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Sociological Review Of Inequality And Corruption

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Sociological Review


A Comparative Study of Inequality and Corruption

By Jong-sung You and Sanjeev Khagram

From American Sociological Review Vol. 70, No. 1, 2005

Objectives of Study

To give a theoretical account of why income inequality increases corruption

To show the explanatory ability of income inequality and the interaction between inequality and democracy tested empirically against competing conventional explanations of corruption

To conduct a methodological study, using statistical techniques, in finding the causes of corruption.


The study tackles the issue on corruption using both theoretical and methodological techniques to approach the hypotheses. The first part of the paper gives a detailed account of instances of corruption all throughout the world and all throughout history, citing trends that have prevailed throughout the course of history. Moreover, the author makes an argument that corruption and inequality are somehow correlated, much more than previous works have shown. It points out the cyclical nature of the two, that the presence of corruption eventually leads to inequality, and that experiencing inequality would lead one to succumbing to corruption.

The second and the more dominantly used approach to discuss the issues raised was the use of methodological techinques, specifically statistical methods, to gather data and information from thousands of people all over the world. Prior to this study, only simple statistical methods had been used (such as ordinary least squares) by the researchers in order to relate corruption with income inequality. This study started where the previous studies ended, this time using more complex systems such as two-stage least squaress (SLS) method to arrive at a more accurate and substantial values. Also, a wide variety of control variables and different measures for corruption were used in order to test the quality of results.


The paper was able to make several key points, and I shall quote the four hypotheses.

“Greater income inequality is associated with higher levels of corruption.”

As the paper mentioned, as income inequality increases, the rich have more to lose if they go through fair political, administrative, and judicial processes. Of course, they do not wish to lose whatever it is they have – be it power, wealth, status, an image, etc., and so they will do whatever it is they can in order to keep things the way they are, which highly favors them.

With the increased inequality in income, the rich will have more resources that can be used to persuade others, to “buy” their influence both legally (like through electoral campaigns) and illegally (through bribery). Moreover, the rich can use their resources in order to steer legal proceedings and lawmaking processes in their favor.

As income inequality increases, others will become poorer relative to the others who have gained much. Because they are experiencing disparity, they will try to push the government to make changes. An example of this would be to restructure the current tax system such that more will be collected from the rich and less will be collected from the poor. The rich, however, do not want this to happen, and so they will use their resources and corrupt practices in order to influence legal matters and either prolong or completely abolish the proposal for a more extensive tax collection system.

If the rich have more to lose at higher levels of income inequality, the poor on the other hand will have less or nothing to lose and more to gain from combating corruption. The middle and lower classes will have a reason to monitor, criticize and take action against the corrupt rich and powerful people in society. However, they lack several very important things needed to fight corruption – resources and influence. These two belong to the rich and powerful, and will most often than not be used by the corrupt in order to silence the dissatisfied masses.

Moreover, the poor, being in their current state of poverty and being deprived of basic public services such as health care and education, will become more dependent on others for help. The corrupt people will know this, of course, and will use this fact to their advantage. They will provide “help,” be it legal or illegal, in exchange for gaining the favor of the poor. The poor will rarely see the under-the-table dealings that take place in these transactions, as they can only see the benefits that they will be receiving from this rich person. As long as they get these benefits, it will not matter to them how it was given to them. Consequently, as this kind of behavior becomes common, people will think it is a normal practice and will see corruption as an appropriate form of behavior.

“The adverse effect of inequality on corruption is larger in more democratic countries.”

Compared with authoritarian countries, where the leaders can just use their power to make civilians live in fear, democratic leaders cannot get away with being tyrannical to their people. Authoritarians, on the other hand, can rely both on oppression and repression as well as corruption in order to attain their goals, which are more often than not beneficial only to the leaders.

Because democratic leaders cannot make use of oppression and repression, they are more bound to use corrupt practices to keep things in their favor, as corruption does not involve much of instilling fear onto the people, but more of manipulating the law and exploiting the disparity between the wealth of the rich and the state of poverty of the poor.

“Perceptions of the extent and norms for acceptability of corruption are higher in more unequal societies.”

The author claims that “human behavior is powerfully determined by values, norms and perceptions.” Standards for integrity will most likely vary between individuals, groups, and societies. Tolerance of corruption may be explained by several things, the first of which is religion. Any religion teaches its followers to forgive, to treat others with kindness, etc. By following this teaching, the civilians will be left vulnerable to corrupt practices of officials, because the officials will know that the civilians will not take action

State Actors And Nation State extended essay help biology

Clausewitz Applicability To Non-State Actors

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Clausewitz’s theories on war are still relevant today with the revisualization of non-state actors on the world scene. The purpose of this essay is to expand on the applicability of these theories in today’s modern warfare where non-state actors play a larger, more global role. The study of theory, especially translated theory, requires an open mind to determine its applicability to various and ever-changing situations. In the case of Clausewitz, many strategists do not view his theories as relevant to today’s wars involving a Nation State vs. non-state actors. This is not true. The U.S. Army Command and General Staff College teaches that the commander’s intent is the most important part of proper execution. Strategists need to look at the intent of Clausewitz and view within the contextual historic period he wrote it, to demonstrate its relevance today. For the purpose of this essay, a Nation States is a sovereign territory that combines a political and geopolitical entity with a cultural or ethnic entity that was arrived at by self-determination. Non-state actors are groups that operate beyond state control and generally include rebel opposition groups (groups with a stated incompatibly with the government, generally concerning the control of government or the control of territory), local militias and warlords. By reviewing Clausewitz’s definitions of war, his theory of “the remarkable trinity” and the historical examples of non-state actors’ involvement with Nation States in war the relevance of Clausewitz will be apparent.

Non-state actors have played a part in wars or have been an opposing force since before the time of Clausewitz. The first example of non-state actors’ involvement in a war comes from the Bible. The founding of Israel is rooted in non-state actors, led by Moses, waging an insurgency against Egypt; resulting in the formation of the first Jewish state. Since the rebirth of Israel after World War II the reverse of this has been demonstrated by numerous Islamic factions waging a war against the State; this includes the Palestinians and in current events Hezbollah, a surrogate of Iran. War is often thought of as involving one state against another but most wars throughout time have been fought between competing factions within a single state. Examples of this include Civil Wars or Wars of Revolution within a Nation State where a group organizes itself, forms a military or insurgent force and attempts to overthrow or separate from the primary Nation State. Clausewitz briefly refers to non-state actors or as he called them, “people in arms” in his book On War. He saw this as a new phenomenon of warfare that steamed from the French Revolution under Napoleon. Recognizing that Clausewitz was aware of non-state actors, his definition of war can be reviewed in the context of the time it was written.

Clausewitz’s definitions of war are suitable to both State and non-state actors. He defines war as: 1) an act of force to compel our enemy to do our will; 2) a clash between major interests, which are resolved by bloodshed – that is the only way in which it differs from other conflicts; and 3) fighting, for fighting is the only principle in the manifold activities generally designated as war. A Nation State raises a military to deter aggression or to become the implementing force of aggression against its enemies. Similarly, non-state actors create militias or guerrilla bands to inflict their will on others. This act is as much a demonstration of political or military strategy as that of a Nation State. Clausewitz’s definition of war, as it pertains to Nation States, is applicable to non-state actors. Examples of the relationship between non-state actors and Clausewitz’s definition of war include: 1) Non-state actors often use force, insurgencies, to attempt to compel a legitimate Nation State into conforming to their will; such as Texas’s success from Spain. 2) Most clashes involve a fundamental difference that results in conflict and bloodshed; such as the Moro Rebellion in the Philippines following the Philippine-American War. Finally, 3) conflicts involving non-state actors involve some type of fighting or hostilities to gain the required end-state of the movement; such as the French revolution. In modern history, the trend in warfare is sharply moving away from the inter-state conflict and more toward wars of identity, as well as reengaging historic wrongs and not about difference between Nation States. War in not changing, it has been wrapped into globalization and become more visual than ever before in history. Another factor in the increase in non-state actor conflicts is the decline in “super powers” resulting in a belligerent scramble by communities to seize their historic opportunity to achieve the sovereign homeland that they feel they deserve. Not only does Clausewitz’s definition of war apply to non-state actors but also so does “the remarkable trinity.”

Clausewitz’s trinity, which summarizes the environment in which war and strategy are made, applies to conflicts involving non-state actors. Before examining how this trinity applies to non-state actors, we must first understand it. The common explanation of the trinity as presented during the Command and General Staff College history lessons describes it as a relationship between

Code Of Hammurabi And Clay Tablets summary and response essay help: summary and response essay help

Code Of Hammurabi

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In his position as King of Babylonia, Hammurabi managed to

organize the worlds first code of laws and establish Babylon as the

dominant and successful Amorite city of its time. “Records written on

clay tablets show that Hammurabi was a very capable administrator and

a successful warrior. His rule spanned from 1792 B.C. to 1750 B.C.

When he became king in 1792, he was still young, but had already

become entrusted with many official duties in his administration”

(Grolier). In the early years of his reign, Hammurabi mostly

participated in traditional activities, such as repairing buildings,

digging canals, and fighting wars. Yet later in his rule, Hammurabi

organized a unique code of laws, the first of its kind, therefore

making himself one of the worlds most influential leaders.

Hammurabi was primarily influential to the world because of his

code of laws. This code consisted of 282 provisions, systematically

arranged under a variety of subjects. He sorted his laws into groups

such as family, labor, personal property, real estate, trade, and

business. This was the first time in history that any laws had been

categorized into various sections. This format of organization was

emulated by civilizations of the future. For example, Semitic cultures

succeeding Hammurabis rule used some of the same laws that were

included in Hammurabis code. Hammurabis method of thought is evident

in present day societies which are influenced by his code. Modern

governments currently create specific laws, which are placed into

their appropriate family of similar laws. Hammurabi had his laws

recorded upon an eight foot high black stone monument. Hammurabi based

his code on principles like, the strong should not injure the weak,

and that punishment should fit the crime. As for punishment, “legal

actions were initiated under the code by written pleadings; testimony

was taken under oath. The code was severe in its penalties,

prescribing “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.””(Grolier). This

code of

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Cold War

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Andres Lacayo

Cold War Essay

The Cold War was the extended tension between the Soviet Union and the United States of America. It started in the mid 40s after WWII had left Europe in a disaster, and Russia and the USA in superpower positions. The Cold War was a clash of these super giants in political, ideological, military, and economic values and ideas. Though military build up was great on both sides neither one ever directly fought each other.

There are many key events that happened throughout the entire duration of the Cold War. The fist main events that led up to the tension; were the foreign aid policies. These policies were able to divide up Europe between the superpowers. After Europe was divided up, treaty organizations and alliances started forming up again. One of these alliances was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as the Warsaw pact.

Though the two superpowers never engaged each other militarily, they were periodically caught up in major political crises that had the potential to become warfare. One example was the Soviet blockade on Western Berlin. The Russians threatened, and did, block off supply routes to Western Berlin. The people in the city were staving and dying from the lack of supplies. Because of this the US had to make periodic supply drops into the city. Some other examples are the Cuban missile crises, where the Russian funded Cuban military had secretly made or smuggled nuclear missiles onto the island and pointed them at the USA.

Although Russia didn’t get involved in any sort of combat the United States did. First they battled the Koreans in a dispute to take over certain spy satellites, which the Americans thought were planning attacks. The second time it was in Vietnam. North Vietnam wanted to conquer the south so they sent massive manpower and lost a lot of men, and furthermore they weren’t even successfully since they didn’t stop the North from taking over the south. But meanwhile things got very hectic since the Russians took possession of a large amount of nuclear missiles.

During almost the entire time that Russia and the USA had been fighting for power they

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Cold War

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The central reason the Cold War was started was over an ideological power struggle between atheistic communism and democratic capitalism. The principle players were the former Soviet Union (Communism) and the United States (Capitalism). The Cold War began in 1948 after Germany was divided between the western allies and the Soviets. In trying to take over West Berlin, Stalin blockaded the roads of East Germany that led to Berlin so as to starve the people into submission. The allies broke the blockade by airlifting hundreds of tons of food and supplies to the people in West Berlin. Since no actual fighting occurred, this became known as a “cold war”. The Soviets and Americans would continue to fight many cold battles in Africa and Latin America in an effort to influence the politics of these regions. The cold war turned hot in the Koreas, Vietnam, and Cuba.

In August 1949 the Soviets tested their first atomic bomb. In doing so they showed that their weaponry was on par with the United States. In June 1950, North Korea (who was supplied heavily by the Soviets) launched a massive attack on South Korea. The reason behind this attack was that North Korea wanted to unite the whole of Korea under communism. The United Nations responded to this attack by amassing a great army, led by General Douglas MacArthur of the U.S., to defend South Korea. China threatened that if the United Nations invaded North Korea they would help North Korea fight against the United Nations. When the United Nations ignored the threats and invaded North Korea, the massive Chinese army attacked the UN troops (which were mostly Americans). In April, 1951 the United Nations armed forces were able to push back the Chinese. On July 27, 1953 an armistice was signed, ending the war.

Stalin died in 1953 and Nikita Khrushchev came to power. Khrushchev desired to expand communism to the island of Cuba, only 60 miles off the coast of Florida, within easy missile range of the US capitol. After talks with Khrushchev, Fidel Castro allied Cuba with the Soviets. The US sponsored an invasion force of Cuban dissidents in an attempt to overthrow Castro. These American trained forces landed in Cubas “Bay of Pigs” but were immediately defeated. Americans were expelled in 1962 and then Soviet missile launchers were brought to Cuba. On October 14, 1962, after an American U2 spy plane discovered forty-two missile sites, President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade

Human Beings And Consumption Habits Of Human Being english essay help: english essay help

Sustanaibility Paper

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Production and consumption are two complementary activities that human beings perform daily. Most of the times, these activities require the destruction of our ecosystem because they lead to the deforestation, the air and water pollution, and extinction of species. Because the production and consumption habits of human being have direct effect on the ecosystem, it must be said that human health, animals, and plants are in danger. This paper will assess some specific examples of production and consumption habits that are related to material resources. It will also discuss efforts that must be considered about these production and consumption habits in order to sustain the global population.

Talking about production and consumption I would like to give the example of Nigeria where people shepherd cow (production) for meat or milk (production). Given that the population there increases every year like in any other countries around the world, it is obvious that the demand of such food increases as well. History reveals that farmers did not settle on poor soils where water was dangerous (Turk & Bensel, 2011). They rather settled in rich valleys. The purpose of this settlement was to produce goods that are necessary for consumption. Later, human beings became smart by inventing the way of producing food. They started destroying forests and natural environment in order to make rooms for the development and expansion. The increase of the population automatically led to the need to looking for more space for development and expansion. This trend will continue throughout history. Human population has greatly increased. Therefore, there was need to find space to build houses and to farm. This required cutting down trees which in turn will lead to what is called deforestation. This phenomenon continues till today. That is why the Earth Summit of 1997 raised the following question: “If we continue “business as usual”, will we be able to meet the needs of a growing global population–in the immediate future and for generations to come?” (Earth Summit, 1997, Para. 3).

The production habit which is to farm or build houses and roads has tremendously impacted the environment we live in. Lack of green space and global warming are some of the examples of the impacts of the human production habit on the environment. But there is more to this issue. The industrialization of most of the cities around the world creates the pollution of the environment. It is important to develop the cities. It is important to invent and introduce new technologies to meet our needs. But all this leads to damaging our environment. Since the effluents from the industries are not treated before they flow into the water that causes the pollution of the water. The sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide that are released into the atmosphere produce acid rains which cause the acidification of the crops, dangerous to human and animal consummation. The chlorofluorocarbons released from the industries also destroy the ozone layer which passes dangerous rays to the atmosphere. As noted by Slaterry (2007) the result of this is skin cancer and other diseases.

There are many

Deaf Child And Racial Minorities essay help site:edu

Sociology And Disabilities

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“If the technology became available for the deaf to hear completely, would you want your deaf child to have this technology?” It is every parents dream for their child to grow up healthy and happy. There are so many children in the world that do not have the ability to hear, and it is a horrible thing. Many would think it wrong for a parent to not want to give their child the gift of sight. If I had a child that was deaf, I would do everything in my power to help them get their hearing. If the technology was there to fix this disability, why wouldnt anyone want their child to have it? “840 babies are born with a permanent hearing loss every year.”(NDCS of UK). This is a horrible number to hear, that so many children will never be able to hear. If there was any technology able to restore a childs hearing it would be a shame if the parents didnt get it. “Deaf children face tremendous difficulties learning to read, write and communicate with the hearing world around them.”(NDCS of UK). Not only would you be giving your child the gift of hearing by using this technology, but you will also help child to be able learn on the normal level of other children.

It is also true that we can change and enhance our body features through elective cosmetic surgeries. Many people choose to undergo these surgeries because they are unhappy with their appearance. I feel that these procedures are unnecessary, and that you shouldnt undergo surgery unless you need it for your health. I believe that people go through these procedures purely because they have low self-esteem. Society tells them that there is something wrong with their body, and they feel that they need to change it to fit in. I think that this is a way to see if someone is truly happy with themselves, as we all should. No one is perfect, so no one should try to be it. Its just a waste of time and money on their part all so they can fit in, which I think is pathetic. It is always a risk to undergo surgery, and there is no reason to put yourself in unnecessary risk. I think that it is ridiculous to put yourself through something like that. If I had a ten year old dark-skinned African American daughter who wanted blue contact lens, have her skin chemically lightened, and straighten her hair, I definitely say no. There is no way that going through this radical change could be beneficial to her health, and it is completely unnecessary. What good reason is there for a ten year old girl to completely hide her looks so she can appear white. Its a sad thing that society places that kind of stress on someone so young. That a young girl would go through so much to think that she must be ashamed to be African-American. There is no reason for people to make a young girl feel that bad about herself that she would want to completely and permanently change her looks in such a fashion. I would try to explain to her that there is no reason for her to be ashamed of who she is and of her background. No one should have to feel that bad and ashamed of their heritage that they would want to completely hide it that way.

Discrimination and stereotypes of the differently-abled, racial minorities, gays and lesbians (et al.), and females are not all the same, but can be quite similar. First off is the differently-abled. It is difficult for a disabled person to receive an education and a job as easily as the rest of society. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was adopted by congress in 1990 which “protects disabled persons from discrimination in employment and stipulates that employers and others (such as schools and public transportation systems) must provide reasonable accommodation for disabled persons.”(Anderson & Taylor, p531). Racial minorities also face a great deal of discrimination, and have for many years. Gays and lesbians have also recently suffered from the same stigma that the disabled, minorities, and females suffer from in the world and workplace. Gays and lesbians are not a protected group in the workplace. “Although Congress has outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, it has not yet seen fit to include sexual

C. Wright Mills And Own Experience computer science essay help: computer science essay help


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Having trust in a person is the basis to any well balanced relationship. Whether it is a relationship with a significant other, family member, or close friend trusting them is extremely important. Around this time last year, I thought I had found a trustworthy, amazing friend that was going to be in my life for many years. We shared all of our deepest secrets and thoughts about all topics of life. It was so refreshing to finally have someone that I trusted enough to talk to about my past and even the very touchy subject of my mother passing away a couple years ago. Although in the end I was wrong and he betrayed me in every way possible. Besides breaking my trust, he said many hurtful and unnecessary things to me for almost two weeks after the initial ending of our friendship. I didn’t understand how someone I loved so much could hurt me so malicious. At the time, I thought my life was over and I would never be happy again.

C. Wright Mills writes that “the first fruit of this imagination is the idea that the individual can understand his own experience and gauge his own fate only be locating himself within his period, that he can know his own chances in life only by becoming aware of those of all individuals in his circumstances.” My personal trouble can be seen as a public issue by understanding that it did not just affect my friend and me, it affected all of our other friends too. For example, if our group of friends were all hanging out, I would leave if I found out he was coming and vice versa. In a sense it made it very difficult to be friends with both of us at the same time.

African American Culture And Northern Cities admission college essay help


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The Black Diaspora

The ABC report evaluates the mechanization of cotton farms during the early twentieth century reduced the demand for farm laborers and gave many blacks the incentive to move away from southern farms to the industrialized north. The northern cities were home to many new black communities, which created centers of uniquely African American culture.

Every person is in a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important called race. People may classify one another racially based on physical characteristics such as skin color, facial features, hair texture, and body shape. However, racism is the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to another. Racism has also been widespread in the United States, where for centuries ideas about racial inferiority supported slavery. Many African Americans chose to head north when the need of farm laborers reduced. The blacks however brought ethnicity with them. Ethnicity is a shared cultural heritage. The northern cities showed the strong heritage they brought with them.

Many African Americans had many reasons for traveling north, other than the reduced need for farm laborers. One major reason is because they are a large minority. A minority is any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates. Minorities have two important characteristics. First, they share a distinct identity, which may be based on physical or cultural traits. Second, minorities experience subordination. Also, many African Americans were trying to run from prejudice southerners. Prejudice is a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people. Prejudice is unfair because such attitudes are supported by little or no direct evidence. Many African Americans were running from these

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Coca-Cola In Panama

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Coca-Cola in Latin America

During the early decades of the 20th century the United States and Latin America conveyed the prototypical “image of imperialism” in the world. The hegemonic power of the U.S. spread itself throughout Latin American culture, paving the way for American made products to enter a new society. Much like today in Iraq, the early 20th century in Latin America also consisted of round the clock surveillance by American troops. The American interest of using the Latin Americas as allies played into an increased military presence. Specifically in Panama, these soldiers set out to oversee the Panama Canal, a result from helping the Panamanians achieve independence from Colombia. The image of “American ideals of friendliness and good neighbors” (Coca-Cola) evolved into the overall “Americanization” of the region. Specifically, the Coca-Cola Company exploited this imperialism by spreading its drink around Panama, meanwhile showing images of people having fun while drinking a Coke. Making pals in Panama was easy when both sides had a Coke in their hand, playing into the interpretation that homogenizing the region would be simple.

The image “Have a Coca-Cola=What Gives Pal?” produced by the Coca-Cola Company in 1944 portrays the image of American soldiers socializing with Panamanian commoners in the streets. What is common between these characters is they both have a Coke in their hand and a smile on their face. The overall story of this image is of the American attempt to link Coke with the idea of being the “global high-sign”. In essence the goal is to change the negative perception that is associated with U.S. and Latin American relations. Coke became a form of social equality, and with it came the vision that the Coca-Cola Company could use these positive images in many advertisement campaigns. In the U.S., Americans associated this image with pride and nationalism, while all around the globe America was being perceived as a “Good Neighbor”. As Coke became widespread, the image of negative imperialism began to fade throughout Panama.

Much like the Banana Enclaves on the Caribbean Coast of Colombia, the Panama region was inflicted with outside sources and many different culture collections. “In Cienaga in the late 1920s one could buy Vicks Vaporub, Quaker Oats, and Chevrolet cars” (Le Grand 345), all products stemming from the continuous boats of American salesmen and Montgomery Ward catalogs. On the surface it looked calm and pretty, but underneath the middle and upper classes felt a boost of income and wealth, leading to potential jobs with the United Fruit Company. As people starting traveling abroad they lost their sense of nationalism, adopting the preferred American products and customs. The Colombian region shifted due to the “Americanization” that took place, much like the farmers and workers of Panama. A product as innocent as Coca-Cola spread throughout Panama and with it the idea of a friendly America, one that would protect the region and its people.

The idea of happiness and friendship became the ultimate goals the U.S. and the Coca-Cola hoped to evoke into Latin American society. What followed was a close adaptation of American culture, ideas, and customs. People from Panama “understood and love our sports, our humor, and our everyday customs” (Coca-Cola), depicted closely in the image “Have a Coca-Cola=What Gives, Pal?” One example of American culture that spread itself throughout Panama and the rest of Latin America was the game of baseball. Along with the new products, came the idea that baseball was a fun and exciting game. The U.S. Marines who would occupy the Latin American region would play baseball with the inhabitants, leading to widespread use and adaptation. The lines of “us” and “them” seemed to become blurry when the relationship between the U.S. and Latin America was a good one.

Depicting reality in photos such as the Coca-Cola image is hard to imagine, but during this time the increased social well-being of Americans and Panamanians grew into a positive image. In the foresight was the occupation by U.S. soldiers, protecting the interests of the United States and its surrounding territories. Using Panama as a strategic post for national defense was essential during World War II, all the meanwhile trying to show that the “Good Neighbor” rhetoric was apparent. To depict this history is two prong, requiring the break down of both American domination and local opportunities. On one side, the penetration of capitalism attracted American companies such as Coca-Cola to the region. On the other side, the local people were embracing their ability to open up to international markets. Much like in the Banana Enclaves, this Americanization can be described as the spread of “capitalism in such places that created social

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Sociology 100 – Social Biases

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Michael ClarkProfessor Anna HainSociology 1002nd May 2017        “Oh, no I don’t want to sit over there next to that black man! How dare you even ask.” We all have biases. We may deny it and claim we don’t but, whether we like it or not, we all have some type of person or something a person does that makes us judge them and think differently about them. Whether it’s walking on the other side of the street from somebody that has a different skin color than you, or refusing to talk to another person because of the God they worship, we all have prejudices that make us treat people unfairly. With that in mind, it is important to recognize our own biases and confront them so we can decide if we need to work on changing ourselves, or if we like it the way we are.         For me, I have to think a little about my biases. I try to treat everybody fairly at the point of meeting them and keep an open mind. I think everybody has the capacity to be a good person and so I try to be as nice as possible until I find out if they are a good person or not. So, I have to dig a little deeper to find what exactly it is that I don’t like about certain people, because subconsciously, there is something that I am biased against.         After thinking about it, I realized that there are a few things that can affect the way I think of a person before I even talk to them. The first and foremost being people who are overweight. As I’ve said before, I am an exercise science major and I have turned into a little bit of a fitness nut. Now I realize I can’t do it all and I’m not freakishly big or ripped or even in the best shape I can possibly be, but I work hard to eat right and exercise daily so I don’t get fat and become obese, and I don’t think that’s hard! I know it can be mentally challenging to force yourself to eat healthier, and sometimes it’s difficult to find time to exercise, but get over it. If I can find ways to do both, anybody can. I work 30 hours a week and go to school full time while sporting a 3.5 GPA and I work out every day still. People also claim it’s more expensive to eat healthier, but if I’ve learned one thing from my nutrition classes, it isn’t. It can actually be cheaper to sometimes buy healthier foods rather than junk. So I think this bias simply comes from the fact that this is so easily avoidable and if those of us to stay healthy can do it, so can everybody. The United States is the fattest country in the world and there is no reason we can’t all do our best to help ourselves, and if we do that the rest of the country will follow suit. It isn’t as easy and just saying “don’t be fat,” but it isn’t hard either. Just get off your butt and do something to eat healthier and find the time to exercise.

However, I still don’t think that this bias effects the way I treat other people. As I said before, I try and keep an open mind whenever meeting new people and wait to decide how I think of them until I know what kind of person they actually are. The only thing I am guilty of because of this bias is judging people before I meet anybody, if they are overweight I do think a little less of them and I do judge them, but I don’t let that effect the way I treat them when I meet them. That is why I don’t think this bias really needs to be addressed by me. Until I begin treating people poorly before I even meet them, I won’t change anything about myself.         Speaking of obese people, the best way to not get fat and stay in shape is to not be lazy. I will freely admit that I have biases against lazy people and I don’t often try to hide it. Until the end of my junior year of high school, I worked two jobs and in the summers it wasn’t uncommon to work 70 hours in a week. Now, this coming summer, I have 3 jobs lined up and am expecting to work 50-60 a week. If a college kid like myself can find work this easily, then it shouldn’t be too hard for everybody else. I always listen to people complain about having no money and not being able to afford the things they want. Then do something about it. Pick up those extra hours. Find a second job, even if it is just weekend work. Laziness is a disease and the cure is simple, work hard for what you want. Being bias against lazy people comes from my background. I’ve had to work for everything I have. My parents put a roof over my head and food on the table but anything else I wanted, I had to earn myself. That’s why this topic really makes me upset when I talk about it. If you complain about being fat but never go the gym, whose fault is it really? Quit being lazy and do something about it. Chase your dreams, but you’re going to have to run.

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Sociological Review

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1.) JANE ADDAMS (1860 – 1935)

-In 1889, Jane Addams founded and managed a settlement house called the Hull house in Chicago.

-Wrote the following books: Newer Ideals of Peace, Peace and Bread in Time of War, Twenty Years at Hull House, The Spirit of Youth and City Streets, A New Conscience and an Ancient Evil, Democracy and Social Ethics, The Long Road of Women’s Memory.

-Was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her efforts.

2.) W.E.B. DuBois

-DuBois was the most prominent intellectual leader and political activist on behalf of African Americans in the first half of the twentieth century.

-In 1905, Du Bois helped to found the Niagara Movement. The Movement championed, among other things, freedom of speech and criticism, the recognition of the highest and best human training as the monopoly of no caste or race, full male suffrage, a belief in the dignity of labor, and a united effort to realize such ideals under sound leadership.

-DuBois helped found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1909.

-Du Bois wrote and published over 4,000 articles, essays and books over the course of the 95-year life.

3.) C. WRIGHT MILLS (1916 – 1962)

-Made famous the term sociological imagination.

-Along with Hans. H. Gerth, applied and popularized Max Weber theories. Also applied Karl Mannheim’s theories on the sociology of knowledge to the political thought and behavior of intellectuals.

-Wrote the following books: .The Power Elite, The Sociological Imagination, White Collar: The American Middle Class, Listen: Yankee, The Marxists.

4.) IDA B. WELLS BARNETT (1862 – 1931)

-Led an ant lynching crusade in the United States in the 1890’s.

-One of the great pioneer activists in the Civil Rights Movement.

-Co-founder of the NAACP.

-Journalist and Author of work like On Lynchings, and The Memphis Diary of Ida B. Wells.

5.) ROBERT PARK (1964 – 1944) & ERNEST BURGESS (1886 – 1966)

-Robert Park was one of the main founders of the original Chicago School of sociology.

-Robert Park was the central figure in the development of Chicago sociology. He introduced ecology to sociology.

-Robert Park was influential in developing the theory of assimilation as it pertained to immigrants in the United States.

-Ernest Burgess, along with Robert Park conceptualized the city into the concentric zones.

-Ernest Burgess in known for his research into the family as a social unit.

6.) KARL MARX (1818 – 1883)

-Best known not as a philosopher but as a revolutionary communist.

-Developed the social and economic theories that would have a major influence on sociological thought.

-Karl Marx works inspired the foundation of many communist regimes in the twentieth century.

7.) AUGUSTE COMTE (1798 – 1857)

-French thinker who coined the term “sociology”.

-Founder of Positivism. Positivism is a philosophical system of thought maintaining that the goal of knowledge is simply to describe the phenomena experienced, not to question whether it exists or not.

-Made some of the earliest attempts to apply scientific methods to the study of social life.

8.) HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802 – 1876)

-Considered a for mother to sociology and the feminist movement.

-Author of important sociological interpretations of the early phases of capitalism and modernity which include Illustrations of Political Economy, Theory and Practice of Society in America, The Martyr Age of the United States.

-Social reformer whose writings on the plight of children and women in British factories were highly influential.

-Renowned in her day as a controversial journalist, political economist, abolitionist and life-long feminist.

9.) ALICE S. ROSSI (1922 – )

-Leading feminist scholar as a writer and editor of works on family, kinship, sex, and gender.

-Is particularly noted for her studies of personality development at all ages, what sociologists refer to as “life-course” analyses.

-One of the founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW).

-74th President of the American Sociological Association.

-Her works include: The Feminist Papers, Gender and the Life Course, and Of Human Bonding.

10.) JESSIE BERNARD (1903 – 1996)

-Provided insights into women, sex, marriage, and interaction of family and community.

-Author of influential books like American Family Behavior, Origins of American Sociology, American Community Behavior, Women, Wives, Mothers, The Female World from a Global Perspective.

11.) CHARLES DARWIN (1809 – 1882)

-Charles Darwin proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection.

-Author of works like On the Origin of Species, The Descent of Man , and Selection in Relation to Sex, and The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals.

12.) MAX WEBER (1864 – 1920)

-Max Weber is considered one of

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Cleopatra VII: The Rise and Fall of the Last Pharaoh

The name Cleopatra has been used by lots of different Egyptian Queens, but Cleopatra VII is by far the most remembered of them all. She used her looks, seduction skills, and charm to get whatever she wanted and it worked. Cleopatra was an extremely selfish person and her only goals in life were to achieve power and wealth. These motives for living got her in lots of trouble throughout her life. By the time this last pharaoh of Egypt rose to power of the Ptolemaic Dynasty, it was crumbling down because of the Roman Empire trying to take over. Cleopatra used two of the worlds most powerful men of the Roman Empire to make sure her beloved empire was not completely taken over by Roman control and she would remain in power. She was willing to do whatever it took to make sure that her dynasty was not going to fall apart. As we take a look at her life and journey, it shows her determination to regain the power of her once strong Ptolemaic Dynasty.

In 51 B.C., Cleopatras father, Ptolemy XII, died and left the kingdom of Egypt to Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIII in his will. At the time of her fathers death, Cleopatra was eighteen years of age and Ptolemy XIII was only twelve. The two had to get married according to Egyptian law which stated that any female ruler had to have a husband, or consort, who was either a brother or a son. Cleopatra took full advantage of the age difference between her brother/husband and herself. As soon as they were married, she had dropped Ptolemy XIII name dropped from all documents that had him being a co-ruler. She knew he was way too young to know anything about ruling a country. Cleopatra then went on to rule by herself for three years until her brother finally smartened up. Ptolemy XIII and his group of advisors began to plot a conspiracy that would have Cleopatra removed from the throne. In 48 B.C., they overthrew her from power and forced her into exile .

Cleopatra wasnt the type of queen who would let such a thing happen to her like this without her doing something about it. She decided to gather some troops to regain control of her old country. As Cleopatra was getting ready to battle against her brothers army, she received news that Julius Caesar just became the new consul of Rome. This meant that Caesar had gained control of Rome and partially of the Ptolemaic Dynasty since the Roman Empire was expanding. Cleopatra came up with a plan to meet Julius Caesar to make an alliance with him so that she can be the queen of Egypt again. To get to Caesar, she had to wrap herself inside a rug which was then smuggled into Alexandria and delivered to straight to Caesar. When Julius Caesar opened the rug, Cleopatra came out and right away used her seduction skills and charmed Caesar. That same evening, Cleopatra became his lover even though he was married. She now had a good relationship with the Roman Empire being the lover of Caesar. Caesar agreed to help Cleopatra become queen again and returns her to the throne after the death of Ptolemy XIII in the Alexandrian War. She again had to marry another sibling, this time her youngest brother Ptolemy XIV who was only eleven years old. At around the same time that she took over Egypt for the second time, she gave birth to a son Ptolemy XV, also called Little Caesar because he was the son of Julius Caesar .

In 44 B.C., on the Ides of March, Julius Caesar was assassinated outside of the Senate Building in Rome . He was assassinated in a conspiracy by his Senators. They thought that he was going to become king and ruin the city of Rome and the well-being of the republic. In Caesars will, he left nothing to Cleopatra. Caesars assassination caused a lot of disorder and a civil war in Rome. Eventually the Roman Empire was divided among three powerful men: Caesars great-nephew Octavian, Marcus Lepidus, and Marcus Antonius, who is also known as Marc Antony .

In 42 B.C., Mark Antony sent out for Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus. Cleopatra arrived in style on a fancy boat with purple sails and silver oars. The boat was sailed by her maids, who were dressed as sea nymphs. Cleopatra herself was dressed as the goddess of love, Venus. Antony, who was a pleasure-loving man, was impressed by this, just as Cleopatra had intended. That night that she arrived, she entertained him on her boat. Like Caesar, Antony was immediately hooked by Cleopatras charm and beauty. Forgetting all about his responsibilities, he went with Cleopatra to Alexandria and spent the winter with her there. Six months later, Cleopatra gave birth to a set of twins. Their names were Cleopatra Selene and Alexander Helios, and the father was Marc Antony. During that time in-between, Antony married Octavians half-sister, Octavia . Together, they had two daughters, both named Antonia. In 37 BC, while on his way to invade Parthia, Antony enjoyed another date with Cleopatra. He rushed through his battle and went back to Cleopatra. From then on Alexandria was his home, and Cleopatra was in his life. He married her in 36 BC and she gave birth to another son, Ptolemy Philadelphus .

In Rome, Octavia remained loyal to Antony. She decided to visit Antony, and when she reached Athens she received a letter from him saying that he would meet her there. Cleopatra didnt want Antony to have any contact with his other wife. She did all sorts of things to try and keep him from leaving. She cried, fainted, and even starved herself and got her way. Antony eventually cancelled his trip and never saw Octavia.

The Roman people were not pleased at all by the way Antony had treated Octavia by ditching her. The worst thing of all was that in 34 BC Antony made Alexander Helios the king of Armenia, Cleopatra Selene the queen of Cyrenaica and Crete, and Ptolemy Philadelphus the king of Syria. Caesarion was known as the “King of Kings,” and Cleopatra was the “Queen of

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Essay Preview: Comedy

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Comedy, a form of entertainment that keeps everyone laughing has been around for many centuries. Comedy from the past is sometimes a stupid funny like the except that we watched in class with “Harpo.” In that except the part where they all wanted to get off the boat but with no passport was my way of a stupid funny. What I thought was extremely funny was when the four of them were trying to pretend to be the lady singer and the part when the one guy collapsed and the other one played a fake doctor to get the group of four off the boat.

This is more of a stupid comedy because of the way that the characters act. This movie is similar to the TV Show called “The Three stooges.” In this show the three character acts stupidly to entertain their audience, they beat on each other just like how the four guys on the boat were. The three stooges use minor violence to extreme violence but they don’t intend to hurt anyone. The most common thing that they do is hit each other because of a misunderstanding or they say the wrong thing.

These two movies I have to say are similar and comparable because they make the audience laugh the same way. Well Harpo doesn’t even speak in his part in any movies; he just uses had motions like a mime to tell the audience what he is trying to say. Some people don’t need to speak just to be funny; they can be funny in other ways. Harpo in the same way in the TV Show “I Love Lucy” he appears on that some from time to time, and makes everyone laugh just by the way he acts.

Sugar Act And Obligation Of Taxes english essay help


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�The role of the Boston traders and merchants in opposing the actions of the British government and their ability to influence the colonists were the main factors behind the colonists taking up arms and declaring their independence in 1776’ To what extend do you agree?

The Boston traders and merchants opposition to the British Government were the main factors, which led the colonists to fight for their independence in 1776. The reason for this opposition is the obligation of taxes, which the British Government introduced in order to finance war debt. However, the traders saw this as an attempt by the British Government to restrict their ability to employ in free trade and practically make money. After introducing taxes, The Sugar Act, The Stamp Act, Quartering Act, and The Townshend Act, the British Government was basically asking for a war. The colonists were outraged and fought for their right and independence. The Boston Traders and merchants were most affected by the taxes, as their businesses were already at a low, with having to pay more tax eventually they would become bankrupt. Events commenced by the Boston Traders incited colonists, such as the gangs of mobs, circling the streets burning prints on paper, violence broke out. Therefore their actions gained the support of the colonists and led them to declare their independence. The British Governments instigation of the first tax act, The Sugar Act, triggered this atrocity.

The Sugar Act was a tax first established in 1733, so it was simply an old tax that had been revised in 1764. This act involved placing a tax on molasses, which the colonists used to make rum. The rum trade with Europe and in America represented big business for businessmen in the colony. The Businessmen and merchants opposed to this act, written by the governor of Rhode Island, Hopkins, as it affected them the most. The reason for the opposition is that the government would tax 6penny’s, with this the business would go bankrupt. He stated that “the higher the duty is, the less the trade will be” meaning only “1/2 a penny” should be taxed, therefore the company would be able to pay up and continue as it was reasonable making it more financially beneficial to the British Government. The businessmen and rum traders paid a great deal of their own profit/income in order to pay tax for the government. They ran riots to get rid of this tax, as it was greatly affecting their lives. .

Parliaments next response was the Stamp Act and the Quartering Act in 1765.

The Stamp act was a tax on all written material. Once the users of printed material (the people who paid the tax) paid their tax, it then would be stamped as of proof, hence the name the Stamp act. It was compulsory due to the fact that people are obliged to pay taxes for financial reasons for the Government, raise money to protect, defend and secure the colony and to reinforce soldiers and weapons. The main objection to the imposition of the Stamp Act was that if the colonists do not get a vote towards the British Government then why should they pay tax in the first place? The colonists protested against this act by going to the government and chanting “NO TAX WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!” The opposition to the Stamp Act was that it was the first internal tax, it affected everyone, but often paid most by the rich, merchants, lawyers and newspaper owners. However, these articulate members of society were then able to express their dispute to the act. Although the Stamp Act eventually was repealed in 1766, after violence from the colonists, their demands were finally answered.

The Quartering Acts purpose was for the colonial governments to contribute to the costs of the British troops stationed in their area. However it was opposed due to the fact that Britain just didn’t have the soldiers to inflict it. These acts were starting points for the initiation of the outraged public (the colonists), which eventually lead to violence.

Even after the introduction of the tax Acts, the British Parliament still needed funds. So in 1767 the Townshend Acts was established. This was not an internal tax but it was duties on trade goods that the colonists traded in, such as paint, paper lead and tea. No real objection was held against this act.

A group called the Sons of Liberty was formed (1765). The Sons of Liberty consisted of businessmen and merchants. They organized boycotts of English Goods. This gang also planned mass protests at which custom officers were at times assaulted and threatened. There protest would commonly involve roaming streets, as in Boston, the records of Vice-Admiralty Courts were burnt to ashes by a rioting mob. Along with homes of the chief custom official and head judge were intruded, smashed and looted. The group eventually caused officers to resign due to the threats from the members, to their families, properties and life. So when the Act was due to come into effect on 1st November 1765, no officers could be found to enforce it, expect for in Georgia. A member of the Sons of Liberty, Samuel Adams organized the Committees of Correspondence, which were to keep a look out for the colonists rights against any more actions of the British.

Violence began to flare up in one crucial event, known as the Boston Massacre. It was first here where the merchants incited the colonists to take arms and defend their right. The people of Boston resented the presence of the British soldiers. Groups of citizens were roaming the streets in search of casualties. On March 5th, 1770, a gang of civilians cornered a young British soldier and pelted him with stones and packed snowballs. The helpless soldier barely escaped and banged on the Customs House

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Commerce With Africa

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Africa in july 2005 is composed approximately by 887 millions people living in 54 different states.

Africa is the world’s poorest inhabited continent, and it is, poorer than it was 25 ears ago.

It has (and in some ways is still having) an uncertain transition from colonialism. The cold war has increased the corruption in Africa; it is moreover the major factors to its poor economic situation. In contrast to the rapid growth in South America, which has lifted millions beyond subsistence living, Africa has stagnated. It has even gone the wrong way in terms of foreign trade, investment, and per capita income. This poverty has widespread effects, including low life expectancy, violence, and instability in this continent. Over the decade there have been many attempts to improve the economy of Africa with very little success.

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The African history is composed in 3 parts:


In the 15th century, Portuguese traders circumvented the Saharan trade route and began to trade directly with Guinea. Other European traders followed, rapidly boosting prosperity in Western Africa. States flourished, including the Kingdom of Benin, Dahomey, and the Ashanti Confederacy. Loose federations of city states such as those of the Yoruba and Hausa were common. However, this wealth was principally based on the slave trade, which collapsed following the abolition of slavery and later European colonization.

Although Europeans were ostensibly committed to developing their colonies, colonial rulers employed a laissez-faire strategy during the first decades. It was hoped that European companies would prosper if given a secure operating environment. This only occurred in a few areas with rich resources; the colonial economies hardly grew from the 1890s through the 1920s. The colonies had to pay their own way, receiving little or no development money from Europe. Only in the 1930s, with the rise of Keynesian economics, did the colonial administrations seriously encourage development. However, new projects could not transpire until after the Great Depression and the Second World War.

After Second World War

African economies boomed during the 1950s as growth and international trade multiplied beyond their pre-war levels. The insatiable demand for raw materials in the rebuilding economies of Asia and Europe and the strong growth in North America inflated the price of raw materials. By the end of the colonial era in the 1960s, there was great hope for African self-sufficiency and prosperity. However, sporadic growth continued as the newly independent nations borrowed heavily from abroad.


The world economic decline of the 1970s, rising oil prices, corruption, and political instability hit Africa hard. In subsequent decades Africa has steadily become poorer compared to the rest of the world; South America experienced solid growth, and East Asia spectacular growth, during that same period. According to the World Economic Forum, ten percent of the worlds poor were African In 1970; by 2000, that figure had risen to fifty percent. Between 1974 and 2000 the average income declined by $200. Beginning in 1976, the LomД© agreements and Cotonou agreement between the EU and ACP countries, including Sub-Saharan Africa, have structured economic relations between the two regions.

The African debt

Resources of Africa

Today Africa is the eighth of the world’s population. The most populated areas are along the niles, niger, congo and Senegal rivers.

The population is growing quickly due to increasingly better health care. Birthrates are very high, and families are often large. Many people have moved from countryside to cities, because of the poverty and lack of work, to escape civil wars, droughts, and famines.

Most countries rely on the export of coffee, cocoa, or oil. In recent yeas, the prices have fallen. The amount that African countries earn from exports is often less then what they have to spend on imports. These factors, along with the growing population and effects of wars and droughts, mean economic difficulties for many African countries.

Africa is the continent that has almost all the worlds reserves of the scarcest and most precious minerals, the platinium group minerals: platinium, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium. They are used in minute amounts in electronic and space-age materials, medical instruments, and other high precision devices. Africa produces more than 60 metal and mineral products and is a major producer of several of the world’s most important minerals and metals including Gold, PGE’s, Diamonds, Tantalite, Titanium, Uranium, Manganese, Chromium, Nickel, Bauxite and Cobalt. Africas contribution to the worlds major metals (copper, lead and zinc) is less than 7%. As a result silver production is low (less than 3% of the worlds production) due to the fact that most silver is produced as a by product of lead; zinc and copper mining. Although underexplored, Africa hosts about 30% of the planets mineral reserves, including 40% of gold, 60% cobalt and 90% of the worlds PGM reserves, making it a strategic producer of these precious metals.

Angola: Petroleum, Diamonds, Manganese, Uranium, Gold

Congo: Wood, Petroleum, Surgar, Cocoa, Coffee, Diamonds

Ivory coast: Coffee, Cocoa, Banana, Cotton, Fish

Tanzanie: Cotton, Coffee, Manufactured Goods, Tobacco

South Africa: Gold, Diamonds, Metals, Minerals



This example has been compiled to provide an overview of the resource governance exploitation issues in the DRC. This part begins by looking back to the late 1800s and tracing the development of resource extraction patterns and informal trade in resources through Leopold and Belgian colonial rule, to Mobutu, and to Laurent and Joseph Kabila.

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Collapse Of Civilizations

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The factors that lead to the “collapse” of civilizations are almost directly related to those that created it. Archaeologists characterize collapse by a number of elements, some of which we have evidence for, others we do not. Most archaeologists are unsure of exactly what caused the decline of most civilizations in the ancient world, yet there are many clues to some of the events that could have contributed. The collapse of the ancient Roman Empire, the Mesoamerican Mayan, and the Egyptian cultures will be discussed in the following paragraphs, with a focus on the uniqueness of each.

“Collapse” is in quotations because its definition when applied to civilizations is often debated.

Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary states:

1: to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely: fall into a jumbled or flattened mass through the force of external pressure

2: to break down

3: to cave or fall in or give way

4: to suddenly lose force, significance, effectiveness, or worth

5: to break down in vital energy, stamina, or self-control through exhaustion or disease; especially: to fall helpless or unconscious

6: to fold down into a more compact shape

Although this definition can vaguely describe the overall fall of most civilizations, the actual details are more finite. One such event would be an environmental change. Archaeologists use this as a reason for the decline of civilizations often because it fits so well into any situation. A terrifying earthquake, a change in flow of a vital river, and a volcanic eruption are examples of what could have happened to abruptly end a civilization. Another reason might be over use of natural resources. As civilizations grew, the need for more resources increased. They could not grow enough food to support the growing population, and as a result trade networks fell apart, people began to starve, and large epidemics spread. Also many of these civilizations based everything on ideology. They believe that their rulers were gods on earth, so when these devastating things started happening, they lost faith in their ruler. Building temples, making statues of their kings, redistributing their goods, and the following of rulers all ceased. The accumulation of all these factors resulted in decline.

For a long period of time, the Mayan civilization was assumed to have ended around 800 A.D. Its decline is very much wondered about and pondered over. Carbon dating shows the dates in which things started going downward. Around 800 AD, population densities were at their peak. The population had gotten so high that it led to social malfunction and agricultural exhaustion. The land had been so overworked that it did not have a chance to remain fertile. Core borings and pollen samples revealed prolonged drought cycles. (Scarre 1997:372) As in the southern Mesopotamian culture, long term irrigation and salinization of the soil led to decline productivity. When irrigation water dries, it leaves salt. Additional water is needed to wash it out; the salt water rises towards the roots of plants and kills them. However, the Mayan civilization was in a very damp rainforest area, which excludes drought as an explanation for its “collapse.” (Sanders: video)

David Webster, a Copan archaeologist, found obsidian knives at various farming sites. These knives are very important because they can be tested as to the date in which they originate. Anne Freter, an obsidian tester, revealed that the majority of them dated to around 1200 A.D. She thought there was something wrong with her data because it had always been assumed that the culture ended around 800 A.D. This data shows a slow decline instead of a sudden “collapse.”

Archaeologists had assumed that there was a sudden collapse. They considered peasant revolt, loss of legitimacy of the rulers, lack of propaganda, abandonment of great centers, ceasing of buildings and inscriptions, and population declination, done by a method the Mayans are known for. “Voting with ones feet” is when commoners of a village, city, or town were not happy with the king at the time so they left for other communities, no longer contributing their goods to the community.

The Mayans were a very ideological society. They had a very weak military, so they were unable to force taxes on the people. They had to enforce ideology by building temples, monuments and statues. When there was a king who was not liked, then they would not build temples to support him. The ruler would have no symbols of power, which meant no authority. The city of Copan had great monuments, which were rebuilt every twenty years. People were needed for the labor, which was often stopped if they

Ferguson V Fct Case Analysis And Cattle Leasing Ltd essay help

Ferguson V Fct Case Analysis

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Summary of the Case

The case Ferguson v FCT (1979) 9 ATR 873 is an appeal case. Ferguson (tax payer) was a member of the Royal Australian Navy and before he was about to retire, he had formed is retirement plans of establishing a business of primary production. In order to start his business he entered into an arrangement with Cattle Leasing Ltd who specialized in the leasing of cattle, made available to Ferguson five Charolais half-cross cows for a period of four years. He also entered in another separate arrangement with Gunn Rural Management Pty Ltd for them to manage the cattle- looking after the heifers, their progeny and the descendants for a period of ten years. The cattle were to be artificially inseminated to produce pure-bred Charolais and selling the male progeny. Ferguson also expressed intention into entering the agreements to buy the stock at cheap prices, starting with approximately 200 breeders on his own property. In doing this he had incurred expenses totaling $2370 and $1258 in the income year ending 30 June 1973 and 1974 respectively and so he sought for deduction for these expenses.

During the following years there was natural increase to his stock and he sold some, however the consideration received

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German Apple Pancakes

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German Apple Pancakes



1 3/4 cups all-purpose flour, plus more as needed


3 tablespoons sugar


1 tablespoon baking powder


1/4 teaspoon fine salt


1/8 teaspoon freshly ground nutmeg


2 large eggs at room temperature


1 1/4 cups milk at room temperature


1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract


3 tablespoons unsalted butter, plus more as needed


4 Macintosh or other small apples


Warm maple syrup, as an accompaniment


1. Preheat the oven to 200 degrees F. Set a wire rack on a baking sheet and place in the oven.

2. Whisk 1 3/4 cups flour, the sugar, baking powder, salt, and nutmeg in a large bowl. In small bowl or liquid measuring cup, whisk the eggs with the milk and vanilla extract. Melt 3 tablespoons butter in a large well-seasoned cast-iron or non stick skillet over medium heat. Whisk the butter into the milk mixture. Add the liquid ingredients to the dry mixture, and whisk just long enough to make a thick batter, (if there are a couple lumps thats okay).

3. Using a melon baler or an apple corer, peel and core the apples keeping them whole. Slice the apples crosswise to make 1/4-inch rounds. Put some flour on a plate and dredge the apple slices until lightly coated,

Time Management Action Plan And Tutor Nights essay help online

Time Management Action Plan

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For me it seems like there is too many tasks to complete and seldom enough time. Effective and efficient time management is something that I have room for improvement on and have great use of. I started by taking a time management survey.

#1 Accept Problem

My results from this diagnostic survey on time management assured me that my time management skills are low. The survey revealed that I am on the bottom of the scale of time management. There were two sections of the survey. One section measured your time management skills in an office setting and the other section measured your time management skill in your personal life. By having two sections you can compare your time management skills for the two different settings. The total score measures your overall time management skills and it also puts the score in a category. My scores of 27 points for personal life and 31 points for office settings combines to a 58 point total score. My combined score falls in to the lowest category that suggests that training is necessary and will considerably enhance my effectiveness. The first step of solving a problem is identifying it. After taking this survey I have proof that my time management skills are low.

Time management has been a long time problem for me. I have always found excuses for not doing things on time or running late. My main excuse is being involved in so many things as a college student. All of this is true, but it shouldnt be an excuse. I currently work as a lifeguard between classes, tutor nights and weekends, work at a bar weekends, I hold a vice president position in American Marketing Association, I am a member of

United States And Italian Fascist Government scholarship essay help: scholarship essay help

Coldwar Essay

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Relations Between the US and Italy Between 1952-1954

“The Communist Problem”

The “cold war” loss of Italy to Communist control would result in profound political, psychological and military damage to the free world (p.1567)

Draft Statement of Policy by The Planning Board

of The National Security Council

After the end of World War II the United States embarked on years of an uneasy alliance with Italy. The recovering Italian Fascist government was highly unstable and looked as though it could fall into Communist hands at any moment. The United States through mostly financial means chose to support the Christian Democratic Party in hopes of squelching public support for the fairly popular Communist factions within the country. I believe that the United States governments involvement in Italy was a result of US fears that a Communist government could succeed in Italy and the USs refusal to allow that happen. “The rancor and irritation against the US expressed by many Italian sources spring from an Italian awareness that noncommunist leaders are caught in a tough political dilemma, created by consistent American vis a vis Russia, and Italys growing desire to coexist with the USSR”(P.1627)as stated in a memo from Ambassador in Italy Luce to the Department of State in August of 1953. Through an incredible balancing act it would seem as though Italy was a country that sought, and succeeded to an extent, to carry out relations with both The United States and The Soviet Union at the same time walking a delicate tight rope between the two rival superpowers. What follows is a general survey of the foreign relations of the United States and Italy between the years of 1952 and 1954, as Italy attempted to to juggle support from its two largest allies and the US attempted to put an end to the “Red Menace” within the Italian political system.

In order to gain a better understanding of the political climate in Italy from 1952 to 1954 one must be equipped with at least a small amount of background information on Italian history in the first years following the conclusion of World War II. As a former enemy of the victorious Allied Forces Italy was heartily punished by a restrictive peace treaty. Amazingly rapidly, Italy was converted into a fully contributing member of the Atlantic anti-Communist community. An Anti-Communist stance became the crucial issue that defined inclusion and exclusion within the international alliance of which Italy was now a member. This created an extremely volatile political environment Italy which consisted of a virtual plethora of viable political parties including the dominant United States backed and funded Christian Democrats and the Partitio Communista Italiano also known as the PCI. There was a strong conflict of interest that arose between the formal antifascist constitution and the material one imposed being imposed on them by the escalating international situation. On one side there was the pro-Western stance of the main Italian governing party, the Christian Democrats and on the other side they were faced with the PCIs dependency on the Soviet Union, these issues were soon to become the major boiling points of the Italian republic. The PCIs alliance with the Soviet Union provided them with resources much need by the PCI and much maligned by the United States as stated in this dispatch from the Director of Western European Affairs in Feb. of 1952, “The Communist Party apparently has unlimited funds to finance its activities and is becoming increasingly active in the South. (p.1572)” In a way Italy was attempting to be seen as a country bridging the ever widening gap between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Italian government in 1952 was under the rule of Christian Democrat premier, Alcide De Gasperi. The US had seemed faithful at first that the Christian Democrats would gradually stomp out the PCI, however by 1952 they began to grow tired of waiting for the Italians to take care of matters for themselves and began to attempt to exert a more powerful controlling presence in Italy. The United States as well as much of western Europe viewed the existence of a viable Communist party in Italy as a black eye to the anti-Communist collation they had formed and in direct contradiction with the statements laid out in NSC 1968.

“Background of course is unremitting activity of whole Communist party apparatus in complicating difficult enough political, social, moral, and economic reconstruction of Italy after twenty years of destruction and demoralization of war” (p.1565), thus reads a document sent from the Ambassador in Italy (Dunn) to the Department of State. As previously stated, the main issue the United States was interested in addressing in Italy was the prevalence and continued existence of the Italian Communist Party. After the United States entry into the Korean War, the US magnified its pressures on the Allied Western European countries, trying to gain more active involvement in the common effort against the Soviet Union and the threat of Communism as a whole. This new pressure was paired with a request that the local governments assume a tougher stance toward potentially domestic “subversive” trade unions and political groups. The United States requested that Italy also take part in these new anti Communist measures, a delicate issue due to the strength of some large Communist controlled trade unions within the country.

The Prime Minister of Italy, US backed Christian Democrat De Gasperi refused to oblige American requests to remove Communist organizations from public properties, because of the organizations long running contracts that they held with the government. The United States was met with the same refusal to Bunkers (US Ambassador to Italy) request to prevent the Italian Communist Party from gaining large-scale financial support through the payments that Italian industrialists were forced to pay in order to trade with the Soviet Union and other Soviet Bloc nations. According to the De Gasperi there was little the government could do, and even if they had wanted to comply the trade provided was too important for Italian textile industry. Finally, the United Statess intention to use offshore military procurements (OSP) to attempt to persuade Italian entrepreneurs and politicians to adopt a stronger stance against Communist labor met opposition from the omnipresent political factions (because of which Italians would be sent to the polls to to vote three times between 1951 and 1953). In the months leading up to the pivotal 1953 general elections Italians saw

International Olympic Committee And Instances Of The Olympic Charter write essay help: write essay help

Commercialism In The Olympics

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The International Olympic Committee has become a corporation-like entity incurring in commercialism and contradicting the Hellenic Ideal of Justice. After stating our thesis it is important for us to be aware of the definition of the two main concepts under analysis.

The ideal of Justice: The ideal of justice is based in three principles: equality, impartiality, and moral reciprocity. Where individuals should be treated as equals under the same set of rules or guidelines, as well as requiring members to regard each other as having the same moral standing. (Reid)

Commercialism: The tendency within capitalism to try to turn everything in life into objects and services that are sold for the purpose of generating profit; commercialization, where the value of everything, including such intangible things as happiness, health and beauty become measured in purely commercial, materialistic terms, and where public services are being privatized or outsourced to private companies. (Wikipedia)

Commercialism is a term that is touched on in several instances of the Olympic Charter. We must first refer to IOC’s mission and role where they explicitly oppose the political and commercial abuse of sport and athletes. At the same time we can see that in other instances the Olympic Charter contradicts its initial position when it mentions that they have the exclusive rights to valuable profit resources. Accordingly to the contradiction mentioned above, Garry Whannel from the Roehampton Institute stated his view in this matter by saying “It is no surprise that the concept of amateurism has been rendered redundant, irrelevant and laughable. It has become untenable to allow agencies, corporations and networks to profit, whilst at the heart of the spectacle, sportsmen and women are supposed to remain hermetically sealed away from commercial reward.” (Whannel)

We must understand that there is not only a contradiction between what the IOC states in the Olympic Charter regarding their actions and limitation but also those of the athletes who are to abide to certain guidelines that limit them from profiting from their sporting activities. If according to the IOC, they are not searching economical profit, why is it that this event moves so much money?

With the intention to further comprehend this matter and for the purpose of this analysis we will first shift our focus to broadcasting rights of the Olympic Games. In the verge of a technological boom in television broadcasting of sporting events in the 1950s and 1960s, the IOC modified their stance in regards commercialism as we can appreciate in the statements made by Avery Brundage, president of the IOC. “I am not sure that we should ever get into business, but on the other hand we should not give millions of dollars away.” (Barney) This statement was made

Automexs Goals And Usautos Goal melbourne essay help

Problem Solution Template

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Problem Solution: GeneOne

Your Name Goes Here

University of Phoenix

Problem Solution: GeneOne

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing your introduction.]

Situation Analysis

Issue and Opportunity Identification

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]

Stakeholder Perspectives/Ethical Dilemmas

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]

Problem Statement

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]

End-State Vision

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]

Alternative Solutions

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]

Analysis of Alternative Solutions

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]

Risk Assessment and Mitigation Techniques

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Optimal Solution

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Implementation Plan

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Evaluation of Results

[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]


[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to begin typing.]


[Triple click anywhere in this sentence to enter your first reference.]

Table 1

Issue and Opportunity Identification



Reference to Specific Course Concept (Include citation)


USAutos negotiating team did not carefully identify AutoMexs goals. USAutos goal was to reduce costs through utilizing AutoMex labor. AutoMex, by contrast, viewed USAuto as a source for developing

Department Head And Riordan Manufacturing persuasive essay help: persuasive essay help

Problem Solution Riordan

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Problem Solution: Riordan Manufacturing

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Problem Solution: Riordan Manufacturing

In order for any company to gain competitive advantage over other companies in the same industry, it is important that the management team understands the importance of improving business results through people. Employees are the maker or breaker of any company. Without increased motivation and morale of the employees in a company, the company risks losing valuable employees and will be at a disadvantage in attracting potential top talents. As the economy continues to change and competition continues to increase, businesses have to continuously find ways to satisfy their employees in order to retain the best ones.

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the situation at Riordan. The company has made several strategic changes in the way it manufactures and markets its products and has chosen to adopt a customer-relationship management (CRM) system. Unfortunately, as changes have been implemented, employee retention numbers have declined and there has been an overall decrease in job satisfaction, particularly in the areas of compensation and benefits. This paper will present a problem statement that would outline Riordans challenges and identify opportunities that might result from facing their challenges. This paper will also identify future end-state goals for the company. I began research by reading the entire scenario on Riordan from the companys intranet and was able to understand the companys background.

Situation Analysis

**Write a brief analysis of the scenario here. You should be able to do this yourself by reading the scenario. Just write an overview of whats going on. Then the issues and opportunities Id list for you will follow

Issue Identification

Each department head is focused only on the employees within their department and refuses to look at the companys state as a whole.

Riordan is in the middle of a sales plump and might not be able to incur the costs of expenses required to make changes or increase incentives and rewards

The company and the department heads do not understand the need for effective HR system for the success of the company

The management team at Riordan does not understand the basic concepts of ability, motivation and opportunity. The theory related to ability, motivation and opportunity “is valuable for general managers because it provides basic tools for diagnosing practical HRM problems and also for generating and evaluating concrete solutions” (Dreher & Dougherty, 2001).

There is concern that some of the company employees are being underpaid. This might lead to continuous increasing turnover. Turnover is already high.

The current reward system is not based on performance, but on cost of living increases, seniority and position. This system does not support the new sales team philosophy. Levels of rewards distributed to employees are not perceived as fair and just. The system does not take into consideration the concept of equity theory. “Equity theory, similar to expectancy theory, considers employee perceptions (versus objective reality) to be critical to ones motivation for achieving fairness” (Dreher & Dougherty, 2001).

R&D wants their contributions to the sales process be recognized and acknowledged. They also want incentives that reward continuous focus.

Sales are continuing to decline and the switch to customer-focused teams is proceeding slowly.

Company president and CEO are unrealistic about employee feelings. He does not understand the need for employee motivation and feels like there is no basis for their complaints.

No financial or resourceful investment in reward systems.

Opportunity Identification

Riordan has the opportunity to invest in individual and group incentives for its employees. This will contribute to the benefits of those employees that feel like they are being underpaid and will deter them from leaving the company.

Since each department head is aware of the specific problems within their department, they can use this knowledge objectively, to come together as a team and find a solution or solutions that will benefit the entire company and all employees as a whole.

The financial challenges the company is facing can make them begin to prioritize the issues and set up a budget that will help them meet their goals.

By hiring and keeping the outside consultant, Riordan will be able to have an objective view and lead as they begin to work on company and employee issues.

There is a huge potential for learning and growth for the companys management team. Instead of focusing on the individual problems within their department, they will be able to learn the importance of strategic HR systems and its advantages to the company.

The company and management team now has an opportunity to align the companys reward and compensation systems with the business strategy. Since Riordan recently made strategic changes in its marketing processes, it should be easier for them to translate their compensation system into something congruent with that strategy. According to the model set forth by Dreher & Dougherty, “the firms business strategy, along with its technology, determines the organizations design and work processes” (Dreher & Dougherty, 2001). These work processes call for a particular set of behavioral/role requirements for employees. “Managers must design HR systems that promote these behaviors, while also taking into account contextual factors affecting the firm, especially labor markets and the legal environment” (Dreher & Dougherty, 2001).

By implementing and capitalizing on an HR system, Riordan will be able to know and understand the effects of the pay model. They would understand how the different perspectives on compensation, how their employees view compensation, and how it will affect their work and behavior. “How people view compensation affects how

Ronald David Cole And Colorado First Light Infantry essay help free

Colorado First Light Infantry

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Colorado First Light Infantry

The Colorado First Light Infantry was an anti-militia group in the U.S. that only consisted of three members. Although this homegrown terrorist group was small and short-lived, it served as a precursor to another larger organization that would be formed. The Colorado First Light Infantry was founded by Ronald David Cole after the events of the Waco siege in Texas in 1993. Cole was at the time a member of the Branch Davidians and ended up writing a pro-Branch Davidians book Sinister Twilight, where he declared that his task was to complete the mission David Koresh failed to fulfill. In 1994, he met with the notorious domestic terrorist Timothy McVeigh prior to the Oklahoma City bombing (Brennan 1995). In 1997 at McVeighs trial, Cole handed out leaflets demanding fair treatment for McVeigh, as well as news releases for the North American Liberation Army, which he had also founded. He also spoke to the media about alleged harassment of paramilitary group members by law enforcement.

Also in 1994, Cole was involved in a violent incident at the site of the destroyed Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas. A standoff occurred between self-proclaimed leaders of the remnants of the sect over who had control of the property. Cole and a former Davidian Wally Kennett were accompanying Andrew Hood, a man who some Davidians had sought out for leadership. Their party became embroiled in an argument with Amo Bishop Roden, the wife of former Davidian leader George Roden; she then fired a warning shot into the air. Roden was charged with felony deadly conduct, and Kennett and Cole were charged with weapons violations (Verhovek 1994).

On May 2, 1997, Kevin Terry, Ronald David Cole, and Wallace Stanley Kennett–members of the Colorado First Light Infantry militia–were arrested by federal agents and local officers in response to criminal warrant alleging they possessed a pipe bomb in their rental house in Aurora, Colorado. A subsequent search of their shared residence revealed mortars, pipe bombs, ammunition, automatic weapons, grenades, and various explosive devices, as well as general plans for the disruption of the federal government through bombings and other violent acts. The actual weapons were a 9mm Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun, a .308 caliber Heckler & Koch Model 91, a .223-caliber Olympic Arms PCF CAR-15-type assault rifle and a 9mm Action Arms Uzi machine pistol (Outpost of Freedom 1997). In response Cole said “Theyre trying to make me look like a terrorist because I criticize them publicly.” Ronald Cole, the groups self declared commander, entered into a plea agreement and on March 26, 1998, was sentenced to 27 months in federal prison on four counts of illegal machine gun possession. Several days earlier, Kevin Terry had also accepted a plea bargain and was sentenced to one year and one day in prison on a single machine gun violation. Terry was released two days later, after being given credit for time served in custody and good behavior. He was also ordered to serve three years supervised release. On February 10, Wallace Stanley Kennett pled guilty to a single count of illegal possession of a machine gun. In exchange for the guilty plea, prosecutors dropped eight other counts in the indictment against Kennett. On May 1, Kennett was sentenced to serve 18 months in federal prison. U.S. District Judge Daniel Sparr, who presided over the three trials, also ordered Kennett to serve three years supervised release and perform 100 hours of community service once freed. The three men were believed to be the only members of the Colorado First Light Infantry.

There is not a lot of available information on this paramilitary group, but it seems likely it was formed as a sort of response to the actions taken against Timothy McVeigh. All three men trained themselves on weapon use and explosives. The warrant that led to their arrest was actually obtained greatly in part to the testimony of an ex-Marine Daniel McNasby. McNasby had casually been invited to go shooting with the three when

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