpowered by their own peer pressure especially for those aristocratic. Furthermore, some researches that have been conducted by physiologists showing that prejudice can happen in a certain theories. One of the theories that can be link with the theme prejudice in the novel ‘Pride and Prejudice’ is economic and political competition. Several historical studies documented that prejudice in economic and political competition is about the discrimination against groups of people with different jobs (Sherif et al. 1961)

Apart from that, even though Darcy realised that he is fall in love to Elizabeth, he still cannot be accepted by Elizabeth as Elizabeth is overwhelmed by her prejudice towards Darcy. The fall of Elizabeth’s prejudice to Darcy happen when Darcy being humble to not too obsessed with his pride and prejudice towards people especially Elizabeth and the reason that makes Elizabeth to realise about it, is the letter from her aunt. In conclusion, both themes teach a lot on how to be a human in real life. For example, the theme pride teaches us to be more humble and not too proud with our own pride.

Considering other people pride also required in order gaining respect from others. Sometimes, we have to realise that because of prioritise our pride too much, we might be destroy by our own pride. Furthermore, as we know that pride is the root of prejudice, and then we should keep away from prejudicing other people. ‘Don’t judge a book by its cover’ these famous words should be one of our life principal, so that we will never expecting other people just only on our own first impression towards them. Jane Austen has written a very good novel and it is sure to give lessons to all of the readers.

Economics Review Questions and Answers computer science essay help: computer science essay help

Explain the concept of price elasticity of demand and its calculation. The price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of quantity demanded to changes in price; it is calculated by dividing the percentage change in quantity demanded by the percentage change in price. 2. Explain what it means for demand to be price inelastic, unit price elastic, price elastic, perfectly price inelastic, and perfectly price elastic.

Demand is price inelastic if the absolute value of the price elasticity of demand is less than 1; it is unit price elastic if the absolute value is equal to 1; and it is price elastic if the absolute value is greater than 1. Perfectly elastic is when price elasticity of demand is infinite. Perfectly inelastic is when price elasticity of demand is zero. 3. Explain how and why the value of the price elasticity of demand changes along a linear demand curve. Demand is price elastic in the upper half of any linear demand curve and price inelastic in the lower half.

It is unit price elastic at the midpoint. When demand is price inelastic, total revenue moves in the direction of a price change. When demand is unit price elastic, total revenue does not change in response to a price change. When demand is price elastic, total revenue moves in the direction of a quantity change. 4. Understand the relationship between total revenue and price elasticity of demand. 5. Discuss the determinants of price elasticity of demand. Availability of substitutes, importance in household budgets, and time.

Explain the concept of income elasticity of demand and its calculation. The income elasticity of demand reflects the responsiveness of demand to changes in income. It is the percentage change in quantity demanded at a specific price divided by the percentage change in income, ceteris paribus. 7. Classify goods as normal or inferior depending on their income elasticity of demand. Income elasticity is positive for normal goods and negative for inferior goods. 8. Explain the concept of cross price elasticity of demand and its calculation.

The cross price elasticity of demand measures the way demand for one good or service responds to changes in the price of another. It is the percentage change in the quantity demanded of one good or service at a specific price divided by the percentage change in the price of another good or service, all other things unchanged. 9. Classify goods as substitutes or complements depending on their cross price elasticity of demand. Cross price elasticity is positive for substitutes, negative for complements, and zero for goods or services whose demands are unrelated.

Poem Analysis need essay help: need essay help

Where most poetry since Petrarch had been based on the unavailability of the love object, Shakespeare in sonnet 129 writes about exactly what happens when you get what you think you want. But contrary to expectations it is not an achievement devoutly to be wished, but rather an inevitable nightmare. It’s quite hard to pin down Sonnet 129 to one specific speech situation. Neither is there any “I” – a clear reference to a particular, personal experience – , nor does it refer to a particular lover or relationship.

Still I find it more likely to assume that the speaker is a male person, because 129 addresses an all-men audience. The sonneteer seems to lecture this audience on the three stages of lust and its binary impact on a person’s mentality: making one feel heavenly only whilst consummation and like hell all the other times. The natural conclusion of this would be to avoid lust, but even while arguing the speaker sees the futility in this request and, instead, tries to at least raise his “pupils’” awareness of lust’s true colors.

There is even ground for arguing that sonnet 129 with its adopted impersonal tone is a form of self-persuasion rather than a young man’s guide to shun lust. Although it is never explicitly mentioned, lust means nothing more than sex. Many literary critics therefore argue that the “waste of shame” in line 1 puns not only on “squandering”, but also on “waist”, the middle of a woman’s body. And since during that time the chief English colloquial expression for the orgasm was “to spend”, “th’expense of spirit in a waste of shame” in line 1 can simply be seen as a metaphor for having sex with a woman.

The fact that in the act of orgasm a male was thought to expend his vital energy and so to shorten his life also adds to this conclusion. Formally seen, 129 is a typical Shakespearean sonnet with three quatrains and a final couplet. Lust is divided into three parts along a temporal axis – lust until action, lust in action, and lust after action, when of course it has ceased to exist. However, Shakespeare does not – as one might expect – go so far as to devote one quatrain to each stage. What he does is he constantly compares the three stages to one another never dwelling upon one subject.

The reader is more or less forced to experience strong opposing emotions in too short a time. The extensive use of parallelism, chiasm, anaphora, repetition and antithesis coupled with the rapid switching from one stage to another leaves the reader utterly confused and exhausted by the end of the third quatrain. When the speaker talks about his feelings, he moves into a binary scheme of opposing emotions, leaving no space for feelings between despair, horror, ruthlessness on the one hand and pure joy, heaven, bliss on the other hand.

Lust before action and lust after action here make up the negative pole that is constantly juxtaposed to lust in action. Throughout the poem, the latter seems to draw the short straw, never being quite able to compensate for the madness and repentance that accompany lust before and lust after action. Shakespeare makes use of hunting imagery describing how the pursuer inevitably turns into the prey, thereby conveying the idea that the pursuit of lust is not only futile but even dangerous to one’s life, for the prey does not usually survive the hunt. The final couplet brings the volta.

After managing quite successfully to picture the despair and futility that come along with the pursuit and possession of lust, the conclusion is somewhat unsettling. The final couplet is not a guide, not an admonition and certainly not a solution to the problem, but merely a statement: if the knowledge about lust has an impact on a person’s behavior, this impact never lasts long enough to prevent action. Lust always holds the upper hand! Nowadays, one would probably compare lust to a drug addiction: you cannot think straight while suffering the withdrawal symptoms.

While and shortly after the consumption you feel high – due to physical and neuronal reactions. This leaves you only the short timespan after the high and before the withdrawal symptoms to think clearly and rationally. Suddenly, you feel ashamed and repentant, feel that the measures taken to achieve lust bear no relation to the actual experience, that you did not only lose control over the body but more importantly over the mind. Then you recapitulate and realise that it wasn’t worth it and never will be. But the feeling always only comes when it is too late.

The Dress extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

“The Dress” is a short story about a dysfunctional family, consisting of two sisters, Flora and Rachel, and their mother. Flora has stolen Rachel’s dress, spilled a drink upon it and afterwards buried it in the garden. The conflict erupts during their mother’s birthday meal at a restaurant. Once at home again from the restaurant the crisis results in both girls leaving the house – leaving their mother behind, alone, with a glass of wine. The setting of the story is not distinctly described as it is not crucial for the understanding of the story.

The story only features three characters: Flora, Rachel and their mother. Rachel comes across as the bigger sister, frustrated with Flora’s carelessness. Her rage against Flora for stealing the dress is unusual keen, concerning the fact that it is only a dress – “only a scrap of material”, as Flora at some point exclaims. As a reader you immediately get a sense of a smouldering danger just beneath the surface. Something undefined, yet ominous. Flora is obviously conscious that what she is doing is wrong.

But while she understands that her sister will not be pleased with her stealing the dress, she could not possibly imagine the hatred it would release. Flora is ignorant and careless, but she is only immature – not vicious. Their mother is a bereavement counsellor, but despite this she is unable to deal with the daughters constant intrigues. When she is at home she has a need to distance herself from her professional work, and therefore she only wishes to be in a loving and caring environment. This results in a neglection of her daughters, which has obviously had an effect on the two sisters.

Rachel depresses her feelings, and is unable to handle them: “.. Rachel knew that she would have to be pleasant, to forget about her stolen dress, wear something else, and smile. ” , and Flora is desperately trying to get her mother’s attention. The mother feels unsafe about facing serious problems in real life: “She (the mother) liked emotions to be explored in safe rooms, with a clock. ” She is rather ignorant about the serious crisis between her daughters, and would like them to make an effort – to behave nicely, and hide away their problems.

The relationship between the two sisters is tensed. Flora is dangerously jealous of Rachel, and secretly wishes to be just like her: tall, brave and clever. The dress represents everything that Flora wants to be – and everything that Rachel is. But the other way around Rachel seems to feel jealousy towards Flora too. When she realises her dress has gone, and she imagines how Flora would be sitting at a cafe wearing it, Flora is described rather incredible. As if Rachel’s perception of Flora is that she is superior.

Rachel may be feeling overlooked and deprived of motherly care, as her sister desperately craves their mother’s attention. This naturally generates a fierce hate against whoever, in this case Flora, gets the attention she is deprived from. This may explain why Rachel reacts unexpectedly intense in the matter of the stolen dress. To her it is not just the dress – it is Flora steeling the attention and loving care that she, Rachel, was meant to have. The mood in this short story is the feeling of a great danger just underneath the surface.

Something that is much more frightening than the superficial crisis in the mutual relations. It makes you feel like you are apathetically awaiting something unpredictable, yet inevitable. The whole story seems to me like an allegory. Nothing seems right, just as if the story is a transparent layer, covering up the real story. The dress in this story is the main symbol. It plays a central role in the relationship between the two. Between the sisters the dress is a symbol of the differences between them and the jealousy.

Flora is trying to “steel” the identity of her sister Rachel. Flora is insecure, and feels like she deserves the dress (Rachel’s qualities) more. This frustrates Rachel – for if Flora becomes Rachel, then who is Rachel? When flora buries the dress in the garden, it becomes a symbol of neglection of the jealousy, and her failed attempt of becoming like Rachel. The language is down to earth and everyday like. The sentences vary from very short, definite, ones when describing actions, to longer descriptive ones when describing surroundings.

It creates a perception of a dull and ordinary life. The main themes are jealousy and neglection – the jealousy that Flora feels for Rachel, and their mother’s neglection of them, and their emotions. The short story is about a mother’s inability to cope with the crisis between her daughters, despite the fact that she is actually a bereavement counsellor. Maybe there is a connection between the mother’s profession, and Flora’s act of burying the dress, which is rather ironic.

Report on General Banking descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

In general sense we mean “Bank” as a financial institution that deals with money. There are different types of banks like Central bank, Commercial bank, Savings bank, Investment bank, Merchant bank, Co-operative bank etc.

But when we use the term bank it generally means ‘commercial bank’ that collects the deposit from surplus unit of the society and then lends the deposits to the deficit units. Now-a days banking sector is modernizing and expanding its hand in different financial events every day. At the same time the banking process is becoming faster, easier and is becoming wider. In order to survive in the competitive field of the banking sector all organizations are looking for better service opportunities to provide their fellow clients. So it has become essential for every person to have some idea on the bank and banking procedure.

Is this essay helpful? Upgrade your account to read more and access more than 600,000 just like it! get better grades so-called work attachment is essential for every BBA student because it helps him or her to acquaint with the real life situation. As bank is one of the most important financial intermediaries; so we have selected ‘’ which is one of the most leading bank in the new banking arena. Objectives of the Report The objective of the reporting is to familiarize ourselves with real market situation and compare it with bookish concept.

The main objective of this report is to have an assessment about Overall Banking activities of EXIM Bank Limited. In addition the study seeks to achieve the following objectives: • To familiarized with practical job environment. • To have an exposure on the financial institution especially on banking environment of Bangladesh. • To present an overview of EXIM Bank Limited. • To identify the problems facing by EXIM Bank Limited and suggest remedial measures. Scope This report has been prepared through extensive discussion with bank employees and with the…

Gaming Consoles Compared ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

The console wars continue to rage on. Ever since the PlayStation 3 arrived on the market to challenge the Xbox 360 in 2006, gamers have argued about the merits of each system. ” (Schedeen 2006). I, having owned both systems, am going to compare and contrast some key features found in these two major consoles. This comparison is based on the most recent versions of both consoles – the ‘Slim’ variations of both the Xbox 360 and the PlayStation 3, disregarding previous feature sets (Schedeen 2006). We will first compare the central processing unit (CPU) of each console.

The Xbox 360 has a 3. 2 GHz Xenon processor, three dual-threaded cores, and a Maximum 77 GFLOPS (floating point operations per second). GFLOPS is the measure of a computer’s performance. The PlayStation 3 has a 3. 2 GHz Cell processor, seven single-threaded cores (plus one backup core), and has a maximum GFLOPS of 230. The processors are unique in each system, but are very similar, thus making it hard to determine which is better. The two CPU chips run at the same GHz speed, but the PlayStation 3’s individual cores are slightly better than the Xbox’s three dual-threaded cores (Schedeen 2006).

Next, we will take a look at the hard drives of each console. The Xbox has a maximum capacity of 250 GB HDD at 5400 RPM (revolutions per minute), and the PlayStation 3 has a maximum of 320 GB HDD at 5400 RPM. Both hard drives are user replaceable (Schedeen 2006). Hard drive capacity is becoming more of an issue today than it has ever been. With both consoles having the ability to download game titles online directly to the hard drive, space is very much a necessity for today’s gamer.

Backwards compatibility is the ability to play previous generation games on the newer platform consoles. For most gamers, it is very important to have the ability to play all of the older games that you have previously purchased on your new console. The Xbox 360 is able to play most Xbox original titles. The PlayStation 3, on the other hand, can only play select PlayStation one games through a downloadable emulator, and all games must be repurchased and downloaded straight onto the console.

And finally, we will compare the price of both consoles. Each system now has two main options for purchase. The Xbox 360 with a 4 GB hard drive space retails in stores for $199. 99 and the 250 GB hard drive retails for $299. 99. The original Xbox base model, released June 2005, was equipped with 0 GB hard drive and sold for $299, so the added 4 GB was a huge addition, allowing the user to save game data and download content. The PlayStation 3 with 160 GB retails for $299. 99 and the 320 GB version retails for $349. 99.

The original PlayStation 3, released in November of 2006, had a base model consisting of a 20 GB hard drive and sold for $499. In conclusion, each console has its advantages and disadvantages. Depending on what the user is looking for will greatly influence what console he or she will buy. For instance, one extra feature that the PlayStation 3 has, that was not mentioned above, is the ability to play Blu-Ray discs. If the user is going to use their system as a source for movie viewing, then they might lean toward the PlayStation 3.

If price is a big deal breaker, then you might want to go with the Xbox 360, since the base model sells for about $150 less than the PlayStation 3 base model. Every person will have to read the facts and decide which system will meet his or her needs. No matter what console you go to purchase, you are going to have a blast and will spend hours upon hours playing it and using it for all of your entertainment needs. Enjoy gaming!

The Sound of Waves gp essay help: gp essay help

In the novel The Sound of Waves by Yukio Mishima there is a strong connection to the environment of the island Uta-Jima. The wind and the sea are very influential elements within the novel. The novel’s main character Shinji Kubo is closely connected to the sea which surrounds his home island. Shinji Kubo is an eighteen year old boy that is fatherless, and lives with his mother and brother. He is a fisherman that is constantly in the sea, and is the provider for the family, as well as his mother, who is a diver.

In the novel he falls in love with a girl named Hatsue. Nature is also seen to take part of the story by being there when a change occurs in Shinji’s and Hatsue’s life, such as the sea and the wind appearing when the change occurs. The wind is an influential force in Shinji’s life, whenever the wind is expressed in the novel, either a small breeze or a thrusting power, something in Shinji’s life is altered. In one instance, when Shinji first sees Hatsue at the beach, the wind is present when he first sees her and afterwards he feels emotionally sick.

It says “A cold west wind was blowing briskly, but the girl seemed to enjoy it, turning her work- flushed face into the wind and letting her hair stream out behind her”(7). The presence of the wind in this occasion can be seen as a turning point in Shinji’s life. He begins to falls in love with Hatsue. Although it can be argued that it is not love yet, Shinji’s life is changing because he begins to feel something he has never felt before, he is experiencing something new. The wind in the novel is used by the author as an unknown force steering Shinji in a different direction, whether the change is dire or good.

The sea is also a very influential force in Shinji’s life. The sea provides for him emotionally and economically. Shinji has always had aspirations of becoming a great fisherman and his love for the sea makes the connection he has with it even stronger. When Shinji first sees Hatsue, he begins to wonder about her, and wants to know more about who she is. He tries to listen to the people around him in order to see if anyone would mention her. When he does not hear anyone mention her, at night, he worries that he is beginning to feel sick. When he awakens in the morning he is feeling the same as the night before and he goes to the sea.

It says “That strange unrest was still with him this morning. But the vast ocean stretched away from the prow, where he was standing, and gradually the sight of it filled his body with the energy of a familiar day to day toil and without realizing it, he felt at peace again”(13). Shinji is going through a strange emotional change and cannot explain the feeling that has been bothering him; however, after he arrives at the ocean, he begins to feel normal and the feeling disappears. Shinji appears to look for guidance and assurance from the sea that everything is well.

This occurs many times through out the novel, each time that Shinji feels uneasy or there’s a change in his life, the sea seems to put him at rest. The sea is also what draws Shinji to Hatsue. They both have love for the sea and everything in it. Hatsue’s connection with the sea appears to be because she is a diver. During the storm that takes place earlier in the novel, Shinji finds a sea shell which he finds quite beautiful and gives it to Hatsue as a present. She too finds the shell quite beautiful and the two thus begin to fall in love with one another. The sea is bringing them together with a small gesture.

The day that the two first kissed they both sat up and starred off to the sea, it says “I’m going there too tomorrow afternoon’ the girl replied, likewise looking out to sea” (42). After Shinji and Hatsue experienced something new, they both look out to the sea. As well Shinji’s earlier experience, when he felt something he had never experienced before, he went to the sea. In this case, Hatsue and Shinji are doing the same. The sea is something both of them look at for guidance, even though it cannot speak the sea is sought when the characters are experiencing something new.

In conclusion, Shinji’s connection to the sea and wind affect him differently. The sea is a source of energy, and guidance. This encouraged Shinji to go on and influenced the way he felt. The wind represented change of course and direction towards a greater path. They were both very present in the novel, and they help Shinji in many ways. The wind’s and sea’s influence has helped both Hatsue and Shinji to be with one another. Shinji loves Hatsue and she loves him, they are willing to do anything to be with one another and the influence the sea and wind has on them has helped them a lot.

Welcome Address university essay help: university essay help

First of all, I on behalf my organization, heartily welcome the honorable Chief Guest, His Excellency, the Governor of California, Mr. Arnold. I am specially thankful to him because when we approached him with an invitation and requested him to grace our function as Chief Guest, His Excellency did not hesitate a moment. His Excellency instantly agreed when he looked at our program. Once again, I on behalf of my organization, welcome His Excellency, the Governor of California, Mr. Arnold, the Chief Guest of today’s function.

Secondly, I welcome Mr. Razensag, the Chairman of our organization. In spite of his heavy schedule, he accepted to grace today’s function as the President. I am really happy to welcome him to today’s function. Thirdly, I on behalf of our organization, heartily welcome Ms. Sonia, Chairperson of Animal Protection, Inc. and Mr. Ronaldo, Chairman of International Foot Ball Federation, to this function. When we requested them to grace our function as Guests of Honors, they accepted without any delay. I am really happy to welcome them to this function.

I also welcome all my colleagues for sparing a few hours of their valuable time to come here and participate in this function. I am really indebted to them. Hadn’t it been their cooperation, today’s function couldn’t have been so successful. I on behalf of our organization heartily welcome them. Last not but the least, I welcome all those who contribute to make today’s function a grand success. I welcome all of you who are present here. Thank you very much.

Argumentative Essay grad school essay help: grad school essay help

The novel, “Their Eyes Were Watching God”, focuses on a woman named Janie Crawford and her adventure for love and her struggle for independence. Since both of Janie’s parents were not in her life, she is forced to live with her grandmother. One day, Janie meets a boy and kisses him; this single action dictates where the rest of her life will go. Later, Janie’s grandmother marries Janie off to a man named Logan Killicks.

The rest of Janie’s life is spent looking for her independence and for her true love, which she finds towards the end of the novel. The novel has received many reviews, most of which are positive. George Stevens, one of the reviewers, stated that the novel is “A simple and unpretentious story, but there is nothing else quite like it”. He also mentioned that there were a couple of weak spots in the novel, but other than that the novel is unique. The review he gave was realistic and straightforward. Also, the review was accurate with the book.

The review that Stevens composed is very agreeable because the statements he made are true and match up with the novel. One of the statements that Stevens pointed out was that the novel’s beginning was awkward and had an unnecessary preview of the end. There was no purpose for showing what the end looks like; it confuses the reader. Also, the title of the novel, “Their Eyes Were Watching God”, is misleading, for the book doesn’t have much relevance to religion, or anything in that nature. I fully agree with Stevens’, for I thought the same of the book: it had some minor mistakes, but was overall a great book.

Edible Oil Industry Analysis mba essay help: mba essay help

If there is any clarification required we would appreciate a call from you to our group members. Sincerely, Husna Badar (7164) Komal Shahdev (7564) Misbah Saleem (4258)  All praise is to Allah who makes everything possible in the universe and beyond. First of all, we would like to thank Allah, who helped us with everything and made everything come together, then our parents and family who have always supported us in every good thing that we do. We are greatly thankful to our course instructor, Mr. Aftab Abro, who gave us clear concepts and a practical understanding for the subject.

He made the course a valuable learning experience for all of us and made us grow as learned individuals. For taking out time and helping us in providing useful information for our project. We would also like to thank our college; The Institute of Business Management, it has been a great learning place with different academic and extra-curricular experiences, all contributing to our growth as students. Lastly we would like to thank our fellow classmates for making this learning experience a thoroughly productive and enjoyable one.

Hopefully this report will serve a good purpose. Thank you, Husna Badar (7164) Komal Shahdev (7564) Misbah Saleem (4258)  In this report we have tried to conduct an in depth analysis of the oil industry in Pakistan, focusing mainly on Habib oil along with its competitors Dalda and Soya supreme of Agro Processors & Atmospheric Gases. We have tried to derive the nature of competition existing in the edible oil industry and have observed that the competitive pressures in the industry are very intense. In the premium segment of oil industry, Dalda is he market leader having around 25% with Habib as its closest competitor, having a market share of about 20% and Soya supreme having a market share of 16%. these companies try to engage in head to head rivalry.

We have also extensively analyzed the external factors in the industry and how it is affecting the companies within the industry. How the awareness of health, changing lifestyles, worsening economic conditions and environment affects an individual’s life forms the crux of this report. It is the prime responsibility of these firms to create health awareness among masses, which will in turn lead to their increased sales.

The report also focuses on the internal activities and value chain management done by Habib in making its brand improved and in creating a competitive advantage. Habib oil mills has constantly evolved, innovated and changed with times. It product line includes different oil variants and ghee thus offering a complete range of cooking solution for house hold as well as for industrial consumers . In order to gain a sustainable competitive advantage, the generic strategy used by Habib is broad differentiation. Finally a brief action plan for the implementation of the recommended strategies has been stated.

Brief history about the edible oil industry In 1972 the edible oil industry was nationalized and a ghee corporation of Pakistan (GCP) was established . Since 1988, private sector has also been allowed to enter this industry. With the passage of time most of the units which were previously controlled by GCP have been privatized (93-95%). * Present Situation of edible oil industry in Pakistan The cooking oil and vegetable ghee industry is another large manufacturing sector. A shortfall has been witnessed over the last two decades.

This shortfall is made up through the import of cooking oil, which is added to the local production. Pakistan spends 2nd largest amount of foreign exchange on the import of edible oil which puts a lot of strain on the economy and it is still increasing. The gap is widening constantly as the population increases and standard of living improves. Vegetable oil is obtained from edible oil seeds grown especially for this purpose. Pure butter oil is produced in small units; many people prefer to use this instead of cooking oil or vegetable ghee. Vegetable ghee is formed when edible oil is hydrogenated.

The market for vegetable oil and ghee is spread all over Pakistan. The manufacturing units are also widely distributed. The number of vegetable oil and ghee plants operational in the country is about 183 with a capacity exceeding two million tons. The edible oil market is about 2. 5 million tones (65% of total oil industry), out of which Banaspati market accounts for 1. 5 million tones and Edible oils for about 1 million tones.

Recommendations The best way to differentiate is to be exceptional in value addition. Only making the oil tin or package more attractive is not enough. The companies should try to communicate that how their particular brand of oil is of a greater value as compared to other brands by mentioning the health benefits which the consumers would get by using the product. This can be ensured through heavy promotional campaigns and bright new selling ideas. Smuggling Smuggling is also an important factor which affects this industry.

Government estimates that . 87 million tones of oil is smuggled into Afghanistan every year and 0. 05 million tones is smuggled to Iran as well. Recommendation The companies can export oil to the areas where oil is being smuggled . if the demand of local people in the smuggled areas will be fulfilled in the right way they wont need to smuggle oil for Pakistan. Also the Recent developments in Afghanistan have allowed the oil companies to export their oil to Afghanistan. This was only possible due to the improved road link.

Secular vs Christian Dating extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

Society today has a very loose interpretation of dating. Teenagers are sexually active at an early age and most think that a sexual relationship is what love is about. A commitment to one person seems to be a thing of the past. God instructions in I Corinthians 6:18 are to “flee from sexual immorality” (Holy Bible, NKJV). As a believer we should be very selective in the person we want to be our mate for life. Secular views are to choose based on appearance and sexual relationship. One mistake that is often made by teen Christians that their thought is it is all right to date just anyone.

As long as the opposite sex is pretty or handsome and gives attention the teen thinks it is fine to date. The church can emphasize that a believer shouldn’t date an unbeliever but many marriages are entered into by young adults and fail because one of them will not attend church. God clearly states in II Corinthians 6:14 to “not be yoked with unbelievers” (Holy Bible, NKJV). I believe that a relationship between a man and a woman should be based on a long friendship without a physical contact. The talk between two people should be that of everyday life and what we want to excel at. A bond needs to be made without being a sexual one.

An article published in “Aspects” refers to Harry Truman dating his wife Bess for nine years before they were married. Harry wrote many letters over the years to Bess but they were not love letters but just telling her what his everyday life was filled with. Lampel states that “It is almost impossible to read of such a determined devotion of a man for a woman” (Lampel, 1996). This is a fine example of what dating should be from a Christian viewpoint.

Health and Safety free essay help: free essay help

The main persons responsible for health, safety and welfare on a construction site are: ? Employer – their role is to conduct their business safely. In order to accomplish this, a supervisor (site manager) generally runs the site. They must ensure the health, safety and welfare at work of all employees; they should provide a safe system of work, with safe plant and equipment. Provide safe handling storage transport along with information, supervision and training. There must be safe access and egress from the place of work along with a safe environment to work in.

The employer also has a responsibility to produce a policy to this effect, and must consult with and co-operate n developing safety measures. ? CDM coordinator (formally planning supervisor) – They have the overall responsibility to coordinate the health, safety and welfare aspects of the design and planning phase. Prepare the early stages of the health, safety and welfare plan. Advise Clients of the competence and adequate resource of the principle contactor and ensure that a health, safety and welfare file for each structure is delivered to the client on completion.

Ensure that structures are designed and specified to minimise any possible risks to health, safety and welfare during construction, and during maintenance. Adequate information is provided on possible risks. Co-operation with the CDM coordinator. ? Principle Contractors – These are responsible for taking account of health, safety and welfare issues when preparing their tenders or estimates. Exclude unauthorised persons from the site Co-operate with the planning supervisor

Coordinate activities, of all contractors, to ensure that they comply with the health, safety and welfare plan and provide information and training of employees and the self-employed about health, safety and welfare. ? Sub-contractors / Self employed – are to co-operate with the Principal Contractor on health, safety and welfare matters and explain how they will control the health, safety and welfare risks in their work. ? Employees – have a duty to follow the health, safety and welfare procedures that have been put in place and to use their initiative.

They must wear suitable footwear or any other protective clothing which has been provided in accordance to what they are doing. Ensure that their working environment is safe at all times for themselves, work colleges and visitors to the site. They must cooperate with the employer and must not interfere with anything provided for safety. b) Identify three main pieces of health, safety and welfare legislation relevant to the construction and built environment sector and describe the legal duties of employees and employers in terms of such legislation.

The health and safety at Work Act 1974 was introduced due to the constantly expanding laws on health, safety and welfare in the UK and consolidated much of the previous legislation and good practices. It placed duties upon a number of parties including employers, the self employed and employees. Employers have a duty to ensure, as far as is reasonably possible, the health, safety and welfare of their employees. Employees have a responsibility to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and for others who may be affected by their acts of omissions.

The enforcement of the Act is carried out by HSE Inspectors and by the local authority inspectors. The nature of the main activity of the business determines the enforcing authority. When considering on an action, an inspector uses discretion but will consider the following: • The Risk involved • The Gravity of the alleged offence • The history of the business in respect of previous events and their compliance • The Inspector’s confidence in the management of the firm • The likely effectiveness of a particular action

The decision to bring about a prosecution rests with the enforcing authority. In respect of construction projects the main requirements of this Act is that employers also have a duty and responsibility to others working on a construction site, and for the safety of the public and other third parties. Under the health and safety at work Act 1974 umbrella falls much legislation such as: The Work at Height Regulations 2005 (Amended by the Work at Height Regulations 2007) Falls are the largest cause of accidental death in the construction industry.

They account for 50% of all fatalities. There is no distinction between low and high falls). For any working at height, precautions are required to prevent or minimise the risk of injury from a fall. To prevent or minimise risk when planning for work at height, the employer should consider the work to be done and take a sensible risk-based approach to identify suitable precautions. The regulations apply to all work at height where there is a risk of a fall liable to cause personal injury.

They place duties on employers, the self-employed, and any person who controls the work of others (e. . facilities managers or building owners who may contract others to work at height) to the extent they control the work. If you are an employee or working under someone else’s control, you must • Report any safety hazard to them • Use the equipment supplied (including safety devices) properly, following any training and instructions (unless you think that would be unsafe, in which case you should seek further instructions before continuing) As an employer you must do all that is reasonably practicable to prevent anyone falling.

The regulations set out a simple hierarchy for managing and selecting equipment for work at height. [pic] The Regulations require dutyholders to ensure: • All work at height is properly planned and organised • All work at height takes account of weather conditions that could endanger health and safety • Those involved in work at height are trained and competent • The place where work at height is done is safe Equipment for work at height is appropriately inspected • The risks from fragile surfaces are properly controlled.

Reporting accidents and ill health at work is a legal requirement. The information enables the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and local authorities, to identify where and how risks arise, and to investigate serious accidents. Records of reportable injuries or dangerous occurrences must be kept. They must include the date and method of reporting; the date and time and place of the event; personal details of those involved; and a brief description of the nature of the event or disease. The records can be kept by: • Keeping copies of report forms in a file Recording the details on a computer

Using the Accident Book entry • Maintaining a written log A report must be made if there is an accident connected with work and: • An employee, or self-employed person working on the employee’s premises is killed or suffers a major injury (including as a result of physical violence) • A member of public is killed or taken to hospital • An employer must notify the enforcing authority without delay and give brief details about the business, the injured person and the accident. •

The employer must follow up with a completed accident report form (F2508) within ten days. An employee or self-employed person must report to an employer or person whose premises they are working in, any injury for either themselves or a member of public immediately. It is not the employee’s or self-employed persons responsibility to report to HSE or to update the Accident Book unless it is the Self-employed person’s premises. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH) Thousands of people are exposed to all kinds of hazardous substances at work.

These can include chemicals that people make or work with directly, and also dust, fume and bacteria, which can be present in the workplace. Exposure can happen by breathing them in, contact with the skin, splashing them into the eyes or swallowing them. If exposure is not prevented or properly controlled, it can cause serious illness, including cancer, asthma and dermatitis, and sometimes even death.

Martin Heidegger Biography college essay help online free: college essay help online free

The Man who would Create Being Martin Heidegger was born September 26th, 1889 in Messkirch, Germany and died on May 26, 1976 in his hometown. Martin was originally raised and educated in order to become a priest. His local church supported his schooling by scholarship in order that he may attend high school in Konstanz and further. Ironically, it was the pressuring support of the Catholic Church and the friends he later made during his schooling that eventually caused him to defect from the Church to pursue and become one of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century.

After graduating from high school in 1909, he spent two weeks as a Jesuit novice, and then being discharged allegedly for health reasons, enrolled at Freiburg University to study theology. However, for reasons unknown, but most likely because of his lack of desire to become a priest, he broke off his studies in theology after only two years. Rather than theology, Heidegger focused his studies instead upon the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and natural sciences.

During his remaining years of study at Freiburg, Heidegger worked with Edmund Huserll, a friend who would influence Heidegger’s later works and help start Heidegger’s rejection of Catholicism. He received his doctorate in philosophy in 1913. In 1915, Heidegger returned to Freiburg University to teach as assistant to Huserll. World War I briefly interrupted his work, as he was drafted into the military, but was dismissed after two months, again because of health reasons.

Heidegger then began to work on his habilitation thesis in order to capture the chair of Catholic philosophy at Freiburg. In 1915, he was instead appointed Privatdozent, or lecturer. Then in 1917, Heidegger married Elfride Petri, with whom he had two sons and a daughter: Joerg, Hermann, and Erika, although he did have a notorious affair with his student and philosopher Hannah Arendt while teaching at the University of Marburg in the 1920s. Despite this, she never left him.

Finally, Heidegger magnus opus was published in 1927, Being and Time, largely influenced by the work on phenomenology by his close friend Huserll, in addition to a few others such as Kant, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Dilthey. However, he considered one particular work to be the highest source of his inspiration, as he says, “‘[I] read Franz Brentano’s book entitled On the Manifold Meaning of Being according to Aristotle. ’ By his own account, it was this work that inspired his life-long quest for the meaning of being (Korab-Karpowicz).

Considered one of Heidegger’s greatest works, he earned recognition and fame for his questioning of Being. In 1929, he published three more works that further developed his own concept of phenomenological ontology, or the study of being. These were named What is Metaphysics? , On the Essence of Ground, and Kant and the Problem of Metaphysics. The 1930s and 1940s became a time when Heidegger’s practices called into question the legitimacy of his ontology, and this fact is still debated to this very day, and was also a critical turning point in his philosophy.

For in 1933, Heidegger joined the Nazi party. Whether or not it was because he approved or he feared the Nazis like most people is unknown. He made ambiguous speeches that could either be interpreted as for the Nazi party or against them. He was appointed rector at Freiburg that same year yet resigned the next year. Yet because of his perceived support of the Nazi party (he never left the party even after he stopped giving speeches), after Germany lost the war, Heidegger was banned from teaching, a ban that was not lifted until 1949. In 1950, he was made Professor Emeritus.

During this time interval, his work took a turn, becoming more systematic and obscure than his previous works. He began to write about the “essence of truth. ” He also began to study and lecture on the works of one Friedrich Nietzsche, another German philosopher who believed God was dead. This officially marked Heidegger’s separation from the Catholic Church and his upbringing. During this period of time in which his work took a turn, he published what is considered his second best philosophical work in 1936, called Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning).

Unlike Being and Time, which addresses the Dasein, which is the kind of being whose Being is an issue for it, such as humans, he reiterates the imperative need to abandon subjectivity from his earlier works, but he takes on a different ontology of Dasein, believing that his previous notion of Being links to his critique of subjectivity. As he explains in his Letter on Humanism: The adequate execution and completion of this other thinking that abandons subjectivity is surely made more difficult by the fact that in the publication of Being and Time… “Time and Being,” was held back… Here everything is reversed.

The division in question was held back because everything failed in the adequate saying of this turning and did not succeed with the help of the language of metaphysics… This turning is not a change of standpoint from Being and Time, but in it the thinking that was sought first arrives at the location of that dimension out of which Being and Time is experienced, that is to say, experienced from the fundamental experience of the oblivion of Being. (Wheeler, citing Letter on Humanism, pp. 31–2) The Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning) was not actually published in Germany until 1989, after Heidegger’s death and at his request.

Also a notable difference from his earlier works, most profoundly Being and Time, in Contributions to Philosophy, Heidegger drops his advocacy of the idea that Being can be represented truthfully using pseudo-scientific philosophical language, instead opting for the notion that it is correct to respond properly to Being in language. He is also famous for his critiques of technological thought, which is elaborated upon in Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning).

Often confused with a criticism of technology, what Heidegger is really criticizing is our exploitation of technology as only an instrument invented to benefit a certain group of humans at the expense of others, having witnessed the atrocities of modern technology during both World Wars. This technological thought is an “us-them” dichotomy of who can kill whom faster, more efficiently, and with a greater magnitude. His later life becomes less eventful than his previous years, as he diverted more of his time to lectures than writing.

All in all, Martin Heidegger wrote over 45 books, gave over 44 public lectures, and gave about 15 official private lectures throughout his lifetime. He also became a member of the Academy of Fine Arts at Berlin, member of the Academy of Sciences at Heidelberg, and member of the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts. He was named Honorary Citizen of Messkirch in 1959 and won the Hebel Prize of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Before his death in 1976, he gave one of his final interviews in 1966, called Der Spiegel, translated as “Only God Can Save Us. ” In this interview, he attempted to justify his political involvement during the Nazi years.

He died before he could complete his final work, the Gesamtausgabe, an enormous anthology of all of his works. The project has been taken up by Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main and, though it is still not complete to this day, is expected to fill about 100 volumes. In conclusion, Heidegger’s work and his theory of Being were all results of those that supported him and his own drive for knowledge and fulfillment, for if it were not for his education and teaching experience thereafter, the world might have been deprived of one of the most ground-breaking philosophers of the 1900s and perhaps in history.

Political Correctness in Richard Scarry’s Book my essay help uk: my essay help uk

The Appearance of Political Correctness in Children’s Literature: With special regards to Richard Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever Political correctness is one of the most controversial cultural and academic issues of today. Although because of its interdisciplinary nature it can be studied in relation to American English. In this paper the main focus is on the new interdisciplinary studies emerging in the scope of academics, such as multicultural literature; narrowing down to children’s multicultural literature.

The purpose of this essay is to study the development of political correctness in children’s literature and also to try to explore whether it is a clear cut appearance of the phenomenon, or it is whether a continuing formation of the term. The basic element of this study is Richard Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever (1963, 1991), the differences between the “old” and the somewhat “newer” version. The scope of the exploration ranges across an assortment of topics. For example: how gender roles are illustrated in the 1960’s and in the 1990’s, also there is an explanation on how religious and ethnic groups are presented in the books.

Moreover there is an attempt to compare and contrast different pieces of children’s literature of our time, as well as to have a look at a children’s book published in Great Britain. I do not offer a comprehensive study of political or cultural correctness presented in children’s literature, my aim is more to explore this particular children’s dictionary focusing on several themes. In this paper I would not like to explore the chosen books on a particular study or given viewpoint. I have tried to base the study on personal data research and my own reflection on the book.

Nevertheless I find it important to bring up various terms and critics according to the topic of political correctness. First of all, I would like to explain what does political correctness (PC) generally means and its importance in the context of education and children’s literature. “The central uses of the term relate to particular issues of race, gender, disability, ethnicity, sexual preference, culture and worldviews, and encompass both the language in which issues are discussed and the viewpoints that are expressed. ”[1] Examples can be African-American instead of Black or Negro; Native-American in place of Indian.

Also gender-neutral terms like police officer instead of policeman, or flight-attendant in place of steward/stewardess. The term political correctness is originated from the turn of the century; it was originally associated with Marxism and Marxist theory. There are critics who claim political correctness as totalitarian, also a limitation on free speech,[2] commonly known as “speech codes”[3]. There are several interpretations of the term in general. Nowadays to be politically correct is rather a pejorative phrase. As Richard Bernstein in 1990 stated in the New York Times:

The term ‘politically correct,’ with its suggestion of Stalinist orthodoxy is spoken more with irony and disapproval than with reverence. But across the country the term PC, as it is commonly abbreviated, is being heard more and more in debates over what should be taught at the universities. [4] We can see at this point, that his reference on political correctness has already reached the question of education and the influence on children, proving that it has become a significant issue from the 1980-90’s. Although ever since children’s literature came to existence, there have been debates over the “moral correctness” of books[5].

In the 1981 December issue of English Journal an article points out the important features that should be considered when editing books for educational use, targeting children. The title is “Proactive censorship: The new wave”: Today when writing a book for use in public schools, an author must be aware of: 1. How many black faces appear in proportion to the number of white faces; 2. The use of names such as Carlos and Juanita in proportion to those of Billy and Sue; 3. The use of pronouns that negate sex bias; 4. Putting anyone in a stereotypical role .

Paying obeisance to mandates of the consumer enlightenment moguls; 6. Excluding materials that imply the rape of our natural beauty; 7. Any vaguely humorous, satiric, and/or critical treatment of anyone’s religious preference; 8. Any allusion to stereotypes of ethnic and national origins; 9. Statements that may contain political bias; 10. Reference to drugs, tobacco, alcohol, non-nutritious foods, etc. [6] This extract from the English Journal could give an excellent basis for studying in what extent a book is politically correct.

Reading through different children’s picture books, I came to the conclusion that in Scarry’s Best Word Book Ever can we find the best examples of in what level PC or cultural correctness affected the different editions. However I would also like to give counter examples, for instance a British children’s picture dictionary, as well as to explore cases when political correctness is – in my point of view – exaggerated. To begin with, I would like to give an outline of what kind of categories were established during the research.

When someone turns over the pages of Best Word Book Ever for a few times, firstly what they might recognize are the different images that may occurred in the new edition, or have been replaced by something else, or finally – have been deleted from the new edition. This might catch the attention, why are these changes have taken place? Is it only a revision, a change in style, to be more up to date? Or is it more a conscious changing of images to be shown to children at early ages. I am going to illustrate these phenomena with pictures as well.

Furthermore I would also like to make more categories based on text and the words used in the dictionary, but firstly the focus is on visual representation. Different changes in the images can be categorized as well. Based on the personal exploration, I have come to list the following categories: 1. Gender roles (family roles, occupational stereotypes) 2. Representation of different ethnic groups 3. Religious references 4. Political reference To start with gender roles I would like to explain a little more what results the research come up with.

Firstly, the typical gender roles in the 1963 edition were the “old”, conservative stereotyping of sexes. Probably the most striking example for this can be found in the kitchen of the “rabbit house”. In the 1963 edition it is only mother rabbit that is standing at the stove in the kitchen, stating the stereotypical role of a woman, to do the housework. However, in the 1991 edition the image had been revised. It is not only the household equipment that has been renewed, but father rabbit appears with mother rabbit in the kitchen as well.

Moreover he is there to help in preparing for breakfast, so now the male member of the family is allowed to do housework as well. Not to mention the fruit juice he is making, which can be a reference on healthy lifestyle – an important teaching method as well. Also on the cover page there is another reference on gender roles. Again, rabbit family is working on the field. First of all, in the earlier edition it is only the male rabbit that is doing physical work. On the other hand, in the new edition the previous scarecrow has been replaced with the female rabbit, suggesting the possibility of a woman doing hard, physical work.

There are two more implications of the changing roles of sexes on the cover page. The first is the “cat family” walking the stroller. It is obviously the mother who is pulling the stroller in the 1963 edition; however the edition from the 1991’s shows the family without the mother, giving the father figure a somewhat new role. Last but not least, we have mention the police officer (policeman in the 1963 edition), who has been replaced by a female character. It is again a reference to stereotypical gender roles and their new, politically correct versions.

To continue with gender roles, another significant difference can be observed when we are reading through the book. At the “When you grow up” section there are several jobs illustrated with colorful pictures. However we can see that some of them are changed. Firstly the cowboy character from the previous edition has been replaced, as well as the milkman rabbit. The cowboy image is probably no longer accepted to that extent because of the decreasing interest in the Westward Movement (Native American references has been almost entirely replaced); or the sometimes pejorative interpretation of the term cowboy.

Therefore the possibly aggressive and violent[7] cowboy character has been replaced by a scientist and a gardener. These two professions are a lot more peaceful ones and also we can see that scientist character is a female bear, however the gardener is illustrated as a male cat. This is once more a great reference on gender neutralization of jobs. Likewise there is one more image that has been changed, and that is of the milkman. Since it is no longer a widespread profession, in the 1991 edition of the book instead of the milkman children can read about a taxi driver.

It is probably suggesting the urbanization of the US and the world. We can observe similar transformations from “old” professions to fashionable ones on other pages as well. In the 1963 version of Scarry’s book, we can see a “commuter” and a “train conductor”. However, in the new edition these two characters are completely removed. Replaced by a photographer and a reporter, now we have two stylish professions enjoying a growing interest among people. Not to mention the yet again noticeable change of stereotypically sexist professions.

The changing image of the teacher from one edition to the other shows again the growing tendency of gender neutralizing the professions. The next section that is worth exploring is the part on playing games. Two vivid pages can be seen here, full of children having fun on the playground. However if we have a closer look at the two editions we can observe five revolutionary changes between them. Firstly, some of the characters have changed their sexes. The cats, playing ring-around-a-rosy are predominantly female characters. However, in the later edition we can see that one of them has been transformed into a male character.

The same phenomenon can be seen on pigs, playing marbles; one of them is now a girl, indicating the possibility for a girl to play games that are originally mostly for boys. Same happens with the girl cat playing bouncing ball – it is no longer a female character. Also the characters playing tag have faced the same transformation. In the politically correct version it is no longer the boy chasing the girl, but at this time women have the same opportunity to “chase” men – that is a good reference on the changing attitude of women towards men. Last but not least, one more image in relation to gender-roles.

The pictures below give us another good example on changing gender roles. With adding a ribbon on both pictures, the characters’ sexes now are changed; being more politically correct again. To continue with the different categories of changes in the two edition, let us know have a look at the representation of different ethnic groups. There are not as many examples on this category as we could find on gender roles, though if we look at the book closely we can find some exciting illustrations to mention. To begin with the cover page again, the first to notice is that there are no real good examples we can mention.

However, when we have a second closer look, we can see a possible illustration of being not politically correct in the 1963 version. On the first side of the picture we can see the earlier edition, on which the policeman stops the driver. However we can observe the changing skin color of the driver. On the first picture it is much darker than on the other, indicating the possibility of being a member of an ethnic minority. Although these are just assumptions, on a personal point-of-view, it is worth mentioning. As I have already referred on the disappearance of Native American references, let us now have a look at on it.

There are different cases through the book where we can find the Native American characters are missing. At the alphabet section, at letter “I”, the Indian mouse holding the ice cream is simply deleted from the 1991 edition. As well as at the part about “Boats and ships” the canoe is transformed into a more “neutral” element, replacing the possible references on Native Americans from the 1963 version. Also interesting to mention that in the 1963 edition there is a “wild west” section, however it is not existent in the 1991 anymore.

Finally, there is also a significant change in relation to religion and politics. However there are only a few examples for these two categories altogether, it is important to mention them. At the section on holidays, we can find reference on Halloween, the Santa Claus, and a Christmas tree as well. Although in the 1991 edition a menorah is added as a reference on Chanukah. Being more politically correct? Then the question is obvious, why Kwanza is missing? There is a possibility of adding it soon too. As for political references, there is a really good example worth noticing.

We can find it at the professions section. In 1963 one of the most prominent jobs that are mentioned is a soldier. However, it is no longer politically correct to refer on war on any possible violent action. Therefore the image of the soldier in 1991 is replaced by a judge – the typical image of a democratic society. As I have already mentioned, after the visual examples, I would like to have a quick look at the linguistic differences as well. For this I would like to make a list of the words and expressions that have been changed over the years.

Firstly, the gender-neutralization is important to notice. Changes have occurred in words like: – mailman to letter carrier – policeman to police officer – fireman to firefighter – “beautiful screaming lady” to “cat in danger” – “jumping gentlemen” was deleted – “brave hero” to fire fighter – “mother” in lower case to “Mother” in capital letter – “handsome pilot” to pilot – “pretty stewardess” to flight attendant – baggage man to baggage handler And one more really good example is when talking about the male member of the family at the “Bear family”.

In the 1963 edition: “He comes promptly when he is called to breakfast”. However in the newer version: “He goes to the kitchen to eat his breakfast”. It is no longer an essential job for woman to prepare breakfast, but more individually the male member of the family takes his part in housework. Nevertheless I would like to comment on the 1990 version of Best First Book Ever from the same author. While doing the research, I have read through this somewhat same edition of this series and I have found that it is not that essential to change everything into a politically correct form in all children’s book.

In Best First Book Ever (1990) I have found that there was no gender neutralization of the professions, fireman remains fireman, “seven postmen” and fishermen are also mentioned. Moreover if looking through the book with special regards on exaggerated politically correct terms, we will find none. Images are titled such as “Miss Hones is big”, “Mr. Frumble is fat”, and “Big Hilda is huge”. However there are satirical references on politically correct terms that might occur in these contexts as well. [8] Last but not least, a few words about two British publications.

One of them is Things People Do (1997) and the other one is 1000 Words and Pictures (1993). The previous is an Usborne publication, the latter Ladybird Books Ltd – both are British. It is interesting in the two books that both have been published in the 1990’s, though both kept the “politically incorrect” usage of professions. “Postman”, “policeman”, “fireman”, “fisherman” all remained and all of them are illustrated as male characters. To conclude, no doubt about the significance of these phenomena, since they affect the youngest generation.

It is also interesting who makes these decisions about the changes? Is it really that important to teach children at the age of 3-4 about the politically correct terminology? This essay surely does not answer these questions. However it tried to illustrate the existent ongoing transformation of different terms and expressions in American children’s literature.

Memory Management in Operating Systems rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

Memory management in multiple operating systems An operating system is responsible for assigning memory to processes so that processes can be executed. Broadly, this responsibility is defined as memory management, and operating systems handle memory management differently. Any operating system must do two things in order to handle memory effectively. First, an operating system must be able to allocate and free physical memory. Second, an operating system must have techniques in place to keep track of the location of programs in physical memory.

Examples of the ways different operating systems handle memory management can be seen by evaluating the Linux and the Windows 7 operating systems. In order to keep track of the locations of programs in physical memory, the Linux operating system employs virtual memory techniques. “The Linux virtual memory system is responsible for maintaining the address space visible to each process. It creates pages of virtual memory on demand and manages loading those pages from disk and swapping them back out to disk as required. ” (Silberschatz, 2009, p. 823) It is evident that Linux uses a paging strategy with its virtual memory technique.

When the Linux operating system attempts to execute a program, the operating system will not directly access the program from physical memory. Instead, it will access a table of virtual memory addresses that keeps track of physical memory locations. This virtual memory address will then reference the physical memory location of a program so that it can be placed for execution in the CPU. The allocation of physical memory varies depending on the architecture of a computer, but with the Linux operating system, “the primary physical-memory manager in the Linux kernel is the page allocator. (Silberschatz, 2009, p. 820)

The page allocator carries the responsibility of dynamically freeing and allocating all physical memory. The page allocator is a primary tool of all memory subsystems used in the Linux operating system. Of these subsystems, “the most important are the virtual memory system…, the kmalloc() variable-length allocator; the slab allocator, used for allocating memory for kernel data structures; and the page cache, used for caching pages belong to files. ” (Silberschatz, 2009, p. 821)

In Windows, “the memory manager implements virtual memory, provides a core set of services such as memory mapped files, copy-on-write memory, large memory support, and underlying support for the cache manager. ” (Microsoft, 2012) Windows employs virtual memory techniques in a similar way to the Linux operating system. It also uses a process of file mapping in order to keep track of the location of files in physical memory. Virtual memory addresses are tracked in memory and have pointers that reference the physical location of a process on disk.

In order to allocate and free memory, Windows uses a variety of different methods instead of a one-size fits all page allocator like Linux. Each method has different advantages and disadvantages and utilizes different memory management subsystems, the details of which are discussed in Microsoft documentation. These advantages and disadvantages are important for developers. The methods are CoTaskMemAlloc(), GlobalAlloc(), HeapAlloc(), LocalAlloc(), malloc(), new(), and VirtualAlloc().

There are a myriad of memory management techniques, and Windows and Linux, two major operating systems, employ techniques that share similarities but also have differences. According to Abraham Silberschatz (2009), “the memory-management algorithms [used by operating systems] vary from a primitive bare-machine approach to paging and segmentation strategies.

Arrow of Time best essay help: best essay help

“Disorder, alas, is the natural order of things in the universe”, Cole’s way of describing entropy in her life. In The Arrow of time K. C Cole uses personal experiences to involve the reader into the matter of entropy. Cole’s uses entropy to portray how things are moving onward and we can’t go back. When something is done it can’t be easily undone, but it can be fixed. Cole uses a lot of everyday lifestyle issues, such as “After all, what was the point of spending half of Saturday at the Laundromat if the clothes were dirty all…Friday? No matter how much she cleans and does chores she will have to do it all over again the next week. That is entropy the order of things in this universe.

She continues to talk about how entropy is seen in day to day and how she encounters it in her everyday life. According to Cole, entropy is chaos, loss of purpose as it creates nothing else but disorder in life. Everything in this world has a price, that you have to pay and so does creation. As she stated,” The road to disorder is all downhill but the road to creation takes work. When something is created it has to go through entropy. To make a person strong, a person has to go phases of difficulties which us human beings will say as “disorder” as in “entropy”. Cole life is greatly affected by entropy; her car broke down, and so did her refrigerator, baby sitter is not showing up.

These all are signs of entropy in the life of Cole, as it states” Entropy wins not because order is impossible but because there are always so many paths toward disorder then toward order. Ghostbusters, a movie related deeply to entropy shows how ghosts are creating disorders in people lives. This entropy is fixed by three men. As entropy has always been known for the series of disorder, and which cannot be stopped. In the movie, entropy plays the role when ghosts are free, and there is chaos and rush all over the city. Entropy in movie is when ghosts are free and the men are not allowed to capture them or not even given them a chance to prove their point.

Problems’ coming within a cluster is entropy. Cole and Ghostbusters have to face a line of problems at a same time, which creates a similarity. Cole has problems in her personal life affecting her career life, while Ghostbusters has entropy in their career life, resulting problems within their personal life. This comparison shows the same results for entropy, an increase of disarray in Ghostbusters and in Cole’s life. When there is a big line of disorders waiting for you, it efinitely takes you to the point of frustration. It plays a major role in everyday life.

Entropy is to be found everywhere, in every other life, without entropy a person doesn’t have a goal in life. Entropy creates hurdles in life, and that’s why there is a goal to overcome these hurdles. Cole realized that entropy is what brings things to its place, and ghostbusters proved that it’s not easy to deal with entropy, but in end no matter what, wherever we go entropy will be there.

How Society Has Been Impacted by the Increased Availability of Electronic Information essay help for free: essay help for free

How society has been impacted by the increased availability of electronic information Society has been impacted by the increased availability of electronic information in a number of different ways. I am going to talk about how the availability of information affects me and my family, also how it affects society in general and the average individual and to conclude I will talk about individuals and the effect on those who do not have access to IT.

Electronic information is available to us via Smartphones, PC’s, PDA’s, Tablets and Laptop’s. There are also advantages and disadvantages of the increased availability of electronic information. The increased availability of electronic information affects me and my family greatly in our day to day activities, this has had a major impact on my life over the past few years in particular, for example I access a variety of different screen-based documents such as, e-mails, text messages, internet web pages, television etc.

The decrease of paper-based documents has been extremely rapid with me and parents, with my parents accessing work material over the internet rather than being handed a paper based report. This has also impacted me as I use text messages to speak with my parents, family and friends, making it efficient for me to talk to them on the go and quickly. This saves me the journey of having to walk to friends or families houses, although these mobile phones do run on a portable battery, these are not always the most efficient making people unavailable, which is a disadvantage to this.

Also another mutual thing that has affected me and parents greatly is the way that we search information; years ago I would simply walk to the library and borrow a textbook, or enquire with my parents or teachers about certain information. Now I have unlimited access to a computer with various different search engines such as; Google, Yahoo, Ask Jeeves etc. I can search for whatever information that I seek, and I have search criteria if I choose to use it, such as filtering for the most up to date information and certain words that should not be found.

Making this extremely efficient and saves me a whole of time compared to the method of walking to the library, my parents also use this process daily. I also use the internet frequently, as it has a variety of different uses such as checking movie times, allowing you to plan ahead, saving you time, and being able to make family decisions. Allowing you to shop online, making the shopping process a whole lot smoother and requiring less effort, and allowing you to do much more in a shorter space of time.

The Internet also has a variety of different uses, such as checking movie times, allowing you to plan ahead, saving you time. Allowing you to shop online, making the shopping process a whole lot smoother and requiring less effort, and allowing you to go see much more that you would in a shorter space of time. Typing work out, which is extremely useful as you now have to do work multiple times, this allows you to always have a neat edge to your work and saves you time as you would have to write it out numerous times.

There are also disadvantages though with electronic software, such as the price of the work, it is extremely expensive, and you often have to pay on-going subscriptions for internet. Computers have a reputation of failing, and having numerous problems, meaning work can be lost and can cause frustration, and the numerous viruses that can be found on the internet, are always a burden, which are well hidden in programs making them hard to spot, nevertheless the increases in the availability of information have benefited me and my family and we are immensely dependent upon this.

The availability of information affects society in general massively also, many people around the world, use the internet to keep in contact with others from around the world via e-mail etc. this is much cheaper and time-efficient than sending a letter. People also want to keep up to date which the TV serves an excellent cause, by having numerous programs, the TV also serves different purposes, by providing entertainment, with a variety of different television programs, the age groups of these ranges from 0-6 months to 90+, and this is expensive though so it is not accessible to everyone.

Society also uses the internet and TV to keep up with what is happening around the world and to have instant access to information, which is not provided in newspapers as information is a day behind, this is also allows people to plan ahead, e. g. London bombings takes place and citizens get information from internet and avoid public transport. Society also use online banking which saves people from having to go to the bank to pay bills, get bank statements (which only come once a month via paper-based documents) companies now also encourage people to pay bills via electronic ethods, by making it cheaper in comparison to cheques and money in hand methods.

Society also use the internet for entertainment methods such as ‘iPlayer and 40D’ this allows people to catch up with favourite programs after they have been shown on television, this impacts society greatly as it is free and allows people to make plans during favourite television programs and documentaries. Also many companies do not allow you to apply for jobs via handing in a paper-based Curriculum –Vitae document and completing a job application, companies tell you to apply online, this making it essential to have a computer or access to a computer.

Also travel information is now available on the Internet, ranging from trains, buses to planes. Allowing society to go onto the respective websites and structure your journey letting you find the quickest way to get to the desired destinations of choice and for planes letting you check in a day early, saving you time when you get to the airport. Another major impact that this has on society is the police database, which keeps all of our records, this also linking in with mobile phones, making it quicker for people to call the police in emergency, through a ‘911, 999’ or other emergency contact number.

With most of society also relying on e-mails for many job instructions to be given for work also. Many public services organisations also use the website to display information such as the Local and National Government on www. directgov. org. NHS also has features to allow you to self-diagnose symptoms, making this quicker for everyone, and stops time wasting, and all banks now allowing you to bank online, saving you masses of time.

Of course there are disadvantages, such as personal details being hacked from pcs whilst banking, and the price of computers and how much broadband costs monthly. There is an immense impact of electronic communications on organisations, many different companies use electronic communications in their business relying less on paper based documents as we advance into the future. Comet is a prime example of a business relying less on the paper-based documents, they refuse to accept paper-based documents when someone is applying for a job, they insist on people using the online job resource.

They also send all instructions for their companies via e-mail whilst before this was either typed out and printed out and distributed to each member, making the new method, cheaper and quicker. Schools also are impacted greatly by the impact of increased electronic communications, my school uses a VLE (virtual learning environment) to have lessons structured and so that they are always available, from where ever you are as long as you have an Internet connection. These are used at most schools now.

Public services organisations are also impacted by the increased availability of electronic information; the government introduced the ‘Website Public Services Information (2005)’ stating that all public services organisation had to put their databases on the World Wide Web. The NHS has a self – diagnosis symptom program on their website. This makes it easier for people to see what is wrong with them, resulting in less emergency calls. Also UCAS who have the whole applying process for universities online, cutting out paper-based documents.

Making it quicker for universities in accepting and declining and for students also in finding out the courses and universities they are interested in. There are people that do not want to have to electronic information such as old age pensioners, certain religious groups, and people with old fashioned values, those who do not know how to use computers, those who have security fears, those who feel it is impersonal and those who feel that electronic information is an invasion of privacy.

The availability of information also affects people that do not want to have electronic information greatly also, as they lose out on many things such as job applications as many companies now do all the applications online and not on the web. They are also out of knowing of what is happening, constantly waiting for the newspaper or magazines. It is much harder to function in this society, as we are dependent on electronic information.

They will have to have a much longer process in doing many things, such as finding jobs; they are also limited to certain jobs where electronic information is not required, which could see as a major problem in this economic downfall. They are also forced to rely on their judgement a lot, with not being able to check travel information etc. this adding extra time onto their journey. They will also be caught up by natural events such as snow; they will not be able to communicate with others because they cannot get post sent whilst e-mail would be sent.

Those who do not have access, because they simply cannot, are impacted by the increased availability of electronic information are also affected, these are people that are old age pensioners, low income families, remote 3rd countries, prisoners and those that are in areas of the United Kingdom with no connectivity. Some of these people have had their problems tackled by places such as libraries, schools and Internet cafes. Giving them Internet access for most of the year, but they are also have holiday periods when they are not open, giving them no Internet access.

They are already adding extra time to their journey by having to go to one of these destinations that have Internet. Those in areas that have no broadband activity, are worse off as the whole area will not have any sort of broadband and will have to travel further to receive internet. The ‘digital divide’, describes the fact that the world can be divided into people who do and people who don’t have access to – and the capability to use – modern information technology, such as the telephone, television or the Internet. There are plans to end Africa’s digital divide, by Intel’s chairman Craig Barrett.

This will take long for this to happen, so there is still a major impact on those in remote Africa. I have concluded that the increased availability of electronic information has impacted everyone greatly whether you use it or not, as it may limit you if you do not use it, or may allow you to do process’ faster. You are impacted by the increased availability of electronic information if you utilise the resources that are available to you, whilst if you do not, there is extra hassle to do certain activities. Making it essential to have either a computer with a broadband connection.

Why Are Small Companies Important to Our Economy? college application essay help: college application essay help

Small companies are very important to our economy as they employ large number of employees in our economy and they are flexible and generally locally operated which means exchange of money stays in the community and they pay sales tax, business tax and wages which are spend locally. You take an example of locally owned restaurant business (Restaurants can also be considered as small companies) where restaurant purchases raw material from a grocery store or from a farmer locally and hires somebody local to serve/cook which creates job locally and most of the clientele are local as well.

Many of the high tech companies are small companies where they come up with very innovative products which help the mankind. Some small companies in Silicon Valley succeeded in developing very high tech products with limited manpower and funding because they had limited manpower to manage. Small companies have lesser overhead as compare to larger companies so if managed well they can generate more jobs and revenue with less investment. Small companies help larger companies as they purchase machinery, equipment like trucks, fax, and phones produced by larger companies which creates jobs.

Small companies hire people locally which generates employment as compare to larger companies where they procure globally as to cut their costs which does not generate much employment for the local communities. Smaller companies are flexible when it comes to qualification and experience when they hire people as compare to larger companies which help people with less qualification to get in the job market and acquire experience and small companies do provide better experience as employees have to wear different hats to do their job in small companies.

Small companies face problems like finance as it is difficult for small company to convince a bank or investors to provide loans or invest in the company as they are not famous and branded company. Small companies also faces problems in hiring manpower as people prefer to work for a reputed branded company which offer better salary and stability. It is even more difficult for small companies to hires skilled manpower or managerial manpower as educated people prefer to work for a established large branded known companies.

Marketing the products nationally or internationally is a very expensive and that’s where small companies have roblem in promoting their products whereas larger companies have power and resources in marketing their products nationally or internationally. Small companies also face problems in procuring as quantity they consume is not very large so they end up paying more as compare to larger companies where larger companies enjoy volume discount. Acquiring latest technology is a problem as they cost a lot as small companies operate with limited funds and they suffer the most during recession as they do not have as much buffer as the larger companies and no way of getting any bailout package from the government as automobile companies always gets it.

The Effects of Technology on Decision Making essay help fairfax: essay help fairfax

Computer systems are one way that health care providers have integrated technology into the medical field. Each computer system is unique, yet all have a purpose, function and structure. Deciding what computer system to choose, what software programs to incorporate and what the computer is needed to do are just a few burdens that have to be weighed when deciding which is best suited for the health care organization. Many health care organizations elect to incorporate decision support systems.

Decision support systems have been in increasing patient quality of care, increasing positive patient outcomes and decreasing the potential of medical errors. Bar coding, robotics, interactive websites, electronic medical records, and e-scribing are just a few advances in technology. “Advances in software, hardware, and networking all share common impact attributes in their ability to improve cost-effectiveness of care, quality of care, and access to care” (Nobel & Norman, 2003). With these attributes, the benefits are numerous in assisting with decision making in all aspects of health care.

A discussion on the DIK Mode The key to the complex relationship between data, information, and knowledge lies at the source of data and information. The source of data and information is dual: activities, and situations. Both activities and situations produce information (e. g. , ‘relevant meaning’ to someone) that is captured, thus becoming data, or becomes unaware. The key to understanding the relationship between information and knowledge is to know where the information resides. Recollect that information is at its soul message that is generated from activities and situations.

However, information resides in storage media (e. g. , database, print, video tapes, etc. ) in the form of data, or in the human mind as knowledge (in its simplest form of know-what or the higher forms of know-how and know-why). If this is the case, then extend between data and information in association with information and knowledge becomes evident, e. g. , they occupy different space at the same time. This also explains why many distinguish data and information, as well as information and knowledge as well suited. …one man’s data can be another man’s knowledge, and vice versa, depending on context” (Stewart, 2002, p. 6).

However, they are not exchangeable in terms of their accepted distinct definitions. So, what is a book; knowledge, information or data? It is all the above in various context. A book is knowledge from the author’s perspective, information for the impending reader, and data as well which is contained in a storage media (called ‘book’). A discussion of systems and informatics theories Direct communication represents an information processing world of systems.

Systems have been designed to provide access to data, information, and knowledge for use by nurses in a multifaceted and culturally diverse world. “A system is defined as a series of well designed mechanism connected by communication links exhibiting resolute, goal directed behavior” (King, 1996 p. 61). A common language among nurses worldwide would describe the categories of various systems wherever they occur. Nurses are becoming more knowledgeable of the technologies offered as health care organizations across the world incorporate technology into their practices.

Considering the nurse has the responsibility of the majority of the documentation, it is important to incorporate aspects of nursing classification systems to help with decision making. The transaction Process in King’s theory when used in interdisciplinary teams facilitates mutual goal-setting with patients based on each member of the team’s specific knowledge and functions. This often facilitates role similarity and respect for the knowledge, skills, and values each member brings to the situation.

An example of the usefulness of the nursing process, as process in technology use is the documentation of the nursing process in the computerized healthcare record. Information technology has enabled healthcare organizations to function as incorporated healthcare delivery networks, improve quality, and become socially and environmentally responsive (Davenport, Jarvenpaa, & Beers, 1996; Tapscott & Caston, 1993). Nursing data must be included in computerized information systems in organizations or the nurse’s documentation becomes invisible.

The nursing process is much broader than “steps,” the nursing process is an international method to use the discipline’s body of knowledge organized in the structure of theory and nursing and nursing classifications. With emerging technology, and the integration of software applications, the ability to incorporate the nursing process and other health care information into a digital system has become a reality. As technology advances, incorporation of decision support systems also advances. The use of expert systems and decision support systems further the ability for technology to engage in decision making.

The role of expert system in nursing care and medicine Expert systems in medicine are computer programs that make human based decisions by copying the judgments and behavior of humans, based on knowledge and experience from previous diagnosis and investigation derived from treatment and long-term care of patients with similar conditions as the present. That is why expert system is referred to as knowledge- base information system. The expert system is an artificial intelligent branch of computer generated thought with a very narrow focus.

It is used in health care because the system functions very well with specific activities or problems and a discrete database of digitalized facts, rules, cases and models. Using patient data, its incorporated knowledge base, its inference engine, and the expert system can derive specific advice related to the case being treated. Expert systems basically act as if a Doctor or Nurse would, when they make a decision on courses of treatment. Diagnosing, predicting, interpreting and instructing are four interactive roles that form the activities of the expert system. The use of decision aids and decision support systems

Decision support systems usually have numerous functions when used in hospital or healthcare settings. They are mostly used in specific decision-making activities. Decision support system relies on computer hardware, software and information for effective function. They can be used as knowledge-based and also as non- knowledge -base. One of its functions is administrative, in which they help in documentation of clinical information, decide whether a procedure is appropriate for treating a certain condition, and decide if a referral is necessary, to whom or where, and make follow-ups on the referrals.

They help in keeping patients on protocol in situations like chemotherapy treatment or just research. Decision support systems also help in tracking orders whether medical or external shipments. They are very efficient in avoiding mistakes such as scheduling unnecessary tests. Most importantly, Decision support systems help in making the right diagnosis, providing different treatment options and suggesting the better option, and help look after the patients and hospital population as a whole.

Decision aids are mostly used in helping the patient or care-giver decide which treatment is best for the condition being considered. Decision aids can also be used in referrals of patient to nurse call-centers or patient education services available. In the future decision support system will incorporate four criteria; robustness, ease of control, simplicity, and completeness of relevant detail. Reusability will be proficient through some type of software or hardware framework in compliance to Alter’s model, enabling companies to take benefit of basic, generalized models common to a range of scenarios.

The history of Decision Support Systems is a short one, making it easy to map out the steps and growth of this relatively new concept. Even small improvements to current systems will enable all companies to make improved decisions about the marketing of products, which will in the long run aid the economy as a whole by placing in it only the most desirable and successful products. A framework that represents the backbone of decision support system will enable companies that would not normally work together on marketing concepts to bring together their efforts.

The core system will progress to one that will in real meaning constantly learn from past practice. The uses of technology for patient and client management Technology for patient and client management is changing the health care system daily. Informatics is a specialized computer science used to manage information technology. Most healthcare settings have IT departments, yet nurses need to be able to use and retrieve valuable patient information to give patient care. Electronic medical records, also known as EMR, are the most recent and largest application of technology in the health care field.

The use of EMR allows for documentation and a more cohesive interdisciplinary care plan for the patient. Another popular trend in healthcare is to have an integrated EMR with other aspects of patient care including patient appointments, assessments, billing and personal information, and other outpatient tests. Within this integrated patient record, a computer can keep documentation of many areas of a patients care; can provide easy access to the records from any place to any medical personnel.

Technology such as this decreases the gaps in medical care; the time spent on documentation, and reduces medical errors. This in turn saves money for health care providers. Another form of technology that is used in patient care is the internet. It can be used for retrieval of data for patient education. The internet can be used to search multiple sources of information with efficiency. The biggest concern with the use of the internet is that the electronic source must be evaluated for credibility and reliability.

The internet is allows for quick communication amount healthcare professionals to enhance collaboration and coordination of care (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). An analysis of the effect of technology on health care and health status The medical care field is allowing expanding technology of the twenty-first century to be integrated into patient care. Technology has allowed surgical procedures to be simplified, patients recover quicker, and fewer complications occur. This also decreases the length of stay for a patient and therefore decreases medical costs.

Technology has also made it possible for a patient’s medical history to be all in one spot, accessible for all members of the health care team, and from any area of the world. The use of technology advances have resulted in better health care delivery and patient outcomes. As health care organizations integrate ethnology into their daily practices, they are faced with many complexities. DIK models, health informatics systems, and decision support systems must be created to improve patient care, increase efficiency among health care staff, decrease costs or be cost-effective, and increase positive patient outcomes.

Decision making technology, such as decision support systems, must meet timelines, objectivity, have the ability to integrate with other software applications, have boundaries, and be able to prioritize information and gathered data. “The quantity and complexity of decisions faced by the health care executive demand standardized decision processes” (Englebardt & Nelson, 2002). Efforts to improve the quality and value of health care are increasingly emphasizing a critical role for the meaningful use of clinical decision support systems.

The use of health information technology (HIT), health information systems (HIS), electronic medical records (EMR), electronic health records (EHR), and Pyxsis systems are just a few computer software programs that integrate DSS to provide supportive tools to assist health care providers in clinical decisions. Conclusion Technology will continue to change. It is important for health care organizations to embrace these changes to better the delivery of medical care. As technology advances, the ability for health care consumers to gain a better understanding of their diagnosis and treatment options, such as the internet, also advances.

Patients are expecting faster service, use of the best technology, and are choosing health care facilities based on how advanced technologically the facility is. The decision support technologies will assist the physician’s and other medical staff to be able to provide faster responses and increase patient satisfaction.

Consumer Advertising Ethical mba essay help: mba essay help

She then pulls out a magazine and begins to turn through the pages when she find an advertisement for a prescription drug to treat migraines. This drug could ease her pain and let her resume her normal activities. Is it wrong for her to see this ad? Absolutely not. ?Sharing information with the public about possible cures is morally right. Withholding information that can save someone’s life is morally wrong.

Direct advertising to consumers of pharmaceutical drugs is ethical based on a deontological perspective. Kant considered what is “right” over what is “good” to be  superior (wikipedia). In the case of direct-to-consumer drug advertising, the right of sharing information about cures and possible ailments outweighs any possible “good” that can be made on behalf of the advertisers. It does not matter that the advertising companies and the pharmaceutical companies will make money off of the patients purchasing the drugs.

What is most important is sharing the knowledge with those patients. When the general public is presented with information about pharmaceutical drugs not only are they given information about something that can provide treatments for symptoms they may be having, but it also informs them about what certain groupings of symptoms may be. For example, a person having strange pains in his/her legs and doesn’t know what it is and might not seek medical attention. However, if he/she sees an advertisement on television that describes those exact symptoms he/she is experiencing, the advertisement would give the ailment a possible name.

This information could help that person when he/she goes to see his/her doctor. The patient can describe what he/she is experiencing and tell the doctor about the ad that made him/her think there was a reason to visit the doctor for treatment. Some cases will be serious and others will be minor, this is not important. What is important is that the public was granted this information in an easily accessible format – the advertisement. ?The United States and New Zealand are the only two developed countries that allow direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical drugs (DeGeorge 320).

Health care works differently in the U. S. than in other parts of the world like Europe and Canada. Because of the major differences in health care, DTC is more welcomed in these countries than in others. Here in the U. S. many people are paying for their own health care out of pocket unlike other places where it is provided at no cost. In other countries you don’t have to worry about whether or not you can afford to go to the doctor and/or pay for the visit and prescriptions. DTC advertising is more welcomed in the U. S. because people want to feel empowered and be given choices.

Here there are a lot of options because people pay for what they think they need even if it is not the best option for them. ?People make decisions based on what they are convinced they need. In the U. S. you, or your insurance that you most likely pay for, have to pay for every lab and every doctor visit. So in the U. S. many people would rather treat symptoms than fix a problem. DTC advertising knows this and uses it to their advantage. Canadian Medical Association president Henry Haddad, M. D. stated, “The message U. S. consumers are getting is that pharmaceuticals are simply consumer commodities rather than complex therapeutics.

We think that interferes with the physician–patient relationship by raising the expectations of patients and pressuring physicians to prescribe drugs. ” (Fintor) This is a prime example of why other developed nations are not proponents of DTC advertising. ?When you look at direct-to-consumer advertising based on a utilitarian perspective it would be considered morally wrong. In utilitarianism you can only judge something’s moral value once you know all of the consequences (wikipedia). This means that every consequence needs to be examined and weighed.

As a result of DTC advertising of pharmaceutical drugs, not only is the pubic informed about illnesses and a variety of ways to treat said illnesses, but also a plethora of other consequences that add negatively to the moral value of the action. ?One negative consequence to seriously consider is the money that is gained by pharmaceutical companies, advertisers, and doctors. Money will drive people to do almost anything regardless if it is morally right or wrong. When consumers see an advertisement for a drug they might try to identify with the ad and feel it necessary to visit their doctor.

Once they visit the doctor they will claim to have symptoms that were described in the advertisement and then ask for a prescription to the drugs that were shown. Once the doctor prescribes these drugs the money is gained by all the involved parties and is lost by the patients. ?Many of the drugs prescribed have harmful side-effects that are downplayed by the advertisements. It’s all about the money and not the well-being of the patients.

This is clearly displayed in a study that showed that a pharmaceutical company saw a return of $4. 0 for every dollar spent on advertising (DeGeorge 319). That’s an incredible 420% percent profit margin. With profits like that it’s easy to understand why the moral consequences have been ignored. It would be morally wrong for people to take advantage of consumers and capitalize on their illnesses. If the pharmaceutical companies were really all about informing the public about illnesses and treatments they would do it without receiving any money. Taking away the profit aspect of the pharmaceutical world would change the advertising and probably the drugs themselves.

With no profits involved there would not be the push that there is to find something that could work to treat an illness regardless of the consequences. Scientists would strive to find treatments that would help people and not harm them; this is the basis of utilitarianism, weighing all of the good and the bad.

In conclusion, direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceutical drugs has both positive and negative consequences. Do I believe people making money off of the misfortune of others is right? No. However, I do believe is our duty to inform and educate people about illnesses and possible treatments.The health and well-being of the population of the world is much more important than someone making a dollar.

The Art of Being a Prince, Niccolo Machiavelli essay help us: essay help us

Discuss the nature of Machiavelli’s new political morality in relation to being a Prince. Niccolo Machiavelli was born on 3 May 1469 in Florence, Italy and at the age of twenty-nine he became a public servant in the service of his city. He was one of most pre-eminent political characters in Florence during the Renaissance although major recognition of his works came after his death. The Renaissance represented a period of changing social and technological evolution for Western civilization as it helped to revive the rational, secular scientific spirit that had lain dormant through many centuries of medieval encasement.

Machiavelli is recognized for being a political realist but most famously for being an amoral political thinker of his period who shocked imagination. He counsels a prince who is exempt from moral standards to achieve his ends by whatever means necessary. Machiavelli’s subtle conception of politics even embraces deception by lying and cruelty, but the prince is not necessarily without understanding of justice. Good and evil become superfluous when Machiavelli introduces the concept of political statecraft and the notion of ‘just political action’ to preserve the country.

Machiavelli wrote The Prince (1513) in troubled times when Italy was constantly being invaded and looted by foreigners while Italian city-states failed to unite in defense the country. The Prince, considered as Machiavelli’s most influential work is considered by some as a masterpiece because it depicts the “real human beings” and how a prince (or leader) ought to govern his subjects. Contrarily, others find in Machiavelli an unparalleled wickedness and perversion for a ruthless leader to achieve his ends by any means possible: ‘In the action of rulers, the end justifies the means’.

The term Machiavellian is commonly associated to a cold-blooded, crafty, unscrupulous and amoral person ready to do whatever it takes in order to succeed in anything he is involved and ultimately justifying the most malignant means. Scandalously, Machiavelli retorts the ‘ends’ of such actions are justified as long as they have fulfilled their purpose, that is, ‘the means will always be judged honorable’. He cites Cesare Borgia, whose cruel actions have shown that he was able to keep his subjects united and faithful.

The art of being a prince implies what princes should do according to present circumstances rather than ‘how one ought to live’. Machiavelli was also aware that the demise of any leader would come when he ‘who abandons what is done for what ought to be done learns his ruin than his preservation’. Machiavelli is irrevocably associated to a type of political thinking coined as political realism. His inquiry of the state differs from Plato and other political thinkers before him because he marks a shift into realistic political thinking.

He criticizes that in the past ‘many have imagined republics and principalities which have never been seen or known to exist in reality’. This is a possible reference to the Republic of Plato as a utopia, not a reflection of reality. The state imagined by Plato lacks the characteristics of human imperfection and social problems which lead to chaos. A leader does not need all the qualities of a good human being to become a good leader nor does Machiavelli advocate the idea of a perfect prince.

The difference between good and evil becomes erroneous as the real political motivation of a leader becomes ‘what course will save the life and liberty of the country? ’ The rules of power have an absolute priority over moral values and ethical considerations as the statesman “cannot afford the luxury of practicing morality in his situation”. Plato’s Republic supports such realism explicitly when he says ‘only the rulers of the state should have the privileged of lying’. Machiavellian thinking presupposes a leader has the privilege of lying and cruelty over his population in whatsoever case to preserve the stability of the state.

Any course of action he chooses, whether good or evil will depend whether it increases the prince’s influence and power over his subjects. Machiavelli assumes power is an end in itself and his main concern is not so much the quest for justice, freedom or religion but rather the most suitable means to acquire, retain and expand power. Machiavelli develops the concept of raison d’etat in which the political mechanism ought to be operated by the prince to protect his reign and protect the interest of the country at all costs.

The prince should cast aside any moral or ethical consideration and “be prudent enough to avoid scandal of those vices which will lose him the state”. Machiavelli believes the art of ruling should exhibit specific values inspired from the classical Roman Empire. Machiavelli particularly focuses his attention to virtus which is derived from Latin, meaning manliness which is to be understood as the strength, skills and prowess of a citizen who has knowledge and respect for ‘civic responsibilities and personal integrity’.

Such are the qualities required for any successful leader, whether he faces good or adverse circumstances. Similarly, Machiavelli describes how a leader’s fate depends on fortune to become successful or be ruined. None can control fortune but depending on his abilities and how opportunistic he is, a good ruler practicing virtus will be prepared against adversity and thus modify its consequences. A leader must be prepared for drastic and unexpected change of fortune where he may have to face adversity domestically and from external powers.

Machiavelli, who witnessed constant political instability during his lifetime, thinks it is wiser for a prince to be prudent and not keep faith in any other person than himself. Machiavelli recommends the prince to be swift in his actions and it is far better to be feared than loved, if he cannot be both. Since the two rarely come together, a leader will find greater security and reliability in being feared. Moreover, Machiavelli believes the prince will be less at risk of being overthrown if feared by those he injured.

Those who hate him will be reluctant to act against the ruler by fear of retaliation and punishment. If the prince was only to be loved, those who hate him would find it too easy to overthrow a passive government. Human nature is treacherous and knowing this, Machiavelli criticizes: ‘they are bad, and no one would keep their faith to you, you are not bound to keep faith in them’. To be successful in every enterprise he undertakes, a prince should display instincts of both man and beast and that one without the each other is not possible survival among wolves.

A wise ruler should be able to recognize the traps by being a fox and frightening the wolves by being a lion. More importantly, the art of being a prince involves being a very good comedian since there are five qualities he must constantly display, at least appear to have them in public, namely mercy, faithfulness, integrity, humanity and religiousness. Machiavelli cites Pope Alexander VI: “no man was ever more able to give assurances or affirmed things with stronger oaths and no man observed them less; however, he always succeeded in his deceptions”.

In Machiavelli’s opinion, it is necessary for a prince to hide his true intent to appear moral in front of his subjects and thus, few will have the daring to oppose the leader who has popular support (so he will be loved). Moreover, Machiavelli’s pragmatism over religion is surprising as he realizes it is only a tool of influence and control in the hands of the ruler over the ruled. He recognizes the oneness of the Christian God and the individualism of Christianity have contributed much to the downfall of the Roman Empire as much as it kept Italy divided during the Renaissance itself.

In antiquity, the various pagan gods showed social cohesion of a polytheistic society while Christianity favored individualism. To preserve his rule, Machiavelli expects a prince to maintain the love of his people by displaying ‘temperance and restraint’. He must also keep himself from abusing authority to earn the contempt and hatred of the masses by being prudent. Machiavelli gives an example of the kind of behavior which leads to be being hated. If a prince becomes ‘rapacious’ of others’ wealth and starts violating the property and woman of his subjects, he will be both despised and hated.

Machiavelli points out being generous cannot be good since displaying too much wealth until it runs out will only lead to higher taxes. A prince will gain reputation when he ‘appears’ to be generous instead of being generous which only makes him ‘rapacious’ (So he becomes hated). Machiavelli warns the prince to be careful when using tax money since it is the wealth of the population and only when generating revenue from other sources should he be generous. Machiavelli takes an example from the Kings of France and Spain, who have a reputation for being miserly yet successful in their enterprise.

However, being tough and realistic is not a sufficient condition to govern successfully. As stated above, the prince must have the love of his population, secure his position and be able to defend and administrate his country. On the art of war, Machiavelli believes that the prince should constantly be preparing for it and even in times of peace he should study the aspects of military warfare and drills. The latter should always be prepared for military action in the style of a roman general in antiquity; being always aware of military organization, discipline and capable of isplaying virtus.

A prince should study is the actions of those who, in the past, have been praised and glorified such as Caesar, Alexander the Great and Achilles. According to Machiavelli, the prince should emulate to achieve the glory of past generals and learn from them the extraordinary qualities and characteristic to guide his military and political career. Moreover, the prince must recognize that reliance on foreign mercenaries can only have adverse effects as compared to having his own troops.

Machiavelli believes once the victorious prince would take control of a state, the foreign troops would turn against him because they are more powerful. Reliance on mercenaries can only lead to ruin for the prince and his city… The art of being a prince consists of being prudent and as Machiavelli firmly states, ‘let no state believe that it can always follow safe policy while prudence consists of being able to know the nature of difficulties and taking the least harmful as good’. Niccolo Machiavelli had a clear-sighted knowledge of the human condition, vile and corrupted.

In judging The Prince, the historic context must be taken into consideration and in defense of Machiavelli, his arguments calls for drastic action during uncertain times. His subtle and duplicitous prince does not reflect an amoral person but show the political circumstances of the time. Corruption, thefts and murders were common during the Renaissance and ruthless and harsh rulers were common. Machiavelli writes upon these series of events during his lifetime and from the past to counsel a prince how he ought to rule in the long standing tradition of homiletic writers.

Perspectives on Church Government scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

A model may sometimes be referred to as “polity”, the definition of a polity is “the form of government of a nation, state, church, or organization. ” (The Free Dictionary n. d. ) Each model will be discussed and defended by an author, and later that chapter is rebutted by fellow authors, stating their opinions and rebuttals. (Brand and Norman 2004) The 5 Models of Church Government Single-Elder-Led Church This model is discussed by Daniel Akin, President of Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. What does the Scripture say about the number of elders in a congregation?

The Scripture didn’t specify whether there should be only a single elder in a congregation, but it has been noticed that the word is usually addressed in a plural manner, telling us that elders ruled as a collective body. Akin stated that it doesn’t matter how many elders there in a congregation, what’s important is who they are. So what is a single-elder-led church, if elders ruled as a collective body? A single-elder-led church is a congregation where an elder is elected, not in rank, age, or importance, but rather in recognition by his people. He is recognized as a leader among other elders.

An example given in the book is the book of Numbers Chapter 11, where Moses was directed by God to gather a group of elders to share the burden of judging the people. Akin noted, the elders shared the work with Moses but yet remained under him. (Brand and Norman 2004) What then is the strength of this polity? The elders’ authority is not based by their appointment from above, but by the people who recognized his leadership, moral standing, i. e. he was deemed worthy of leading by the people around him. This should bring a worthy and capable leader for the congregation.

One who they know would be capable. The weakness I see from this model is the chance for an elder to implement an authority through autocracy. (Brand and Norman 2004) Presbytery-Led Church This chapter was written by Robert L. Reymond. The word Presbyterianism means governance by the elders. A Presbyterian church is led by a group or council of elders elected by their congregations. It is noted that when elders or overseers are elected, they will not carry out the congregation’s will but rather, rule in agreement with the Word of God, not primarily in agreement with the will of the congregation. Brand and Norman 2004, 95) Presbyterians have urged that there is evidence that the elders of local churches act together with other local congregations in the same area, forming a network like form of leadership.

An example given by Reymond is the book of Acts 15:4, where the elders of Jerusalem acted under the name of “the church of Jerusalem”. This showed a connectional manner of leadership. So what is Connectionalism? It is where all leaders and congregations are connected in a network of loyalties and commitments that support, yet supersede, local concerns. (dictionary. sensagent. com n. d. This makes each and every congregation reflect mutual accountability, dependency, and submission among them (Brand and Norman 2004, 95).

Reymond, the author, firmly believes that Presbytery-Led church model is “the most trustworthy, just and peaceful way for the church to determine its principles, its practices and its priorities and to resolve its differences. (Brand and Norman 2004, 135) How effective is this model? It is, at most times. It provides the most trustworthy, just, and peaceful way for the church to settle or determine its principles, practices, priorities, and resolve its differences.

Looking at it this way, it seems to be really effective, where fair decisions are made by discussions and arguments on the assembly held and attended by different elders of local congregations. But one must think that different people hold different views, understandings or beliefs on some issues. For example, some of the elders may or may not agree on contraceptives. Once a decision is made about an issue, those who had a different view will be forced to accept the decision made by the council. (Brand and Norman 2004) Congregation-Led Church

This model was discussed by James Leo Garrett, Jr. He begins the chapter by describing what a congregational-led church is: “that form of church governance in which final human authority rests with the local or particular congregation when it gathers for decision-making. This means that decisions about membership, leadership, doctrine, worship, conduct, missions, finances, property, relationships, and the like are to be made by the gathered congregation except when such decisions have been delegated by the congregation to individual members or groups of members. (Brand and Norman 2004, 157)

Simply said, unlike the Presbyterian form of polity, the Congregational-led church’s decisions were made by the whole congregation, where each member expresses their opinion on each decision-making. Democracy, this is the strength of Congregational-led form of church government. Each and every member of a local congregation can express his or her own opinion on decision-making.

Although they can voice out their opinions on the decisions being made by their local congregation, these ecisions only affect their congregation, therefore may cause minor differences between local congregations, this is the weakness of this polity. (Brand and Norman 2004) Bishop-Led Church The Bishop-led church, as the name suggests, is simply a polity by which the church is under the authority of a bishop. In this chapter, Paul F. M. Zahl, Dean and President of Trinity Episcopal School for Ministry, defended this polity by presenting the readers a thorough discussion about this polity. Unlike how the other polities were presented with the use of scriptures, Zahl used old traditions and logical structure of different churches around the world.

He used this information as an argument to point out the truthfulness and the bene essse of churches governed by bishops. The strength of this polity is the “One individual, one man, can do it”. Because of this, Spain became successful of promulgating Christianity among to the whole nation because one good officer is sufficient to take charge of a whole mission. (Brand and Norman 2004, 231) On the other hand, the weakness of a bishop-led church is Prelacy which means the authoritarian “personal rule” of one man.

This means that the bishop, instead of performing what is written in the doctrine, becomes overpowered by his self-centered ambitions thus, in turn becomes a tyrant on governing the church. (Brand and Norman 2004, 232) Plural-Elder-Led Church This model was defended by James R. White. This model has similarities to the Presbyterian form of church polity; both have local congregations led by a group or council of elders. The difference is, the Plural-Elder-Led church is independent, unlike the Presbytery-led church where they answer to higher council of elders.

James White emphasizes the importance of self-sufficiency when it comes to governing local congregations. If a church cannot function independently or has to answer to a higher power, then the offices established in that church are seen to be unfit to govern the congregation. (Brand and Norman 2004, 259) It is also similar in many ways to the single-elder-led and the congregational forms of church government, such as being independent and making decisions within the local congregations, difference is in leadership.

As the name suggests, the local congregation is led by a group or council of elders. Unlike the single-elder-led church, the plural-elder-led church is led by elders of equal ranks. (Brand and Norman 2004) The strengths of this kind of polity is that it seems to be supported by events or instances were written in the Scripture, one would think it would be the right form of church government because of this. An example would be from the book of Hebrews 13:17, the verse started with the words “Obey your leaders”. The weakness I see is that, would these elders always agree with each other?

How would they deal with elders who fail to uphold their duties? How about the local congregation? Don’t they any say on matters being settled by the elders? They weren’t clear about this matter. My Church My church is Grove Missionary Baptist Church which is located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. The polity followed by our church is Single-Led Church since the pastor is elected by the Church body as the leader of the Church in both spiritual and administrative, and different deacons are assigned to different tasks such as financial records, cleanliness of the church, etc.

For the Organizational Structure, since the current Christian Education Department serves as the foundation for teaching, Bible Study, Sunday School, Missionary Department, First Aid, Department, Usher Board, Newsletter, Media Ministry, Fitness Ministry and Deaconess Ministries. Since the department has 10 different ministries in it, it somehow hampers the development of the department and its ministries, so I would recommend they be separated into auxiliaries so that they may recruit more and further develop themselves as separate departments.

I would also consider reviewing the need of the Church Council in the structure of a Baptist Church because it is open for members from other Ministries and they might not be a good fit for a Church Council Member, meaning sometimes it can get a little political. As for its form of government, I’d recommend not changing into another form or polity. I believe it may only cause confusion or unnecessary changes to an already effective church. Changing the form of government won’t necessarily improve what we do or want to teach.

Conclusion “Christians do not all agree on just how churches are to be governed or structured” (Brand and Norman 2004, 11) says Stanton, one of the editors, because the New Testament doesn’t specify exactly how the church should be organized or managed. Thus, each model argues and claims to be the most authentic through Biblical authenticity, citing Biblical verses and events. (Brand and Norman 2004) One thing is for certain though, the Lord clearly stated in the Scripture how He wishes His churches to be managed.

First, Christ is the head of church and its supreme authority according to Colossians 1:18, and second, these local churches will be governed by elders. The Lord gave specific instructions or qualifications for someone to be an elder according to Titus 1:5-9. (Got Questions?. org n. d. ) What matters is that every church, no matter the form of church government or polity, to remain true to the Scripture. And every elder, bishop, overseer, deacons, and believer will respect and follow the Word of God and that they would always worship and praise the Lord.

The Achievements of Peaceful Protest During the Civil Rights Movement aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help: aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

The Achievements of Peaceful Protests By 1968, full racial equality had not been achieved. Nonetheless, significant progress had been made in terms of: • Education • Transport • Desegregation of public places • Voting rights • Employment • Public Opinion Education • The 1954 Brown case – established that a segregated education could never be an equal one. • Although there were other legal victories which attempted to speed up integration, progress towards desegregation was slow. In 1957, 3 years after the Brown case which ruled that segregation was illegal in all schools, 97% of black students remained in segregated schools. • Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 gave the government power to force integration of education, by 1968 58% of black students remained in segregated schools.

President Johnsons Higher Education Act of 1965 increased the number of black students attending college/uni during the late 1960s and 1970s Important points to remember: The Brown Case (1954) Civil Rights Act (1964) Higher Education Act (1968) Transport Interstate Transport An NAACP court case in 1946 successfully established that segregation was illegal on interstate transport • CORE’s 1961 Freedom Rides – were necessary for a de facto change • September 1961 – signs enforcing segregation were removed from interstate buses/bus terminals State Transport • SCLC’s Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956) led to desegregation of buses in Montgomery and the NAACP’s legal case les to the establishment that segregation on buses was illegal (de jure) • De facto change in the South was slow.

Civil Rights Act (1964) was necessary to give the government power to enforce de facto change. Public Places Sit-ins which began in Greensboro in 1960 = effective • But some authorities took measures to avoid desegregation e. g. closed public parks • Birmingham Campaign (1963) – protestors did not achieve full desegregation • Civil Rights Act (1964) – forced cities to desegregate • 1965 – 214 southern cities had desegregated Voting Rights • Eisenhower’s Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960 were ineffective in guaranteeing black voting rights. • 1963 – only 800 000 out of 20 million blacks could vote • 1964 – Mississippi Freedom Summer • 1965 – Selma Campaign.

Voting Rights Act of 1965 = effective in the North 1965 – 6 million blacks were registered to vote • Voter registration led to an increase in the number of blacks elected to governmental positions in the North Employment and Income • During 1950s, black unemployment was approximately twice the national average • Improvement during 1960s but full equality was not achieved • Civil Rights Act (1964) – outlawed racial discrimination in employment • Moynihan Report (1965) – highlighted that equality had still not been achieved • 1968 – the average income of black workers had risen but it was still only 61% of the income of white workers

Housing • American Census (1960) – reported that 46% of blacks were living in ‘unsound’ accommodation • Black campaigners put pressure on politicians to solve the problem of ghettos • 1967 – 22 states had some form of fair housing law • Fair Housing Act (1968) – prohibited discrimination in America’s housing market – fairly ineffective as maximum fine was 1000 dollars Public Support for Civil Rights Civil Rights campaigns of the early 1960s were highly effective in winning public support • 1964 – 80% of the public supported the desegregation of education, employment and voting.

But people still did not want to LIVE near black people – only half the public supported equal rights in housing Conclusion The Civil Rights movement transformed America. By 1968, segregation, where it still remained was no longer backed by the law. The federal government had new laws to challenge racial injustice. But there was still a long way to go before all Americans would be considered ‘equal’.

Thomas Jefferson college application essay help online: college application essay help online

Different beliefs may lead to discussions that become argumentative because of the multiple point of views brought forth. The philosophy of the government is ultimately decided based on one’s opinion. An opinion is formed with an ideal that supports the specific beliefs being analyzed. In the year 1801, Thomas Jefferson was elected as the third president of the United States and changed his ideals shortly after becoming president. In his time of control, Thomas Jefferson had his own thoughts on the philosophy of the government.

Thomas Jefferson’s ideals revolved the national bank, tariffs, and the Assumption Plan funding “at par”, that changed after he had entered the White House. First, Thomas Jefferson’s ideals on the national bank were different before he had been elected president. A section of the Constitution states that “Congress may pass any laws ‘necessary and proper’” (195) and “would be fully justified in establishing the Bank of the United States” (195). Thomas Jefferson thought that the national bank was unconstitutional because the Congress did not obtain specific power that allowed them to create a bank.

With Thomas Jefferson’s beliefs against this statement, he provides intelligent information which was determined before he was elected. Thomas Jefferson believed that the national bank did not have the authority for this specific financial situation, therefore he “argued vehemently against the bank” (195). He was against the idea that Congress had the ability to charter banks because the states should have the power to do so. After his successful election, his “harsh realities forced Jefferson’s principles to bend” (219).

Though, Thomas Jefferson disagreed with the national bank he did not take any action to change it. With the overwhelming power Jefferson had after his election, other concerns regarding more important situations had been brought to his attention. To conclude, Thomas Jefferson was against the national bank but after moving into the White House, he did nothing to change it. Additionally, Thomas Jefferson did not agree with the first tariff law passed by Congress in 1789.

The first tariff law was declared because by “imposing a low tariff of about 8 percent in the value of dutiable imports” (194) would protect industries. Congress cared mostly about their income and this tariff law increased the price on items. Thomas Jefferson did not agree with the Congress’ action. His point of view was that “all powers not specifically granted to the central government were reserved to the states” (195). By this, Jefferson does not believe Congress should perform this but the states should have the authority to. The first tariff law’s purpose was to tax imported goods.

Due to his opposing beliefs, Thomas Jefferson would not change his mind. Unexpectedly, Thomas Jefferson did not do anything about it. For having the authority and power as a president, he should have done something about the situation if he were so against it before he had been elected. Unfortunately, “they launched no attack… nor did they repeal the mildly protective Federalist tariff” (218). Even though Jefferson believed that products were at much higher cost than they were needed to be, he took no further action to abolish this law at any given opportunity.

Lastly, Thomas Jefferson’s ideals included the Assumption Plan funding “at par”. The Assumption Plan was when the government would assume the states’ debts. During this Assumption Plan “the states would simply give their debts over to the federal government. The reason for assuming state debts was to tie states together in a common endeavor – to jointly pay off the debt” (wikinotes). Thomas Jefferson believed this was not fair because he did not respect the government for only paying half of their debts.

Jefferson agreed that “a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing” (218). Thomas Jefferson disagreed with the idea that “paying debts in full or at 100% face value in what was called Funding at Par… was crucial, basically because it would get respect” (wikinotes). The ideals Jefferson had were realistically intelligent and he believed in his point of view. On the contrary, Thomas Jefferson “did not tamper with the Federalist programs for funding the national debt at par” (218).

He was entirely against the Assumption Plan but took no action into changing this act. Furthermore, it is not understandable why Thomas Jefferson did not change what he believed was correct, after becoming president. In conclusion, as the third president of the United States, Thomas Jefferson failed to change numerous acts that his ideals supported. His beliefs were clearly stronger before he had become president. The national bank, tariffs, and the Assumption Plan funding “at par” changed after he had been elected.

Matching Dell argumentative essay help online: argumentative essay help online

In order to understand why cultivation of core competencies is crucial to the future success of Dell in this period of increasing competition, we will examine which competencies have led Dell to be successful in the past, what the competitive advantage derived from these competencies is, and what Dell must do to maintain its leadership position despite the entry of competitors into the direct sales channel. Core competencies provide access to a wide variety of markets, make a significant contribution to customer benefits of the end product, and are difficult for a competitor to imitate.

Dell has developed two strong core competencies that have allowed it to pursue a cost leadership strategy successfully in our view: * Supply chain excellence * Direct sales excellence Supply chain excellence has allowed Dell to run a lean, customized, and high quality manufacturing operation. Just-in-time manufacturing (low inventory), minimization of working capital in the production process, and the ability to work with suppliers have led to cost leadership in the PC market and given Dell a strong competitive advantage.

Direct sales excellence has allowed Dell to cut out resellers and other intermediaries from the sales process and distribute high quality products to consumers at competitive prices. In 1998, the year that competitors (other than Gateway) began to introduce a direct sales channel, Dell had a significant competitive advantage in the PC market. The first part of this advantage was manifested in much lower costs than competitors (details in table 1 and 2): | Dell| Compaq/Reseller team| Inventory (% of total assets)| 5. 5%| 8. 7%|

SG&A costs (% of revenue)| 9. 8%| 16. 0%| R&D costs (% of revenue)| 1. 7%| 4. 3%| Reseller payback costs| 0| ~2. 5 cents per dollar of revenue| Dell was also able to sell 70% of their PCs to the more lucrative business customers (large and small businesses), while Compaq only sold 60% to these users (case exhibit 11). Within the business segment, Dell charged about the same price as Compaq for an equivalent PC (case exhibit 10b). Table 3 shows the $300 to $450 difference between the price of a business PC and that of a home user PC in 1998.

These differences have allowed Dell to drive a larger wedge between customer’s willingness to pay (selling price) and costs. Dell’s business model has been successful in sustaining consistent growth, with the strongest revenues CAGR between the years of 1992 and 1998 (details in table 4). In order to maintain this advantage, it is imperative that Dell not rest on its laurels. Competitors will have difficulties imitating Dell’s core competencies, but Dell must continue to cultivate them in order to remain in a leadership position.

First, investment in and operation of the supply chain and direct sales channel cannot be cut. Although this may increase cost savings in the short run through outsourcing, this will undermine the long term success of Dell by outsourcing its core competencies. Second, selling through indirect channels such as resellers must be discouraged as it will dilute the culture of excellence in direct sales. Lastly, Dell can leverage its strength in sales and supply chain to sell existing products into new markets (i. e. nternational) and also expand its product offering within existing markets.

For this latter option, any technological consumer good that requires manufacturing and could be sold directly to consumers such as servers, printers, or cell phones would be ideal for Dell to pursue. This would leave Dell less exposed to competitor imitation specifically in the PC market. In conclusion, Dell has established itself in the PC space with a strong competitive advantage, however competitor emulation should worry Dell in what has become almost a commodity market. Actions noted above should help.

Telemedicine and Teleneurology my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london

Technology in Health and Human Services Telemedicine and Teleneurology In today’s world where people cannot even cope up with our own work, diseases play a significant role and are part and parcel of our lives. Every-time a disease bigger or smaller occurs; we cannot go to the doctors. Not visiting to the doctors may be due to various reasons. First, we may be very busy with our work and secondly we may be far away from our doctor.

Here, Telemedicine plays a major part in solving our day to day medical problems, where our diseases can be diagnosed without directly visiting our doctor. “Telemedicine is the ability to provide wellness treatment employing developments like telephony/telecommunication. ” Generally, Telemedicine allows doctors to examine out with treatments by remaining over meeting by catching video/still images; individual data are stored and sent to physicians for research and then follow-up therapy at a later time.

Whether you stay in the center of Los Angeles or deep in the South America, Amazon; Telemedicine is a crucial device in Healthcare. Here’s an example of how Telemedicine works in day today life. Say you have a terrible neck pain and examine out your physician (could be a common practice physician, physician specialist, or repeat wellness employees in a town in relation to where you live), who does an assessment and is concerned with what he identifies. Your organization indicates suggestions to an ENT expert for follow research and cure.

Well, instead of viewing the nearest expert, from whose hospital you take a 45-minute drive or an 18-hour boat journey up the Amazon River; therefore your organization connects you instantly to the ENT expert via Telemedicine Teleneurology is a subspecialty/branch of Telemedicine which allows neurology to be practiced when the physician and individual do not exist in the same place, and possibly not as well; that is there is a miles distance between the physician and the patient.

The two main methods involved in the treatment using Teleneurology/Telemedicine are: (1) video conferencing, which allows interaction between a physician and a individual who are in different locations as well (often known as real time or synchronous), and (2) email, where the appointment is performed without the individual being existing, at the same period practical to the physicians engaged (asynchronous or store-and-forward teleneurology).

Some problems that can be settled by teleneurology include: (1) sufferers with intense nerve signs hardly ever see a neurologist; (2) overdue treatment for an intense stroke; (3) non-adequate control of epilepsy; (4) unsuccessful journey here we are at neurologists; (5) extremely insufficient access a specialist for physicians in the creating world; (6) long patiently waiting times to see a physician. Tele-Neurology is a specialized art, because of the focus on precise presentation of a historical past, does offer itself to telemedicine.

It has been an overdue beginning in acknowledging the benefits of telemedicine and most of the guides on teleneurology have been in the last five years. Its usage within the nerve group is low but improving. Telemedicine needs a considerable change in how neurologists practice. The proof currently is that teleneurology can filter the gap between sufferers with nerve condition and the physicians who are qualified to look after them. The reasoning for teleneurology is for two reasons: first, to provide solutions that cannot easily be offered face-to-face; and second, to increase the performance or efficiency of current methods.

An instance of the former is the supply of an intense neurology service by movie web link to a non-urban hospital; where a group of sufferers handled generally by regional wellness professionals, additional video-link appointment with a professional decreased bed stay considerably without improving readmissions, research or evaluation sessions. Video web link to a temporary professional is the only achievable way in which non-urban sufferers with severe sufferings can acquire medication cells plasminogen activator within the necessary time window; the efficiency and safety of this method have been proven in a variety of research.

E-mail might be the only way in which sufferers in the third group can acquire professional nerve guidance. For example, a professional in the UK clinically diagnosed a wheelchair-bound individual in Pakistan with a dysimmune neuropathy, and the person retrieved completely with appropriate therapy. Management by movie web link to sufferers with epilepsy in non-urban areas is an example of the way in which teleneurology might increase the performance over present methods. In public, there was no difference in seizure regularity, hospital stay or hospital trips between face-to-face and video-link groups handled by the same professional.

Furthermore, new nerve hospital recommendations seen by movie web link had similar research and evaluation rates to sufferers seen traditionally, but with decreased travel here we are at professional and individual. A group action recovery program offered by movie web link enhanced balance and physical performing in handling various kinds of sufferers. E-mail triage and a series of new recommendations from experts were safe and decreased the variety of individuals require going to doctors by about a half. Given the revealed efficiency of teleneurology, why is it not more commonly practiced?

There are three reasons. First, potential teleneurologists have to be able to deal with the technological innovations and developments. E-mail, despite its wide adopting, is still relatively underused in medical therapy, and many wellness professionals are not familiar—or indeed comfortable—with its use. Video conferencing innovation is another step up in complexness and is likely to be different to most experts, and significantly off-putting to those who are cautious to accept new technological innovation. Video conferencing equipment also is determined by the option digital collections, which can be expensive.

This situation might change with the release of different types of high speed internet relationship, and videoconferencing might also become incorporated with pcs. Today’s internet/mobile revolutions could help achieving a lot in the future. The second problem is that teleneurology needs a change in the way in which neurologists practice. Neurologists have to be able to communicate a viewpoint without analyzing the individual immediately, and for some this is a serious problem—many neurologists have a relationship to the hands-on nerve evaluation that might, undoubtedly, be more expressive than evidence-based.

The desire of neurologists to modify their exercise has also been seriously sprained by the constant changes in health-care systems all over the group, which might have made them cautious to start yet another modify unless it delivers them apparent advantages. In teleneurology, the advantages collect mostly to the sufferers rather than to the neurologists, and this might be one reason why it has not obtained more fast popularity. As the primary involvers are the sufferers, government must take a step orward to generate the wider launch of teleneurology.

They have so far never do so, however, apart from the example of extreme activity treatments in the US: in some states, for healthcare facilities to be borrowed, they must be able to cope with extreme activity situations, and for some this can only be done using teleneurology. Lastly, some wellness and fitness experts might be concerned about medico legal issues if they provide assistance by e-mail or film web weblink, through which techniques they cannot, for example, evaluate the optic fundi.

These issues are no different from those that utilize to cellphone solutions, which amazingly most wellness and fitness experts perform continually. The way of managing legal issues when speaking with sufferers by e-mail or film web weblink is the same as when offering healthcare wellness and fitness assistance by telephone—namely, that if a face-to-face assessment is considered necessary, then it should be performed. Teleneurologists also need to create sure that they are qualified to work out solutions in the healthcare, country or condition in which the person is located.

These ethical and law are exactly the same in other workplaces of telemedicine and have lately been examined. What would wellness and fitness treatments look like if teleneurology was usually used? Main treatments wellness and fitness experts could e-mail an established and obtain assistance or have appropriate assessments structured, or the expert might select that the person needs to be seen. Patients could go to their local ambulatory wellness and fitness heart, where, with the help of a teleneurology affiliate, they could be film connected to an established who could select on further management.

If further assistance was necessary, the person could be followed up by the appropriate expert physician and a local expert. There is no need for the video-neurologist to be in the same place, or indeed the same country, provided that he or she has a certificate to work out solutions in the country in which the person is centered. Intense demos to healthcare with sensors symptoms could be analyzed by neurologists using a film web weblink within an time of access. If the access was in the evening, it would be possible to get in touch with an established in a country where it was day time.

Tests could be examined, appropriate extreme treatments and management began, and achievements examined by do it again film inbound backlinks after a day or two. All of these elements have already been confirmed to be possible, so this scenario is not as modern as it might appear. Globalization and outsourcing are circumstances not usually considered appropriate to neurology, but wider using of teleneurology could create them important circumstances in the neurologist’s terminology.

As everything on this planet has its own pros and cons, teleneurology/telemedicine also has its pros and cons. I think this can be called as an emerging technology than a modern technology. In days to come, with more technological innovations, I think tele-medicine could evolve as a major science and could enhance the lives of many people.

Psychology and Instructional Design Theories extended essay help biology: extended essay help biology

In modern Psychology, cognitivism is considered the most dominant paradigm for understanding mental function. The dramatic shift from behaviorism to cognitivism occurred in the early part of the nineteenth century. After decades of almost exclusive behaviorist research, psychologists and scholars became dissatisfied with the limitations of behaviorism. Although behaviorism encouraged observable and measurable research in the field of psychology, it did not incorporate mental events.

Therefore, this term paper will present a general overview of the origin of cognitivism and a brief discussion of three major cognitive theories—The Atkinson-Shriffin Stage Model, Craik and Lockhart’s Levels of Processing Theory, and the Parallel Distributed Processing Theory. Finally, this paper will summarize ways that cognitivism has influenced Instructional Design Theories that are widely used in modern society.

The origin of cognitivism can be traced back to the early part of the nineteenth century when the Gestalt Psychologist, Edward Chace Tolman of the United States and Jean Piaget of Switzerland had a tremendous influence on psychology and the shift from behaviorist theories. Behaviorists argued that mental events were impossible to observe and measure and could not therefore be studied objectively. Consequently, behaviorists could not sufficiently explain the way learners attempted to make sense of what they learned.

Cognitivists proposed that through empirical research and observation conclusions could definitely be drawn about the internal cognitive processes that produce responses. Around the 1950’s, a large number of psychologists and researchers published influential books and articles on attention, memory, language, concept formation, and problem solving. On September 11, 1956, Cognitive Psychology was officially born and considered its own field within Psychology. Gestalt Psychology, which emerged in Germany in the early decades of the nineteenth century, proposed that individuals were inclined to organize information in certain ways.

This perspective has influenced how cognitive psychologists have come to understand human learning, emphasizing the organizational processes in perception, learning, and problem solving. Edward Tolman, a famous learning theorist during the behaviorist movement, was also influenced by Gestalt theories. Like the behaviorists, he valued the importance of objective research; however, he was not a radical behaviorist. He wanted to use behavioral methods to gain an understanding of the mental processes of humans and other animals. Tolman’s view of learning was more holistic than the staunch, stimulus-response (SR) behaviorists.

In the 1920s, Jean Piaget began a research program in Geneva that focused on epistemology, the origins of knowledge. According to Schumaker, “this biologist, psychologist and philosopher altered and deepened our understanding of human life. Primarily known as a child psychologist, he used his research on young children as a springboard to a better understanding of the human personality” (Schumaker, 1996).

Piaget proposed several stages of cognitive development in children: Sensorimotor (Infants gain an understanding of the world by coordinating experiences with physical, motoric actions. , Pre-Operational (Children learn to use and represent objects by images, words, and drawings), Concrete Operations (Intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects), and Formal Operations (Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts). Piaget proposed that children grow and develop through each of these stages until they can reason logically. Piaget, Tolman, and other Gestalt psychologists all share the notion that human knowledge is structured and organized.

Their pivotal research into human cognition, attention, memory, language, concept formation, and problem solving—gave birth to Cognitivism during the nineteenth century. Since the birth of Cognitivism there have been numerous theories that have made tremendous contributions to the study of human cognition. The most widely accepted cognitive psychology theory is The Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model, also known as the Multi-Store Model. This information-processing approach proposed that human memory involves a sequence of three stages: Sensory Memory (SM), Short-Term Memory (STM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM).

According to Matlin, the model proposes that material from the sensory memory (SM) passes to short-term memory (STM). Verbal information in STM is encoded acoustically and these memories can be lost within about 30 seconds unless they are somehow repeated. Rehearsed material passes from STM to long-term memory (LTM). The Multi-Store Model proposes that information in LTM is encoded semantically, in terms of meaning, and is relatively permanent. Craik and Lockhart proposed another popular cognitive theory, known as the Levels-of Processing Theory.

According to Matlin, this theory proposes that “deep, meaningful kinds of information processing leads to more permanent retention than shallow, sensory kinds of processing. ” (Matlin, 1994). Craik and Lockhart’s approach focuses on rehearsal, the process we utilize when cycling information through our memory. Craik and Lockhart proposed two kinds of rehearsal: Maintenance Rehearsal and Elaborative Rehearsal. During Maintenance Rehearsal we merely repeat some type of stimulus. During Elaborative Rehearsal a more meaningful or deeper analysis of the stimulus occurs.

The Parallel-Distributed Processing (PDP) approach is yet another alternative to the Atkinson-Shiffrin’s Multi-Model Theory. It proposes that we process information simultaneously via several different parts of our memory system rather than sequentially. According to Matlin, the PDP approach “argues that cognitive processes can be represented by a model in which activation flows through networks that link together neuron-like units” (Matlin, 1994). In short, the parallel operations of the PDP approach help account for how we make spontaneous generalizations or conclusions about general information we have never actually learned.

The model illustrates how we fill in missing information via the simultaneous activation of many patterns in our memory system. Cognitivism has strongly influenced the development of instructional design theories. For instance, Robert Gagne’s early instructional design theories were initially heavily rooted in the behaviorist psychology paradigm. Later, in the 1970s, he incorporated cognitivist psychology theories, specifically the information-processing model of cognition. Gagne considered the information-processing model a major advance in the scientific study of human learning (Gagne, 1997).

As Michael J. Streibel stated, “Instructional design theories such as Gagne’s theory, take the cognitivist paradigm one logical step further by claiming that an instruction plan can generate both appropriate environmental stimuli and instructional interactions, and thereby bring about a change in cognitive structures of the learner (Striebel, 1995). Additionally, the constructivist theory of learning and instruction—currently one of the most highly debated issues in education and training—is a direct result of cognitivist theories. Within constructivism there are two schools of thought.

The first—Social Constructivism—is based on the theories of Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist and philosopher. His theory emphasizes the influences of both cultural and social contexts in learning. Social Constructivism places the teacher in an active role, with the learners developing their mental abilities through a discovery process that involves various paths. According to Vygotsky, learning is a social and collaborative activity, where the teacher acts as facilitator and the student is responsible for constructing his/her own understanding in their own mind.

The second school of thought in constructivism—Cognitive Constructivism—reflects Piaget’s theories, which involve a holistic approach. Cognitive Constructivism emphasizes the importance of the teacher’s role to provide an environment that encourages the experience of spontaneity and research. Classrooms with authentic opportunities that challenge students, where learners can assimilate and accommodate to achieve equilibrium embrace cognitive constructivist theories.

The paradigm shift in psychology from behaviorism to cognitivism in this century has spawned many new theories to help us not only better understand human learning but to design more effective ways to facilitate learning. For instructional technologists and designers, Gagne’s approach to instructional design and the authentic learning environments espoused by constructivists are but two of the contemporary learning and instructional theories that apply the important lessons learned from cognitivist research.

The research into the perception, memory, and appreciation of human cognition that cognitivism has created is an important step in the evolution of our understanding of human thought.

Theoretical Orientation college admission essay help: college admission essay help

In order to write this paper, the author had to consider two important questions in order to determine the most appropriate theoretical orientation for her. First, under what contexts and specific settings would the therapeutic process take place?

Second, what does this particular client need most in order to heal, to grow, to be safe with him/herself and with others, to suffer less, to cope more effectively, and to behave in a way that will keep him or her from getting into trouble? It is very important to note that there is a significant amount of research that shows that different therapies work best with different clients regarding their level of functioning, existing pathologies and their severity, the clients’ socioeconomic statuses (SES), and their cultural background.

For the purpose of this paper and based on the answers to the questions previously stated, the author will write from the perspective of a therapist who works in a clinical setting with clients that are largely low to average functioning, are culturally diverse, and generally have a low SES, which means that they have limited time and resources to spend on their treatment. In response to the second question, the theory that comes closest to my worldview and serves as a foundation for constructing my theoretical orientation is the Cognitive Behavioral theory.

The author will discuss CBT as her “go to” primary approach in terms of techniques, goals, the therapist/client relationship, and the merits of the approach. The main concepts of Rogers’ person-centered approach will be infused into the author’s practice as a given, since clients are more likely to cooperate with the therapist’s cognitive and behavioral interventions, and most other interventions for that matter, if they feel the therapist is genuinely interested in their well-being. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Human nature Human beings are capable of change and are subject to determinants in their environments.

Negative and incorrect thinking patterns lead to maladaptive behaviors that somehow have been reinforced through emotions. We all have core belief systems of schemas that are formed early on through since our earliest experiences. Modern practitioners of CBT have opened up new ways of helping people by understanding that they are more than conditioned machines, but still victims or benefactors of the environment. Perception and experiencing in general are active processes which involve both inspected and introspective data.

The client’s thoughts represent these experiences and his or her appraisal of the situation is generally evident in his or her cognitions. These, in turn make up the persons “stream of consciousness”, which reflects the persons configuration of himself, his world, his past and future (Back, 1979). The Cognitive Behavioral perspective is somewhat pessimistic of human nature since it does not afford people the ability to get well on their own, and in some cases such as mental health institutions, the CB therapist exercises quite a bit of control over the patient and their environment. View of health and pathology

When people have negative experiences in their lives, certain core beliefs may result from that and these can lead to psychological dysfunction. Cognitive vulnerabilities develop early in a person’s life and when these beliefs are rigid, negative, and ingrained we are predisposed to pathology (Beck, 1979). Because of the high success rates that CBT has had in treating people with various pathologies as well as more common issues that are less complex but nevertheless need attention, CBT proves its point: if we can deal with and understand our thoughts, our behaviors will follow and our emotions will fall into place.

With the right tools and proper conditioning, there are few issues that CBT cannot correct. There seems to be a CBT technique for almost every occasion. According to CBT, pathology can present itself as a problematic or distorted thinking process if it is very catastrophic, idealistic, extreme, or confusing. Distorted information processing can be, for example, having obsessive thoughts. Other manifestations are skill deficits. Anxiety is the major cause of most behavioral disorders, but anxiety can be conditioned to any stimuli, so it’s not necessarily a bad thing.

When treating clients, CBT is symptom focused and acknowledges their underlying precursors while remaining in the present. In psychopathology from a CBS point of view, there are systematic biases toward selectively interpreting information in a certain manner which are disorder specific. This can be a potential pitfall of CBT since it appears to treat the disorder and not so much the whole person. That said, biology, emotions, behavior (and motivation) influence our thoughts in a very real and systematic way that can often be predicted.

For example, biological treatments (such as biofeedback) can change thoughts and CBT can change biological processes as well. This is especially helpful in stress management. CBT has been empirically proven as an effective therapy for treating other disorders besides those that are anxiety-based, such as depression and other mood disorders, borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia, PTSD, substance abuse, eating disorders, marital problems, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

It is important to note that a cognitive behavioral therapist is not interested in etiology, but rather focuses on the reasons that the problem continues to persist. CBT techniques have been extended to more areas of human functioning than any other therapeutic approach, making it useful in a variety of situations and clients, which is important to her given her work setting. Role assessment CBT somewhat relies on assessments. The therapist “takes the client’s temperature” and records the client’s mood.

Then client and the therapist go over the homework and assess where to go from there after noting the client’s feedback. Other assessments that measure emotion or personality traits are not widely used in CBT. Certain evaluations that measure cognitive reasoning are of value as well as empirical and valid ones that can observably measure progress or regression. As far as the information gathered, CB therapists want to know some history to establish a baseline of cognitive and behavioral functioning, but don’t expect them to go very deep. Counseling goals

The therapeutic goal in a nutshell is to use patterns to alter moods and behavior of identifying the maladaptive or distorted perceptions that the client has with as much brevity as possible. Once the negative ways of thinking have been identified, the therapist and her client can work collaboratively towards replacing them with new, more effective ones that will include the client’s quality of life. CBT aims to arm clients with and arsenal of tools like coping skills, cognitive awareness, and practical “tips” to help the person literally change his or her mind.

The counseling goals depend from client to client and issue to issue, but in the author’s opinion, addressing immediate thoughts that can cause the client of those around him or her to behave in maladaptive, dangerous, and even deadly behavior is of paramount importance. Therapist/client roles/functions The behavioral perspective is more properly an educational experience in which individuals are involved in a collaborative teaching/learning process between the therapist and the client, respectively.

The therapist is a psycho-educator who is an active enforcer and a guide for the client and his treatment plan. The client must be a willing and active participant who monitors his or her behavior, does the homework according to the treatment plan, and provides the therapist with valuable feedback. In this collaborative relationship, the goals of therapy are very transparent. A valuable feature of CBT is the demystification of the therapy process. Both the client and the therapist take an active role in monitoring the results and efficacy of the treatment.

In The CBT approach, clients are active, informed, and responsible for the direction of therapy because they are partners in the process of getting well. Although having a warm and fuzzy relationship with the client is inconsequential in most cases, giving the client a sense of trust and credibility is. Again, the author works with the assumption that every client needs to be treated with positive and unconditional regard. Counseling skills/techniques Out of a number of therapies that the author has read, it seems that the behavioral therapies have the most to offer in terms of counseling skills and techniques.

Some of these techniques might include biofeedback, self-instructional training, and stress management skills, mindfulness approaches, internal dialogues, as well as closed and open-ended questions, to name a few. Unlearning responses happens in and throughout the therapeutic process and is often achieved through desensitization, assertiveness training, role-playing, and stimulus control. Socratic questioning or Socratic dialogue is a concept in which questioning is used to help clients come to their own conclusions about their thoughts and behaviors.

The author believes that this is technique is the most useful in terms of getting insight from the client by allowing him or her to observe where their faulty thoughts, assumptions, behaviors, and emotions are taking place. It is very important that CB therapists continue their training and stay abreast of what new developments and treatments are constantly being practiced. In this way, CBT is extremely demanding on the therapist. Homework assignments are an important part of CBT, allowing the client to do a substantial amount of therapeutic work in practice outside of the session.

The homework exercises are cognitive in nature and help the client self-monitor, collect data, and test cognitive changes, this often brings more than just a change in behavior – it also brings insight. Through the process of guided discovery, clients develop behavioral experiments to test hypotheses with the help of their therapist and they make adjustments to the treatment plan as needed. Role playing is an important technique because it helps the client become aware of their automatic thoughts and resulting emotions.

The intricacies and the extensive repertoire of CBT techniques will not be discussed in depth in the present paper. Mechanism of healing – the process of change These action-based approaches encourage self-help, and provide for continuous feedback from the client on how well treatment strategies are working, as stated before. In this kind of therapy, the client is able to set the pace, in a way, by allowing the evaluation of outcomes and then collaboratively make the appropriate adjustments to the treatment plan to maximize the tempo and efficacy of the therapy.

Change comes about by shifting cognitive schemas and distortions in a measurable way. Then the environment and its contingencies shape, maintain, and/or extinguish behavior. So if we change the contingencies, the behavior will change also. A good motto for behavioral therapies in general would be “fake it ‘till you make it”, since the assumption is that behavior and cognition precede emotion and that once aligned and cognitively aware, the person’s new behavior and perspective will change for the better. Sensitivity to human differences

Currently, there are many cognitive behavioral therapists that don’t feel comfortable working with clients who have lower levels of cognitive functioning, for example those with certain types of learning disabilities or mental retardation. The author notes that people with those disabilities certainly do think, although they may have trouble articulating their thoughts. For this reason, CBT is not currently a standard treatment for this population. There are some adaptations that therapists can make to help these clients.

For example, they can use simpler vocabulary to ensure the client is accurately receiving the information that is given to him or her. There are many disabled people (and many able people too) that struggle differentiating between a thought in the feeling. This presents a problem since CBT depends on a very discrete distinction between affect, behavior, and cognition. From a multicultural perspective, the author finds that one of the strengths of CBT is that it works extremely well with diverse ethnic populations.

Possibly because some cultures are not interested in delving into the past, but rather want to go straight to the point and fix whatever is wrong. JC Norcross said it well when he stated that “a major challenge for the field of psychotherapy will be to discover creative ways to integrate the values and worldviews of multiple cultures within the discourse of efficacy and evidence that currently dominate health care. ” (Norcross, Hedges, & Castle, 2002). Comparison and contrast of CBT approach with other existing theories CBT label stocks as “dysfunctional” while REBT label stocks as “irrational”.

Also, CBT’s view of the problem is functional; pathology arises from multiple cognitive distortions while REBT’s view of the problem is philosophical; pathology arises from shoulds, musts, and oughts. CBT is more collaborative while are REBT is more confrontative but both of these therapies place equal stock on the power of thought. Psychodynamic therapies differ from CBT approaches in that psychoanalytic theories focus on deterministic and irrational forces, biological and instinctual drives, and unconscious motivation.

A CBT therapist would disagree in almost every one of those points. The post-modern characteristic of an emphasis on playing on the clients’ strengths and resources, as well as the thought of a subjective reality are not consistent with the basic assumptions of CBT but they are both generally brief. Existential approaches are much too vague for CBT and take much more time to process. These approaches are based on a similar concept of the person as purposive and self-determining and a striving for growth and meaning in life. Analysis: rationale for the author’s choice

The theory of CBT was chosen based on the author’s worldview, personal life experiences, observations, and congruence with her basic beliefs and personality. The author is a “fixer,” someone who gets right to the point and tries to reason things out as to figure out the quickest and safest way to deal with an issue and hopes for a lasting effect, although she is ware that CBT tends to be a “Band-Aid” approach. The practical and immediate implications of undesirable or even destructive behaviors are meaningful and significant to the author.

In many occasions, CBT interventions have prevented her from getting caught in downward spirals of erratic and dangerous behaviors. The author’s therapists took control of her environment and once she was stable, she and the therapists began working on the significance of automatic and intermediate thoughts and how they affected her feelings and behaviors. This process was long and tedious (because much of it was work done outside of session) and it has changed and saved her life.

There is no way that the author could have “talked her way out” of such significantly pathological episodes with such little time, support, and resources. The author also strongly believes in the power of choice and in being a part of a collaborative effort that involves the therapist, a physician, and a solid support system. All of these people know the treatment plan and hold the author accountable for her part in staying well. The importance of having a solid, attainable, and clear treatment plan is paramount.

The author has tried numerous other therapies without any success, such as Gestalt and psychoanalytic. Many emotive and behavioral issues that the author, close friends, and her family have struggled with have improved because changes were made in their cognitive processes, specifically, identifying automatic thoughts and understanding the core beliefs from which they stem. Overall, even with its limitations, the author believes that this type of therapy is useful in a variety of settings, and that its transparency and efficacy is attractive to people in similar situations.

It is worth saying that modern CB therapies are becoming more amenable to counting emotional and historical factors into the great thought/action equation. Theoretical integration However, working strictly within the framework of a single theory may not provide counselors and therapists with the therapeutic flexibility to account for the complexities of human behavior, especially when the range of client types and this was the problems are taken into consideration One reason for integration is the recognition that no single theory is comprehensive enough to cover it all.

She contends that individuals can only be truly understood by taking into consideration all the aspects of human functioning. It’s important to present the advantages of constructing a systematic, consistent, personal, and disciplined approach to integrating various elements into a therapist’s practice and to be careful not to haphazardly pick and choose from this theory and that one, as that may harm the client instead of doing good.

After much consideration, the author has chosen theoretical integration which “refers to a conceptual or theoretical creation beyond a mere blending of techniques that has the goal of producing a conceptual framework that synthesizes the best of two or more theoretical approaches under the assumption that the outcome will be richer than either of the theories alone” (Lazarus & Lazarus, 1991) and looks at the person more holistically than CBT alone.

The author would like to be theoretically consistent but technically eclectic. Within this integrated approach, she prefers multimodal assessments, whose underlying principle is tailoring the treatment to the individual’s needs. By asking “who or what is best for this particular individual? ” we can get a better, bigger picture of what theories (or parts of them) to carefully employ. Sample questions in a MM assessment might be How active are you? How emotional are you?

Do you have a vivid imagination? How much of a thinker are you? How social are you? Do you take good care of your body and physical health? (Lazarus & Lazarus, 1991). Arnold Lazarus wrote in 1958 that “humans are the product of genetic endowment, the environment and social learning… humans respond to perceptions rather than to reality” (Lazarus & Lazarus, 1991, p. 8). This struck a chord with the author, who fully subscribes to this view of perception.

The author also draws from the post-modern solution-focused approach because she believes that it useful to consider the client’s strengths and potential. This therapy is based on the optimistic assumption that people are healthy, competent, resourceful, and possess the ability to construct solutions It also acknowledges that certain societal constructs and expectations can limit the person’s full potential (Corey, 2009). She also likes the concept of externalizing problems.

This preference is probably due to her cultural upbringing. As someone who is multicultural, this therapy seems cohesive with the philosophy of multiculturalism therapists can learn from their clients about their experiential world, rather than approaching clients with a preconceived notion about their experience. The author also believes that the past informs our present and even our future. It’s difficult to wrap one’s head completely around the “here and now” when much of that may have happened last week or in childhood.

From the psychodynamic and Adlerian perspectives, the author considers the value of family and personal history, past relationships, and Freudian concepts such as ego defense mechanisms. Furthermore, the author appreciates the take that feminism offers on education, multiculturalism, and advocacy. The author posed a question at the beginning of this paper: what does this particular client need most in order to heal, to grow, to be safe with him/herself and with others, to suffer less, to cope more effectively, and to behave in a way that will keep him or her from getting into trouble?

Truthfully, there is something positive to be said about every theory. Each one attempts to help the client albeit in different ways, and although right now the author’s inclination is toward CBT, there are other schools from which she would like to learn more; she recognizes that the complexities of being human very simply demand a multi-dimensional understanding of people. Ideally, the triad of affect, behavior, and cognition should be addressed, although the order in which they are addressed is the main difference between the most popular theories.

In the author’s opinion, it’s a matter of what came first – the chicken or the egg. We can only make educated guesses. Therapists cannot integrate what they don’t know, so they have to be familiar with and well-educated in a lot of different therapies in order to appropriately and thoughtfully integrate, if that is what they choose to do. In the end, this therapist’s objective is to help clients think about their beliefs and assumptions, to experience at the feeling level their conflicts and struggles, and to actually translate their insights into action programs by behaving in new and productive ways in their everyday lives. The entire point is to be an efficient, caring, knowledgeable, and compassionate helper.

Safe home environment writing an essay help: writing an essay help

As a child-minder my aim is to provide a safe environment. In my home I provide: General Age related toys to avoid choking etc. and are not broken or have any sharp edges or things hanging off. A stair gate Smoke alarms First aid kit Radiator Guards Plug socket covers I do a risk assessment each morning in the home and garden to make sure that everything is safe for the children to come into. Make sure all main doors are kept locked and the key put on a hook near the door out of reach from the children Alcohol put away and out of sight from the children

Pet food out of reach Plug sockets have protectors in All highchairs/ booster seats have 5 point harness Kitchen All household cleaners are locked away Plastic bags out of reach Fire blanket Make sure all sharp objects are out of sight and reach of children Use short coiled flexes on electrical equipment Bathroom /Toilet Keep all cleaning materials out of reach Make sure all air fresheners are kept out of reach Make sure floor is kept dry Make sure toilet seats are regularly cleaned using disinfectant. Outside Make sure all shed /garage doors are kept locked

Any items containing water covered Make sure all gates are secure and locked Make sure all fences are secure Make sure all toys are safe and have safety marks and are not broken Make sure all large play equipment is safely secured in place Outings Make sure pram/ buggy are safe – EG: harness, brakes. Child walking under 5 has reins or hands trap. Cross the road in a safe place Practise road safety with children If travelling by car makes sure you have child in the right car seat/ harness for age Assess any play area and do a risk assessment on it before letting the children go and play.

Check area is clean and safe assure any play equipment is safe to play on. Medicines All medicines are stored safely away and out of the reach children and are properly labelled. Never give medicines without having written permission from the parents, keep a record on when the medicine was administrated and how much was given. Healthy home environment I try to maintain a clean, safe, healthy setting at all times General Do not allow smoking in my setting Make sure all bins are regularly emptied and cleaned Make sure all floors are clean

Make sure that if a babies dummy drops onto the floor to wash /sterilize it. My personal hygiene Always use gloves when: changing nappies and cleaning up bodily fluid. Always wash hands before: feeding babies or children, before handling baby’s bottles, before you eat, before handling raw or cooked food and before dealing with any cuts or grazes. Always wash hands after: using the toilet, changing nappies, wiping noses, touching pets or cleaning up after pets, after handling money and after being outside. Children’s personal hygiene Always make sure they wash their hands before eating

Always wash hands after: using the toilet, coughing and sneezing, touching pets, playing outside. Nappies/toilet hygiene Always wrap disposable nappies in a bag and put in an outside dustbin as soon as possible. Never change babies or use a potty in a kitchen. Always change individual hand towels regularly. Wash out potty with disinfectant. Wash down changing mat after each nappy change. You can obtain the current guidance on health and safety risk assessment of the home based setting from the websites ROSPA, Brake, NCMA and HSE and they are in the welfare requirements of the eyes.

Medieval Architecture essay help services: essay help services

The Middle Ages, also known as the Medieval era, though scarred with a history of violence and war, has given the world some of the most marvelous and beautiful pieces of art, particularly in architecture. The Middle Ages is the name given to the time period from the late 5th century to the 15th century, particular to European history. The construction of these types of buildings was a constant for various cultures for a thousand years. They can be categorized into three phases; Pre-Romanesque, Romanesque and Gothic.

The most important buildings during medieval times were religious, defensive and governmental or power related. Figure 1 – Sarcophagus of Abbess Theodechilde in the Abbey of Jouarre. The Pre-Romanesque era started, arguably, with the Merovingian Dynasty of the Franks. Some say that not much was gained, from an architectural point of view, during the rule of the Franks but I believe there are a couple of points worth making. The Merovingian rule lasted from the 5th century, after the fall of the Roman Empire, to the late 8th century. Most of their buildings followed after the Roman basilica style.

The Franks, due to religious beliefs, pushed the building of monasteries and included crypts within their structures. (see figure 1) Although there were many monasteries built with crypts, only five remain intact today. One of the noteworthy aspects of Merovingian architecture was that they are credited with being the first to build raised reliquaries of the saint within their monasteries, located behind the altar. Figure 3 – The 9th century Torhalle, or gatehouse, at the Lorsch Abbey in Germany. Figure 2 – Exterior of Corvey Abbey, showing the Westwork.

The Carolingian Dynasty, which some say is where Pre-Romanesque architecture began, reigned from the late 8th century into the 10th century. Also deriving from a Frankish noble family, the Carolingians are credited with a couple of key designs that carry forward into the Romanesque and Gothic phases of architecture. The westwork, which was basically the west facing side of the church consisting of two towers with several stories between them, was probably the most significant change in architectural design for churches during the Pre-Romanesque time period. The first church to incorporate this new style was the St.

Riquier Abbey completed in 799. The plan included equal emphasis on both the east and west ends, including a complex west facade. This church was later destroyed but the westwork was to be repeated in many Carolingian churches and passed on to Ottonian and Romanesque architecture. The oldest standing example today of this style is the Corvey Abbey built in the late 9th century. (see figure 2) Another piece of the Carolingian architecture is the Torhalle, or gatehouse, built at Lorsch. This gatehouse, built around 800, stands today in perfect condition. (see figure 3) It was built as the formal entrance to the Lorsch Abbey.

And though it is small in comparison to the many other buildings at the time, it remains the oldest monument of the Carolingian era. Figure 4 – The Gloucester Cathedral in England. The Romanesque era is where we see a dramatic change in architectural style as well as an increase in the amount of building that takes place. The Romanesque period doesn’t have an exact date range, but most tend to agree that it existed from roughly the 9th century to the 12th century. Although churches remain the number one built structure in the time, we do see a large increase in the number of castles being built.

There are many characteristics of Romanesque architecture. New building ideas and techniques were introduced, such as stone vault ceilings, buttresses, semicircular arches as well as barrel, groin and ribbed vaults. As new designs were added, the need for stronger supports systems resulted in massive double shelled walls, large piers and drum columns. (see figure 4) The Romanesque period is known for massive structures and elaborate designs. From this we see a noticeable increase in the skill of the masons during this time as the stone work displays an obvious increase in precision and engineering.

Much of the architecture in the Romanesque era evolved into Gothic architecture. The Gothic era ran from the 12th century into the 16th century. There wasn’t necessarily a clean break from Romanesque to Gothic styles of architecture, but rather a gradual shift in design. The main characteristics of Gothic architecture are the pointed ribbed vaults and arches, flying buttresses and, in place of solid walls, a cluster of columns. Due to the vertical emphasis of the design, the archways could be redesigned and stretched or pointed.

Four main Figure 5 – The depressed arch supported by fan vaulting at King’s College Chapel, England. ypes of arch designs that are commonly found within Gothic architecture are the lancet arch, which is simply a steeply pointed arch, the equilateral arch, the flamboyant arch and the depressed arch as seen in the King’s College Chapel. (see figure 5) Due to the new design of supporting the weight of the ceiling through the columns and flying buttresses, there was no need for walls made of heavy materials. With all the columns and archways in place, the structure took on a skeletal look. This gave way to expanding the once small openings for windows to an expanse of window space providing plenty of light to the interior of the structure.

This space was commonly filled with stained glass. From this, stained glass flourished as an art work to be an essential part of many of the churches in the medieval time. Castles are a huge part of Medieval times and started to grew in number and size during the Romanesque and Gothic eras. The castles were massive and built primarily for defensive purposes. However, some were designed to convey messages of wealth, power and respect as well as fear and domination. Besides a military need, castles were used for administrative purposes as well as a residence.

Typical castle residents consisted of the castle’s owner, his family and his military and administrative support staff. Castles were generally made from local materials of stone and wood as well as recycled materials, like Roman bricks and marble. There are, of course, exceptions to this depending on how much money and/or power the person building the castle had. For example, William the Conqueror had the White Tower of The Tower of London built from Caen stone, imported from France. (see figure 6) Figure 6 – The White Tower of the Tower of London.

Castles come in all different shapes, sizes and designs depending on the materials available as well as the terrain chosen to build on. Some of the common characteristics of castles are; the motte – an earthen mound created with a flat top for the castle to be built upon; the moat – a large ditch around the castle, typically filled with water; the bailey – fortification that surrounds the keep; the keep – the actual residence of the lord in charge and the most strongly defended part of the castle; the gatehouse – the entrance to the castle; and the curtain wall – a large defensive wall, typically between two bastions.

Castle construction would depend on the materials chosen for the building. Earth and timber castles were less expensive to build but could be constructed in most locations due to plentiful resources and most skilled workers had wood working skills. Stone castles cost much more, take longer to complete and require higher skilled masons, and many of them. Not to mention that the location was often relative to the location of the rock quarry. Naturally, stone castles were many times stronger than ones made from timber and, in the eyes of many, were worth the extra cost and time.

Depending on the lord in charge and the primary reason for building the castle, the architectural design didn’t stop with just the construction of the building. Many castles maintained beautiful landscapes to compliment their architectural master piece. As seen in figure 7, landscapes play an important role in the overall allure of the entire estate. This particular landscape for the Leeds Castle in England has been maintained since the 13th century. Figure 7 – Panoramic view of the Leeds Castle in England.

Throughout the Middle Ages, the key to the many successful pieces of architecture has been the architect. Of course they were not called architects back then, instead they were simply called masons. Often time there were many masons working together on one project. The mason in charge of the design and construction was sometimes referred to as the master mason. Prior to the 13th century, most masons were trained on the job site. From the 13th century onward, the masons took on apprentices and training became more formalized.

The masons maintained a constant presence on the job site in smaller structures attached to the building project called lodges. They would store their tools, eat their meals and perform all their inside type work within their lodge. Masonry was one of the few crafts that did not form into a trade guild prior to the 14th century. In later centuries, the masons and their lodge became what we know today as the Freemasons. Architectural design and innovation was not protected and masons often borrowed ideas from one another.

In the 14th century, masons were sent to study the design incorporated with the Chateau de Mehun-sur-Yevre in France. This structure was destroyed in the 18th century. Figure 8 shows the ruins today and figure 9 shows what the chateau would have looked like. Figure 9 – Artist rendition of what the Chateau de Mehun-sur-Yevre in France may have looked like. Figure 8 – Current day Chateau de Mehun-sur-Yevre in France. During the estimated thousand years of the Middle Ages, and what we know of it, it is quite evident that architecture played an important part of each society.

In religions, in governments and in noble families, the physical structure of the building was just as important to the people as were the traditions and work carried out within. Architecture was not merely a necessary profession but it was a desired form of art work and we are fortunate that so many of these master pieces have been left for us to study and admire.

Psychotherapy Matrix essay help us: essay help us

Select three approaches to summarize. Include examples of the types of psychological disorders appropriate for each therapy. {Insert type of therapy approach}{Insert type of therapy approach}{Insert type of therapy approach} Summary of Approach The psychodynamic approach to therapy seeks to bring unresolved and past conflicts from the unconscious to the conscious, meaning childhood memories and past memories that are buried deep in your memory or ones that you wanted to forget, are brought to the fore front to be discussed.

Indivduals use repression to push threatening conflicts into the unconsciousness. This approach explores brakes down the unconsciousness for the therapist and the patient. The behavioral approach therapy build on the basic processes of learning such as reinforcement and extinction, and assume that normal and abnormal are both learned meaning that you will learn things to modify behavior using some sort of conditioning which is classical or adverse.

These types of conditioning involve some sort of action that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an unpleasant stimulus with the undesired behavior to teach or learn lessons. The cognitive approach to therapy teaches people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves meaning the cognitive approach helps people understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors.

People learn how to change their thinking and behavior. Disorders appropriate for this therapyAnxiety disorders that are appropriate for this type of therapy such as obsessive-compulsion disorder, bi-polar disorder, and phobic disorders. Disorders that are appropriate for this type of therapy include anorexia, phobic disorders, ADHD, autism. Disorders that are appropriate for this type of therapy include phobic disorders, depression and anxiety disorders.

Microsoft And Excel persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

How is a macro utilized within  Macro is designed for the do-it-yourselfer. The software program is ranked among the most useful tools of Microsoft programs. They took a task that would have been executed manually and made it automatic for many computer tasks. This can be from a simple task of creating spreadsheets or worksheets to a very complex task of exporting journal entries in an Excel program into an accounting package and the creating reports in Word.

What makes Macros so great tis that in a lot of cases you don’t need to be an expert to set it up? You need to invest a little of time to learn the language they are written it . Name various business functions that require the use of a macro. One of the biggest business functions that may require the use of a Macro program would have to be making spread sheets for accounting firms. By making spread sheet it would make it easier for CPA’S to do taxes at the end of the year.

You can run Quires or spread sheets which can help with just about and field. What are possible limitations using macros within Microsoft® Excel® and how would you convey this to a user? Character limitations and Macro Security If these limitations are exceeded, you may receive run-time errors in your Automation code I would tell the user that there are limitations when using macro so they should read over the instruction to see what all of the limitation are before they start using Marco

Organizational Culture research essay help: research essay help

It is extensively acknowledge that organizational culture plays an increasingly essential role in a successful company. However, in the meanwhile whether organizational culture should be changed constitutes a controversial issue. Many managers assert that organizational culture must be changed while few others argue that organizational culture needs not to be changed. As far as I am concerned, I am in favor of the former view. In this essay, firstly, I will talk about what is organizational culture and what do organizational cultures do.

In the second place, I will discuss why organizational culture should be changed. Thirdly, I will analyze the risks of organizational culture change. Finally, I will expatiate how to prevent risks of organizational culture change. What is organizational culture? A number of years back, I watched an American reality television The Apprentice, and I remember a player was asked what he thought organizational culture mean by Doanld Trump. He said: “I can’t express it, however,I get it when I see it. ” Most people cannot define organizational culture accurately by concise word.

However there seems to be widely recognized that organizational culture indicates a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. (Becker, 1982, pp. 513-27; and Schein 1985 p. 168) This shared system meaning is, on further investigation, a series of important features that the organization values. The investigation advises that there are seven main features that, gather up the threads, constitute the essence of an organizational culture. (Reilly III, Chatman, Jehn, 1991, pp. 487-516; and Chatman, Jehn, 1994, pp. 522-553; Ashkanasy, Wilderom, Peterson, 2000) 1.

Innovation and adventure: the extent to which employees are encouraged to be make innovations and adventure. 2. Detail oriented: the extent to which employees are anticipated to exhibit meticulous, analysis and detail oriented. 3. Attention to outcome: the extent to which management attach importance to results or outcomes rather than on the skills and processes used to achieve those outcomes.

Attention to people: the extent to which management decision take into regard the influence of results on people within the organization. 5. Attention to team: the extent to which job activities are organized around teams rather than individuals. . Aggressiveness: the extent to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing 7. Stability: the extent to which organizational activities stress keeping the status quo by comparison to growth and development. There is no denying that organizational culture is just a descriptive concept, because of organizational culture is paid attention to how employees perceive the features of their organization’s culture, not with whether or not they like it. Furthermore, it is obvious that a company cannot have only one organizational culture.

As we know, there are many employees who have different background or at different levels in a company, so they must have different perspective with organizational culture. In the mean time, there are two different cultures in one company, dominant culture and subculture. Dominant culture describes the core values that are shared by a most of the employees, when we talk about an organizational culture, we are referring to its dominant culture; In general, subculture develop in a big company to reflex conjunct problems, situations or experiences that staff meet. What do cultures do?

Culture has a variety of functions in an organization. First, it creates distinctions between one organization and others. Second, it expresses a sense of identity for employees. Third, it precipitates employees not only care one’s individual self-interest, but also care whole organizational interest. Fourth, it improves the stability of the organization. Finally, culture serves as a sense- making and control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behavior of employees. (Reilly, Chatman, Staw, Cummings, 1996). Why organizational culture should be changed?

Compelling arguments can be made that organizational culture should be changed, immediately. The first point with respect to this is that our society is advancing at an amazing speed in this day and age, more and more organizations face a dynamic and changing environment. As a consequence, all organizations must adapt to the changeable society. ‘Change or die! ’ is the rallying cry among today’s manager worldwide. In the second place, with the development of technology and science, the sense of distance between people getting closer, our world became a multicultural environment.

Therefore, many companies have to do adjustment to adapt environment. More precisely, many companies must spend large amount of money and much energy on training to improve skills of employees. Last but not least, in this world, competition is a part of our lives, never disappear. Especially in the business society, the weaks are the prey of the strongs, increasing competition makes it inevitable for builded organizations to defend themselves against both traditional competitors who develop new products and services, and small entrepreneurial firms with innovative offerings.

This makes sense in that a good organization will be the ones that can change according to the competition. They followed the steps of the times, able to develop new products quickly and put them on the market. They accelerate production operations, shortened product cycle and constantly produce new products that can adapt to radically-changing environment. The risks of organizational culture On the other hand, colorable arguments can be made that organizational culture should not to be changed.

This argument has considerable merit in that every little change can bring huge risks, especially for a business organization. For example, a change is scheduled and employees as soon as possible respond by voicing complaints, demotivation, even threatening go on strike and so on. In general, risk can be divided two big parts, individual risks and organizational risks. Individual sources of risk belong to primary human characteristics such as consciousness, characteristics and requirements. There are five different risks in individual resources.

Custom (Habit): Do you go to school or work always through same route every day? Most people’s answer: “Yes! ” Our lives are so complicated, we have to make hundreds of decisions. Therefore, face to life’s complexities, we lean upon habits or programmed responses. However, when faced with change, this tendency to respond in our usual ways becomes a source of risk. For instance, when your department moves to another new building, it means you have to change your habits: get up earlier ten minutes; pass a new street go to work; look for a new parking; adapt to new office’s overall arrangement and so on. . Security: People with a high need for security are likely to resist change because it threatens their feelings of safety.

For example, when Sony&Ericsson announced to lay off 17000 employees or Ford will introduce new robots, these employees feel their job unsafe. 3. Economic: Changes in work tasks or job specification can lead to economic fears if people are cared that they would not be able to adapt to new tasks or standards, especially when reward is closely related to productivity. 4. Fear of the unknown: Change replaces vagueness and indetermination for the unknown.

When we graduated from high school ready enter university was a wonderful example. In high school, we understood that what things need to do, you maybe dislike high school life, but at least, you know this system. We faced a fresh and uncertainty system in university, you have to sacrifice your know to exchange unknown, it was associated with uncertainty fears. 5. Selective information processing: Individuals are sinful of selective processing information in the cause of maintain their whole consciousness.

They hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges the world they have created. Organization is conservative for its essentially, it resist change energetically. (Hall, 1987) This phenomenon can be seen everywhere, for example, governmental agencies want to continue devote oneself to their work, no matter what the market need to change; The organized religion has ineradicable history, changing religious doctrine need great perseverance and patience; Many business companies also think change can bring many risks.

There are six organizational sources of risk. (Katz, Kahn, 1978) 1. Structural inertia: Organizations keep their stability by inner mechanism, like their selection processes that choose employees in or out very systematically; Training and other socialize technology strengthen requests and skills for every concrete role; Organizational normalization provides job specifications, rules and regulations to employees. After selection, the satisfactory employees can enter organization, then, organization will model and guide their behaviors by kind of way.

When an organization is meted with change, this structural inertia act as risk (even counterbalance) to maintain stability. 2. Limited Change attention: Organizations are made up of a quantity of interdependent subsystems. One cannot be changed without influencing the others. More exactly, in the meantime, organizations just change technological process, and not change organizational structure for match it, so technological change cannot adapt to. It seems that limited change in subsystems tend to be nullified by the lager system. 3. Group inertness:

Even though individuals want to change their behavior, group criterion may act as a force of constraint. For instance, an unionist maybe accept job change from capital, but if union regulation provide that resist any change by capital unilaterally change, therefore risk will appear. 4. Threat to professional knowledge: Changes in organizational model may threaten the expertise of specialized groups. In 1980s, the process of adopting distributed personal computer was a good example. This computer can let user direct got information from host computer of company, but it encountered many information departments’ counterview.

Why, because the use distributed computers can bring risks for special technology of information departments. 5. Threat to established power relationships: Any reapportionment of decision-making power can threaten long-established power relationships within organization. Participative decision and self-management work team are belong to this change, it used to be threaten by low-level managers. 6. Threat to established resource distributions: Groups in the organization that control considerable resources see change as a risk.

They tend to be gratify with the way things are. For instance, whether change means their budget or members decreasing? Those groups which can get much benefit from existing resource allocations used to be threaten by future allocations. How to prevent risks of organizational culture change? Although Organizational change brings many risks, in some ways, this is positive. It regulates a degree of stability and predictability to behavior. If there were not some risks, organizational behavior would take on the representatives of chaotic randomness.

According to these risks, there were six tactics have been suggested for use by change planners in dealing with preventing risks. (Kotter, Schlesinger, 1979) 1. Education and Communication: Risk can be reduced through communicating with employees to help them understand the logic of a change. The fundamental assumption of this strategy is the reason of producing risks that fights the effects of misinformation and miscommunication; if employees see all facts and eliminate entire misread, risks should disappear. Our communication could through talk personally, group discussion, memorandum, report and so on.

Indeed, research shows that the way the need for change is sold matters-change is more likely when the necessity of changing is packaged properly. (Dutton, Ashford, O’Neill, Lawrence, 2001) By the way, when the risk of change definitely from miscommunication and labor relations character by mutual trust, this tactic does work; if these conditions cannot be have, it does not work. 2. Participation: It is difficult for individuals to hit back a change decision in which they participated. Before changing, those opposed can be brought into the decision process.

Presuming that the participants have the professional knowledge to make a meaningful contribution, their participation can reduce risk, obtain promise, and improve the quality of change decision. However, this tactic has two disadvantages. First, it maybe has potential poor decision; second, it would take much time. 3. Support and Promotion: Change planners can provide a range of supportive measures to reduce risk. When employees feel fear and worried, the company should offer recommendation and counseling psychology, new-technologies training or a short paid leave of holiday may promote adjustment.

Research on middle managers has shown that when managers or employees have low emotional commitment to change, they favor the status quo and resist it. (Huy, 2002, pp. 31-69) 4. Negotiation: Another way for the change planner to cope with potential risk to change is to exchange something valuable for waken risk. For example, if the risk is concentrated in some powerful individuals, a detailed payment scheme can be negotiated that will satisfy their individual needs. Negotiation as a tactic may be necessary when risk comes from a powerful provenience. But, planner cannot ignore its potentially high costs.

On the side, if change planner negotiates with one party to avoid risk, he or she is open to the possibility of being extorted by other individuals which have power. 5. Control and Cooptation: Manipulation deal with concealed influence attempts. Some illustration of this are twisting and misinterpretation facts to make them more attractive, blocking undesirable information, and creating rumors to get employees to accept change. If managers threatens to closed down a extraordinary manufacturing plant if that plant’s employees do not accept an across-the-board pay cut, and if the threat is actually untrue, managers is using manipulation.

Cooptation, on the other side, is a mode of both manipulation and participation. It try to find ‘buy off’ the leaders of against group by giving them an important role in the change decision. The leader’s suggestion is explored, not to seek a good decision, but to get their authorization. Both manipulation and cooptation are comparatively low-cost and easy ways to enhance the support of opponents, but the tactics can backfire if the targets become conscious that they are being tricked or used. If by any chance detected, the change planner’s reputation may drop to zero.

It used by change planners in dealing with opponents to change; that is, the application of direct thrusts or force on the opponents. The color is quite mandatory, if the company management indicated to in the previous discussion really is determined to shut down if employees do not agree with a pay cut. Other examples of coercion are threats of transfer, loss of promotions, negative performance appraisal and so on. The advantages and disadvantages coercion are similar to the benefits and drawbacks of manipulation and cooptation.

For my part, after considering the arguments above, I would concede that organizational change can bring many risk, the members of conservative not support change. Nevertheless, despite that I think the organizations should be changed, every day is different, anything would be changed as time goes on. Overall, I am convinced that with development of society, managers will discover many effective change plans to adapt to market competition.

Jails and Prisons rice supplement essay help: rice supplement essay help

The four types of prisons are women’s, maximum, medium, and low security. Women’s prisons in our country are very different in some aspects as the male’s prisons. Women have greater needs than men do. They have to adjust to their needs, whether it is pregnancy, or the emotional needs of the woman. Maximum Security prison is a massive building with large inmate population.

They offer tight security, high fences, thick walls, and secure cells. They are very closely monitored concerning every moment they are incarcerated there. (Schmalleger, 2011)Medium security prisons are permitted more freedom generally than the maximum security prisoners. They receive more privileges such as they can go to the prison yard, exercise room, and the library. They still strict security but they have more freedom. (Schmalleger, 2011) Minimum security prisons offer a number of programs for the prisoners.

They offer services to help rehabilitate the prisoners. The primary force behind the minimum security is the prisoners’ own restraint. They are there because of their behavior and they have the choice to stay there and do well or get transferred to another level based on their behavior. (Schmalleger, 2011) These types of prisons are also classified as federal, state, women, and private prison’s. Even though every one of these institutions is different they are all there for the same reason.

Prisons are made to house the most violent to the first time offenders. The concept of the institutions is to provide safety to the communities from these offenders. To keep control and keep them housed in a facility to spend out their sentence. (Schmalleger, 2011) Jail plays a very important role in our criminal justice system. Before an inmate gets sentenced to prison, they are often watched in jail to see how they react with others.

Based on how they act in jail usually decides what kind of prisoner they will become. Jail is also used in our system for those spending less than a year in jail, to keep down overcrowding of prisons. They house individuals pending arraignment, readmit probation or parole, temporarily houses juveniles, the mentally ill, and bail bond violators. They also hold individuals for the military, they transfer inmates to their designated facility, and they also operate community-based programs.

In conclusion all of the prisons and jails in our country work together like a fine oiled machine. They work together to ensure that an inmate gets from one place to another. They also work together to ensure the inmate remains safe and that the public is safe from the offenders.

Children and Young Person Development descriptive essay help: descriptive essay help

Child and young person development Physical development Age range| Description of the stage| An example of how this impacts onanother aspect of development| 0 – 3 months| The first 3 months of a new-born’s physical development will pass by more quickly than you can imagine. During this time parents will note a change in there infant’s growth, appearance, motor abilities, and sensory development. | | 3 – 6 months| In months 3 through 6, Babies physical development continues to progress. He/She has graduated from the new-born look to that of a baby with full cheeks and a plump body.

They will also be able to begin to show a whole new range of skills and abilities| | 6 – 9 months| Between 6 to 9 months you will be amazed by the physical development of your little one. While he continues to master the skills he learned in previous months, you will now see him move (quite literally) to new levels in many areas of development. | | 9 – 12 months| Not only have they grown from this tiny infant that once fit in the crook of their parents arm, but they are now making both literal and figurative steps toward increased mobility and agility.

During this stage everything is new and interesting. Use 5 senses to explore the environment around them. They all able to stand on their two feet but will put their hands out to the side for balance. | | 2 – 4 years| At the age of two most children can climb onto furniture in the home, they are able to throw a ball but are not able to catch at this stage| | 4 – 7 years| At this stage the child will be able to develop a good sense of balance, bend at the waist to pick up objects from the floor. | 7 – 12 years| Their balance will have improved as will there walking and running skills.

Their bodies will start to change as they get closer to the puberty. | | 12 – 16 years| The child’s body will start to go through the changes that are brought on by puberty. They will start to notice things and experience things that they didn’t experience before. | | 16 – 19 years| At this age the child is a fully developed young adult. There bodies should have adjusted to the changes that experienced from puberty. | | Intellectual development

Indicate needs and understand basic instructions. Claps hands and can wave goodbye. | | 1 – 2 years| During this stage, language skills will progress from grunting and pointing to single words. Pronunciation is difficult. They steadily build vocabulary by taking in the language around them. | | 2 – 4 years| They are able to listen and understand stories, rhythms and conversations. As they are learning their letters but may call their numbers as letters.

They will begin to ask questions about the environment around them. | . | 4 – 7 years| They should be able to hold a conversation and express their needs clearly. | 7 – 12 years| Getting their point across is key at this stage and may start an argument if they feel they are not being understood| | 12 – 16 years| Their communication skills are developed but they will begin to communicate less with their parents and more with their or siblings. They will argue a lot more at this stage to assert their independence. | | 16 – 19 years| There communication skills are fully developed but they may still be adding to their developed skills through learning other ways to communicate. | | Social, emotional and behavioural development

Age range| Description of the stage| An example of how this impacts onanother aspect of development| 0 – 3 months| During the first few months babies are very restless and rely on the parents for relief from stress and other negative emotions. Therefore at this stage they are not really developing in the aspects of social, emotion and behavioural | | 3 – 6 months| Show recognition of familiar faces. Emotions will be expressed through smiles and cooing noises if happy while tears and cries will express sadness. | | 6 – 9 months| They don’t like to be separated from mum and dad and will be wary of strangers.

As social beings babies will socialise well with other babies well through baby sounds. | | 9 – 12 months| They are still discovering emotions so don’t have a grasp on what is going on but they will express themselves if unhappy. | | 1 – 2 years| They are just learning to recognize and manage their feelings. They respond to conflict through tantrums or by hitting, screaming or crying. | | 2 – 4 years| Emotionally, they need familiar adults nearby for security and comfort as they continue to explore and play. They will develop more independence and start to explore true friendships with other children.

They are still learning how to manage/ recognise the causes of feelings and will offer simple comfort through hug. | | 4 – 7 years| During this stage the child may have a one good friend but they will change friend easily after a minor argument. They will be attention seek to get attention from others. | | 7 – 12 years| They will be able to socialise with there peers and have a solid group of friend (2-3 children). Depending on the child some children at this stage will think they have all the answers but don’t have a concept of what they are talking about.

There pretty balanced emotionally but as they get closer to 10-12 they will start to change. | | 12 – 16 years| During the stages between puberty they will start to push the behavioural boundaries and social boundaries. Emotional’s will be all over the places as they go through puberty. | | 16 – 19 years| They are fully able to expressive themselves emotionally| | Task B – Child and young person development Type of Influence | Give ONE example of the effect onchildren and young people’sdevelopment| Why recognising andresponding to this isimportant| Background|

Religious background. Recogniseing the religious background of a child is important as many religions have a certain diet and you must make sure that you have food suitable. But also responding by allowing the child to talk about their religions & festivals that they may celebrate is a way for not only you but other children to recognise the importance of this event. | Health| Meningtis | It’s important to recognise the symptoms of meningitis and not get them confused with the symptoms of another illness, as soon as the symptoms are shown immediate medical attention.

Responding quickly to the symptoms and contacting the medical services makes the chance of the illness becoming more severe. | Environment| family problems at home| It’s important to recognise this as it could effect the child emotionally and sociably if there is a lot of arguing at home the child may start to feel scared to interact with other people due to fear of arguments being started. Responding to this also important as you need to find away to make the child feel comfortable so they can regain interactions with other’s without the fear of starting an argument. |

Task C- Child and young person development | Transition experienced by mostchildren and young people:| Example of possible effect on children andyoung people’s behaviour and development| 1| From crawling to walking| Moving from crawling to walking | 2| Going to Nursery| Going to nursery opens up there social & intellectual development as they are socialising with other children but are also learning new skills| 3| Developing New Skills| By developing new skills, they are able to develop skills that not only help them later in life but they may also learn that they are more gifted are certain things.

Transition experienced by somechildren and young people:| Example of possible effect on children andyoung people’s behaviour and development| 1| Violence/Abuse| With children they are likely to become anixious & find it difficult to sleep. They may also suffer from nightmares or flashbacks and will become easily startled. 2| Death in the family| The child or young person may suffer from a long period of depression with loss of interest in daily activities and events. | 3| Parents Divorcing| A child or young person who is going through the divorce of there parents is likely to feel a sense of rejection which could affect them later in life.

Eutropius, Breviarium Historiae Romanae essay help cheap: essay help cheap

Sentence subjects are still . Objects of verbs are still boldface. Finding the verbs is now up to you. The adjectives of noun-adjective pairs are in italics. Finding the nouns is now up to you. Before you translate: Identify the subjects and verbs of each sentence, particularly whether the subject is “he/she/it” or “they. If the subject is not indicated, use the pronoun. Circle prepositional phrases. Find the verbs whose objects are boldface. Find the nouns whose modifying adjectives are in italics. [8] Ita [bellis toto orbe confectis.

All of Rome prepared to go back to Augustus duodecimo anno, quam consul fuerat. His 12th year at consul Ex eo rem publicam per quadraginta et quattuor annos SOLUS obtinuit. The public officials get 4 years of ruling Ante enim duodecim annis cum Antonio et Lepido tenuerat.

Before infact the course of Antonius and Lepidus’ ruling was preserved. Ita ab initio principatus eius usque ad finem quinquaginta et sex anni fuerunt. Therefore after the beginning to the end of the 56 year rule Obiit autem septuagesimo sexto anno morte communi in oppido Campaniae Atella. However the city couldn’t reach its 76 year because of its annihilation Romae in campo Martio sepultus est, VIR, The plain of Rome was overcome by the hero Mars qui non inmerito ex maxima parte deo similis est putatus. Which by a large area undeserving by god

Neque enim facile ULLUS eo aut in bellis felicior fuit aut in pace moderatior. Nor indeed do any prettier exist or rather have peace Quadraginta et quattuor annis, quibus SOLUS gessit imperium, civilissime vixit, in cunctos liberalissimus, in amicos fidissimus, 4 years of rule carry on, the citizens come to life in every friend quos tantis evexit honoribus, ut paene aequaret fastigio suo. Which in such size carry away honor as almost as equal to its peak. [9a] Nullo tempore ante eum magis Romana RES floruit.

No condition before that one is greater than Romans blossoming affair, Nam [exceptis civilibus bellis], in quibus invictus fuit, Romano adiecit imperio For instance they remove the pretty Roman citizens in which unconquerable Roman rule exists. Aegyptum, Cantabriam, Dalmatiam saepe ante victam, sed penitus tunc subactam, Pannoniam, Aquitaniam, Illyricum, Raetiam, Vindelicos et Salassos in Alpibus, omnes Ponti maritimas civitates, in his nobilissimas Bosphorum et Panticapaeum. Vicit autem multis proeliis Dacos. They conquer while on the other hand losing many battles.

About the Short Story english essay help: english essay help

What kind of the person is the main character (You) in Lorrie Moore’s short story, How? According to the description inside the contents, the woman, you, is a white-collar class office lady at the age of mid-thirty or older by speculation. We can implicitly know that she may have a well-pay job, and that she can live independently. From her unique tone of speaking throughout the story, readers will little by little form a charming, sophisticated feminine figure, which is smart and knowledgeable, somewhat indifferent and cool.

She is clever and confident, but for love she holds with ambivalence, and that’s the major conflict in this story. 2. What’s kind of person is the other main character (He)? Readers perceive less from this character, the woman’s boyfriend. We mostly feel his emotion by his outward actions and words. He is good-looking, trendy and sentimental. He must be younger than the woman, less mature as well. He depends on the woman to a certain degree, psychologically and financially maybe.

He “wants to go with you” and “wants to be what it is that you want to be. ” He adores the woman by true heart, imitating her own tastes and preference, doing all that to try to please her. 3. What’s their relationship? By the woman’s point of view, she somewhat despises him for his ignorance. He doesn’t have common sense, nor can he detect what she’s bearing in mind. The woman is unsatisfied with their relationship. At first she feels “discovered, comforted, needed loved,” but as they’ve been together longer, her love for him dies away.

She feels bored. She shows apartness while he endeavors to make up. She feels love for him every now and then, but she begins to “plot her getaway. ” It was a stalemate until the man is diagnosed sick. Their life adds a lot more lugubrious scenes. She becomes lachrymose and distracted. He somnambulates, babbling. Their love turns out to be a nightmare. She makes decision to end their relationship. As time passes, “the sadness will die like an old dog. ” Everything will fade out, the story is over.

Summary Or Response write my essay help: write my essay help

In the article, “Is Facebook Making Us Lonely? ” by Stephen Marche we are informed of the negative effect social media can have on out psychological self. “Social media – from Facebook to twitter – have made us more densely networked than ever. Yet for all this connectivity, new research suggests that we have never been lonelier. ” (Marche 60) What is loneliness? It is a psychological state. Marche stated many times that loneliness and being lonely are not the same thing. “Solitude can be lovely.

Crowded parties can be agony. ” (Marche 64) It was said that loneliness is at the middle of American society. We get together less, and when we do get together it does not mean as much as it once did. That bond just is not there anymore. If loneliness is becoming such a big problem in the world today, why are we spending countless hours and enormous amounts of money trying to achieve loneliness? “Despite its deleterious effects on health, loneliness is one of the first things ordinary Americans spend their money achieving,” Marche informed.

Money moves us to the serenity of that quiet beach or the undisturbed house in the middle of nowhere. Loneliness is being invited into our live by our very own selves, even when such suffering and strain can result. Marche expressed, “Loneliness is certainly not something that Facebook or twitter or any of the lesser forms of social media is doing to us. We are doing it to ourselves. ” An example used in the article was going to self checkout versus a normal check stand at a grocery store.

Marche admitted to going to the self-checkout, only to avoid wait time and because it is more efficient. Marche isn’t trying to bring loneliness upon himself, he is only trying to “Bypass the whole circus and just ring up the groceries myself” (68) Studies had been done to see if online, social networking, users were more lonely than non-users. They came to the conclusion that the more you have face-to-face communication the less lonely you are. “The danger with Facebook is not that it lets us isolate ourselves, but that it threatens to alter the very nature of solitude.

Juvenile System ccusa autobiographical essay help: ccusa autobiographical essay help

Something is wrong in society if more and more teenagers commit delinquent crimes. Focusing on what spawns delinquency in juveniles today, parenting is essential. During my visit to family court with fellow classmates I was honored to observe real live cases involving teenagers, and their parents. It was obvious that one main issue in the U. S. Juvenile Delinquency system is the lack of family structure. Family and delinquent relationships interconnect, ultimately, resulting to the core of delinquency.

The articles “Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure”, by Anika Doggett, and “Family Influences on Delinquency, written by David P. Farrington, both attempt to explain the effects of family structure on juvenile delinquents. The least amount of communication and structure provided by family only ensures a closer path to delinquent activities a child will engage in. Eventually, a solution or at least an attempt to solve family structure, and parental influence, will need to be instituted in the U. S. juvenile system.

Attending family court was an experience in itself because it will forever be memorable. One case in particular that held significant value to me was the one involving a fourteen year old boy who stabbed a delivery worker in the chest with a knife. As the troubled teen entered the court room, all eyes were focusing on him as court officers began to remove him from handcuffs. This proved prior detainment in a detention facility. He approached his seat slow and slouchy, and sat in between his mother and his lawyer. He shared no words, or looks with either of the two as he continued to be seated.

I expected a much more intimate greeting once he united with his mother, but to my surprise, neither of them seems interested in such. The young delinquent glanced around the room as he identified everyone present with his low, angry eyes. His hair was uncombed, and he slouched in his chair as if having no interest in the events about to take place. His face was brutally bruised and beaten from what seemed to be fist fights he had back in the detention facility he came from. As the descriptions of the case continued, it was proven that the victim of the stabbing was an innocent, immigrant man who spoke no English.

He is from Mexico, and works to support his family being a delivery boy. The victim is only nineteen years old meaning only four years older than his offender. When the victim was mentioned, the juvenile represented was not remorseful. He showed no signs of sympathy for the victim, or his family. He continued to slouch, and be detached from everyone in the court room. As the judge continued to plead his case, he continued to stare forward with a blank stare. Ultimately, the case was postponed to be decided at a later date. The juvenile’s lawyer mentioned the teenager having a consultation with a psychiatrist.

The psychiatrist saw symptoms of an antisocial disorder that the teenager processed. He described the teen as feeling emotionally disconnected and detached from things having sentimental value, which would explain his lack of emotion during the case. In the end, the teen was issued back to the detention facility in which he came from. As the case was dismissed, the boy stood up from the bench and was placed back in handcuffs. Once again, he did not look at his mother, speak to her, or acknowledge her even in the slightest way.

Somehow, his mother was able to crack a smile when she looked at him, but somehow, it didn’t seem fulfilling to me. Furthermore, I analyzed the underlying cause of this case; lack of family structure. According to Anika Doggett, in the text “Juvenile Delinquency, and Family Structure”, “families are one of the strongest socializing forces in life”. (1) Providing stability, unity, and control, families are essentially the foundation of a person. However, it is clear that family factors predict offending. Some strong predictors are criminal or antisocial parents.

Other predictors are large family sizes, poor parental supervision, parental conflict, and disrupted families. Children who are rejected by families, who also grow up in unstable homes with large amounts of conflict, or who are unsupervised most of the time, are at greater risk of becoming delinquent. (Doggett 1) In even more specific terms, positive parenting practices during early years of childhood and adolescence appear to act as safety helmets; simply because they add to the structure and foundation of what a child believes, values, and understands as right from wrong.

This exact idea is evident in the case. From what I concurred as I watched the court case, the mother and son relationship was troublesome based on the lack of communication they shared. In the text “Family Influences on Delinquency”, author David Farrington says “mother love in infancy and childhood was just as important for mental health as vitamins and proteins for physical health”. (211) It is essential that a child experiences a warm, loving, encouraging, continuous relationship with a mother figure from a very young age.

If they experience a maternal detriment, as early as the first five years of life, it will have negative effects on the development of their character. This includes becoming an “affectionless”, and “cold” person, also a delinquent. This explains the very distant relationship displayed between the mother and son in court. In addition, the fact that the boy’s father was not present is also an important facet in my observation.

Farrington states that it is generally common for the loss or absence of a father, rather than a mother. However, this too impacts the future of the juvenile. Children from broken homes are more likely to offend than ones from “intact families”. (Farrington 211) To further verify this idea, a study was carried out by researcher, Joan McCord, in which she studied the relationship between homes broken by loss of the biological fathers and boys who later commit serious offenses. She found that the prevalence of offending was high for boys from broken homes without affectionate mothers (62 percent) and for those from unbroken homes characterized by parental conflict (52 percent), irrespective of whether they had affectionate mothers.

The Role of Local Governments in the Global Economy essay help us: essay help us

Recent developments in the global economy would seem to suggest that it is in the interest of states to be integrated into the global economy, although it is also obvious that most would like to do so in the most beneficial and equitable ways.The increase in the number of states seeking membership in the World Trade Organization is perhaps evidence enough that states, whether developed or underdeveloped, democratic or non-democratic, want to play a role in the World Liberal Order.

The circumstances under which states are influenced to be integrated into the global economy however vary from one state to another and can be internal or external. Amongst the internal factors are national interests, pressures from regional governments, local governments, pressure groups, and private enterprises etc.

The significance of the internal factors lies in the fact that even though in most cases it is private enterprises that dominate the flow of international trade, the interests and welfare of citizens constitute the critical basis of a state’s actions in the global economy. Further, domestic institutions affect which groups or interests have a voice in national trade policy. Also, just as domestic institutions influence political (and economic) outcomes, the international trade regime can also be a vehicle through which leaders manage domestic political pressures.

It is on this basis that I propose to analyze at the micro level, the domestic institution which is closest to the people, namely, local governments, and the ways they affect and are affected by the global economy. As a result of the recent financial crisis, it is evident that there is an increased role of the state in the global economy in democracies and authoritarian systems alike. As Burrows and Harris (2009) predict, there would be a shift towards a greater state role in the economy through State Owned Enterprises and Sovereign Wealth Funds.

This possibility of increased state involvement in the nearest future heightens the significance of understanding the role domestic or internal institutions play and how they are in turn affected by the outcomes of the global economic process. There is a need to identify if the national economic policies formulated by world liberal order are acceptable to not just the national governments who pass them into law but also the government at the grassroots.

Most notably in Africa there are numerous scenarios where although the presence of global economic programs and principles may not be in the interest of the local communities, leaders acting on personal intuition and for selfish reasons, welcome the opportunity to promote globalization. However, policy makers in the region agree that globalization cannot be stopped but understood and adjusted to (Suruma, 2002). This also sparks another question; how do local governments seek to adapt to the fast changing times dictated by a global economy?

We shall analyze the sluggish growth of enterprises owned and run by local government and the chances they stand in competing with their counterparts in the private sector in having a global impact. We shall consider the push and pull effects of a globalizing economy that lead to emigration from localities, the dispersal of tenets of democracy, good and democratic governance, including encouragement of demands for transparency, responsiveness, accountability, participation and collective governance through globalization. Local governments have also fought to have more autonomous spaces, and have been encouraged by neoliberal reforms that emphasize decentralization and lean central governments.

Operations research melbourne essay help: melbourne essay help

When we are attempting to make a business decision, the decision criteria should always be to minimize cost. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 2 EVSI can never exceed EVPI Answer Selected Answer: True Question 3 You are currently paying $12 per hour for labor, and labor costs are included in the calculation of the objective function coefficients of a maximization problem. The shadow price for labor printed on the sensitivity analysis report is $8. It would be economically beneficial to you if you could secure extra labor for $15 per hour. Answer Selected Answer: True

If project 1 is performed then project 2 will not be performed. This can be modeled by the constraint X1 – X2 ? 1, where X1 and X2 are binary variables. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 5 Monte Carlo simulations are deterministic. Answer Selected Answer: False Question 6 In constructing a utility curve, Answer Selected Answer: b. the certainty of a certain amount is compared with the willingness to gamble that amount on a larger amount. Question 7 Banner Tools produces two styles of steel hammers with wooden handles.

The first sells for $6 and consists of . pounds of steel; the second sells for $15 and consists of 1 pound of steel. Since steel costs the firm $4 per pound and the handle, labor, and packaging costs amount to $1 for either hammer, the profits coefficients are $6 – . 5($4) – $1 = $3 for the smaller hammer and $15 – 1($4) – $1 = $10 for the larger hammer. Thus the objective function for this model is MAX 3X1 + 10X2. Given that the shadow price for steel is $2, which of the following statements is correct?

Nike may build a factory at Millville (Y1) or it may not. It may also build a regional warehouse at the same site (W1). But Nike will not build a warehouse without also building a factory. So, its choices are: (1) neither factory nor warehouse; (2) factory only; or (3) factory and warehouse. The appropriate linear constraint to express this is: Answer Selected Answer: d. Y1 – W1 ? 0 Question 9 In sensitivity analysis, a zero shadow price for a resource ordinarily means that Answer Selected Answer: a. the resource has not been used up Question 10

Which of the following would not generally be listed as a reason for the popularity of simulation as a managerial tool? Answer Selected Answer: a. Ability to provide optimal solutions Question 11 The campus bookstore wishes to determine how many units of a discontinued computer it should purchase for an upcoming sale. The computers cost $800 each and the bookstore believes it can sell them for $1100 each. At that price the bookstore estimates that the demand will be between one and four units. Any computers unsold at the end of the sale will be marked down in price by 50% and will quickly sell out.

If the bookstore does not have enough computers in stock to satisfy all the demand, it estimates that it will incur a goodwill loss of $100 for each unsatisfied customer. Determine the optimal decision. What is the expected payoff for the optimal? Answer Selected Answer: c. 462. 5 Question 12 A company faces possible industrial action by workers during the final rounds of wage negotiation with a workers’ union. The union is currently demanding pay increases and benefits worth $2m: substantially more than the industry standard.

Ping, the company’s CEO is confident that the union will actually accept a lower amount but is not sure how to proceed. Ping has identified two possible offers that he could make to the union. Package A is $1m in pay increases and benefits (around the industry standard) and Package B is $700,000 in pay increases and benefits. Ping reasons “If we offer package A I think there’s a fair chance, say 40%, that the union will accept it straight away. If they don’t they will come back with their own proposal, let’s call it package Y, probably around $1. 5m. We could just accept that.

If we rejected package Y then I think we’ve got a potential problem. The union might accept our first offer of $1m but it’s likely that they would see that as a defeat and so they might call a strike. I think there’s about a 75% chance of a strike. But because the strike is being called when we’ve got a $1m offer on the table, which is about what the rest of the industry is paying, I don’t think it would last more than a week and I think in the end we would probably agree to around a $1. 2m package. ” Any strike will cost the company $150,000 per week over and above the cost of the package.

Ping’s second alternative is to begin by offering package B. He estimates there is a 20% chance of the union accepting that offer immediately. There is also about a 10% chance that the union would be insulted by package B because it is substantially below what the industry is paying and immediately call a strike. In that case the strike would most likely last 3 weeks and a final agreement would be reached on a package worth about $1. 1m.

Thirdly, the union might come back with their own proposal, package Y. Now the company has three possible responses if the union proposes package Y. (1) They can accept package Y. 2) They can reject it, in which case at this point the union would have about a 90% chance of calling a strike that would last 4 weeks and end in an agreement on a $1. 1m package or the union would have a 10% chance of accepting package B. (3) Or the company could increase their offer to package A. Because increasing the offer would be seen in this situation as a gesture of goodwill on the part of the company, the union would most likely accept package A (with 70% probability) although there would still be 30% chance of a 1 week strike that ended in an agreement on a $1. 25m package.

Note that all amounts of money are in present value dollars and measure the full cost of each option both immediately and in the future). Draw a decision tree. What is the optimal for the most immediate decision? Answer Selected Answer: b. Offer B Question 13 Extel Industries produces integrated circuit components for use in the next generation of automobiles. In particular, it can make the AT50 unit that can control the air temperature in the car, the V35 unit that monitors vibration and makes adjustments accordingly, and the GM30 that regulates the engine so that the car provides maximum efficiency.

The unit profits on these units are $84, $112, and $126, respectively. Each of these units uses different quantities of three computer chips (as shown below), which Extel purchases from a Taiwanese distributor. C101 H122 P043 AT50 1 1 1 V35 1 1 2 GM30 1 2 1 Each week Extel receives 350 C101’s, 300 H122’s, and 400 P043’s.

The purchase price for these chips represents a sunk cost to Extel. Solve this using linear optimization. Which units will Extel produce? Answer Selected Answer: b. AT50 and V35 Question 14 The Wiethoff Company has a contract to produce 10000 garden hoses for a customer. Wiethoff has 4 different machines that can produce this kind of hose. Because these machines are from different manufacturers and use differing technologies, their specifications are not the same.

The management indicated that if machine 4 is used, machine 1 will not be used since only a limited number of employees are capable of operating machines 1 and 4. Machine Fixed cost to set up Variable cost per hose Capacity production run 1 750 1. 25 6000 2 500 1. 0 7500 3 1000 1. 00 4000 4 300 2. 00 5000 Solve this using integer optimization. Given the information above which machines should be used? Answer Selected Answer: b. 1 and 3 Sunday, May 6, 2012 8:43:14 AM HST OK

Cooling Towers Design essay help services: essay help services

Cooling towers fall into two main sub-divisions: natural draft and mechanical draft. Natural draft designs use very large concrete chimneys to introduce air through the media. Due to the tremendous size of these towers (500 ft high and 400 ft in diameter at the base) they are generally used for water flowrates above 200,000 gal/min. Usually these types of towers are only used by utility power stations in the United States. Mechanical draft cooling towers are much more widely used. These towers utilize large fans to force air through circulated water.

The water falls downward over fill surfaces which help increase the contact time between the water and the air. This helps maximize heat transfer between the two. Mechanical Draft Towers Mechanical draft towers offer control of cooling rates in their fan diameter and speed of operation. These towers often contain several areas (each with their own fan) called cells.

An increase in heat load would have the following effects on the diagram in Figure 5: 1. Increase in the length of line CD, and a CD line shift to the right 2. Increases in hot and cold water temperatures 3. Increases in range and approach areas The increased heat load causes the hot water temperature to increase considerably faster than does the cold water temperature. Although the area ABCD should remain constant, it actually decreases about 2% for every 10 °F increase in hot water temperature above 100 °F.

To account for this decrease, an “adjusted hot water temperature” is usd in cooling tower design. Figure 6 shows adjusted hot water temperatures. The area ABCD is expected to change with a change in L/G, this is very key in the design of cooling towers. Preliminary Cooling Tower Design Although KaV/L can be calculated, designers typically use charts found in the “Cooling Tower Institute Blue Book” to estimate KaV/L for given design conditions. It is important to recall three key points in cooling tower design: . A change in wet bulb temperature (due to atmospheric conditions) will not change the tower characteristic.

The straight line shown in Figure 7 is a plot of L/G vs KaV/L at a constant airflow. The slope of this line is dependent on the tower packing, but can often be assumed to be -0. 60. Figure 7 represents a typical graph supplied by a manufacturer to the purchasing company. From this graph, the plant engineer can see that the proposed tower will be capable of cooling the water to a temperature that is 10 °F above the wet-bulb temperature. This is another key point in cooling tower design. Cooling towers are designed according to the highest geographic wet bulb temperatures.

This temperature will dictate the minimum performance available by the tower. As the wet bulb temperature decreases, so will the available cooling water temperature. For example, in the cooling tower represented by Figure 7, if the wet bulb temperature dropped to 75 °F, the cooling water would still be exiting 10 °F above this temperature (85 °F) due to the tower design. Below is the summary of steps in the cooling tower design process in industry. More detail on these steps will be given later.

Plant engineer defines the cooling water flowrate, and the inlet and outlet water temperatures for the tower. 2. Manufacturer designs the tower to be able to meet this criteria on a “worst case scenario” (ie. during the hottest months). The tower characteristic curves and the estimate is given to the plant engineer. 3. Plant engineer reviews bids and makes a selection Other Design Considerations Once a tower characteristic has been established between the plant engineer and the manufacturer, the manufacturer must design a tower that matches this value.

The required tower size will be a function of: 1. Cooling range 2. Approach to wet bulb temperature 3. Mass flowrate of water 4. Web bulb temperature 5. Air velocity through tower or individual tower cell 6. Tower height In short, nomographs such as the one shown on page 12-15 of “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook 6th Ed” utilize the cold water temperature, wet bulb temperature, and hot water temperature to find the water concentration in gal/min ft2. The tower area can then be calculated by dividing the water circulated by the water concentration.

Malaysian Public Administration a level english language essay help: a level english language essay help

This report is only possible with the sincere dedication of our group members and Dr. WasonLueangpapat, Public Administration Professor. For the members, their contributions and hard work has been the chance to fulfill their part of the distributed duty in Public Administration of Malaysia. As researchers and editors, we especially want to acknowledge the Comparative Public Administration lecturer, Ajarn. Dr. WasonLueangpapat, to his friendly contributed lectures and every example that he has tried to make us understand.

Even though, we still did not get them. The other groups that we must acknowledge are our parents who bring us up and sponsor for every tutorial fee and other financial supports. Finally, an untold number of people made it possible for us to work on this Malaysia report, including friends and former teachers in high school. We deeply appreciate the support and contributions of all.

This report is a term assignment that we must research and analyze; (1) structure, (2) process, (3) challenge, and (4) change in public administration of interested country. In this report, these topics allow answering such questions as: * What is the general background of Malaysia?

What is the Malaysian’s governmental structure and process? * What are the challenges of Malaysian’s public administration? * How Malaysia deals with those upcoming challenges? This report has included what topics that ajarn. Wason has mentioned during Q&A on our group presentation, Decentralization and local governance in Malaysia: * British Colonial Legacy * Decentralization * Inter-Governmental Relationships Community Relations and Emerging Recentralization * Process Toward Recentralization and Weakening on Decentralization * Reinforcing Centralization

Restructuring and Impact on Decentralization * Where to Decentralization? This report required a lot of time consuming because there are many detail to research and look through. Therefore members attempted to copy and paste information into this report which was considered as plagiarism. As the editor of this report, I had already asked them to make every copy and paste into their own languages and paraphrases. We had tried our best to accomplish this paper. Please give us a suitable mark.

Factors Influencing Foreign Direct Environment english essay help: english essay help

Factors Influencing Foreign Direct Investment The world is becoming a global village and more companies are now operating at an international level. This essay critically analyses some of the factors which influence Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Morrison (2006) defined FDI as the establishment of a company of a productive nature in a foreign country involving large volume of shareholding in foreign operations.

The essay will investigate how important FDI is in the process of globalisation and in the activities of multinational enterprises as well as examining how international trade and FDI are interlinked. There will also be a discussion of different reasons why companies decide to go international as this will highlight some of the factors which influence FDI, the benefits of FDI to both the host and home countries will be taken into account. In addition, the essay will look at different types of FDI and how these differ from each other as well as identifying strategies underlying each of these FDIs.

Issues which can have a negative impact on the company’s decision to go overseas will be critically investigated and identify why other organisations do well while others are failing after making the decision of going overseas. Furthermore, the essay will also look at the factors which should be considered by an organisation prior to making a decision of investing overseas. The essay will also discuss Political, Economical, Social and Technological (PEST) factors which can either have positive or negative impact on the company’s decision to go international.

There are so many benefits and risks associated with FDI. There will be an examination of the benefits as to whether both the international company and the host country benefit from the investment as well as analysing whether both foreign and domestic countries equally enjoy the benefits of FDI. According to Chryssocoidis et al (1997) there are five different types of foreign direct investment. The first one is taken in order to gain specific factors of production which include technical knowledge, resources, materials and brand names if these are not available in the home country or are not easily accessed.

The second type is whereby a company invest in a foreign country in order to gain access to cheaper factors of production, for example access to cheap labour. This form of FDI was developed by Raymond Vernon (1966) in his product life cycle hypothesis. He stated that governments of host countries may encourage this type of FDI in an effort to pursue an export orientated strategy development. As such, the governments of the host countries may encourage foreign investors through offering investment incentives such as grants and tax concessions.

The third form of FDI is about international competitors undertaking mutual investments in one another so as to acquire access to each other’s product ranges (Chryssochoidis et al, 1997). This resulted from increased competition among similar products and both companies find it difficult to compete in each other’s home market leading to the companies investing in each other’s area of knowledge thereby promoting each other’s sub-product specialisation in production (Chryssochoidis et al 1997). In addition, the fourth form of FDI is market seeking and it is about accessing customers in the host country.

Finally, the fifth type of FDI occurs when there is a location advantage for the foreign company in their home country but the existence of tariffs and other barriers prevent the company from exporting to the host country leading them to overcome these barriers through establishing a local presence in the host country (Chryssochoidis et al 1997). FDI plays an important role in global business; it provides companies with access to new technology, new marketing channels, cheaper production facilities and new skills (Spaulding and Graham, 2004).

For the host country, it can be a source of capital, organisational technology and management skills which in turn can bring economic development as an incentive (Spaulding and Graham, 2004). FDI has broadened its meaning into the acquisition of a lasting management interest in a firm outside the investing enterprise’s home country. For the reason above, it comes in different forms which include direct acquisition of foreign companies, construction of a factory in a foreign country and investment in joint ventures.

Britton and Worthington (2009) described FDI as an important aspect of globalisation as well as the activities of multinational companies. Over the recent years, FDI has responded to new information technology systems, the reduction in global communication costs and the liberalisation of the national regulatory framework which controls investment in enterprises, (easing of restrictions and on foreign investments and acquisition in many nations) have simplified the management of foreign investments as compared to the past ( Spaulding and Graham, 2004). These are some of the factors which fuelled FDI’s expanded role in today’s global business.

According to the UNCTAD (2004) foreign direct investment flow in developing countries has exploded through mergers and acquisition and internationalisation of production in a range of industries. FDI in developed countries rose from $481 billion in 1998 to $636 billion in 2004 (UNCTAD, 2004). Advocates of FDI suggest that the exchange of investment flows benefits both the home country and the host country, however some critics noted that multinational conglomerates are able to exploit smaller and weaker economies as well as driving out a lot of local competition.

It is true to believe that multinational conglomerates can have power over weaker economies through the exploitation of economies of scale, however, according to the United Nations report (2011) developing countries outperformed developed countries in terms of 2010 FDI attraction (UN, 2011). Small and medium sized companies always get an opportunity to become more actively involved in international business activities through FDI.

However, over half of direct foreign investment is still being made in the form of fixtures, buildings, machinery and equipment and larger multinational corporations and conglomerates still make the bigger percentage of FDI. Nevertheless, the increasingly role of the internet, the loosening of foreign direct investment restrictions and the decrease in communication costs will keep opening doors for small and medium sized companies. In developed countries; governments pay close attention to foreign direct investment because the inflow and outflow of investments can have a significant impact to their economies.

For example, the USA Department of commerce have a Bureau of Economic Analysis which is responsible for collecting information about FDI flows in order to determine the impact of such investment on the overall economy of the country. Apart from benefits derived from FDI, there are always risks associated with companies wishing to expand their operations to an international level. A company wishing to do business overseas should undergo some kind of research about the country they wish to do business in. According to (Palmer, 2000), foreign markets resent very different opportunities and threats which then company is not used to in its domestic operations.

There is a question why some companies do well while others fail when they go international. The answer could be that some companies can be easily attracted by the favourable economy of a host country without considering other factors. It is important for firms wishing to operate at an international level to gather as much information as possible about the country they are wishing to invest in.

Finding information about the political climate of a country which the foreign company wish to invest is very important prior to decision making of internationalisation. Therefore it is of paramount importance for companies wishing to go abroad to carefully study the structure of the government of that particular country so as to analyse its political environment (Keegan and Schelgemilch, 2001). Assessing the political stability of a foreign country enables the company to analyse the sovereignty of that country, threats to equity dilution and taxes.

These issues can have a negative impact on foreign companies. For example, what happened in Zimbabwe in 2010 when the president of the country threatens to seize foreign companies (BBC News, 2010). Another factor is to look at the economical environment of the targeted country. This enables the company to understand the foreign market size and potential. Information about the targeted country’s unemployment rate and consumption patterns will give the international marketer an understanding of how the market is developing in the long run (Brassington and Pettit, 2006).

There is also a need to know the stability of exchange rate, inflation and any exchange control systems. The importance of understanding the exchange control system is because if the government of the host country tightly controls their access to hard currency, this can be a problem to an importer especially when the exporter wants to be paid in hard currencies (Brassington and Pettit, 2006). In addition the international investor need information about the taxes, duties and import tariffs.

For example, UK has a highly developed economy, favourable investment climate and adequate transport infrastructure (Datamonitor, 2009), however the country is currently facing challenges of sluggish economy growth and budget deficit. This information will help the organisation to make a decision to go international and enable them to judge whether the investment is worthwhile. In addition, a company can also use social factors of the targeted country in order to understand the culture of that particular country.

According to Brassington and Pettit, (2006) special attention should be paid to socio-cultural factors. Social cultural factors include cultural difference which involves language, social structures, and religion and gender roles. These factors affect the way negotiations and transactions of the business are carried out and the way products are marketed. The differences in culture between countries have led to the failure of many international businesses (Ricks, 1993). Finally, the company need to know about the technological factors which can affect their business in a foreign land.

In other words, it is no viable to sell a product in a country where people in that country have little or no technological know-how of how the product is used. For example, an automobile company is more likely to be successful in a country where there are many automotive engineers as compared to a country with less or no access to technology. There are however, some risks associated with internationalization. Hollensen (2004) has divided these risks into three different groups which are general market risks, commercial risks and political risks.

General risks include competition from other foreign markets, language and cultural differences and differences in product specifications in foreign markets (Hollensberg, 2004). In addition there are also commercial risks which are exchange rate fluctuations when contract is made in foreign currency, difficulties in obtaining export financing and damage in the export shipment and distribution process.

Financial markets also present particular risks, as for example the 2007/08 financial instability (or ‘credit crunch’) following banking losses US sub- prime mortgage market. Political risks usually result from the intervention of the home or host country governments and these may include civil unrest, wars, terrorism, changes in government policy or law and complexity of trade documentation. The risks of internationalisation vary with the type and size of the business and some types of businesses increases the probability of these risks. It is also possible for an economy to pose high risk to investment but could have high returns prospects depending on the nature of the business.

For example, research about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) risk in Libya suggested that high risk could lead to high gain if opportunities are pursued in Libya’s tourism, infrastructure and oil sectors (Sajjad, 2011) If a company successfully internationalise, it increases its performance, reinforce its growth and enhance competitiveness and this will support long term sustainability of the company (Nebusiness, 2010). There is also a chance of benefiting from government incentives in an effort to encourage inward investment. An international company can also cut fixed costs through achieving economies of scale.

Apart from PESTEL analysis, there are also some basic requirements for companies considering a foreign investment. This entirely depends on the size and nature of the business and the industry sector. There is a rapid globalisation and vertical integration of many industries and a firm planning to internationalise should be aware of the international trends in their industry (Spaulding and Graham, 2004). It is also important to note whether the firm’s competitors are internationalising and how these competitors are going about it and also to understand how globalisation is affecting its domestic customers.

It makes business sense to follow the expansion of key clients overseas in order to maintain an active business relationship. In addition, another reason to invest in a foreign country is to access new markets and any decision to do so should include key factors such as competitiveness, market analysis, assessment of internal resources and market expectations. It is important to know whether the firm have senior management support, the internal management support, and systems capabilities to support the foreign investment as well as continuous management of foreign subsidiaries (Spaulding and Graham, 2004).

The company should conduct an extensive market research in terms of the product or service, the industry they will be operating and local regulations governing FDI which will set the parameters for any investment decisions. In addition, there should be a realistic assessment of what resource utilisation the investment will entail. It is also important to understand the information on local industry and foreign investment regulations such as incentives, financing, distribution and profit retention. This will enable the firm to determine the most viable method of entering the foreign market: i. . ,

Greenfield, acquisitions joint ventures or mergers (Jonson et al, 2011). Some companies fail when they go international because they fail to draw reasonable expansion plan through a local vehicle. For example, if the foreign economy is characterised by government regulations, failure to contact the relevant government agencies and factor political risks and foreign exchange risks will lead to company failure in its foreign operations. As mentioned above, there is a question as to whether both the domestic and foreign countries benefit from FDI?

It is true that FDI brings a lot of benefits to both the domestic and the host countries. The benefits include helping with economic growth of the host country, improvement of trade, employment opportunities, transfer of knowledge and technology (Brooks et al, 2011). According to Luo and Shenkar (2004), many researchers have proven that developing countries usually benefit less from FDI flows as compared to developed countries. However, Lewis (2000) noted that investors seek countries that have been recently successful economically with the hope that the trend will go on in the long run.

He added that the current state of economy and the past economic stability plays an important role in the attraction of FDI. Multi-national companies MNC will have more confidence that a nation that have done well in the past is more likely to do well in future (Lewis, 2000). Generally, lesser developed nations have unstable economy and politics which is not obviously an attractive factor to foreign investors. In addition Lewis (2000) noted that human resources of a developing country are usually an important factor when attracting FDI because MNCs usually utilise labour in the host country.

Therefore MNCs are usually attracted to a nation with educated people to harbour its investment. This is not usually the case with less developed countries because governments of lesser developed countries always find it difficult to put in place continuous and supportive education systems for the benefit of their nations, thus the more educated the nation is the more it is likely to attract FDI. (Lewis, 2000). It is therefore reasonable to believe that developed countries are in a better position to attract more FDI than lesser developed countries since develop countries have stronger economies and education systems in place.

However, because developing countries have got limited resources, it is important that they know and prioritise factors which are more important than others in order to attract FDI. In summary, the essay has highlighted why FDI is an important aspect in the processes of globalisation and explained how international trade and FDI are interlinked because the need to invest overseas is an alternative way of internationalisation. The essay has also discussed the reasons why organisations export and do business overseas.

An overview of the reasons for internationalise is; the need to follow international steps, to fight aggressive competitors, choosing international market because of saturated domestic market, the need to operate in a more favourable environment particularly political and economical factors and the chance to achieve economies of scale. These reasons are not exhaustive and do vary from company to company. The essay have also covered key issues behind the decision making process of going international and discussed some of the information needed by an international company prior to making the decision to invest in a targeted country.

Attention has also been paid to the risks of internationalisation such as political risks, general market risks and commercial risks. Questions such as whether both the host and domestic companies benefit from FDI have been addressed. Finally, the benefits of internationalisation have been highlighted, it is clear that companies may go international for one reason but will have more than one incentive.

Three Gorges Dam Brochure best college essay help: best college essay help

In his book “The International Development of China” in 1919. In it he wrote that a dam that could manage to produce 30 million horsepower (22,371 V) worth of electricity was conceivable downstream the Three Gorges Mountains. The River on which it would be built was the Yangtze River is the third largest river in the world at 3,837 Miles long, behind the Nile and Amazon Rivers.

In 1932 the nationalist government led by Chiang Kai-Shek began the first round of work on the Three Gorges Dam. In 1939, the Japanese forces took control over Yichang and occupied. With the fear of the Japanese advance a designed entitled the “Otani Plan” was completed. Sun Yat-Sen The dam’s construction was stalled until 1944 when the chief designer of the United States Bureau of Reclamation John L. Savage scouted the area and devised a scheme for what they called the “Yangtze River Project”.

As a result 54 Chinese engineers went to the United States for training in 1944. A lot of economic, survey and environmental study was taken out in the following years concerning the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. In 1947 however at the height of the Chinese Civil War work was once again abandoned at the site. Sun Yat-Sen’s Book A painted depiction of the Chinese Civil War John L. Savage of the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation The Communist Victory In 1949 the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Mao Zedong won the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang

Emblem of the (CPC) Mao Zedong (Chinese Nationalist Party). Mao supported the project of the Three Gorges Dam but preferred beginning with the Gezhouba Dam project first. Mao’s introduction of China’s “Great Leap Forward”, and the Cultural Revolution greatly hampered the progress of the construction of the Three Gorges Dam once again. The Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward was a major program undertaken by the People’s Republic of China between 1958 and 1961which consisted of both economic and social campaigns. The plan had many objectives.

To begin with, it plotted to use China’s enormous population to move from an agricultural economy to a modern Communist civilization through the collectivization of the farming industry and a hasty process of industrialization. The campaign was based on a hypothesis known as the Theory of the Productive Forces. Reforms included the mandatory process of collectivization (farming being taken out as a joint venture by the people) and the banning of private farming. This policy was enforced on the rural people through social pressure. Propaganda Posters that were popularly displayed all over China during the “Great Leap Forward” Era.

They display a picture of Success and progress contrary to the true results (1958-1961). Mao was informed beforehand of the ominous possibility of a disaster due to grain shortages but instead sped up the campaign. This would prove to be a great disaster and lead to the Great Chinese Famine, eventually more than 15 million and possibly 26 million people would die of starvation between 1959 and 1961. The “Great Leap Forward” was officially abandoned in late 1961.

The Cultural Revolution The Cultural Revolution was Mao Zedong’s attempt to regain prominence fter his marginalization in early 1962, due to the failure of the “Great Leap Forward”. The Revolution was a socio-political movement which took place between 1966 and 1976. The goal of the movement was to impose socialism in China through the removal of capitalist, traditional and cultural elements of Chinese society and the impose Maoism within the Propaganda Poster for the Cultural Revolution Communist Party of China. Mao suspected that burgeois elements were infiltrating the Government and Chinese society and were trying to re-establish Capitalism in China.

Mao suggested that the only way to remove these elements was through a violent class struggle. The Chinese youth, inspired by Mao’s declaration and ideology formed Red Guard groups across the country. The movement eventually quickly spread into the military, middle-class urban workers and even the Communist leadership itself. People from all walks of life from senior officials to teachers were purged as they were accused of being anti-Socialist. Some officials who were purged would even form China’s next Government and included Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi. Propaganda Posters during the “Cultural Revolution“ Era.

This period consisted of an immense personality cult for Mao and the promotion of his infamous “Little Red Book” (1966-1976) During the Cultural Revolution Mao’s personality cult grew greatly, often to immense proportions. The Cultural Revolution greatly impacted on China’s economy and social fabric. Persecution became commonplace and millions suffered in the violent struggles that took place across the country. Many abuses were committed including torture, rape, imprisonment, harassment and seizure of property. A massive segment of the Chinese population was displaced, either by fear or force.

The most notable manner however was when youths were transferred all around the country. Historic monuments and artifacts were destroyed or damaged. Religious and cultural sites were ransacked. After Mao Mao would officially call an end to the campaign in 1969, but it would still continue until 1971. Mao Zedong would die later 5 years later on September 9th, 1976. He left a nation traumatized by his loss but also with hunger, poverty and persecution. Both the “Great Leap Forward” and the Cultural Revolution greatly hampered the construction of the Three Gorges Dam.

Both these campaigns would have a long lasting effect on China and diverted much attention away from it’s construction, to more pressing domestic concerns. Back in 1956 however, Mao Zedong, as a response to floods on the Yangtze two years earlier, had written and published a poem which he called “swimming”. In the poem he described his interest in a dam on the Yangtze River. In the summer of 1957 Mao Zedong initiated the Hundred Flowers Campaign. The Campaign consisted of letting other ideas and solutions “bloom” in a burst of free speech to the Chinese people.

However this campaign was short lived and lasted barely six weeks. Many engineers however during this time had spoken out against the idea of building a dam, but were subsequently imprisoned after the campaign ended. A Propoganda Poster for the “One Hundred Flowers Camapign, 1957. Top: Mao’s “Swimming“ Poem Mao Zedong in his Mausoleum Bottom Right:Time Magazine’s issue for Mao’s Death,1976. The Comeback The Three Gorges Dam reappeared as a topic in the 1980’s. The National People’s Congress (NPC), the highest and only legislative structure in China, voted in 1992 in favor of the dam.

Out of a total of 2,633 delegates, 1,767 voted in support of the dam, while 177 voted against, a further 664 forfeited the vote and 25 abstained. On December 14th, 1994 the dam’s construction began. The initial date that was expected for completion and full operation was mid 2009, however the many other components of the dam including the underground power plant to process the energy produced is expected to delay the date of completion and operation to 2011. The Ship lift area of the dam is predicted to be completed by the year 2014. The Hall Where the Construction for the Dam was approved in

The Great Hall of the people, the meeting place for the NPC Map marking the location of the Three Gorges Dam Panorama of the Three Gorges Dam The Three Gorges Dam Specifications The Three Gorges Dam is made primarily of concrete  and is 2,335 m (7,661 ft) long, with the level of the dam being 185 metres (607 ft) above sea level. The Three Gorges Dam used 27,200,000 cubic metres (35,600,000 cu yd) of concrete, 463,000 tonnes of steel, and moved about 102,600,000 cubic metres (134,200,000 cu yd) of earth.

The reservoir the dam has created is about 660 kilometres (410 mi) in length and 1. 2 kilometres (0. 70 mi) in width. It contains 39. 3 km3 (31,900,000 acre/feet) of water and has a total surface area of 1,045 km?. On completion, the reservoir flooded a total area of 632 km? of land. Power Generating Capacity The Three Gorges Dam is by far the world’s largest Hydroelectric dam. It boasts 29 700 MW turbines and a total capacity of 20,300 MW. By the time of completion it will have 32 generators with a 50 MW power generating capacity each, which will make for a grand total of 22,500 MW. The annual total amount of electricity production is anticipated to be well over 100 TWh’s.

The Three Gorges Dam was constructed for five main reasons. First of all because of China’s ever ballooning population, the Chinese Authorities, with rising demand, simply needed a project that would provide electricity to cope with increased requiremets. Secondly, the Yangtze River was notorious for it’s floods which are thought to have killed more than 1 million people. The Yangtze also ran along major Chinese cities like Wuhan, Shanghai, and Chonqing. Because of this the Chinese needed a means to tame the river and control its behavior.

Thirdly, the reservoir that the dam would create could provide the precedent to build an efficient irrigation system for the farms in the area. Fourthly, the area of Hubei province, where the dam was built, needed a water treating facility to cope with increased demand for freshwater. Finally the Yangtze River needed a ship dock to deal with the increased ship traffic.

The Psychology of Combat Sports and Its Effects on the Individual assignment help sydney: assignment help sydney

Inside of each and every one of us is a set of primal instincts, one of these instincts is an inner burning desire to fight and protect ourselves and the things or people that we care about. For centuries fighting has been a prominent part of human history; we have waged wars, experienced hostile attacks and are exposed to violence on an everyday basis through the media. Throughout the past few decades however society has been desensitized to fighting and now accepts it as a complex sport as well as a form of entertainment.

A recent article from the popular martial arts website Sherdog. com presented some of the many factors that are all a part of combat sports that many fans may not be aware of. Millions of fans who watch combat sports such as mixed martial arts (MMA), wrestling and boxing often times only see the glory and excitement of these sports; however all too often do we read headlines which depict unfathomable situations such as suicide attempts, violence, and crime as a result of these athletes jobs.

The article entitled “The Psychology of Fighting” presents a key example of how the sport of MMA can affect a fighter mentally, even outside of the octagon. UFC star Quinton Jackson was arrested for a hit-and-run encounter that he had with police and charged with two felonies; this arrest came a little over a week after a unanimous loss to rival Forrest Griffin (Acosta, 2008). A loss, especially one as devastating as Jackson’s can have severe detrimental effects on a person’s mind, as fighters often may become unstable, and blame themselves for the loss.

The physical contact may be the primary factor of MMA however the mentality of the sport is often overlooked, John Fitch was beaten and bloodied to the point of his eye being completely swollen shut, yet that did not break him down mentally, he still continued to fight for the full 25 minutes always persevering to finish the fight. Many fighters with weaker mental fortitude would have given in long before Fitch finished the fight; there is a certain degree of mental strength that is required as well as physical strength to be a combat athlete.

As aforementioned in Jackson’s loss, the pain of defeat can be a bitter pill to swallow and have sever effects on a fighter. Depression can be very problematic for a fighter and emotions can vary from one extreme to the other, causing a lack of motivation to return to training or a will to continue fighting. “In this sport the highs are so high and the lows are so low. Both of them fall on you. When you’re high, there’s no one to pat on the back but you. When you’re low, there’s no one to blame but yourself,” said former World Extreme Cagefighting champion, Joe Riggs.

Fighters prepare themselves mentally for months at a time and intentionally put themselves in fight for flight mode for what could be only a few seconds to a virtual eternity in the ring. The multiple ways a fight can be ended all can impact a fighter psychologically as well, whether that be admitting to defeat through submission or having lapses in memory due to a knockout, however the biggest psychological factor often comes from outside forces such as personal demons. Many fighters have troubled pasts and childhoods and these can interfere with a combatant’s performance inside the ring.

Fighting is rather primitive in nature, and as a sport can be examined and explained on several layers using “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory”, however it is not all glory and fame for these athletes; their success cannot solely be attributed to their brute strength and skill, and these fighter are often at risk to be plagued by terrible mental disorders as well. The act of fighting is a basic primal instinct that all organisms are capable of in some way or another. A professional fighter’s motivation can be broken down into multiple levels using the hierarchy of needs theory presented by Maslow.

These high caliber athletes may have everything in the world outside of the ring, however once they step inside the combat zone they quickly revert to lower levels of the hierarchy and reach higher levels throughout their fight careers. Upon entering the ring fighters main concern is with meeting their safety needs. Their primary task is protecting their body during the fight as well as fighting back to defeat their opponents. They also are fighting for the security of their employment as well; one poor fight and their career could be over.

As these athletes complete fights they then strive to fulfill their need for belongingness. Winning and losing fights will dictate this feeling, they are motivated to fight well and win fights in order to prove they belong in top caliber promotions such as the UFC. Combat athletes esteem needs are met through gaining the respect of their fellow fighters and often times more importantly the loyalty and respect of the millions of fans at stake. Winning fights not only raises their self esteem, but their confidence level as well.

Finally after establishing themselves as an accomplished combatant there is the self-actualization needs that must be met. In this case it would be winning the respective championship of the fighters division, proving their champion worthiness by defending their title, or by moving to a higher division and challenging themselves to compete at a new level (Motivation Part II, Nov. 10, 2010). As mentioned in the “Psychology of Fighting” article, emotions run the gamete and can range from one polar opposite to the other.

Due to the aggressive nature of the sport, high expectations that fighters often hold themselves to, and their backgrounds it is very easy for fighters to fall prey to emotional demons. Many fighters come from a troubled past and often use the sport as an outlet for this negative energy. This same fuel they use for motivation can often times be a cause of the downward spiral into depression that so many fighters experience after a tough loss or a string of unsuccessful fights (Pepe, November 1, 2009). As with any activity there is an inherent risk of injury associated with being a combat sport athlete.

Unlike many sports though where there is a probability of injury, combat athletes are almost guaranteed to become injured; the question at hand however is how severe the injury or injuries be. A study was done focusing on the correlation between major depression and injury risk. Doctors Patten, Williams, Lavorato and Eliasziw (2010) concluded that there was a bidirectional relationship between major depressive episodes and the risk of injuries. The major depressive episodes caused an increase in the risk of injury and having injuries present caused an increase in the likelihood of having a major depressive episode.

This data is of major concern not just for athletes, but any person who is at high risk of depression or injury. The athletes who compete in combat sports though are at risk of the most danger of this correlation though due to the inherent danger of the sport they compete in. These fighters are at a twofold risk of this situation; they first risk the chance of injury by competing in such a dangerous sport which could cause depression due to injury, but they are also at risk of causing themselves injury if they become depressed after losing a fight.

This potent combination could easily end the career of athletes who are mentally weaker and unprepared for such a shock and challenge. What makes this even more shocking is the unfortunate number of MMA athletes that become involved with suicide after becoming depressed. Since 2006 there have been a minimum of six pro MMA athletes who have committed suicide; half of those may have taken the life of someone else as well. Along with these six there have been three other athletes, some of which are huge stars in the sport who have attempted suicide (Trembow, 2010).

These are scary numbers considering the number of pro fighters (both successful and not as successful) who have also contemplated the idea of ending their lives. This data is even more troubling for the women that participate in combat sports. While there is only a small number of women who compete at the highest levels of this sport their increased chance of depression is a growing concern. A recent study by the Centers for disease Control and Prevention (2010) reported 10. 1% of women report being depressed as well as 4% being majorly depressed. Both of these numbers are higher than those of the males surveyed.

The Operant Conditioning theory is also heavily used by professional fighters since they must be actively responding to the environment they are in. This type of learning can be applied to both the training aspect and the actual competition aspect of fighting. When athletes are learning new techniques such as a complex joint lock, or a new throw they are reinforcing behaviors. By correctly executing the joint lock they are experiencing positive reinforcement; the submission is successful and the opponent gives up thus a satisfying stimulus is presented.

However if every time an athlete attempts that same joint lock and their opponent counters with a submission of their own this exhibits positive punishment since an unpleasant stimulus is now being presented after attempting the joint lock. These behaviors are continuously reinforced to achieve the best possible results. (Learning Theories, October 18th 2010). These actions become what are known as muscle memory, the athlete is able to complete these techniques quickly and with little thought process, this is a form of operant conditioning.

Similarly, operant conditioning also takes place inside the ring as fighters are constantly adapting on the fly and reacting to the other fighter’s actions. If you opponent consistently striking you in the body each time that you attempt to throw a kick you will quickly recognize the aversive stimulus and learn to no longer attempt a kick. Many fans and critics alike believe that combat sports is nothing but a senseless bloodlust sport practiced by only mindless meatheads and used as a means to display pure brute force, however it is often misunderstood how much mental fortitude and psychological strength that such a sport takes.

Combat sports are quickly growing and entering main stream media, if society is every going to fully accept them then they must understand the intricate workings and details of these sports. They may be brutal competitions of brawn, but they are also a mental chess game. Fighters must have the mental toughness to overcome many obstacles both brought upon them intrinsically, such as emotional demons, as well as extrinsically like the pain and agony brought upon them by the vicious attacks by their opponents.

Without further study into the psychology of a fighters mind we risk losing countless other lives and young stars to mental disabilities that plague them, and without this advancement in study we will never see a day when these intricate sports are completely seen as socially acceptable by the main stream audience.

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