Urban sustainability Name Instructor In the global context, Urbanization is viewed as an essential trend for development for a couple of decades to come, this is especially the case in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asian countries. Cities in mentioned regions as well as other parts of the world are predicted to promote sustainable development of their respective nations. This is supported by the knowledge that urbanization if well-articulated can enhance economic and social well-being of nations; since the urban centers provide the facilities for production.
Therefore, sustainability should be incorporated in all urban evelopment plans in order to promote investments for middle and low-income members of the society. The developments should address the present and future needs of rural and urban regions of the society (Fitzgerald,J. 2010). At the moment, approximately half the World’s population live in urban centers. Analysts project that by 2030, there will be an increase of more than one billion urban residents and by the year 2050, urban population will be between 2. to 3 billion people. Hence, the urban managers should develop sustainability mechanisms to accommodate the rising urban population. Sustainability and overall development of an urban center entail enhancing the capacity of urban residents to improve their livelihood, it involves conserving the of the existing public utilities. A citys development plan should therefore, incorporate not only the physical expansion but also give the best approaches for ensuring sustainability.
Therefore, a comprehensive and most efficient urban plan provides methods to realize development objectives, establishes an appropriate and unique urban environment that benefit both the present and future residents of the city. In ddition, urban sustainability also enhance accountability and transparency in the management of the urban utilities and resources. This in turn promote compliance to the existing by-laws and policies thereby, minimizing environmental degradation and pollution.
In this regard, urban sustainability refers to the multi-disciplinary and cross sector approach that provide the practical use and integration of citizens in the planning process, decision making, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of urban projects. This promotes feasible, long-term, as well as self-sustaining urban projects and settings. In this instance, sustainability may relate to the use of natural resources and best practices in development of urban environment, which does not compromise the ability of future generations to practice further development or meet their own needs.
It refers to the development that integrates inter and intra generational equity. In order to realize urban sustainability, the planners adopt a political processes that incorporates the views and opinions, public concerns, contributions and expertise advice of local leaders, special interest groups including; women, children, the disabled and the old. The approach requires the coordination f various experts and officials from different fields such as architectures, natural resource conservation and management, transportation sector, trade and industry and the Non-Governmental organizations.
They sequentially form a team which monitor and advice the residents on the long term sustainability as well as the environmental and demographic changes of the urban environment Over the past decades, there has been debates about making urban development further viable. However, Just as the debates on general sustainability, there is no effort to explain and quantify the real meaning of the term urban sustainability. Currently, it is estimated that the total population of people living in urban environments is over 50%. This is expected to reach about 70% by 2050 (World Health Organization).
The Food and Agricultural Organization also explains that the rate of water use is slightly twice the rate of population growth, making water a fragile and scarce commodity. Thus, there exists major concerns to promote sustainability of the urban centers. Nevertheless, the aforementioned issues should not raise an alarm because the vitality of urban centers provides major opportunities for sustainable development. It is clear that sustainable urban development has adequate potential to generate good Jobs and provide better livelihoods to urban residents.
This is in turn is coupled with significant improvement in social well-being and economic growth; besides, sustainability also enhances the protection of environmental as well as resource use, it promotes protection of local and trans-boundary ecosystems. In addition, this helps reduce both the rural and urban poverty, and subsequently management of urban resources and development is difficult to address, and have long lasting impacts on the physical environment of urban centers. This may cause the growth of slums, and as a result, exclusion, inequalities and social unrest start to develop.
Current efforts by both the private sector and governments to reduce negative environmental impacts of the cities and the urban development are well elaborated. However, it is difficult to explain if their interventions are sensible or not. In most instances, governments propose and implement projects without the full consideration of their economic and technical efficiency. For example, the desalination plants constructed in major Australian towns to provide other sources of ater is neither economically nor technically efficient method of water provision.
Perhaps, appropriate and sustainable urban development models for world cities should address both economic and technological efficiency principles. That is, the methodology should aim at minimizing the pollution and damage to the physical environment. The models should as well maximize the economic efficiency while on the other hand promote sustainable use of resources and production. Urban sustainability principles highlight reduction in carbon emissions and related energy wastage during consumption.
In broad view, it also entails reducing the water wastage and unnecessary demand. As a major approach to city development, it promotes the adoption and sustainable use of resources and limits waste generation. Urban sustainability facilitates appropriate waste management; this encompasses the adoption of 3Rs namely; reduce, re-use and recycling of wastes. These changes are expected to go along with similar adjustments in the socio-economic performance aspects of the development projects and activities (Schaffer, D. 010). Case study The City of Vancouvesr. Vancouver city is one of the clean cities in Canada and the whole world. The work highlights the strategies taken by the city administration and mayor of the city to improve its sustainability. To date, Vancouver is one the greenest cities in the world, it also provide high standards of living for the residents based on the availability of the best services and utilities in addition to the clean city environment.
In the earlier years, the city depended on the implementation and recommendations of the Clouds of Change report of 1990. This report gave the guidelines and actions for reducing emissions especially the carbon emissions from manufacturing firms. After five years, he urban planners developed a comprehensive City Plan of 1995. The plan among other concerns aimed at providing guidelines to the local government and city residents so as to develop efficient and sustainable urban communities. In addition, the city management adopted The Vancouver Greenways Plan.
This plan enabled the development of supplementary cycling and walking opportunities, this enhanced the safety of city residents along major highways. Thus, the plan contributed to sustainability of the city by reducing injuries and accidents along the streets, roads and highways. As a follow up, the city administration adopted a n all-inclusive ransportation plan in 1997, the plan gave emphasis to walking, transit and cycling. occurrence of accidents. In order to make Vancouver better and enhance sustainability of the city, the mayor formed the Cool Vancouver Task Force in 2002.
The main aim of the task force was to assist in developing action plans to address climate change and related impacts on urban settlements and infrastructure. These action enabled Vancouver to become “The Climate-Friendly City” in the world. In 2005, the task force helped draft incorporating a wide-ranging corporate climate change action plan for city operations. This detailed plan provided elaborate information relating to changes that the Vancouver council was supposed make as well as the sustainable projects to be implemented both in the present and the future.
Plans addressed relevant adjustments in different sectors of the economy, education, transportation, clean production mechanisms and waste management. To further promote sustainability of Vancouver city, the local authority passed the Eco Density in 2008. This activity provided a landmark in enhancing urban sustainability because; it promotes more sustainable urban planning processes. The plan attempts o encourage a formula of densification that is economically, socially and environmentally friendly. It facilitates the reduction of the citys undesirable impacts and ecological footprint.
Among other concerns, Eco-Density also encourages the adaptive reuse of already prevailing buildings, the development of additional secondary housing units and the creation of new housing designs that are more responsive to current development standards that are considered sustainable. To cap it all and facilitate urban sustainability, the management of the city needed to establish long lasting approaches to urbanization. The methodologies should address all aspects of development together with social, environment and economic aspects of development.
In this regards, the mayor passed the Green Rezoning Policy in 2010, this policy makes it mandatory that all new rezoning for buildings should include LEED standards and all constructions should ensure compliance with the standards. This has gone a long way to minimize hazards at construction sites. Besides, it significantly contributes to reducing disasters that can result to property damage, property loss or death of city residents. The LEEDS standards ensures that ll new buildings constructions made in Vancouver are safe, disaster proof and more energy efficient.
Hence, it promotes sustainability of the houses as well as Vancouver City in general (Greater Vancouver greenguide,2006) Regardless of the numerous benefits of urban sustainability, achieving urban sustainability is difficult because of the numerous significant challenges in creating sustainable structures so as to promote urban development. For instance, existing social structures, infrastructures as well as transportation modalities in most cases characterize an enormous economic investment.
This is the case because, these infrastructural equipment were built to last for many more years hence replacing them require the significant country spending. Consequently, Political challenges and differences also arise. Often, it is more challenging to persuade citizens living in a democratic society and the government to destroy or replace their buildings and other infrastructures since it will tamper with the well-being of people for a certain period. Other challenges also arise from the private sector, for example organizations and can oppose various adjustments because of their self-interest.
This is because they have an investment urban centers more sustainable and safe. This requires improving life of the urban residents within the capacity of the respective urban center’s finite resources. In particular, the needs of the present generation must be addressed without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. References Fitzgerald, J. (2010). Emerald cities: urban sustainability and economic development. New York: Oxford University Press. Greater Vancouver greenguide: [seeding sustainability].. (2006). Vancouver: Design Centre for sustainability at IJBC.
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Wendy Medina Porf. Arlandson Gun Control November 25 2013 Protecting our Families Having access to protect ourselves and family should be always legal. We should be able to obtain any weapon we feel is appropriate to defend our family from dangerous people and situations. Guns are not always necessary to murder, but to scare someone away as well. As a story proved, A Texas burglary suspect dialed 911 to report that an armed homeowner was threatening to shoot him.
James Gerow, the homeowner, told the station that he awoke and discovered a man wearing a dark oodie inside his home. Gerow grabbed his gun and followed the man out to a truck in his driveway. With gun in hand, Gerow convinced the man to drop his keys. He told his wife to call 911 and waited for deputies to arrive. This story is a perfect example of a defensive gun use that no shot was ever fired. A gun was used to bring a peaceful resolution to the situation in which no one was hurt. Guns don’t have to resolve a problem in a killing, but peacefully like this situation. Second Amendment doctrine and state preemption laws can and should incorporate these longstanding nd sensible differences between urban and rural gun use and regulation” (Fire Localism). Doing this would present new possibilities for gun control, protect rural gun culture while permitting cities to address urban gun violence, and preserve the longstanding American of firearm localism. The image of Americans defending themselves and their families with guns has long captured the imaginations of the public, scholars, commentators, and at least one very important vote on the Supreme Court.
We should be able to have the right to protect our families. The question shouldn’t be should it be legal to have arms? It should be: Which arms are the ones that should be allowed to be kept in a home? Which individuals qualify for having an arm in their homes? We should have the right to protect our family but also, take precautions. A person who wants to purchase a gun should be mandated do a background check and even a psychological test if possible. It should also be mandated, for the individuals that live in the same household as the gun owner.
The product should also be slightly different; they should try to make guns harder to operate. “Our Journey is not complete until all our children, from the streets of Detroit to he hills of Appalachia to the quiet lanes of Newtown, know that they are cared for, and cherished, and always safe from harm” (Goodwin). This is a deep sentimental quote that, explains that we have do everything to protect our children. We need protection towards ourselves, our children and our society. There was a time when public safety was a fact. Children played freely in their yards and lanes.
In fact, they were often ordered to do so, growing up my mother used to always tell me “Go outside and play. ” But if we went back to the neighborhood were my mother would ell me this, she would say “Come inside and Play’. Our societies have changed. There And Just how Goodwin explains we need arms to protect our families. Our society is not that safe how it used to be back in the day. With that being said, we should have the right to own guns. There are many different views of gun control that Casteen explained on “Ditching The Rubric On Gun Control. On one side are those convinced that the right to own and carry guns is a national patrimony handed down from the framers; their core constituency is a fairly recently politicized group formerly called sportsmen. ” On the other side are those who believe it a moral and legal imperative that the government do whatever it must to prevent gun related violence by further restricting the purchase and ownership of guns; this group, whose ranks include the fundamentally well intentioned million marching moms, differ in their experience with firearms but have in common a conviction that we’d all be better off without them.
As casteen described, we will never get what we want in America. Private Citizens will always own guns in this country and will always be subject to Just laws overning their access and ownership. The underlying truth is that while both groups are correct in their preferred understandings of the issues, they reach wrongheaded and impractical conclusions for American culture. Since their going to be around illegally, or legally they should Just be legalized, most of their intentions are Just for protection.
If we have the right to own guns, and criminals have the understanding that citizens have protection, there is a possibility crimes will decrease. The more guns that are owned, the more afraid criminals well become, and hopefully won’t ant to commit any crimes. The contoversy that is often mischaracterized of gun control has been shaped by the personal qualities of the debators, not by the evidence. Some of our most humane and progressive fgures execrate guns and want them not Just controlled, but banned. Too often their oppontes have lacked the sophistication to make the intellectually more demanding argument.
To establish wether any scientific basis exists for banning guns, the department of Justice in 1978 allotted 275,000 to Massachusets University’s James D Wright and Petter H Rossi, who rankly admit they began as belivers in the underlying assumptions of handgun prohbition and hoped to validate them. Three years of research, however, convinced them that, while moderate gun controls are desirable prohbition can not be Justified. “There is no persuasive evidence that homicide occurs simply beause fire arms are readily at hand or private weaponry is an important cause of violent crime”(Gun control versus gun prohbition).
Guns are not the ones that kill people, it’s the one who pulls the trigger. Guns should always be legal. With all the crimes, burglary, ape and kidnapping that has occurred in our own community, it has left us no choice but to defend ourselves and our family with fire arms. Its our society that has concluded that we are no longer safe. Our children are not even safe at their own school, follwing the Sandy Hook incident. Not even in public places, like the theatre massacure. This is what our world has come to, and with that, we need the correct appropriate material to protect us and our family from any dangerous people of situations.
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March 31 ,2009. The deficit was an embarrassing setback for a company that only four years earlier had acquired IBM Corp. ‘s personal computer division for $1. 75 billion in one of the boldest attempts ever by a Chinese company to establish itself as a global brand. Liu and Yang, as chairman and CEO, respectively, of Lenovo’s owner, Legend Holdings, had recruited William Amelio, former head of Dell’s Asia-Pacific operations, to serve as chief executive. The combination of Chinese financial and manufacturing muscle with American management and technology seemed like a sure winner.
The esult was much different, though. Lenovo had acquired a deteriorating, high-cost business whose weaknesses were exposed brutally when the financial crisis triggered a global recession in late 2008. Major corporations slashed information technology budgets to cut costs, hurting companies like Lenovo, whose ThinkPad line had dominated the commercial PC market. Lenovo was late to enter the consumer segment, where rivals like Apple, Hewlett-Packard Co. and Taiwan’s Acer prospered with sleek new models and strong marketing. The company would need major surgery to stanch the red ink and restore growth.
Replacing Amelio as CEO, Yang immediately set out to reshape the business. He laid off more than 2,500 people, or 11 percent of the company’s global staff, with the cuts falling hardest on its U. S. operations. He de-emphasized sales in developed markets and refocused Lenovo on China, where it has long been the leading computer maker, and other emerging markets. And Yang moved to broaden the company’s product line by developing a range of what he calls PC-plus products, including smartphones, tablet computers and digital televisions. We protect, and we attack,” he told Institutional Investor in a ecent interview in his conference room, overlooking a garden at Lenovo’s leafy, campus-like headquarters in Beijing. “We protect our market leadership in China and the global enterprise PC business, where we are No. 1, and we attack global emerging markets and the global consumer PC business. We are focused on growth. ” Yang’s formula has delivered impressive results. Lenovo swung back into the black in 2009 market share, rising from the No. 4 position to No. , and is poised to overtake HP as the global leader by the end of this year, according to International Data Corp. a Framingham, Massachusetts-based technology analysis firm. The company now generates 30 percent of its international revenue from consumer PCs, up from 20 percent in 2009, according to CFO Wong Wai-ming. “Lenovo is coming on strong,” says Bob O’Donnell, the San Mateo, California-based vice president for clients and displays at ‘DC. “The company is 100 percent focused on market share. They want to be No. 1, and they will do everything possible to get there. ” Yang and his team still face plenty of challenges.
The company is climbing to the top of the PC market at a ime when some analysts think the sector’s best days are over. Mobile computing is becoming dominant, and although Lenovo is ramping up its offerings of smartphones and tablets, those are hypercompetitive segments in which Apple and Samsung Electronics Co. reap most of the profits. Notwithstanding the company’s recent string of profits, Lenovo generates some of the leaner profit margins in the industry. “Profitability has been Lenovo’s biggest hurdle,” says Thompson Wu, a Taipei, Taiwan- based analyst at Credit Suisse.
Yang and Wong admit that the company’s pretax rofit margin of Just under 2 percent of sales is wafer thin–half of HP’s–and that they’ve got to work harder on improving the bottom line. Still, Lenovo has come a long way from the gloom of 2009, and Yang is determined to build on the company’s momentum. He sees acquisitions as a way to increase Lenovo’s presence in international markets, and he believes higher volume will enable the company to generate fatter margins. In September the company acquired CCE, Brazil’s largest maker of computers and other electronic goods, for 300 million reals ($ 148 million).
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“The Tragedy of Mariam” was set in an ancient context, but Elizabeth Cary uses this portrayal to condemn and analyze the suppression of women in a historically and typically patriarchal society. The play highlights how Mariam is restricted from having private space in a public realm. She is denied any private interludes with her husband and basically has no personal or clandestine relationships with any other individual. Mariam struggles with the idea of what is expected of her from society and her true beliefs that are nonconformist.
When typical female stereotypes are hallenged, as in the play, the traditional idea that a woman should be completely dependent on her husband clashes with the idea that women can reestablish themselves and the role that they play in society. Mariam and Salome are prime examples of these differing roles. Mariam wants to establish herself as a person separate from her husband while Salome wants to reestablish the system entirely. In “The Tragedy of Mariam” each woman stands individually in her fight against the patriarchal society. Mariam’s portrayal opposes the conservative role that women should play.
In the first scene, it is evident that that Mariam has conflicting feelings about hearing of the death of her husband Herod. She is torn between the freedom she feels and the loss of Herod’s love for her. However tragic his “death” at the time may have been Mariam ultimately gets over her initial sadness as a result of Herod’s killing of her brother and grandfather. In addition to that Herod also left orders that stated that in the event of his death Mariam should be put to death as well. How oft have I with public voice run on To censure Rome’s last hero for deceit:
Because he wept when Pompey’s life was gone, Yet when he liVd, he thought his name too great. (lines 1-4) Excuse too rash a Judgment in a woman: My sex pleads pardon, pardon then afford, Mistaking is with us but too common. (lines 6-8) The above lines connect the idea of female dialogue with wrongdoing and also with punishment. Mariam not only questions the respectability of her own discourse, but also uses a reactionary defense mechanism that blames her lack of censure on the diminutive status of her gender. When Herod liVd, that now is done to death, Oft have I wish’d that I from him were free:
Oft have I wish’d that he might lose his breath, (lines 15-18) That love which once on him was firmly set: Hate hid his true affection from my sight, And kept my heart from paying him his debt. And blame me not, for Herod’s Jealousy (lines To learn to love another than my lord: I quickly learn’d the other I abhorr’d. But now his death to memory doth call The tender love that he to Mariam bare: (lines 28-32) Cary utilizes an anaphora to reinforce Mariam’s attitude toward her husband. She refrains from thinking poorly of Herod, but nonetheless feels guilty despite the fact hat she hadn’t been adulterous.
The above lines also indicate that Mariam despises Herod’s hypocrisy, but is doing the same. Mariam is left to decide whether she should continue being the good wife or to let Herod know that she doesn’t agree with his actions and that she wants to define herself as a person apart from him. In the end, she decides to not be Just life Herod and withdraws herself from his bed which reinforces her belief to separate herself. The heart of Mariam. Curse is my fate: But to speak no more to me, in vain ye speak To live with him I so profoundly hate. (lines 136-138)
But now that curtain’s drawn from off my thought, Hate doth appear again with visage grim; And paints the face of Herod in my heart, In horrid colors with detested look: (lines 157-160) Mariam knows that it would be simpler to stand down, but she chooses not to be the perfect picture of a meek and docile renaissance woman. She believes that her chastity, upstanding reputation and personality will be enough to defend herself. Mariam opposes conventional models of conduct that negate the idea that a woman can speak out against her husband no matter what his actions are.
Mariam vows that he won’t let the typical and stereotypical role of the woman cloud her Judgment and views. Mariam’s actions are a direct result of Herod’s reasoning to have her killed. And though her thoughts reflect with purest light, Her mind if not peculiar is not chaste. For in a wife it is no worse to find, A common body that a common mind. And every mind, though free from thought of ill That out of glory seeks a worth to show, What any’s ears but one therwith they fill Doth in a sort her pureness overthrow. Now Mariam had (but that to this she bent) Been free from fear, as well as innocent. ines 241-250) The above passages are spoken by the chorus. They condemn Mariam because they deem her to be impure because she shared her word with another other than her husband. It is said that she should have revealed her speech to “none but one” (line 238) which is her husband. It is also interpreted that Mariam is killed because her speech isn’t restricted solely to her husband. Additionally, Mariam’s death could be attributed to her general candidness in public or her blatant insubordination of Herod as his wife.
The passage also foreshadows Herod’s distrust of Mariam that articular statement links Mariam’s uncensored language to sexual desire. During this times, a woman’s chastity was considered to property of her father or her husband as a commodity that could be bought and sold in a marriage contract. The chastity and honesty which she had were not hers, but her husband’s. Therefore, she did not have to legal authority to give her body to anyone else. In this our land we have an ancient use, Permitte first bu our law-giver’s head: Who hates his wife, thoug for no Just abuse, May with a bill divorce her from his bed.
But in this custom women are not free, Yet I for once will wrest it; blame not thou The ill I do, since what I do’s for thee, Though other blame, Silleus should allow. (lines 333-340) Or cannot women hate as well as men? I’ll be the custom-breaker; and begin To show my sex the way to freedom’s door, And with an offring will I purge my sin; The law was made for none but who are poor. (lines 308-312) Mariam is portrayed as one who breaks the convention of the silent woman and contests her husband’s power though maintaining her physical and moral assets.
In contrast, Salome is an example of a woman who has an excess of speech and sexuality but doesn’t have the ractical knowledge to support it. Salome’s excessive speech is representative of her excessive sexuality. Trapped in her subordinate position by Mariam and by the Jewish marriage laws that prevent women from suing for divorce, Salome schemes to get rid of her husband, Constabarus, and Mariam. Cary questions the logic and justice of the patriarchal social system through Salome as she is made to speak crudely but eloquently against the injustice of Jewish law.
Salome ends her argument with “My will shall be to me instead of law’ (line 454). In this way, Salome establishes erself outside of the convention of law and tradition. Salome not only acts as though she were equal or even superior to her husband, but she also advises him to be quiet. Salome is adamant in her belief that women, Just like men, should have the right to divorce her husband. Pheroras, Why speaks thou no, fair creature? Move thy tongue, For silence is a sign of discontent: It were to both out loves too great a wrong If now this hour do find thee sadly bent. Graphina.
Mistake me not, my lord, too oft have I Desir’d this time to come with winged feet, To be enrapt with grief when tis too nigh. You know my wishes ever yours did meet: If I be silent, tis no more but fear That I should say too little when I speak: But since you will my imperfections bear, In contrast to Mariam and Salome, Graphina, a handmaid loved by Herod’s younger brother, Pheroras, embodies the ideal of womanhood. She is chaste, silentћ and obedient. Pheroras however believes that her silence is a sign that she is unhappy. Graphina, unlike Mariam, responds to please her husband and wipe his doubts clear.
Elizabeth Carys perspective is prominent throughout the passages mentioned. The horus is presented in a way that diminishes the credibility of Mariam and views her as the unfaithful wife but Cary gives Mariam the last word and symbolic triumph over Herod. The plays conclusion enacts the wronged wife’s ultimate revenge fantasy. The conflict amongst the women is quickly dissolved and Herod learns almost immediately of the true nature of his wise, chaste and virtuous wife. Herod is shown, to Mariam’s supporters’ great satisfaction, to regret immediately the death of his innocent wife.
Marijuana essy computer science essay help: computer science essay help
It was once thought to be one of the most dangerous illegal drugs on the planet, polarizing the public’s opinion. In todays world people’s opinion have swayed a bit for medical reasons specifically. Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug used on the planet. For decades the global supply of the marijuana was controlled by criminals, but now it has become a legal industry worth billions of dollars. It is roughly a 120 billion dollar industry, used by 167 million people worldwide.
Marijuana is a psychoactive plant commonly known as pot, grass, weed or cannabis o a variety of different people. Many people have their different views about the worth of the plant in society, one side trying to legitimize the drug and the others want to get rid of it all together. In 1970 the U. S Federal Government passed the controlled substance act, classifying marijuana as a schedule 1 drug like heroin. This designates the drug as having a high potential of abuse with no additional value. But not everyone agrees with that notion, now 14 U.
S states are violating the federal law by allowing people to grow or purchase marijuana on a doctor’s recommendation. Chief among these rebel states is California. California’s tolerance toward medical marijuana dates back to the early 1980’s. San Francisco’s dermatologist Dr. Coronet is one of the world’s leading Aids expert. He’s been at the forefront of the fight against HIV since 1981, the treatments on his patients such as chemo therapy caused nausea and lots of vomiting. So they had a hard time keeping any of the medicine down. Dr.
Coronet says some of his patients told him that they had heard people saying marijuana will stop the nausea and other different aliments caused by the chemo treatment. Dr. Coronet says that the benefits of medical marijuana are undeniable, it relieves patients pain, stimulates appetite etc. Also Dr. Coronet says his patients themselves discovered that smoking marijuana was much more effective than any of the drugs the doctor prescribed them. One of the doctor’s patients who was first diagnosed with HIV in 1987, says his health was rapidly declining he was very sick with stage four terminal aids.
In 1993 the patient’s weight drops due to the medication he takes to stay alive. He wasted away to 120 pounds he has a rare form of anorexia known as HIV wasting syndrome. Meaning he was dying from starvation, he begins to smoke marijuana which is known to stimulate appetite giving users a term called the “The Munches”. The marijuana keeps the patient Greg eating while better life saving drugs where being developed. In 1996 California passed proposition 21 5, a state law allowing doctors to recommend marijuana to patients.
Now the doctor can’t dispense it, he can’t write a prescription for it because the pharmacy doesn’t carry it. All the doctor can do is indicate that in his or her considered opinion this patient would profit from using marijuana. Once the patient has a doctor’s recommendation they can legally grow their own or purchase marijuana from a dispensary. Also like everything else marijuana is subject to a sales tax. California has up to 400 thousand medical marijuana patients and growing every day.
Serving these patients are about 2100 dispensarys, that’s more medical marijuana dispensaries than the states Starbucks, Mc Donald’s and Seven Elevens marijuana to see if it meets the high standards needed to qualify it as medicine. They use very powerful microscopes to examine all of the medical marijuana that hey grow at the dispensary or receive from patients, they check it looking for mold or tiny little bugs that like the plant called (spider mites). The last fifth teen years have seen a medical revolution across America; doctors are recommending medical marijuana for everything.
From cancer to stress, despite being legal under state law dispensary owners risk prosecution under federal drug laws. Which do not recognize medical marijuana? The California medical revolution is powered by advances in horticultural science; by growing marijuana indoors it can be cultivated anywhere on he planet. Holland has legalized marijuana more than a million tourist come to Amsterdam to smoke weed every year in the citys 234 coffee shops. The Dutch police think they can keep marijuana from becoming a gateway to harder drugs by decriminalizing it and controlling its distribution.
It seems to be working to; Holland has around 85% fewer harder drug overdoses than the United States and the lowest rate in Europe. Although Dutch authorities tolerate the sale of small amounts of marijuana, production on a large scale remains illegal. Coffee shops are only allowed o have 500 grams of marijuana on the premise at any given time. Since the 1970’s the war on drugs has cost more than 2 trillion tax payer dollars but it hasn’t eliminated marijuana. In fact marijuana is so widespread that 41% of Americans have admitted too trying marijuana at least once including the president of the United States.
People that are in favor of legalizing medical marijuana argue that it can be a safe and effective treatment for the symptoms of cancer, aids, multiple sclerosis, pain, glaucoma, epilepsy and lots of other conditions. Opponents of medical arijuana argue that it is too dangerous to use, it lacks FDA approval and that various other legal drugs make marijuana use unnecessary. They say marijuana is highly addictive leads to harder drug use, interferes with fertility, impairs driving ability, and injures the lungs, immune system and brain.
They also say that medical marijuana is a front for drug legalization and recreational use. There is a group out called MAPS, who are currently seeking regulatory approval to conduct a study of smoked and/or vaporized marijuana for symptoms of PTSD in veterans of war. MAPS n conjunction with the California branch of National Organization to Reform Marijuana Laws, worked between 1993 and 2009 to sponsor or research into the effects of vaporizers and water-pipes in filtering the fumes of inhaled marijuana.
Their goal was to determine if water-pipes or vaporizers could reduce the health risk of smoking marijuana. MAPS is currently the only organization working to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of botanical marijuana as a prescription medicine for specific medical uses to the satisfaction of the U. S Food and Administration. MAPS’ efforts to initiate medical marijuana research have been indered by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) since its inception in 1986.
NIDA’s monopoly on the supply of marijuana for research and the DEA’s refusal to allow researchers to grow their own has effectively paralyzed medical marijuana research, and for over ten years MAPS has been involved in legal struggles against the DEA to end this situation. Between National Institute on Drug Abuse for more research with vaporized marijuana. Due to excessive delays and frustration, in August 2009, the laboratory MAPS’ was working ith on the project withdrew its efforts.
There is much evidence largely anecdotal, that marijuana is useful as an anti-convulsion for spinal injuries, epilepsy, and many other diseases. Similar evidence suggests marijuana may be useful as an analgesic for chronic pain from cancer and migraine as well as for rheumatism and a variety of auto-immune diseases. Canabidiol, a constituent of natural marijuana not found in Marinol appears to have distinctive therapeutic value as an anti-convulsant and hypnotic, and to have counteracted acute anxiety reactions caused by THC.
It has een established that marijuana reduces intra-ocular pressure, the primary object of (Glaucoma) therapy. Due to its psych activity, however, marijuana has not gained widespread acceptance in this application. Many patients report using marijuana as a substitute for more addictive and harmful psychoactive drugs, including prescription painkillers, opiates, and alcohol. Marijuana and Marirol have also been found useful as a treatment for depression and mood disorders in Alzheimer’s and other patients. CITED CITATION www. maos. org/mm]l norml. org/component/zoo/category/recent-research-on-medicalomari]uana
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Identify the problems that the new computer system created, and discuss what caused them. There are a lot of problems identified before installing the new computer system that was created, some of which include; when the management decided to upgrade the A’S, they installed a mainframe at headquarters and local area networks at each sales office. The IS manager and four system analysts were hired shortly before they integrated the new computer and the existing A’S. Another problem was that top management formulated all plans and directed all operations. Data processing was highly centralized.
Departments had all freedom to develop their own sales programs. Information problems developed, and AIS department was asked to improve the company’s information processing system once the new equipment was installed. The IS manager and the Plant manager are facing different problems. The Plant manager seems not pleased with the IS manager as he tires to run his plant. The IS manager states the errors that are found in the production. There is a main concern that the plant manager is facing which is the system installed reduces workforce and increase the workload on the remaining employees.
The plant manager has indicated to the HRM that supervisors and department heads no longer have a voice in establishing production schedules and the plant has more production problems than previous years. 2. How could the AVC have avoided the problems? How can they prevent them in the future? The new computer system should have been kept aside and tried by all employees to see what their comments are on them. They should take lower level and employees opinions before introducing a new system. A training course should have been developed to allow employees to better understand the software and make it easier for them to use.
The employees in the plant have to know the system will be designed to help them take better decisions, and that it’s a tool used to help them know the best production schedule that is appropriate for the plant. The employees are demotivated because the they think this system will replace them in the future, without knowing their existence in the company is crucial. The top managers in the company should sit together in private meeting, establishing goals for the system to accomplish. If there is no problem with the production, but there are problems with the tracking then, its necessary to develop a new tracking software.
The Importance of Continous Improvement my assignment essay help london: my assignment essay help london
The Importance of Continuous Improvement Texas A&M University Commerce Abstract Continuous Improvement The purpose of this research is to identify the importance of continuous improvement and how continuous improvement (C’) affects the quality management, production management, and also the safety management of the company. And how all these work together to increase the company’s competitive edge, while also saving the company money. We will also give a detailed meaning into what continuous improvement is.
We will also discuss the future of continuous improvement, through new technologies and innovation. We cannot become what we want to be by remaining what we are. Max Depree Introduction Continuous improvement is defined by the Chartered Quality Institute, as a type of change that is concentrated on increasing the effectiveness and/or efficiency of an organization to live up to its procedures and goals. It is not limited to quality initiatives. Improvements in business strategy, business results, customer and employee relationships as well as supplier relationships can be subject to continuous mprovement.
Put simply, it means ‘getting better all the time’. The Importance of So why is continuous improvement so important? Continuous improvement is important because all managerial motion is either directed at control or improvement. Managers are supposed to devote their efforts at upholding performance, stopping change or creating change, through breakthrough or improvement. If companies stand still they will lose their competitive edge, so improvements must be made to keep pace and stay in business.
In order for the continuous improvement program to work, you need employees who are willing to ake a change in their environment and managers and supervisors that are willing to enforce and also participate in the program as well. “The things we fear most in organizations – fluctuations, disturbances, imbalances – are the primary source of creativity. ” – Margaret J. Wheatley Margaret Wheatleys quote speaks to the members of an organization to look at how to continuously improve in order to be quick and able to creatively report fluctuations, opportunities, disturbances, and imbalances. Wheatley) Continuous improvement shows workers that their work actually means something to the company. Employees are taught to improve their performance, which in turn motivates them. Also, employees are expected to work together as a team in order to come up with new ideas for the company. Even negative work serves a purpose to show the business where its problems lie and to strive to make things better moving forward. (Pietroluongo, 2012) Productivity Improvements Productivity is never an accident.
It is always the result of a commitment to excellence, intelligent planning, and focused effort. (Paul J. Mayer) Productivity is, above all, an attitude of mind. It is an attitude that seeks out the continuous mprovement of what exists. It is a belief that one can do better today than yesterday, and that tomorrow shall be better than today. Further, it entails a constant effort that adapts economic actions to ever-changing conditions, and the submission of new theories and new methods. It is a secure belief in the progress of humanity. From the report of Rome Conference, 1958 -European Productivity Agency) According to Russell & Taylor productivity is a measure of a company’s effectiveness in converting inputs into outputs. An output is the final product from a service or production rocess, such as an automobile, a hamburger, a sale, or a catalogue order. Inputs are the parts, material, labor, and capital, and so on that goes into the productive process. (Russell & Taylor, 2011) Measuring productivity is a vital step in improving your company’s performance.
The Importance of the Federal Bureau law essay help: law essay help
The Federal Bureau Of Investigations labratory has been around since November 24,1932. Back then it was only a single agent in a single room with some basic equipment. Flash forward to today and it is one the largest and most state of the art facilities in the world. The FBI has 56 field offices throughout the U. S. Their main labratory is located in Quantico, VA. The lab is comprised of five sections each with varying numbers of sub-sections. The provide an array of services anyhting from maintaining a tire tread database to examination of improvised explosive devices (IEDS) from the battlefield in Afghanistan.
Many of the units are deployable to anywhere in the world and almost all departments provide courtroom testimony. All departments work with federal , state, local and some inter-national law enforcement organizations. The lab is accredited by the American Society of Crime Labratory Directors/Labratory Accreditation Board. (see attached print out for credentials) The first department and sub-sections we will dicuss is the Biometric Analysis unit. This department is made up of 5 sub-sections. The first of which is the Combined DNA Index System(CODlS).
The COD’S unit manages the COD’S system as well as the National DNA Index. The Federal DNA Database Unit makes DNA profiles of federally convicted offenders, offenders facing federal charges as well as non- U. S. citizens held under U. S. authority. In the Latent Print Analysis department they examine finger, foot, and palm prints. The Mitochondrial DNA unit examines biological items of evidence from crime scenes to determine the mitochondrial dna sequence from samples such as hair,bones , and teeth. This unit also maintains the National Missing Person Database.
The last unit in this department is the DNA- Nuclear department. The FBI started using data testing in forensics in 1998. The FBI ses Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis to detect minute amounts of biological material to generate DNA profiles sufficiently rare to be associated to a single individual to a reasonable degree of scientific certainty. The next department is Forensic Response. The first unit is Crime Scene Documentation. This unit provide services in crime scene survey, crime scene documentation, demonstrate court presentations, 3-D physcial models, crime scene photography.
The Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Sciences Unit (CBRNSU), established in 2002, develops and maintains the FBI Laboratorys ability to onduct and/or direct high-quality forensic examinations of hazardous chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials and all related evidence. The Evidence Response Team Unit (ERTU) enables FBI field office Evidence Response Teams (ERTs) to collect evidence supporting FBI priority investigations in a professional, competent, and systematic manner by providing ERTs with training, equipment, and forensic expertise.
There is also an hazardous evidence response team which handles the U. S. governments response to weapons of mass destruction incidents and threats as well as supporting investigations of terrorist or criminal use of rovides investigative , forensic photography and imaging. The Scientific Response Unit (SRU) provides scientific/technical and forensic support of FBI criminal and intelligence investigations involving the actual or threatened use of any hazardous material, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
This is accomplished through scientific and technical consultation and/or response on hazardous materials/WMD investigative matters, as well as liaison and training with public health, intelligence, scientific, and international communities. The Technical Hazards Response Unit supports the FBI on high hazard law enforcement missions. The third department is the Forensci Science Support Department. It only consists of two sub-units. One of which is the Evidence Control Unit. The ECU is a central point for the reciept and management of evidence of all FBI interest.
They also track and manage the submitted evidence from receipt to final disposition. The last unit of this department is the Forensic Imaging Unit. They provide the FBI labratory with investigative photography, imaging, photographic processing , fornsic art and graphic design. They also help the Latent Finger Print Unit and make different forms of graphic design for courtroom testimony (charts and graphs). Law enforcement agencies also can get composite sketches of suspects from this unit. The fourth department in the FBI’s lab is Scientific Analysis. The first unit that falls under this is the Chemistry Unit.
They provide services in general chemistry. metallurgy (study of metals), paints and polymers, toxicology and instrument operation and support. Instrument operation and support consists of maintaing and calibrating the different equipment that is used in the lab. The Counter-terrorism and Forensic Science Research Unit give forensic training and leadership to law enforcement agencies and the FBI itself. The three main goals of this unit are to develop new capabilities, improve existing capabilities, and the defensibility of current and future capabilities.
Another unit inside this department is Cryptanalysis and Racketeering Records. This unit can decrypt manual codes and ciphers. Check their website they post codes and ciphers for people to solve. In the Racketeering part they decode illicit buisness records, such examination can lead to RICO charges. The same type of examination is applied to drug operations as well. Firearms/ Toolmarks unit applies forensic examinations to firearms, ammunition components, oolmarks, serial number restoration, gunshot residue, and bullet trajectories.
The Questioned Documents Unit provides forensic support in handwriting comparison, plastic bag comparison, print process examinations,alternate light source examinations (low-light, black light, uv lighting) , charred and liquid soaked document preservation, indented writing examinations, tire tread/shoe print comparisons and office machine artifact comparison. The Trace Evidence Unit examines hair, fibers, feathers , fabric , minerals and anthropology. The last department of the lab is the The Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center (TEDAC).
It was established in 2004 to serve as the single interagency organization to receive, fully analyze, and exploit all terrorist improvised explosive devices, or IEDs, of interest to the United States. TEDAC coordinates the efforts of the entire government, from law enforcement to intelligence to military, to gather and share intelligence about these devices”helping to disarm and disrupt IEDs, link has received tens of thousands of ‘ED submissions, primarily from Iraq and Afghanistan. TEDAC consists of a director (FBI), a deputy director (Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives), a Department of Defense executive manager Coint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization, or JIEDDO), and five units relating to forensics, technical exploitation, intelligence, and investigations. TEDAC includes representatives from the Department of Justice; the Department of Defense; international partner agencies; and members of the intelligence community In conclusion the FBI Crime Labratory provides a multitude of services and continues to be at the cutting edge of science, research and development of forensic investigations.
LSD and the Counterculture of the 1960’s best essay help: best essay help
LSD and Counterculture of the 1960s LSD, lysergic acid diethylamide, is commonly regarded as one of the most powerful substances known to mankind. Its name is almost synonymous with the counterculture and the “hippy’ movement of the 1960s. Though it is now listed as a Schedule I controlled substance, there was a time when LSD widely used and accepted without the harsh social stigma that it carries today Oenkins). LSD, which is known to the younger population as acid, Lucy, and various other colloquial terms, came into being by complete accident.
Albert Hofmann, a chemist, irst created the drug in 1938, but it was not until 1943 that Hofmann unintentionally ingested a small dose of the drug leading to one of the greatest discoveries in the history of psychoactive chemicals (“History of LSD”). From there, LSD exploded with popularity, and by the 1950s psychiatrists were legally administering the drug to patients in order to explore LSD’s potential to heal or treat psychological issues. During trials, doctors discovered that LSD did indeed have some potential benefits for mental health patients.
Many individuals suffering from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression, and alcoholism”among other illnesses”showed gradual improvements in their conditions when given LSD in a clinical setting (Frood). To satisfy the demand for clinical trials of LSD, Sandoz Pharmaceuticals began to manufacture the drug en masse. The ample supply of LSD led to widespread distribution by physicians to trial participants and, unintentionally, the general public (“History of LSD”). A black market developed, controlled by select groups of unofficial chemists who were able to synthesize the drug.
Various musicians, artists, and igures of esteem took up LSD use, describing it to the population as a world- changing and mind-altering experience. Psychedelic drugs became a growing trend, even receiving the endorsement of Harvard psychologist Timothy Leary, who encouraged the youth to “turn on, tune in, and drop out. ” The youth of the generation began to view LSD as nearly harmless, eventually causing the drug to run rampant in the streets, unregulated and, ultimately, legal (Lee, Shlain, et al). Such proliferation of the drug caught the attention of government officials who were interested in the drugs psychoactive effects.
Government agencies launched a series of tests, having decorated individuals from both the military and academic worlds take LSD in a controlled setting. The government’s motives, at the time, were questionable, with some critics suggesting that the government saw LSD as a means for mass mind control and various other nefarious ideas. Government funded tests continued for a long period of time (Lee, Shlain, et al. ). Their findings, however, did not shed a good light on LSD. Though there was a surplus of clinical information showing the potentially positive effects of LSD, some government studies stated that
LSD could actually be a detriment to human mental health”causing depression, anxiety, fear as well as other undesirable side effects. Lawmakers began to think of LSD as an illicit and potentially dangerous substance. With its rampant use among the general population, lawmakers came to fear that the nation was dealing with somewhat of a drug epidemic. LSD was officially banned in the mid-1960s, along with backed by medical reasoning or if it was the result of political disapproval of the drug (“History of LSD”).
The possibility of LSD-related possession charges loomed over the outh of the 1960s, but even still, the number of those using the drug began to grow exponentially. Disenchanted youth looked for a release from the pressures and troubles of society. The disputes over civil rights and the unpopular Vietnam War spearheaded the growing distrust for the American government (“Vietnam War Protests”). In protest, thousands of young people engaged in the “hippie” lifestyle, preaching a message of free love and happiness, often coupled with LSD use.
Through the “hippie” counterculture sprang many radical groups that chose to issociate themselves from the modern political structure. Communes and sanctuaries, of sorts, became places where likeminded youth could escape the grips of the traditional social structure (Marks). The infamous Charles Manson, most notably, led a group of young outcasts to live on the fringes of society. LSD and other psychedelic drugs were an integral part of his group’s operations. He and his followers turned out to be maniacal and murderous in later years.
One of the most notable events in the “hippie” movement was the legendary Woodstock Festival of 969. Over one hundred thousand people Joined to engage in a three daylong event that promoted peace and happiness and protested the establishment. The psychedelic culture was prevalent at the event, featuring the Grateful Dead”known users of LSD”as well as Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix, and others (Rosenburg). As the 1970s began and the turbulence of the 1960s began to dwindle so dwindled the use of LSD. Laws became stricter, “hippies” grew older, and the supply of LSD in the black market became scarce.
New laws prohibiting the use of LSD in any medical xperiments stopped academic use of the drug altogether. Whatever potential benefits could have been gained from controlled use of the drug have now been placed on the backburner. Possibly, with newer and more progressive legislation, laws will be passed that will allow the untapped possibilities of psychedelic drugs to be explored. Whether one maintains a liberal or a conservative viewpoint towards experimental drug use, there is no denying that LSD played a major role in the legacy of the 1960s as one of the most turbulent and exciting decades in American history.
Small Business Marketing Moon Pig professional essay help: professional essay help
Moonpig. com was launched back in July 2000 by Nick Jenkins. It is a website which offers a wide variety of greeting cards, flowers and gifts like Mugs, T-shirts and Wall Art for specific occasions. The customers can personalise cards, or other gifts such as wines and spirits by adding their own names or photos. Task 1: a) The factors which may have contributed to the successful development of wmw. moonpig. com One of the successful factors of Moonpig is the name itself. Jenkins decided that the name has to be memorable and catchy. He invented a word with Just two syllables so hat costumers would not forget it.
Another important part to set up an Internet business is to make sure that your name is unique and the domain names are not already taken. The unique name ensures that you do not have too many competitors when you try to search for the website with search engines like google. com and yahoo. com. Back in July 2000 the Internet was fairly young and not as big as it is today. So, Jenkins found a niche, which is the next important factor of running a successful Internet business. Furthermore, the technical progress had a big role in the success of the company. When they started the business every envelope was stuffed by hand.
It took the company ten years to refine the process. Nowadays, there were machines for nearly every single step of the process, which increased the efficiency of the production a lot. Moreover, Moonpig managed to improve their skills in Internet Marketing (for example to use social media) over the years. (growingbusiness. ac. uk, 2009) b) The difficulties which companies like moonpig. com face during their first few of operation. years One of the biggest difficulties for companies like moonpig. com is to find customers nline at the beginning. Nick Jenkins said: “It takes time to build up clientele, particularly online as you have no footfall.
Starting an online shop is like having a shop down a back alley with no frontage and no doorbell,” (retailweek. com, 2009) In another article he said: “l wanted business to spread by word-of-mouth (… )” These quotations make it clear that back in the year 2000 when Internet Marketing was not big, it was difficult to find customers for companies like moonpig. Nowadays it is a lot easier to find new customers online, especially if you are offering subscriptions to your costumers. The progress in Internet Marketing increased constantly over the years. There are many professional Internet Marketers like Frank Kern or Ed Dale.
They teach people how to set up a successful Internet business online, in books, and by running seminars. Another problem when setting up an advertising. Moonpig had for the first six years no marketing budget and survived only by word of mouth. Nowadays, that is a lot more complicated. (moneyweek. com, 2009) Furthermore, enterprises like moonpig have to be prepared that they may retract losses in their first month/years because it can take a lot of time to find customers, artners (like affiliate marketing partners), fixing problems on the website and so forth.
Likewise, is it important to have a motivated team, willing to face every problem that arises. Task 2: Outline the opportunities and threats which moonpig. com face now and identify the ways in which the company can reduce the risk of business failure. One opportunity for moonpig is to expand in another country like they did in Australia. Australia worked well for moonpig. However, to expand is always a risk, because you have to analyse the market. For example, in points like: competitors, emand and locations. If you do not analyse the market well it can cause a huge loss in turnover.
Another option for moonpig is to enlarge their variety of products and to keep their products up to date. Selling products on the Internet is a fast growing market. Competitors like 123greetings, Hallmark and Funky Pigeon offer similar products to their costumers. In order to compete with them, moonpig has to work constantly on innovations. It is imperative to watch the competitors all the time and analyse the market in demand continuously. Furthermore, moonpig faces the problem with plannable money. For moonpig it is very important to make forecasts because they are offering no subscriptions to their costumers.
In one month, the company could only sell 100 cards and in the next month 100. 000. Moonpig already has a sort of subscription on their page. For example you can pay in 40 pounds on your account and therefor you get a 10-pound voucher. The problem is, that once your amount on your account is empty you have to top up the amount by yourself. It is not an automatic process. So one more opportunity for moonpig could be to offer monthly subscriptions for normal people and business companies and this will imultaneously reduce their risk of business failure because they can plan with the resulting cash over a long period.
Another way of reducing business failure is to continuously improve the customer relationship and the customer satisfaction. Internet businesses can achieve this by using social media like facebook and youtube. An example of improving the customer relationship would be introducing a “creative round” on youtube where professionals show how to create a really impressive card. Another way would be that employees
La Virgen de Guadalupe argumentative essay help: argumentative essay help
I decided to write my paper on the Virgin of Guadalupe because I was raised to praise her but I never knew how she came to be. After reading about the Virgin Mary, so many things make sense now. Ten years after the conquest of Mexico, On December 9, 1531, Juan Diego was on his way to the Convent of Tlatelolco for mass . At sunrise he reached the foot of Tepeyac. Suddenly he heard music that seemed like the chirping of thousands of birds.
Very surprised he stopped, raised his eyes to the top of the hill and saw that it was illuminated with a strange bright light. The music topped and then he heard a sweet voice from the top of the hill, calling him ” Juanito , Juan Dieguito Juan got up fast and upon reaching the top saw the Blessed Virgin Mary in the middle of a rainbow. Her beauty and kind eyes filled his heart with joy as heard he tender words she said to him. She spoke to him in Aztec. She told him that she was the Immaculate Virgin Mary, Mother of the True God.
She revealed her desperate desire to have a temple in her honor and to accomplish what my clemency pretends, she said go to the house of the Bishop of Mexico and tell him I ent you to express my great desire, that here on these plains build me a temple. She asked if he would say what he has seen and what he heard. She expressed that she would be grateful and will pay him back, because of his merit she would be happy and she would Ireward the effort and fatigue that this Journey would cause him.
Juan bowed to her and said ” Madam, and I will fulfill your mandate”, she said “l dismiss you , l, your humble servant. ” Juan Diego came to the house of Bishop Zumarraga, he said all that the Mother of God had told him, but the Bishop did not elieve him, asking him to come back another day. That same day he returned to the top of the hill and saw the Blessed Virgin waiting. With tears of sadness he told her about his failed mission. She asked to back to see the Bishop the next day. Juan Diego met the mandate of the Blessed Virgin.
This time he had better luck, the bishop asked for a sign. Juan went back to the hill, told Mary and she promised to give him a sign the next day in the morning, but Juan Diego could not complete her request because of the illness of his uncle Juan Bernardino. On December 12, Juan Bernardino Juan Diegds uncle was dying and Juan Diego rushed to bring a priest of Tlatelolco . He came to the side of the hill and decided to go through the other side to avoid being seen by the Blessed Virgin.
The Blessed Virgin wanted to meet his uncle and surprised Juan Diego when she went down and out to meet him. Juan apologized for not coming the day before. After hearing the Juan Diego speak, she said, ” Listen and understand my son. For your heart is troubled, do not fear this nor any other sickness or anguish that is why I am here! Are you not under my shadow? Am I not our health? What else do you need? Do not be afflicted by the illness of your uncle, who will not die now of, she sure that he has healed. When Juan Diego heard these words he was happy. He asked for some proof before he was off to see the Bishop. She told him to climb to the top where you saw me and there you will find different flowers, cut them, collect them and bring them back to me. When Juan Diego reached began to cut them and laid them in her lap. She took the flowers in her hands, arranged them on the cloak and said here’s the signal that you must take to the Bishop.
Rigorously she commanded him that only before the Bishop unfold his cloak and discover what you wear Juan Diego stood before the Bishop Fray Juan de Zumarraga , and told him the details of the fourth illusion of the Blessed Virgin , he opened his cloak to show the flowers, which fell to the ground. The Bishop was amazed because of the appearance the image of the Blessed Virgin Mary painted with the most beautiful colors on the rough cloth of his cloak. Works Cited . web. 16 oct 2013.. N. p. . web. 17 oct 2013.. .N. p.
Inspector calls revision notes college essay help nyc: college essay help nyc
Political views During the 1930’s Priestley became very concerned about the consequences of social inequality in Britain, and in 1942 Priestley and others set up a new political party, the Common Wealth Party, which argued for public ownership of land, greater democracy, and a new ‘morality’ in politics. The party merged with the Labour Party in 1945, but Priestley was influential in developing the idea of the Welfare State which began to be put into place at the end of the war.
He believed that further world wars could only be avoided through cooperation and mutual respect between ountries, and so became active in the early movement for a United Nations. And as the nuclear arms race between West and East began in the 1950s, he helped to found CND, hoping that Britain would set an example to the world by a moral act of nuclear disarmament. Priestley deliberately set his play in 1912 because the date represented an era when all was very different from the time he was writing. In 1912, rigid class and gender boundaries seemed to ensure that nothing would change.
Yet by 1945, most of those class and gender divisions had been breached. Priestley wanted to make the most of these changes. Through this play, he encourages people to seize the opportunity the end of the war had given them to build a better, more caring society. An Inspector Calls is set in 1912 An Inspector Calls was written in 1945. Images would not be a war is completely wrong. The Second World War ended in Europe on 8 May 1945. People were recovering from nearly six years of warfare, danger and uncertainty.
There were strong distinctions between the upper and lower classes. Class distinctions had been greatly reduced as a result of two world wars. Women were subservient to men. All a well off women could do was get married; a oor woman was seen as cheap labour. As a result of the wars, women had earned a more valued place in society. The ruling classes saw no need to change the status quo. There was a great desire for social change. Immediately after The Second World War, Clement Attlee’s Labour Party won a landslide victory over Winston Churchill and the Conservatives. lot ACT IA The Birling family are holding a dinner party to celebrate the engagement of Sheila to Gerald Croft, the son and heir of Mr Birling’s rival in business. Although there are a few signs that not everything is perfect (Mr Birling is a bit too anxious to impress Gerald, Eric seems rather nervous and Sheila playfully rebukes Gerald for not having come near her the previous summer) there is a happy, light-hearted atmosphere. When the ladies leave the men to their port, Mr Birling has a ‘man to man’ chat with Gerald and Eric, advising them that a man needs to look after himself and his own family and not worry about the wider community.
As he is telling them this, the door bell rings. Inspector Goole enters, an impressive, serious man whom none of them has heard of. ACT 1B Inspector Goole announces that he has come to investigate the suicide of a young orking-class girl who died that afternoon. Her name was Eva Smith. After seeing a photograph of her, Birling admits that she used to be one of his employees: he discharged her when she became one of the ring-leaders of a strike asking for slightly higher wages. Birling Justifies sacking her by saying he paid his workers the usual rates; he cannot see that he has any responsibility for what happened to her afterwards.
ACT 1 c about Eva Smith’s death. He tells Sheila that Eva’s next Job was at a big shop called Milwards, but that she was sacked after a customer complained about her. When she oo is shown a photograph of the girl, Sheila is very affected. She admits that it was her fault that Eva was sacked: when Sheila had gone in to try on a dress that didn’t suit her, she had caught Eva smirking to another shop assistant – in her anger, Sheila had told the manager that if Eva wasn’t fired, Mrs Birling would close their account.
Sheila is hugely guilty and feels responsible for Eva’s death. When the Inspector then states that Eva, in despair, changed her name to Daisy Renton, Gerald Croft’s involuntary reaction reveals that he knew her too. When the act ends, the audience is oised to find out what part Gerald had to play in her death. ACT 2A After some tense words between Sheila and Gerald, an attempt by Mrs Birling to usher the Inspector away and the revelation that Eric Birling is a hardened drinker, Gerald admits that he too had known Daisy Renton.
He had met her at the local Variety Theatre – known to be the haunt of prostitutes – and had ‘rescued’ her from the unwelcome attentions of Alderman Meggarty, a local dignitary. When he found out that Daisy was almost penniless, Gerald let her stay in the flat of a friend of his and she became his mistress. He ended the affair when he had to go away on business, giving her some money to see her through for a few months. ACT 2B Sheila is glad to have heard this confession from her fianc©, although Mrs Birling is scandalised.
Once Gerald has left to go for a walk and get over the news of Daisy’s death, Inspector Goole shows a photograph to Mrs Birling. She grudgingly admits that she had seen the girl two weeks previously, when the girl – now pregnant – had come to ask for financial assistance from the Brumley Women’s Charity Organisation. Mrs Birling was the chairwoman and persuaded the committee to turn down the irl’s appeal on the grounds that she had the impudence to call herself Mrs Birling and because she believed that the father of the child should bear the responsibility.
She says the girl refused to let the father of the child support her because she believed money he had given her previously to be stolen, yet Mrs Birling is proud of refusing the girl aid. She claims that she did her duty and sees no reason at all why she should take any blame for the girl’s death. ACT 2C Right at the end of the scene, as Mrs Birling denounces the father of the child and laims he needs to be made an example of, Sheila (and the audience) realise that Eric is involved. When Eric comes into the room, the act ends. ACT 3A interrupts so that he can question Eric. Eric tells the story of his own involvement with the girl.
He had met her in the same theatre bar as Gerald, had got drunk and had accompanied her back to her lodgings. He almost turned violent when she didn’t let him in, so she relented and they made love. When he met her two weeks later they slept together again and soon afterwards she discovered that she was pregnant. She did not want to marry Eric because she knew he didn’t love her, but she did accept gifts of money from him until she realised it was stolen. Eric admits that he had taken about E50 from Mr Birling’s office – at which Mr and Mrs Birling are furious. ACT 3B All the Birlings now know they played a part in the girl’s death.
Mr and Mrs Birling are concerned about covering up their involvement, whereas Sheila and Eric are more aware of the personal tragedy and feel guilty. The Inspector leaves, after delivering a strong message about how we all should be responsible for each other. ACT 3C After he has left, and the family has begun to consider the consequences of what has been revealed, they gradually begin to wonder about the Inspector. Was he real? When Gerald returns from his walk he explains that he also had suspicions about the Inspector and had found out that there is no Inspector Goole on the force, which Birling confirms with a phone call.
They gradually realise that perhaps the Inspector conned them – he could have showed each person a different photograph – and when they telephone the infirmary, they realise that there hasn’t been a suicide case for onths. Birling is delighted, assuming they are now all off the hook, while Sheila and Eric maintain that nothing has changed – each of them still committed the acts that the Inspector had accused them of, even if they did turn out to be against five different girls ACT 3D Then the telephone rings.
Mr Birling answers it, and after hanging up tells the family that it was the police on the line: an inspector is on his way to ask questions about the suicide of a young girl… The play is in ‘real time’ – in other words, the story lasts exactly as long as the play is on the stage. So, what happens in a comparatively short time to create such a dramatic contrast? How is the drama maintained and the audience involved? Setting and Subtle Hints The Setting and Lighting are very important. Priestley describes the scene in detail at the opening of Act 1, so that the audience has the immediate impression of a “”heavily comfortable house. ” The setting is constant (all action happens in the same place). Priestley says that the lighting should be “”pink and intimate”” before the Inspector arrives – a rose-tinted glow – when it becomes “”brighter and harder. “” The ighting reflects the mood of the play. “The dining room of a fairly large suburban house, belonging to a prosperous manufacturer. It has good solid furniture of the period. At the moment they have all had a good dinner, are celebrating a special occasion, and are pleased with themselves. ” There are subtle hints that not is all as it seems.
For example, early on we wonder whether the happy atmosphere is slightly forced. Sheila wonders where Gerald was last summer, Eric is nervous about something, Lord and Lady Croft did not attend the is going on! Dramatic Irony and Tone There is dramatic irony. For instance, the audience knows how wrong Mr Birling is when he makes confident predictions about there not being a war and is excited about the sailing of The Titanic: famously, the ship sank on her maiden voyage. This puts the audience at an advantage over the characters and makes us more involved.
There is a lot of tension as each member of the family is found to have played a part in Eva’s death. New pieces of information contribute to the story being constructed. The audience is interested in how each character reacts to the revelations. The Inspector The Inspector himself adds drama: He controls the pace and tension by dealing with one line of enquiry at a time. Slowly the story of Eva’s life is unravelled, like in a ‘whodunnit’. He is in command at the end of Act I and the start of Act 2, and the end of Act 2 and the start of Act 3.
He is a brooding, inescapable presence, very much in control. He is very mysterious and seems to know what is going to happen before it does. Tension and Timing There are numerous changes in tone. For instance, Mr Birling’s confidence is soon replaced – first by self-justification as he tries to explain his part in Eva’s death, and hen by anxiety. Timing of entrances and exits is crucial. For example, the Inspector arrives immediately after Birling has told Gerald about his impending knighthood and about how “”a man has to look after himself and his own. ” The Ending The ending leaves the audience on a cliff-hanger. In Act 3 the Birlings believed themselves to be off the hook when it is discovered that the Inspector wasnt real and that no girl had died in the infirmary. This releases some of the tension – but the final telephone call, announcing that a real inspector is on his way to ask questions about he suicide of a young girl, suddenly restores the tension very dramatically. It is an unexpected final twist. Responsibility The words responsible and responsibility are used by most characters in the play at some point.
Each member of the family has a different attitude to responsibility. Make sure that you know how each of them felt about their responsibility in the case of Eva Smith. The Inspector wanted each member of the family to share the responsibility of Eva’s death: he tells them, “”each of you helped to kill her. “” However, his final speech is aimed not only at the characters on stage, but at the udience too Class Apart from Edna the maid, the cast of the play does not include any lower class characters.
We see only the rich, upwardly mobile Birlings and the upper class Gerald Croft. Yet we learn a lot about the lower class as we hear of each stage in Eva’s life and we see the attitude the Birlings had for them. Sex Because Eva was a woman – in the days before women were valued by society and had not yet been awarded the right to vote – she was in an even worse position than a lower class man. Even upper class women had few choices. For most, the best they ould hope for was to impress a rich man and marry well – which could explain why Sheila spent so long in Milwards.
For working class women, a Job was crucial. There was no social security at that time, so without a Job they had no money. There were very few options open to women in that situation: many saw no alternative but to turn to prostitution. Age The older generation and the younger generation take the Inspector’s message in different ways. While Sheila and Eric accept their part in Eva’s death and feel huge guilt about it, their parents are unable to admit that they did anything wrong.
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The heavier the burden, the closer our lives come to the earth, the more real and truthful they become. Conversely, the absolute absence of a burden causes man to be lighter than air, to soar into the heights, take leave of the earth and his earthly being, and become only half real, his movements as free as they are insignificant. What then shall we choose? Weight or lightness? (Bashkow, 64). Ira Bashkow brilliantly captures what it means to be an Orakaiva from Papa New Guinea in his book, The Meaning of Whitemen: Race & Modernity in the Orokaiva Cultural World.
As a response to the influences of post-colonialism, globalization, and modernity, the Orakaiva have constructed a unique perspective of white men as travelers with no sense of moral code. Stationed in Papa New Guinea, Bashkow engages in day to day activities with local Orakaiva people to investigate the complexities surrounding the social construction of race; and what it means specifically to be a “whiteman(men)”. Bashkow, in his findings, is less interested in understanding what it means to physically possess a white skin color, but rather, how the Orakaiva stereotype the whiteman as a foil to make sense of their own morality.
Bashkow spends a majority of his book drawing on differences between the Orakaiva and Whitemen through the indigenous Orakaiva lens. As he explains, many Orakaiva place an emphasis on being physically “hardened” and psychologically “heavy” by the social responsibilities of everyday life. These responsibilities range from the laborious agricultural/farm work required to prepare daily meals to the communal ideals of reciprocity. As the Orokaiva believe, social ties and debts between people establish a sense of heaviness to the land which reinforces the idea of being grounded in earthly relations.
Conversely, however, the Orakaiva believe that for a person to become light, they would then cease to be Orakiva; translating to not being human at all (Bashkow, 87). The concept of reciprocity plays an essential psychological role in the Orakaiva society. In any instance an individual is continually indebted to someone else within society. Bashkow explains this relationship as a powerful reinforcement of the moral code by which the Orakaiva follow.
In an example Bashow explains how cooking for a guest often implies that the guest will have to return the favor within his or her own means. For instance one might repay his favor by bringing over some fruits the following day if they cannot afford to prepare a cooked meal. These social relationships are strengthened by debts on a daily basis. Interestingly, instead of stressing over the many, seemingly, burdens of social debts, the Orakaiva take pride in accumulating debts because it further reinforces this idea of being heavy/hardened; therefore being connected to the Earth.
According to the Orakaiva, methods of travel, clothing, and money further not a neutral dimension, but rather a real obstacle that takes great effort to overcome for the Orakaiva (Bashkow, 72). However with modern technology and the influence of globalization, whitemen have somehow managed to maintain a lightness (in terms of earthly responsibilities) and are able travel vast distances at such ease. This becomes especially troublesome for the Orakaiva to grasp, considering their primary method of travel is on foot.
Furthermore, clothing, is often times an indication of the moral divide between the Orakaiva and whitemen. Orakaiva dress very simply. Often times this means a loose shirt and pants with no support on the feet (Bashkow 101). Whitemen, in contrast, are completely covered and possess various gadgets like atches which represent a dependence technologies unbounded by social relationships. Lastly, Bashkow spends a substantial amount of time discussing how money plays a profound role in the society of whitemen but does not exist amongst the Orokaiva.
The Orakaiva believe the concept of money is worthless and reinforces fundamental disconnect between whitemen and the Earth (reality). Whitemen, as Bashkow explains, are extremely reliant on money to settle their debts and facilitate their success and happiness. The Orakaiva on the other hand, seek the same outcomes through physical burdens of reciprocity. Bashkow explains that cultural tradition (stereotyping of whitemen) in Papa New Guinea has begun to shift amongst the younger populations; with the influence of globalization.
With the emergence of new corporations in Papa New Guinea, such as Oil palm businesses, many Orakaiva are faced with an identity crisis between traditional values and economic incentives provided by modernity. Bashkow explains that such projects like these are attracting people to grow oil palms for the sake of economic value rather than managing tarrow or pigs for means of trade and reciprocity (Bashkow, 237). This sense of identity crisis is especially evident amongst oung adults of both genders who have accepted globalization (and its ties to economic transactions) as a progressive trend.
Bashkow, in the summation of his work, argues a few critical points which work to guide the direction of his book. First, the socially constructed racial stereotypes of whitemen consist not only of ideas about persons but also crucially involve objects, institutions, places, and styles of activity (Bashkow, 12). This is especially important to note because his ethnographic work is not meant to dwell on racial superiority/ inferiority, but rather, the association of material goods that seemingly guide “reality’ or whitemen.
Secondly, BashkoWs most essential argument is that the Orakaiva use socially constructed categories and racial stereotypes of whitemen to reflect people’s experience of modernity and social and economic change/development as they conceive it. Because the Orakaiva consider their cultural values and traditions as morally correct, their understandings of whitemen are implicitly designed to exemplify their “moral yardstick” as a guide for non-orakaiva peoples to follow. 1 . Bashkow, Ira. The Meaning of Whitemen: Race and Modernity in the Orokaiva Cultural World. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2006. Print.
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