use examples eg desdemona and othello
you can find the script on www.nofearshakespeare.co.uk
The themes of the play focus on love, hate, revenge and abuse of power resulting to deaths due to friendship that went sour. The plot of the play revolves around the main character Othello, a respected and courageous army commandant who has a loving wife Desdemona. The chain of hatred is sparked by Iago, who also serves in the army, after he gets furious when Othello chooses Cassio to be his right-hand man instead of him as he expected. He immediately turns enemies with Othello and Cassio, so he plots to take revenge to split them up. He sets up Othello’s wife by hiding a souvenir handkerchief she got from him near Cassio’s belongings and makes sure Othello finds out about it. Othello, believing that Desdemona has an affair with his lieutenant, vows to kill them both which came to happen with Iago’s assistance. There is a trail of deaths that follows; Iago kills wealthy Roderigo, who paid him to spy on Othello because he wanted to snatch Desdemona from him. Othello conspired with Iago to kill Cassio for having an affair with his wife but failed; he manages to strangle his innocent wife though then kills himself when he finds out Desdemona never cheated on him. Iago stabs his wife Emilia to death because she would not keep quiet about how he set up the whole thing and revealing that he had killed Roderigo (Shakespeare & Neill, 2006)
Love does go well with honesty, distrust however, kills love and leads to tragic consequences especially in situations where one spouse or partner seems to sacrifice a lot to keep the love they share. Several characters in the play have illustrated love, starting with Othello and Desdemona who fell in love and married. Her father, Brabantio, loved his daughter and did not seem ready to let her get married. This created the first war is the play, between Othello and Brabantio, the father claiming that his daughter was being abused by Othello. He accuses Othello of using magic on his daughter and bewitching her to have an intimate relation with her, believing that there is no love between them. He is so furious with the General he goes to the authorities hoping to win her daughter back, but they declare their love before the Duke and they are allowed to stay together as long as they loved each other. It is also revealed that Brabantio has a silent war with her daughter for siding with Othello and the authorities. He warns Othello to be careful with her because he believed she could deceive him as much as she did to her father.
Emilia loves her husband Iago and she was ready to support him in anything to make him happy. Both Emilia and Desdemona are loyal to their husbands and sacrifice a lot just to please them. Emilia was the one who found the handkerchief, gave it to Iago and because of love would not interfere with his plans to ruin the Othello’s relationship with Desdemona. Love also comes with trust as seen in the case of Brabantio and Emilia. Brabantio would not believe in Othello and holds that he had something to do with his daughter falling in love with him. He would not believe Desdemona had anything to do with their marriage and sought to find out the truth. He relates the Turks’ invasion to Cyprus, a war that Othello is sent to fight in, to the war he won over his daughter. Emilia on the other hand, is blinded by love and trusts that her husband does nothing wrong lying about Desdemona’s unfaithfulness (Shakespeare & Neill, 2006)
There is conflict between Iago and Roderigo on one side and Othello on the other. Othello has something Roderigo wants, Desdemona, and he tries to do everything he can just to get Othello out of the way. Iago’s anger builds up after Othello did not choose him to be his lieutenant, and so the two quickly conspire to target Othello. Roderigo gives Iago many gifts and jewels intended for Desdemona, but which never reached her because of Iago’s lust and selfishness. Roderigo does not think twice when Iago comes up with another plan to avenge Othello, and this time it is to Iago’s favor. They want to make Cassio drunk so that he sleeps on his job, which would mean his demotion, or he would lose his job. Here, Iago is still fighting for the position he lost to Cassio and will not rest until he gets his revenge. The plan succeeds, Cassio gets drunk and fights with Roderigo and some other leaders. Iago replaces him immediately and as if it was not enough, plots on his second mission, to poison Othello’s mind that Cassio sneaks around his wife Desdemona (Shakespeare & Neill, 2006)
Othello’s love for his job as a soldier made him weaker on other aspects outside the administrative chore. He knew he was respected and looked up to so he had to display the qualities of a leader, carrying out disciplinary actions without considering the truth. His attention to his responsibilities made him unconscious of other people’s needs. It completely blinded him not to take his time, open his eyes and investigate the accusations against his friends and his wife. As a result, he turned an enemy to Cassio and Desdemona with the claims that they had had an affair behind his back. He ends up killing his wife and himself after being told the truth by Emilia. Before he dies, he wants to get hold of Iago and kill him after he learns that he was lying all along and he was the one who caused all the deaths.
By the end of the play, everyone would turn against Iago and go to war with him. He worked his way up very cleanly and carefully until the last minute. It would be true to say that he had fallen in love with his job of going behind people’s backs in sighting them against each other. He did not care what others went through because of his actions, he only cared about himself and his gains. He knew that eventually Roderigo would come after him when he realized he had not been straight with him, and that the jewels meant for Desdemona never got to her. He pretends to set up a way, in which Roderigo would kill Cassio in the streets, but at the back of his mind, he did not care who hurt the other, in fact, he wanted both of them dead, which would ease, eliminate Roderigo. Love might have driven Roderigo to conspire in the killings in a bid to get what he wanted, that is Desdemona.
The main theme of the play should have to be revenge because that is what drives the whole story. The audience waits eagerly to know if the characters ended up with what they intended to gain. Love is not very outstanding as a theme and not all the characters are connected by love, although it is because of love that pushed Othello to avenge his wife’s alleged deception and dishonesty.
Shakespeare, W., & Neill, M. (2006). Othello, the Moor of Venice. London: Oxford University Press
I Beg of You, Chung Tzu essay help free“I Beg of You, Chung Tzu” is a poem translated from “The Book of Songs” by Arthur Waley. The poem consists of three stanzas each stanza holding eight lines. The poem was a part of the collection that received Confucius’s blessings because it kindled resentment against evil and stimulated awareness. This particular poem “I Beg of You, Chung Tzu”, has love and culture as the main themes although it also addresses political and nature topics. The poem is about a girl who addresses Chung Tzu, her boyfriend. The poet uses refrain as a figure of speech. Refrain occurs when a phrase, word, line or group of lines are repeated in a poem at regular intervals. Refrain helps establish a rhythm and emphasizes on the most important points and ideas. Arthur Waley uses refrain in every line of the poem. The lines that have been refrained are “I beg of you, Chung Tzu”, used in line 1 and repeated in line 9 and 17. “Chung Tzu I dearly love” used in line 6, repeated in line 14 and 22. “Indeed I am Afraid” used in line 8 is repeated in line 16 and 24.Some parts of the lines that have been repeated include ‘Do not climb’ used in line 2 but repeated in line 10 and 18. The words ‘Do not break’ are used in line 3 then repeated in line 11 and 19. ‘Not that I mind’ is used in line 4, 12 and 20, ‘But I am afraid’ repeated in line 5, 13 and 21 while ‘But of’ is repeated in line7, 15 and 23.
The poem talks about a girl who is in love with Chung Tzu but there are many obstacles to their being together. The girl is afraid of his family and society in addition to the many obstacles planted in her father’s homestead. The first stanza, she begs Chung Tzu not to climb their homestead and break the planted willows but expresses that her main fear is not the willows but what her father and mother would say about the relationship. The second stanza talks about the second structural obstacle as the wall and the mulberry trees, but while she begs Chung Tzu not to climb the wall or break the mulberry trees, her main fear is what his brothers would say. The third stanza the girl begs Chung Tzu not to climb the garden or break the planted garden to get to her but also stresses that her main worry is not the wood but people’s perception. The poem talks about conflict between a Chinese girl obligation and desire to welcome her boyfriend Chung Tzu and her obligation to her family and the society. The girl stresses in line 6, 14 and 22 that she dearly loves Chung Tzu. Despite the girl’s feelings and emotion, culture and society has built fear inside her. That is why the word ‘afraid’ is used in two lines per stanza, in line 5 and 8 in the first stanza then repeated in line 13, 15, 21 and 24.The poem leaves the reader unsure of the persona’s(the girl) decision.
According to Chinese history, Confucianism was not more of a religion but a social philosophy. It was particularly concerned with the nature of the relationships especially the morality. It emphasized on the need to obey and respect the people in authority such government officials and head of households while at the same time urging people in positions of authority to behave in righteous and humane way. This is the reason why the Chinese girl in this poem is afraid of what her father, mother, brother and other people would say about her relationship with Chung Tzu. Buddhism emphasizes that family and clan in Chinese culture is more important than the state. It also emphasizes on the past being important and thus the need to learn and respect it. Taoism on the other hand promotes vitality, health and harmonious living. Taoism promotes respect for water, fire, and wood, metal and earth as much as parts of the human body. It also believes that “people are compassionate by nature”. The poem portrays the three aspects of Chinese culture. The fears the girl has that her boyfriend could climb the homestead and breaks the willows, climb over the wall, break the mulberry trees, and climb into the garden and break the hard wood is because of Taoism belief that nature must be nurtured. The belief of Taoists to “let nature take its course” makes the girl fear that due to love Chung Tzu might do and is capable of climbing walls and breaking willows, mulberry trees and hardwood.
In conclusion, ‘I beg of you, Chung Tzu’ is a sensual poem with Daoism also known as Taoism and mysticism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism forms part of the fear the Chinese girl has on her boyfriend’s visit to her home. According to these beliefs, the head of households should be respected. The girl is therefore afraid of what his family; his father, mother and brother would perceive Chung Tzu’s visit. ‘De’, which was the major component of Daoism, emphasized on morality, virtue, and integrity. The girl in the poem is confused whether inviting her lover to her father’s homestead is virtuous, moral or it compromises her integrity. The poet leaves a mystery behind, as the conflict is unresolved since the reader does not get to know the persona’s decision. The poet uses refrain and repetition in the whole poem making sure that every line or some words in a line are repeated to draw emphasis on the personas crisis.
Horwitz, Tem. Chuang Tzu. St Cloud, MN: Cloud Hands Press, 2006. 6.
Occupational Therapy Assistant: Treatment Planning essay helpTreatment planning: Fracture at the head of the humerus
The humerus is an elongated bone in the forelimb joining the shoulder and the elbow. Humeral head fractures are breakages of humerus near the shoulder. Fractures at the head of the humerus are often associated with aged people especially those who are over sixty years. The fracture can be examined using x-rays. This makes it easier to determine the position and number of fragments and to assess periosteum that is broken or intact. A 3-D scan is used to get clear features of the fracture. The fractures usually hamper effective gliding mechanism, which involves movement of the arm. There are two types of fractures- avulsion fracture and depression fractures. Avulsion fractures show the dislocation of the humerus head towards the varus whereas depression fracture shows a dislocation towards the valgus position (Tey & Tan, 2007). This paper examines a study case involving a seventy-three old woman, called Jane, who had a fracture at the head humerus.
The patient fell from upper stairs to the ground on an outstretched hand and this caused the humeral head fracture. She also suffered other minor injuries, such as bruises, for which she received treatment. The humeral head fracture made the doctor to send her to occupational therapy. Occupational therapy is mainly meant to help the patient improve his or her personal capacities. This therapy may include assistive tools that are used to improve living skills of an individual in his or her environment. In Jane’s case, the occupational therapy evaluated passive range of motion (PROM) with a flexion of twenty degrees, abduction of twenty-five degrees, external and internal rotations of zero degrees, elbow Active Range of Motion (AROM) was forty to one hundred and ten degrees. The patient exhibited a swollen hand and its movement was fifty percent of that one of normal movement. The patient reported presence of persistent pain, which was 3/10 when at rest and 8/10 in PROM. This condition hindered her from playing golf and shuffleboard with her spouse and acquaintances. She is however determined to get well and go on with her lifestyle.
Physical therapy and treatment of Jane’s condition included the assessment of other likely internal injuries. For instance, she was examined for chest wall and lungs injuries. However, no internal injuries were discovered except those that occurred on the arm causing dislocation of the shoulder. In addition, a neurological examination was carried out to test the axillary nerves for sensation around regimental badge area on the muscle of deltoid. The power of the muscle of upper limb was assessed including other peripheral nerves found on the outer parts of the arm (Frankle, 2009).
The fractures were immobilized within a short time to and powerful analgesia given curb further collapsing of humerus. The patient was kept comfortable as much as possible and movements limited. Humeral head injury of the patient did not combine with open fractures in forearm thus there was no need for orthopedic options. Therefore, Jane was treated non-operatively by use of a sling and a shoulder immobilizer. When the patient was examined carefully through an x-ray, shoulder dislocation was discovered. Therefore, internal fixation was carried out to join the humerus and shoulder. There was no need to replace the humeral head since the fracture was not severe but one that can be remedied by immobilizing the upper arm and supporting it using a sling. The patient was examined for a possibility of an interruption of blood flow caused by fracture of the humerus. This is rectified by developing intermedullary nails and minimal invasive locking plates to offer higher capability of fixing fractures that are more complicated without disrupting the supply of blood (Frankle, 2009).
Humeral head fractures can be caused by accidents and falls among others but they often occur in elderly individuals. Treatment should be quick to enable easy fixation of the fractures. For instance, shoulder immobilization and use of sling are used to remedy the condition. The recovery of full operational ability depends on the type of fracture, injury, age of patient and health status. Regaining full movement does not occur in elderly individuals whether surgical or conservative treatment is used. Thus, the goal is to achieve a useful ability of movement. Nevertheless, recovery often takes a minimum of one year whereas fracture combination takes six to eight weeks. Prevention can be done by giving sufficient treatment for patients with a possibility of osteoporosis.
Tey, I. K., & Tan, A. H. C. (2007). Posterior fracture-dislocation of the humeral head treated without the use of metallic implants. Singapore Med Journal 48(4). Retrieved on January 15, 2010 from, http://smj.sma.org.sg/4804/4804cr6.pdf
Frankle, M. (2009). Proximal Humerus Fractures. Florida Orthopedic Institute. Retrieved on January 15, 2010 from, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1261320-overview
Probation is the supervision in a community in which offenders are placed by a court through a probation agency instead of being imprisoned. Probation may be combined with short-term imprisonment that is called a split sentence. It can be either active or inactive; in an active probation, the offender is supposed to report regularly to a probation officer personally or through some other method of communication. In the inactive probation, the offender is not required to report to anyone. Inactive probations are brought about by several factors one of them being that the offence was very light and hence it does not demand a severe sentence.
Another reason may be a reduction in the sentence thereby changing it from an active to an inactive probation. There are other types of probation; they are determined by the finances of the offender, if the offender runs away, or if the offender has an active warrant. Offenders may be required to fulfill certain requirements during their probation period that may include payment of fees or fines and participation in treatment or rehabilitation programs. Additionally, they are required to adhere to some rules with the penalty for failure to comply being incarceration (Carter, McGee & Nelson, 1995).
Data shows that at least 95% of the prisoners are released from prison of which 80% are released to parole supervision. Many prisoners serve a limited time before being released. In 2000, sixteen states abolished the release of offenders by a parole board. The number of inmates who were released into community service was 592,000 in 2001. In 2002, there were 670,169 individuals under state parole supervision. In 2000, among those who were discharged by a state parole board, only 41% of them were able to complete their term of supervision. This percentage has remained unchanged since the 1990s (Hughes & Wilson, 2010). This indicates that those who are given the opportunity to go for parole are unlikely to follow set rules.
In 2005, the adult population who went under probation grew by 0.5%. This was the smallest increase in the last 26 with the increase numbering 19,070. Half of the probationers were condemned for being felons, 49% of them were under misdemeanor charges, and the rest were under various violations of the law. In the one percent, 28% of them were under charges for drug law contraventions, and fifteen percent for driving while intoxicated. In the same year, the parole population grew by 1.6 % that translated to 12,556 people on parole. The number of probationers in 2006 grew from the previous year by 1.7% individuals that translated to 70,266 people. More than 80% of those under community service were under probation at the end of the year. By the end of 2006, 798,202 adults were on parole or under mandatory conditional release from prison terms. The parolees’ rate of increase that year was 2.3%; this was 17,589 people on parole.
The rate of increase of parolees shows a trend where the number of parolees may become unmanageable. If the trend continues, resources would be strained such that it would be impossible to manage the parolees (Conrad, 1989). Therefore, ways through which the number of criminal acts can to be reduced should be sought. This can only be done through social change whereby the public trains itself to honor the country’s rules and regulations. Through such a campaign, the number of cases would go down and the country would be a safer more regulated environment in which to live.
By the end of 2008, about 5.1 million people were under community supervision. This was about one in every forty-five adults in the U.S. Most of the people in the community service were probationers who made up 84% of the population. The parolees made up less of the group with about 16% that was 828,169 individuals. The probation and parole rates grew at the same pace with each growing by 0.9%. People under probation that year grew by 36,446 while those under parole grew by 6,922 people. The number of people who were parolees in 2008 was lower than the number in 2005; therefore, the number overall was lower than the previous twenty-nine years. The data shows that parolees have been increasing in every year in which it was taken.
In 2007, the total number of reported paroles was 2,183,333. Among these parolees, those who had gone on probation without incarceration was 620,840, while 207,392 had gone on probation with incarceration. The northeast had the largest number of parolees with about 2,171,518 in number while the west had the least with 426,518 (Bonczar & Glaze, 2009). The number of people under probation is therefore quit high in the country. This can be attributed to the fact that the offenders may not be fully rehabilitated or repentant enough to change their habits. This fact could explain the dismal rate of success (41%) of those who make it to parole. In addition, the relative freedom that is enjoyed by those on parole could mean that they desire more freedom and hence the rate of failure. This is especially true since there are no armed guards to make sure that the offenders follow the set rules.
Due to rapid increase in the number of offenders who are paroled, they have been increasingly released conditionally. The rate of increase in the people who were paroled was an average of 3.6% annually since the 1990s. In addition, the character of those who go to parole has changed significantly becoming female with the years. In 1998, the rate was at 21% that was an increase from the previous year. The parolees were also getting older with 35% of them being between 35 and 54 years of age while in 1990, they had only been 25% of the population of parolees. Violence also decreased with the years against the supervising officials with the population of those who were violent being 24% in 1997; a decrease from 1985 that had 35% of the population being violent (Beck, 2000). This trend shows that parole is becoming an acceptable phenomenon in society since those who react violently against their supervisors, only act while mirroring society (Stanley, 1996). In addition, breaking parole has become a habit since prisons are gaining numbers with 42% of those who are released going back to prison. This shows that parole is not a very effective community based method of correcting offenders and, therefore, it should be replaced with other more creative and effective means.
Beck, A. J. (2000, April 13). State and Federal prisoners returning to the community: Findings from the Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 17, 2010 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/
Bonczar, T. P. & Glaze, L. E. (2009, April 2). Adults entering probation, by type of sentence, 2007: Appendix Table 2 from Probation and Parole in the United States, 2007 – Statistical Tables. Retrieved January 17, 2010 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=1603
Carter, R. M. McGee, R. A., & Nelson, E. K. (1995). Corrections in America. United States, Washington, DC; Lippincott
Conrad, J. P. (1989).The Future of corrections. United States, Washington, DC; American Academy of Political and Social Science
Hughes, T. & Wilson, D. J (2010, 17 January). Reentry Trends in the United States: Inmates returning to the community after serving time in prison. Retrieved January 17, 2010 from: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/reentry/reentry.cfm
Stanley, D. T. (1996). Prisoners among us: the problem of parole. United States, MI: Brookings Institution
Until the summer of 2000, Enron was a prosperous corporation generating revenue, new business and jobs on the regular. Enron initially began as a gas pipeline company but rapidly metamorphosed into the globe’s largest trader in gas, water, electricity and commodities as varied as bandwidth. Subsequently, review of Enron’s bookkeeping revealed inconsistencies. Evidence of tampering with the companies financial reports became apparent. These revelations nullified its profits sending it into loss (Fox, 2003)
Enron was suddenly embroidered in a massive credit crunch with a subsequent implosion of the corporation. It turned out that the company’s executives, aware of the imminent collapse sold their stock in the company in bulk while an unsuspecting public went on purchasing artificially bloated Enron shares. To confound the situation further, the revelation came that the same executives had effected changes in the company’s pension plan effectively freezing the employee retirement funds in Enron stock, a nose diving stock. Hence, while the executives abandoned ship, the workers woke up to a worthless pension plan (Fox, 2003)
Arthur Anderson Inc, Enron’s accounting firm raised all sorts of eyebrows in their attempt to explain how they gave a clean bill of health to a company with all manner of concealed losses. Later, it was revealed in the wake of a civil action of the accounting process that Arthur Anderson Inc had destroyed evidence in soft and hard copy concerning Enron’s accounting. The former auditing giant has since collapsed predictably. Enron’s downfall is stemmed on various factors. Enron tried to expand into new realms of business unsuccessfully. In striving to become the globe’s largest commodity trader, Enron outstretched itself. The most significant contribution however could be attributed to corruption (Sterling, 2002)
Enron’s dubious cash flow originated from spurious accounting. Whenever a subsidiary started losing money, Enron set up a shell company that would buy the failing subsidiary effectively erasing losses from its balance sheet. In its place was a cash ‘inflow’ from the shell company. The accounting never indicated that Enron had lent the money to the shell company in the first place. Equally corrupt was the fraudulent practice of recording the entirety of energy transactions as capitalization, rather than the actual amount of money made from the sale (Fox, 2003)
An analysis of various organizational theories attempts to predict and explain the rationale behind the collapse of the Enron Corporation. Classical organizational theory was proposed in the first half of the 20th century merging the theories of scientific management, bureaucracy and administrative theory. The theory was rigidly mechanistic with its major shortcoming being the view to justify employee motivation to work strictly as a function of economic reward. Despite this, it reasonably explains the Enron debacle on the basis that the corrupt management practiced fraudulent business on the knowledge that handsome financial gain was in the offing (Crowther & Green, 2004)
Neoclassical organizational theory on the other hand evolved through the human relations movement. It was a reaction to the rigid, authoritarian structure of classical theory. Its objections to the rigidity of classical theory manifest as a call to the adoption of motivation, creativity and the promotion of individual growth at the workplace. This theory also explains some aspects of the Enron affair. At Enron, a corporate management structure existed whereby a non-rigid structure allowed executives to exercise their creativity with minimal regulatory oversight, albeit destructive creativity, in their stepwise manipulation of the company’s accounting. This allowance is also loosely based on contingency theory, which like neo classical theory views conflict as an entity to be avoided but goes on further to envisage conflict as inescapable but nonetheless manageable (Crowther & Green, 2004)
Systems organizational theory initially developed by Hungarian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1928, and only recently applied to organizations today offers a different angle of assessment. The theory asserts that all components within an organization bear relation to one another. Changing one variable inevitably influences many others. It envisions a state of dynamic equilibrium within an organization as the elements within interact with the environment. This theory perhaps best predicts the events that unfolded at Enron. Consider the variable of sound accounting practice. With this variable changed, the equilibrium in the company had to shift to accommodate fraudulent accounting, resulting in all stakeholders in the company being affected in some way as alluded to above (Zey, 1999)
Enron’s leadership, management and organizational structure all played defining roles in the collapse of the company. The leadership selfishly steered a company forward with dishonesty to the shareholders and employees. The management accommodated the leadership’s shortcomings by effecting fraudulent business practice and the systems organizational structure assumed by the company ensured that the repercussions of the corruption permeated all levels of the company.
Crowther, D., Green, M. (2004). Organizational theory. CIPD Publishing.
Fox, L. (2003). Enron: The Rise and Fall. John Wiley and Sons.
Sterling, T. F. (2002). The Enron scandal. Nova Publishers.
Zey, M. (1999). Rational choice theory and organizational theory: a critique. SAGE.
Religious Studies best college essay helpWhy We Suffer
I take the problem of suffering seriously because in the midst of pain and suffering, there are many questions that people ask that remain largely unanswered. On a day-to-day basis, millions of people in the world go through indescribable pain with no hope of relief. Yet, their religion has made them believe that there is an all-seeing, all-caring and all-loving God who is ever-present in their time of need. This begs the question; if He really is a God of love, then shouldn’t He be able to help people out of their pain and suffering in an instant? Is God really present during the trying periods in one’s life? This paper is going to discuss the cause of suffering and the role that God plays during such periods.
In the beginning, when God created the world, it was perfect, there was no sin or evil, there was no suffering and man lived in perfect harmony with God and nature. God intended for the world to be perfect. However, evil and sin entered the world through the Devil when Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit, and from then on God allowed man to have free will. God also allowed sin, temptation and evil to come into the world for man to truly have free will over his actions. Whether to do right or wrong was entirely upon man. He allowed human beings to make their own decisions, and for them to be accountable for the decisions they make. (Hasker, 2008.) This is known as free will. This free will makes human beings sinful in nature because they are imperfect. Free-will makes the human being feel attached to the physical world, due to the weakness of the flesh. However, there are consequences to the gratification of the desires of the flesh, which cause man to suffer physically and psychologically.
God is not the cause of suffering, rather he allows it, and He allows human beings to suffer for various reasons. The truth is that human beings live in a world that abounds with evil and cruelty. Suffering is brought about by two kinds of evil; natural evil and moral evil. Natural evil cannot be controlled by human beings and includes natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, drought and disease. Moral evil on the other hand is caused by other human beings due to their moral decadence. These include murder, sexual abuse and racism among others. Moral evil occurs because of the free will that God has accorded to human beings. People have been given the free will to do right or to do wrong. Basically up to them, therefore those that are morally bankrupt cause suffering to other human beings through their negative actions.
In Elie Wiesel’s Night, he narrates his experiences in a Nazi concentration camp during World War 1. The book narrates the gruesome ordeal of a 15-year-old Jew in a Nazi holocaust camp. He is a witness to the anguish and suffering all around him; truckloads of children being thrown into a fire, babies were being used as bullet targets and numerous other heartless killings. It is during this tumultuous time that he loses his faith in god and humanity, he repeatedly questions the presence of God and His awareness to people’s suffering. In modern times, it has been used to refer to the existence of the good and kindness of God in the face of suffering and pain in the world. Elie’s experiences during the holocaust are gruesome and painful, and while other Jews facing the same situation view it as a test to their faith, Elie is appalled by the fact that God, who he had believed in and prayed to all his life, did nothing to end the suffering. It is as though he was not there or was not listening to their cries during their most difficult periods. (Wiesel, 1982.) The kind pf suffering that is seen during the holocaust is caused by moral evil; that of human beings inflicting pain upon other human beings. These all comes down to the fact that God gives human being choice, and this He cannot interfere with. He does not compel human beings to act in one way or another, thus leading to the imperfect world that we have today. During the Holocaust the sins and wrongs of a group of individuals caused death, suffering and widespread destruction to many innocent people.
One of the reasons why people suffer is because they engage in actions that produce negative consequences. (Hasker, 2008.) For example; sexual promiscuity might result in broken marriages and families, driving recklessly might cause death, consuming alcohol excessively causes addiction, disease and death and so on. In this case, it is not God who causes the suffering and pain because when people do the wrong actions, they do it in full realization that for every wrong action there is a negative consequence, therefore they should control their actions in order to avoid suffering.
Sometimes the reason why we suffer is that God wants us to turn our attention to Him and to place our lives in His hands. An example of this in the Bible is Jonah who was running away from God when he was swallowed by a whale and God let him stay there for three days during which he reflected on his actions in the past and resolved to be more obedient to God. Therefore, in the same manner, God commands our attention through difficult and trying situations where one has no choice but to ask for His guidance and help.
There are times when God allows pain and suffering for a greater purpose. He demonstrated this when He allowed His own son, son Jesus Christ to face trial, torture and the pain of crucifixion in order for the human race to receive salvation and redemption from their sins and also to give them a hope for eternal life. Therefore, pain and suffering can be used to produce positive outcomes. In 2nd Corinthians 1:3-5, the Bible explains that God can use an individual’s suffering to increase his faith in Him, to make them more compassionate for others or make them better able to help others who are also suffering. (Yancey, Stafford, 2002.) Many people have come out of the most difficult situations of their lives stronger and better than they had been.
God also uses suffering and pain as a punishment for our sins. The Bible says that God is a Just God; this means that He lets everyone pay for his or her sins. An example in the Bible is in the book of 2nd Samuel God punishes his trusted servant, King David whom he even calls a man after his own heart. David had killed Uriah in order to steal his wife Bathsheba and we see God punishing him for this through the death of his child.
Although God allows human beings to suffer, He promises relief for whoever puts their trust in Him during their period of pain. Romans 8:37 says; “Yet in all these things we are more than conquerors through Him who loved us.” One has to believe that God is walking with him even during those times when one feels there is no one else in the world who would understand their pain or help them. (Yancey, Stafford, 2002.)
Though undesirable, suffering is a natural part of life and the Bible has explains this fact in numerous chapters. In 1st Peter 4:17 it says; “Do not be surprised at the fiery ordeal among you, which comes upon you for your testing, as though some strange thing were happening to you. But to the degree that you share the sufferings of Christ, keep on rejoicing.” In verse 19 of the same chapter, it encourages those who are suffering to “entrust their souls to a faithful creator.” Romans 8:17 says; “We must also share in his suffering, if we are to share in his glory.” John 16:33 says; “In this world you will have tribulation. But take courage for I have deprived it of its power to harm and conquer you.” All these verses and several others illustrate the fact that suffering occurs to all at different times in their lives, but God’s assurance is that if you place your faith and trust in Him, He will strengthen you. (Yancey, Stafford, 2002.)
Archibald McLeish in Sacred Quest in one of his responses to suffering, states that pain and suffering are part of being human, it is the cost of living. He is of the position that even though painful circumstances might not seem fair or cannot be explained, they are simply a part of the circle of life. Therefore one has to look for a way in which to triumph over his suffering and live the situation a better person.
Wiesel, E., Night, Bantam Books, 1982.
Hasker, W., The Triumph of God Over Evil: Theodicy for a World of Suffering
Strategic initiatives in evangelical theology, InterVarsity Press, 2008.
Yancey, P., Stafford, T., NIV Student Bible: Compact Edition, Zondervan, 2002
Introduction to cost accounting & managerial accounting argumentative essay helpIntroduction to cost accounting & managerial accounting
Morris Aquaculture Corp.
20th January 2010
Subject: Customer Satisfaction to Improve Business Performance
Businesses succeed because of their level of customer satisfaction. When the needs of the customers are met, the sales of the company go high because the business gains competitive advantage over their competitors. The measures taken to improve the performance of a business are referred to as success factors. They include quality goods and services, timeliness, market research, costs, product development, marketing, individual values and missions and effectiveness. When we refer to quality goods and services, we mean that the products should meet the customer’s needs. In terms of services, the customers should be given priority and the services should be efficient. Timeliness means that products should be availed to customers at the right time (Tracy, 1996). This helps to improve reliability in the eyes of the customers.
Market research helps the business owner to identify potential markets where he can sell his product. In addition, the cost of a product is very important. The entrepreneur should identify the price that his competitors are charging and the price at which the customers are willing to buy. This will help to compare the selling price and the costs incurred so that one can know whether they are making profits or losses. Product development or innovation helps improve the product or increases variety. This will definitely attract customers and hence the sales volume will increase. Finally, when individual workers have values and missions that are combined with the corporate ones, it increases customer satisfaction and hence the level of business performance improves.
Some businesses are related to fish farming. Such includes poultry keeping. They are related because the product that they deal with matures within certain duration and therefore they require a ready market. Therefore, they are required to undertake a through market research to identify potential customers. This will help in boosting the performance of the business. Efficiency should be high and it should not be affected by any measures taken to cut the costs that the business is incurring. Production of aquatic plants can also be compared with fish farming. They should be always availed to the customers when required. In addition, their quality should be always guaranteed. This means that they should be treated using the best chemicals and still maintain the costs in a considerable position. This will ensure that the costs of production are low but the quality of goods produced is high.
There are various ways of measuring the performance of a company. They include the profitability of a company. Profit is given by the difference between sales and the costs incurred by the business (Tracy, 1996). When the profits are high, the business is considered to be performing well. Another measure that can be used is the level of customer satisfaction. This is done by carrying out a customer survey by asking them questions about the business. They are required to comment on the business services and give their opinion on what they would want to be improved. In the poultry and aquatic plants business, customers will comment on the services that are rendered to them. Finally, another measure entails comparison of the business with others in the industry. This will help to evaluate feasibility of a business.
Tracy, B. (1996). Advanced Selling Strategies. New York: Simon & Schuster
Knowledge or political knowledge primarily exists as political facts that represent the bits of information concerning politics that the citizens hold. An abundance of political knowledge is a prerequisite for satisfactory political understanding and competence; it represents possession of information that can be synthesized into working knowledge. It is proposed that in the absence of reliable systems of measurement for political knowledge, the knowledge is considered meager and unsatisfactory (Schram & Caterino, 2006).
Research and forays into political behavior today primarily consider the cognitions behind the various political attitudes adopted. A basic cognition is political fact, the basis for political knowledge. The measurement of this cognition has proven to be evasive over time with the result that a citizenry exists devoid of a standard measurement system concerning political knowledge. The citizens thus have individual scoring systems for their political knowledge, a situation that in most likelihood renders the majority of the population politically naïve (Heineman, 1995).
It is within this contextual background that the implications of the absence of a measuring system for political knowledge are discussed. It is therefore prudent to make considerations about measurement systems existent concerning the other cognitions recognized in political science. Such cognitions include concepts such as political tolerance, political trust and political partisanship. The existent measures for these cognitions use a common framework that mainly facilitates the comparison of the same across time and among various studies.
The application of this framework to political knowledge however, does not yield a satisfactory measurement system. Comparison of political knowledge over time represents the most significant barrier. Nevertheless, it is important to bear in mind that while measurement systems exist for these other political cognitions, controversy still exists in the application and accuracy of these systems. This fact provides the platform for the counter argument that satisfactory political knowledge among the citizenry can exist in the absence of a recognizable measuring system (Marsh & Stoker, 2010).
Political knowledge represents a central variable in the comprehension of political behavior. It is commonplace, in the research into the same for researchers to ask respondents a series of factual questions about politics. Political knowledge is then represented by a count of items responded to correctly. This straightforward approach produces an outlook steeped in ambiguity. A question then arises as to whether the simple count of correct responses is appropriate. This arises especially in the situation when the other two response categories- the incorrect answer and the ‘do not know’ responses are not grouped together in a single ‘lack of knowledge’ categorization (Schram & Caterino, 2006).
If we consider the measurement of political knowledge to mean correct answers representing knowledge, the implication becomes that more correct responses equals higher levels of knowledge and that items answered incorrectly indicate the absence of knowledge. This innocuous viewpoint brings about some demanding assumptions about the nature of political knowledge.
The scale of knowledge is assumed to possess validity in the sense that correct answers mean that a respondent has the knowledge in question. The second assumption places political knowledge as a discrete entity. This implies that for any question of political fact, one either knows or does not know the knowledge; no grey areas can exist. The third assumption is that a knowledge scale only measures knowledge. It is assumed that no other attribute apart from knowledge parse experiences systematic variation as a result of variation of correctness of responses (Blank & Hines, 2001).
Political knowledge has been proposed to be the best measure of political sophistication and the state of political awareness. This preposition inexorably raises the stakes of this discussion. In this mind frame, over the years, political knowledge has been used as a dependent variable, as an independent variable and as a moderating variable as well. The validity of these measures thence cannot be viewed as definitively accurate. An example of political knowledge considered as an independent variable is seen when placed in a context putting voter turnout as the dependent variable. Past research has shown that voter turnout increases as a function of more political knowledge.
Education has been shown to be a strong predicting variable concerning political knowledge. It has been showed that as the level of education of an individual advances upward, so does the individual’s political knowledge, albeit based on the number of correct responses on knowledge surveys. This implicitly implies that as greater education is garnered, ignorance/the lack of knowledge reduces. This state of affairs lays credence to the assertion that if you cannot measure your knowledge, it is meager and unsatisfactory. This is so since it is analogous to not having a means to measure the amount of education one possesses.
In attempts to measure political knowledge, various categorizations of the citizen have arisen. There are informed citizens, uninformed citizens, partially informed citizens and misinformed citizens. Misinformed citizens rate highly on attentiveness and low on understanding, partially informed citizens on the other hand outscore the uninformed on both attentiveness and comprehension. While these traits can be understood to mean that their political knowledge is unsatisfactory, the three groups cannot be viewed as uniform (Scott, 1990).
The assertion that if you cannot measure your knowledge, it is meager and unsatisfactory gains further credence when you consider that the measurement of knowledge may measure one or more entities other than knowledge. A plausible entity measured alongside political knowledge is personality traits. Traits range from aspects such as competitiveness, confidence in the self and risk taking. If the absence of knowledge is synonymous to the absence of these character traits, it follows that it is meager and unsatisfactory since these traits are considered essential for successful living/successful politics.
However, a counter argument can reasonably be proposed that if you cannot measure your knowledge, it is not necessarily meager and unsatisfactory. The basis for the preposition stems from the same notion that the measurement of knowledge may measure one or more entities other than knowledge. A situation is considered where a social desirability effect compels a respondent to understate their level of political knowledge. A hypothetical situation best describes this possibility (Sharma, 2002)
We suppose hypothetically that two partially informed citizens are subjected to a political knowledge survey. It is also assumed that neither citizen is discouraged from guessing. An assumption also exists that the citizens will try their best to answer out questions where they have some knowledge. A distinction between the two identical citizens can still be reached if one of them views it as desirable to appear highly informed and the other views it as desirable not to appear misinformed. The former is likely to abstain from choosing an ‘I do not know’ option while the latter is likely to choose the ‘I do not know’ option. This possibility challenges the view that if one cannot measure their political knowledge, then the knowledge is unsatisfactory.
Another situational analysis serves to justify the counter argument. This analysis draws credence from the possibility that knowledge is not discrete. If the acquisition of knowledge motivates a citizen to vote, then it is probably not essential for the information to be accurate in the first place. Citizenry incorrectly thinking they are informed demonstrate behavioral psychology similar to the genuinely well informed. With the elimination of severe misinformation possibilities such as mistakenly thinking that a vote has been rescheduled, the counter argument holds its own: that if you cannot measure your knowledge, it is not necessarily meager and unsatisfactory (Eksterowicz & Roberts, 2000).
Various predictors of political knowledge have been identified in the past. They include factors such as educational levels achieved, the age bracket occupied, the race, sex, income levels, interest in the political process, political discussion and the internal efficacy variable. Notably, all these factors happen to be measurable in some terms. For instance education by accreditation conferred, age by number, income levels by income brackets and political discussion by frequency. It then follows that measurable political knowledge means that a low measure implies a low measure for these factors as well. In this mind frame, it follows that immeasurable political knowledge is tantamount to unsatisfactory knowledge since these factors will also be unsatisfactory (Melanson, 1975).
From the discussions so far, it becomes apparent that the scholastic concern with political knowledge and the implications of its measurement is much more than a descriptive exercise parse. This is so because political knowledge is appreciated to influence the extent and breadth of citizen participation in the political process directly. It follows that this comprehension of knowledge and its measure is a crucial step in the campaign to increase citizen participation and citizen representation in the political process. Crucial since the political process determines the ‘way of life’ holistically for the citizen. We therefore conclude that if you cannot measure your knowledge, it is meager and unsatisfactory.
Blank, R. H., & Hines, S. M. (2001). Biology and political science. Routledge
Douglass, R. B. (1973). What is political knowledge? A critical investigation of the epistemological foundations of modern political science. Duke University
Ethridge, M. E., & Handelman, H. (2009). Politics in a Changing World. Cengage Learning
Eksterowicz, A. J., & Roberts, R. N. (2000). Public journalism and political knowledge. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Friedman, J. (1996). The rational choice controversy: economic models of politics reconsidered. Yale University Press
Heineman, R. A. (1995). Political science: An introduction. McGraw-Hill Professional
Johnson, N. (1989). The limits of political science. Clarendon Press
Marsh, D., & Stoker, G. (2010). Theory and Methods in Political Science. Palgrave Macmillan
Melanson, P. H. (1975). Political science and political knowledge. The University of Michigan
Schram, S., & Caterino, B. (2006). Making political science matter: debating knowledge, research, and method. NYU Press
Scott, P. (1990). Knowledge and nation. Edinburgh University Press
Sharma, P. L. (2002). Modern Methods of Teaching Political Science. Sarup & Sons
Marketing scholarship essay helpMarketing Mix Program
Vienna International, whose head office is in Vienna, operates and manages about 41 first class hotels and resorts, which are spread in about ten countries in Europe. It has the Vienna Tour Operator, which selects potential destinations, draws up appropriate routes and fashions different Vienna International travel packages. It has also has the Vienna Travel agency which is charged with the selling and promotion of Vienna International travel packages, reservation and ticketing, provision of transport services and MICE service. In China, Vienna International’s target market was city tourists, business travelers, sport tourists, health and wellness tourists and families mainly from Europe and Australia to China. Vienna International Travel proposed a number of tailor-made European tour packages to a Chinese group. However, the Chinese Group declined the offer opting for another offer from a small Chinese Agency in Vienna. A number of reasons led to the failure of the proposal offered by Vienna International to the Chinese Group.
The first major reason for the failure was the price level that Vienna International offered for its products. Vienna International targeted high-end travelers whose main concern was the quality of the product and not the price. It therefore offered high quality and high price products and services. However, the customers that the Chinese group had were ordinary Chinese group travelers to whom price was a big issue (Kotler, Armstrong, Wong & Saunders, 2008). The products that Vienna International offered such as the first class hotels were expensive and not favorable to the ordinary group of Chinese travelers. This led to the Chinese group opting for another company in Vienna, which offered a lower price for its products. The uncompetitive prices offered by the company led to the failure of the company in the Chinese market.
The second reason was the place and promotion techniques used by Vienna international. Although Vienna International has its own website which it uses to promote its products and services, the website is only in the English, German and Russian language. The company’s website lacks a Chinese option making it hard for the Chinese Group of travelers to learn of the services and products the company has to offer. The lack of a Chinese language option in its website limited the number of people the firm could reach leading to the failure.
Another reason for the failure was a communication barrier and failure in process. Communication between Vienna International and the Chinese group and partners failed because of the presence of a cultural gap. The Chinese have a preference for face-to-face communication or through phones, which was not possible in this case because of the distance and time gap between Vienna and China (Kotler et al., 2008). The only suitable alternative was the use of email which the Chinese did not support leading to the failure. The time and cultural gap led to the failure.
Another reason for the failure was competition from other smaller firms operating in the same market. The smaller firms offer products and services at a very low price, but of lower quality than what Vienna International had to offer. The low prices offered by the smaller firms were favorable to the ordinary Chinese travelers and led to the small firms eating away the market targeted by Vienna International. Competition from the smaller firms also led to the failure of the company in the Chinese market.
Conclusion and recommendation
A number of reasons led to failure of Vienna international in the Chinese Market. The main reason for the failure was the high prices offered by the firm for its products and services. Although the products and services were of high quality, the target market was made up of ordinary Chinese travelers whose main concern was price and not quality. Another reason for the failure was the communication barrier, cultural and time gap that existed between the Company and its target market. This hindered the exchange of information between the two (Zikmund & D’Amico, 1993). The other reasons for the failure was the presence of smaller firms targeting the same market offering low price products and the failure in the promotional technique used by Vienna International
Vienna International has to do a number of things to allow it capture the Chinese market. The first and most critical is to diversify its products and services to allow for competitive prices. The company should introduce new products and services of lower and competitive prices to capture the target market. The company should also broaden its website to have the Chinese language as one of the options. This will help in the promotion of its products and services. It will also enable the exchange of information between the company and its clients. The company should also set up travel agents in China to help bridge the existing time, cultural and communication gaps. This will help the company capture its targets in the Chinese market.
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V., & Saunders, J. Principles of marketing Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2008
Zikmund, W. G., & D’Amico, M. Marketing. Santa Fe, NM: West Publishing Company, 1993
Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper examining a new technology for communication for example, electronic medical records or voice recognition and how it affects communication in health care.
Consider how efficient and effective communication is with this technology, its advantages and disadvantages, its influence on consumers, and the technology short- and long-term financial impact on organizations.
Identify any technological improvements that could still be made in the future with this new technology and why. Make recommendations.
Utilize a minimum of two research sources, with one from the attached sources provdided(2) and the other from your student Web site to support your claims. Document sources in text and reference page according to APA guidelines.