War and Poverty in Somalia
Somalia is one of the least developed countries in the world. The reason for the slow development has attribution to the lifestyle that people in this region practice. Somalia has a high number of people from different ethnic communities and most of the times; these people do not agree on various facts. The consequence of these disagreements has the people fighting often and most of the times the fights escalate to wars. With these wars, the country or rather the citizens fail to focus on the essential elements of life such as development. Without development, the most common result is people facing high levels of poverty. Going through the various ways in which war and poverty influence each other in Somalia is imperative because it assists in gaining a further understanding of the condition in Somalia and possibility gain an idea of the way to solve the issue.
How war has influenced Poverty in Somalia
Over the last twenty years, the state of the Somali conflict has continued changing concerning the manner in which it has manifested, and the characters involved. The war started as a civil war and turned to become a state war, followed by regional or rather tribal warfare and in the contemporary environment takes up the aspect of warlords (Linhout 32). The aspect of warlords started in the year 1992 and has continued to rock this country ever since. The history of the war dates towards the end of 1970s where the Somali Democratic Republic that was the ruling socialist government started arresting government officials. Many people were killed after the arrest, and the consequence of this was people escaping areas where the Somali Democratic Republic had many soldiers. After escaping, these people decided to retaliate by forming the Somali Salvation Democratic Front that was to fight the ruling group. It was around this time of political tussles that poverty began rocking Somalia because the government did not put the needs of the people as a priority but rather sought power.
In the year 1986, the leader of the Somali Democratic Republic, Major Barre was involved in a serious accident around Mogadishu. From this accident, the major got many injuries that landed him in the hospital for a very long time (Moorehead 63). During the time he was in the hospital, his vice-president took office. However, the president announced he would still run for a re-election despite his condition at the time. Many people, both in his government and in the opposition were against stating that his health was in jeopardy and that he was not in a condition to make appropriate decisions after the accident.
Because of the Major opposition that the Major had, he decided to make his rule dictatorial to a point that he did not want any advice from people and expected them to follow his regulations without questions. Moreover, he instructed that members of the opposition not receive any government food despite the fact that Somalia is an arid country that majorly depends on government relief food (Kapteijns 77). The consequent of this was having people in the opposition suffering in poverty.
The state of issues in the country has since then escalated as compared to when the war began. Different types of battles have taken place, and the war has even taken place in other countries nearby such as Kenya. Due to this, the state of poverty and desperation has increased, and people have found it difficult to survive in the country. In 2010, a new government was incorporated into the office and it was responsible for numerous changes in the country. Initially, the state of soldiers in the country was forsaken, and they had to seek their sources of livelihood despite their commitment to the main government and ensuring that the rebels were defeated. However, with the new government, the state of affairs changed and the soldiers started getting a salary from the government (Geiss 95). The consequent of this was quite positive and this is because the levels of poverty in the country and especially among the soldiers decreased immensely.
Availability of weapons to initiate a war influenced poverty greatly. The fact that weapons were accessible by the two conflicting sides is a factor that majorly motivated them to have increased warfare. Weapons made these people feel powerful and for the sides that did not have power, they felt rather weaker and were often submissive to the other side. However, for the people that had access to weapons and mass power, they had the ability to control the other group and consequently harassed them excessively. These people took away the food of these people to oppress them further, and the effect of this was having the weaker side suffering from poverty. One of the major points to note regarding this is the fact that the dominant team incorporated the scorched earth policy (Basteman 163). They used these weapons to burn down houses and farming grounds that the opposing sides initially used as their source of livelihood. Without the farming lands, these people became sick out of poverty, and largely many of them died.
The fact that there was a large number of unemployed youth led to them joining rebel armies. The result of this was exposing young people to weapons and wars rather than having them in education institutions. Had these young people completed their education they would have managed to assist their families that had previously suffered by gaining appropriate employment (Geiss 16). It is thus appropriate to state that one of the effects of this recruitment was the increase in poverty otherwise been avoided.
How Poverty influenced war
The laws imposed on members of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front were even stricter as compared to others. This is because he felt that these people were responsible for the plot to overthrow him and had even influenced the members of his government that had the same ideology. Because of the strict rules, the opposition also decided to become more rebellious to this government and the tension between these two sides was the cause of the major wars that took place in Somalia (Zolberg 45). Some of the battles that took place in the country were because people sought to receive food assistance. People raided each other’s homes in an effort to find food and eradicate the poverty calamity that they were facing. Moreover, the wars and political tension in the country led to fear among people. Most of them remained indoors and did not go out seeking for employment or work, and consequently the state of poverty in the country heightened.
With the reduction in poverty levels in the country and the payments made to the army forces of the government, the soldiers were motivated to work more efficiently. They did this is by dispersing and diverging to multiple areas in the country. The first significant achievement made by the government forces was managing to chase Al-Shabaab forces from Mogadishu in 2011. In the same year, a rift in the rebel forces came up where some of the principal officials were murdered. The members of the Al-Shabaab group separated and started hunting each other while still aiming to overcome the local government.
The splitting of the rebels made the situation worse where there were many bombings in different areas since at this time the number of armies involved in the war was more than two. The destructions were devastating, many people perished, and livelihoods destroyed (Kapteijns 73). The state of poverty in the country had just started decreasing because people had gained confidence in the government and started opening shops and stalls to sell commodities and educate children to ensure they never suffered from poverty again. However, with the increased bombings, the shops and stalls were destroyed, and people were sent to a state of panic again.
The fact that poverty increased in the country due to the shutting down of shops led people back to the state of war. The following years, 2012, 2013 and 2014 saw the United Nations sending troops to the country to try calming the situation. However, these soldiers did not receive welcoming from the locals, and this rather led to increased attacks on these troops. Neighboring countries such as Kenya tries to assist by sending some of its soldiers to the country, and this further aggravated the Al-Shabaab group (Muscati 36). The group threatened Kenya by telling its government to recall its forces but the Kenya government was resilient and decided to remain in the country to date. The consequence of this has been a series of attacks by the Al-Shabaab group of innocent Kenyans. Due to the state of poverty in Somalia because of the prevailing war, the United Nations sends relief food to the country through military vehicles. The food saves many people and despite this, many more still perish. Countries such as Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya have opened their borders. They have set up refugee camps for Somalis that manage to flee the country and in these camps; they receive foods and drinks to deal with their poverty.
Another way through which poverty influenced the war was politicized clan identity. It came because of poverty where one clan was economically better and the rival groups felt challenged, as their political leaders did not offer them enough support to get them from this state. During that era, the number of political organizations was few and thus the ruling entities had a sense of pride. However, like any community even in the contemporary environment, an inevitable concept is that of change. Changes happened such that people became tired of the rule of one entity and the fact that this entity did not bring much development to them made them feel angry. A group of people came together and formed a radical group that sought to see a difference in the manner the country was run (Gabrewold-Tochalo 25). The effect that this had was on people, and this is because the ruling government retaliated, as they did not want to lose power or appear weak.
Another cause of the war, though not significant enough is the presence of pirates in Somalia. Somalia is one of the countries with the highest number of pirates in the world. These pirates captured international tourists and ships and extorted them of their money and their rifles. This money was used in the purchase of more rifles and to supplement the rebels. The purchase of guns for the war is one effect brought by piracy.
Another manner through which poverty influenced war in Somalia is through the rebel forces that forced young children to betray their families by offering them unrealistic deals. These children are brainwashed to a point that they are made to believe that their families are not important and that they ought to abandon them and seek better lives. The families left behind are devastated and rather than concentrating on the best manners to save their families from financial problems, women and fathers engage in the war hoping to get their children back. The state of poverty is so bad in the area that they are determined to ensure that once these children are recovered, they become productive society members. Poverty in the country has made many families abandon their livelihoods in search of their lost children for they hope that these children do not turn out as rebels that have made their lives devastating. The parents or rather adults engage in wars due to the high rate of poverty in their environment.
View Point and Conclusion
My personal view on the matter is that Somalia ought to have elections as recent suggestions made. Through these suggestions, the members ought to ensure that they are fair and free and that the citizens get live coverage of the voting process so that different parties may not state that one side was unfair. With the elections, there is the hope that the state of war and poverty in the country will decrease significantly. It is devastating to have people fighting in the manner they do in the country. Other countries have their priorities set high such that they ensure that they maintain peace and the consequent of a peaceful country are national development. With this development, poverty decreases and the people of the country have the ability to live quality lives. Somalia is a country that has hopes for improvement if only the major conflicting sides decide to take the advice of other countries seriously and consequently lead to the end of the war. Other countries will appreciate and invest in the country from this.
Gebrewold-Tochalo, Belachew. Anatomy of Violence: Understanding the Systems of Conflict and Violence in Africa. Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2009. Print.
Kapteijns, Lidwien. Mediations of Violence in Africa: Fashioning New Futures from Contested Pasts. Leiden: Brill, 2010. Print.
Besteman, Catherine L. Unraveling Somalia: Race, Violence, and the Legacy of Slavery. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Print.
Geiss, Robin. Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea: The Legal Framework for Counter-Piracy Operations in Somalia and the Gulf of Aden. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Muscati, Samer.”here, Rape Is Normal”: A Five-Point Plan to Curtail Sexual Violence in Somalia. New York, NY: Human Rights Watch, 2014. Internet resource.
Moorehead, Caroline. Betrayal: A Report on Violence Toward Children in Today’s World. New York: Doubleday, 1990. Print.
Zolberg, Aristide R. Escape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Print.
Kapteijns, Lidwien. Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. Print.
Lindhout, Amanda, and Sara Corbett. A House in the Sky: A Memoir. , 2013. Print.
RACE AND AMERICAN PRESIDENCY
RACE AND AMERICAN PRESIDENCY
The election of Obama as the 44th president of the United States of America has exposed Americans to a different type and kind of leadership never imagined in the history of the most powerful nation on earth. Two decades ago, America would never have thought of an African America with clear roots from Africa. However, all that happened with the election of the skinny Illinois’ Senator. America simply walked over the once sensitive topic of racism. However, it was not the end of racism. Critics have described the Obama presidency as the most racist with many aspects of racism attributed to the president himself. Although all that will be water under the bridge with the end of his, second term. It has gone into the books of history of America, and it shall remain so, that the most powerful nation on earth believed in a black person to occupy the White House. It shall remain to be seen if the American people will once again elect an African American to be the president.
It is no doubt that the Obama election and presidency has set a precedent for future elections and have given the minority races confidence in national issues. Obama has been able to reach out to the minority and assure them of their stake in the nation and more so, in the government. Unlike the previous years when the minority races faced a lot of discrimination and mistreatment in public affairs with little representation in both houses, the Obama administration has set a good example in which minority groups such as the Latino’s are well represented in the government and have a say on the administration of the country. Despite the vicissitudes that have been experienced during and in the Obama Presidency, the president has given the majority whites, reasons to believe in the minority groups too. Previously it was unimaginable to think of any minority race gunning for the presidency. However, that mentality has been changed and it remains to be seen if America will give an African America or a minority race a chance to run for the presidency.
America showed great political maturity in giving Obama two chances at the helm of the most powerful nation on earth. It remains to be seen if a minority race or different gender will be elected to the White House. With the election of Obama and the resounding high opinion polls he registered, it shows that America has matured beyond petty boardroom politics. It is democracy in practice and it is a nation setting exemplary leadership choices amongst its very elite group irrespective of the race, gender, background, or color. In reflecting on Martin Luther King’s “I have a dream”, it has come to pass that King’s dream has been realized and the powerful nation is yet to stand tall and be proud of its heritage, roots and patriotism. The election of Obama simply set the ball rolling and the future looks bright for America and the Americans.
In conclusion, America is a nation to reckon with, not only as a super power, but also as a nation that continues to shape the events of the world. It will not come as a surprise when Americans go to the polls and elect the first woman president. They have shown they believe in their own despite color, race, gender, nor background. It will not be a surprise if they elect physically challenged Native Hawaiians to occupy the White House, nor will it come as a surprise if they elect a thirty six year old Asian American to the helm of the nation’s executive job. They have shown that they can and surely, they will.
Ansolabehere, Stephen, Nathaniel Persily, and Charles Stewart III. “Regional differences in racial polarization in the 2012 presidential election: Implications for the constitutionality of section 5 of the voting rights act.” Harv. L. Rev. F. 126 (2012): 205.
Ledwidge, Mark, Kevern Verney, and Inderjeet Parmar, eds. Barack Obama and the Myth of a Post-racial America. Routledge, 2013.
Complications experienced by managers in granting employees freedom while ensuring that the employees remain productive online essay helpCase Study Analysis: Location, Location, Location
Case Study Analysis: Location, Location, Location
The case study highlights the complications experienced by managers in granting employees freedom while ensuring that the employees remain productive. The case study focuses on April, who is an employee working in a company’s extension office. April works in a poor environment where she constantly handles hazardous chemicals, some of which are carcinogenic. Her office lacks good ventilation, and this exposes her to dangerous respiratory diseases. To protect herself, April wears heavy protective clothing even in summer when the temperatures are high. However, April works in poor conditions and her annual earnings are low. Her low earnings force April to supplement her salary by running a private business. However, April conducts her business in real estate within the company’s premises and uses the company’s equipment including the faxing machine and computers. April’s activities within the company have created a dilemma for the company’s management, and this has created the need for intervention measures. The management appreciates April as a committed employee who accepts to work in hazardous environments despite the low remunerations. However, using the company’s facilities to supplement her income creates a bad precedent to her coworkers earning similar salaries. The fact that April conducts her business during office hours also implies that her output is lowered, and this affects the company’s productivity.
a. Facts and Assumptions: Several important facts and assumptions arise from this case study.
1. The first major fact is that April is conducting her real business within the company’s premises and using the company’s equipment although this is against the company’s norm. Van Gramberg (2005) suggests that such an action constitutes a conflict of interest because it does not benefit the company. The assumption is that the low remuneration and poor working conditions have forced April to conduct her private businesses to supplement her earnings.
2. The second fact is that April’s working environment exposes her to serious health problems due to the hazardous chemicals she handles and the poor ventilation of her office. The assumption is that April’s job is unique, and the company cannot relocate her to another building or room due to various reasons such as financial constraints or the toxicity of the chemicals she handles.
3. The third fact is that the company’s management is aware of April’s activities within the company’s premises but has not taken any actions. The assumption is that April’s job is dangerous, and the company may have trouble in replacing her. Another assumption is that the company’s management sympathizes with April because her annual salary is low although she works in a dangerous environment without complaining. The third assumption is that the company is committed to allowing maintaining the informal atmosphere in its extension office where employees are at liberty to do as they please.
Overriding Issues: The major overriding issue is whether the management should allow April to continue conducting her private businesses within the company’s premises and using the company’s equipment or should the company end the private businesses. Another overriding issue is whether April should use her poor working conditions as an excuse to conduct private businesses during office hours and if the management should allow this to continue. According to Brenkert & Beauchamp (2010), exposing employees to unacceptable occupational risks is unethical and unacceptable. The third overriding problem is the issue allowing some employees to engage in activities that are against the company’s norms while prohibiting others. The management should ensure that all its employees feel treated equally and fairly. Although April’s job involves handling toxic chemicals and working in a challenging environment, this does not imply that another employee could not handle similar responsibilities.
b. Related Issues: April’s activities within the company complicate the relationship between the management and the employees. The management understands April’s desire to increase her earnings, and it appreciates the fact that April works in hazardous conditions without complaining. The main challenge that arises from allowing April to continue operating her real estate business within the company’s premises is that it creates a bad precedent. This is because employees dissatisfied with their earnings will start their private businesses within the company’s premises. Allowing employees to run private businesses during office hours will reduce the overall productivity of the company. Finally, the issue of offering attractive remunerations and compensating employees who work in dangerous environments also arises from the case study.
c. Stakeholder Analysis: The principal stakeholders in the case study include the company’s management, April, and her colleagues. The management’s stake in the issue is that it risks reducing its profitability by allowing some of its employees to run parallel businesses within its premises. The management must ensure that all its employees engage activities that are relevant and productive. Consequently, the management must ensure that all its employees conform to the company’s regulations. The management must also ensure that it treats its employees equally to avoid discontent. April’s stake in the issue is that she needs to increase her annual income by supplementing her job with a private business. However, April must ensure that her activities do not result in conflict with the company’s management since her business makes her work during office hours and she also uses the company’s facilities to conduct her business. April’s colleagues have a stake in the issue because they also work in the extension office and earn similar salaries as April. This implies that the coworkers have legitimate reasons to start their businesses within the company to supplement their salaries as April does. Nevertheless, the coworkers must ensure that their actions are not perceived to be a form of riot against the company for offering low salaries.
d. CSR Analysis: The company has an economic responsibility to ensure that it remains profitable. Consequently, the company’s management must ensure that all its employees are productive during working hours. The company also has a legal and ethical responsibility for ensuring that its employees work in conducive environments and are treated equally. This implies that the company must take measures to address the poor working conditions in which employees such as April work in.
e. Evaluations: The hesitation by the company’s management to stop April from continuing her private business within the company’s premise was a poor decision. This is because the decision could influence other employees to engage in activities that are not productive to the company. Weiss (2014) suggests that a conflict of interest arises when an employee’s activities are not aligned with the company’s goals. Consequently, the management should have been decisive and stop April from using the company’s facilities during office hours for private businesses. The company should have considered demoting or sacking April. Such a decision would discourage other employees from developing similar interests as April.
1. The company’s management should stop April from continuing her private business within the company’s premises to demonstrate that April’s activities are unacceptable.
2. The company’s management should punish April by demoting or sacking her to deter other employees from starting their private businesses within the company’s premises.
3. The company should develop and implement rules that stipulate the acceptable behaviors in its extension office. This will ensure that all the employees engage in activities that are productive to the company.
4. The company should ensure that all its employees should respect the company’s regulations and punish any employee who does break the company’s rules regardless of their status.
5. The company should improve the working conditions for all its employees and improve their remunerations. This would discourage employees from developing interests in private businesses.
6. The company should treat all employees equally and fairly. This will help in avoiding discontent among the employees.
1. What are the ethical issues in this case?
One of the ethical issues is that the company does not provide a safe working environment for its employees. The company’s management intentionally allows April to work in a dangerous environment and does not try to improve the situation. Exposing employees to such hazardous conditions constitutes a violation of the employees’ basic rights and the practice should be avoided (Weber, 2006). Another ethical issue is that the company offers low salaries to its employees although they work in hazardous conditions. The last ethical issue is using a company’s facilities to conduct private businesses. This shows that April does not respect the company and her actions may influence other employees to start private businesses within the company.
2. What would you advise the management to do about this situation?
The company should consider adopting moral management concepts when dealing with all its employees. As Carroll & Buchholtz (2014) point out, moral management concepts focus on maintaining high standards of management and they include respect for human rights, justice, and fairness. The management should develop and implement regulations deterring its employees from engaging in activities that are not productive to the company. The management should stop April from running her real estate business from the company’s premises to prevent setting bad precedents for other employees earning similar amounts. The management should monitor the activities of its employees closely and improve the working conditions of its employees. The management should consider offering better remunerations to discourage April and other employees from conducting her private businesses within its premises.
3. Does April’s extremely difficult working condition factor in your decision?
April’s extremely difficult working condition factor in my decision and her desire to increase her earning is commendable. However, her actions may cause her coworkers to engage in similar activities and this would affect the productivity of the company.
4. How should management respond to the coworkers?
The management should discourage the coworkers from engaging in similar activities by improving the working conditions and increasing the remuneration that the company offers to the employees. Phillips & Connell (2003) argue that treating employees humanely is crucial in building organizational trust and this enhances productivity of the business.
Brenkert, G. G., & Beauchamp, T. L. (2010). The Oxford handbook of business ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carroll, A. & Buchholtz, A. (2014). Business and society: Ethics, sustainability, and stakeholder management. Cengage Learning. Print.
Phillips, J. J., & Connell, A. O. (2003). Managing employee retention: a strategic accountability approach. Routledge.
Van, G. B. (2005). Managing workplace conflict: Alternative dispute resolution in Australia. Annandale, N.S. W: Federation Press.
Weber, L. J. (2006). Profits before people? Ethical standards and the marketing of prescription drugs. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Weiss, J. W. (2014). Business Ethics 6th edition. Berrett-Koehler.
Integration of Different Cultures in American Music a level english language essay helpName:
Integration of Different Cultures in American Music
American music represents one of the most inspiring genres in the history of melody. This musical journey takes into effect the integration of historical sources through writing, art, culture and songs. A lot of artistic revolutions exist with a high emphasis on the shift from the 20th to the 21st-century musical analysis. United States musical composition represents a majestic tempo in the way that various features assemble in bringing about the art of chorusing, hymn-like melody, and lyrics. A concoction of Afro-Caribbean musicians, Haiti performances, Mexican rocks, and the Puerto Rican reggae music brings about the multicultural anthem expressed holistically (Garrett, 1-3).
Religious Views on Rap Music
Opportunities created through music include professional artistry, musical scholarship, and others. It is through this genre that intellectual habits remains active, and this is one of the biggest achievements in the human kingdom. Religious views of rap music depict a kind of struggle between secular and sacred music. This conflict brings about issues as to whether rap music has anything that is of religious significance. Of great importance is to note that rap music would be the link between interdisciplinary elements and the advantage of high expectations, opportunities and practical experiences created in the academic front. The problem arises in situations where American rap music shows a bit of disrespect through immorality, harsh tones, and bad habits of drugs and alcohol in extreme cases. American music would thus act as a political image and play other crucial responsibilities (Pinn, 1-7).
21st Century Musical Development
The musical development provides an inexorable link to the events calendar and chronological time in association to the 21th century. During the first half of this period, dramatic changes witnessed included the birth of musical styles in high magnitude. These changes enabled the possibility for acceptance of able composers in the name of modern music. Critical approval of other works of music experienced at that time resulted from concerts performance. The audience has gained a clear, familiar ground for its support (Lee, 1-5). Orchestral performances in respect with American music gained acceptance towards the end of the 20th century.
Orchestral music continues to remain in the mainstream industry, and this boosts from increased recognition of their focus and ability to capture the attention of listeners. Its influential knowledge rests with the artistic achievement of this tune. On the part of the informed discussion, originality and fertility of the 19th-century composers does not continue to benefit along the way. Causes mainly due to lack of a prominent market as witnessed in the concert performance of the 21st century. The approach to the study of American music may take form and manner of musical differences. These differences give an expression of contribution to cultural contemporary debates rather than focusing on explicit political content. Ongoing struggles suggest a national identity in analyzing cultural and historical attributes of rap songs.
Similarly, musicological elements call for finer exploration towards this struggle. An American rap music detection happens through the examination of discursive traditions. Perspective on American music system gives an outlook of understandable matters of conventional history, traditional criteria, and musical diversity elements. Promotion of analytical stance would thus produce a conceptual challenge faced by music today. The Cultural debate on American music gives an insight into the relation between musicological traditions. Academic interests show an increased path of research in musical compositions thus signifying a scholarly field. Essential to this examination is the principle that music history continues to be problematic in matters of variety and form of melody. Understanding music from this perspective gives an obligation in areas of immigration laws. Other issues include problems associated with overseas ventures, immigration policies and bordering or population fluctuates. Matters related to population are in reference to fluctuations arising out of movements across the border to and from other regions.
21st Century American Rap Musicology
Computational creativity is taking center stage in the discipline of study. Musical instruments in place create a room for original and renovated unit. Modernity prevails in the 21st-century music where modern elements focus on authenticity and genuine culture in display from a technological and global perspective. Moreover, musical concepts extend to the limited inclusion of African taste. It is recognized the future American music profits will realize a global uproar because of limited comparison with other states and shared border methodology.
The integrative approach has taken its stand in the realization of permeable cultural grounds that do represent border provocation. Relative measures of employing Euro-American perspective are no longer the norm today. One can conclude that there is a deviation from the usual traditions of relative distance and inclusivity, and this extends to the cultural treaty and politics in the American context. In addition, high prepositions to this distance traced its root since the reduction of high-end colonialism in the post-cold war history (Garrett, 689-719).
Hip-hop study gives a good reference point where western music portrays a transformed symbol of cultures. In line with this is the classical jazz and rock music. The main picture here is rhythmic cadence, sonic tropes and American style towards the realization of the American stand and cultural influence. Ethnomusicology of music and media in the American context paints another wagging picture where electronic media, musicologies, and organizational studies leads to a standard basis. This study points to a direction where all these involved elements bring in a music creation and consumption of the same cultural attribute (Garrett, 689-719).
Striking phenomenon points are contrasting results from the 20th and 21st-century musical perspective. Public intellectuals of the 20th century struggled in giving an artistic reflection. Today, such problems are dealt with through freedom in musical production. Relevant content lies on the premise of musical marginalization or devaluation in the public domain where assumptions of new music add little value to the current critical issues of the society. Influential reflection on noise takes center stage in today’s music and the popular niche (John, 1540-1540).
Any version of book concerning music of the 20th century gives analytical perspectives of traditions and recognition to music that portrays an exciting picture. The picture portrayed is that of a transformed political and cultural history not underestimating social landscapes. 21st rap music thus continues hitting radio waves, and the social atmosphere felt in the process.
Any musical undertone that is a waste of time or energy is ill-intentioned. Unless such music gives noise and nothing more, music would then be a methodology for slavery due to the strange, unfathomable message in the play. Such noise would be entirely irrelevant, and no good reason arises from that dimension. Various concerns exist on issues dealing with the way musical transformation becomes an issue of global competition. Economic interdependence also pegs it way and success through concepts of multidimensional mobility brought about by music. Creation of a common ground in American context for music must exist as a globalization need in sharpening the regional and local cultures. A need analysis reveals a new shape that is taking center stage in American music. The situation arises out of the interests of racial modeling that go beyond black and white inhabitants, which sharpens pedagogical priorities of music syllabus. Changing times bring about various multi-cultural dimensions that cannot underscore efforts made through a multi-lingual rubric. Interdisciplinary teachings for this reason would be necessary to create an integral regulation in musical studies. Through discipline, political and intellectual fields would be fueled to develop an understanding towards each other and live a harmonious life without prejudices.
Garrett, Charles Hiroshi et al. “Studying US Music in the Twenty-First Century.” (2011): 689- 719.
Garrett, Charles H. Struggling to Define a Nation: American Music and the Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008. Print.
Lawrence, John. “The Rest Is Noise: Listening to the Twentieth Century.” American Journal of Psychiatry 167.12 (2010): 1540-1540.
Lee, D. Masterworks of 20th-Century Music: The Modern Repertory of the Symphony Orchestra Routledge, 2013
Pinn, Anthony B. Noise and Spirit: The Religious and Spiritual Sensibilities of Rap Music. New York NY: New York University Press, 2003. Print.
A letter argumentative essay helpName:
It is with utmost interest to share confounding information about the writings of Mary Louise Pratt hence the reason for the composition of the letter. Having read the scholar’s works, I intend to share information obtained from the reading that could prove insightful in the analysis of culture. In using the scholar’s line of thought, one could easily understand the history of America from an objective viewpoint. For that reason, I will define a collection of terms that give meaning to the original narrative on cultural issues. Even though, the readings rely on information obtained from Guaman Poma’s letter, the manner in which the composer narrates the past explores the unique aspects of culture that scholar overlook. Hence, the information is critical to understanding people’s culture as the case with the Spanish.
According to the “contact zone’ readings, the author approaches cultural studies from a diverse perspective with the aim of familiarizing audiences to historical developments that shaped America to its present status. His choice of terms emanates from his understanding of the relations of terms that expose a hidden meaning of the narrative. Therefore, in order to understand the cultural attributes of people in past objectively, it is worthwhile reading the works of Mary Louise since she inferred to Guaman Poma’s auto ethnographic text in exploring history.
The paper defines autoethnography, transculturation, denunciation, imaginary dialogue, vernacular expression, miscomprehension, incomprehension, absolute heterogeneity as the terms identified in the class readings.
Autoethnography connotes the conceptualization of the issues affecting people from the perspective of the masses. As employed in Arts of Contact Zone by Mary Louise Pratt, it cites Guaman’s work as the ideal example of writing where the composer accepts the role given to him by the society (Pratt 531). In the New Chronicle, for instance, Poma represents himself in line with the thinking of his audiences to ensure accomplishment of the goal of expression culture to audiences.
Transculturation is the incorporation of the different aspects of various cultures into one in writing. According to the reading, Arts of the Contact Zone, the writer employs the technique when describing the traditions of his people using the metropolitan culture (Pratt 533).
Denunciation is complete opposition to the ideas of an individual in the literary context. The writer uses the term in opposing the acts of the Spanish towards their subjects in the past decades. The intention is to criticize the leadership of the Spanish people in the Americas (Pratt 533).
Imaginary dialogue describes the nonverbal technique of conveyance of information in which the conversation amid two people influences the perception of one party (Bizzell 169). A case in point is the description of the items brought by Spanish to Americas as insignificant resources.
Vernacular expression entails using the dialect of the local people in conveying meaning to objects. The result is a variation as evident in a narration about people’s history (Pratt 33).
Miscomprehension describes a contrary understanding of the intended purpose in the conveyance of a message. In some cases, scholars use the term when describing lack of understanding. An illustration in the reading is the interpretation of the writing of Pietschmann by scholars in places like Paris.
Incomprehension has almost similar meaning to miscomprehension, but its usage applies more in the context where one does not grasp any idea in a conversation (George and John 554). As per the readings, it signifies the existence of a discord between the conveyor of a message and the recipient.
Absolute heterogeneity can also mean uniformity or understanding that corroborates to the context of the writing. The term in the reading infers to coherency in the description of cultures in the literary context as Pietschmann did in 1912 (Pratt 535).
Bizzell, Patricia. “” Contact Zones” and English Studies.” College English (1994): 163-169.
George, Diana, and John Trimbur. Reading Culture: Contexts for Critical Reading and Writing. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print.
Pratt, Mary Louise. “Arts of the contact zone.” Mass culture and everyday life33 (1997): 61.
Pratt, Mary Louise. “Arts of the contact zone.” Profession (1991): 33-40.
Monologue college admission essay help
Steps to Planning Interpretation of the Monologue
Planning the steps to undertake to interpret the monologue requires first, knowledge of the speaker’s location or background. The second step is in understanding the speaker’s character. Looking and knowing the time of day or night is also important, as it will make it easier to determine the mood and tone of the monologue. The next step is to understand the character change of moods and expressions throughout the monologue, which is the tone. Understanding the speakers monologue in relation to the environment should form the next step in interpreting it. The transition the character makes from looking deep within to assessing the environment is the next step to determine his monologues attitude to both external factors and internal factors. Finally, looking at the relationship the character creates between the inner self and the outer environment helps in having a full interpretation of the monologue based on the characters perceptions. In addition, trying to work out, the audience of the speaker, that is who the speaker is addressing would help in coming up with the true picture of the monologue.
Selection of the Monologue
The complexity of the character in the monologue makes it an easy target to the curious audience. The monologue is captivating and riveting making it easy to pick, out of curiosity and anxiety. The character is held between the two worlds with great attachment to the love of fellow men and the confusion about what to do. The monologue is captivating and the great suspense created by the character of the next course of action, makes the monologue stand out. The few feature of regret in the speakers tone draws attention on the depth of the feelings depicted and brought out.
Strategies to analyzing the monologue
In using both logical and message strategies, the speaker’s character can be determined. The speaker uses rhetorical questions and open-ended statements to try to understand his current predicament. The message is that of wonder; why it was before and how it will be in time to come. The speaker’s attempt to find explanations for his predicament bears no fruit as he awaits the next journey that he intends is to set out to. The logic behind the wonder paints a picture of gloom and one who is yet to establish himself and consumed with guilt. Both strategies can give a clear picture of the characters intentions, predicament, and tone. However, they may not offer the whole picture of the monologue, but it gives a slight glimpse of the composition of the speaker’s message. For instance “Of wonder and the wisdom of the world”, the speaker is in awe as to what makes up true wisdom and knowledge. Using language strategy can also open a window to understanding the character of the speaker, which can be of help to analyzing the monologue.
Interpretation of the Monologue
The speaker consummation by some deep thought that have a link to the past. An act, mistake, guilt, or some regret. In wonder and failure to comprehend the situation, the speaker brings his focus to one attention; deep within him. In concentrating deep within, the speaker is attempting to find solace, answers, and help to the dilemma that is before him. In the monologue, the speaker seems to be addressing both living men and spirits in the spiritual realm. The speaker is full of facts, teachings of life and profound knowledge of the way of man. It explains the speaker’s deep anxiety to act in the face of uncertainty and unpredictability. Coupled with past acts that could be haunting and disturbing, the speaker is in deep catch to find a long lasting solution
Business Studies college essay help onlineName
List and provide an example of three different tasks that a business manager faces in the workplace. Explain your answer.
A business manager is responsible for a realm of tasks in the workplace most of which are supervisory in nature. In larger business organizations, one will find layers of various management levels, each with specific tasks to accomplish. However, in a small business organization the manager is often tasked with many different types of duties that revolve around overseeing various aspects of the business. Generally, a manager’s tasks in a business involves planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The following section explains three of the tasks that are normally undertaken by a business manager.
The planning task of a business manager is sometimes referred to as a preparatory function of a business. It involves looking into the future prospects of a business and drawing out the course of actions to be followed in the future by the business entity. During planning, a business manager usually anticipates future events and conditions, and then finds out the course of actions that are needed to attain the objectives of an organization. When planning, a business manager takes into account the available and prospective resources (both human and material) of an organization to come up with a detailed program regarding the future course of action to be taken.
Organizing is a management task that accompanies planning. In organizing, a business manager blends and combines human, material and financial resources (important for achieving results) of an organization through a formal structure of authority. Through this function, the manager is able to define the role positions and the tasks related. He can also co-ordinate authority and responsibility in order to achieve the required results.
Controlling entails verifying whether an organization’s performance conforms to the objectives set or the plans adopted. In controlling, a manager ensures that organizational resources are utilized effectively and efficiently to achieve the planned goals. Therefore, the manager establishes performance standards, monitors actual performance and measures the deviation of actual performance from the established performance standards. The manager determines the causes of any deviation and the necessary corrective actions to bre taken to ensure actual performance reflects the established standard performance.
Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric, has a unique theory about business management. Describe three key aspects about Welch’s ideas, including the 70/20/10 principle.
Welch’s idea of business management argues that in its basic term, “management” brings up negative aspects such as controlling and suppressing employees and keeping them in the dark. Welch approach to management takes the form of leadership, where a vision is created and people are made passionate about their tasks. According to Welch, anyone can become a leader as long as he is able to contribute and formulate good ideas that can uplift and inspire other people rather than suppress or control them. The following is a description of three key aspects about Welch’s ideas.
The wrong approach to management
Welch argues that most managers are more involved in supervising and dictating orders to their subordinates rather than leading the employees. They isolate themselves from subordinate staff members and therefore end up failing to inspire them. They do not facilitate productivity but rather control, thereby complicating things rather than simplifying them. In Welch’s perspective, this approach to management is very wrong.
The ideal manager
According to Welch’s management concept, the ideal manager is the one who has a vision, boundless energy and the ability to inspire enthusiasm and excitement in other employees. Additionally, the ideal manager is one who possesses the ability to assign employees more responsibility and grant them the liberty to perform their assigned duties on their own initiative. Based on this concept, managers are encouraged to have the ability to create, develop and refine a vision and put it to work practically.
The 70/20/10 principle
This principle rests on the belief that leadership can be learnt, especially through practice. It is a leadership-learning model as implied by the name 70/20/10. It calls for 70% of leadership development to comprise of learning from the job, reinforced by an additional 20% coaching and mentoring and a final 10% training from class. These three components reinforce each other, summing up to a whole that is greater than the individual components. This model is based on the premise that human beings keep information most effectively when they acquire it by practical means. Learning is even more effective when the lessons of practical work are supported through informal discussions with people who have experience in similar work.
What is SWOT analysis? Explain how a business manager might employ this strategy in analyzing the operation of a firm.
SWOT analysis is a business management technique that is used to study an organization’s strengths and weaknesses in relation to the competitive environment. It is an anagram that is used to signify an organization’s strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In business management, the first step of SWOT analysis is establishing the primary strengths of an organization. These strengths can include a state-of-the-art information system, a strong sales team, a strong network of distribution and sufficient working capital. Strength is any advantage that a business has over its competitors. Nonetheless, managers should evaluate the strengths of a company’s major competitors as well in order to assess how the company can compete successfully in the market.
The same as with strengths, managers also need to look at the main weaknesses of their organizations, such as financial constraints because of heavy debt load and limited access to natural resources. Weakness and strengths are regarded as internal factors that are within the control of an organization. However, opportunities and threats are regarded as external factors that are beyond the control of a business. For example, a business’ opportunities can include new technologies, a potential merger or a new market. On the other hand, new government regulations or a new competitor entering the market can exemplify a business threat. The objective of SWOT analysis in business management is to minimize the impact of threats while taking the advantage of opportunities.
A business manager might employ SWOT analysis in developing an organization’s strategies or when analyzing the operations of a firm. When analyzing a firm’s operations, managers will normally compare a single internal variable, such as strength, with an external variable, such as an opportunity. For instance, an organization with a wide range of products (strength) may discover a new market for these products (opportunity). Managers will also compare an organization’s weaknesses against some threats. To exemplify this, consider a company which produces quality brands but which are highly priced (weakness). This company will find it difficult to sell these brands during a recession (threat). Therefore, SWOT analysis is an effective technique for analyzing the operations of a firm.
Explain three types of leadership. Which type of leadership style do you think is most effective in the workplace? What type of leadership do you think you possess? Explain your answer.
Leaders provide directions, implement plans and motivate staff members in an organization using various styles of leadership. Three of the styles that are used by leaders in the field of business are autocratic, democratic and free-reign leadership roles.
Autocratic leadership is a leadership style where a single leader typically has absolute control over a workplace. In this approach to leadership, leaders make their own decisions without consulting other employees. It is characterized as a domineering form of leadership where leaders make decisions and policies from afar. In consequence, this form of leadership does not go well with environments in which members wish to participate in the process of decision-making.
In democratic leadership, active participation, restrained criticism and solidarity are used to facilitate collective decision-making. Leaders who apply this type of leadership use democratic principles and processes, which include equal participation to provide direction and implement plans in an organization. Typically, democratic leadership is founded on inclusiveness, accountability and delegation of assignments or responsibilities.
In free-reign leadership, leaders are typically uninvolved with employees. Decision making process is left to employees and leaders have little or no authority over their subordinates. Leaders that use this style are not involved in policymaking as employees are left solve problems on their own and monitor themselves. However, this type of leadership can only be practiced in environments with highly trained employees who can direct themselves.
In this regard, in a typical workplace, free-reign leadership cannot be applied because employees are usually lack of self-direction. However, the best form of leadership that can be applied in a typical workplace is democratic leadership because it allows for flexibility and inclusiveness in decision-making processes. Personally, I think I possess the democratic style of leadership because I believe in equality, inclusiveness and active participation.
What is the role of human resource management within a business? Describe at least three functions that human resources management will perform within a business.
Human resource management structures a business and provides it with the ability to meet organizational needs through the management of a business’ employees-its most important resource. Human resource management aims to attract, develop and retain employees who can perform the tasks necessary to achieve the goals of a business. Objectively, HRM’s role within a business is to provide eligible staff members, maximize staff effectiveness and motivate employees through reward mechanisms. The following is a description of the functions that human resource management will provide within a business.
Compensation and Benefits
Human resource management sets up compensation structures and evaluates employee payment practices that are considered competitive. In most cases HRM evaluates compensation practices of a business based on what the competitors are paying their employees, the government regulations, the profitability of the company, employees productivity and the cost of living. Human resource management also provides employees of an organization with a range of benefits (additional compensations) from which they can choose from such as health benefits, retirement benefits and allowances in transport and housing. In this regard, human resource management is tasked with the responsibility of coming up with an effective and efficient payroll system.
Recruitment and Selection
The HR department in a business needs to identify the human resource needs of an organization and then engage in the process of attracting, evaluating and employing people to fill the posts that have been identified as essential within an organization. Election is done based on the evaluation of a suitable candidate for a particular post. In the process of recruitment, the HR department of a business can utilize either the internal processes of recruitment within a firm or the external processes of recruitment that are outsourced from other firms. Human resource managers must be creative enough to search for qualified people using various approaches such as online recruitment.
Orientation and Training
Human resources management functions to provide employees with the tools necessary for the achievement of business goals. This means that through human resource management, new employees can be given extensive orientation and training to help them changeover to a new set of organizational values dictated by the culture of a particular organization. In addition, HRM is tasked with the responsibility of providing leadership training and professional development to the newly hired and existing employees in an organization who are promoted to higher levels of the organizational structure.
What is employee compensation? Describe three different types of wages, salaries, or benefits that employees might receive in compensation for their labor in the workplace.
Employee compensation is the total reward that an employee receives from his/her employer in exchange for the services he/she provides to the employer in the workplace. An employee might receive various compensation packages from their employer. Compensation may take the form of wages, salaries or benefits. A wage is a form of compensation in which employees are paid based on the hours they have worked or the amount of output of their work. A salary is a form of compensation in which employees are paid monetary gains on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis. However, benefits are the supplementary compensations that an employee might receive from his employer such as health insurance, transportation allowance, house allowance and retirement benefits.
Wages or salaries can be categorized as either fair wages/salaries or living wages/salaries. A fair wage or salary is more than the minimum wage and it enables an employee to meet the bare necessities of life. Typically, the lower limit of a fair wage/salary is determined by the minimum wage as dictated by labor laws in a specific country. However, the upper limit of a fair wage/salary is determined by the capacity of the organization to pay. A living wage/salary enables an employee, as supplement to the necessities of life, to have certain amenities necessary for the well-being of the employee and is related to the level of economic development in a country. It ensures that an employee is living under the normal standards of living of an average human being in a civilized nation. Additionally, there exist various types of employee benefits such as social security and Medicare contributions. This type of benefits provides employees with compensation programs that ensure that they are insured against health and retirement.
What does the term empowerment mean in a business context? What role does empowerment play in the workplace? Can a workplace function effectively without empowerment? Explain your answer.
The term empowerment refers to the process by which employees are given authority and responsibility to make certain workplace decisions without the approval and control from management. It entails the sharing of information and the authority to make decision between management and employees. In addition, through empowerment, employees are able to have the knowledge of a company’s financial performance. In the workplace, empowerment functions to give employees a variety of privileges that are rarely awarded to employees. Such privileges may include the ability of an employee to own stock of the company or the right to buy a certain amount of a company’s stock within a particular period.
Through empowerment, a business is able to encourage its employees to develop entrepreneurial traits, take responsibility and give them the belief that they are masters of their own destinies. With this belief, employees gain self-motivation and a feeling of independence that trickles down to the greater effort for the business. A staff, which is empowered, acquires the belief that it has control over their own success and ultimately the organization’s success through their efforts and hard work. However, it would not be right to state that a workplace cannot function effectively without empowerment. As discussed in this context, empowerment merely involves allowing employees to take up more responsibility based on their capabilities. In this regard, a workplace with employees that are not capable of assuming responsibility cannot function effectively when they are empowered, and hence, management will have to take its responsibility in order to ensure effectiveness.
Although a company can function effectively without empowerment, businesses are encouraged to empower their employees through such means as allowing them to buy a certain amount of the company’s stock. This will enable firms to acquire potential profits as its value increases. In addition, through such schemes of empowerment, employees are motivated to work smart and hard since they are perceived to be the owners of the company.
According to chapter 9, communication is essential to the success of a business. Describe three different types of communication that can be found within a business. Provide an example of what the lack of communication can do to a business.
Communication, the meaningful exchange of information through messages, is very essential to the success of a business. Managers and employees must be able to communicate with each other in order to realize profits in a business. Within a business, communication can be classified under three broad categories that include formal communication, open communication and informal communication.
Under formal communication, an organization’s staff members communicate with each other officially within a chain of command. The interchange of information is controlled and is an intentional effort. In this regard, it is possible for the information to get to the desired place without any barriers, at minimal costs and in an appropriate manner. The communication passes through a specific channel while in transition from one person to another. For instance, to pass a message of complaint from an employee to a top manager, the immediate supervisor’s help must be sought. In addition, under this type of communication, a lot of formality is involved, as formal relations established by a business must prevail.
Open communication gives employees the freedom to express opinions and ideas to one another, offer suggestions, or even voice complaints to management. It gives everyone equal participation in the process of communicating in a business meeting or a formal conversation. Through open communication, employees are able to have a free atmosphere for communication where they are enabled to express their creativity. In addition, this type of communication establishes a high level of trust among employees and makes employees to feel valued.
Contrary to the formal type of communication, informal communication takes place without adherence to any formal or predefined rules of communication. Information interchange takes place outside the formally authorized channels. In some instances, this type of communication is referred to as the grapevine communication, where information is passed from unofficial sources.
Regardless of the size of the business, good communication is necessary for business productivity. Conversely, lack of communication can lead to lost business. For example, due to lack of communication, a business can experience a breakdown in productivity. This may arise from the fact that the management does not communicate goals and responsibilities appropriately, in which case the employee is unable to perform the task.
Process Analysis Exercise college essay help
Process Analysis Exercise
Process Analysis Exercise
In statistical process control, statistical methods and quality control are applied to observe and check the progress of a procedure as well as its control. In doing this, managers are able to ensure that processes operate at their optimal level. When operating at maximum potential, a procedure can produce as much commodities as possible with the least amount (if not total elimination) of waste. Among the major tools used in statistical process are control charts. To illustrate on this, the paper looks at how c-charts and p-charts can be applied using scenario based problems.
Problem 8 (Textile Manufacturer Scenario)
In a c-chart, countable attributes without a specific sample size are considered. Normally, a sample frame that delineates a range of irregularities to be counted is included in a c-chart. Problem 8, involving a textile manufacturer scenario, is used to illustrate the qualities of a c-chart. The following are the answers to questions in problem 8.
Figure 1: C-Chart for A textile Manufacturer (20 Samples)
For the first twenty samples of 100 square yard pieces of carpets points are within the control limits. This indicates that irregularities counts are within statistical control. Assuming that an additional five samples were considered with 15, 18, 12, 22 and 21 irregularities respectively, the following would be the resulting control chart for the textile manufacturer.
Figure 2: C-Chart for A textile Manufacturer (25 Samples)
From the figure above, it is observed that irregularities on the 24th sample fall slightly outside the upper control limit. This suggests that the counts of irregularities are not within statistical control.
Problem 9 (IRS Scenario)
A p-chart is used as a tool to observe and check progress on the proportion of nonconformity in values within a sample. Particularly, the purpose of a p-chart is to determine the values of the lower and upper control limits and establish performance of process over a period. In this chart, proportions of nonconforming units in a size sample are plotted. The following problem solving session illustrates the attributes of a p-chart.
Table 1: P-Chart Values
Correct Answer Values Deviation from mean Deviation Squared
26 -6.55 42.9025
16 3.45 11.9025
19 0.45 0.2025
21 -1.55 2.4025
20 -0.55 0.3025
16 3.45 11.9025
21 -1.55 2.4025
16 3.45 11.9025
17 2.45 6.0025
10 9.45 89.3025
25 -5.55 30.8025
18 1.45 2.1025
25 -5.55 30.8025
16 3.45 11.9025
20 -0.55 0.3025
15 4.45 19.8025
23 -3.55 12.6025
25 -5.55 30.8025
21 -1.55 2.4025
19 0.45 0.2025
Sum of Deviation Squared 320.95
n-1 (20-1) 19
Std Deviation 4.11
Upper Control Limit for the appropriate P-chart (UCL)
UCL = μ + zσ
UCL= 19.45 + (3*4.11)
UCL = 31.78
Lower Control Limit for the appropriate P-chart (LCL)
LCL = μ – zσ
LCL = 19.45 – (3*4.11)
LCL = 7.12
μ is the average of the sample values
UCL= upper control limit
σ is the standard deviation of the sample values
LCL = lower control limit
Z = 3
The values above are used to create a p-chart, which appears as shown below.
Figure 3: P-Chart for IRS (20 Samples)
From the figure above, values of the correct answers considered from the twenty samples fall below the lower control limit which indicates that they appear outside of the control limits. This suggests that tax information process is outside statistical control.
Preparing for an Interview or Job in the United States writing essay help
Preparing for an Interview or Job in the United States
Preparing For an Interview or Job in the United States
Finding job opportunities in the United States
Job applicants can find job openings within the United States through a wide variety of sources such as the social media, newspapers, job fairs, the Internet, and word of mouth. Many employers use social media to advertise their jobs and the most commonly used social media sites include Facebook and Twitter. Employers may also post job openings in the ad section of newspapers or in job fairs that are located in various community settings such as local businesses and learning institutions. The internet has several websites – including careerbuilding.com and indeed.com – that list job opportunities. Employers also list in-house job openings within their organizations and applicants may access these jobs through word of mouth. Consequently, applicants must always ask if or when their preferred organizations will have job openings.
A job description is an official document that informs job applicants on the responsibilities and duties in particular positions, the job specifications, and the working conditions. Job descriptions are important because they allow the candidates to evaluate whether they meet the job requirements. The applicants must ensure that they are interested in the jobs they seek and that the jobs are by reputable companies.
First impressions always count in interviews and the interviewees should immediately impress the interviewers. The interviewees should communicate clearly and with brevity while ensuring that they do not appear to hide some information from the interviewers. The interviewees should only list relevant information in their resumes and use charts or graphs to make their resumes easier to read. When preparing the resumes, the applicants should be concise since most employers do not spend more than one minute reading a resume. Both the resume and cover letters should be printed on a professional paper stock. There are several formats used in preparing resumes, and these include the infographic, federal, curriculum vitae, functional, or the chronological formats. However, the interviewees should use only one format. The resumes, regardless of the form used, should indicate the applicant’s contact information, a summary statement or objective, education, experience, skills, certifications or training, and additional activities.
The cover letter should impress within the first paragraph, and the document should be straight to the point. The cover letter should describe the job applied for, summarize the applicant’s career, achievements, and request for future appointments. Since the document is brief, the applicant should ensure that the cover letter lacks any grammatical or typographical errors by proofreading the text. The applicants may include relevant and amusing anecdotes, describe mutual acquaintances if possible, and indicate the time when the interviewers can contact them. However, the interviewees should avoid using too many superlative adjectives, directly copying job descriptions, using contractions in the cover letter or boasting.
Employers have adopted technology during recruitment exercises to gather information about job applicants. For instance, companies may use the social media to investigate an applicant’s professional background. Consequently, the applicants must ensure that their online profiles in social media are decent and updated. For instance, employers would need intense convincing to recruit a candidate whose Facebook pictures show the individual engaging in activities such as smoking marijuana. The applicants must also consider creating profiles on sites such as Google Plus and LinkedIn since many employers seek recruits from these websites. The applicants should use the internet to research on their employers since this demonstrates interest in their organizations. Many businesses use Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) during the recruitment exercises. These systems enable employers to screen job applications quickly based on several keywords (Levinson, 2012). Consequently, the applicants must ensure that their job descriptions have keywords that beat the ATS.
Women have the liberty to choose a wide variety of attires for interviews depending on the jobs they seek. However, female interviewees should ensure that their fashion is creative, technical, and traditional. The traditional fashion implies that the women’s attires should not expose too much flesh to the interviewers, as this is indecent. The women should consider neutral and dark colors that make them appear sophisticated. The women should also wear proper shoes that are comfortable and have color coordination with their dresses. The shoes, comfortable or not, must never be athletic, open toed, or scuffed shoes. The women should have their hair did and apply neutral makeup. Female applicants who wish to wear jewelry should consider small earrings or studs whose colors coordinate with their clothes. The women may consider silver or gold colored jewelry since these coordinate with a wide variety of colors.
The female applicants must avoid fashions that make them appear less formal. The clothes must be comfortable and allow the applicants to move without difficulties. Female applicants are expected to be decent and have good hygiene. The applicants should smell nicely and not have visible skin arts such as tattoos. The clothes should not reveal too much skin or cleavages as this may irritate members of the interviewing panel. The female applicants should avoid bad habits such as sitting indecently or crying during interviews.
Professional Dress for Men
The unspoken rule in all organizations is that employees must dress appropriately for work. Clothes can reflect an applicant’s attitude to their jobs and help in building the initial interpersonal impression (Muller et al., 2014). Interviewees and employees must dress professionally regardless of whether an official dress code exists or not. Men should wear conservative suits regardless of whether the job is formal or informal (Holmes, 2014). Several methods of looking professional through dressing exist. Applicants who want to be taken seriously must be clean, well groomed, and avoid too many accessories. The male applicants must avoid adorning unofficial attires such as excessive jewelry, denims or open-toed shoes. The clothes must be well ironed and not torn. The interviewees should avoid carrying unprofessional bags or backpacks to work because such bags make the interviewees appear informal. Visible body piercings and tattoos significantly reduce the chances of an interviewee being selected for a job. Fragrances may irritate the interviewers or demonstrate the interviewee’s extravagance.
Male interviewees who cannot afford decent official clothes required for the interviews should consider accessing the clothes from other sources. For instance, business suits in shopping malls are usually expensive. The interviewees should consider shopping at stores such as Marshall’s, Maxx, T.J., Kohl’s, or Nordstrom that charge fair prices. The interviewees may also visit thrift stores to see if they can find business suits at reasonable prices. Alternatively, the interviewees may ask their friends or family members to give them suits that they do not use. It does not hurt to buy or request for used business suits while searching for jobs because the applicant must be professionally dressed during the interview. However, it is critical to ensure the clothes acquired make the applicant appear professional.
Showing up on Time
Interviewees must arrive at the interview early enough to allow them to adapt to the company’s environs. The preferable time is 15 minutes before the beginning of the interview although some interviewees arrive earlier. Interviewees should understand that the interviewing panel would not tolerate excuses such as “the traffic was heavy” or “I got lost in the city.” The interviewees should make prior arrangements and understand the fastest routes to the interview venue. As McKay & McKay (2012) suggest, underestimating the duration needed to do things always results in lateness. The cardinal rule is that the interviewees should wait for the interviewers, not the other way round.
What to Bring
The resume and references are among the most important items to prepare and carry to any interview. As previously indicated, interviewers do not have enough time to go through detailed documents. Some interviews also last very short periods, and the interviewers may lack time to obtain sufficient background information to evaluate the interviewees. The resume helps in presenting a summary of background information that can help in evaluating the interviewees’ candidature. The references enable the interviewers to corroborate information provided by the interviewees. Depending on the nature of the job applied for, the interviewing panel may expect a job applicant to avail a certification list, portfolio, or PowerPoint presentations. The certification list and portfolio enable the interviewing panel to evaluate the applicant’s expertise and previous responsibilities. The PowerPoint presentations give the committee the opportunity to evaluate the job applicants’ ability to express themselves. Consequently, it is important for the job applicants to ensure that have done enough practice on their PowerPoint presentation skills and have knowledge of the content of their PowerPoint slides. The interviewees must ensure that they do to carry that would distract them or the interviewing panel during the interviews. For instance, the interviewees must avoid carrying cellphones, beepers or Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s) into the interview room. This is because the noise made by these devices would distract both the interviewers and interviewees. Most interviewers consider job applicants who have such gadgets in interviewing rooms as arrogant. This limits the possibility of an interviewee being selected for a job. Consequently, the interviewees must ensure that they leave their phones and other unnecessary gadgets out of the interviewing room, or they completely switch the devices off.
Common Questions Asked
Regardless of the nature of the job an applicant seeks, the interviewing panel usually tries to gather information about the interviewee, the interviewee’s qualifications and the interviewee’s work history. One of the questions dreaded by most job applicants is, “what can you tell us about yourself?” This question requires the job applicants to describe themselves in a brief statement. Each interviewee should answer this question by describing their personal characteristics that make them better candidates than the other applicants. The interviewees must be careful to provide only the details they believe are relevant to the jobs they seek. Another common question asked in interviews is how the interviewees handle pressure and stress. Organizations want employees capable of working in dynamic environments where work-related pressure and stress are inevitable. This question seeks to determine the preparedness of the employee to work in a dynamic environment. However, the interviewees must be careful not to talk about various strategies of handling pressure and stress if they are not sure that they cannot implement the strategies. Giving a simple and straightforward answer to this question is imperative. The interviewers may also enquire about an interviewee’s hobby. In this case, the interviewee should list hobbies relevant to the jobs they are applying for instead of providing a long list of irrelevant hobbies. In fact, it is advisable that the interviewee only indicates a couple of the most relevant hobbies. For instance, an individual applying to be an assistant store manager should refrain from including traveling as a hobby. Traveling may be an appropriate hobby to indicate in jobs such as salespersons or tourism guides.
Interviewees should also be ready to explain their motivation for choosing their majors in college. Individuals who are forced to take majors that do not interest them in college usually end up indifferent and unmotivated in their future jobs. Such individuals are unproductive and may have an adverse influence on other employees. Consequently, the interviewees must demonstrate their enthusiasm when asked their reasons for choosing their majors in college. This will make it easy for the interviewees to answer the question, “Why should we take a risk of employing you?” Employers also ask about the strengths that will enable the interviewees to succeed in their jobs. In this case, the appropriate answer given by an applicant for a customer care representative job would be “patience” while a salesperson interviewee would indicate “determination.” The interviewees should also demonstrate how they are the best candidates for the jobs they seek by illustrating how their qualifications will benefit their organizations.
Finally, the interviewees will also be required to provide information about their work history. Employers are always interested in understanding why interviewees are leaving their current jobs. Interviewees who leave their current jobs for reasons such as non-performance or conflicts with their colleagues are considered undesirable candidates for the jobs. It is important that the interviewees indicate that their reason for leaving their current jobs is to progress their careers. The interviewees should explain how they fitted in their previous company’s culture, and how they would do so in the new company. Consequently, the interviewees should do prior research on their company’s culture. Interviewees should describe their responsibilities in their former companies.
Although the interviewers have the authority to ask the job applicants a wide variety of questions, the interviewers are not expected to ask questions that appear discriminatory or malicious. For instance, the interviewers should not ask questions regarding the marital status of the applicant or the applicant’s number of children. This is necessary because some employers consider having spouses and children a distraction to their employees’ commitment to work. The interviewers should also avoid asking questions on the health status or the presence of any physical disabilities particularly in jobs that are not physically demanding. Enquiring about the applicants’ religion also appears discriminatory, and the interviewers must not ask about religion. Finally, the interviewers must not ask the interviewees any questions related to their ages. A wide variety of legislations known as the United States Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Laws help in eliminating job discrimination during interviews and in jobs. For instance, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967) helps in protecting employees aged 40 years and more. However, Sargeant (2006) suggests that age discrimination exists in all ages, and some job applicants may have their submissions rejected for being too young to handle certain jobs such as managerial positions. Whenever asked about questions that appear discriminatory, the interviewees should enquire the relationship between the questions and the particular jobs they are being interviewed for.
Relationships in Business
One of the proven methods of maintaining a job or business is to build strong and sustainable relationships based on transparency, trust, commitment, and empathy. Such relationships help in the development a powerful teamwork spirit among the employees. All workers have a responsibility in building a strong teamwork relationship within their organizations. Employees should ensure that they do not appear too dependent on their colleagues. The employees should learn to develop mutually beneficial relationships based on reciprocity where an employee is ready to offer something before for asking for something. For instance, employees seeking their colleagues to cover for their absence must be willing to create time to cover for their colleagues during other days, including over the weekends or holidays. Although friendliness is important to the workforce, all employees must understand their limits during their interactions with their colleagues. It is crucial to recognize that employees have different characters and attitudes that may have an impact on their interaction with other people. The interactions between employees must respect the gender of colleagues and their positions within their organization’s hierarchical structure. Employees are expected to pay more attention to what they are being told rather than speaking excessively within their organizations. Employees who speak incessantly risk irritating their colleagues or saying things that create conflict among employees. Employees must remain sincere and trustworthy because this increases their potential of being promoted to higher positions. The employees should understand their capabilities and learn to reject activities or responsibilities that they cannot fulfill.
Job Interview Follow-Ups
Immediately after completing the interview, the interviewees should initiate the follow-up process to determine the status of their job applications. The general argument is that the sooner the interviewees start conducting the follow-ups, the better because it demonstrates the interviewees’ desire to be employed by the employers. The interviewees who take too long to initiate the follow-ups appear complacent and uncommitted to the organizations. This makes such interviewees unsuitable candidates for the jobs. During the interview, the job applicants must demonstrate their strengths and suggest how their expertise will benefit the company. The interviewees should also ask the interviewing panel if it needs any additional information or points of clarification. This is important because the interviewers may need additional information not presented by the applicant during the interview. Finally, the applicants should demonstrate their gratitude for the interview session since not all individuals who apply for specific jobs receive invitations to attend the interviews. Offering a brief thank, you help in showing that an interviewee appreciates the time offered by the interviewing panel. The interviewees should avoid the temptation of calling the interviewing panel and allow the panel to call the interviewees at their convenience (the interviewers).
Stumping the Employer
Usually, the interviewing panel gives the job applicant the opportunity to ask the panel various questions. The interviewees should use this opportunity to ask several questions that would demonstrate their desire to work with the organization for a long duration. For instance, the interviewees can enquire whether the organizations promote their employees from within. This is crucial because it illustrates the interviewees’ ambition to work hard, receive promotions, and progress their careers. The interviewees may ask an interviewer why the interviewer decided to work for the company. This gives the interviewer a brief opportunity to mentor the interviewee and offer more insight about the company or industry the interviewee is seeking to work in. The interviewee may also enquire whether the interviewing panel has identified any gaps in the applicant’s qualifications. Stumping the employer is a crucial strategy that allows the job applicant the interviewer on the spot. The strategy allows the interviewees to gain additional information about their potential employees, and this may help in influencing their decision to work with the organization. Asking the interviewers, such questions help in demonstrating the interviewee’s openness to feedback and shows the interviewee’s commitment to personal improvement. Finally, asking the interviewers such questions helps in closing the “sale” and developing cordial relationships between the interviewers and the interviewees.
Holmes, B. (2014). Dressing up for that job interview. Retrieved from http://www.robertlholmes.com/dressing-job-interview/
Levinson, M. (2012). 5 insider secrets for beating applicant-tracking systems. Retrieved from http://www.cio.com/article/2398753/careers-staffing/5-insider-secrets-for-beating-applicant-tracking-systems.html
McKay, B. & McKay, K. (2012). A man is punctual: The reasons you’re late and how to always be on time. Retrieved from http://www.artofmanliness.com/2012/07/18/a-man-is-punctual-the-reasons-youre-late-and-how-to-always-be-on-time/
Müller, C., Cienki, A., Fricke, E., Ladewig, S., McNeill, D., & Bressem, J. (2014). Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK) 38/2.
Sargeant, M. (2006). Age discrimination in employment. Aldershot: Gower.
The Exclusionary Rule college admission essay help
The Exclusionary Rule
The Exclusionary Rule
As Lyman (2011) points out, the Exclusionary Rule was introduced in the 1914 case that involved the Weeks v. United States. The Exclusionary Rule refers to the legal provision, which prohibits the use of any evidence gathered or analyzed in a way that infringes a litigant’s constitutional rights against the litigant in a court. The Exclusionary Rule is meant to prevent law enforcement officers from abusing their powers while collecting evidence against suspects. The Exclusionary Rule usually focuses on the Fourth and Fifth Amendments that seek to prevent citizens from being subjected to unwarranted searches and seizures, or the right to liberty, property, or life respectively. The Exclusionary Rule also protects the right of the citizens to counsel as enshrined in the Sixth Amendment.
The Exclusionary Rule protects the right of all individuals in the United States and does not distinguish between immigrants (illegal or legal), citizens, or visitors. However, several exceptions apply to the Exclusionary Rule that may make the evidence admissible in court. One of the rule’s exemptions is the independent source doctrine where officers initially obtain evidence through unlawful search and seizures, and later obtain a valid warrant to make the search and seizure (Cornell University Law School, 2015). Another exception is the inevitable discovery doctrine where police officers obtain evidence without illegal search or seizures.
I concur with the rule because I believe that there is a need to protect the rights of individuals within the United States. The Exclusionary Rule helps in preventing law enforcement officers from misusing their authority and harassing innocent citizens. However, I believe that the legal system should not free criminals based on evidence gathered without an appropriate search warrant.
Lyman, M.D. (2011) Criminal Investigations: The art and the science (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cornell University Law School. (2015). Exclusionary rule. Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/exclusionary_rule
argumentative essay helpName:
Dubai Before and After Oil
The following research questions will help in navigating through the research project. The research task is meant to investigate and analyze the growth of Dubai before and after discovery of oil.
1. Why is Dubai Growing so fast?
2. When did Dubai start to develop?
3. What was Dubai like before oil?
Dubai has raised from a humble City State of United Arab Emirates to an economic powerhouse of the Arab world. Although several factors have seen Dubai rise economically, much speculation has attributed the discovery of oil to have been the major factor.
Dubai forms part of the United Arab Emirates federation government. The federations under the UAE possess considerable independence. The region has for a long time been regarded as a proliferation ground for terrorist and radical fundamentalists though it has been an outpost for pirate and the successful pearl trader. Until the discovery of oil, Dubai had a weak economy and depended mostly on low volume trades. But what could have led to the expansive growth in Dubai? Apart from the oil boom, the enormous economic growth of Dubai city can be attributed to several factors. This research paper looks into the growth of Dubai City from humble Arab small trading City State to a world economy and a central part of the United Arabs Emirates.
Initially, the city depended only on minor trades across which it relied on for subsistence. Its economy could well be described as weak and disjointed. Cesana et al put it that the City was characterized by filthy, dirty run down settlements unregulated trades, lack of trade policies, and run away influx of traders. This could be attributed to low trade and lack of necessary infrastructure to facilitate proper trade. Transformation of the City begun under Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed al-Maktoum way back in 1958 even before the UEA was formed. In depth research and analysis does not attribute the massive growth to oil only. Profits realized from oil were invested back into the economy.
Subsequent years saw the development of ports, free trade zones, and airports that played a key role in opening up Dubai to the outside world. Several researches also fail to attribute the growth of the city to strong political stability, the policies advanced and layout by the Al Nahayan dynasty forged the foundations upon which the city of Dubai is built. There is no way a country can achieve much development without a firm, focused, leadership. Basically oil has had little impact on the economy, statistics show different trends. The oil boom has been cited to be the cornerstone of Dubai’s economy.
Justification of the Topic
The study will be undertaken in Dubai to investigate and analyze some of the factors that has seen the City rise to such great heights of development. The analysis will help in understanding the economic transformation of the City within such a short time. The final analysis and outcome of the research will be used to set the record straight on the growth and development of Dubai.
• Research in the Field
The Field Research
On the research, a case study and a field work methodology will be applied and used. Questionnaires will be distributed to several people who will give a response. The target group will be wide. The research will involve 100 persons. Of the 100, females will be 50, while the males will be 50 too. The age bracket is put at 25-70 years.
Research on the Internet
Other information’s and data will be sourced from the internet by using credible sources such as journals websites, learning institutions sites etc.
Books and journals available in the library will be of help too to get information. The information will be an important point of reference.
Tentative Research Calendar
March- Proposal writing and Submission
April- Collecting Data from the Field
May- Report Writing and First Presentation
July- Final Report Presentation
In conclusion, the research project will look into some of the factors looked into and further information to establish the rise of Dubai economically. The research will analyze deeply on the political environment that the City thrived on before and after the spontaneous growth. Other factors that will guide the research are factors such as discovery of oil and the political leaders.
Corrections Week 11 essay help site:edu
Corrections Week 11
Corrections Week 11
The major release mechanisms of incarceration include the expiration release, mandatory release, discretionary release, and other conditional releases. Expiration releases give inmates complete freedom from supervision by the government or correctional facilities. Prisoners who receive expiration releases cannot be returned to correctional facilities to serve time for their current offenses. The expiration releases usually apply at the end of sentences, pardons, or commutations. Inmates receive the mandatory releases after serving a specific duration as stipulated by the parole guidelines and the law. The mandatory releases usually consider the amount of time the prisoner has served, the total duration of the prisoner’s sentence, and the duration of good time earned. In the discretionary releases, the inmates are offered a conditional release at the discretion of the parole board. The inmates receive discretionary releases based on the law and the jurisdiction of the sentence where the prisoners are subjected. The parole board uses the discretionary releases to determine whether the inmates are ready to be released back into their societies. The other conditional releases include home supervision, emergency releases, and halfway houses.
Communities should not accept the parolees without questions. There have been numerous cases of inmates on parole violating their paroles and engaging in criminal activities. Depending on the crime for which a convict was imprisoned, there might be a need for the communities to remain vigilant when the parolees are within their midst. Criminals such as burglars, arsonists, and sex offenders have a tendency to repeat their crimes even when on parole. Inmates may pretend to have been reformed in prison so that they may receive the paroles, but return to their criminal inclinations after being released back to their communities. It is not a coincident that sex offenders have long durations of post-release supervisions. Post-release supervisions are effective because the inmates on parole understand that they are under close supervision by the government or correctional facilities. Inmates who violate their paroles are rearrested, and this gives the inmates on parole an incentive to maintain their good behavior. This results in low recidivism rates among prisoners on parole.
Philosophy Week 11 essay help site:edu
Philosophy Week 11
Philosophy Week 11
The major idea that arises from Norman Daniels’ argument is equal healthcare opportunity for everyone. A question that arises from Norman Daniels’ article is, “what kind of equal opportunity should the society advocate”? Daniel perceives equal opportunity based on Rawlsian theory of justice. He asserts that by allowing global access to quality healthcare, one safeguards the equal share of opportunities. In addition, Daniel suggests the need of viewing the opportunities as complementary to an individual’s age. Therefore, Daniels’ idea is it to dispense healthcare in a manner that safeguards an individual’s equal share of opportunities based on two grounds. First, distribution of healthcare within the range of opportunities that compliments with the age of the individual receiving the healthcare. Second, allowing people or the society to choose healthcare services that befit them.
On the same platform of advocating equal healthcare opportunity universally, Robert Sade opposes the right to quality healthcare in America. Instead, Robert interprets fair share of healthcare as chiefly commutative justice, which people owe to each other in the society. He claims that acknowledging some people or entities more superior than others is an understatement, especially the rapport between a patient and a doctor. Essentially, Robert Sade establishes his argument on the concept of justice endorsed by Robert Nozick. According to Nozick, healthcare practitioners are at liberty to render healthcare services at their will if the source of knowledge and competence emanates from an environment of fairness. Therefore, as much as patients have a right to healthcare, physicians also have a right to provision of healthcare services. In other words, both Norman Daniels and Robert Sade claim that the law should not dictate the relationship that should exist between physicians and patients.
English 101 college essay help near meName
Fr. Boyle uses the parable of Jesus Christ in expressing the significance of showing concern for the plight of others in the community. From his analogy, providing assistance to the needy in the community results in gratification among other benefits. He believes that the love for Christ connotes embracing good deeds, hence there is the reason believers ought to adopt practices that improve the well-being of the righteous, as well as the evil in our midst. The action in turn will benefit the entire community. According to the interpretation, it is justifiable going to certain extremes when solving challenges facing the masses as it was the case with Jesus healing the sick. For instance, a religious leader has to interact with criminals in order to understand the problems of the people. Secondly, the compassion to serve should override the urge to dissociate with the needy, hence this is the reason people ripped the roof apart in the quest for redemption.
The Father offers a variable solution to gang violence based on the premise that a significant majority of the righteous people can save the criminals by embracing the people and teaching them the good deeds. According to his reasoning, instead of condemning the people for being sinners it is the responsibility of the righteous embracing the people and teaching them the suitable ways of earning a living in the community. Fr. Boyle choice of an inclusive program that enlightens the wrongdoers is commendable since it empowers as opposed to rebuking. The approach might succeed in some places but fail in the rest where leaders lack the commitment required for empowering the gangs. Secondly, the approach works in places where people believe in the same ideals such as a Christian neighborhood.
Boyle wants to teach his audiences that life is consequential, and individual tolerance is necessary when solving societal problems. For that reason, people should choose to live in harmony with one another besides empowering the disenfranchised in the society. An instance that shows his clear intent is when he teaches the rest of the society to embrace gang members in order to demystify the misconception about crime. Another instance expressing similar belief is when he associates with the wrongdoers with the objective of correcting their behaviors.
The part in which the Boyle expresses compassion in his work of rehabilitating the community relates to previous readings supporting the teachings of Christ of serving with compassion. The father’s inclusive approach to problem solving in the community also resembles the explanation of Christ when healing the sick by asserting that repentance for one’s sins. Lastly, he sums it up that the love of God is boundless as taught in the class readings.
MUSIC COMPOSITION cheap essay help
The article presents a comparison of two pieces composed at different times with the first composition being Bach’s fugue in G minor and the second composition “messiah” by Handel. The review commences with the description of the two versions of the classical composition before proceeding to the identification of the elements of the pieces. The focus is on the eight elements of composition that includes rhythm, dynamics and melody as the first three components. The subsequent three elements for comparison are harmony, texture, and timbre. The reading concludes with the review of form and text as the last elements of composition bringing out the differences in the piece.
Bach’s composition is a classic piece created in the 18th century. It had four voices differentiating the tune from the earlier compositions of the same artist. In G minor, for instance, the artist employs eight-note upbeat making the song a different fugue in many ways despite the song being a classical composition. Additional differences manifests in the creativity in the narration while utilizing the eight elements of composition. Likewise, for the messiah, Handel uses two movements in conjunction with other artistic elements in the conveyance of messages to audiences. In terms of uniqueness, the characters are anonymous in Handel’s messiah albeit the differences in the setting of the songs. Unlike the case of G minor, the setting of the song is less crowded with the movement occupying different scenes.
Handel derives his influence from Italian opera, but in the case of Bach, the Germanic backgrounds contribute immensely in the artist’s style. In particular, Corelli influenced the Handel’s style. This explains the reason for the composer repeating the introductory voices while varying the tone in the first verse for fugues. In the case of Bach in G Minor, the arrangement of the sounds resembles Vivaldi approach to composition.
Elements of Music in Each Composition
At first, for the rhythm of the composition, the G Minor takes a more conservative approach in the introductory part as opposed to the classical produced by Handel. In particular, the artist approaches the song with the fast-paced rhythm before harmonizing the pitches in the subsequent parts. The intention of applying the techniques is serenading the audience with the introductory lyrics. As the song progresses in the subsequent parts, the differentiation in rhythm is more vivid in the song of Bach thus the emphasis on the connection with the different audiences.
In terms of dynamics, both pieces exude the composer’s prowess when it comes to relaying sensual messages to audiences. The alteration between the notes is slower in both versions, but the emphasis on high pitch after the first verse makes the latter unique. In addition to the echoing effect in G Minor, the choice of slow instruments is intriguing.
Another difference in Bach Fugue’s G minor and Handel’s Messiah is that the compositions employs the use of regular beats differently when arousing the curiosity of the audiences. In Bach Fugue’s G minor, for instance, the melodious sounds ignite vigor in the performance of the artist. For Handel’s Messiah, the role of melody manifests in the voice of the artist when conveying biblical stories to audiences.
Both compositions explore harmony as an element of composition in the conveyance of the messages to audiences. To some extent, the difference in the use of harmony is negligible in comparison to the application of the same in the live performance. The interdependent sections of the Messiah are few compared to Mariah’s composition. This makes the piece stand out for employing texture as an element of composition selectively.
The sensual response that emanates from the conversation of Bach with the audiences depicts the tone as being somber. Another stylistic element of creativity is the alteration of the tone in the chorus of the song. Handel infuses a combination of techniques in ensuring the intended messages reaches the audiences. Even though it is hard concluding whether the artists succeed in using the approach, the response of many audiences insinuates that the song is great. Another commendable thing about the composition is the message is soothing albeit the composers expression their deep sorrows in some section of the song.
Form is also another element of creativity that manifests in the two composition. As noted, while utilizing the stylistic devices, the composer of “messiah” related numerous elements to one another in the elaboration of the theme of the song. The intention is differentiating the piece with similar composition having the same objective. The last of the eight elements that espouse the difference in the two composition is text. In G minor, for instance, the technique aids in justifying the selection of the theme as in the case of “messiah”.
Despite the differences in the use of different stylistic devices, similarity exists in the use of musical elements in the composition of the two pieces. Beginning with tone, the artist is emotional in conveying messages to audiences. The second similarity is the repetition, which appears in several parts of the operas. To some extent, the two classical composition exude similarities but the manner in which the artist coordinates the verses is the distinguishing element in the songs.
Analysis and Application of Enforceable Contracts under the Statute of Fraud essay help free
Analysis and Application of Enforceable Contracts under the Statute of Fraud
Analysis and Application of Enforceable Contracts under the Statute of Fraud
Business activities involve agreements that are made between two parties that are obliged to perform (or not to perform) a certain task. These types of agreements are referred to as contracts in business law. A contract can take any of the three forms, that is, oral, written or implied contracts. A person involved in a business contract will normally engage in the determination of whether or not the contract considered is enforceable under law. This forms the basic element that people consider first when they make an agreement.
Legally, for a contract to be enforceable there must be an offer made by either of the parties engaging in the agreement, an acceptance of the offer and the value received and given by both the parties involved in the contract. However, Statute of Frauds, a concept of law that requires certain types of contracts to take the written form, governs certain business contracts. The Statute of Frauds tries to strike a balance between people who engage in oral contracts. In order to create this balance, the Statute of Frauds allows for several statutes that spell out certain forms of contracts that must take the written form to be enforceable (Clarkson, Miller, & Cross, 2010). However, the one type of such contracts that is of concern to us is a contract that cannot be executed within a year from the day it is formed.
Under the one-year rule, contracts that, by their own terms, cannot be executed within one year from the day that the contract is formed must take the written form to be enforceable. Under this rule, the key to determining if an oral contract is enforceable is whether performance is within one year from the day after the contract formation. When performance of a contract is objectively impossible during the one-year period, the oral contract will be unenforceable. When performance is objectively possible within a year, the contract does not fall under the Statute of Frauds (Clarkson, Miller, & Cross, 2010). In this regard, this rule can be very effective in helping attorneys recognize whether an oral contract is enforceable or unenforceable.
In the scenario involving Jason Novell and Barbara Meade, the parties formed a contract that took an oral form. Novell and Meade orally agreed on the terms of employment, as well as the payment of a share of Novell Associates’ income to Meade. However, it is recognized that Meade’s performance to the contract took more than a year; two years. In considering the above literature review, an oral contract is unenforceable if performance of the contract is beyond a one-year period. In this view, it can be concluded that Novell and Meade had an unenforceable contract.
As one would expect, certain circumstances warrant for the exceptions to the applicability of the Statue of Frauds in determining whether a contract is enforceable or not. These exceptions are allowed in the statue to enable business lawyers to protect innocent parties. These exceptions are inclusive of partial performance, promissory estoppels and full performance. A contract that might prove to be unenforceable may be enforced to some extent as discussed in the following paragraphs.
Under partial performance, in cases involving oral contracts, if a party has done part of the performance agreed for in the contract, and if the parties cannot be returned to their positions prior to the contract, a court may grant performance of the contract according to its precise terms. This exception is different from the exception of full performance, which states that if either of the parties fully performs under the contract, then the Statue of Fraud cannot apply. In addition, there exists promissory estoppel, a form of exception to the Statute of Frauds, which states that an oral contract/promise can be enforceable if the person making the promise has justifiably relied on it to his or her detriment. For the contract to be enforceable, the reliance must have been foreseeable to the person making the promise. In addition, the contract can only be enforceable if enforcing the promise must be the only way to avoid injustice (Miller, 2012, p. 185).
It is not made clear whether Meade quit after fulfilling part or full performance of the contract. In this regard, the oral agreement between her and Novell can be determined to be enforceable from the point of view of both partial performance and full performance exceptions of the Statute of Fraud. Under partial performance, however, it is clear that Novell and Meade cannot be returned to their positions prior to the contract; hence, the oral agreement between the two can perfectly fall within the exception of partial performance. In addition, in considering promissory estoppel, the oral agreement can fall within the exception of the Statute of Frauds because Meade justifiably relied on the oral agreement/promise to her detriment. Indeed Meade’s reliance on the oral agreement was foreseeable to Novell and thus promissory estoppel can be used as grounds for exception to the Statute of Frauds (Miller, 2012, p. 185).
According to Miller (2012), notwithstanding the Statue of Frauds, if a party against whom enforcement of an oral contract is sought admits in pleading, testimony or otherwise in case proceedings that a contract was made as per the terms, then the contract will be enforceable. Assuming that Novell admitted that the parties had an oral contract under which Meade was entitled to 25% of the difference between accounts receivable and accounts payable as of the day Meade quit, then the lawsuit will be affected in favor of Meade. Novell’s admission would mean that the contract is enforceable. The contract will therefore carry the force of law behind it. In considering this, it can be concluded that just because a contract does not take a written form, it cannot necessarily be rendered unenforceable.
Clarkson, K., Miller, R., & Cross, F. (2010). Business Law: Text and Cases: Legal, Ethical, Global, and Corporate Environment. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Miller, R. (2012). Cengage Advantage Books: Fundamentals of Business Law: Summarized Cases. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Criminal justice best college essay help
Legal and evidentiary issues in computer security
The legal matters that might arise from the implementation of computer security measures is the possibility of the proposed laws contravening some of the rights of people safeguarded in the constitution. As noted by a number of scholars, there exist the likelihood of a proposed law infringing on the rights of people such as the right to privacy (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). This is because there is no uniformity in the enactment of cyber security laws globally. Additionally, the chances of the law serving in one are but creating problem in other areas is highly likely.
The evidentiary challenge that might arise is the difficulty in the collection of evidence for a breach of a law pertaining cyber-crime since cyber-space is a virtual network. In particular, one could adhere to the guidelines of the legislation in his country but visit another country with the intention of violating the laws of the home country. As a result, policing the implementation of such security measures will prove more challenging as opposed to monitoring the movement of physical goods (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). Lastly, the laws could disadvantage the same people supporting their enactment in the event of a breach by the insider having knowledge on the loopholes in the legislation.
The selection of the challenges emanates from the premise that cyber-crime lacks a proper definition. Henceforth, it is inappropriate enacting stringent measures on issues that could create confusion. Secondly, the nature of problems affecting organizations keep changing from time to time hence the impossibility in designing measures that serves the interest of all (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). Thirdly, the objective of using computer devices is enhancing interactions. Therefore, it would make no sense limiting interactivity by enacting laws prohibiting sharing of information via computer networks.
Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2011). Principles of information security. Cengage Learning.
Sports, law and media does it impact or compliment the world of journalism essay help onlineSports, law and media does it impact or compliment the world of journalism
Today, the society decides what to read, to watch, and listen to the media. Above all people have a belief that they can contribute to engendering the media content and review the opinions of the reporters. Sometimes, this shift in media is known as media revolution. Some people consider media revolution as the end of journalism. However, the revolution sets the pace for a democratic movement that focuses on key aspects that define journalism such as, openness and truthfulness. Most of the traditional and new media sources report and claim how the internet and social media, in particular, social networking sites are severely affecting news agencies and how they function. Therefore, this paper will focus on how media, law, and sports have started affecting journalism- for good or worse. The main claim is to understand the nature of the impacts and their impact towards changing journalism. This paper proves that sports, law, and media have a positive impact on journalism. The paper will cover each of the three topics separately .
A pluralist, free, and diverse media is the hallmark of any democratic society, and it helps in regulating the powers held by politicians, businesspeople, or government leaders. In addition, the free media grants citizens access to vital information and helps in enhancing public and corporate accountability and transparency. Open societies allow individuals to express their diverse and pluralist ideas in democratic debates. However, independent journalism and its cohesive effects threaten corrupt leaders who try to hide their malpractices from the public glare. The media and journalists face persistent harassment and fundamental threats from governments in various parts of the world .
Factors such as excessive political ownership, high tax fines, discriminatory laws, and intimidation deny journalists the liberty of accessing or acquiring information, and this curtails the freedom of expression. Journalists face prolonged prison sentences and may even face death in countries with repressive leaders or high lawlessness rates. The decision by the people in power to censor the media also has an impact on a country’s relationship with the international community. Interference with the media’s activities has an impact on fundamental freedoms, and it adversely affects the business climate.
Democratic organizations such as the European Union – through its media and press programmes – highly prioritize free sharing of information. The European Union also considers free sharing of information a crucial element in fostering human rights policies and facilitating external trade. Several developments have recently occurred, and these have affected the free speech of journalists and the media. Digitalization is transforming Readers into bloggers through allowing them to publish their thoughts freely .
Impact of Sports on journalism
According to Banks & Hanna (2009) , sport is an important subject covered by journalists. Apparently, there is a growing trend of journalism in sports. The impact of social media on sport is of significant interest when one takes into account the role of sports journalism. Typically, the features of social media and sports journalism have a close connection. In terms of marketing, media serves as distribution mechanism for promoting, or a self-marketing channel with regard to self-promotion of athletes, sports associations, and sports reporters. Media as well engenders the aspect of audience creation. Social media tends to create an audience that uses its content and news. Therefore, sports journalists can elevate their individual audience using social media as a self-marketing strategy.
In other words, sports eventually build reputation and celebrity for journalists.
Moreover, Banks & Hanna (2009) assert that media acts as an extra distributional channel that handles journalistic contents that conventional media never covered. Often, these contents are unverified but contain a special form of development, and media tends to publicize such content. In addition, social media is one of the platforms that empowers sports journalists increase their investigative skills. Prior to addressing an issue on the media, sports journalist may require searching for extra information and hidden content. Moreover, with the presence of media, journalists can engage with athletes and sports federations and acquire more content. Media can as well assist in promoting media promotion, with social media providing conventional sports journalism, which may increase proximity and exclusivity. Consequently, this will help in creating awareness about the significance of sports journalism (Banks & Hanna, 2009).
Categorically, sports are one area that contributes to the efficiency of journalism. Research indicates that persons aged between 18-34 years are passionate about sports. Therefore, they tend to look for news about sports in any form of media. This tends to promote sports journalism. Essentially, it is apparent that sports have a positive impact on journalism, in particular, sports journalism. Besides promoting the entire world of journalism, the reporters delegated the task of delivering news on sports become celebrities in their individual capacities.
One may presume that sports journalists are the only reporters that are passionate about their task. First, these reporters, especially on television understand the significance of marinating close connection with their viewers. Moreover, they are knowledgeable about nearly everything in sports. In essence, the impact they create towards the audience is admirable, and this promotes journalism. Furthermore, sports laws have a perfect interrelation with journalism. Often, conflicts arise in other fields, such as media law and journalism as discussion in the latter chapters, but none happens in sports and journalism.
Impact of media on journalism
Media publications and critics in most cases consider a shift in media from conventional sources such, newspapers to digital sources. Furthermore, media organizations have started contemplating how use of the internet, such as social sites help in increasing the target market, and most essentially source funds to support the operation. Diverse views and ideas on journalism subject regarding the impact of media seem overwhelming. Understanding the position of conventional news agencies at present requires one to understand how consumers use up news and their perception about news organization. Myriads of surveys provide a way to understand the societies’ perception quantitatively. Research conducted by Sanderson (2011) reveals that, generally, the society belittles news agencies because of their reluctance in reporting political-based matters. Rather than making unbiased reports, news agencies often evaluate the effect of the report and decide whether to report of not.
In other words, the independence of news organizations is inexistent. Journalists are belittling their roles and sometimes feel intimidated by issues or persons, especially those with political muscles. Instead of experiencing a futuristic growth, the journalism world is retracing its steps back into the ancient times. Indeed, consumer’s confidence is at its lowest level within a short period. Nevertheless, consumers believe that introducing an oversight agency may solve the problem. In determining the most accessed news medium, this paper found that consumers tend to access national and global news via televisions and the internet. However, other sources of research indicated that the most accessed news media are the newspapers. The survey indicated that most consumers prefer the print media to the online media .
Furthermore, males have a bigger preference to new media as opposed to females. This survey as well revealed that most consumers suggested a change in the newspapers, yet they are unwilling to purchase print media online. Prior to exploring the impact of media on journalism, it is pivotal to explain the significance of journalism and the problems within the media organization in entirety. Journalism in its purest nature entails witnessing a situation and documenting for other people to see. Journalism also entails listening and interacting with others. Some bloggers, such as Lavruski, the change of media from being a one-way communication to a public affair will positively affect journalists. Other reporters believed that Media will assist journalists execute their duties efficiently. Besides helping journalists, media will also strengthen their confidence in communicating to the world.
Others have argued that media has empowered journalists and compelled the transformation of the news media. Despite the positives impacts, some researchers have identified problems with journalists in the media world. For instance, some believe that journalism has become a flawed business model, and it is only through media that journalists will start experiencing a new dawn. Moreover, journalists such as bloggers have a tendency of covering news that interests rather than covering the hard news. This one major problem is severely affecting journalism world.
Today, the presence of tools and applications such as social networking sites, are what determines the wellbeing of journalism. For instance, Facebook and Twitter are currently important than ever before since the journalist can share news online without the need of going to the media houses. Another impact engendered by media, especially the print media is the ability to cover both the global and local events. For instance, one of the most recent event happened on November 2009 and involved gunshots in Texas. The news spread throughout the entire world through the print media, in particular, a weekly news article. Social media tools, in particular allow journalists to share occurrences at higher rate than during the past, although with some inaccuracies. Some professionals believe that the media is likely to affect journalism in the near future. They assert that news agencies will transform into using mobile phone devices, and this trend is happening today. They also believe that journalists will enjoy more freedom rather than being associated with a specific news agency for a long period.
Impact of law on Journalism
Law and journalism are inseparable. Effective journalism can engender transition in laws. Law, on the other hand, influences the performance of journalists. Often, news agencies win court battles pertaining their rights and freedom. For instance, in the past few months, the New York Times urged the just to release classified documents related to Bernie Madoff case. Consequently, the public learned about the contents of the scandal. However, news organizations lack the legal power to advocate the rights of public to stay in touch with whatever happens in those chambers. Financial cutbacks and transitions in business model of conventional media agencies create hurdles for these agencies to fund access lawsuit.
Although the freedom of press and sovereign media are important instruments in fighting for the rights of citizens, journalists are facing threat to the entire world. News media advocating free press is an enabler of fundamental human rights and mechanism through which the common people communicate. Media digitization is one area that magnifies the impact of the law on journalism. The European Union plays a major role in advocating and safeguarding press and media freedom. The EU has the mandate of making sure that the media remains independent as well as defends freedom for journalists.
It is important to note that EU does not interfere with media content. Instead, it seeks to establish an enabling environment and prevent restrictions that interfere with the wellbeing of journalists. Often, EU intervenes in countries that implement laws that restrict media or put journalists under pressure. EU as well takes the role of educating governments, legislators, and media organizations with the aim of nurturing the suitable laws, especially during amendments, whereby journalist’s freedom became restricted in the pretext of maintaining security .
Media progress and intervention in advocating freedom of the press is important and requires a closer observation. There is the need to have a comprehensive and strategic initiative to deal with journalism growth as part of national growth program. EU does a lot in ensuring the efficiency of press and journalism freedom. Journalists required a synchronized, enduring strategy that focuses on empowering local abilities and strong regulations when addressing government issues. This is the only way journalists will enjoy freedom and independence.
Media Digitization has several benefits to offer to the current world of journalism including scrutiny of documents and sharing information on various malpractices. However, citizens may not fully enjoy these benefits due to government’s interference and mass surveillance. People must differentiate between the public and commercial interests. Realizing the maximum benefits of digitization demands interoperability, efficient IT infrastructures, and incorporation of appropriate legislations in the emerging media landscapes. It is evident that sports, law, and media have a positive impact on journal
Banks, D and Hanna, M McNae’s Essential/Law for Journalist, 2nd Edition: Oxford University Press, 2009
Robertson, G and Nicol, A. Media Law 5th edition, Sweet and Maxwell, London, (2007)
Sanderson, J. It’s a whole new ball game: How social media is changing sports. New York: Hampton Press, 2011
Voting Rights writing essay helpName
Obama on Voter Suppression: The Right Speech in the Wrong Place
The article presents an insight into the thinking of President Obama on matters pertaining the freedoms of the electorate. According to the leader, whose sentiment resonates with that of the author of the piece, the Republicans are widening the subdivisions in the country by making it difficult for people to take part in the election of leaders. As a result, the actions of the politicians discourage the voters from making informed decision that could benefit the entire country. As pointed out by President Obama, the politicians are wrong in thinking they are advancing progress in several realms since the decisions they make are disenfranchising the poor, besides creating divisions in the country.
The reading is insightful because it enable readers to understand the changes taking place in America in regard to election laws. One more thing assumption of the article is that people’s participation in the election is no longer serving the interest of the country, as it was the case before. It is also apparent that the fear of politicians is overriding the interest of the electorate, hence there is the enactment of ineffective legislation (Cohen 1). While lauding the efforts of the founders of the nation in enacting the election act, the president laments about the present situation since he foresees a situation in which the citizens will suffer due to changes in election laws.
Even though the author is questioning the commitment of the president, he acknowledges the loopholes in the existing legislation. He also adds that it is impossible to empower people to vote on one hand, and at the same time, using legislation to restrict the same individuals from expressing the sentiments. Therefore, from his perspective, the president should take the lead in altering the laws if he feels agitated by the actions of partisan politicians. Lastly, the president should direct the message to the parties involved in the ratification of the legislation to affirm his commitment to the electorate.
Cohen, Andrew. Obama on Voter Suppression: The Right Speech in the Wrong Place. The Atlantic monthly group. Sourced from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/04/obama-on-voter-suppression-the-right-speech-in-the-wrong-place/360573/
Civil Rights during War best essay helpName:
Civil Rights during War
On December 7, 1941, Japan staged a surprise military attack on the U.S Navy at Pearl Harbor. Japan’s aim was to conduct a preemptive strike that would deter the United States’ Pacific Fleet from disrupting its military campaign in the Southeast Asia region. At the time of the attack, the United States had not been actively involved in any battle during the Second World War although it assisted with military supplies and humanitarian aids. Japan’s attack on the United State’ navy failed to achieve its objective of discouraging the United States from joining the war despite the casualties and losses incurred. Instead, the attack resulted in an increased public support against Japan and other forces supporting the Axis powers. The United States officially joined the Allied forces in the Second World War after the Pearl Harbor attack. Since the United States did not provoke Japan in any way, historians have argued whether the Pearl Harbor attack was necessary.
The Pearl Harbor attack also drastically changed the political atmosphere in the United States within a short time. The Japanese, who were initially accepted as part of the American community, were suddenly considered foreigners and a threat to the Americans. The Japanese Americans were forcefully moved to relocation camps on May 19, 1942 under the Civilian Restrictive Order. The other Americans supported the move arguing that the Japanese – regardless of their citizenry – posed a threat to the American society. Consequently, the Japanese Americans faced the risk of being attacked by the other Americans due to the general hatred against the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second World War. On the other hand, the Japanese contested the move since most of them were legally American citizens by birth and naturalization. This implies that the decision to force them into internment camps was not a violation against their constitutional rights. I believe that the move by the United States government to force the Japanese Americans into the relocation camps was constitutional and necessary given the political atmosphere that existed in America during World War II.
The United States government’s forceful removal and incarceration of Japanese Americans after the Pearl Harbor attack was constitutional because it met the “clear and present danger” test. The main purpose of “clear and present danger,” test was to create limits where citizens could freely exercise their First Amendment Rights in situations where exercising the rights could cause harm or unrest in the society. The “clear and present danger” test particularly focused on the misuse of the freedom of speech where an individual’s comments in public places could result in incitement of others into breaking the law. Although the “clear and present danger” test applied to speech, it is also relevant during conflicts where a specific group of people is in danger of being attacked by other members of the community. In this case, the Japanese Americans were in danger and the decision to relocate them to safe areas is meant to prevent other citizens from attacking them.
In supporting the Supreme Court’s ruling regarding the case presented by Fred Toyosabuto Korematsu, Justice Felix Frankfurter noted that the decision to confine the Japanese Americans in safe zones was valid based on the context of the war against Japan. Justice Frankfurter pointed out that the United States government’s action was necessary to protect the Japanese Americans, and that such a move would be illegal in times of peace. In opposing the Supreme Court ruling, Justice Frank Murphy argued that the ruling was racially motivated and directed against the minority groups. Justice Murphy argued that if the ruling were not subjective, then it would also be imposed on the Americans of Italian and German ancestries. However, this argument was baseless at the time of the ruling because the Italian and German forces had not attacked the Americans, and the hatred against the two countries was less when compared to the anti-Japanese sentiments. In differing with the Supreme Court’s ruling, Justice Robert Jackson argued that the court’s decision to charge Korematsu for violating the directive to restrict the movement of Japanese Americans. Jackson noted that the directive was made when the country was at peace and that it set a precedent where military leaders could misuse their powers to control the citizens regardless of their ancestry. Consequently, Justice Jackson argued that there was need to prevent the military from misusing its powers.
In conclusion, I concur with the court’s decision to move the Japanese Americans to the internment camps given the political atmosphere that existed in the United States after the Pearl Harbor attack. The American citizens were understandably upset with the Imperial Japanese government after the Pearl Harbor attack. The loss of many innocent lives in an unprovoked attacked caused many Americans to hate Japan. Consequently, the Japanese Americans were at risk of being attacked by other Americans who might have considered them sympathetic to the Japanese government. I believe that arguments contesting the decision based on racial grounds are invalid because the United States consists of many minority groups that were not affected by the Executive Order 9066 that restricted the Japanese Americans to internment camps.
Fracking and Cost online essay helpName:
Fracking and Cost
Oil fracking involves the injection of a mixture of water, sand, and various chemicals at pressure into used oil wells to increase the amount of oil and gas extracted from such wells. Oil fracking has become a common oil and gas extraction method within the United States during the last ten years. The United States has succeeded in increasing its output of oil and gas due to fracking. However, I believe that oil fracking within the United States is a harmful activity that has many adverse consequences on local and international communities. Consequently, the United States government should immediately stop all the oil fracking activities within the nation.
I believe the idea that the United States will benefit from stopping fracking is true because the costs of fracking are higher than that of conventional extraction methods. Conventional oil extraction involves drilling wells in areas with a sufficient amount of oil reserves and natural gas. The high amount of pressure within the well forces the crude oil and natural gas out of the oil wells into storage tanks. Pumps are used in situations where the amount of pressure in the ground is diminished, and a little oil flows out of the wells. In both cases, the cost incurred in extracting crude oil is very low. On the other hand, fracking involves pumping a concoction of large volumes of water, chemicals, and sand into the wells to force out the oil. This makes fracking more expensive than the conventional oil extraction processes.
I believe that the argument that fracking is harmful to the environment is true because fracking involves injection of hazardous chemicals into the ground. The chemicals used in fracking include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and sulfates. These compounds are hazardous because they are carcinogenic and toxic. Large volumes of the dangerous chemicals remain underground during fracking, and they may pollute the underground water (BBC News, par. 6). Disposal of the used chemicals that is extracted together with the oil and polluted water is a major challenge in fracking process. Some of the hazardous used chemicals are poorly disposed of, and this damages the environment.
I believe that the argument that fracking affects local communities is true because fracking requires large volumes of water for each well. As Giesen (par. 12) points out, each fracking well requires approximately 20 million gallons of water. Companies involved in fracking usually transport the required water to the extraction site using tankers although some of the water is withdrawn from nearby water bodies. The tankers cause noise and air pollution that affects the local communities. Extraction of water from nearby water bodies reduce the quantity of water available for farming activities, and this may adversely affect the livelihood of local communities.
I believe that the suggestion that fracking affects international communities is true because oil production and exportation are the main economic activity for many Arabic countries. The Middle East region is mostly arid, and the local communities rely on oil extraction as their main economic activity. Most of the local communities in the region cannot practice economic activities such agriculture or fishing due to scarcity of water. Since fracking reduces the reliance on oil from the Arabic countries, it exposes people living in such regions to economic hardships.
I believe that the idea that fracking affects the world economy is true because fracking makes oil prices unstable. The international crude oil prices have remained stable for a long time because the quantity of extractable crude oil from conventional wells is predictable. On the other hand, the amount of oil extracted through fracking fluctuates significantly. Sometimes, the amount of oil produced from fracking wells is high but the quantity may diminish quickly. Since the amount of oil available influences, the price of the commodity, the oil produced through fracking affects the prices of the oil produced through conventional methods by increasing the quantity of available oil. However, studies indicate that the amount of oil extracted through fracking will reduce within a few years as the supplies get depleted (Dimick, par. 13). This makes the price of oil unstable and affects many businesses both locally and internationally.
BBC News. What is fracking and why is it controversial? June 27, 2013. Web. March 18, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-14432401
Dimick, Dennis. How Long Can the U.S. Oil Boom Last? December 19, 2014. Web. March 18, 2015. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/12/141219-fracking-oil-supply-price-reserves-profits-environment/
Giesen, Tom. Why Fracking & Tar Sands are Doomed: Low-Cost Oil and Pollution. January 26, 2015. Web. March 18, 2015. http://www.juancole.com/2015/01/fracking-doomed-pollution.html
The Consumption Difference in Different Social Classes best college essay helpName
The Consumption Difference in Different Social Classes
There has been a growing disparity in the consumption patterns in China. This paper will seek to highlight the consumption differences along social classes and its impact on individual lives. It also focuses on the exact extent of the economic differences between the wealthy and the average families in China. Wealth disparity is a major issue in China as a few elites control most of the wealth with the majority living in poverty.
The urban Chinese society’s consumption pattern indicate a continuum of consumption trends with major variance in consumers’ income, educational level, household composition and durable ownership rate, with Shanghai and Beijing being the most expensive. Clustered analysis of consumption patterns in seventeen member countries to the OECD between 1965 and 1981 show the close relation between consumption patterns and the economies of the individual countries.
Does the huge disparity in wealth between the poor and the rich in China determine their consumption patterns, lifestyle and social class?
The gap between the poor and the rich in China is too large. Few people control most of the wealth in the economy as billions live in poverty. If the trend continues, then “the richest one percent of the world’s population will have more wealth than the remaining 99 percent of the people”.
One of the issues brought by wealth disparity is that different classes tend to consume different types of goods. Poor people would consume cheap goods as the rich live lavishly. This goes to an extent of creating social problems such as dysfunctional marriages when two spouses come from different economic backgrounds. Their hobbies, interests and lifestyles all seem not to match.
There is need for the government to control the situation by taking proactive measures that would initiate the redistribution of wealth in the country. This could be the social motivating factor for poor criminals who might find it unavoidable to obtain property from the wealthy elite forcefully. The government’s intervention would help to reduce the social tension brought about by few people controlling most of the resources while the majority are suffering.
China has an increasingly disparate economy that is unfavorable to the poor people. Without any correction, the trend can prove harmful in the future when a majority of the people are denied economic opportunities to grow. The economic standards of families greatly influence the lifestyles and preferences of individual households.
To better the lives of people living in China, the government should focus on empowering the majority poor economically, as the living standard is determined by the personal wealth a person controls.
Dodge Super Bowl Commercial online essay helpName:
Dodge Super Bowl Commercial
Picture a scene in a charged action movie involving high-speed chases in narrow streets, the open country, or in racing tracks, perhaps the NASCAR. Imagine the “Most American Car” with a history of more than a hundred years among the top three cars leading the chase or race. The car that guarantees one of the best performance at the lowest cost possible for a muscle car. Which car comes to your mind? Is it a Viper, a Hellcat, a Challenger, or Charger? Any way you choose, you most likely have pictured a Dodge – one of America’s most popular and cost-effective muscle car – a brand with a tradition of high-quality performance through time. Dodge is undoubtedly one of America’s most popular cars that have been featured in many action movies and games such as “the Fast and the Furious” and “G.T.A”. Many police departments also use Dodge for various purposes including conducting patrols and high-speed chases. Dodge is truly an American car that represents the American spirit of freedom and power.
Dodge has undergone extensive transformation through its 100-year history. The company has also endured several financial depressions, including the Great Depression in the 1920s that resulted in the closure of many companies. The car represents the resilience of the Americans when faced with different challenges. Dodge decided to celebrate its 100th birthday with an interesting advertisement featuring a Dodge Challenger. Although all the individuals present in the video titled “Dodge Wisdom” are more very old, I believe that the advertisement is meant for the younger generation of Americans. The “Dodge Wisdom” commercial by Richards Group is effective in making the Dodge vehicles look appealing to young Americans who desire to own a truly American car that has been tried and tested within the highly competitive American automotive industry. The young Americans seek rides that would illustrate their free, resilient, and adventurous spirit while demonstrating their desire for powerful vehicles. Dodge vehicles provide all these and more features while maintaining low prices compared to other brands of vehicles with similar characteristics.
The “Dodge Wisdom” commercial by Richards Group is an attempt by the Dodge Company to illustrate their experience within the automotive industry and allow the company appeal to more of its target customers. Richards Group created the “Dodge Wisdom” commercial to demonstrate the extent of Dodge’s experience within the American automobile industry over the last 100 years. The commercial seeks to assure the young and middle-aged Americans that the company understands what they need and that the company is ready to offer high-quality cars at affordable prices. Horace and John Dodge founded Dodge in 1914, and the company has been focused on producing cars that appeal to the young and middle-aged Americans throughout its history. Dodge was committed to producing fast and powerful cars that would appeal to the adventurous customers. The company has been outstanding in producing innovative vehicles that define technology, emotion, style, and performance. Dodge built its heritage based on ingenious engineering, racing technology, and muscle cars while offering a wide variety of crossovers, SUVs, and minivans built for the highest performance in their classes (Fiat-Chrysler Automobiles, par. 15). Dodge’s products offer class-leading performance and innovative functionality.
The first car produced by the company was the Dodge Model 30 that had a four-cylinder engine. The car was built to compete with the Ford Model T that was in large numbers throughout America. Model 30 had many features that made it more powerful than Ford’s Model T. For instance, the Model 30 produced more horsepower and had the better transmission system when compared to the Model T. Throughout its history, Dodge has been popular among customers seeking cars that consistently performed well. In the 1960s, the company unveiled the Dodge Coronet 440 and the Super Bee to meet the demand of customers interested in high-performance cars. Dodge has also produced many models of family and luxury cars throughout its history. For instance, the company produced the A and B Series during the 1970s while the 1980s saw the introduction of the Ram Wagon and Ram Van. Dodge has also manufactured a wide variety of pickups and trucks throughout its history. One of its earliest trucks was the Dodge K-34 truck that was manufactured in the early 1930s. Examples other Dodge trucks and pickups include the Dodge D100, Dodge D15, and Dodge Ram among others. The company’s main emphasis has always been to produce high-performance vehicles that are affordable to the masses despite the variety of its products. Previously, Dodge has used popular entertainers to advertise its products to the young and middle-aged Americans. For instance, the company used Pitbull – a popular Miami-based rapper – to advertise its Dodge Dart model in 2013 and the commercial targeted the multicultural millennials. In 2014, Dodge used the popular actors and comedians, Jake Johnson and Craig Robinson to advertise its 2014-2015 Dodge Dart in a commercial titled “Don’t Touch My Dart.”
Dodge clearly sought to appeal to the young and middle-aged Americans although its latest advert features very old individuals. Although the “Dodge Wisdom” commercial does not show any image of a young or middle-aged American, it becomes clear towards the end of the advert that the target audience are the young Americans. The commercial starts with some elderly individuals apparently advising the younger generations to on many issues. The first character, Reginald Gooch, states that he is a hundred years old and has things to tell the world concerning his experience (0:06). The characters who follow Gooch encourage the audience to live for their moment since life is good, and the audience make it good. The comments are presumably directed to a young audience who still have enough life to live and learn from the elders. The next character, Lee Gibson, tells the audience that they will learn not to cheat (0:16). The statement clearly indicates that the commercial is directed towards the younger generation. When the Gibson says “you will learn,” he is clearly not directing his comments to his old peers as they have already learned their lessons. Gibson seems to implore his audience to tell the truth about Dodge, as he will tell them about his experiences over the last 100 years. However, the most straightforward statement that indicates that the advertisement is intended for the younger generation is when the George Gale (0:21) asks the audience to stay young.
The commercial would appear funny to the younger generation as they see an old man (Fred Wild, 0:30) having fun in a powerful car such as the Dodge Challenger. Although he appears “stern,” he later performs some stunts with the car that demonstrate that he is indeed having fun with the car. The music in the commercial also immediately changes as the audience hears some guitar sound associated with rock music. The characters in the commercial then start laughing, and they ask their audience not to complain or “bitch,” but to tell it as it is (0:34). I believe that the advertisement is neither racial or gender insensitive as all the groups are adequately represented by the characters in the commercial. The audience would react to the commercial by laughing at some of the characters who are featured in the commercial. For instance, it is hard to imagine an old man such as Fred Wild wildly driving a powerful car such as the Dodge Challenger. Hearing Lennie Bluett use phrases such as “pushing the pedal to the metal” would be funny because such a phrase is usually used by the younger generations. I believe that Richards Group intended to elicit laughter of the audience, especially when the old Dorothy Titleman tells the audience to open their eyes and shut their mouths. The message of the commercial cannot change over time.
The message portrayed by the “Dodge Wisdom” commercial is that despite the company’s long existence, it is still young and wild. The advertisement suggests that old age increases people’s experience and knowledge but does not necessarily reduce their agility or thrill for fun. The commercial presents a lot of evidence of the old people offering several pieces of advice to their audience. However, when Fred Wild performs various stunts in a Dodge Challenger, it demonstrates the fun and experience that comes with old age. This seems to suggest that Dodge has acquired adequate experience in manufacturing automobiles, and this would ensure that its customers would appreciate the quality of the Dodge vehicles. The meaning of the commercial is not obvious because it is not easy to relate the old people with a modern and powerful car such as Dodge Challenger. One would expect the old people to prefer slower and less “sporty” vehicles. The tone used in the commercial is emotionally laden as the audience is made to hear moving pieces of advice from 100-year-old people. However, the mood abruptly changes when these old people start making funny remarks. Towards the end of the commercial, Fred Wild uses a hand sign frequently used by rappers, and this could imply that he feels youthful while in a Dodge Challenger. Furthermore, Wild waves one hand out of the car while spinning the car and raising smoke from the burning tires. The rock music that plays as he spins the car accentuates his youthfulness and adventurous spirit. The car’s design also shows that it is meant for the young people. The car has shiny chrome wheels and big rims that are characteristic of cars preferred by the younger generations.
Although the “Dodge Wisdom” advertisement features old characters, the commercial targets the younger generation. The old people in the commercial are only used to demonstrate the long history that Dodge has had in the automotive industry, and the invaluable experience it has gained through time. The experience enables Dodge to manufacture high-quality muscle cars for the young and adventurous Americans who prefer high-performance muscle cars. The tone in the first part of the commercial makes the audience appreciate the importance of a successful 100-year tradition in manufacturing vehicles. The second part of the commercial is free-spirited, and this reflects the American spirit of freedom and adventure.
Fiat-Chrysler Automobile. Dodge Brand Targets Multicultural Millenials with Ad Campaign for All-new Dodge Dart Featuring International Music Superstar Pitbull. July 10, 2013. Web. March 17, 2015. http://media.chrysler.com/newsrelease.do;jsessionid=D068464527A29C015182B16328EA07BA?&id=14541&mid=324
Richards Group. “Official 2015 Dodge Super Bowl Commercial/ Wisdom/ #DodgeWisdom” YouTube. January 31, 2015. Web. March 17, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKKlqMs19tU
Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence a Potential Pathway for an Increased cheap essay helpName
Transformational Leadership and Emotional Intelligence a Potential Pathway for an Increased
For many years, scholars had grappled with understanding the role of non-cognitive elements on human behavior until the 20 century that behavioral scientist formulated theories expounding studies on the discipline. From their findings, the conceptualization of the non-cognitive was necessary for the explanation of the influence of the cognitive elements on human behavior. As discussed in the reading, the authors of the article assert that scholars can use that same logic in describing human influence on the action of others. With reference to the context of an organization, studying emotional intelligence could help expound the changing nature of human behavior. Emotional intelligence plays a great role in influencing the approach to leadership in an organization, particularly, those headed by transformational leaders.
From the analysis of various concepts that scholars have studied over the years when seeking answers to the sources of interpersonal influence, findings relate the influences of cognitive on behavior to the existence of emotional intelligence. In particular, the emotional intelligence influences the traits of a leader, which in turn affects the behavior of the person as a leader. Therefore, in order to conceptualize the role of cognitive elements of non-cognitive in behavior of leaders, it is essential defining terms relating to the concept holistically. As noted in the reading, the authors assert the point using theories describing the evolution of studies examining the traits of transformational leaders. His explanation is that lack of a proper definition of terms such as psychometric independence makes it difficult quantifying the effects of cognitive on leadership behavior. Nevertheless, the reading implies that the identification of non-cognitive traits has aided in the evaluation of the behavior of leaders.
Prior to the identifying the factors that link emotional intelligence with leadership, scientists relied on cognitive traits in evaluating human behavior. However, as time progresses, the notion changed, and researcher began studying the unquantifiable characteristics leading to the advancement of theories explaining human behavior. As a result, the identification of the cognitive elements became apparent, thus paving was for the discussion that would lead to concrete answers on the issue. As suggested by Brown and Moshavi, a myriad of factors influence human behavior and understanding.
Emotional intelligence plays a critical role in influencing the behavior of an individual and, as discussed in the paper, individuals possessing great emotional intelligence make good leaders. An example is the case of a leader who relates to the struggle of the people in finding solution to problems affecting the masses. This is because the factors that link emotional intelligence and the person’s influence are attributable to the person’s knowledge about the origin influence on his behavior. For that reason, transformational leaders exude traits that depict the urge to change the behavior of the rest positively. The same applies to charismatic leaders. As per the explanation, the authors of the piece are categorical that prior to making deduction on the issue, it is integral exploring relationship between human intelligence and the cognitive elements.
In seeking answers to the sources of influence on human behavior scholars succeeded in the seventies following breakthroughs in the studies of emotional intelligence. Another reason for the advances is the interest in espousing the elusive x factor. Despite the accomplishments, more research is necessary for people to use the knowledge of the past in understanding the sources of influence on behavior among leaders.
Changing the Colorado Parole System essay help
Changing the Colorado Parole System
Changing the Colorado Parole System
Parole is a conditional release of a prisoner upon agreeing to certain set situations and before completion of sentencing time. The coordinated program involves the parolees and the parole officers. The Colorado Department of Corrections oversees and administers the program.
Parole Procedure (Kannenberg, 2002).
Eligible inmates are required to have a well-detailed parole plan detailing those who will be responsible for the inmate if released, place of work and stay and any other relevant information needed by the Board. An inmate meets the Board 90 days earlier to their parole entitlement date. The DOC managers who thereafter submit the plan to the Division of Adult Parole Services prepare the inmate’s parole plan where a community parole officer (CPO) investigates it. Investigation in this case involves verifying the entire information plan. Verification entails making a visit to the inmate’s family, employer, recommended residence and any other individual considered as a resource to the inmate. Upon completion of the investigation, the board analyzes the inmates personal file, seeks opinion from the case manager, then makes a determination of the parole grant (Kannenberg, 2002).
Parole board members are knowledgeable in matters of judicial system, issues pertaining to victims of a criminality, correction management, and rehabilitation. The Board, made up of seven members selected by the governor and approved by the Senate are, two members from the law enforcement unit, one parole officer, and four citizens. Their main responsibility is to oversee inmate release and hearings. They conduct an interview to determine the inmate’s suitability of a parole. The interview may either be one on one or via telephone. Four assenting votes are required to allow for a parole. If the board grants a decision for release, a fourth additional member is required to approve it by a signature. Factors such as inmate’s behavior in the correction department, wrong record, up to date psychological status are put in to consideration to determine if a parole can be granted or not.
Engagement in criminal acts and additional information discovered by the board or member can result in the parole reheard again and, if possible, revoked. This would entail organizing a hearing to institute a revocation thereby resulting in the parolee taken back to the correction facility or extra conditions which can be set on the parole. Procedures of arresting the parolee are clearly set out. If not taken back to the correction facility, a parolee may face confinement for some time or be given a warning of unbecoming behavior. A well-disciplined parolee who is on parole would face assessment by the division of Adult Parole System on a regular basis, depending on the conduct and nature of conviction (Kannenberg, 2002).
The process of granting inmates parole is too short and strategies are needed to be put in place to implement stern measures before consideration of a parole. Due to corruption, chances are high for the parole plan to be doctored and wrong information given out to the Board. It is a worthy system and is good to decongest the prisons and enable criminal’s reform, but if not given equal measure of attention, it can be abused to the advantage of the criminals behind bars.
An effective parole system can work best and achieve much if instead of granting freedom, the inmates are confined in a less restricted facility for observation before release to the community. This should be a mandatory program for all inmates on a stipulated sentencing period. This can also reduce on the amount of time the Adult Parole System division spends on supervising and assessing released inmates. To make it much better and effective, an additional less restrictive facility built to accommodate inmates intended for parole for a stipulated period. Time under which close supervision, training and psychotherapy is undertaken.
Improving on the system will involve readjusting the budget in order to accommodate the new plans to change the parole system. An amount will be set aside to cater for the psychotherapy department which will be aimed at achieving effective reformation of the inmates before they are released on the parole system. In addition, setting up a less restrictive facility will call upon the readjustment of the financial plan to put up the new facility within the division of Adult Parole System. This too will call upon recouping much of the finances that were previously allocated to the division to the new facility.
Kannenberg Rand. (2002). Siciotherapy for Sociopaths-Resocial Group. New York, NY; PESI Healthcare LLC
HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA argumentative essay help
HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Course Code: Course
Month Date, Year
History of the People’s Republic of China
The topic of selection is about the history of the People’s Republic of China and the implications of historical developments on the advancement in the modern-day Republic. The focus is on the social, political and economic transformations in the country for the past decades and the significance of the changes in the adaptation of different ideologies in the country. The study will commence by defining the historical developments years after the attainment of independence in the country. After which, the narration will shift focus to assessing the impacts of the development on social, economic and political advances in the country for the past three decades. Afterward, the analysis will project the future of the country in terms of social, political and economic developments. The objective of the paper is to aid readers envisage the history of the republic after the reign of the Mao Zedong’s communist era to the present leadership of Jinping Xi.
The exploration of the cultural transformation will entail reexamination of the influence of leaders of the country on the political advances that led to the adaptation of communist ideologies in China. Since the nation is an economic powerhouse in the globe, understanding its history is important in the comprehension of the factors that contribute to the progress of the country. Hence, the reason the paper explores the history of the republic with focus on the contribution of the past leadership on cultural advances in the country. The intention is to help audiences conceptualize the past of the country as the source of the social and the political transformations in China for the past decades. Lastly, the overview of the history of the country since 1985 will also include the discussion on the cultural practices of the people in China.
China after Independence
China as a country has witnessed developments on several fronts over the few decades leading to the acquisitions of a stature as a global superpower. From the social front to the economic front, the recognition of China on the global scene has been growing over years. In the political front, for instance, the Communist Party has taken steps in advancing social progress in the country. As a result, the organization takes credit for most of the developments in the county. Even though many accuse the leadership of engaging in undemocratic practices, the involvement of the top brass in the affairs of the country has been instrumental for advancements in China. The conservativeness of the followers of the party has also been instrumental in the advancement of the history of the country. For that reason, it is apparent that China would be different in the absence of the communist party. People would have embraced norms that contradict socialist ideologies as the case in nations like Malaysia. Additionally, the authorities would have faced difficulties inculcating in people the traditions of preservation of Chinese culture while doing business.
History of China after 1985
The period before 1985 marked the beginning of the implementation of the five-year plan program by the communist party. As noted by historians, the plan was responsible for advancing the economic progress in the Country in the last three decades. It paved way for the implementation of reforms that harmonized growth in the manufacturing sector in the country. According to its proposals, the government was to initiate programs aimed at empowering the people to undertake entrepreneurship at various levels in the community. Since the program was not the first five-year plan in the country, leaders ensured its effectiveness by borrowing some ideas from the previous projects with a similar objective. However, unlike the previous programs, the proposal of 1985 was unique because it altered the economic landscape of the country drastically. In addition to encouraging foreign investment in the country, its adoption served as a strategy for boosting economic growth. Years after its implementation, multinational corporations began flocking the country in search for opportunities unlike before where it was uncommon for investors from overseas venturing into China. Due to the progress in the subsequent years, the government, on its part, undertook initiatives aimed at ensuring total alleviation of poverty in the country. According to the sentiments of some scholars, the blueprint spearheaded the liberalization of the economy of the country to some extent. This is because, after 1985, China witnessed an increase in number of foreign investors venturing in manufacturing in China. After some time, the investors set precedence for other entrepreneurs from the western world who were willing to expand their ventures overseas. From the historical developments, it is certain that search for opportunities that were nonexistence in the country began with the implementation of reforms in post-Mao regime.
The Political Changes in the Country for the Period between 1990 and 2000
The 1990s was characterized by political upheaval that culminated in the deterioration of the relationship of China with its neighbors. In Hong Kong, for example, the diplomatic engagement could not bring a halt to the squabbles amid the scholars in the two regions. It was later in the nineties that the diplomats convinced the Britons to cede control of the region allowing the authorities in Hong Kong to exercise self-rule. As the leader of the country at the time, Deng managed to restore the infrastructure of the nation. However, the changes were unsatisfactory to many in the population. After leading the people for significant number of years during the eighties, Deng Xiaoping handed over the reign of power to Jiang, who began his leadership by focusing on empowering the masses economically. Courtesy of his efforts, the nation witnessed advances that shaped the economic policies of the country to date. Similar to his predecessor, the leader envisioned a country that is self-sufficient in terms of production while adhering to Confucian ideologies. During the implementation of the ideals, the leader ensured the participation of the masses in programs directed at leveraging the growth of the economy. As a result, China made tremendous improvements since the state was enhancing transparency in almost every aspect of leadership. Despite the efforts, cases of misuse of public resources escalated leading to the rise in inequality in the country. Records of the time showed that the gap between the rich and the poor continued to widen during the period. The number of people out of work also rose making it difficult for the state to receive public support in advancing economic agendas. The government’s emphasis on establishment on big corporations was working to the disadvantage of the masses since the owners of the entities were using their influence in controlling economic activities in china.
Under the stewardship of Xiaoping, the state enacted a number of social reforms, but most of them were ineffective. This is because the people had developed the habit of opposing the ideologies of the ruling class regardless of the expected outcomes in the implementation of the plans. The few positive contribution of the social reforms at the time was encouraging advances in science that led to numerous inventions of postmodern China. As a result, a number of scientists ventured into space exploration since the government was providing support for such activities. Another development of the era that caught the attention of many in the public domain is the construction of Three Gorges Dam. According to scholars, there were sections of people opposed to the idea due to the notion that it was contributing to the wastage of public resources. The proponents of the government at the time supposed the move because they felt that such as investment was necessary due to the increase in population of the country.
As time progressed, various changes began taking place in the country due to the influence of leadership on the lives of people. For instance, the Macau region returned to China, even though, the leaders did not cede control to the Chinese. The diplomatic ties between the country and its allies improved under the stewardship of Jiang. As noted by scholars, the diplomatic advances improved due to the efforts of the leaders. A common example of a case in Clinton’s visitation of China and Jiang’s tour of the United States in the early nineties. Out of the many developments for the period, the progress in the education sector contributed to the advances in the country during the nineties. According to historians, the advances paved way for the economic progress of the early 2000s. However, little information exists because of the nature of the Chinese of being conservative. In the political arena, for example, the communist leaders are used to keeping secret in their engagement. This habit manifests in the conduction of diplomatic relations at international forum. From their engagement with the United States, for example, the country supports ideologies that many describe as undemocratic. An example of a practice in regulating as well as monitoring the activities of media in China. At present, the situation is changing, but the perception of many in China is that the United States is opposed to progress in china. The same will likely apply in the future despite the increase in globalization.
Hu Jintao just like his predecessors has faced numerous challenges relating to governance of the country since 2002. Beginning with the restriction on the use of social media, many in the population opposed the ideologies of the leaders on many fronts. Another area where the leader has recorded faced resistance albeit ascertaining progress is dealing with health related concerns. It was only years later that Jintao received accolades from the political leaders for steering the nation in the fight against SARS virus. At the beginning, Jintao could not address the situation in the country since his accomplices were focusing much on advancing socialist ideal at the expense of granting the masses their freedoms. As a result, the failures of the decision led to the adaptation of dictatorial principles that were later overruled in preferences of progressive ideologies. Interestingly, China still holds beliefs that foreigners consider retrogressive such as having a one party state.
On the cultural front, the country has not witnessed many changes over the years. The reason being that the Chinese are stuck to their traditions in almost every aspects of life thus making it difficult for foreigners to influence the behavior of the people. Even though, globalization is altering some of the traditional practices of the Chinese, the change in China is not like changes elsewhere. In particular, the advances are slow unlike similar progress in the neighboring countries. As reflected in the sporting activities, the Chinese still engage in martial arts while adhering to traditional principles. For dressing, the changes from the eighties have not been much. The only are where culture has witnessed tremendous progress is the increase in channels of communication and technological advances. Unlike before, the use of technology is predominant in china. This explains why in former Chinese territories, the social changes have been drastic in such territories. Another possibility is that the change will not happen faster since the cultures of the people uphold the tenets that reflect the ideologies of the communist party.
The possible notable changes for a person visiting the country for the first time since the eighties is the adaptation of different cultures by the youths in urban centers who perceive themselves as liberalized Chinese. The changes are due to the integration of different cultures into the Chinese culture. From the change in values of the youths to the expansion of the media industry, one can ascertain that China is witnessing tremendous changes in every aspect of people’s life. It is no longer the norm for the state to curtail some of the freedoms that people were not free exercising in the past. Commemoration of political activities is common today unlike in the past where the government restricted social activities that could compromise the stability of the state.
The early eighties was not marked with much progress since quite a number of programs were thwarting the efforts of entrepreneurs in the country. At the time, significant majorities of enterprises were state owned, and this made it difficult for private citizens to bolster economic growth. However, there were changes in various aspects of the economy with the progression in years. For instance, there was an increase in investment in agriculture by the state. In turn, production of food items increased, but the amount could not sustain the needs of the growing population. This forced the government to substantiate farming with the exploitation of minerals among many other economic activities. The intention was to pave way for reforms that will facilitate the growth of the economy. Deng at the time deemed it appropriate encouraging foreign investment in an attempt to leverage the production of local industries.
The country faced difficult times in 1993 due to escalation in prices of commodities in the domestic markets. In a bid to deal with the concern, the state established economic zones aimed at leveraging the production of local industries in the country. Following the amendments, the government had to rethink its strategy in dealing with economic issues facing the country since the policies were new. As a result, the state introduced measures aimed at curtailing the inflation. The challenges lasted until 1996, after which, the economy began recording some improvements. Unlike in the previous years, the rates of inflation were lower. Even before the nation could realize the benefits of the improvements, the entire region witnessed a crises caused by the instability of prices of commodities in the global marketplace. The resultant effect necessitated alteration of the policies of the country leading to slower economic growth for close to three years. It was after the ratification of the government policies that China began witnessing improvements in various sectors. However, in the period of the crises, foreigners were reluctant in venturing into the country. As a result, the developments made it difficult for the country to witness growth as it had been before.
The Communist Party implemented changes that led to the ratification of the legislation in the early 2000s in order to address economic disparities in the country. According to the legislation, the government had the responsibility of dealing with the rise in unemployment as part of its agenda. The changes were not restricted to economic activities since the ratifications recognized conservation of the environment as part of the agenda of the government. To the constitution, there were alterations of legislation to ensure equity in the distribution of national resources. Afterward, the adoption of numerous long-term plans that factor in the need for equality become synonymous with the proposal of the communist party. As noted, the implementation of an eleven-year program in 2005 was such an example. According to the plan, the communist party’s aim was creating a more balanced community in which each citizens is entitled to privileges enjoyed by the people in the wealthy class. Among the mentioned privileges included access to basic amenities such as healthcare and education.
At present, China is more stable economically, but the government is still grappling with the difficulty of initiating reforms that would stabilize the financial institutions in the event that an inflation occurs. This is because records indicate that in the likelihood of inflation, the economy of China is not secure from the instability that emanates from the external activities in the global market. Stability is only attainable in a regulated market where the government still sways decision of huge corporations in the country. However, this is no longer the case in China under the stewardship of Jinping Xi. On the economic front, the observation that still reflect the past use of fossil fuels. Similar to the eighties, the consumption of energy source is still on the rise despite plans by the National people’s congress of reducing the dependency on the energy source.
Observing the present situation in the country presents the glimpse of the future of the economic powerhouse. Going by the number of firms setting up in China, there exists the likelihood of China setting the trend for nation seeking to exploit the opportunities in manufacturing business. This is due to the availability of affordable labor in the country. Another likely historical development is that multinational corporations from the West will continue setting base in the country leading to the growth of China as the global leading economic powerhouse. In the social front, the people will witness a change in cultural norms of the people but not to a larger extent as the case in the west. This is because a majority of the people are conservative and as such, change cannot happen quickly in such an environment.
Fujita, Masahisa, and Dapeng Hu. “Regional disparity in China 1985–1994: the effects of globalization and economic liberalization.” The Annals of Regional Science 35, no. 1 (2001): 3-37.
Leung, J., and H. Xu. “People’s Republic of China.” Teacher education in the Asia-Pacific region: A comparative study (2000): 175-198.
Meisner, Maurice. Mao’s China and after: A history of the People’s Republic. Simon and Schuster, 1999.
Morton, William Scott, and Charlton M. Lewis. China: its history and culture. McGraw-Hill, 2005.
Sullivan, Lawrence R. 2007. Historical dictionary of the People’s Republic of China. Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press.
Young, Alwyn. The razor’s edge: Distortions and incremental reform in the People’s Republic of China. No. w7828. National bureau of economic research, 2000.
Zhu, Zhiqun. 2011. The People’s Republic of China today: internal and external challenges. Singapore: World Scientific.
Review of the Federal and State Judicial Systems college application essay help
Review of the Federal and State Judicial Systems
Review of the Federal and State Judicial Systems
Literature on judicial selection systems has given much emphasis on the function of legislature in determining the operation of the American legal system. Politicization in the justice system is currently a strategy used during election campaigns. This has affected the integrity of the judges calling upon a dramatic transition of the functions of both the federal and state courts. The objective of this proposal is to review the Federal and State Judicial Systems.
For many years, the United States has experienced a major collision between the law-making process rule and the welfare of the civil rights. The collision is evident, especially between the judicial process and the judicial system. Although the legislation occurs because of will of the majority, the judicial system operates independently, and is often headed by unelected persons. For instance, the President appoints the Federal Judges following the legal advice from the Senate. States select their judges pursuant to the federal laws. In both cases, the judicial selection processes used show a preference amid judicial independence against civil responsibility (Feeley, 1973).
Political literature, however, discloses a clear absence of consent on whether the United States Judicial system is capable of controlling its institutions using its mandate. Dahl (1957), on one hand, argues that in spite of the widespread conviction about the potential of the Supreme Court in administering other arms of the government, this court is a central element of the political governance and often imposes rules on the minority (Feeley,1973).
However, Dahl, notes that, on its own, the Supreme Court is almost incapable of executing its jurisdictions. This proposal is chiefly positive in that it explores the function the political sphere plays in developing judicial selection systems as well as influencing their function. Most of the literature cited in this proposal consists of texts based on interpretation of federal and state laws (Rosenberg, 1991). Indeed, this proposal intends to analyze the following research questions.
a) Are judges capable of influencing the society in fundamental ways based on the judicial positions?
b) Do judge-made policies have any impact on the society?
c) Is it necessary to care about the politics in the judicial system?
d) Is it important to create a distinction between the legislative process and the political process?
The accessible research data will control and restrict the research strategy used in the proposal. The proposal will focus on various laws, such as Civil rights vs. Civil liberties and Criminal law vs. Civil law.
The United States governance has a role in safeguarding the integrity of the judiciary. Judicial intervention is, therefore, necessary to hallow the legislative process. Excess democracy is lethal to governance; therefore, legislators should strike a balance between safeguarding civil rights and majoritarian equality.
Dahl, R. A. (1957). “Decision-Making in a Democracy: The Supreme Court as a National
Policy-Maker,” Journal of Public Law 6:279.
Feeley, M. M. (1973). “Power, Impact and the Supreme Court,” in Theodore L. Becker and M. Feeley (eds.), The Impact of Supreme Court Decisions, Second Edition (New York: Oxford University Press).
Rosenberg, G. N. (1991). The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change?
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
Insulated Concrete Forms Output essay help onlineName
Insulated Concrete Forms
This project aims to construct a sustainable and resilient structure that can survive the unique harsh environmental conditions (including strong winds, etc.) of coastal regions. The ‘resilience’ aspect is concerned with firmness of the structure to stand strong winds, especially considering the relative looseness of coastal soils. The ‘sustainability’ aspect deals with environmental concern, that is, protecting the environment and mitigating against the potential adverse impacts of climate and weather factors that could expose the beach buildings to danger.
Using Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF)
To meet the objective mentioned above, this structure will be built using Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs). ICFs offer a number of key benefits for such buildings. For resilience, ICFs can be used in nearly every part of the building structure, including walls, floors and roofs. This means that the building becomes a solid, reinforced-concrete structure that can stand high winds and flooding. In relation to sustainability, ICF is considered to be in line with the pursuit for ‘green’ initiatives and processes. The buildings constructed with ICFs offer better insulation. This saves energy in buildings, thereby providing cost-effective energy efficiency.
Other benefits are associated with the costs of construction (in comparison to costs when traditional materials are used). The main cost-related concern in traditional construction focuses on reducing the initial construction costs. The use of ICFs goes further, addressing the operating costs as well, including indoor environmental quality that the homeowners have to deal with for the entire lifetime of the building. These cost benefits come from the relative cheapness of ICF building, energy efficiency as well as government tax incentives for energy efficient buildings (given per a specific square-foot size), among others.
Why Do Men Commit Rape? best essay help
Why Do Men Commit Rape?
Why Do Men Commit Rape?
Rape connotes a form of sexual humiliation in which one party uses force in initiating intercourse with another person. The act can take several forms depending on the motive of the offender, but according to records of the police in the United States, the common practice is the forceful sexual penetration. According to the reports from various media outlets in the country, rape is becoming a global concern since the number of cases is on the rise. With reference to the highly publicized case in India, there is the need for an urgent solution since things could worsen. However, it is important to understand the causes of the act prior to making deductions on the ideal ways for dealing with rape (Lalumiere, 2005). This explains the reason the reading explores the origin of the vice as an attempt of seeking solution to the problem. The writing will also classify the factors into different categories. The agenda is presenting information that serve as the guide for understanding the cause of rape in the contemporary society. The focus is on the cultural issues that lead men to commit the vice, and as such, the study will differentiate the myths from the facts of rape.
Causal Factors that Explain Why Men Commit Rape
A combination of factors contribute to men committing rape, according to McKibbin, Shackelford, Goetz & Starratt, (2008). Among them there are individual factors such as lack of self-control and environmental factors such as ineffectiveness in the implementation of legislation. The societal factors such as peer influence and poor upbringing equally contribute to the escalation in number of cases of men committing the social ill. Additional factor that contribute to men’s indulgence in the act is the acceptance of the vice as part of the culture of youths in informal settlements. As the media accepts the situation in their reporting, it becomes easier for people to continue perpetrating the vice. The continuation in reporting about a dramatic issue in the past also contributes to the curiosity into the subject resulting to increase in cases of violation of law by ignorant men. As noted by McKibbin, Shackelford, Goetz & Starratt, (2008), people tend to experiment ideas they learn about in the media. Therefore, in the case of continuous reports on rape the resultant effect is escalation in number of people experimenting with the act. People with a lack of morals also tend to engage in risky behavior that constitutes rape to some extent. However, due to lack of a proper definition for the term rape, classification of the act as a sexual offense is paramount in demystifying the theories surroundings men’s engagement in the act.
Generalization of the traits of the characters is entirely wrong since one offender differs in many ways from the reason that influences another criminal to commit rape. However, from the perspective of a legal practitioner, there exists commonalities in the behavior of the perpetrators of the violence. For example, the people who commit rape are psychologically disturbed in one way or another (Kanazawa & Still, 2000). The second similarity is that the offenders use rape as a tool for instilling fear in the minds of their victims. Another commonality in the behavior of the victim is the quest for sexual gratification. The men while committing the act derive more satisfaction in using force to their victims, hence these are the reasons many men chose to rape women as opposed to enticing women to sex.
There is also a linkage between consumption of drugs and escalation in cases of rape in some communities. This is because reports from criminal institutions indicate that areas of high prevalence cases of drug violence reports frequent instances of rape. For that reason, it is arguable that drug abuse could lead men to committing the crime. Based on the information from policing authorities, the mental instability also contributes to the escalation of cases of rape (Kanazawa & Still, 2000). An example is the case of a stressed husband committing the act to his spouse.
The belief in myths also contributes to the escalation in the act of rape in certain societies. With reference to rape in regions where the illiteracy is high, many of the perpetrators believe that subjecting their victim to inhumane conditions could grant them happiness. There are also circumstances where ignorant men believe that committing the act to a teenager could cure one from several diseases. Moreover, rape is not restricted to women who behave in a certain way or dress in a particular manner as people think. However, it is justifiable arguing that inappropriate dressing gives the perpetrator a leeway for escalation the vice (Gottschall, 2004). In addition to the unavailability of adequate housing exposing women to rape, prevalence of disasters such as wars contribute to escalation in cases of rape.
As a societal challenge, the increase in poverty can also lead to indulgence in rape. The explanation emanates on the premise that it is likely for a person from poor neighbored to engage in sexual violence as a means of expressing his anger to the society (Thornhill & Palmer, 2000). During the process, the person can choose a victim of the opposite sex with the expectation that mistreating the person will grant the person happiness. Another example is the case of a young man willing to express his masculinity but lacks the financial resources of doing so will resort to rape as the escape from reality. In turn, the person will not benefit in a way but the feeling of conquest will excite the character.
Another explanation according to Gottschall (2004) is that the behavior of the masses in the society contribute immensely to the continuation in the perpetration of the act. As noted, societies that do not condone rape has the high chances of recording cases of rape as opposed to communities where the authorities punish the crime. Cases of rape occurring in such environment are slim. From the explanation, it is apparent that the nature of the society plays a role in influencing the behavior. Furthermore, the number of rapes is high among people who know each other in comparison to men committing the act to strangers.
Apart from family background, the rise of the culture among people who belong to criminal gangs contributes to rising cases of rape. An indication that the men are not considerate in their choices of the victim (Felson, 2006). Furthermore, there have been cases of men rapping women whose sexual appealing is not enticing. An example is the case of a man raping a child of three years and below. Under normal circumstances, the possibility of such a person suffering from mental disorders is high.
In conclusion, there is an increase in cases of rape in the society, and this is attributable to a combination of factors. From poor upbringing to the ineffectiveness of legislation in the society, both environmental and individual factors contribute to men’s indulgence in rape. Even though, there exists variation in the behavior of the perpetrators of the violence, commonalities search as lacking morals and being mental disturbed characterize the lifestyle of rapist. Therefore, in an attempt to solve the issue, it is crucial employing strategies to focus on the problems holistically.
Felson, R. B. (2006). Is violence against women about women or about violence?. Contexts, 5(2), 21-25.
Gottschall, J. (2004). Explaining wartime rape. Journal of sex research, 41(2), 129-136.
Kanazawa, S., & Still, M. C. (2000). Why men commit crimes (and why they desist). Sociological Theory, 18(3), 434-447.
Lalumiere, M. L. (2005). The causes of rape: Understanding individual differences in male propensity for sexual aggression. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
McKibbin, W. F., Shackelford, T. K., Goetz, A. T., & Starratt, V. G. (2008). Why do men rape? An evolutionary psychological perspective. Review of General Psychology, 12(1), 86.
Thornhill, R., & Palmer, C. T. (2000). A natural history of rape. London: Cambridge, Mass.
The History of Labor Unions in America college admissions essay helpName
The History of Labor Unions in America
The United States recognizes labour unions as the representative of workers in many firms. Activities performed by the unions usually focus on negotiations concerning some disputable employment issues. Moreover, labor unions represent workers whenever there are contractual violations from the side of the management. It is quite important to view the labour unions in relation to the economic eras that ensued in America in the past. There were times of the agrarian, the industrial and the post-industrial era. In the 17th century, America had about 220,000 people and 95 percent of them were farmers. Most of the farmers practised small-scale farming, making labour unions lack any role. The earliest unions came into being around the 17th century, after the shoemakers established a trade union intended to review their wages and advocate for the reduction of working hours.
Throughout the 17th century, the United States was mostly agrarian. However, with the approach of industrial revolution, urban migration became very frequent. In essence, all the way through the United States history, labour unions have undertaken the initiative of facilitating negotiations between employees and employers. Employees strive to control decisions that relate to their pay, working conditions and job satisfaction. The prime objective of labour unions is to advocate for employees’ wage increment, reduction in working days and hours and conducive working conditions. These goals were unachievable in the ancient times. The origin of labour unions dates back to the colonial period when craft workers formed associations. However, labour unions became vibrant during the 18th century with the dawn of Industrial revolution (Dixon 157-174).
Discussion: History of Labor Unions in America
The earliest forms of labour unions in America were mainly the joint aid societies or the artisan unions that barred new entrants into the craft business and implemented workplace policies. Because of the scarcity of craft workers and industries, labour unions had an insignificant role in solving workforce issues. In most cases, the number of scandals affecting employees were trivial and irrelevant. During the 19th century, industrial revolution caused great changes both in the job market and in the industrial sector. Apparently, with the increase in industrial activities, challenges were inescapable. Nowadays, there often exists a disparity between the skilled and the non-skilled employees. A similar issue occurred during the industrial revolution. Initially, the skilled and the unskilled employees worked in collaboration. However, industrial revolution necessitated division of labour based on competence and qualifications. Therefore, employment opportunities were on merit basis, and the unskilled employees felt threatened (Voss 145-156).
The disparity between the skilled employees and the unskilled employees was evident. Furthermore, the inception of industrial revolution widened the gap between the employers and employees. Employees, especially the unskilled, felt threatened because employers could reduce their pay at their will. Moreover, employers were not mindful of the employees’ working conditions nor whether the wages paid were commensurate with the tasks undertaken. The employment sector was in chaos and there was a need for a lasting solution to save the labour force. This compelled the craft workers to form associations that could bar employers from exploiting them. (Dixon 157-174).
Factors that Prompted Employees to Form Labour Organizations
After the civil war, restoration period started and most employees wanted the government to recognise their presence. Therefore, the formation of unions happened because of the effect that industrial revolution had on the economic and social life of workers. There was a need to protect employees from severe economic conditions and other eventualities. The industrial revolution period had its benefits as well as limitations. For instance, it was discovered the water energy to operate machinery and steam engines. However, rather than improving the standards of living, these discoveries and innovation aggravated poverty. This became worse during the civil war period since the gap between the rich and the poor widened. Employees became aware about the power vested in their employers and this heightened the need of forming unions to represent workers (Dixon 157-174).
The United States government, therefore, legalized labour unions by allowing employees to join the unions irrespective of their race, gender, skills and nationality. In 1886, the formation of the American Federation of Labour (AFL) advocated for the establishment of stronger unions. In essence, the establishment of the AFL was to safeguard the skilled labourers from exploitation. For instance, in 1902, following a strike orchestrated by the coal miners, the judicial system implemented an intervention method intended to bar workers from causing havoc. The reason for the strike was to reject the settlement proposal (Voss 145-156).
However, with the intervention of President Theodore Roosevelt, the coal miners resumed their duties. Afterwards, the miners’ wages were increased by 10% and the working days reduced. In 1935, the AFL management team created the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO). The mandate of the CIO was to unify the workers. The CIO organized a number of campaigns advocating for the significance of industrial unionism. During the Second World War, AFL and CIO merged their efforts and formed AFL-CIO to protect the interests of workers. Employees started seeking for freedom and wanted working hours to be reduced and the pay increased. They demanded the working hours to be decreased to ten hours and the workplace conditions to be enhanced. The workers consolidated these ideas with the intention of pursuing a common objective (Voss 145-156).
Forming labour unions helped to preserve their socio-political and economic interests. The unions formed were operated locally, but with steady improvements in both the market and products, the unions became a global concern. In other words, the labour unions began with the ancient history of the United States. Pilgrims that migrated in Plymouth were specialists in artistry. Following industrial development, the country required more workers, especially those with special interests in carpentry, cabinet making, and shoemaking. All these employees played a major role in fighting for American independence. Therefore, there was a need to recognize their efforts and reward them accordingly.
In broader terms, workers wanted the government to review their working conditions by compelling employers to offer conducive environments for working. Additionally, employees were seeking for the reduction of working hours as well as an increase in their wages. However, their plea was ignored and they had to organize strikes. In 1974, the group of employees that organized a strike was composed of printers, followed by cabinetmakers in 1796, carpenters in 1797 and lastly by the cordwainers in 1799. During the 19th century, workers engaged in frequent strikes and negotiation processes in an attempt to fight for their rights (Dixon 157-174).
Formation of Labour Organizations
The employees’ effort to compel employers to enhance their standards were largely unsuccessful. They started forming labour organizations such as Knights of labour union, American Federation of labour among others to represent their grievances. However, these labour unions had conflicting ideas and they aggravated employees’ problems rather than finding a solution for them. Since these labour unions had a common objective of protecting employees, they joined their efforts with the aim of melting down unscrupulous employers (Fink 239-257).
By the 19th Century, labour unions in America had been formed. Their main aim was to oppose the social problems and negative economic effects that had been brought about by industrial revolution. Establishment of labour organizations started during the Civil War period. In 1880s, the Knight of Labour organization was operational. In a couple of years, the Knights Labour Union had a total membership of about 750,000, yet, the disparity between the skilled and the non-skilled labourers still existed. However, the operations of the labour union came to a halt following the riots from the employees. The objective of organizing the riot was to disintegrate the corrupt leadership and ineffective management within the union. Additionally, the riot was to alert the government of the day to intervene and save employees from ruthless employers. The riots left the union in fragments. Afterwards, because of the mismanagement, the government disbanded the union (Voss 145-156).
In 1886, Samuel Gompers established the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Gompers migrated with his parents in the United States while he was still a little boy. He started producing cigar and later became a leader of AFL. The union experienced a couple of challenges that prompted the founders to establish a federation consisting of skilled laborers only. However, a series of strikes followed that prompted the government to intervene using court injunctions and legal force to end the havocs. It is a fact that the American Federation of Labor is the most remarkable union in the United States history (Fink 239-257).
In 1912, a historic event happened in America. A mayhem orchestrated by the industrial workers happened in 1912 in the textile industry in Lawrence City. These workers were always in conflict with the American Federation of Labor. The strike started when the industrial employers reacted against the government’s action of reducing employees working hours from 54 to 52. Following the action, employers took the initiative of cutting down workers’ pay rates by 15.5 percent without giving notice. The strike brought about worse results. The performance of workers deteriorated because of fear and victimization by police officers (Dixon 157-174).
Furthermore, militia attacks interrupted peaceful gatherings that amplified public support for the strikes. Children and women sustained severe injuries and the public protested, compelling employers to remove the pay cuts as well as increase the wages to a realistic level. America Federation of Labor urged the Congress to create an independent department of labor with the obligation of safeguarding the rights of workers. In addition, AFL suggested the creation of children’s bureau with a mandate to prevent child labor.
As Fink (239-257) observes, the enactment of Clayton Act in 1914 explicitly authorized peaceful demonstrations and boycotts. It vividly disempowered court injunctions during labor disputes. It was an era characterized by high rate of unemployment. However, economic depression had reduced the wages, causing most of the unemployed people to experience financial hardships. Furthermore, the depression destroyed the unity maintained by the labor unions leading to the loss of members. The decision of the National Association of Manufacturers to weaken the status of the labor unions aggravated the problems.
In 1935, John L. Lewis declared the establishment of the Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) comprised of leaders from the American Federation Labor. Its purpose was to focus on uniting industrial unions composed of unskilled labourers. CIO had the mandate of organizing peaceful campaigns intended to coalesce unions and create awareness on issues regarding workers’ rights. American Federation of Labor and Committee for Industrial Organization joined efforts during the Second World War in addressing the challenges affecting all the labourers. The amalgamation of the AFL and CIO engendered a new look on the labour movements. For instance, the merger addressed the need of ending the disputes that had inundated the labor movements for many years.
The labor unions prioritized on organizing laborers in systems that never existed before. In most situations, it supported the abolishing of the old system of doing things by creating awareness to all employees on the need of joining labour unions. For nearly four decades, labour unions have experienced a steady decrease in membership. One reason that necessitated such a decrease is the employers’ decision to detach their businesses from labor unions. Some employers perceived labour unions as a threat, and sought for legal assistance to combat the union. Other firms included employees in their executive team and rewarded them accordingly. Another reason that contributed to the decline was the additional laws that permitted women and teenagers as income earners.
Often, women and youth have the tendency of accepting low wages, thus contradicting with the objective of forming labour unions. Another contributing factor towards the decline of membership in unions is that they fall victims of their own efforts. Labour unions increased their wages considerably beyond the wages rewarded to the non-union labourers. Hence, most of the products and services rendered by the union workers are costly and customers shift their focus into the foreign products or those from non-union workers. Therefore, firms attached to the labour unions end up cutting back on their production, which is stagnating in the end. Furthermore, most countries have increasingly relied on the emerging technologies rather than using the conventional industrial labour (Dubofsky 123-134).
Decline of Labor Organizations
According to Fink (239-257), Labour unions encounter innumerable challenges while representing its workers. The key challenge is the limited number of members, a problem that has existed since the 1960s. Another major challenge is corruption in the unions. The third one is the conflict between workers and labour unions. During the reign of President George Bush and Bill Clinton between 1989 and 2009, labour unions had slim chances of influencing legislative changes. However, according to Nelson, Barack Obama’s administration in 2008 brought in some glimpse of hope. Labour unions had one major legislative objective of reorganizing the unions and certifying them, as well as re-educating their members.
Labour movements, therefore, advocated for the approval of the Employees Free Choice Act. The Act was to encourage collaboration between employers and unions. However, the business community and the republicans campaigned against the bill, alluding that the new law intended to exclude workers from voting for or against unionization. Therefore, the bill lacked the required support to be passed as law. However, labour unions hoped to achieve their agenda even after the defeat in 2009, yet it was explicit that unions would never control the corporate community (Dubofsky 123-134).
Furthermore, the decline in private sector membership was a clear indication that employers perceived unions as a threat to their success. Even though membership with the public sector stood at 36 percent between 1980 and 1985, it declined in the private sector from 20.6 percent to about 15.5 percent simultaneously. Subsequently, membership in the public sector was steady at 35.9 percent until 2012. The decline in the private sector was much worse than what it was in 1985. Generally, by 2013 the percentage of remuneration in the labour unions stood at 11.3 percent.
Issues affecting Labour unions today
In the last couple of years, most labour unions have undergone several transitions. For instance, there has been a decline in membership registration. Firms that detach themselves from the labour unions have triggered this decline. The United States reliance on technology has contributed in neglecting industrial jobs, which are the strongholds of the labour unions. Furthermore, education has ended producing a society that has no interest in these unions and rather focuses on the white-collar employment. The government plays a big role in ascertaining that the labour unions conduct themselves effectively (Fink, 239-257).
It always intervenes whenever a conflict arises between employers and employees. The government intervenes by imposing court injunctions and arbitrating cases involving offenders. Furthermore, there are significant labour laws implemented by the government that regulate the labour unions. In most situations, the government supports the employers during disagreements and imposes laws that bar strikes. For instance, in 1890, the court passed a verdict that illegalised all the labour unions. The AFL-CIO merger that was established in 1955 in America has begun creating new ideas regarding the future of the labour unions. Moreover, labour unions, especially those operating globally, are likely to experience tremendous developments in future because of stiff competition in the job market. This may affect the nature of labour unions that employees establish within and outside the country (Dubofsky 123-134).
Labor unions have existed in America since the ancient times. Initially, the objective of labor unions was to guarantee equal treatment of laborers. In essence, employees’ labor unions are important associations that transcend the history of the American labor force. Labor unions focus on urging employers to review employees benefits in terms of providing a conducive working environment and reviewing their wages upwards. The inception of industrial revolution is a major factor that triggered the formation of modern labor unions. Industrialization during the 19th century brought benefits as well as limitations. Employers, especially those without qualifications, felt threatened since employers could dismiss or review their wages downwards at their will. As discussed, the earliest labor union was composed of craft workers. The union aimed at baring employers from exploiting craft workers by paying them low wages under poor working conditions.
Afterward, under the common objective of protecting the interests of employees, other labor organizations such as Knights of Labor, Committee for Industrial Organization and the American Federation of Labor emerged. Employees acknowledged the significance of these unions and joined them in the fight for their rights. In an effort to guarantee that employers treated their workers with mutual respect, Committee for Industrial Organization and American Federation of Labor merged. Although the establishment of these labor unions was to safeguard the interests of its members, they encountered several problems that derailed their efficiency. For instance, corruption and management inefficiency barred these unions from achieving their objectives.
However, today, the American government prioritizes the concerns submitted by the labor organizations. The government urges employees from the public and private sectors to register in these unions to help improve the wellbeing of American workers.
Archer, Robin. Why is there no Labor Party in the United States? Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007
Dixon, Marc “Union threat, countermovement organization, and labor policy in the states 1944-1960 Social Problems, 2010, 57:157-174
Dubofsky, Melvyn. Hard work: the making of labor history. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000
Fink, Gary “Labor law reform and the end of the postwar era.” in organized labor and American politics 1894-1994: The labor-liberal alliance, edited by K. Boyle. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998, pp. 239-257
Nelson, Daniel. Shifting fortunes: The rise and decline of American labor from the 1820s to the present. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1997
Voss, Kim. The making of American exceptionalism: The Knights of Labor and class formation in the nineteenth century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993
SPORTS online essay help
Course Code: Course
Month Date, Year
2.1. Discussion 1: Socialization Agents
Socialization agents are those factors in the environment, in which one grows or lives, that influence their behavior, including value and beliefs.
Family has been the most influential socialization agent in my life. I come from a close-knit family, which has influenced how I see marriage. Moreover, although I have to interact with philosophical discussions on morals, and which essentially argue that it is hard to decide what ‘wrong’ or ‘right’, at the center of it, I do believe there are things that constitute both sides of the moral question. I believe it is wrong to steal and to kill, among other things. And this belief has to do with the religious foundation of my family.
On the other hand, media and TV have had little effect on me. Perhaps from seeing how my family behaves towards TV, I have never given it much attention to the point that it affects how I view the world. On the contrary, I seem to take from TV and other media just what confirms or further my values and beliefs, and attend lesser to what contradicts them.
2.2. Discussion 2: Sports
I do believe that my community would be willing to pay more taxes to help the youth and local sports. I grew up in North Shore, an area in Houston Texas. The community believes that sports help to keep the youth busy and away from crime. The ‘right’ upbringing of their children, maintaining high morals and security are big issues for the community. In this connection, a few years ago, the community built a new football stadium. I do believe the people would not mind to pay more if it assured them the values that are important to them.
News Story Presentation on Infanticide online essay helpName:
News Story Presentation on Infanticide
An exposé by Daily Telegraph showed that infanticide based on the sex of unborn babies in the United Kingdom is real and unscrupulous doctors have played a major part in advancing the practice. The two suspects, Dr. Prabha Sivaraman and Dr. Palaniappan Rajmohan, were accused of consenting to perform an abortion on a three-month pregnancy at the Calthorpe Clinic in Edgbaston, Birmingham. Video of the exposé can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nwoTOLDsks
Calthorpe Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/9102683/Abortion-investigation-doctor-caught-falsifying-sex-selection-paperwork.html
Although the police investigated the incident, the Crown Prosecution Service failed to initiate legal proceedings against the identified culprits arguing that the case was not in the interest of the public. As Bingham (par. 5) points out, the decision by the Crown Prosecution Service demonstrated the law’s vagueness regarding the infanticide. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (Bpas) argues that the 1967 Abortion Act does not illegalize gender abortion while the British Medical Association suggests that some circumstances could make infanticide legal. According to the Trades Union Congress (TUC), one compelling circumstance in which a woman can procure a gender-based abortion is if she risks domestic abuse due to her child’s sex (Doughty, par. 3). However, the Ministers insist that infanticide based on any reason is an outlawed practice. The confusion about the legality of selective abortion in the United Kingdom influenced the MPs to move a motion in 2014 declaring infanticide illegal. The motion garnered one of the greatest voting majorities in the House of Commons although it still lacked any legal force. However, the vote signaled that infanticide was an unacceptable practice in the United Kingdom. The move by the MPs helped in addressing the legal uncertainty over infanticide and amended the Serious Crimes Bill. However, the Trades Union Congress (TUC) vowed to resist the amendment arguing that available official guidance illegalizes gender-based abortion. The Congress also argues that the amendment fails to discuss the factors that perpetrate gender discrimination within the society.
The Calthorpe Clinic infanticide case introduces an interesting perspective on the gender-based crimes and violence against women. The exposé reveals the mistreatment of women even before they are born. Infanticide is not a new issue, and it has been practiced in several civilizations since time immemorial. Previously, the main reason for killing newly born children was if the children had severe deformities and were likely to suffer throughout their lives. Warring communities practiced infanticide where weak boys were killed to eliminate weaklings. However, infanticide has recently taken a new dimension where communities in developing and underdeveloped countries consider girls as undesirable children and kill them at birth. Cases of aborted fetuses dumped in latrines and dumpsites are rapidly increasing in several Asian and African countries.
Pakistani volunteers carrying aborted infants to their burial. Retrieved from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/1/14/infanticides-on-theriseinpakistan.html
Karimjee (par. 5) notes that infanticide is rife in South Asia, and young girls are at a greater risk of being killed by their parents. Karimjee notes that boys are preferred in the Pakistani society, and girls are killed because it is “expensive to feed them.” Selective abortion is also rampant in India where many young girls are killed each year. However, infanticide is also common in developed countries where doctors falsify record to abort fetuses based on their gender. Recent advancements in medicine allow parents to identify the gender of their unborn babies. This allows parents who do not wish to have girls to collude with dishonest doctors to kill the fetuses.
Retrieved from http://blog.wisdomjobs.com/a-girl-child-boon-or-bane/
In conclusion, the Calthorpe Clinic incidence demonstrates the emerging trend of gender-based crimes against women, selective infanticide. The technological advancements in medicine that allow doctors to determine the gender of unborn fetuses have allowed corrupt doctors and evil-minded parents to terminate their pregnancies to avoid giving birth to girls. Although the abortion debate draws mixed reactions from different quarters, the practice should be illegalized if it is based on the gender of the fetuses. Doctors should also ensure that they observe the high ethical standards expected in their profession.
Bingham, John. MP’s move could outlaw gender abortion within months. January 22, 2015. Web. March 5, 2015. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/11362298/Gender-abortions-could-be-outlawed-within-months.html
Doughty, Steve. Do not make gender abortion a crime because ‘it would divide communities’, unions tell MPS. February 23, 2015. Web. March 5, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2964511/Fury-unions-tell-MPs-not-make-gender-abortion-crime-divide-communities.html
Karimjee, Mariya. Infanticide is on the rise in Pakistan. January 14, 2014. Web. March 5, 2015. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/1/14/infanticides-on-theriseinpakistan.html
Effectiveness of attempts to protect soldiers during war cheap essay helpName
Effectiveness of attempts to protect soldiers during war
The First World War had one of the largest number of casualties. Many reasons are given to explain why the total number of people who died was high. First, the fact that the contemporary society was still in its development phase shows that the people did not have technology nor other advanced research tools that we have today. The consequence of this was having these people attacked with ease. Among the efforts used to protect the soldiers was the issuance of glass goggles. These goggles ensured the soldiers’ safety from gases that were poisonous to the eyes.
Effective and secret communication among the soldiers was initially difficult. There were times when the opposing troops would try to intercept communication between enemy soldiers. In such a situation, the unit leader lacked the ability to protect his troops. Even the early attempts to protect the soldiers from attacks through camouflage in such situations did not prove effective. However, communication improved later with the creation of power network posts. Lack of finance from the government is an indirect form of missing protection during the war (Grayzel 19)
Several analyses were done in the early years to determine what caused the large number of casualties among the participating countries’ troops. Leaked intelligence caused by intercepted communication channels was a key contributor to the death of troops. Most of the problems that existed in that era were political and the government noticed that the teams would not operate freely (Grayzel 2). To solve this, troops were given team code names through a military intelligence coordination program. This ensured the enemy does not understand the specific troop members being communicated to. This plan yielded results. This is because after communication was initiated, the troops would move to areas that were free, and this offered the frontline troops an opportunity to sneak past some of their infiltrated areas. The cost of protection was so high that people even started stealing important commodities such as ammunitions (Grayzel 13). The efforts made to ensure protection in this war were effective.
Grayzel, Susan. The First World War: A Brief History With Documents. 2012. Print.
The Effect of Politically Salient Decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court’s Agenda essay help
The Effect of Politically Salient Decisions on the U.S.
Supreme Court’s Agenda
For many years, politically salient decisions have in one way or another affected decision-making in America (Baird, 2004, 757). This article seeks to explore the intricacies of agenda setting on decision-making in institutions in America. At first, the reading examines the various factors that influence decision making in courts before establishing the relationship between political decision-making and judicial decision-making. As the study progresses, it narrows down to political factors that determine the selection of agenda in courts before describing the policy formulation process.
The Effect of Politically Salient Decisions on the U.S.
Supreme Court’s Agenda
According to the article, “The effect of politically salient decisions on the US Supreme Court’s agenda,” the court policies and controversial issues that create conflicts in societies such as gender debates formulate the agenda of courts. Another determinant of agenda is the nature of the policy and the contemporary issues affecting the populace (Baird, 2004, 755). While steering the process, policymakers usually formulate strategies for handling of cases that validate the continuity of use of the court’s policies. In the event that the cases are too many, the court solicits advice from litigants, besides examining extrajudicial actors that affect policy-making.
Politically Salient Decision on Courts Agenda
According to the reading, the Congress is more flexible when it comes to pursuing its agenda, unlike the Supreme Court, which is bound by the number of cases presented to it. While undertaking its obligation, the Congress adheres to certain guidelines that slightly differ from the approach taken by the Supreme Court. Even though the agenda of both institutions is similar, the latter influences developments in the political sphere in the country largely (Baird, 2004, 761). However, it is wrong to assume that either of the institutions is less instrumental in shaping political developments in the country. This is because developments in one institution directly affect the decision in the next institution, according to the author of the text. An example is the case of a court testing a hypothesis that would lead to the formulation of a particular policy. During the process, the litigants can choose to ignore the existing policies as an attempt to facilitate the creation of a new policy.
From the analysis of the influence of the legislators on agenda setting, it is clear that the Congress in one way or another can sway the direction of debates in the country. This is because the activities of the institution vary when it comes to matters of policy-making, especially when debating the decisions of the panel of the Supreme Court. Therefore, when seeking a political voice in America, it is arguable that without the support of the Congress, one cannot easily catch the attention of the Supreme Court (Baird, 2004, 758). As noted, from the review of cases forwarded to the Supreme Court, the institution usually chooses the case that serves the majority interest of the masses. Regardless of the opinion of the masses, the policy guidelines of the court determines the cases for pursuance.
A number of issues guide the litigants in choosing a case to present for discussion. Among them is the nature of conflict arising from the case, the disagreements with the subordinate courts and the support from legal practitioners. It is also justifiable to argue that the contribution of activists is integral to the process of setting an agenda in courts of the United States (Baird, 2004, 760). To some extent, previous decisions by the court considered politically salient usually set precedence for the subsequent decisions. During the process, the court usually identifies issues of much importance in policy-making. Thereafter, the litigants correlate numerous decisions prior to settling on an agreement. Additionally, terrestrial adjustments such as the alteration of the composition of a court aid are necessary in deterring the misuse of judicial precedence in making future decisions.
Baird, Vanessa A. “The effect of politically salient decisions on the US Supreme Court’s agenda.” Journal of Politics 66, no. 3 (2004): 755-772.
Community Policing custom essay help
Table of Contents
I. Introduction 3
II. Fighting Crime 4
A. Citizen Involvement 4
B. Police Involvement in Community Issues 4
C. Community and Groups 4
III. Conclusion 5
IV. References 7
Community policing is a concept that goes beyond fighting crime, restoring law and order, protecting members of the society, combating terrorism, acting against social disorder, and improving the livelihood of citizens. Several key components are required for a police service to measure up to the system of community policing. These include developing partnership with the community, engaging community stakeholders in problem resolution, and taking into action community organizational features. In essence, community policing is the close collaboration between the police and the local community. The relationship between the two is a cooperation structured on the platform of improving the livelihood of members of the community and citizens in general.
The system is based on nurturing of loving families and promotion of neighbors’ societal cooperation and an active government involvement in societies’ livelihoods. Community policing is geared towards mending the broken fabric of the society that might have been washed down the drain (Bratton, 2015). With soaring terrorist threats, crime hitting the roof, mistrust amongst neighbors and unfriendly cold attitude towards law enforcement officers, there is no better time to enhance and come together as one large family. As quoted by Booker T. ‘we may be as separate from each other in matters opinion and ideas as the fingers, but matters towards mutual benefit, we should be together as the hand’. For mutual progress, the community needs to come together and live as one with the common goal of improving livelihoods amongst its members (Miller and Hess, 2010).
The system is rewriting the laws of human relation to move away from the old concept of victimization and ‘man eat man society’. The notion behind community policing has gained support amongst members of the society as new ways of improving livelihood is gaining popularity. Leaders and members of the community have come to realize that public safety and quality of life lies in the hands of the community as a whole (Bratton, 2015). The framework of the system, its organization, and operations has all been shared out among the community stakeholders headed by the local leaders and the police force (Miller and Hess, 2010).
II. Fighting Crime
Community policing is very effective in fighting and improving on the ability of the police to fight crime, clear offenses, flush out criminals from hiding and make necessary arrests of suspects and the criminals. The idea of having the police mingle and socialize freely with the public improves on the capability of fighting crime and crime related activities (Brown, 2014).
A. Citizen Involvement
Community policing ideology is centered on concerted efforts to create a one united family with the welfare of the community in the hands of all stakeholders of the society. Citizens and the public are involved in operations together with the police. Such operations may include patrols, crime prevention operations and maintaining order in the society (Brown, 2014). In most cases, the police work with volunteers or chosen members of the community such as church leaders and youth groups.
B. Police Involvement in Community Issues
Members of the police force are genuinely involved in community issues and affairs. These may include clean up exercises, communal games, church activities and joint community engagement. The police are encouraged to take a central role in important issues. The police are also given leadership roles in community-based organizations to deepen trust with the locals (Bratton, 2015).
C. Committees and Groups
In most communities, it is easy to come across several groupings or committees mandated with a given obligation or activity. In order to reach out to the community effectively, the police are required to take up a central role in these committees and groupings to foster relations with the members of the public (Next City, 2014). This is because most criminals find a comfortable hiding place in community gatherings and go about creating havoc without much care. The presence of the police will obviously deter them from engaging in criminal activities.
Community policing best exists when the police spend most of their time in schools, recreational centers, business enterprises, homes, social centers, public meetings, church activities and cultural events, school events like sporting occasions and in the streets with members of the public. It does exist when members of the public can easily single out police officers by name, and when police officers recognize citizens and have an intimate knowledge of their well-being (Next City, 2014).
As quoted by the then the United States President Bill Clinton on the passage of the crime bill in New York,
‘…in neighborhood where children couldn’t walk to school alone, where elderly people double locked themselves in their homes, people are beginning to feel confident and safe again. In addition, community policing is at the heart of that philosophy. It has done more to bring the crime rate down than anything else has-the proper, wise deployment of police resources in a community fashion to prevent crime and to catch criminals’ (Public Papers of the Presidents, 1998).
Brown D. J. (2014, Dec 3rd). Return to Community Policing in New York. New York Times, 2
Miller L. S. Hess K. M. (2010). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem Solving. New York, NY: Cengage Learning
Public Papers of the Presidents. (1998, January 15). Remarks of Community Policing in Jamaica, New York, from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=55847
Bratton W. (2015, February). Cops Count Police Matter Of Tactics and Strategy. The Police Chief, 320, 7-11
Next City. (2014, September 15). Why Community Policing is Still a Good Investment, from http://nextcity.org/daily/entry/community-policing-efforts-success-failure
Review of Gottschalk, Peter’s “Police Criminality, and Neutralization” custom essay helpName
Review of Gottschalk, Peter’s “Police Criminality, and Neutralization”
The article provides a comprehensive analysis of excessive use of force by police on the pretext of curbing crime. Gottschalk identifies the various explanatory factors that give the police the motive to indulge in criminal activities. The empirical evidence gathered from the Norway court cases shows the relationship between the police officers and the suspected criminals. According to Gottschalk, corruption is the major driving force that causes police criminality. For instance, police criminality study in the United Kingdom unrolls various situations that perpetuate criminality. For instance, police may fabricate the evidence, coerce the suspects, and falsify the records for selfish gains (Gottschalk 501 – 512).
Furthermore, the judicial system also contributes in aggravating the problem. As neutralization theory explains, police may deny their misconduct because the legal system tends to safeguard their integrity. In showing the prevalence of police criminality, Gottschalk provides an empirical evidence capturing nearly 61 police officers involved in criminal offenses. The article is significant to the police agency, especially in the attempt of sanctifying the police force from a bad reputation. Gottschalk believes that the likelihood of police indulging in criminal offenses depends on the efficiency of the police practices.
As for the prevalence rate of police criminality, Gottschalk asserts that the integrity and accountability vested in the police force are decreasing. The author cites Australia and Norway as case studies that reflect the degree of police criminality. He believes that policies agencies are reluctant to their duty of ensuring police officers show competence and accountability in their services (Gottschalk 501 – 512).
Instead, agencies recruit individuals without conducting a background and reference checks on their ability and jurisdiction to undertake the policing service. Fortunately, Gottschalk says that offering rigorous training may curb the problem. The author is, however, not specific about the training required. It is important to note that police criminality entails the lack of the necessary qualities, such as honesty, to execute the policing services. Furthermore, the author fails to provide supporting evidence when he claims that every police agency has elements of corruption, unprofessionalism, and misconduct. However, Gottschalk addresses the subject of police criminality by identifying the various misconducts which are likely to cause criminality. The author mentions seven misconduct issues and provides a definitive discussion on each separately. Nonetheless, to reinforce the police criminality issue, the author should have cited real examples based on the empirical evidence collected from the court cases.
The author is very consistent in his work, in that, after identifying the misconducts, he reveals the techniques police use in evading from the criminal offenses. In essence, Gottschalk provides a theoretical analysis of police criminality by citing neutralization theory. The author says that criminal suspects often offset some intrinsic values that may prevent them from committing crimes (Gottschalk 501 – 512). In endorsing his claim on how neutralization theory motivates an individual to indulge in illegitimate acts, Gottschalk cites other sources, such as the work by Health (2008).
In addition, the author mentions other neutralization techniques as provided by Moore and McMullan (2009). Gottschalk uses simple and straightforward language in explaining the techniques utilized by Moore and McMullan. The research method used in gathering the evidence is explanatory. However, the author fails to specify the particular police misconducts that led to the sentencing in the 61 court cases. It is important to mention the misconduct in order to indicate the rate of prevalence. Furthermore, limiting the amount and nature of force the police applies in executing their service is significant for reasons such as prevention of crime, control of crowds and assertion of authority in chaotic situations. The expression ‘use of force’ poses a negative implication, in that it erodes public attitude towards the police.
Often, the use of force by police seems to aggravate the tentative relations between the police and the public. In addition to the harmful effects caused by brutality on police-public relations, police criminality cases are sometimes costly for police agencies to manage. The civil ligation reimbursements may overwhelm the agency. Therefore, the agency will always look for techniques to suppress the evidence incriminating the police officer. In this regard, the nature of services provided by police agencies increases their susceptibility to civil cases, particularly claims of extreme usage of police (Gottschalk 501 – 512).
The element that defines the ability of the police to execute their services effectively is the use of force. Police practices authorize the police to use varied amount of force to obtain required responses from people. However, Gottschalk notes that the police force tends to abuse that power and to compel the legal system to intervene. However, the same legal system that establishes the police practices is still the one that violates it.
In essence, the legal system protects the integrity of its officers by devising other ways of evading the truth. This is why police criminality is on the rise today. The author provides a clear and coherent discussion regarding police criminality and its implication on the community. However, the subject of police criminality requires further analysis on the grounds that necessitate the use of force.
Gottschalk, Peter. Police Criminality and Neutralization: An Empirical Study of Court Cases, Police Practice and Research: An International Journal 13, (6) 2012, pp. 501 – 512
Vacation online essay helpName:
Vacation refers to a specific period during which an individual takes a break from work. The main purpose of a vacation is recreation, tourism, and relaxation with members of the family (Bray, Bray 130). Although most companies and employers offer vocational time to its employees, the federal law does not obligate employers to give vocational leave. Vocational leave depends on company policy, casual agreements between employees and management, and collective bargaining arrangement. Vacations are given by employers depending on factors such as employment status, work schedule and company policy. The vacation may be either with pay or without pay depending on the nature of arrangement. There is no law regulating vacation leave and in most cases, it is considered as compensation (Bray, Bray 16).
The United States has a workaholic culture that has been entrenched so much into individuals that very few are ever comfortable with the notion of having time off away from work (Pawlowski, 1). Managements are reluctant to give time off and employees are unenthusiastic to take it. According to research, most countries excluding the United States have policies giving employees 10 and 40 paid days off (Bray, Bray 352). Visibility Antics, a company majoring in production of cans and bottles emphasizes on employees taking time off despite the tight schedule of the company policy. The company CEO agrees that most of his staff is timid in asking for time off, but he has introduced a flexible policy that enables the employees to have between 15 to 45 days off depending on their employment status. The CEO argues that all work and no play adds unnecessary strain and stress to employees.
In a survey carried out in the Company, employee’s production and response to responsibility and work in general improved after taking time off. The Company’s research into the employees’ health status reveals that high energy levels, fresh perspective and resourcefulness are boosted after some time off duty. To help and encourage the employees take vacations, the CEO has made it a habit of taking at least 20 to 30 days off each year. This has given employees the psyche to do the same.
The culture of workaholism in the United States can be reduced by employers and employees taking a look at other countries on how they handle the vacation subject. Most companies in Germany allow their employees to take a break when “most of the country kind of closes down (Pawlowski 1).” The debate needs to be widened to allow trade unions negotiate on behalf of workers to be guaranteed their jobs when they take the break (Bray, Bray 386). Flexible regulations and policies need to be adopted to entrench vacation in employment contracts to make it a legal binding contract between employers and employees in the country.
The United States ought to learn from other developed countries like France, German, Australia and other European nations on how they handle and go about giving employees time off. Employees need to be enlightened on the benefits of vacations whether paid or not. The workaholic culture can be managed and controlled if the trend of giving students time off away from school can be continued to the workplace and companies to be involved in creating awareness of the same. The government needs to establish policies introducing and regulating vacations.
Bray, Illona M., Bray Illona. Healthy Employees, Healthy Business: Easy, Affordable Ways to Promote Wellness. New York, NY: Nolo, 2012. Print
Pawlowski A., Personal. 23 May 2011
Thesis Paragraph: Single-Sex Education online essay helpName:
Thesis Paragraph: Single-Sex Education
The rapidly declining quality of education has recently become a major concern for stakeholders in the education sector. This calls for an urgency to reverse the trend. The available statistics evaluating the educational performance of students in developed nations is worrying since the United States students are consistently outcompeted by students from Japan and other nations. Consequently, the greatest challenge currently facing the United States education sector is adopting appropriate strategies to enable its students become the best performers in the world. Stakeholders in the education sector have proposed several methods to improve the quality of education among the United States students. One of the proposed strategies is the introduction of a single-sex education system that aims at separating the boys and girls into different learning institutions.
Proponents of the single-sex education argue that the system allows learners to access specialized education since the educational needs, career choices and professional expectations of boys and girls vary significantly. However, proponents of coeducation argue that single-sex education can disrupt the social development of students and may result in aggressive behavior due to the segregation of students. This paper will critically evaluate the arguments supporting the introduction of single-sex education and the arguments defending coeducation. The paper will examine the impacts of each education system on the educational performance and social development of students. This is critical since the educational sector must produce well-rounded citizens. The paper will use findings from reputable academic sources on the issue of single-sex and coeducation systems. This will give the paper authenticity and allow the researcher to give an authoritative answer to the question, should schools be segregated into single-sex classrooms?
Economics cheap essay helpName:
Economic principles are applied to both public and private institutions, but the extent of application to the work of private enterprises is more frequent. In government, for instance, the principles affect procurement of resources for running public functions. Whenever there is inefficiency on the side of the government, there exists the likelihood of stakeholders in the private sector filling the gap. In a free market, private enterprises struggle to win consumers just in the same way the government struggles to win voters. Failure in either case disputes the continuity of the survival of both the government and private enterprises.
Public functions such as procurement of resources for use in the provision of education services could benefit from competition since the providers will strive giving the best to consumers. As a result, the competition will benefit the recipient of services from both public and private institutions. Within the private sector, the providers of service seeking the government tender will compete intensely resulting in benefit for all.
A balance in the competition can emanate from the exchange of ideas amid competitors, and the desire of businesspeople to outwit each other in providing the best to consumers. In some cases, competition forces competitors to outsource to the best. In turn, the outsourcing will bring together stakeholders from various sectors who specialize in provision of particular services. For both public and private institutions in such a case, the creation of a middle ground can be ascertain by establishment of standards that ensure fairness in pricing. Both parties can take part in the enactment of policies that affects demand and supply.
With reference to Adam Smith explanation, demand and supply influences the activities of consumers most of all when there is an invisible hand controlling the dynamics. Hence, in a situation where the suppliers coordinate and compete simultaneously, the consumers benefit from the relationship. A case in point is when a supplier benefits only in situation where he or she provides consumers with quality services and products. The same person could also be more aggressive in the likelihood he or she interacts with his competitor. For example, state stakeholders proposing terms of trade agreements through a consensus. The parties could also work together on freeing the market from uncertainties such as instant price fluctuation of basic commodities.